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1

Caffeine Improves Physical and Cognitive Performance during Exhaustive Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

HOGERVORST, E., S. BANDELOW, J. SCHMITT, R. JENTJENS, M. OLIVEIRA, J. ALLGROVE, T. CARTER, and M. GLEESON. Caffeine Improves Physical and Cognitive Performance during Exhaustive Exercise. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 40, No. 10, pp. 1841-1851, 2008. Caffeine is thought to act as a central stimulant and to have effects on physical, cognitive, and psychomotor functioning. Purpose: To examine the

EEF HOGERVORST; STEPHAN BANDELOW; JEROEN SCHMITT; ROY JENTJENS; MARTA OLIVEIRA; JUDITH ALLGROVE; TOM CARTER; MICHAEL GLEESON

2008-01-01

2

Tamoxifen improves cholinergically modulated cognitive performance in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

Tamoxifen (TMX) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that is used as an estrogen receptor antagonist for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Whether TMX has antagonist activities in the human brain is less clear and its effects on cognitive function have not been experimentally explored. This study examined how TMX affected cognitive performance in older women using a model of anticholinergic drug-induced cognitive dysfunction. Twenty-one postmenopausal women were administered 20?mg of oral TMX or placebo for 3 months. Participants then took part in five drug challenges using the anticholinergic antinicotinic agent mecamylamine (MECA) and antimuscarinic agent scopolamine (SCOP) and were tested on a comprehensive battery including tasks of attention and psychomotor function, verbal episodic memory, and spatial navigation. After a 3-month placebo washout, participants were then crossed over to the alternate treatment and repeated the drug challenges after 3 months. Compared with placebo treatment, TMX significantly attenuated the impairment from cholinergic blockade on tasks of verbal episodic memory and spatial navigation, but effects on attentional/psychomotor tasks were more variable. Analysis by APOE genotype showed that APO ?4+ women showed a greater beneficial effect of TMX on reversing the cholinergic impairment than APO ?4- women on most tasks. This study provides evidence that TMX may act as an estrogen-like agonist to enhance cholinergic system activity and hippocampally mediated learning. PMID:23867982

Newhouse, Paul; Albert, Kimberly; Astur, Robert; Johnson, Julia; Naylor, Magdalena; Dumas, Julie

2013-12-01

3

Cognitive remediation improves cognition and good cognitive performance increases time to relapse - results of a 5 year catamnestic study in schizophrenia patients  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive deficits are stable features of schizophrenia that are linked to functional outcome. Cognitive remediation approaches have been proven successful in ameliorating these deficits, although effect sizes vary considerably. Whether cognitive deficits are serious predictors of clinical outcome is less clear. Methods Sixty patients suffering from schizophrenia were included in our sample, thirty of them received computer-assisted cognitive training, and thirty received occupational therapy. For a subsample of 55 patients, who could be traced over a period of five years after the end of the cognitive remediation intervention, time until first relapse and time in psychosis were determined retrospectively from their medical records. Results Cognitive remediation significantly improved problem solving, memory and attention with high effect sizes. Employment status, a post test verbal memory performance measure and a measure of executive functioning outperformed all other measures in the prediction of time to relapse, while allocation to treatment group outperformed all other variables in the prediction of both cognitive measures. Conclusions Cognitive remediation of neurocognitive deficits thus makes sense in a twofold fashion: It enhances cognition directly and positively acts on clinical course indirectly via improved neurocognition. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00004880

2013-01-01

4

Longitudinal Cognitive Performance in Older Adults With Cardiovascular Disease: Evidence for Improvement in Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and particularly heart failure (HF) have been associated with cognitive impairment in cross-sectional studies, but it is unclear how cognitive impairment progresses over time in older adults with these conditions. Objective The aim of this study was to prospectively examine cognitive function in patients with HF versus other forms of CVD. Method Seventy-five older adults (aged 53–84 years) with CVD underwent Doppler echocardiogram to evaluate cardiac status and 2 administrations of the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS), a test of global cognitive functioning, 12 months apart. Results Although DRS performance did not statistically differ between groups at either administration, a significant between-group difference in the rate of cognitive change emerged (? = 0.87; F = 10.50; P = .002; ?2 = 0.11). Follow-up analyses revealed that patients with HF improved significantly on global DRS performance, whereas patients with other forms of CVD remained stable. More specifically, patients with HF showed improvement on subscales of attention, initiation/perseveration, and conceptualization. Exploratory analyses indicated that higher diastolic blood pressure at baseline was associated with improved DRS performance in patients with HF (r = 0.38; P = .02). Conclusions Patients with HF exhibited modest cognitive improvements during 12 months, particularly in attention and executive functioning. Higher diastolic blood pressure at baseline was associated with improvement. These results suggest that cognitive impairment in patients with HF may be modifiable and that improved blood pressure control may be an important contributor to improved function. Further prospective studies are needed to replicate results and determine underlying mechanisms.

Stanek, Kelly M.; Gunstad, John; Paul, Robert H.; Poppas, Athena; Jefferson, Angela L.; Sweet, Lawrence H.; Hoth, Karin F.; Haley, Andreana P.; Forman, Daniel E.; Cohen, Ronald A.

2009-01-01

5

Altitude acclimatization improves submaximal cognitive performance in mice and involves an imbalance of the cholinergic system.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to reveal a hypothetical improvement of cognitive abilities in animals acclimatized to altitude and performing under ground level conditions, when looking at submaximal performance, once seen that it was not possible when looking at maximal scores. We modified contrasted cognitive tasks (object recognition, operant conditioning, eight-arm radial maze, and classical conditioning of the eyeblink reflex), increasing their complexity in an attempt to find performance differences in acclimatized animals vs. untrained controls. In addition, we studied, through immunohistochemical quantification, the expression of choline acetyltransferase and acetyl cholinesterase, enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of acetylcholine, in the septal area, piriform and visual cortexes, and the hippocampal CA1 area of animals submitted to acute hypobaric hypoxia, or acclimatized to this simulated altitude, to find a relationship between the cholinergic system and a cognitive improvement due to altitude acclimatization. Results showed subtle improvements of the cognitive capabilities of acclimatized animals in all of the tasks when performed under ground-level conditions (although not before 24 h), in the three tasks used to test explicit memory (object recognition, operant conditioning in the Skinner box, and eight-arm radial maze) and (from the first conditioning session) in the classical conditioning task used to evaluate implicit memory. An imbalance of choline acetyltransferase/acetyl cholinesterase expression was found in acclimatized animals, mainly 24 h after the acclimatization period. In conclusion, altitude acclimatization improves cognitive capabilities, in a process parallel to an imbalance of the cholinergic system. PMID:23599398

Guerra-Narbona, R; Delgado-García, J M; López-Ramos, J C

2013-06-15

6

Cognitive performance in older adults with stable heart failure: Longitudinal evidence for stability and improvement.  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment is prevalent in heart failure (HF), though substantial variability in the pattern of cognitive impairment is found across studies. To clarify the nature of cognitive impairment in HF, we examined longitudinal trajectories across multiple domains of cognition in HF patients using latent growth class modeling. 115 HF patients completed a neuropsychological battery at baseline, 3-months and 12-months. Participants also completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Latent class growth analyses revealed a three-class model for attention/executive function, four-class model for memory, and a three-class model for language. The slope for attention/executive function and language remained stable, while improvements were noted in memory performance. Education and BDI-II significantly predicted the intercept for attention/executive function and language abilities. The BDI-II also predicted baseline memory. The current findings suggest that multiple performance-based classes of neuropsychological test performance exist within cognitive domains, though case-controlled prospective studies with extended follow-ups are needed to fully elucidate changes and predictors of cognitive function in HF. PMID:23906182

Alosco, Michael L; Garcia, Sarah; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; van Dulmen, Manfred; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H; Josephson, Richard; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

2014-01-01

7

Contribution of cognitive abilities to performance and improvement on a substitution coding task.  

PubMed

Age-related performance variance on substitution coding tests has been found to account for much of the age-related variance in tests of fluid and other abilities, leading to the conclusion that cognitive decline is due to slowing. Although it is an easy task, which could easily be performed accurately given adequate time, the substitution coding task is not a pure measure of cognitive speed. Evidence from growth curve analyses involving 3,708 volunteers (49-95 years of age) from the Manchester and Newcastle Studies of Cognitive Aging (P. Rabbitt, C. Donlan, N. Bent, L. McInnes, & V. Abson, 1993) indicates that, with practice on this task, improvement is related more to memory than to age, reasoning, vocabulary, or perceptual speed. In other words, faster performances are related primarily to memory. Operational similarities between speeded measures and measures of higher order abilities, which weaken the argument for causal relationships, are discussed. PMID:10632143

Piccinin, A M; Rabbitt, P M

1999-12-01

8

A diet based on multiple functional concepts improves cognitive performance in healthy subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Disorders such as the metabolic syndrome (MetS), impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes, are associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Also several of the individual key features that define the MetS, e.g. hypertension, impaired glucose regulation, dyslipidemia, obesity, and inflammation, are related to an increased risk of cognitive decline. Consequently, a diet that prevents metabolic disorders might be expected to prevent cognitive decline. The purpose of the present study was to, in overweight but otherwise healthy subjects, investigate effects on cognitive functions of a dietary regime combining multiple functional concepts potentially beneficial to risk markers associated with MetS. The purpose was in addition to evaluate cognitive performance in relation to results on cardiometabolic risk variables (BMI, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, lipoprotein A-1 and B, hs-CRP, HbA1c, interleukin-6, TNF-?, and PAI-1). Methods Fourty-four healthy women and men (50–73 years, BMI 25–33, fasting glycemia???6.1 mmol/L) participated in a randomized, controlled crossover intervention, comparing a multifunctional diet (active diet (AD)) including foods with a potential anti-inflammatory action, with a control diet (CD) devoid of the “active” components. Both diets were composed in close agreement with the Nordic dietary recommendations. Each diet was consumed during 4 wk, separated by a 4 wk washout period. Cognitive tests were performed at fasting and in the postprandial period after a standardized breakfast, after each diet period. Results In comparison with the CD, the AD improved performance in the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning test (recognition test, p?improved performance in test of selective attention, which also included aspects of working memory (p?Performance in cognitive tests was inversely associated with plasma concentrations of cardiometabolic risk markers (fasting cholesterol, blood glucose, blood pressure) and cardiovascular risk scores (Framingham and Reynols), and positivly associated with apolipoprotein A1 (p?cognitive performance. A relationship seems to exist between cardiometabolic risk markers and cognitive performance in apparently healthy subjects. The results provide additional motives for diet based prevention of metabolic disturbances related to the MetS.

2013-01-01

9

A Physical Education trial improves adolescents' cognitive performance and academic achievement: the EDUFIT study.  

PubMed

To analyze the effects of an intervention focused on increasing the time and intensity of Physical Education (PE), on adolescents' cognitive performance and academic achievement. A 4-month group-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 67 adolescents from South-East Spain, 2007. Three classes were randomly allocated into control group (CG), experimental group 1 (EG1) and experimental group 2 (EG2). CG received usual PE (two sessions/week), EG1 received four PE sessions/week and EG2 received four PE sessions/week of high intensity. Cognitive performance (non-verbal and verbal ability, abstract reasoning, spatial ability, verbal reasoning and numerical ability) was assessed by the Spanish Overall and Factorial Intelligence Test, and academic achievement by school grades. All the cognitive performance variables, except verbal reasoning, increased more in EG2 than in CG (all P?improved more than EG1, without differences between EG1 and CG. Increased PE can benefit cognitive performance and academic achievement. This study contributes to the current knowledge by suggesting that the intensity of PE sessions might play a role in the positive effect of physical activity on cognition and academic success. Future studies involving larger sample sizes should confirm or contrast these preliminary findings. PMID:23826633

Ardoy, D N; Fernández-Rodríguez, J M; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Castillo, R; Ruiz, J R; Ortega, F B

2014-02-01

10

Music Lessons Improve Auditory Perceptual and Cognitive Performance in Deaf Children  

PubMed Central

Despite advanced technologies in auditory rehabilitation of profound deafness, deaf children often exhibit delayed cognitive and linguistic development and auditory training remains a crucial element of their education. In the present cross-sectional study, we assess whether music would be a relevant tool for deaf children rehabilitation. In normal-hearing children, music lessons have been shown to improve cognitive and linguistic-related abilities, such as phonetic discrimination and reading. We compared auditory perception, auditory cognition, and phonetic discrimination between 14 profoundly deaf children who completed weekly music lessons for a period of 1.5–4?years and 14 deaf children who did not receive musical instruction. Children were assessed on perceptual and cognitive auditory tasks using environmental sounds: discrimination, identification, auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory. Transfer to the linguistic domain was tested with a phonetic discrimination task. Musically trained children showed better performance in auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory and phonetic discrimination tasks, and multiple regressions showed that success on these tasks was at least partly driven by music lessons. We propose that musical education contributes to development of general processes such as auditory attention and perception, which, in turn, facilitate auditory-related cognitive and linguistic processes.

Rochette, Francoise; Moussard, Aline; Bigand, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

11

The nicotinic ?7 receptor agonist GTS-21 improves cognitive performance in ketamine impaired rhesus monkeys.  

PubMed

The cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia are recognized as a core component of the disorder, yet there remain no available therapeutics to treat these symptoms of the disease. As a result, there is a need for establishing predictive preclinical models to identify the therapeutic potential of novel compounds. In the present study, rhesus monkeys were trained in the object retrieval-detour task, which is dependent on the prefrontal cortex, a brain region implicated in the cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. The NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine significantly impaired performance without affecting measures of motor or visuospatial abilities. Pre-treatment with the nicotinic ?7 agonist GTS-21 (0.03 mg/kg) significantly attenuated the ketamine-induced impairment, consistent with reports from clinical trials suggesting that nicotinic ?7 receptor agonism has pro-cognitive potential in clinical populations. In contrast, pretreatment with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil failed to reverse the ketamine-induced impairment, consistent with studies showing a lack of pro-cognitive effects in patients with schizophrenia. These data suggest that the ketamine-impaired object retrieval-detour task could provide a model with improved predictive validity for drug development, and confirm the need for additional efforts in back-translation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. PMID:22659472

Cannon, Christopher E; Puri, Vanita; Vivian, Jeffrey A; Egbertson, Melissa S; Eddins, Donnie; Uslaner, Jason M

2013-01-01

12

Acute moderate exercise elicits increased dorsolateral prefrontal activation and improves cognitive performance with Stroop test.  

PubMed

A growing number of human studies have reported the beneficial influences of acute as well as chronic exercise on cognitive functions. However, neuroimaging investigations into the neural substrates of the effects of acute exercise have yet to be performed. Using multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we sought cortical activation related to changes in the Stroop interference test, elicited by an acute bout of moderate exercise, in healthy volunteers (N=20). The compactness and portability of fNIRS allowed on-site cortical examination in a laboratory with a cycle ergometer, enabling strict control of the exercise intensity of each subject by assessing their peak oxygen intake (VO2peak). We defined moderate exercise intensity as 50% of a subject's peak oxygen uptake (50%VO2peak). An acute bout of moderate exercise caused significant improvement of cognitive performance reflecting Stroop interference as measured by reaction time. Consistent with previous functional neuroimaging studies, we detected brain activation due to Stroop interference (incongruent minus neutral) in the lateral prefrontal cortices in both hemispheres. This Stroop-interference-related activation was significantly enhanced in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex due to the acute bout of moderate exercise. The enhanced activation significantly coincided with the improved cognitive performance. This suggests that the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is likely the neural substrate for the improved Stroop performance elicited by an acute bout of moderate exercise. fNIRS, which allows physiological monitoring and functional neuroimaging to be combined, proved to be an effective tool for examining the cognitive effects of exercise. PMID:20006719

Yanagisawa, Hiroki; Dan, Ippeita; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Kato, Morimasa; Okamoto, Masako; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Soya, Hideaki

2010-05-01

13

Predictors of performance improvements within a cognitive remediation program for schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment is regarded a core feature of schizophrenia and is associated with low psychosocial functioning. There is rich evidence that cognitive remediation can improve cognitive functions in patients with schizophrenia. However, little is known about what predicts individual remediation success. Some studies suggest that baseline cognitive impairment might be a limiting factor for training response. Aim of the current study was to further examine the role of cognitive and symptom variables as predictors of remediation success. We studied a total sample of 32 patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder who were engaged in a computer-based cognitive training program (CogPack). A pre-training test battery provided cognitive measures of selective attention, executive functioning, processing speed, verbal memory, and verbal intelligence along with measures for positive and negative symptoms. Training response was defined as improvement on training tasks. Correlation analyses revealed no significant relationship between any of the baseline cognitive or symptom measures and improvement rates. However, better baseline cognition was associated with a higher percentage of tasks with initial ceiling effects. We conclude that not carefully tailoring task difficulty to patients' cognitive abilities constitutes a much more severe threat to cognitive remediation success than cognitive impairment itself. PMID:23816518

Scheu, Florian; Aghotor, Julia; Pfueller, Ute; Moritz, Steffen; Bohn, Francesca; Weisbrod, Matthias; Roesch-Ely, Daniela

2013-10-30

14

Cognitive-Adaptation Training for Improving Performance and Stress Management of Air Force Pilots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of cognitive-adaptation training on flight performance and stress management in a sample of pilot cadets who were undergoing a basic flying program (N?=?21). The aim of the training was to enhance the participants' awareness of the cognitive processes that they used in a given situation, and to strengthen reflective processes. Cadets were assigned to a

Marie-Pierre Fornette; Marie-Héloïse Bardel; Camille Lefrançois; Jacques Fradin; Farid El Massioui; René Amalberti

2012-01-01

15

?-alanine supplementation improves tactical performance but not cognitive function in combat soldiers  

PubMed Central

Background There are no known studies that have examined ?-alanine supplementation in military personnel. Considering the physiological and potential neurological effects that have been reported during sustained military operations, it appears that ?-alanine supplementation may have a potential benefit in maintaining physical and cognitive performance during high-intensity military activity under stressful conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 28 days of ?-alanine ingestion in military personnel while fatigued on physical and cognitive performance. Methods Twenty soldiers (20.1?±?0.9 years) from an elite combat unit were randomly assigned to either a ?-alanine (BA) or placebo (PL) group. Soldiers were involved in advanced military training, including combat skill development, navigational training, self-defense/hand-to-hand combat and conditioning. All participants performed a 4-km run, 5-countermovement jumps using a linear position transducer, 120-m sprint, a 10-shot shooting protocol with assault rifle, including overcoming a misfire, and a 2-min serial subtraction test to assess cognitive function before (Pre) and after (Post) 28 days of supplementation. Results The training routine resulted in significant increases in 4-km run time for both groups, but no between group differences were seen (p?=?0.597). Peak jump power at Post was greater for BA than PL (p?=?0.034), while mean jump power for BA at Post was 10.2% greater (p?=?0.139) than PL. BA had a significantly greater (p?=?0.012) number of shots on target at Post (8.2?±?1.0) than PL (6.5?±?2.1), and their target engagement speed at Post was also significantly faster (p?=?0.039). No difference in serial subtraction performance was seen between the groups (p?=?0.844). Conclusion Results of this study indicate that 4-weeks of ?-alanine ingestion in young, healthy soldiers did not impact cognitive performance, but did enhance power performance, marksmanship and target engagement speed from pre-ingestion levels.

2014-01-01

16

[Stabilized NADH (ENADA) improves jet lag-induced cognitive performance deficit].  

PubMed

Current remedies for jet lag (phototherapy, melatonin, stimulant, and sedative medications) are limited in efficacy and practicality. The efficacy of a stabilized, sublingual form of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH, ENADAlert, Menuco Corp.) as a countermeasure for jet lag was examined. Because NADH increases cellular production of ATP and facilitates dopamine synthesis, it may counteract the effects of jet lag on cognitive functioning and sleepiness. Thirty-five healthy, employed subjects participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Training and baseline testing were conducted on the West Coast before subjects flew overnight to the East Coast, where they would experience a 3-hour time difference. Upon arrival, individuals were randomly assigned to received either 20 mg of sublingual stabilized NADH (n = 18) or identical placebo tablets (n = 17). All participants completed computer-administered tests (including Cog Screen) to assess changes in cognitive functioning, mood, and sleepiness in the morning and afternoon. Jet lag resulted in increased sleepiness for over half the participants and deterioration of cognitive functioning for approximately one third. The morning following the flight, subjects experienced lapses of attention in addition to disruptions in working memory, divided attention, and visual perceptual speed. Individuals who received NADH performed significantly better on 4 cognitive test measures (P < or = .05) and reported less sleepiness compared with those who received placebo. No adverse effects were observed with NADH treatment. Stabilized NADH significantly reduced jet lag-induced negative cognitive effects and sleepiness, was easily administered, and was found to have no side effects. PMID:12385067

Birkmayer, G D; Kay, G G; Vürre, E

2002-01-01

17

Consumption of cocoa flavanols results in acute improvements in mood and cognitive performance during sustained mental effort.  

PubMed

Cocoa flavanols (CF) positively influence physiological processes in ways that suggest their consumption may improve aspects of cognitive function. This study investigated the acute cognitive and subjective effects of CF consumption during sustained mental demand. In this randomized, controlled, double-blinded, balanced, three period crossover trial 30 healthy adults consumed drinks containing 520 mg, 994 mg CF and a matched control, with a three-day washout between drinks. Assessments included the state anxiety inventory and repeated 10-min cycles of a Cognitive Demand Battery comprising of two serial subtraction tasks (Serial Threes and Serial Sevens), a Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) task and a 'mental fatigue' scale, over the course of 1 h. Consumption of both 520 mg and 994 mg CF significantly improved Serial Threes performance. The 994 mg CF beverage significantly speeded RVIP responses but also resulted in more errors during Serial Sevens. Increases in self-reported 'mental fatigue' were significantly attenuated by the consumption of the 520 mg CF beverage only. This is the first report of acute cognitive improvements following CF consumption in healthy adults. While the mechanisms underlying the effects are unknown they may be related to known effects of CF on endothelial function and blood flow. PMID:19942640

Scholey, Andrew B; French, Stephen J; Morris, Penelope J; Kennedy, David O; Milne, Anthea L; Haskell, Crystal F

2010-10-01

18

Delayed, Post-Injury Treatment with Aniracetam Improves Cognitive Performance after Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic cognitive impairment is an enduring aspect of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in both hu- mans and animals. Treating cognitive impairment in the post-traumatic stages of injury often in- volves the delivery of pharmacologic agents aimed at specific neurotransmitter systems. The cur- rent investigation examined the effects of the nootropoic drug aniracetam on cognitive recovery following TBI in rats. Three

Anna I. Baranova; Mark D. Whiting; Robert J. Hamm

2006-01-01

19

Semi-Supervised Multimodal Relevance Vector Regression Improves Cognitive Performance Estimation from Imaging and Biological Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Accurate estimation of cognitive scores for patients can help track the progress of neurological diseases. In this paper, we present a novel semi-supervised multimodal relevance vector regression (SM-RVR) method for predicting clinical scores of neurological diseases from multimodal imaging and biological biomarker, to help evaluate pathological stage and predict progression of diseases, e.g., Alzheimer’s diseases (AD). Unlike most existing methods, we predict clinical scores from multimodal (imaging and biological) biomarkers, including MRI, FDG-PET, and CSF. Considering that the clinical scores of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects are often less stable compared to those of AD and normal control (NC) subjects due to the heterogeneity of MCI, we use only the multimodal data of MCI subjects, but no corresponding clinical scores, to train a semi-supervised model for enhancing the estimation of clinical scores for AD and NC subjects. We also develop a new strategy for selecting the most informative MCI subjects. We evaluate the performance of our approach on 202 subjects with all three modalities of data (MRI, FDG-PET and CSF) from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. The experimental results show that our SM-RVR method achieves a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 1.91 and a correlation coefficient (CORR) of 0.80 for estimating the MMSE scores, and also a RMSE of 4.45 and a CORR of 0.78 for estimating the ADAS-Cog scores, demonstrating very promising performances in AD studies.

Cheng, Bo; Chen, Songcan; Kaufer, Daniel I.

2013-01-01

20

Semi-supervised multimodal relevance vector regression improves cognitive performance estimation from imaging and biological biomarkers.  

PubMed

Accurate estimation of cognitive scores for patients can help track the progress of neurological diseases. In this paper, we present a novel semi-supervised multimodal relevance vector regression (SM-RVR) method for predicting clinical scores of neurological diseases from multimodal imaging and biological biomarker, to help evaluate pathological stage and predict progression of diseases, e.g., Alzheimer's diseases (AD). Unlike most existing methods, we predict clinical scores from multimodal (imaging and biological) biomarkers, including MRI, FDG-PET, and CSF. Considering that the clinical scores of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects are often less stable compared to those of AD and normal control (NC) subjects due to the heterogeneity of MCI, we use only the multimodal data of MCI subjects, but no corresponding clinical scores, to train a semi-supervised model for enhancing the estimation of clinical scores for AD and NC subjects. We also develop a new strategy for selecting the most informative MCI subjects. We evaluate the performance of our approach on 202 subjects with all three modalities of data (MRI, FDG-PET and CSF) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. The experimental results show that our SM-RVR method achieves a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 1.91 and a correlation coefficient (CORR) of 0.80 for estimating the MMSE scores, and also a RMSE of 4.45 and a CORR of 0.78 for estimating the ADAS-Cog scores, demonstrating very promising performances in AD studies. PMID:23504659

Cheng, Bo; Zhang, Daoqiang; Chen, Songcan; Kaufer, Daniel I; Shen, Dinggang

2013-07-01

21

Nitric oxide synthase mediates the ability of darbepoetin alpha to improve the cognitive performance of STOP null mice.  

PubMed

STOP (stable tubule only polypeptide) null mice display neurochemical and behavioral abnormalities that resemble several well-recognized features of schizophrenia. Recent evidence suggests that the hematopoietic growth factor erythropoietin improves the cognitive performance of schizophrenics. The mechanism, however, by which erythropoietin is able to improve the cognition of schizophrenics is unclear. To address this question, we first determined whether acute administration of the erythropoietin analog known as darbepoetin alpha (D. alpha) improved performance deficits of STOP null mice in the novel objective recognition task (NORT). NORT performance of STOP null mice, but not wild-type littermates, was enhanced 3 h after a single injection of D. alpha (25 microg/kg, i.p.). Improved NORT performance was accompanied by elevated NADPH diaphorase staining in the ventral hippocampus as well as medial and cortical aspects of the amygdala, indicative of increased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in these structures. NOS generates the intracellular messenger nitric oxide (NO) implicated in learning and memory. In keeping with this hypothesis, D. alpha significantly increased NO metabolite levels (nitrate and nitrite, NOx) in the hippocampus of both wild-type and STOP null mice. The NOS inhibitor, N (G)-nitro-L- arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 25 mg/kg, i.p.), completely reversed the increase in hippocampal NOx levels produced by D. alpha. Moreover, L-NAME also inhibited the ability of D. alpha to improve the NORT performance of STOP null mice. Taken together, these observations suggest D. alpha enhances the NORT performance of STOP null mice by increasing production of NO. PMID:20336057

Kajitani, Kosuke; Thorne, Michael; Samson, Michel; Robertson, George S

2010-07-01

22

Does Cognitively Focused Instruction Improve the Academic Performance of Low-Achieving Students?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stakeholders are debating the value of cognitively focused instruction for students who have not benefited from a skills-based approach. Much of the discussion, however, is occurring without recognition of research that has been conducted in the past 2 decades. In this article, we reviewed the research. Electronic databases and hard copies of…

Kearns, Devin M.; Fuchs, Douglas

2013-01-01

23

Saving Performance and Cognitive Abilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments on saving behavior reveal substantial heterogeneity of performance. We show that this heterogeneity is reliable and examine several potential sources of it, including cognitive ability and personality measures. The strongest predictors of performance are two cognitive ability measures. We conclude that complete explanations of heterogeneity in dynamic decision making requires attention to complexity and individual differences in cognitive constraints.

T. Parker Ballinger; Eric Hudson; Leonie Karkoviata; Nathaniel T. Wilcox

24

Effectiveness of Cognitive/Relaxation Therapy and Study-Skills Training in Reducing Self-Reported Anxiety and Improving the Academic Performance of Test-Anxious Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results indicated relaxation/cognitive therapy was effective in reducing anxiety but failed to improve classroom test scores; study-skills training had no significant effect. The combined therapy both reduced anxiety and improved performance relative to the no-treatment control condition and was significantly more effective than was either…

Dendato, Kenneth M.; Diener, Don

1986-01-01

25

Ketogenic Diet Improves Motor Performance but Not Cognition in Two Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Pathology  

PubMed Central

Dietary manipulations are increasingly viewed as possible approaches to treating neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies suggest that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients present an energy imbalance with brain hypometabolism and mitochondrial deficits. Ketogenic diets (KDs), widely investigated in the treatment and prevention of seizures, have been suggested to bypass metabolic deficits present in AD brain by providing ketone bodies as an alternative fuel to neurons. We investigated the effects of a ketogenic diet in two transgenic mouse lines. Five months old APP/PS1 (a model of amyloid deposition) and Tg4510 (a model of tau deposition) mice were offered either a ketogenic or a control (NIH-31) diet for 3 months. Body weight and food intake were monitored throughout the experiment, and blood was collected at 4 weeks and 4 months for ketone and glucose assessments. Both lines of transgenic mice weighed less than nontransgenic mice, yet, surprisingly, had elevated food intake. The ketogenic diet did not affect these differences in body weight or food consumption. Behavioral testing during the last two weeks of treatment found that mice offered KD performed significantly better on the rotarod compared to mice on the control diet independent of genotype. In the open field test, both transgenic mouse lines presented increased locomotor activity compared to nontransgenic, age-matched controls, and this effect was not influenced by KD. The radial arm water maze identified learning deficits in both transgenic lines with no significant differences between diets. Tissue measures of amyloid, tau, astroglial and microglial markers in transgenic lines showed no differences between animals fed the control or the ketogenic diet. These data suggest that ketogenic diets may play an important role in enhancing motor performance in mice, but have minimal impact on the phenotype of murine models of amyloid or tau deposition.

Brownlow, Milene L.; Benner, Leif; D'Agostino, Dominic; Gordon, Marcia N.; Morgan, Dave

2013-01-01

26

Nutraceutical intervention improves older adults' cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Interventions to improve the cognitive health of older adults are of critical importance. In the current study, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using a pill-based nutraceutical (NT-020) that contained a proprietary formulation of blueberry, carnosine, green tea, vitamin D3, and Biovin to evaluate the impact on changes in multiple domains of cognitive functioning. One hundred and five cognitively intact adults aged 65-85 years of age (M=73.6 years) were randomized to receive NT-020 (n=52) or a placebo (n=53). Participants were tested with a battery of cognitive performance tests that were classified into six broad domains--episodic memory, processing speed, verbal ability, working memory, executive functioning, and complex speed at baseline and 2 months later. The results indicated that persons taking NT-020 improved significantly on two measures of processing speed across the 2-month test period in contrast to persons on the placebo whose performance did not change. None of the other cognitive ability measures were related to intervention group. The results also indicated that the NT-020 was well tolerated by older adults, and the presence of adverse events or symptoms did not differ between the NT-020 and placebo groups. Overall, the results of the current study were promising and suggest the potential for interventions like these to improve the cognitive health of older adults. PMID:24134194

Small, Brent J; Rawson, Kerri S; Martin, Christina; Eisel, Sarah L; Sanberg, Cyndy D; McEvoy, Cathy L; Sanberg, Paul R; Shytle, R Douglas; Tan, Jun; Bickford, Paula C

2014-02-01

27

Cognitive Readiness Assessment and Reporting: An Open Source Mobile Framework for Operational Decision Support and Performance Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive readiness (CR) and performance for operational time-critical environments are continuing points of focus for military and academic communities. In response to this need, we designed an open source interactive CR assessment application as a highly adaptive and efficient open source testing administration and analysis tool. It is capable…

Heric, Matthew; Carter, Jenn

2011-01-01

28

Performance Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers presented at a symposium on performance improvement moderated by Edward Schorer at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD) "The Organizational Ecology of Ethical Problems: International Case Studies in the Light of HPT [Human Performance Technology]" (Peter J. Dean, Laurence…

1996

29

Cognitive Performance in Operational Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimal cognition during complex and sustained operations is a critical component for success in current and future military operations. "Cognitive Performance, Judgment, and Decision-making" (CPJD) is a newly organized U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command research program focused on sustaining operational effectiveness of Future Force Warriors by developing paradigms through which militarily-relevant, higher-order cognitive performance, judgment, and decision-making can be assessed and sustained in individuals, small teams, and leaders of network-centric fighting units. CPJD evaluates the impact of stressors intrinsic to military operational environments (e.g., sleep deprivation, workload, fatigue, temperature extremes, altitude, environmental/physiological disruption) on military performance, evaluates noninvasive automated methods for monitoring and predicting cognitive performance, and investigates pharmaceutical strategies (e.g., stimulant countermeasures, hypnotics) to mitigate performance decrements. This manuscript describes the CPJD program, discusses the metrics utilized to relate militarily applied research findings to academic research, and discusses how the simulated combat capabilities of a synthetic battle laboratory may facilitate future cognitive performance research.

Russo, Michael; McGhee, James; Friedler, Edna; Thomas, Maria

2005-01-01

30

Methods and compositions for improving cognitive function  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention relates to treating age-related cognitive impairment. This invention in particular relates to the use of inhibitors of synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A), such as levetiracetam, seletracetam, and brivaracetam, in improving cognitive function in subjects that exhibit age-related cognitive impairment or are at risk thereof, including, without limitation, subjects having or at risk for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), Age-related Cognitive Decline (ARCD) or Age-Associated Memory Impairment (AAMI).

2013-12-10

31

Cognitive Ability, Cognitive Aptitudes, Job Knowledge, and Job Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the hundreds of studies showing that general cognitive ability predicts job performance in all jobs. Shows that general cognitive ability predicts supervisor ratings and training success and that general cognitive ability predicts objective, rigorously content valid work sample performance with even higher validity. (Author/ABB)

Hunter, John E.

1986-01-01

32

Antecedents and correlates of improved cognitive performance in children exposed in Utero to low levels of lead  

SciTech Connect

Up to 2 years of age, children with umbilical cord blood lead levels of 10 to 25 {mu}g/dL achieve significantly lower scores on tests of cognitive development than do children with lower prenatal exposures. By age 5 years, however, they appear to have recovered from, or at least compensated for, this early insult. Change in performance between 24 and 57 months of age was examined in relation to level of postnatal lead exposure and various sociodemographic factors. Among children with high prenatal lead exposure, greater recovery of function was associated with lower blood level at 57 months, higher socioeconomic status, higher Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scores, higher maternal IQ, and female gender. The difference between the scores at 57 months of children with optimal and less optimal values on these variables generally exceed 1/2 standard deviation. Higher prenatal lead exposure is associated with an increased risk of early cognitive deficit. Furthermore, the risk that a deficit will persist through the preschool years is increased among children with high prenatal exposure and either high postnatal exposure or less optimal sociodemographic characteristics.

Bellinger, D.; Leviton, A. (Children's Hospital, Boston, MA (USA) Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA)); Sloman, J. (Children's Hospital, Boston, MA (USA) Wheelock College, Boston, MA (USA))

1990-11-01

33

Acute, low-dose methamphetamine administration improves attention/information processing speed and working memory in methamphetamine-dependent individuals displaying poorer cognitive performance at baseline  

PubMed Central

Abstinent methamphetamine (Meth) dependent individuals demonstrate poorer performance on tests sensitive to attention/information processing speed, learning and memory, and working memory when compared to non-Meth dependent individuals. The poorer performance on these tests may contribute to the morbidity associated with Meth-dependence. In light of this, we sought to determine the effects of acute, low-dose Meth administration on attention, working memory, and verbal learning and memory in 19 non-treatment seeking, Meth-dependent individuals. Participants were predominantly male (89%), Caucasian (63%), and cigarette smokers (63%). Following a four day, drug-free washout period, participants were given a single-blind intravenous infusion of saline, followed the next day by 30 mg of Meth. A battery of neurocognitive tasks was administered before and after each infusion, and performance on measures of accuracy and reaction time were compared between conditions. While acute Meth exposure did not affect test performance for the entire sample, participants who demonstrated relatively poor performance on these tests at baseline, identified using a median split on each test, showed significant improvement on measures of attention/information processing speed and working memory when administered Meth. Improved performance was seen on the following measures of working memory: choice reaction time task (p?0.04), a 1-back task (p?0.01), and a 2-back task (p?0.04). In addition, those participants demonstrating high neurocognitive performance at baseline experienced similar or decreased performance following Meth exposure. These findings suggest that acute administration of Meth may temporarily improve Meth-associated neurocognitive performance in those individuals experiencing lower cognitive performance at baseline. As a result, stimulants may serve as a successful treatment for improving cognitive functioning in those Meth-dependent individuals experiencing neurocognitive impairment.

Mahoney, James J.; Jackson, Brian J.; Kalechstein, Ari D.; De La Garza, Richard; Newton, Thomas F.

2012-01-01

34

Cognitive Profile: Increasing Student Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past and ongoing research on cognition indicates that its effects on academic achievement are more direct than those of environmental, affective, or behavioral factors. The research has analyzed cognitive factors, the remediation of cognitive differences, and the transferability of remediation practices. Other cognition researchers have focused on…

Letteri, Charles A.

35

Improving Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: A Pilot Intervention Combining Computerized Social Cognition Training With Cognitive Remediation  

PubMed Central

Background: Social cognition is significantly impaired in schizophrenia and contributes to poor community functioning. This study examined whether cognitive remediation (CR; COGPACK), shown to improve neurocognition, improves an integral component of social cognition, emotion perception, compared with CR combined with a computerized Emotion Perception intervention (Mind Reading: Interactive Guide to Emotions [MRIGE]). Methods: 59 stable schizophrenia or schizoaffective predominantly inpatients were randomized to either CR (N = 27) alone or CR + MRIGE (N = 32) for 12 weeks. Assessments included the Facial Emotion Identification Task (FEIT), Facial Emotion Discrimination Task (FEDT), MCCB-MATRICS, Personal and Social Performance Scale, and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Results: There was a significant group-by-time effect on FEIT (F = 11.509, P = .004); CR + MRIGE demonstrated signi?cantly greater improvement than CR alone (CR + MRIGE, Z = 1.89, P = .05; CR alone Z = 0.57, P = .13). There was significant group-by-time effect on FEDT (F = 5.663, P = .022); CR + MRIGE demonstrated signi?cantly greater improvement than CR alone (CR + MRIGE, Z = 1.90, P = .05; CR alone Z = 0.67, P = .21). There was also a significant group by time effect for social cognition, measured by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (F = 5.473, P = .050): CR + MRIGE demonstrated significantly greater improvement than CR alone (CR + MRIGE, Z = 1.98, P = .02; CR alone, Z = 1.00, P = .05). Conclusions: Combined CR with emotion perception remediation produced greater improvements in emotion recognition, emotion discrimination, social functioning, and neurocognition compared with CR alone in chronic schizophrenia.

Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre

2013-01-01

36

Do Action Video Games Improve Perception and Cognition?  

PubMed Central

Frequent action video game players often outperform non-gamers on measures of perception and cognition, and some studies find that video game practice enhances those abilities. The possibility that video game training transfers broadly to other aspects of cognition is exciting because training on one task rarely improves performance on others. At first glance, the cumulative evidence suggests a strong relationship between gaming experience and other cognitive abilities, but methodological shortcomings call that conclusion into question. We discuss these pitfalls, identify how existing studies succeed or fail in overcoming them, and provide guidelines for more definitive tests of the effects of gaming on cognition.

Boot, Walter R.; Blakely, Daniel P.; Simons, Daniel J.

2011-01-01

37

Regional neurovascular coupling and cognitive performance in those with low blood pressure secondary to high-level spinal cord injury: improved by alpha-1 agonist midodrine hydrochloride.  

PubMed

Individuals with high-level spinal cord injury (SCI) experience low blood pressure (BP) and cognitive impairments. Such dysfunction may be mediated in part by impaired neurovascular coupling (NVC) (i.e., cerebral blood flow responses to neurologic demand). Ten individuals with SCI >T6 spinal segment, and 10 age- and sex-matched controls were assessed for beat-by-beat BP, as well as middle and posterior cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv, PCAv) in response to a NVC test. Tests were repeated in SCI after 10?mg midodrine (alpha1-agonist). Verbal fluency was measured before and after midodrine in SCI, and in the control group as an index of cognitive function. At rest, mean BP was lower in SCI (70±10 versus 92±14?mm?Hg; P<0.05); however, PCAv conductance was higher (0.56±0.13 versus 0.39±0.15?cm/second/mm?Hg; P<0.05). Controls exhibited a 20% increase in PCAv during cognition; however, the response in SCI was completely absent (P<0.01). When BP was increased with midodrine, NVC was improved 70% in SCI, which was reflected by a 13% improved cognitive function (P<0.05). Improvements in BP were related to improved cognitive function in those with SCI (r(2)=0.52; P<0.05). Impaired NVC, secondary to low BP, may partially mediate reduced cognitive function in individuals with high-level SCI. PMID:24473484

Phillips, Aaron A; Warburton, Darren Er; Ainslie, Philip N; Krassioukov, Andrei V

2014-05-01

38

COG1410, an apolipoprotein E-based peptide, improves cognitive performance and reduces cortical loss following moderate fluid percussion injury in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

COG1410, a small, novel ApoE-mimetic peptide derived from the receptor binding region of apolipoprotein E (ApoE), has been classified as anti-inflammatory in nature and improves motor, sensorimotor, and cognitive dysfunction following cortical contusion injury (CCI). In order to further examine COG1410's preclinical efficacy on cognitive recovery, the present study evaluated COG1410 following moderate fluid percussion injury (FPI). Animals were prepared

Nicholas A. Kaufman; Jason E. Beare; Arlene A. Tan; Michael P. Vitek; Suzanne E. McKenna; Michael R. Hoane

2010-01-01

39

Physical exercise and cognitive performance in the elderly: current perspectives  

PubMed Central

In an aging population with increasing incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment, strategies are needed to slow age-related decline and reduce disease-related cognitive impairment in older adults. Physical exercise that targets modifiable risk factors and neuroprotective mechanisms may reduce declines in cognitive performance attributed to the normal aging process and protect against changes related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia. In this review we summarize the role of exercise in neuroprotection and cognitive performance, and provide information related to implementation of physical exercise programs for older adults. Evidence from both animal and human studies supports the role of physical exercise in modifying metabolic, structural, and functional dimensions of the brain and preserving cognitive performance in older adults. The results of observational studies support a dose-dependent neuroprotective relationship between physical exercise and cognitive performance in older adults. Although some clinical trials of exercise interventions demonstrate positive effects of exercise on cognitive performance, other trials show minimal to no effect. Although further research is needed, physical exercise interventions aimed at improving brain health through neuroprotective mechanisms show promise for preserving cognitive performance. Exercise programs that are structured, individualized, higher intensity, longer duration, and multicomponent show promise for preserving cognitive performance in older adults.

Kirk-Sanchez, Neva J; McGough, Ellen L

2014-01-01

40

Physical exercise and cognitive performance in the elderly: current perspectives.  

PubMed

In an aging population with increasing incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment, strategies are needed to slow age-related decline and reduce disease-related cognitive impairment in older adults. Physical exercise that targets modifiable risk factors and neuroprotective mechanisms may reduce declines in cognitive performance attributed to the normal aging process and protect against changes related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. In this review we summarize the role of exercise in neuroprotection and cognitive performance, and provide information related to implementation of physical exercise programs for older adults. Evidence from both animal and human studies supports the role of physical exercise in modifying metabolic, structural, and functional dimensions of the brain and preserving cognitive performance in older adults. The results of observational studies support a dose-dependent neuroprotective relationship between physical exercise and cognitive performance in older adults. Although some clinical trials of exercise interventions demonstrate positive effects of exercise on cognitive performance, other trials show minimal to no effect. Although further research is needed, physical exercise interventions aimed at improving brain health through neuroprotective mechanisms show promise for preserving cognitive performance. Exercise programs that are structured, individualized, higher intensity, longer duration, and multicomponent show promise for preserving cognitive performance in older adults. PMID:24379659

Kirk-Sanchez, Neva J; McGough, Ellen L

2014-01-01

41

Stimulation of postsynapse adrenergic ?2A receptor improves attention/cognition performance in an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

A 5-trial inhibitory avoidance test using spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) pups has been used as an animal model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the roles of noradrenergic systems, which are involved in the pathophysiology of ADHD, have not been investigated in this model. In the present study, the effects of adrenergic ?2 receptor stimulation, which has been an effective treatment for ADHD, on attention/cognition performance were investigated in this model. Moreover, neuronal mechanisms mediated through adrenergic ?2 receptors were investigated. We evaluated the effects of both clonidine, a non-selective adrenergic ?2 receptor agonist, and guanfacine, a selective adrenergic ?2A receptor agonist, using a 5-trial inhibitory avoidance test with SHR pups. Juvenile SHR exhibited a shorter transfer latency, compared with juvenile Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Both clonidine and guanfacine significantly prolonged the transfer latency of juvenile SHR. The effects of clonidine and guanfacine were significantly blocked by pretreatment with an adrenergic ?2A receptor antagonist. In contrast, the effect of clonidine was not attenuated by pretreatment with an adrenergic ?2B receptor antagonist, or an adrenergic ?2C receptor antagonist, while it was attenuated by a non-selective adrenergic ?2 receptor antagonist. Furthermore, the effects of neither clonidine nor guanfacine were blocked by pretreatment with a selective noradrenergic neurotoxin. These results suggest that the stimulation of the adrenergic ?2A receptor improves the attention/cognition performance of juvenile SHR in the 5-trial inhibitory avoidance test and that postsynaptic, rather than presynaptic, adrenergic ?2A receptor is involved in this effect. PMID:24882610

Kawaura, Kazuaki; Karasawa, Jun-Ichi; Chaki, Shigeyuki; Hikichi, Hirohiko

2014-08-15

42

Leptin Replacement Improves Cognitive Development  

PubMed Central

Background Leptin changes brain structure, neuron excitability and synaptic plasticity. It also regulates the development and function of feeding circuits. However, the effects of leptin on neurocognitive development are unknown. Objective To evaluate the effect of leptin on neurocognitive development. Methodology A 5-year-old boy with a nonconservative missense leptin gene mutation (Cys-to-Thr in codon 105) was treated with recombinant methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin) at physiologic replacement doses of 0.03 mg/kg/day. Cognitive development was assessed using the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), a measure of general verbal and nonverbal functioning; and selected subtests from the NEPSY, a measure of neuropsychological functioning in children. Principal Findings Prior to treatment, the patient was morbidly obese, hypertensive, dyslipidemic, and hyperinsulinemic. Baseline neurocognitive tests revealed slower than expected rates of development (developmental age lower than chronological age) in a majority of the areas assessed. After two years, substantial increases in the rates of development in most neurocognitive domains were apparent, with some skills at or exceeding expectations based on chronological age. We also observed marked weight loss and resolution of hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperinsulinemia. Conclusions We concluded that replacement with r-metHuLeptin is associated with weight loss and changes in rates of development in many neurocognitive domains, which lends support to the hypothesis that, in addition to its role in metabolism, leptin may have a cognitive enhancing role in the developing central nervous system. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00659828

Paz-Filho, Gilberto J.; Babikian, Talin; Asarnow, Robert; Esposito, Karin; Erol, Halil K.; Wong, Ma-Li; Licinio, Julio

2008-01-01

43

Using Relaxation, Cognitive Therapy, and Mental Imagery To Reduce Test Anxiety and Improve Performance among Firefighter Trainees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The significant number of firefighter trainees experiencing performance evaluation anxiety during fire training school was addressed by the implementation of anxiety reduction and performance enhancement strategies. Audiotape recordings were chosen as the primary intervention medium to facilitate program effectiveness within an established fire…

Mogen, David S.

44

Individual variation in cognitive performance: developmental and evolutionary perspectives  

PubMed Central

Animal cognition experiments frequently reveal striking individual variation but rarely consider its causes and largely ignore its potential consequences. Studies often focus on a subset of high-performing subjects, sometimes viewing evidence from a single individual as sufficient to demonstrate the cognitive capacity of a species. We argue that the emphasis on demonstrating species-level cognitive capacities detracts from the value of individual variation in understanding cognitive development and evolution. We consider developmental and evolutionary interpretations of individual variation and use meta-analyses of data from published studies to examine predictors of individual performance. We show that reliance on small sample sizes precludes robust conclusions about individual abilities as well as inter- and intraspecific differences. We advocate standardization of experimental protocols and pooling of data between laboratories to improve statistical rigour. Our analyses show that cognitive performance is influenced by age, sex, rearing conditions and previous experience. These effects limit the validity of comparative analyses unless developmental histories are taken into account, and complicate attempts to understand how cognitive traits are expressed and selected under natural conditions. Further understanding of cognitive evolution requires efforts to elucidate the heritability of cognitive traits and establish whether elevated cognitive performance confers fitness advantages in nature.

Thornton, Alex; Lukas, Dieter

2012-01-01

45

Effects of Physical Exertion on Cognitive Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examined the cognitive and physiological performance of soldiers as they exercised on a treadmill at various grades. Twelve soldiers walked at 1.56 m/sec on three grades, 0%, 3.5%, and 7.0%. The cognitive tasks performed by the soldiers were ta...

A. S. Krausman H. P. Crowell R. M. Wilson

2002-01-01

46

Significant improvements in cognitive performance post-transcranial, red/near-infrared light-emitting diode treatments in chronic, mild traumatic brain injury: open-protocol study.  

PubMed

Abstract This pilot, open-protocol study examined whether scalp application of red and near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes (LED) could improve cognition in patients with chronic, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Application of red/NIR light improves mitochondrial function (especially in hypoxic/compromised cells) promoting increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) important for cellular metabolism. Nitric oxide is released locally, increasing regional cerebral blood flow. LED therapy is noninvasive, painless, and non-thermal (cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration [FDA], an insignificant risk device). Eleven chronic, mTBI participants (26-62 years of age, 6 males) with nonpenetrating brain injury and persistent cognitive dysfunction were treated for 18 outpatient sessions (Monday, Wednesday, Friday, for 6 weeks), starting at 10 months to 8 years post- mTBI (motor vehicle accident [MVA] or sports-related; and one participant, improvised explosive device [IED] blast injury). Four had a history of multiple concussions. Each LED cluster head (5.35 cm diameter, 500?mW, 22.2?mW/cm(2)) was applied for 10?min to each of 11 scalp placements (13?J/cm(2)). LEDs were placed on the midline from front-to-back hairline; and bilaterally on frontal, parietal, and temporal areas. Neuropsychological testing was performed pre-LED, and at 1 week, and 1 and 2 months after the 18th treatment. A significant linear trend was observed for the effect of LED treatment over time for the Stroop test for Executive Function, Trial 3 inhibition (p=0.004); Stroop, Trial 4 inhibition switching (p=0.003); California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)-II, Total Trials 1-5 (p=0.003); and CVLT-II, Long Delay Free Recall (p=0.006). Participants reported improved sleep, and fewer post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, if present. Participants and family reported better ability to perform social, interpersonal, and occupational functions. These open-protocol data suggest that placebo-controlled studies are warranted. PMID:24568233

Naeser, Margaret A; Zafonte, Ross; Krengel, Maxine H; Martin, Paula I; Frazier, Judith; Hamblin, Michael R; Knight, Jeffrey A; Meehan, William P; Baker, Errol H

2014-06-01

47

Metabolic syndrome, cognitive performance, and dementia.  

PubMed

Obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance have been associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment or dementia. Together, these risk factors cluster as metabolic syndrome (MetS). The first aim of this systematic review was to identify and critically review studies assessing associations between MetS and cognition, with consideration given both to early cognitive changes and the severe endpoint of dementia. The second aim was to identify and discuss limitations in the literature and subsequent difficulties in drawing conclusions from research to date. Nine studies that assessed cognitive performance and ten studies that estimated incidence of dementia in relation to MetS were identified and appraised. Limitations in the literature include the lack of standardized nomenclature for cognitive variables, the use of multiple MetS definitions, and the difficulty in differentiating the adverse effects of multiple risk factors on cognition. PMID:21971405

Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Buckley, Jonathan D; Murphy, Karen J; Bryan, Janet; Frisardi, Vincenza

2012-01-01

48

Drug Effects Upon Cognitive Performance under Stress.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three experiments were conducted to test an hypothesis concerning drug enhancement of performance under task-induced stress. Cognitive abilities subjected to examination were highly paced short-term memory and simple arithmetic skill. Changes in mood stat...

P. M. Hurst M. F. Weidner

1966-01-01

49

Enrichment and Training Improve Cognition in Rats with Cortical Malformations  

PubMed Central

Children with malformations of cortical development (MCD) frequently have associated cognitive impairments which reduce quality of life. We hypothesized that cognitive deficits associated with MCD can be improved with environmental manipulation or additional training. The E17 methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) exposure model bears many anatomical hallmarks seen in human MCDs as well as similar behavioral and cognitive deficits. We divided control and MAM exposed Sprague-Dawley rats into enriched and non-enriched groups and tested performance in the Morris water maze. Another group similarly divided underwent sociability testing and also underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans pre and post enrichment. A third group of control and MAM rats without enrichment were trained until they reached criterion on the place avoidance task. MAM rats had impaired performance on spatial tasks and enrichment improved performance of both control and MAM animals. Although MAM rats did not have a deficit in sociability they showed similar improvement with enrichment as controls. MRI revealed a whole brain volume decrease with MAM exposure, and an increase in both MAM and control enriched volumes in comparison to non-enriched animals. In the place avoidance task, MAM rats required approximately 3 times as long to reach criterion as control animals, but with additional training were able to reach control performance. Environmental manipulation and additional training can improve cognition in a rodent MCD model. We therefore suggest that patients with MCD may benefit from appropriate alterations in educational strategies, social interaction and environment. These factors should be considered in therapeutic strategies.

Jenks, Kyle R.; Lucas, Marcella M.; Duffy, Ben A.; Robbins, Ashlee A.; Gimi, Barjor; Barry, Jeremy M.; Scott, Rod C.

2013-01-01

50

GSK189254, a novel H3 receptor antagonist that binds to histamine H3 receptors in Alzheimer's disease brain and improves cognitive performance in preclinical models.  

PubMed

6-[(3-Cyclobutyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepin-7-yl)oxy]-N-methyl-3-pyridinecarboxamide hydrochloride (GSK189254) is a novel histamine H(3) receptor antagonist with high affinity for human (pK(i) = 9.59 -9.90) and rat (pK(i) = 8.51-9.17) H(3) receptors. GSK189254 is >10,000-fold selective for human H(3) receptors versus other targets tested, and it exhibited potent functional antagonism (pA(2) = 9.06 versus agonist-induced changes in cAMP) and inverse agonism [pIC(50) = 8.20 versus basal guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate binding] at the human recombinant H(3) receptor. In vitro autoradiography demonstrated specific [(3)H]GSK189254 binding in rat and human brain areas, including cortex and hippocampus. In addition, dense H(3) binding was detected in medial temporal cortex samples from severe cases of Alzheimer's disease, suggesting for the first time that H(3) receptors are preserved in late-stage disease. After oral administration, GSK189254 inhibited cortical ex vivo R-(-)-alpha-methyl[imidazole-2,5(n)-(3)H]histamine dihydrochloride ([(3)H]R-alpha-methylhistamine) binding (ED(50) = 0.17 mg/kg) and increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in prefrontal and somatosensory cortex (3 mg/kg). Microdialysis studies demonstrated that GSK189254 (0.3-3 mg/kg p.o.) increased the release of acetylcholine, noradrenaline, and dopamine in the anterior cingulate cortex and acetylcholine in the dorsal hippocampus. Functional antagonism of central H(3) receptors was demonstrated by blockade of R-alpha-methylhistamine-induced dipsogenia in rats (ID(50) = 0.03 mg/kg p.o.). GSK189254 significantly improved performance of rats in diverse cognition paradigms, including passive avoidance (1 and 3 mg/kg p.o.), water maze (1 and 3 mg/kg p.o.), object recognition (0.3 and 1 mg/kg p.o.), and attentional set shift (1 mg/kg p.o.). These data suggest that GSK189254 may have therapeutic potential for the symptomatic treatment of dementia in Alzheimer's disease and other cognitive disorders. PMID:17327487

Medhurst, Andrew D; Atkins, Alan R; Beresford, Isabel J; Brackenborough, Kim; Briggs, Michael A; Calver, Andrew R; Cilia, Jackie; Cluderay, Jane E; Crook, Barry; Davis, John B; Davis, Rebecca K; Davis, Robert P; Dawson, Lee A; Foley, Andrew G; Gartlon, Jane; Gonzalez, M Isabel; Heslop, Teresa; Hirst, Warren D; Jennings, Carol; Jones, Declan N C; Lacroix, Laurent P; Martyn, Abbe; Ociepka, Sandrine; Ray, Alison; Regan, Ciaran M; Roberts, Jennifer C; Schogger, Joanne; Southam, Eric; Stean, Tania O; Trail, Brenda K; Upton, Neil; Wadsworth, Graham; Wald, Jeffrey A; White, Trevor; Witherington, Jason; Woolley, Marie L; Worby, Angela; Wilson, David M

2007-06-01

51

Cognitively elite, cognitively normal, and cognitively impaired aging: Neurocognitive status and stability moderate memory performance.  

PubMed

Objective: Although recent theories of brain and cognitive aging distinguish between normal, exceptional, and impaired groups, further empirical evidence is required. We adapted and applied standard procedures for classifying groups of cognitively impaired (CI) and cognitively normal (CN) older adults to a third classification: cognitively healthy, exceptional, or elite (CE) aging. We then examined concurrent and two-wave longitudinal performance on composite variables of episodic, semantic, and working memory. Method: We began with a two-wave source sample from the Victoria Longitudinal Study (VLS; source n = 570; baseline age = 53-90 years). The goals were to: (a) apply standard and objective classification procedures to discriminate three cognitive status groups, (b) conduct baseline comparisons of memory performance, (c) develop two-wave status stability and change subgroups, and (d) compare of stability subgroup differences in memory performance and change. Results: As expected, the CE group performed best on all three memory composites. Similarly, expected status stability effects were observed: (a) stable CE and CN groups performed memory tasks better than their unstable counterparts, and (b) the stable (and chronic) CI group performed worse than its unstable (variable) counterpart. These stability group differences were maintained over two waves. Conclusion: New data validate the expectations that (a) objective clinical classification procedures for cognitive impairment can be adapted for detecting cognitively advantaged older adults, and (b) performance in three memory systems is predictably related to the tripartite classification. PMID:24742143

Dixon, Roger A; de Frias, Cindy M

2014-05-01

52

Cognitively Elite, Cognitively Normal, and Cognitively Impaired Aging: Neurocognitive Status and Stability Moderate Memory Performance  

PubMed Central

Objective Although recent theories of brain and cognitive aging distinguish among normal, exceptional, and impaired groups, further empirical evidence is required. We adapted and applied standard procedures for classifying groups of cognitively impaired (CI) and cognitively normal (CN) older adults to a third classification, cognitively healthy, exceptional, or elite (CE) aging. We then examined concurrent and two-wave longitudinal performance on composite variables of episodic, semantic, and working memory. Method We began with a two-wave source sample from the Victoria Longitudinal Study (VLS) (source n=570; baseline age=53–90 years). The goals were to: (a) apply standard and objective classification procedures to discriminate three cognitive status groups, (b) conduct baseline comparisons of memory performance, (c) develop two-wave status stability and change subgroups, and (d) compare of stability subgroup differences in memory performance and change. Results As expected, the CE group performed best on all three memory composites. Similarly, expected status stability effects were observed: (a) stable CE and CN groups performed memory tasks better than their unstable counterparts and (b) stable (and chronic) CI group performed worse than its unstable (variable) counterpart. These stability group differences were maintained over two waves. Conclusion New data validate the expectations that (a) objective clinical classification procedures for cognitive impairment can be adapted for detecting cognitively advantaged older adults and (b) performance in three memory systems is predictably related to the tripartite classification.

Dixon, Roger A.; de Frias, Cindy M.

2014-01-01

53

How Performance Improves  

SciTech Connect

Countless articles and books have been written about and numerous programs have been developed to improve performance. Despite this plethora of activity on how to improve performance, we have largely failed to address the more fundamental question of how performance actually improves. To begin exploring this more basic question, we have plotted some 1,200 performance records to date and found that irrespective of venue, industry, or business, there seems to be a fundamental and repeatable set of concepts regarding how performance improves over time. Such gained insights represent both opportunities and challenges to the performance technologist. Differences in performance outcomes may, for example, be as much a function of the life cycle stage of a performance system as the efficacy of the selected improvement method itself. Accordingly, it may be more difficult to compare differing performance improvement methods than previously thought.

Jerry L. Harbour; Julie L. Marble

2005-09-01

54

Review of Human Cognitive Performance in Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human space exploration is inherently hazardous, particularly for lon g duration (LD) missions (22 days or longer). Maintenance of cognitive functioning is essential, but flight environments pose numerous pote ntial risks to the brain and cognitive performance (eg, radiation, to xins, chronic stress, sleep deprivation, hypercarbia, fluid shifts, h ormone imbalances, and injury). There have been persistent anecdotal reports of cognitive deficits during missions, but an up?-to-date rev iew of the evidence for such changes has remained unavailable. Method s: We identified and reviewed English language publications found via electronic searches in PubMed, PsycInfo, Inspec, the NASA Technical Report Server, and the Defense Technical Information Center, plus rec ursive searches of publication bibliographies. Search terms included the word cognition, cognitive, or performance along with spaceflight, flight, mission, or closely related terms. Results: Inter?-study variability precluded meta?-analysis. Some 32 published studies involving cognitive assessment during spaceflight were identified, involving a total of 110 participants (mean: 3.4 participants per study). The lo ngest?-duration study spanned 438 days, with six additional studies i nvolving flight durations of 90 days, and 11 more studies involved fl ight durations exceeding 21 days. The available evidence failed to st rongly support or refute the existence of cognitive deficits in LD sp aceflight, in part due to inadequate power or control conditions. Evi dence of increased variability in cognitive performance during spacef light, both within and between individuals, was common. Discussion: T hese results represent a negative finding based on small numbers of s ubjects for any given cognitive function. The increased variability within and (particularly) between individuals highlights the potential danger of generalizing from case studies. A mismatch therefore remain s between anecdotal reports describing generalized cognitive slowing, attention and memory problems during missions and the experimental e vidence supporting such deficits. Since a major justification for man ned spaceflight rests with the cognitive flexibility of humans, addit ional studies and further analysis of existing operational data appea rs warranted.

Strangman, Gary; Bevan, Gary

2012-01-01

55

Embarking on performance improvement.  

PubMed

Healthcare organizations should approach performance improvement as a program, not a project. The program should be led by a guidance team that identifies goals, prioritizes work, and removes barriers to enable clinical improvement teams and work groups to realize performance improvements. A healthcare enterprise data warehouse can provide the initial foundation for the program analytics. Evidence-based best practices can help achieve improved outcomes and reduced costs. PMID:24968632

Brown, Bobbi; Falk, Leslie Hough

2014-06-01

56

Gene × Environment Interaction and Cognitive Performance: Animal Studies on the Role of Corticosterone  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental question in the neurobiology of cognition is how stress and glucocorticoids modify learning and memory processes. Why some individuals develop cognitive deficits after stress, while other individuals improve in cognitive performance under similar adverse conditions is still unresolved. To address these questions we focus on those issues. First, corticosterone, which appears to be the preferred glucocorticoid for the

E. Ronald de Kloet; Jeannette Grootendorst; Adriaan M Karssen; Melly S Oitzl

2002-01-01

57

Cognitive Correlates of Performance in Advanced Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Much research has been devoted to understanding cognitive correlates of elementary mathematics performance, but little such research has been done for advanced mathematics (e.g., modern algebra, statistics, and mathematical logic).Aims: To promote mathematical knowledge among college students, it is necessary to understand what factors…

Wei, Wei; Yuan, Hongbo; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhou, Xinlin

2012-01-01

58

Choline pivaloyl esters improve in rats cognitive and memory performances impaired by scopolamine treatment or lesions of the nucleus basalis of Meynert.  

PubMed

The effects of two choline pivaloyl esters, [2-(2,2-dimethylpropionyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium iodide (1) and [2-(2,2-dimethylpropionyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium 2,2-dimethylpropionate (2), on learning and memory impairments induced in rats by scopolamine or lesions of nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) have been evaluated by object recognition and Morris water maze tests in comparison with Tacrine (THA). Both 1 and 2 restored discrimination in object recognition test for assessing working-episodic memory and improved spatial memory in scopolamine or NBM-lesioned rats as well. The positive effects produced by 1 and 2 on cognitive and memory deficits were well comparable with those evoked by THA, used as reference compound. PMID:15036629

Rispoli, Vincenzo; Rotiroti, Domenicantonio; Carelli, Vincenzo; Liberatore, Felice; Scipione, Luigi; Marra, Rosario; Giorgioni, Gianfabio; Di Stefano, Antonio

2004-02-19

59

Microgravity effects on standardized cognitive performance measures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this experiment, selected to fly on the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) Spacelab mission, is to determine the effects of microgravity upon the cognitive skills which are critical to successful performance of many tasks on board the Space Shuttle. Six tests from the Unified Tri-service Cognitive Performance Assessment Battery (UTC-PAB) will be administered to the Mission Specialists to fulfill the goals of this experiment. These tests are based upon current theoretical models of human performance and the hypothesized effects of microgravity. The principle objective is the identification of the effects of microgravity upon specific information processing skills affecting performance from those of fatigue and shifts in work/rest cycles. Multiple measures of both short and long term fatigue will be obtained and used as a major independent variable for the analysis of these performance data. Scientific supporting studies will determine optimum practice and performance testing schedules for the astronauts. The same tests will be used post-flight to collect data on the recovery of any cognitive performance impairment compared with pre-flight, baseline levels.

Schiflett, Samuel G.

1992-01-01

60

Novel Television-Based Cognitive Training Improves Working Memory and Executive Function  

PubMed Central

The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60–87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of “adequate” to “high” system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition.

Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecka, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bures, Vladimir

2014-01-01

61

Novel television-based cognitive training improves working memory and executive function.  

PubMed

The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60-87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of "adequate" to "high" system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition. PMID:24992187

Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bureš, Vladimír

2014-01-01

62

Oral zinc supplementation may improve cognitive function in schoolchildren.  

PubMed

Zinc is an important micronutrient for humans, and zinc deficiency among schoolchildren is deleterious to growth and development, immune competence, and cognitive function. However, the effect of zinc supplementation on cognitive function remains poorly understood. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral zinc supplementation (5 mg Zn/day for 3 months) on the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ), Verbal Intelligence Quotient (VIQ), and Performance Intelligence Quotient (PIQ) using a Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III). We studied 36 schoolchildren aged 6 to 9 years (7.8 ± 1.1) using a nonprobability sampling method. The baseline serum zinc concentrations increased significantly after zinc supplementation (p < 0.0001), with no difference between sexes. Tests were administered under basal conditions before and after zinc supplementation, and there was no difference in FSIQ according to gender or age. The results demonstrated that zinc improved the VIQ only in the Information Subtest (p = 0.009), although the supplementation effects were more significant in relation to the PIQ, as these scores improved for the Picture Completion, Picture Arrangement, Block Design, and Object Assembly Subtests (p = 0.0001, for all subtests). In conclusion, zinc supplementation improved specific cognitive abilities, thereby positively influencing the academic performance of schoolchildren, even those without marginal zinc deficiency. PMID:23892699

de Moura, José Edson; de Moura, Edna Nubia Oliveira; Alves, Camila Xavier; Vale, Sancha Helena de Lima; Dantas, Márcia Marília Gomes; Silva, Alfredo de Araújo; Almeida, Maria das Graças; Leite, Lúcia Dantas; Brandão-Neto, José

2013-10-01

63

Cognitive Performance in a Subclinical Obsessive-Compulsive Sample 1: Cognitive Functions  

PubMed Central

Individuals who are not clinically diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but still display obsessive-compulsive (OC) tendencies may show cognitive impairments. The present study investigated whether there are subgroups within a healthy group showing characteristic cognitive and emotional performance levels similar to those found in OCD patients and whether they differ from OCD subgroups regarding performance levels. Of interest are those cases showing subclinical symptomatology. The results revealed no impairments in the subclinical OC participants on the neuropsychological tasks, while evidence suggests that there exist high and low scores on two standardised clinical instruments (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Cognitive Assessment Instrument of Obsessions and Compulsions) in a healthy sample. OC symptoms may diminish the quality of life and prolong sustainable return to work. It may be that occupational rehabilitation programmes are more effective in rectifying subclinical OC tendencies compared to the often complex symptoms of diagnosed OCD patients. The relationship between cognitive style and subclinical OC symptoms is discussed in terms of how materials and information might be processed. Although subclinical OC tendencies would not seem to constitute a diagnosis of OCD, the quality of treatment programmes such as cognitive behavioural therapy can be improved based on the current investigation.

Johansen, Thomas; Dittrich, Winand H.

2013-01-01

64

Improving Construct Validity with Cognitive Psychology Principles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines testing practices in: (1) the past, in which the traditional paradigm left little room for cognitive psychology principles; (2) the present, in which testing research is enhanced by principles of cognitive psychology; and (3) the future, in which the potential of cognitive psychology should be fully realized through item design.…

Embretson, Susan; Gorin, Joanna

2001-01-01

65

Clock Drawing Performance in Cognitively Normal Elderly  

PubMed Central

The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a common neuropsychological measure sensitive to cognitive changes and functional skills (e.g., driving test performance) among older adults. However, normative data have not been adequately developed. We report the distribution of CDT scores using three common scoring systems (Mendez, Ala, and Underwood, 1992; Freund, Gravenstein, Ferris, Burke, & Shaheen, 2005; and Cahn, Salmon, Monsch, Butters, Wiederholt, & Corey-Bloom, 1996), among 207 cognitively normal elderly. The systems were well correlated, took little time to use, and had high inter-rater reliability. We found statistically significant differences in CDT scores based on age and WRAT-3 Reading score, a marker of education quality. We present means, standard deviations, and t- and z-scores based on these subgroups. We found that “normal” CDT performance includes a wider distribution of scores than previously reported. Our results may serve as useful comparisons for clinicians wishing to know whether their patients perform in the general range of cognitively normal elderly.

Hubbard, Emily J; Santini, Veronica; Blankevoort, Christiaan G; Volkers, Karin M; Barrup, Melissa S; Byerly, Laura; Chaisson, Christine; Jefferson, Angela L; Kaplan, Edith; Green, Robert C; Stern, Robert A

2009-01-01

66

Improving Performance Appraisal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes strategies for improving performance appraisal systems and examines common features of appraisal systems in large companies. Highlights include rating scales; ranking; forced distributions; tying performance appraisal to strategic business goals; frequency of reviews; development plans versus evaluation only; and group review meetings.…

Brown, Mark Graham

1989-01-01

67

Effects of Acute Smoked Marijuana on Complex Cognitive Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the ability to perform complex cognitive operations is assumed to be impaired following acute marijuana smoking, complex cognitive performance after acute marijuana use has not been adequately assessed under experimental conditions. In the present study, we used a within-participant double-blind design to evaluate the effects acute marijuana smoking on complex cognitive performance in experienced marijuana smokers. Eighteen healthy research

Carl L Hart; Wilfred van Gorp; Margaret Haney; Richard W Foltin; Marian W Fischman

2001-01-01

68

The effects of piracetam on cognitive performance in a mouse model of Down's syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piracetam is a nootropic agent that has been shown to improve cognitive performance in a number of animal model systems. Piracetam is reported to be used widely as a means of improving cognitive function in children with Down's syndrome (DS). In order to provide a preclinical assessment of the potential efficacy of piracetam, we examined the effects of a dose

Timothy H. Moran; George T. Capone; Susan Knipp; Muriel T. Davisson; Roger H. Reeves; John D. Gearhart

2002-01-01

69

Converging Technologies for Improving Human Performance: Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, Information Technology and Cognitive Science. Workshop held in Arlington, Virginia on December 3-4, 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the early decades of the twenty-first century, concentrated efforts can unify science based on the unity of nature, thereby advancing the combination of nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and new technologies based in cognitive scie...

M. C. Roco W. S. Bainbridge

2002-01-01

70

Modafinil Improves Cognition and Attentional Set Shifting in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modafinil, a novel cognitive enhancer, selectively improves neuropsychological task performance in healthy volunteers and adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It has been argued that persistent cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia are responsible for the failure of many patients to rehabilitate socially even when psychotic symptoms are in remission. The present study examined the potential of modafinil

Danielle C Turner; Luke Clark; Edith Pomarol-Clotet; Peter McKenna; Trevor W Robbins; Barbara J Sahakian

2004-01-01

71

Exercise therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy to improve fatigue, daily activity performance and quality of life in Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome: the protocol of the FACTS-2-PPS trial  

PubMed Central

Background Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome (PPS) is a complex of late onset neuromuscular symptoms with new or increased muscle weakness and muscle fatigability as key symptoms. Main clinical complaints are severe fatigue, deterioration in functional abilities and health related quality of life. Rehabilitation management is the mainstay of treatment. Two different therapeutic interventions may be prescribed (1) exercise therapy or (2) cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). However, the evidence on the effectiveness of both interventions is limited. The primary aim of the FACTS-2-PPS trial is to study the efficacy of exercise therapy and CBT for reducing fatigue and improving activities and quality of life in patients with PPS. Additionally, the working mechanisms, patients' and therapists' expectations of and experiences with both interventions and cost-effectiveness will be evaluated. Methods/Design A multi-centre, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial will be conducted. A sample of 81 severely fatigued patients with PPS will be recruited from 3 different university hospitals and their affiliate rehabilitation centres. Patients will be randomized to one of three groups i.e. (1) exercise therapy + usual care, (2) CBT + usual care, (3) usual care. At baseline, immediately post-intervention and at 3- and 6-months follow-up, fatigue, activities, quality of life and secondary outcomes will be assessed. Costs will be based on a cost questionnaire, and statistical analyses on GEE (generalized estimated equations). Analysis will also consider mechanisms of change during therapy. A responsive evaluation will be conducted to monitor the implementation process and to investigate the perspectives of patients and therapists on both interventions. Discussion A major strength of the FACTS-2-PPS study is the use of a mixed methods design in which a responsive and economic evaluation runs parallel to the trial. The results of this study will generate new evidence for the rehabilitation treatment of persons with PPS. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR1371.

2010-01-01

72

Dietary boron, brain function, and cognitive performance.  

PubMed

Although the trace element boron has yet to be recognized as an essential nutrient for humans, recent data from animal and human studies suggest that boron may be important for mineral metabolism and membrane function. To investigate further the functional role of boron, brain electrophysiology and cognitive performance were assessed in response to dietary manipulation of boron (approximately 0.25 versus approximately 3.25 mg boron/2000 kcal/day) in three studies with healthy older men and women. Within-subject designs were used to assess functional responses in all studies. Spectral analysis of electroencephalographic data showed effects of dietary boron in two of the three studies. When the low boron intake was compared to the high intake, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the proportion of low-frequency activity, and a decrease in the proportion of higher-frequency activity, an effect often observed in response to general malnutrition and heavy metal toxicity. Performance (e.g., response time) on various cognitive and psychomotor tasks also showed an effect of dietary boron. When contrasted with the high boron intake, low dietary boron resulted in significantly poorer performance (p < 0.05) on tasks emphasizing manual dexterity (studies II and III); eye-hand coordination (study II); attention (all studies); perception (study III); encoding and short-term memory (all studies); and long-term memory (study I). Collectively, the data from these three studies indicate that boron may play a role in human brain function and cognitive performance, and provide additional evidence that boron is an essential nutrient for humans. PMID:7889884

Penland, J G

1994-11-01

73

Whole body vibration improves cognition in healthy young adults.  

PubMed

This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p?=?0.009; effect size r?=?0.20) and SDS (p?=?0.034; r?=?0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise. PMID:24949870

Regterschot, G Ruben H; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J G; Zeinstra, Edzard B; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A

2014-01-01

74

Whole Body Vibration Improves Cognition in Healthy Young Adults  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p?=?0.009; effect size r?=?0.20) and SDS (p?=?0.034; r?=?0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise.

Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A.

2014-01-01

75

Improving Cognitive Skills: Procedures, Problems and Prospects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the perspective on cognitive development provided by Jean Piaget, the elaboration of cognitive skills is possible and acceptable, although it is objectionable and perhaps impossible to attempt to accelerate those skills. The explicit teaching of reasoning skills is necessary since not every student attains the formal operational level without…

Hartman-Haas, Hope J.

76

Targeting improved DMFC performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved DMFC performance through reduction in the extent of methanol crossover in the polymer electrolyte membrane is described. Introduction of a thin barrier layer of polybenzimidazole (PBI) at the Nafion®117 surface by screen printing is shown to reduce methanol permeability whilst maintaining proton conductivity at a level comparable to that of the parent material. Experimental trials using these Nafion®117\\/PBI composite

L. J Hobson; Y Nakano; H Ozu; S Hayase

2002-01-01

77

High altitude cognitive performance and COPD interaction  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Thousands of people work and perform everyday in high altitude environment, either as pilots, or shift workers, or mountaineers. The problem is that most of the accidents in this environment have been attributed to human error. The objective of this study was to assess complex cognitive performance as it interacts with respiratory insufficiency at altitudes of 8000 feet and identify the potential effect of hypoxia on safe performance. Methods: Twenty subjects participated in the study, divided in two groups: Group I with mild asymptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and Group II with normal respiratory function. Altitude was simulated at 8000 ft. using gas mixtures. Results: Individuals with mild COPD experienced notable hypoxemia with significant performance decrements and increased number of errors at cabin altitude, compared to normal subjects, whereas their blood pressure significantly increased.

Kourtidou-Papadeli, C; Papadelis, C; Koutsonikolas, D; Boutzioukas, S; Styliadis, C; Guiba-Tziampiri, O

2008-01-01

78

Evaluating the Relationship Between Neuropsychological Function and Cognitive Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The last 2 decades have produced a vast literature describing relationships between cognitive performance and neuropsychological data. This literature has provided the foundation for countless theories about the neural correlates of cognitive processing a...

G. Gunzelmann J. L. Moore

2012-01-01

79

Reciprocal Modulation of Cognitive and Emotional Aspects in Pianistic Performances  

PubMed Central

Background High level piano performance requires complex integration of perceptual, motor, cognitive and emotive skills. Observations in psychology and neuroscience studies have suggested reciprocal inhibitory modulation of the cognition by emotion and emotion by cognition. However, it is still unclear how cognitive states may influence the pianistic performance. The aim of the present study is to verify the influence of cognitive and affective attention in the piano performances. Methods and Findings Nine pianists were instructed to play the same piece of music, firstly focusing only on cognitive aspects of musical structure (cognitive performances), and secondly, paying attention solely on affective aspects (affective performances). Audio files from pianistic performances were examined using a computational model that retrieves nine specific musical features (descriptors) – loudness, articulation, brightness, harmonic complexity, event detection, key clarity, mode detection, pulse clarity and repetition. In addition, the number of volunteers' errors in the recording sessions was counted. Comments from pianists about their thoughts during performances were also evaluated. The analyses of audio files throughout musical descriptors indicated that the affective performances have more: agogics, legatos, pianos phrasing, and less perception of event density when compared to the cognitive ones. Error analysis demonstrated that volunteers misplayed more left hand notes in the cognitive performances than in the affective ones. Volunteers also played more wrong notes in affective than in cognitive performances. These results correspond to the volunteers' comments that in the affective performances, the cognitive aspects of piano execution are inhibited, whereas in the cognitive performances, the expressiveness is inhibited. Conclusions Therefore, the present results indicate that attention to the emotional aspects of performance enhances expressiveness, but constrains cognitive and motor skills in the piano execution. In contrast, attention to the cognitive aspects may constrain the expressivity and automatism of piano performances.

Higuchi, Marcia K. Kodama; Fornari, Jose; Del Ben, Cristina M.; Graeff, Frederico G.; Leite, Joao Pereira

2011-01-01

80

Physical Performance Is Associated with Working Memory in Older People with Mild to Severe Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Background. Physical performances and cognition are positively related in cognitively healthy people. The aim of this study was to examine whether physical performances are related to specific cognitive functioning in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 134 people with a mild to severe cognitive impairment (mean age 82 years). Multiple linear regression was performed, after controlling for covariates and the level of global cognition, with the performances on mobility, strength, aerobic fitness, and balance as predictors and working memory and episodic memory as dependent variables. Results. The full models explain 49–57% of the variance in working memory and 40–43% of episodic memory. Strength, aerobic fitness, and balance are significantly associated with working memory, explaining 3–7% of its variance, irrespective of the severity of the cognitive impairment. Physical performance is not related to episodic memory in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Conclusions. Physical performance is associated with working memory in older people with cognitive impairment. Future studies should investigate whether physical exercise for increased physical performance can improve cognitive functioning. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NTR1482.

Volkers, K. M.; Scherder, E. J. A.

2014-01-01

81

Improving Cognitive and Adaptive Abilities of Aged.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four types of activity programs which may be helpful to aged individuals in achieving increased effectiveness in their cognitive and personal-social functioning were developed. The four programs are: (1) General Educational and Cultural Activities; (2) Le...

S. Granick

1983-01-01

82

Exercise therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy to improve fatigue, daily activity performance and quality of life in Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome: the protocol of the FACTS2PPS trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome (PPS) is a complex of late onset neuromuscular symptoms with new or increased muscle weakness and muscle fatigability as key symptoms. Main clinical complaints are severe fatigue, deterioration in functional abilities and health related quality of life. Rehabilitation management is the mainstay of treatment. Two different therapeutic interventions may be prescribed (1) exercise therapy or (2) cognitive

Fieke S Koopman; Anita Beelen; Karin H Gerrits; Gijs Bleijenberg; Tineke A Abma; Marianne de Visser; Frans Nollet

2010-01-01

83

RC2S: A Cognitive Remediation Program to Improve Social Cognition in Schizophrenia and Related Disorders  

PubMed Central

In people with psychiatric disorders, particularly those suffering from schizophrenia and related illnesses, pronounced difficulties in social interactions are a key manifestation. These difficulties can be partly explained by impairments in social cognition, defined as the ability to understand oneself and others in the social world, which includes abilities such as emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), attributional style, and social perception and knowledge. The impact of several kinds of interventions on social cognition has been studied recently. The best outcomes in the area of social cognition in schizophrenia are those obtained by way of cognitive remediation programs. New strategies and programs in this line are currently being developed, such as RC2S (cognitive remediation of social cognition) in Lyon, France. Considering that the social cognitive deficits experienced by patients with schizophrenia are very diverse, and that the main objective of social cognitive remediation programs is to improve patients’ functioning in their daily social life, RC2S was developed as an individualized and flexible program that allows patients to practice social interaction in a realistic environment through the use of virtual reality techniques. In the RC2S program, the patient’s goal is to assist a character named Tom in various social situations. The underlying idea for the patient is to acquire cognitive strategies for analyzing social context and emotional information in order to understand other characters’ mental states and to help Tom manage his social interactions. In this paper, we begin by presenting some data regarding the social cognitive impairments found in schizophrenia and related disorders, and we describe how these deficits are targeted by social cognitive remediation. Then we present the RC2S program and discuss the advantages of computer-based simulation to improve social cognition and social functioning in people with psychiatric disorders.

Peyroux, Elodie; Franck, Nicolas

2014-01-01

84

How Does Exercise Benefit Performance on Cognitive Tests in Primary-School Pupils?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: We have previously demonstrated improved cognitive performance after a classroom-based exercise regime. In this study, we examined the reproducibility of this effect in a more socio-economically diverse sample and also investigated whether cognitive benefits of exercise were moderated by body mass index (BMI) or symptoms of…

Hill, Liam J. B.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Aucott, Lorna; Thomson, Jenny; Mon-Williams, Mark

2011-01-01

85

Modafinil improves cognition and response inhibition in adult attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundModafinil, a novel cognitive enhancer, has a clinical profile similar to conventional stimulants such as methylphenidate, despite a seemingly different mechanism of action. Modafinil selectively improves neuropsychological task performance in healthy volunteers, possibly through improved inhibitory control. We examined whether modafinil induced similar improvements in adults with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder.

Danielle C Turner; Luke Clark; Jonathan Dowson; Trevor W Robbins; Barbara J Sahakian

2004-01-01

86

QUASAR's QStates cognitive gauge performance in the cognitive state assessment competition 2011.  

PubMed

The Cognitive State Assessment Competition 2011 was organized by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to compare the performance of real-time cognitive state classification software. This paper presents results for QUASAR's data classification module, QStates, which is a software package for real-time (and off-line) analysis of physiologic data collected during cognitive-specific tasks. The classifier's methodology can be generalized to any particular cognitive state; QStates identifies the most salient features extracted from EEG signals recorded during different cognitive states or loads. PMID:22255838

McDonald, Neil J; Soussou, Walid

2011-01-01

87

Cognitive Ability and Variation in Selection Task Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in performance on a variety of selection tasks were examined in three studies employing over 800 participants. Nondeontic tasks were solved disproportionately by individuals of higher cognitive ability. In contrast, responses on two deontic tasks that have shown robust performance facilitation— the Drinking-age Problem and the Sears Problem—were unrelated to cognitive ability. Performance on deontic and nondeontic tasks

Keith E. Stanovich Richard F. West; Richard F. West

1998-01-01

88

Reduction of hippocampal hyperactivity improves cognition in amnestic mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Summary Elevated hippocampal activation is observed in conditions that confer risk for Alzheimer's disease, including amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Studies in relevant animal models have indicated that over-activity in selective hippocampal circuits contributes to cognitive impairment. Here we tested the effect of reducing hippocampal activation in aMCI. Under placebo treatment, hippocampal activation in the dentate gyrus/CA3 was elevated in aMCI patients compared to a healthy control group. By using a low dose of the antiepileptic levetiracetam hippocampal activation in aMCI was reduced to a level that did not differ from the control group. Compared to aMCI memory performance under placebo, performance in the scanning task was significantly improved under drug treatment. Contrary to the view that greater hippocampal activation might serve a beneficial function, these results support the view that increased hippocampal activation in aMCI is a dysfunctional condition and that targeting excess hippocampal activity has therapeutic potential.

Bakker, Arnold; Krauss, Gregory L.; Albert, Marilyn S.; Speck, Caroline L.; Jones, Lauren R.; Stark, Craig E.; Yassa, Michael A.; Bassett, Susan S.; Shelton, Amy L.; Gallagher, Michela

2012-01-01

89

Elderly online: effects of a digital inclusion program in cognitive performance.  

PubMed

There is little empirical data about the impact of digital inclusion on cognition among older adults. This paper aimed at investigating the effects of a digital inclusion program in the cognitive performance of older individuals who participated in a computer learning workshop named "Idosos On-Line" (Elderly Online). Forty-two aged individuals participated in the research study: 22 completed the computer training workshop and 20 constituted the control group. All subjects answered a sociodemographic questionnaire and completed the Addenbrooke's cognitive examination, revised (ACE-R), which examines five cognitive domains: orientation and attention, memory, verbal fluency, language, and visuo-spatial skills. It was noted that the experimental group's cognitive performance significantly improved after the program, particularly in the language and memory domains, when compared to the control group. These findings suggest that the acquisition of new knowledge and the use of a new tool, that makes it possible to access the Internet, may bring gains to cognition. PMID:21131070

Ordonez, Tiago Nascimento; Yassuda, Mônica Sanches; Cachioni, Meire

2011-01-01

90

Deliberation's blindsight: how cognitive load can improve judgments.  

PubMed

Multitasking poses a major challenge in modern work environments by putting the worker under cognitive load. Performance decrements often occur when people are under high cognitive load because they switch to less demanding--and often less accurate--cognitive strategies. Although cognitive load disturbs performance over a wide range of tasks, it may also carry benefits. In the experiments reported here, we showed that judgment performance can increase under cognitive load. Participants solved a multiple-cue judgment task in which high performance could be achieved by using a similarity-based judgment strategy but not by using a more demanding rule-based judgment strategy. Accordingly, cognitive load induced a shift to a similarity-based judgment strategy, which consequently led to more accurate judgments. By contrast, shifting to a similarity-based strategy harmed judgments in a task best solved by using a rule-based strategy. These results show how important it is to consider the cognitive strategies people rely on to understand how people perform in demanding work environments. PMID:23575598

Hoffmann, Janina A; von Helversen, Bettina; Rieskamp, Jörg

2013-06-01

91

Effects of Gestational Age at Birth on Cognitive Performance: A Function of Cognitive Workload Demands  

PubMed Central

Objective Cognitive deficits have been inconsistently described for late or moderately preterm children but are consistently found in very preterm children. This study investigates the association between cognitive workload demands of tasks and cognitive performance in relation to gestational age at birth. Methods Data were collected as part of a prospective geographically defined whole-population study of neonatal at-risk children in Southern Bavaria. At 8;5 years, n?=?1326 children (gestation range: 23–41 weeks) were assessed with the K-ABC and a Mathematics Test. Results Cognitive scores of preterm children decreased as cognitive workload demands of tasks increased. The relationship between gestation and task workload was curvilinear and more pronounced the higher the cognitive workload: GA2 (quadratic term) on low cognitive workload: R2?=?.02, p<0.001; moderate cognitive workload: R2?=?.09, p<0.001; and high cognitive workload tasks: R2?=?.14, p<0.001. Specifically, disproportionally lower scores were found for very (<32 weeks gestation) and moderately (32–33 weeks gestation) preterm children the higher the cognitive workload of the tasks. Early biological factors such as gestation and neonatal complications explained more of the variance in high (12.5%) compared with moderate (8.1%) and low cognitive workload tasks (1.7%). Conclusions The cognitive workload model may help to explain variations of findings on the relationship of gestational age with cognitive performance in the literature. The findings have implications for routine cognitive follow-up, educational intervention, and basic research into neuro-plasticity and brain reorganization after preterm birth.

Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Wolke, Dieter

2013-01-01

92

Negative symptom improvement during cognitive rehabilitation: results from a 2-year trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy.  

PubMed

Cognitive rehabilitation has shown beneficial effects on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which may also help to improve negative symptoms due to overlapping pathophysiology between these two domains. To better understand the possible relationship between these areas, we conducted an exploratory analysis of the effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) on negative symptoms. Early course schizophrenia outpatients (n=58) were randomized to 2 years of CET or an Enriched Supportive Therapy (EST) control condition. Results revealed significant and medium-sized (d=0.61) differential improvements favoring CET in overall negative symptoms, particularly social withdrawal, affective flattening, and motor retardation. Neurocognitive improvement was associated with reduced negative symptoms in CET, but not EST patients. No relationships were observed between improvements in emotion processing aspects of social cognition, as measured by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, and negative symptoms. CET represents an effective cognitive rehabilitation intervention for schizophrenia that may also have benefits to negative symptoms. Future studies specifically designed to examine negative symptoms during the course of cognitive rehabilitation are needed. PMID:23623449

Eack, Shaun M; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I; Greenwald, Deborah P; Hogarty, Susan S; Keshavan, Matcheri S

2013-08-30

93

Cognitive functioning and school performance in children with renal failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although previous studies have documented neuropsychological deficits in children with end-stage renal disease, few have evaluated and compared the cognitive functioning and the school performance of children with renal failure. The current study evaluated the influence of chronic renal failure on cognitive functioning and school performance in children and adolescents with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis and after renal transplantation.

Kathleen W. Lawryl; Ben H. Brouhardl; Robert J. Cunningham

1994-01-01

94

Improved cognition after control of risk factors for multi-infarct dementia  

SciTech Connect

A cohort of 52 patients (30 men and 22 women) with multi-infarct dementia (MID) has been followed up prospectively for a mean interval of 22.2 months. Clinical course has been documented by serial history taking and interviews and neurological, medical, and psychological examinations, and correlated with measurements of cerebral blood flow. The clinical course and cognitive performance have been compared with those of age-matched normal volunteers and patients with Alzheimer's disease. Patients with MID were subdivided into hypertensive and normotensive groups, and also into those displaying stabilized or improved cognition and those whose condition deteriorated. Among hypertensive patients with MID, improved cognition and clinical course correlated with control of systolic blood pressure within upper limits of normalf (135 to 150 mm Hg), but if systolic blood pressure was reduced below this level, patients with MID deteriorated. Among normotensive patients with MID, improved cognition was associated with cessation of smoking cigarettes.

Meyer, J.S.; Judd, B.W.; Tawaklna, T.; Rogers, R.L.; Mortel, K.F.

1986-10-24

95

Cognitive Improvement of Hearing-Impaired High School Students through Instruction in Instrumental Enrichment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a set of theoretical assumptions relating to the cognitive modificability of low functioning adolescents, a program of Instrumental Enrichment was developed and implemented with 41 hearing impaired secondary students. The primary goals of Instrumental Enrichment included: (1) improving performance in spatial relations, (2) improving

Jonas, Bruce; Martin, David S.

96

COMT val108/158met genotype, cognitive function, and cognitive improvement with clozapine in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Preliminary evidence suggests that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), the val108/158met SNP, within the gene that codes for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), a key enzyme involved in regulating dopamine (DA) transmission within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), is related to cognitive function in schizophrenia and cognitive improvement with atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs). Specifically, several studies have identified an association between working memory and executive functions, and COMT val108/158met genotype in schizophrenia; although there have been several negative findings that are likely related to small sample sizes and, possibly, medication status of patients at the time of testing. The association between COMT val108/158met genotype, cognitive function, and cognitive improvement with clozapine was investigated in a relatively large prospective sample of patients with schizophrenia, most of whom were unmedicated at baseline. Patients were genotyped for the COMT val108/158met SNP after completing a cognitive battery consisting of tests of attention, working memory, verbal learning and memory, executive function, and verbal fluency at baseline and after 6 weeks and 6 months of treatment with clozapine. Consistent with several previous studies, an association between COMT genotype and tests of executive function and working memory was identified at baseline. In addition, a novel interaction between genotype and improvement on tests of attention and verbal fluency was identified. Specifically, met homozygous and val/met heterozygous patients demonstrated significantly greater improvement than val homozygous patients following 6 months of treatment with clozapine. The results are discussed in relation to previous cross-sectional studies and prospective investigations of the associations between COMT genotype, cognition, and cognitive improvement with atypical APDs in schizophrenia. PMID:17123785

Woodward, Neil D; Jayathilake, Karu; Meltzer, Herbert Y

2007-02-01

97

Computer technology-cognitive psychology interface and science performance assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emerging interface between computer technology and cognitive psychology for performance assessment in science education\\u000a is explored. Cognitive theories of learning offer promises to transform computer technology from a test administration tool\\u000a into a process assessment tool, and computer technology offers a medium for studying the cognitive processes of learning.\\u000a Interface theories and interface technologies are briefly discussed. The technology-psychology

David D. Kumar; Stanley L. Helgeson; Arthur L. White

1994-01-01

98

Intelligence, elementary cognitive components, and cognitive styles as predictors of complex task performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study is reported in which individual differences underlying variations in the performance of a complex task are examined. Differences in fluid intelligence, elementary cognitive components (processing speed and working memory) and cognitive styles (tempo, planfulness and complexity) are measured, with a view to comparing between these three types of variable. It is found that fluid intelligence scores are

Philip Tucker; Peter Warr

1996-01-01

99

Cognitive Performance as a Zeitgeber: Cognitive Oscillators and Cholinergic Modulation of the SCN Entrain Circadian Rhythms  

PubMed Central

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the primary circadian pacemaker in mammals that can synchronize or entrain to environmental cues. Although light exerts powerful influences on SCN output, other non-photic stimuli can modulate the SCN as well. We recently demonstrated that daily performance of a cognitive task requiring sustained periods of attentional effort that relies upon basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic activity dramatically alters circadian rhythms in rats. In particular, normally nocturnal rats adopt a robust diurnal activity pattern that persists for several days in the absence of cognitive training. Although anatomical and pharmacological data from non-performing animals support a relationship between cholinergic signaling and circadian rhythms, little is known about how endogenous cholinergic signaling influences SCN function in behaving animals. Here we report that BF cholinergic projections to the SCN provide the principal signal allowing for the expression of cognitive entrainment in light-phase trained animals. We also reveal that oscillator(s) outside of the SCN drive cognitive entrainment as daily timed cognitive training robustly entrains SCN-lesioned arrhythmic animals. Ablation of the SCN, however, resulted in significant impairments in task acquisition, indicating that SCN-mediated timekeeping benefits new learning and cognitive performance. Taken together, we conclude that cognition entrains non-photic oscillators, and cholinergic signaling to the SCN serves as a temporal timestamp attenuating SCN photic-driven rhythms, thereby permitting cognitive demands to modulate behavior.

Gritton, Howard J.; Stasiak, Ashley M.; Sarter, Martin; Lee, Theresa M.

2013-01-01

100

Cognitive Performance During a 1000-Foot Helium Dive.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Divers performed three cognitive tasks of six intervals during a saturation dive to a simulated depth of 1000 fsw. Tasks included an associative memory test, an embedded figures test, and a cognitive interference test. Each of the three tests was also adm...

R. J. Biersner B. J. Cameron

1970-01-01

101

Cognitive Performance and the Role of Control Beliefs in Midlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Midlife has been touted as being a time of peak performance in many different areas of functioning. In the present study, we investigated whether this was true for cognitive functioning on tasks assessing speed, reasoning, short-term memory, and vocabulary. We also explored the extent to which levels of cognitive functioning could be attributed to individual differences in general control beliefs.

Lisa M. Soederberg Miller; Margie E. Lachman

2000-01-01

102

The nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 activator, tert-butylhydroquinone, improves cognitive performance in mice after mild traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Traumatic Brain injury affects at least 1.7 million people in the United States alone each year. The majority of injuries are categorized as mild but these still produce lasting symptoms that plague the patient and the medical field. Currently treatments are aimed at reducing a patient's symptoms, but there is no effective method to combat the source of the problem, neuronal loss. We tested a mild, closed head traumatic brain injury model for the effects of modulation of the antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2 by the chemical activator, tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ). We found that post-injury visual memory was improved by a 7 day course of treatment and that the level of activated caspase-3 in the hippocampus was reduced. The injury-induced memory loss was also reversed by a single injection at 30 min after injury. Since the protective stress response molecule, HSP70, can be upregulated by Nrf2, we examined protein levels in the hippocampus, and found that HSP70 was elevated by the injury and then further increased by the treatment. To test the possible role of HSP70, model neurons in culture exposed to a mild injury and treated with the Nrf2 activator displayed improved survival that was blocked by the HSP70 inhibitor, VER155008. Following mild traumatic brain injury, there may be a partial protective response and patients could benefit from directed enhancement of regulatory pathways such as Nrf2 for neuroprotection. PMID:22890082

Saykally, J N; Rachmany, L; Hatic, H; Shaer, A; Rubovitch, V; Pick, C G; Citron, B A

2012-10-25

103

Cognitive competence and performance in everyday environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 20 years, the study of children's thinking has more and more been influenced by Piagetian research and ideas directed towards a theory of the growth of children's intellectual competence. Perhaps 30-40 percent of current published research on children's cognition is in some way connected with Piaget's work. His influence spreads beyond Psychology. More than a dozen books

Sheldon H. White

1980-01-01

104

Design and performance of cognitive packet networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss a packet network architecture called a cognitive packet network (CPN), in which intelligent capabilities for routing and flow control are moved towards the packets, rather than being concentrated in the nodes and protocols. Our architecture contains “smart” and “dumb” packets, as well as acknowledgement packets. Smart CPN packets route themselves, and learn to avoid congestion and losses from

Erol Gelenbe; Ricardo Lent; Zhiguang Xu

2001-01-01

105

Arctic cognition: a study of cognitive performance in summer and winter at 69 degrees N  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evidence has accumulated over the past 15 years that affect in humans is cyclical. In winter there is a tendency to depression, with remission in summer, and this effect is stronger at higher latitudes. In order to determine whether human cognition is similarly rhythmical, this study investigated the cognitive processes of 100 participants living at 69 degrees N. Participants were tested in summer and winter on a range of cognitive tasks, including verbal memory, attention and simple reaction time tasks. The seasonally counterbalanced design and the very northerly latitude of this study provide optimal conditions for detecting impaired cognitive performance in winter, and the conclusion is negative: of five tasks with seasonal effects, four had disadvantages in summer. Like the menstrual cycle, the circannual cycle appears to influence mood but not cognition.

Brennen, T.; Martinussen, M.; Hansen, B. O.; Hjemdal, O.

1999-01-01

106

Practice of contemporary dance improves cognitive flexibility in aging.  

PubMed

As society ages and frequency of dementia increases exponentially, counteracting cognitive aging decline is a challenging issue for countries of the developed world. Previous studies have suggested that physical fitness based on cardiovascular and strength training helps to improve attentional control in normal aging. However, how motor activity based on motor-skill learning can also benefit attentional control with age has been hitherto a neglected issue. This study examined the impact of contemporary dance (CD) improvisation on attentional control of older adults, as compared to two other motor training programs, fall prevention and Tai Chi Chuan. Participants performed setting, suppressing, and switching attention tasks before and after 5.7-month training in either CD or fall prevention or Tai Chi Chuan. Results indicated that CD improved switching but not setting or suppressing attention. In contrast, neither fall prevention nor Tai Chi Chuan showed any effect. We suggest that CD improvisation works as a training for change, inducing plasticity in flexible attention. PMID:21960971

Coubard, Olivier A; Duretz, Stéphanie; Lefebvre, Virginie; Lapalus, Pauline; Ferrufino, Lena

2011-01-01

107

Empirical Investigation of Operator Performance in Cognitively Demanding Simulated Emergencies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the results of an empirical study of nuclear power plant operator performance in cognitively demanding simulated emergencies. During emergencies operators follow highly prescriptive written procedures. The objectives of the study wer...

E. M. Roth R. J. Mumaw P. M. Lewis

1994-01-01

108

Improving Performance Appraisals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A positive and creative results-oriented management appraisal system is needed. This article reviews the benefits and requirements of such a system, lists the common pitfalls of shoddy evaluation attempts, describes the four basic kinds of performance appraisal systems, and offers suggestions for creating a successful system. (DC)

Lahti, Robert E.

1975-01-01

109

The effects of nicotine on cognition are dependent on baseline performance.  

PubMed

Since cholinergic neurotransmission plays a major role in cognition, stimulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor may be a target for cognitive enhancement. While nicotine improves performance on several cognitive domains, results of individual studies vary. A possible explanation for these findings is that the effect of nicotine administration may be dependent on baseline cognitive function, where subjects with a suboptimal cognitive performance may benefit from nicotine, while subjects who already perform optimally may show a decline in performance after nicotinic stimulation. We conducted a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled crossover trial, examining the effects of placebo, 1, and 2mg of nicotine on cognition in young (n=16, age 18-30 years) and healthy elderly (n=16, age 60-75 years) subjects. We hypothesised that the elderly would benefit more from nicotine compared to young subjects, as normal ageing is associated with decreases in cognitive function. Attention, working memory, visual memory, information-processing speed, psychomotor function, stereotypy, and emotion recognition were assessed. Compared to the young volunteers, the elderly performed significantly worse on psychomotor function and emotion recognition in the placebo condition. Nicotine had no effect in the young volunteers and decreased performance on working memory and visual memory in the elderly. Contrary to our hypothesis, the effect of nicotine was dependent on baseline performance in both the groups, with subjects with lower baseline performance benefiting from nicotine administration, while those with higher baseline performance performed worse after nicotine administration. This suggests that subjects with lower cognitive performance, irrespective of age, may benefit from nicotine. PMID:24766971

Niemegeers, Peter; Dumont, Glenn J H; Quisenaerts, Charel; Morrens, Manuel; Boonzaier, Julia; Fransen, Erik; de Bruijn, Ellen R A; Hulstijn, Wouter; Sabbe, Bernard G C

2014-07-01

110

Improved SSAMS performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We operate a new NEC 250kV single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer (SSAMS) next to our established 5MV tandem. This permits good comparison of 14C-AMS and challenges SSAMS performance. Initial SSAMS ion-optical deficiencies have been addressed by shimming the injection magnet and 3‰14C\\/13C measurement with background limited by sample chemistry is routine. Higher-precision analysis is also achievable. A problematic measurement interference remains,

Stewart P. H. T. Freeman; Gordon T. Cook; Andrew B. Dougans; Philip Naysmith; Klaus M. Wilcken; Sheng Xu

2010-01-01

111

Short-Term Effects of Improved Glycemic Control on Cognitive Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: According to numerous studies, type 2 diabetes is associated with mild cognitive dysfunction, and there is some evidence suggesting favorable effects of improved metabolic control on the mental capability of elderly diabetic patients. Objective: To compare patients with type 2 diabetes to normal controls with respect to cognitive performance and to investigate the consequences of glycemic adjustment. Methods: 53

W. Hewer; M. Mussell; F. Rist; B. Kulzer; K. Bergis

2003-01-01

112

Cognitive Training as an Intervention to Improve Driving Ability in the Older Adult.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The notion that cognitive and motor skills are plastic and can be improved with training is very exciting, because it opens up the possibility for rehabilitation and amelioration of age-related declines in performance. It has been shown that older adults ...

J. Humfleet J. Jonides J. A. Bernard M. Buschkuehl R. D. Seidler S. Jaeggi

2010-01-01

113

Useful Methodology for Cost-Benefit Evaluations of Cognitive Process Improvements in Complex C2 Endeavors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Proposed solutions to identified C2 gaps can be at a disadvantage in the fierce competition for scarce dollars because they are often considered 'soft' benefits (e.g. augmenting human cognition to improve performance). This paper describes a straight-forw...

E. O. Acosta, I. W. Nolden, T. V. Gross

2008-01-01

114

Loss-Aversion or Loss-Attention: The Impact of Losses on Cognitive Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Losses were found to improve cognitive performance, and this has been commonly explained by increased weighting of losses compared to gains (i.e., loss aversion). We examine whether effects of losses on performance could be modulated by two alternative processes: an attentional effect leading to increased sensitivity to task incentives; and a…

Yechiam, Eldad; Hochman, Guy

2013-01-01

115

Avoiding the performance improvement trap.  

PubMed

Hospitals today can all too easily fall into a performance improvement trap if they do not adequately consider how best to approach efforts to improve performance. To ensure that such efforts will be effective, hospital leaders should first understand the reasons why an organization can stumble into this trap. Reasons that improvement initiatives can fall short include the absence of coherent strategy, an inability to distinguish between action and results, and a disjointed use of performance improvement tools in isolation rather than as part of a coordinated effort. PMID:22734325

Betka, Robert D

2012-06-01

116

25-Hydroxyvitamin D and cognitive performance in mid-life.  

PubMed

Hypovitaminosis D has been linked with poor cognitive function, particularly in older adults, but studies lack a lifespan approach; hence, the effects of reverse causality remain unknown. In the present study, we aimed to assess the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and subsequent cognitive performance in mid-adulthood and the influence of earlier life factors, including childhood cognitive ability, on this association. Information for the present study was obtained from the members of the 1958 British birth cohort (n 6496). Serum 25(OH)D concentration, indicating vitamin D status, was measured at age 45 years. Verbal memory (immediate and delayed word recall), verbal fluency (animal naming) and speed of processing were tested at age 50 years. Information on childhood cognitive ability, educational attainment, vitamin D-related behaviours and other covariates was collected prospectively from participants throughout their life. Childhood cognitive ability and educational attainment by age 42 years were strongly correlated with cognitive performance at age 50 years and with several vitamin D-related behaviours in mid-adulthood, but not with 25(OH)D concentrations at age 45 years. Participants with both low (<25 nmol/l) and high (?75 nmol/l) 25(OH)D concentrations at age 45 years performed significantly worse on immediate word recall. The associations attenuated after adjustment for childhood cognitive ability, education, and socio-economic position; however, for the immediate word recall test, there was a non-linear association with 25(OH)D after further adjustment for obesity, menopausal status, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and depressive symptoms at age 45 years (P(curvature)=0·01). The present study demonstrated that 25(OH)D concentrations were non-linearly associated with immediate word recall in mid-life. A clarification of the level of 25(OH)D concentrations that is most beneficial for predicting better cognitive performance in mid-life is required. PMID:24135155

Maddock, Jane; Geoffroy, Marie-Claude; Power, Chris; Hyppönen, Elina

2014-03-14

117

Common Variants of the Genes Encoding Erythropoietin and Its Receptor Modulate Cognitive Performance in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Erythropoietin (EPO) improves cognitive performance in clinical studies and rodent experiments. We hypothesized that an intrinsic role of EPO for cognition exists, with particular relevance in situations of cognitive decline, which is reflected by associations of EPO and EPO receptor (EPOR) genotypes with cognitive functions. To prove this hypothesis, schizophrenic patients (N > 1000) were genotyped for 5? upstream–located gene variants, EPO SNP rs1617640 (T/G) and EPORSTR(GA)n. Associations of these variants were obtained for cognitive processing speed, fine motor skills and short-term memory readouts, with one particular combination of genotypes superior to all others (p < 0.0001). In an independent healthy control sample (N > 800), these associations were confirmed. A matching preclinical study with mice demonstrated cognitive processing speed and memory enhanced upon transgenic expression of constitutively active EPOR in pyramidal neurons of cortex and hippocampus. We thus predicted that the human genotypes associated with better cognition would reflect gain-of-function effects. Indeed, reporter gene assays and quantitative transcriptional analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed genotype-dependent EPO/EPOR expression differences. Together, these findings reveal a role of endogenous EPO/EPOR for cognition, at least in schizophrenic patients.

Kastner, Anne; Grube, Sabrina; El-Kordi, Ahmed; Stepniak, Beata; Friedrichs, Heidi; Sargin, Derya; Schwitulla, Judith; Begemann, Martin; Giegling, Ina; Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Sperling, Swetlana; Hannke, Kathrin; Ramin, Anna; Heinrich, Ralf; Gefeller, Olaf; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Rujescu, Dan; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

2012-01-01

118

Targeting Neural Synchrony Deficits is Sufficient to Improve Cognition in a Schizophrenia-Related Neurodevelopmental Model  

PubMed Central

Cognitive symptoms are core features of mental disorders but procognitive treatments are limited. We have proposed a “discoordination” hypothesis that cognitive impairment results from aberrant coordination of neural activity. We reported that neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion (NVHL) rats, an established neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia, have abnormal neural synchrony and cognitive deficits in the active place avoidance task. During stillness, we observed that cortical local field potentials sometimes resembled epileptiform spike-wave discharges with higher prevalence in NVHL rats, indicating abnormal neural synchrony due perhaps to imbalanced excitation–inhibition coupling. Here, within the context of the hypothesis, we investigated whether attenuating abnormal neural synchrony will improve cognition in NVHL rats. We report that: (1) inter-hippocampal synchrony in the theta and beta bands is correlated with active place avoidance performance; (2) the anticonvulsant ethosuximide attenuated the abnormal spike-wave activity, improved cognitive control, and reduced hyperlocomotion; (3) ethosuximide not only normalized the task-associated theta and beta synchrony between the two hippocampi but also increased synchrony between the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus above control levels; (4) the antipsychotic olanzapine was less effective at improving cognitive control and normalizing place avoidance-related inter-hippocampal neural synchrony, although it reduced hyperactivity; and (5) olanzapine caused an abnormal pattern of frequency-independent increases in neural synchrony, in both NVHL and control rats. These data suggest that normalizing aberrant neural synchrony can be beneficial and that drugs targeting the pathophysiology of abnormally coordinated neural activities may be a promising theoretical framework and strategy for developing treatments that improve cognition in neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia.

Lee, Heekyung; Dvorak, Dino; Fenton, Andre A.

2014-01-01

119

Nefiracetam improves Morris water maze performance following traumatic brain injury in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nefiracetam, a pyrrolidone derivative, is a nootropic agent that has facilitated cognitive function in a wide variety of animal models of cognitive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the chronic postinjury administration of nefiracetam (DM-9384) in improving cognitive performance following central fluid percussion brain injury in rats. Twenty-four hours following surgical preparation, a sham

S. Michelle DeFord; Margaret S Wilson; Cynthia J Gibson; Anya Baranova; Robert J Hamm

2001-01-01

120

Middle cerebral artery pulsatility index and cognitive improvement after carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic stenosis  

PubMed Central

Object Transcranial Doppler (TCD) is frequently used to evaluate peripheral cerebral resistance and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the middle cerebral artery prior to and during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis may have reduced peripheral cerebral resistance to compensate for inadequate CBF. The authors aim to determine whether symptomatic patients with reduced peripheral cerebral resistance prior to CEA demonstrate increased CBF and cognitive improvement as early as 1 day after CEA. Methods Fifty-three patients with symptomatic CEA were included in this observational study. All patients underwent neuropsychometric evaluation 24 hours or less preoperatively and 1 day postoperatively. The MCA was evaluated using TCD for CBF mean velocity (MV) and pulsatility index (PI). Pulsatility index ? 0.80 was used as a cutoff for reduced peripheral cerebral resistance. Results Significantly more patients with baseline PI ? 0.80 exhibited cognitive improvement 1 day after CEA than those with PI > 0.80 (35.0% vs 6.1%, p = 0.007). Patients with cognitive improvement had a significantly greater increase in CBF MV than patients without cognitive improvement (13.4 ± 17.1 cm/sec vs 4.3 ± 9.9 cm/sec, p = 0.03). In multivariate regression model, a baseline PI ? 0.80 was significantly associated with increased odds of cognitive improvement (OR 7.32 [1.40–59.49], p = 0.02). Conclusions Symptomatic CEA patients with reduced peripheral cerebral resistance, measured as PI ? 0.80, are likely to have increased CBF and improved cognitive performance as early as 1 day after CEA for symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Revascularization in this cohort may afford benefits beyond prevention of future stroke. Clinical trial registration no: NCT00597883 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

Heyer, Eric J.; Mergeche, Joanna L.; Connolly, E. Sander

2014-01-01

121

Heat Acclimation Improves Exercise Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examined the impact of heat acclimation on improving exercise performance in cool and hot environments. Twelve trained cyclists performed tests of maximal aerobic power (VO2max), time-trial performance, and lactate threshold, in both cool 13 de...

C. T. Minson J. R. Halliwill M. N. Sawka S. Lorenzo

2010-01-01

122

Cognitive performance and peripheral endocannabinoid system receptor expression in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia is a chronic psychiatric syndrome characterized by generalized cognitive deficits that are associated with functional impairment. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) modulates neurotransmission and neuronal plasticity and is important for cognitive functioning. Evidence points to the involvement of this neuromodulatory system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and that alteration of the ECS on peripheral lymphocytes could reflect central changes. The objective of this study was to compare levels of peripheral endocannabinoid receptor expression in patients with schizophrenia and healthy subjects and find evidence of association between peripheral expression of those receptors and cognitive performance. Patients with stabilized schizophrenia (N=53) and controls (N=22) underwent clinical and cognitive evaluation, and assessment of cannabinoid receptor expression on the surface of peripheral immune cells (lymphocytes, natural killer cells and monocytes) by flow cytometry. Patients with schizophrenia had lower levels of cannabinoid receptor expression on total T lymphocytes, but after controlling for possible confounders this difference did not remain significant. In patients, increased cannabinoid receptor expression on lymphocytes and monocytes was significantly correlated with worst cognitive performance. These data provide additional evidence of the involvement of the ECS in the pathophysiology of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:24853061

Ferretjans, Rodrigo; de Campos, Salvina Maria; Ribeiro-Santos, Rafael; Guimarães, Fernanda Carneiro; de Oliveira, Keliane; Cardoso, Ana Cecília Alves; Araújo, Marcio Sobreira; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andrea; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Teixeira, Antonio L; Salgado, João V

2014-07-01

123

Blooms's Six Cognitive Levels Represent Two Levels of Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports the results of two studies designed to investigate the presence of six cognitive levels of intellectual performance as predicted by Bloom's taxonomy. Results of both experiments revealed a performance dichotomy with synthesis and evaluation forming the superior category. Includes examples of the text items used and draws implications for…

Solman, Robert; Rosen, Gaye

1986-01-01

124

Aging and Concurrent Task Performance: Cognitive Demand and Motor Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A motor task that requires fine control of upper limb movements and a cognitive task that requires executive processing--first performing them separately and then concurrently--was performed by 18 young and 18 older adults. The motor task required participants to tap alternatively on two targets, the sizes of which varied systematically. The…

Albinet, Cedric; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Beasman, Kathryn

2006-01-01

125

Cognitive intervention results in web-based videophone treatment adherence and improved cognitive scores  

PubMed Central

Background We report findings from an intervention study using telehealth modalities to determine whether provision of telehealth services can improve access to care and increase adherence to cognitive therapy in veterans with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) while matching traditional care in terms of outcomes. Material/Methods Veterans who were initially non-adherent to clinic-based cognitive therapy were offered a newly developed treatment. The control participants were selected from patient records of veterans who had completed cognitive treatment and matched to MOPS-VI participants on the basis of age, marital or relationship status, and composite memory index score. Baseline and post-treatment cognitive functioning as assessed by the Test of Memory and Learning 2nd Edition (TOMAL-2) was obtained for all participants. The MOPS-VI modules were designed to increase understanding of TBI and elicit problem-solving skills for attention and memory impairment. Results Sixty-seven percent of veterans (who were assigned to the MOPS-VI treatment group because they were initially non-adherent with the clinic-based treatment) completed the MOPS-VI telemedicine treatment. Results of a two-way analysis of Variance (ANOVA) comparing baseline and follow-up scores on the TOMAL-2 in the MOPS-VI and control groups revealed there was a significant pre-post assessment effect, indicating that participant’s memory and learning improved after treatment for both MOPS-VI and standard treatment groups. There was no significant difference between clinic-based treatment and MOPS-VI therapy. Conclusions Preliminary evidence supports the efficacy of the treatment, defined as increased compliance in completing the treatment program, and improvements in standardized memory and learning test results comparable to those following clinic-based treatment.

Riegler, Lindsay James; Neils-Strunjas, Jean; Boyce, Suzanne; Wade, Shari L.; Scheifele, Peter M.

2013-01-01

126

Estrogen Treatment Impairs Cognitive Performance following Psychosocial Stress and Monoamine Depletion in Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Objective Recent studies have shown women experience an acceleration of cognitive problems after menopause, and that estrogen treatment can improve or at least maintain current levels of cognitive functioning in postmenopausal women. However, we have previously shown that the negative emotional effects of psychosocial stress are magnified in normal postmenopausal women after estrogen treatment. This study examined whether estradiol administration can modify cognitive performance after exposure to psychological stress and monoamine depletion. Methods Participants consisted of 22 postmenopausal women placed on either oral placebo or 17?-estradiol (E2) (1 mg/day for 1 month, then 2 mg/day for 2 months). At the end of the 3 month treatment phase, participants underwent three depletion challenges in which they ingested one of three amino acid mixtures: deficient in tryptophan, deficient in phenylalanine/tyrosine, or balanced. Five hours later, participants performed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), followed by mood and anxiety ratings and cognitive testing. Cognitive measures included tests of attention, psychomotor function, and verbal episodic memory. Results E2-treated compared to placebo-treated participants exhibited significant worsening of cognitive performance on tasks measuring attentional performance and psychomotor speed. Similar trends for impairment were seen in measures of long-term episodic memory compared to placebo-treated postmenopausal women. E2-treated participants also showed a significant increase in negative mood and anxiety compared to placebo-treated women after but not before the TSST, though the worsening of both cognitive and behavioral functioning were not correlated. These effects were independent of tryptophan or tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion and were not manifest before the TSST or at baseline. Conclusions These data suggest that the relationship between estrogen administration and cognitive/behavioral performance in postmenopausal women may be more complex than initially appreciated and that effects of psychosocial stress may influence whether hormone effects are beneficial.

Newhouse, Paul A.; Dumas, Julie; Wilkins, Heather; Coderre, Emily; Sites, Cynthia K.; Naylor, Magdalena; Benkelfat, Chawki; Young, Simon N.

2010-01-01

127

Rationale for Combined Exercise and Cognition-Focused Interventions to Improve Functional Independence in People with Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that exercise and some cognition-focused intervention approaches can be used to elicit functional improvements in older people and, to some degree, those diagnosed with dementia. Independently, the two intervention types have been found to improve functional performance in people with dementia. The mechanisms underpinning these improvements come from comparable and diverse pathways. This suggests that it may be

Jeanette M. Thom; Linda Clare

2011-01-01

128

Exercise improves cognition and hippocampal plasticity in APOE ?4 mice  

PubMed Central

Background Human studies on exercise, cognition, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype show that ?4 carriers may benefit from regular physical activity. Methods We examined voluntary wheel-running, memory, and hippocampal plasticity in APOE ?3 and APOE ?4 transgenic mice at 10–12 months of age. Results Sedentary ?4 mice exhibited deficits in cognition on the radial-arm water maze (RAWM), a task dependent on the hippocampus. Six weeks of wheel-running in ?4 mice resulted in improvements on the RAWM to the level of ?3 mice. Hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were similar in ?3 and ?4 mice, and after exercise BDNF was similarly increased in both ?3 and ?4 mice. In sedentary ?4 mice, tyrosine kinase B (Trk B) receptors were reduced by 50%. Exercise restored Trk B in ?4 mice to the level of ?3 mice, and in ?4 mice, exercise dramatically increased synaptophysin, a marker of synaptic function. Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that exercise can improve cognitive function, particularly in ?4 carriers.

Nichol, Kathryn; Deeny, Sean P.; Seif, Joseph; Camaclang, Kevin; Cotman, Carl W.

2014-01-01

129

The Role of NREM Sleep Instability in Child Cognitive Performance  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Based on recent reports of the involvement of cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in cognitive functioning in adults, we investigated the association between CAP parameters and cognitive performance in healthy children. Design: Polysomnographic assessment and standardized neurocognitive testing in healthy children. Settings: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Forty-two children aged 7.6 ± 2.7 years, with an even distribution of body mass percentile (58.5 ± 25.5) and SES reflective of national norms. Measurements: Analysis of sleep macrostructure following the R&K criteria and of cyclic alternating pattern (CAP). The neurocognitive tests were the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale (5th edition) and a Neuropsychological Developmental Assessment (NEPSY) Results: Fluid reasoning ability was positively associated with CAP rate, particularly during SWS and with A1 total index and A1 index in SWS. Regression analysis, controlling for age and SES, showed that CAP rate in SWS and A1 index in SWS were significant predictors of nonverbal fluid reasoning, explaining 24% and 22% of the variance in test scores, respectively. Conclusion: This study shows that CAP analysis provides important insights on the role of EEG slow oscillations (CAP A1) in cognitive performance. Children with higher cognitive efficiency showed an increase of phase A1 in total sleep and in SWS Citation: Bruni O; Kohler M; Novelli L; Kennedy D; Lushington K; Martin J; Ferri R. The role of NREM sleep instability in child cognitive performance. SLEEP 2012;35(5):649-656.

Bruni, Oliviero; Kohler, Mark; Novelli, Luana; Kennedy, Declan; Lushington, Kurt; Martin, James; Ferri, Raffaele

2012-01-01

130

PTSD and cognitive functioning: importance of including performance validity testing.  

PubMed

Many studies have observed an association between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cognitive deficits across several domains including memory, attention, and executive functioning. The inclusion of response bias measures in these studies, however, remains largely unaddressed. The purpose of this study was to identify possible cognitive impairments correlated with PTSD in returning OEF/OIF/OND veterans after excluding individuals failing a well-validated performance validity test. Participants included 126 men and 8 women with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) referred for a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation as part of a consortium of five Veterans Affairs hospitals. The PTSD CheckList (PCL) and Word Memory Test (WMT) were used to establish symptoms of PTSD and invalid performance, respectively. Groups were categorized as follows: Control (PCL < 50, pass WMT), PTSD-pass (PCL ? 50, pass WMT), and PTSD-fail (PCL ? 50, fail WMT). As hypothesized, failure on the WMT was associated with significantly poorer performance on almost all cognitive tests administered; however, no significant differences were detected between individuals with and without PTSD symptoms after separating out veterans failing the WMT. These findings highlight the importance of assessing respondent validity in future research examining cognitive functioning in psychiatric illness and warrant further consideration of prior studies reporting PTSD-associated cognitive deficits. PMID:24354897

Wisdom, Nick M; Pastorek, Nicholas J; Miller, Brian I; Booth, Jane E; Romesser, Jennifer M; Linck, John F; Sim, Anita H

2014-01-01

131

Effects of occupational exposure to organic solvents upon cognitive performance  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-three individuals exposed to mixed organic solvents were compared with 23 nonexposed controls on a number of cognitive performance tasks. Solvent exposure resulted in a significantly poorer performance on the forward digit span test, copying of a complex figure, and on semantic memory tests which also measure individual's ability to integrate linguistic information into cohesive units. These tasks rely heavily upon short-term memory and its integrative operations in higher cognitive function. Acute exposure effect was also observed for the linguistic integrative task.

Milanovic, L.; Spilich, G.; Vucinic, G.; Knezevic, S.; Ribaric, B.; Mubrin, Z. (DZ Medvescak Marticeva, Zagreb (Yugoslavia))

1990-11-01

132

Improving Reading Performance through Hypnosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study investigating the effects of group hypnosis on the reading performance of university students in a reading and writing center. Discusses study procedures and presents data on pretest scores and gains in vocabulary and comprehension scores. Concludes that regular use of self-hypnosis significantly improved performance. (DMM)

Fillmer, H. Thompson; And Others

1981-01-01

133

Aging and cognitive performance: challenges and implications for physicians practicing in the 21st century.  

PubMed

The demands of physician practice are growing. Some specialties face critical shortages and a significant percentage of physicians are aging. To improve health care it is paramount to understand and address challenges, including cognitive issues, facing aging physicians. In this article, we outline several issues related to cognitive performance and potential implications associated with aging. We discuss important findings from other fields and draw parallels to the practice of medicine. In particular, we discuss the possible effects of aging through the lens of situated cognition theory, and we outline the potential impact of aging on expertise, information processing, neurobiology, intelligence, and self-regulated learning. We believe that work done in related fields can provide a better understanding of physician aging and cognition, and thus can inform more effective approaches to continuous professional development and lifelong learning in medicine. We conclude with implications for the health care system and areas of future research. PMID:20872769

Durning, Steven J; Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric; Beckman, Thomas J; van der Vleuten, Cees; Schuwirth, Lambert

2010-01-01

134

Computational models of performance monitoring and cognitive control  

PubMed Central

The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been the subject of intense interest as a locus of cognitive control. Several computational models have been proposed to account for a range of effects including error detection, conflict monitoring, error likelihood prediction, and numerous other effects observed with single-unit neurophysiology, fMRI, and lesion studies. Here we review the state of computational models of cognitive control and offer a new theoretical synthesis of the mPFC as signaling response-outcome predictions. This new synthesis has two interacting components. The first component learns to predict the various possible outcomes of a planned action, and the second component detects discrepancies between the actual and intended responses; the detected discrepancies in turn update the outcome predictions. This single construct is consistent with a wide array of performance monitoring effects in mPFC and suggests a unifying account of the cognitive role of medial PFC in performance monitoring.

Alexander, William H.; Brown, Joshua W.

2011-01-01

135

Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Predictors of College Readiness and Performance: Role of Academic Discipline  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifying the best predictors of academic performance is crucial for postsecondary institutions seeking students with the greatest promise. We investigated the relative strength of standardized test scores (ACT), high school GPA, and non-cognitive, college readiness skills in predicting college GPA. College freshmen (505) completed the 108-item…

Komarraju, Meera; Ramsey, Alex; Rinella, Virginia

2013-01-01

136

Consumption of cocoa flavanols results in an acute improvement in visual and cognitive functions.  

PubMed

Cocoa flavanols (CF) influence physiological processes in ways that suggest their consumption may improve aspects of neural function, and previous studies have found positive influences of CF on cognitive performance. In this preliminary study we investigated whether visual, as well as cognitive, function is influenced by an acute dose of CF in young adults. We employed a randomized, single-blinded, order counterbalanced, crossover design in which 30 healthy adults consumed both dark chocolate containing 720mg CF and a matched quantity of white chocolate, with a one week interval between testing sessions. Visual contrast sensitivity was assessed by reading numbers that became progressively more similar in luminance to their background. Motion sensitivity was assessed firstly by measuring the threshold proportion of coherently moving signal dots that could be detected against a background of random motion, and secondly by determining the minimum time required to detect motion direction in a display containing a high proportion of coherent motion. Cognitive performance was assessed using a visual spatial working memory for location task and a choice reaction time task designed to engage processes of sustained attention and inhibition. Relative to the control condition, CF improved visual contrast sensitivity and reduced the time required to detect motion direction, but had no statistically reliable effect on the minimum proportion of coherent motion that could be detected. In terms of cognitive performance, CF improved spatial memory and performance on some aspects of the choice reaction time task. As well as extending the range of cognitive tasks that are known to be influenced by CF consumption, this is the first report of acute effects of CF on the efficiency of visual function. These acute effects can be explained by increased cerebral blood flow caused by CF, although in the case of contrast sensitivity there may be an additional contribution from CF induced retinal blood flow changes. PMID:21324330

Field, David T; Williams, Claire M; Butler, Laurie T

2011-06-01

137

Cognitive Systems. High Performance Embedded Computing Workshop.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

These briefing charts were presented at the Proceedings of the Eighth Annual High Performance Embedded Computing (HPEC) Workshop sponsored by DARPA Information Processing Technology Office. Some of the topics presented concerned computer systems, computat...

R. Graybill

2004-01-01

138

Cognitive performance in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: A longitudinal study in daily practice using a brief computerized cognitive battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  There is need for a cognitive test battery that can be easily used in clinical practice to detect or monitor cognitive performance\\u000a in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In order to conduct, in this patient group, a preliminary investigation of the validity\\u000a and utility of a brief computerized battery, the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) battery, we longitudinally assessed cognition\\u000a in

Chris Edgar; Peter J Jongen; Evert Sanders; Christian Sindic; Sophie Goffette; Michel Dupuis; Philippe Jacquerye; Daniel Guillaume; Regine Reznik; Keith Wesnes

2011-01-01

139

Surviving Performance Improvement "Solutions": Aligning Performance Improvement Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can organizations avoid the negative, sometimes chaotic, effects of multiple, poorly coordinated performance improvement interventions? How can we avoid punishing our external clients or staff with the side effects of solutions that might benefit our bottom line or internal efficiency at the expense of the value received or perceived by…

Bernardez, Mariano L.

2009-01-01

140

Physical Education Performance Outcomes and Cognitive Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article intends to inform physical education teachers about the current research describing the relationship between physical education performance outcomes as identified by the national physical education standards (i.e., regular participation in physical activity, physical fitness, motor competence; National Association of Physical…

Castelli, Darla M.; Hillman, Charles H.

2007-01-01

141

The effect of breakfast cereal consumption on adolescents' cognitive performance and mood  

PubMed Central

The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of breakfast consumption on cognitive performance and mood in adolescents, and any interaction that breakfast consumption might have with cognitive load. The rationale for this approach was that the beneficial effects of any intervention with regard to cognitive function may be more readily apparent when more demands are placed on the system. Furthermore, as skipping breakfast is particularly prevalent within this age group, thus, we focused on adolescents who habitually skip breakfast. Cognitive load was modulated by varying the level of difficulty of a series of cognitive tasks tapping memory, attention, and executive functions. Mood measured with Bond–Lader scales (1974) as well as measures of thirst, hunger, and satiety were recorded at each test session both at baseline and after the completion of each test battery. Forty adolescents (mean age = 14:2) participated in this within-subjects design study. According to treatment, all participants were tested before and after the intake of a low Glycaemic index breakfast (i.e., a 35 g portion of AllBran and 125 ml semi-skimmed milk) and before and after no breakfast consumption. Assessment time had two levels: 8.00 am (baseline) and 10.45 am. The orders of cognitive load tasks were counterbalanced. Overall it appeared that following breakfast participants felt more alert, satiated, and content. Following breakfast consumption, there was evidence for improved cognitive performance across the school morning compared to breakfast omission in some tasks (e.g., Hard Word Recall, Serial 3's and Serial 7's). However, whilst participants performance on the hard version of each cognitive task was significantly poorer compared to the corresponding easy version, there was limited evidence to support the hypothesis that the effect of breakfast was greater in the more demanding versions of the tasks.

Defeyter, Margaret A.; Russo, Riccardo

2013-01-01

142

Midsagittal Brain Shape Correlation with Intelligence and Cognitive Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brain shape might influence cognitive performance because of the relationships between functions, spatial organization, and differential volumetric development of cortical areas. Here we analyze the relationships between midsagittal brain shape variation and a set of basic psychological measures. Coordinates in 2D from 102 MRI-scanned young adult…

Bruner, Emiliano; Martin-Loeches, Manuel; Burgaleta, Miguel; Colom, Roberto

2011-01-01

143

Modeling Cognitive Strategies during Complex Task Performing Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine individuals' computer based complex task performing processes and strategies in order to determine the reasons of failure by cognitive task analysis method and cued retrospective think aloud with eye movement data. Study group was five senior students from Computer Education and Instructional Technologies…

Mazman, Sacide Guzin; Altun, Arif

2012-01-01

144

Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Determinants of Performance: A Process Model.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literature from organizational and social psychology has suggested that three types of factors influence performance, i.e., cognitive, affective and behavioral. A model was developed to test a set of propositions concerning the relationship between the three kinds of factors, and included attributions, expectancies, general emotional responses to…

Dorfman, Peter W.; Stephan, Walter G.

145

Treatment with Huperzine A improves cognition in vascular dementia patients.  

PubMed

In the present study, we tested the efficacy and safety of Huperzine A in treatment of mild to moderate vascular dementia (VaD). This was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study with 78 patients with mild to moderate VaD. The participants were randomized to receive either vitamin C (100-mg bid) as placebo (n = 39) or Huperzine A (0.1-mg bid) (n = 39) for 12 consecutive weeks. The mini-mental state examination (MMSE), clinical dementia rating (CDR), and activities of daily living (ADL) scores were used for the assessment of cognition. The assessments were made prior to treatment, and 4, 8, and 12 weeks of the treatment. The adverse effects of the treatment were also recorded. After 12 weeks of treatment, the MMSE, CDR, and ADL scores significantly improved in the Huperzine A group (P < 0.01 for all comparisons), whereas the placebo group did not show any such improvement (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). No serious adverse events were recorded during the treatment. Conclusion: Huperzine A can significantly improve the cognitive function in patients with mild to moderate vascular dementia. Further, the medicament is safe. PMID:21833673

Xu, Zhi-Qiang; Liang, Xiao-Min; Juan-Wu; Zhang, Yuan-Feng; Zhu, Chun-Xia; Jiang, Xiao-Jiang

2012-01-01

146

A Cognitive Framework for Understanding and Improving Interference Resolution in the Brain  

PubMed Central

All of us are familiar with the negative impact of interference on achieving our task goals. We are referring to interference by information, which either impinges on our senses from an external environmental source or is internally generated by our thoughts. Informed by more than a decade of research on the cognitive and neural processing of interference, we have developed a framework for understanding how interference impacts our neural systems and especially how it is regulated and suppressed during efficient on-task performance. Importantly, externally and internally generated interferences have distinct neural signatures, and further, distinct neural processing emerges depending on whether individuals must ignore and suppress the interference, as for distractions, or engage with them in a secondary task, as during multitasking. Here, we elaborate on this cognitive framework and how it changes throughout the human lifespan, focusing mostly on research evidence from younger adults and comparing these findings to data from older adults, children, and cognitively impaired populations. With insights gleaned from our growing understanding, we then describe three novel translational efforts in our lab directed at improving distinct aspects of interference resolution using cognitive training. Critically, these training approaches were specifically developed to target improved interference resolution based on neuroplasticity principles and have shown much success in randomized controlled first version evaluations in healthy aging. Our results show not only on-task training improvements but also robust generalization of benefit to other cognitive control abilities. This research showcases how an in-depth understanding of neural mechanisms can then inform the development of effective deficit-targeted interventions, which can in turn benefit both healthy and cognitively impaired populations.

Mishra, Jyoti; Anguera, Joaquin A.; Ziegler, David A.; Gazzaley, Adam

2014-01-01

147

Cognitive performance in depressed patients after chronic use of antidepressants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Depressive disorders are conditions that often require continuous treatment, and it is therefore important to evaluate the\\u000a consequences of prolonged administration. There are few studies assessing cognitive functions of depressed patients after\\u000a long-term use of antidepressants.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  This study evaluated the cognitive performance of depressed patients treated with antidepressants for at least 6 months.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Patients with major depression (DSM-IV) using imipramine for

Clarice Gorenstein; Stefania Caldeira de Carvalho; Rinaldo Artes; Ricardo Alberto Moreno; Tania Marcourakis

2006-01-01

148

Behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of training-induced cognitive control improvements?, ??  

PubMed Central

Cognitive control – the ability to exert control over thoughts, attention and behavior in order to achieve a goal – is essential to adaptive functioning and its disruption characterizes various neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. In recent years, increased attention has been devoted to investigating the effects of training on performance and brain function, but little is known about whether cognitive control can be improved through training. To fill this gap, we designed a brief training targeting various components of cognitive control, including conflict monitoring and interference resolution. Twenty participants performed a 3-day training protocol, preceded and followed by identical pre- and post-training sessions, respectively, which included event-related potential (ERP) recordings. To detect transfer effects, the training and pre-/post-training sessions employed different tasks hypothesized to rely on similar interference resolution mechanisms. We hypothesized that training would selectively improve performance for high-interference (i.e., incongruent) trials and be associated with reduced amplitudes in the N2 component, a waveform known to index interference. Trial-to-trial behavioral adjustments were also analyzed to assess potential mechanisms of training-induced improvements. Relative to pre-training, participants showed reduced reaction time (RT) and N2 amplitude for incongruent, but not congruent, trials, suggesting improved interference resolution. Critically, participants showing the greatest reductions in interference effects during the course of the training displayed the largest pre- to post-training reductions in N2 amplitudes in a separate task, highlighting transfer effects. Overall, results suggest that a brief training can improve cognitive control, specifically the ability to inhibit task-irrelevant information.

Millner, Alexander J.; Jaroszewski, Adam C.; Chamarthi, Harish; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

2012-01-01

149

Service Industries - Improving Competitive Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the importance of service industries to the British economy and how service managers and management academics can prevent the decline of the British service sector as foreign interest in it increases. The activities of four service organisations who are trying to improve their competitive performance are described.

Robert Johnston

1988-01-01

150

Recent Performance Improvements on FXR.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The FXR machine is a nominal 4-kA, 20-MeV, linear-induction, electron accelerator for flash radiography at LLNL. The machine met its baseline requirements in March 1982. Since then, the performance has been greatly improved. We have achieved stable and re...

B. Kulke R. Kihara

1983-01-01

151

Recent Performance Improvements on FXR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FXR machine is a nominal 4 kA, 20 MeV, linear induction, electron accelerator for flash radiography at LLNL. The machine met its baseline requirements in March 1982. Since then, the performance has been greatly improved. The authors have achieved stable and repeatable beam acceleration and transport, with over 80% transmission to the tungsten bremsstrahlung target located some 35 m

B. Kulke; R. Kihara

1983-01-01

152

Early markers of cognitive enhancement: developing an implicit measure of cognitive performance.  

PubMed

There is intense interest in the development of effective cognitive enhancing drugs which would have therapeutic application across a number of neurological and psychological disorders including dementia, schizophrenia and depression. However, development in this area has been limited by the absence of sensitive biomarkers which can be used to detect and refine therapeutic-like action in phase 1 clinical studies. The aim of the present study was therefore to develop a measure of cognition relevant to the action of candidate cognitive enhancers which might be sensitive to pharmacological manipulation in healthy volunteers. Healthy volunteers (n?=?34) were randomised to receive a single dose of modafinil (100 mg) or placebo. Five hours post dose, attentional flexibility in learning was assessed using a novel implicit learning task. Volunteers also completed an auditory digit span task and visual analogue scales (VAS). Modafinil increased alertness as measured by the VAS. In the implicit learning task, modafinil enhanced learning rates in terms of both accuracy and reaction time, suggesting an increase in implicit rule learning. These results suggest that the novel learning task should be explored as a biomarker of early cognitive improvement which could be more sensitive than conventional measures. PMID:23820927

Pringle, Abbie; Browning, Michael; Parsons, Elizabeth; Cowen, Phil J; Harmer, Catherine J

2013-12-01

153

Study Abroad Field Trip Improves Test Performance through Engagement and New Social Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although study abroad trips provide an opportunity for affective and cognitive learning, it is largely assumed that they improve learning outcomes. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a study abroad field trip improved cognitive learning by comparing test performance between the study abroad participants (n = 20) and their peers who…

Houser, Chris; Brannstrom, Christian; Quiring, Steven M.; Lemmons, Kelly K.

2011-01-01

154

Chronic nicotine improves working and reference memory performance and reduces hippocampal NGF in aged female rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cholinergic system is involved in cognition and several forms of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, and nicotine administration has been shown to improve cognitive performance in both humans and rodents. While experiments with humans have shown that nicotine improves the ability to handle an increasing working memory load, little work has been done in animal models evaluating nicotine effects on

Kristen L. French; Ann-Charlotte E. Granholm; Alfred B. Moore; Matthew E. Nelson; Heather A. Bimonte-Nelson

2006-01-01

155

Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in healthy older people.  

PubMed

Worse cognitive performance in older people has been associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation (in particular, higher cortisol levels). Analysis of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) is a novel method to measure long-term cortisol exposure, and its relationship with cognition in healthy older people has not yet been studied. We investigated whether HCC (measured in hair scalp) and diurnal salivary cortisol levels (awakening, 30min after awakening, and evening, across two days) were related to cognitive performance (assessed with the Trail-making Test A and B, Digit Span Forward and Backward, word list-RAVLT and Stories subtest of the Rivermead) in 57 healthy older people (mean age=64.75 years, SD=4.17). Results showed that lower HCC were consistently related to worse working memory, learning, short-term verbal memory (RAVLT first trial and immediate recall) and long-term verbal memory. In contrast, higher mean levels and higher diurnal area under the curve of diurnal salivary cortisol were related to worse attention and short-term verbal memory (immediate story recall), respectively. Interestingly, a higher ratio of mean levels of diurnal salivary cortisol over HCC were related to worse performance on working memory and short-term verbal memory, suggesting that those individuals with lower long-term cortisol exposure might be more vulnerable to the negative effect of HPA-axis dysregulation on these cognitive processes. Our findings suggest that both low long-term cortisol exposure and a possible dysregulation of the diurnal rhythm of the HPA-axis may account, at least in part, for the inter-individual variability in cognitive performance in healthy older people. PMID:24767624

Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia

2014-06-01

156

EEG Analysis of the Effects of Therapeutic Cooling on the Cognitive Performance of Multiple Sclerosis Patients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this project was to determine whether a controlled period of head and torso cooling would enhance the cognitive performance of multiple sclerosis patients. Nineteen MS patients (11 men and 8 women) participated in the study. Control data were taken from nineteen healthy volunteers (12 men and 7 women). All but six of nineteen MS patients tested improved their cognitive performance, as measured by their scores on the Rao test battery. A second objective was to gain insight into the neurological effects of cooling. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) stimulated by a reversing checkerboard pattern were recorded before and after cooling. We found that cooling selectively benefited the cognitive performance of those MS patients whose pre-cooling VEPs were abnormally shaped (which is an indication of visual pathway impairment due to demyelinization). Moreover, for female MS patients, the degree of cognitive performance improvement following cooling was correlated with a change in the shape of their VEPs toward a more normal shape following cooling.

Montgomery, Leslie D.; Montgomery, Richard W.; Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Luna, Bernadette; Lee, Hank C.; Kliss, Mark; Webbon, Bruce; Mead, Susan C. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

157

Improved Processing Speed: Online Computer-based Cognitive Training in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an increasingly aging population, a number of adults are concerned about declines in their cognitive abilities. Online computer-based cognitive training programs have been proposed as an accessible means by which the elderly may improve their cognitive abilities; yet, more research is needed in order to assess the efficacy of these programs. In the current study, a commercially available 21-day

Tamara Simpson; David Camfield; Andrew Pipingas; Helen Macpherson; Con Stough

2012-01-01

158

Bidirectional interactions between circadian entrainment and cognitive performance  

PubMed Central

Circadian rhythms influence a variety of physiological and behavioral processes; however, little is known about how circadian rhythms interact with the organisms' ability to acquire and retain information about their environment. These experiments tested whether rats trained outside their endogenous active period demonstrate the same rate of acquisition, daily performance, and remote memory ability as their nocturnally trained counterparts in tasks of sustained attention and spatial memory. Furthermore, we explored how daily task training influenced circadian patterns of activity. We found that rats demonstrate better acquisition and performance on an operant task requiring attentional effort when trained during the dark-phase. Time of day did not affect acquisition or performance on the Morris water maze; however, when animals were retested 2 wk after their last day of training, they showed better remote memory if training originally occurred during the dark-phase. Finally, attentional, but not spatial, task performance during the light-phase promotes a shift toward diurnality and the synchronization of activity to the time of daily training; this shift was most robust when the demands on the cognitive control of attention were highest. Our findings support a theory of bidirectional interactions between cognitive performance and circadian processes and are consistent with the view that the circadian abnormalities associated with shift-work, aging, and neuropsychiatric illnesses may contribute to the deleterious effects on cognition often present in these populations. Furthermore, these findings suggest that time of day should be an important consideration for a variety of cognitive tasks principally used in psychological and neuroscience research.

Gritton, Howard J.; Kantorowski, Ana; Sarter, Martin; Lee, Theresa M.

2012-01-01

159

Neuropsychological Test Performance and Cognitive Reserve in Healthy Aging and the Alzheimer's Disease Spectrum: A Theoretically-Driven Factor Analysis  

PubMed Central

Accurate measurement of cognitive function is critical for understanding the disease course of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Detecting cognitive change over time can be confounded by level of premorbid intellectual function or cognitive reserve and lead to under or over diagnosis of cognitive impairment and AD. Statistical models of cognitive performance that include cognitive reserve can improve sensitivity to change and clinical efficacy. We used confirmatory factor analysis to test a four-factor model comprised of memory/language, processing speed/executive function, attention, and cognitive reserve factors in a group of cognitively healthy older adults and a group of participants along the spectrum of amnestic mild cognitive impairment to AD (aMCI-AD). The model showed excellent fit for the control group (?2 = 100, df = 78, CFI = .962, RMSEA = .049) and adequate fit for the aMCI-AD group (?2 = 1750, df = 78, CFI = .932, RMSEA = .085). Though strict invariance criteria were not met, invariance testing to determine if factor structures are similar across groups yielded acceptable absolute model fits and provide evidence in support of configural, metric, and scalar invariance. These results provide further support for the construct validity of cognitive reserve in healthy and memory impaired older adults.

Mitchell, Meghan B.; Shaughnessy, Lynn W.; Shirk, Steven D.; Yang, Frances M.; Atri, Alireza

2013-01-01

160

Use of the Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS) to detect cognitive impairment in the acute care setting: Concurrent and predictive validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS) was initially designed to assess cognition in long term care residents. Subsequently, the CPS has also been used among in-home, post-acute, and acute care populations even though CPS’ clinimetric performance has not been studied in these settings. This study aimed to determine CPS agreement with the Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE) and its predictive validity

Christophe J. Büla; Vincent Wietlisbach

2009-01-01

161

Vascular risk and FDDNP-PET influence cognitive performance.  

PubMed

The relationship of cerebrovascular risk and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology to cognition in pre-dementia has been extensively investigated and is well-established. Cerebrovascular risk can be measured using a Framingham Stroke Risk Profile (FSRP) score, while positron emission tomography (PET) scans with 2-(1-{6-[(2-[F-18]fluoroethyl)(methyl)amino]-2-naphthyl}ethylidene)malononitrile (FDDNP) measure AD neuropathology (i.e., amyloid-? plaques and tau tangles). Here we report results of 75 healthy non-demented subjects (mean age, 63 years) who underwent neuropsychological testing, physical assessments, and FDDNP-PET scans. Controlling for AD family history, education, and APOE4 status in a general linear model, higher FSRP risk and global FDDNP-PET binding were each associated with poorer cognitive functioning. The interaction of FSRP and global FDDNP-PET binding was not significant in the model, indicating that stroke risk and plaque and tangle burden each contributed to worse cognitive performance. Within our healthy volunteers, age, blood pressure, and antihypertensive medication use were vascular risks that contributed significantly to the above findings. These findings suggest that even mild cerebrovascular risk may influence the extent of cognitive dysfunction in pre-dementia, along with amyloid-? and tau burden. PMID:23380994

Merrill, David A; Siddarth, Prabha; Kepe, Vladimir; Raja, Pushpa V; Saito, Nathan; Ercoli, Linda M; Miller, Karen J; Lavretsky, Helen; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Barrio, Jorge R; Small, Gary W

2013-01-01

162

A Comparison of Sideline Versus Clinical Cognitive Test Performance in Collegiate Athletes  

PubMed Central

Objective: To test whether performance on 5 cognitive tests administered in a controlled clinical environment differed compared with administration in an uncontrolled sideline environment. Additionally, we investigated the effect of testing environment order on the learning effect for each cognitive test. Design and Setting: Athletes were assessed on 2 test occasions (8 ± 2 days apart), once in a sports medicine research laboratory and once on a lacrosse practice field site. Subjects: A total of 59 Division I collegiate student-athletes participated in this study. Measurements: Normative data were collected on 5 cognitive tests (Stroop Test, Trail-Making Test part A, Trail-Making Test part B, Wechsler Digit-Span Forward Test, and Digit-Span Backward Test). Results: An independent-samples t test for environment difference on test day 1 revealed no significant differences between tests performed in the controlled environment and those performed in the uncontrolled environment. A repeated- measures analysis of variance test revealed a significant learning effect for all 5 tests, as subjects tended to improve approximately 11 points on the Stroop Test, 3 seconds on the Trail-Making A Test, 7 seconds on the Trail-Making B Test, and 1 point each on the Wechsler Digit Span Forward and Backward Tests. A paired-samples t test using delta scores (first test minus second test), sorted by order of testing environment, revealed a significant difference for the Stroop Test, but not for the remaining cognitive tests. Conclusions: There appears to be no difference in cognitive testing performance completed in a controlled clinical environment versus that performed in an uncontrolled sideline environment. This finding suggests that clinicians can administer cognitive tests to athletes with mild head injuries in uncontrolled sideline environments and expect valid results. Thus, clinicians can more thoroughly evaluate mildly head-injured athletes during the most crucial period after injury so that a safe return-to-play decision can be based on quantifiable, objective data.

Onate, James A.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.; Riemann, Bryan L.; Prentice, William E.

2000-01-01

163

Cyclocreatine treatment improves cognition in mice with creatine transporter deficiency  

PubMed Central

The second-largest cause of X-linked mental retardation is a deficiency in creatine transporter (CRT; encoded by SLC6A8), which leads to speech and language disorders with severe cognitive impairment. This syndrome, caused by the absence of creatine in the brain, is currently untreatable because CRT is required for creatine entry into brain cells. Here, we developed a brain-specific Slc6a8 knockout mouse (Slc6a8–/y) as an animal model of human CRT deficiency in order to explore potential therapies for this syndrome. The phenotype of the Slc6a8–/y mouse was comparable to that of human patients. We successfully treated the Slc6a8–/y mice with the creatine analog cyclocreatine. Brain cyclocreatine and cyclocreatine phosphate were detected after 9 weeks of cyclocreatine treatment in Slc6a8–/y mice, in contrast to the same mice treated with creatine or placebo. Cyclocreatine-treated Slc6a8–/y mice also exhibited a profound improvement in cognitive abilities, as seen with novel object recognition as well as spatial learning and memory tests. Thus, cyclocreatine appears promising as a potential therapy for CRT deficiency.

Kurosawa, Yuko; DeGrauw, Ton J.; Lindquist, Diana M.; Blanco, Victor M.; Pyne-Geithman, Gail J.; Daikoku, Takiko; Chambers, James B.; Benoit, Stephen C.; Clark, Joseph F.

2012-01-01

164

Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Communication Apprehension and Cognitive Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Conducts a meta-analysis of 23 manuscripts containing information on 30 experiments that examined communication apprehension and cognitive performance. Finds a statistically significant negative correlation between communication apprehension and cognitive performance. (MG)

Bourhis, John; Allen, Mike

1992-01-01

165

Plasma 1,8-cineole correlates with cognitive performance following exposure to rosemary essential oil aroma  

PubMed Central

Objective The mode of influence of the aromas of plant essential oils on human behaviour is largely unclear. This study was designed to assess the potential pharmacological relationships between absorbed 1,8-cineole following exposure to rosemary aroma, cognitive performance and mood. Methods Twenty healthy volunteers performed serial subtraction and visual information processing tasks in a cubicle diffused with the aroma of rosemary. Mood assessments were made pre and post testing, and venous blood was sampled at the end of the session. Pearson correlations were carried out between serum levels of 1,8-cineole, cognitive performance measures and change in mood scores. Results Here we show for the first time that performance on cognitive tasks is significantly related to concentration of absorbed 1,8-cineole following exposure to rosemary aroma, with improved performance at higher concentrations. Furthermore, these effects were found for speed and accuracy outcomes, indicating that the relationship is not describing a speed–accuracy trade off. The relationships between 1,8-cineole levels and mood were less pronounced, but did reveal a significant negative correlation between change in contentment and plasma 1,8-cineole levels. Conclusion These findings suggest that compounds absorbed from rosemary aroma affect cognition and subjective state independently through different neurochemical pathways.

Oliver, Lorraine

2012-01-01

166

Imaging of neuro-cognitive performance in extreme Environments—A (p)review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living in extreme environments is accompanied by a number of stressors, which can be classified either as physiological stressors (e.g. microgravity, missing sunlight) or psychological stressors (e.g. confinement). From earth bound studies a negative impact of stress on mental health and cognitive performance is well known and both factors might impair mission success and mission safety during longer inhabitation of space. Accordingly there is the need to identify adequate countermeasures. Nevertheless causal research of neuro-cognitive impairments in space remains speculative due to missing possibilities of brain imaging. Furthermore the reliability of current psychological tests used to assess and monitor cognitive performance in extreme environments seems to be vulnerable due to a lack of compliance. With on-going plans of international space agencies to send people to moon and/or mars, this manuscript aims to summarize and review research attempts of the past two decades and to identify methodological shortcomings. Finally, following the guideline that research has no legacy for its own but must serve the self-concept and well-being of man, this manuscript presents a number of recommendations to enhance future neuro-cognitive research in extreme environments. A deeper insight into neuro-cognitive coherence is not only desirable to understand the effects of stress on mental health, which seems to be a major issue for our current society, and to develop adequate countermeasures but will also help to maintain and improve mission success and mission safety in manned space flight.

Schneider, Stefan; Bubeev, Juri A.; Choukèr, Alexander; Morukov, Boris; Johannes, Bernd; Strüder, Heiko K.

2012-12-01

167

Test-performance after cognitive training in persons at risk mental state of schizophrenia and patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

This exploratory study aims to examine the differential effects of a computer-based cognitive training in 'prodromal' patients (mean age 27.20 years, S.D. 5.31 years) compared with patients with full-blown schizophrenia (mean age 30.13 years, S.D. 7.77 years). Ten patients at risk for schizophrenia and 16 patients suffering from schizophrenia underwent a computerized cognitive training program (Cogpack). Cognitive functioning before and after a total of 10 training sessions was assessed by different tests controlling for memory, attention, and logical thinking. Prodromal patients turned out to be able to significantly improve their long-term memory functions and their attention after cognitive training with the Cogpack software package whereas in the group of patients with schizophrenia no improvement occurred (e.g. continuous performance test, identical pairs-subtest 'shapes': improvement from 0.73 to 0.88 in persons at risk of schizophrenia vs. no improvement in patients with schizophrenia (0.55 to 0.53). Cognitive training using Cogpack is helpful for the improvement of cognitive functioning in persons at risk of schizophrenia. Thus, the application of cognitive training should be provided as early as possible in the prodromal phases of schizophrenia in order to use the full rehabilitative potential of the patients. These results should be confirmed by further investigations including larger sample sizes. PMID:20493540

Rauchensteiner, Stephan; Kawohl, Wolfram; Ozgurdal, Seza; Littmann, Eckhard; Gudlowski, Yehonala; Witthaus, Henning; Heinz, Andreas; Juckel, Georg

2011-02-28

168

Sleep Spindle Activity and Cognitive Performance in Healthy Children  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate the association between indices of sleep spindle activity and cognitive performance in a sample of healthy children. Design: Correlational. Intelligence (Stanford-Binet) and neurocognitive functioning (NEPSY) were assessed, with sleep variables being measured during overnight polysomnography. Setting: Hospital sleep laboratory. Participants: Twenty-seven healthy children (mean age 8.19 y; 14 female, 13 male). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Participants underwent a single night of overnight polysomnography after completing measures of intelligence and neurocognitive functioning. Sleep spindles were visually identified by an experienced sleep scoring technician and separated algorithmically into fast (> 13 Hz) and slow spindle (< 13 Hz) categories. The number of fast spindles was significantly correlated with narrative memory (rs = 0.38) and sensorimotor functioning (?0.43). Mean central frequency of spindles was also significantly correlated with sensorimotor functioning (?0.41), planning ability (?0.41), and working memory (?0.54). Conclusions: Basal sleep spindle activity is associated with different aspects of cognitive performance in children. To the extent that these associations in a pediatric population are different from what is known in adult sleep may play an important role in development. Citation: Chatburn A; Coussens S; Lushington K; Kennedy D; Baumert M; Kohler M. Sleep spindle activity and cognitive performance in healthy children. SLEEP 2013;36(2):237–243.

Chatburn, Alex; Coussens, Scott; Lushington, Kurt; Kennedy, Declan; Baumert, Mathias; Kohler, Mark

2013-01-01

169

Performance-approach goals deplete working memory and impair cognitive performance.  

PubMed

Although longitudinal studies have consistently shown the positive impact of performance-approach goals (i.e., the desire to demonstrate one's abilities and outperform others) on academic success, they might allow some strategic behaviors such as cheating and surface studying, leaving open the question of the sheer impact of performance-approach goals on cognitive performance. We argued that the pressure to outperform others might generate outcome concerns and thus deplete working memory resources available for the activity, thereby hindering cognitive performance. Three studies carried out in a laboratory context confirmed this hypothesis. During a demanding cognitive task, performance-approach goal manipulation hampered performance (Experiment 1) by generating distractive concerns that drew on the limited verbal component of working memory (Experiment 2). Moreover, this interference was shown to be specifically due to the activation of performance-approach goal-related thoughts during the task solving (Experiment 3). Together, the present results highlight the distractive consequence of performance-approach goals on cognitive performance, suggesting that cognitive resource allocation is divided among the storage, processing, and retrieval of task-relevant information and the activation of normative goal-attainment concerns. PMID:22924883

Crouzevialle, Marie; Butera, Fabrizio

2013-08-01

170

Improving Cognition and Function Through Exercise Intervention in Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To analyze the effects of cognition on function and to explore the potential of aerobic exercise for promoting cognitive and functional capacities. Design: Integrative review of literature. Methods: Studies were selected based on an extensive search of electronic databases and man- ual cross-referencing for 1980 to 2006, using the combination of key words: Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia, or cognitive

Fang Yu; Ann M. Kolanowski; Neville E. Strumpf; Paul J. Eslinger

2006-01-01

171

Barriers to the appropriate clinical use of medications that improve the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia.  

PubMed

A high priority has been placed on developing medications to treat the cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia, but less attention has been given to planning for appropriate use of these medications in practice. The cognitive deficits of schizophrenia present several complexities as a treatment target that may limit a clinician's ability to prescribe cognitive enhancers to the patients who need them and to monitor for improvements in outcomes. In this review the neuropsychological evidence regarding cognition and functioning is discussed with a view toward how this evidence might guide clinicians' prescribing practices. Three challenges regarding the use of cognitive enhancers in schizophrenia are discussed. First, laboratory constructs of cognition are not equivalent to cognitive skills and behaviors seen in the clinic. The evidence generated in clinical trials of cognitive enhancers may have uncertain ecological validity. Second, objective scores on cognitive tests often do not match clinicians' and patients' perceptions of cognitive deficits. Mismatch between objective and subjective assessments of cognition may complicate the monitoring of medication. Third, although reductions in disability are desired outcomes of cognitive enhancement, clinicians may not be able to rely on assessments of patients' functional status to determine whether cognition medications are effective. In summary, data on the clinical meaning of neuropsychological constructs, careful selection of outcome measures for randomized clinical trials, and effectiveness trials could help ensure that cognition-enhancing medications can be appropriately prescribed in usual practice settings to the patients who can benefit from them. PMID:17412848

Bromley, Elizabeth

2007-04-01

172

Cognitive Performance Measures in Bioelectromagnetic Research - Critical Evaluation and Recommendations  

PubMed Central

Background The steady increase of mobile phone usage has led to a rising concern about possible adverse health effects of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure at intensities even below the existing safety limits. Accumulating evidence suggests that pulse-modulated RF EMF may alter brain physiology. Yet, whereas effects on the human electroencephalogram in waking and sleep have repeatedly been shown in recent years, results on cognitive performance are inconsistent. Methods This review compares 41 provocation studies regarding the effects of RF EMF exposure similar to mobile telephones on cognitive performance measures in humans. The studies were identified via systematic searches of the databases Pub Med and ISI Web of Science and were published in peer-reviewed journals between 1998 and the end of 2009. Results Based on a critical discussion within the scope of methodological standards it is concluded that state-of-the-art-methods in bio-electromagnetic research on RF EMF effects and cognition have neither been specified nor fully implemented over the last 10-11 years. The lack of a validated tool, which reliably assesses changes in cognitive performance caused by RF EMF exposure, may contribute to the current inconsistencies in outcomes. The high variety of findings may also be due to methodological issues such as differences in sample size and the composition of study groups, experimental design, exposure setup as well as the exposure conditions, and emphasizes the need for a standardized protocol in bioelectromagnetic research. Conclusions At present, no underlying biological mechanism has been identified which mediates the effects on brain functioning as observed in electroencephalographic (EEG) studies. A future aim must be to identify this mechanism as well as a reliable exposure protocol in order to gain more insights into possible behavioral and related health consequences of high-frequency EMF exposure.

2011-01-01

173

Shorter term aerobic exercise improves brain, cognition, and cardiovascular fitness in aging  

PubMed Central

Physical exercise, particularly aerobic exercise, is documented as providing a low cost regimen to counter well-documented cognitive declines including memory, executive function, visuospatial skills, and processing speed in normally aging adults. Prior aging studies focused largely on the effects of medium to long term (>6 months) exercise training; however, the shorter term effects have not been studied. In the present study, we examined changes in brain blood flow, cognition, and fitness in 37 cognitively healthy sedentary adults (57–75 years of age) who were randomized into physical training or a wait-list control group. The physical training group received supervised aerobic exercise for 3 sessions per week 1 h each for 12 weeks. Participants' cognitive, cardiovascular fitness and resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) were assessed at baseline (T1), mid (T2), and post-training (T3). We found higher resting CBF in the anterior cingulate region in the physical training group as compared to the control group from T1 to T3. Cognitive gains were manifested in the exercise group's improved immediate and delayed memory performance from T1 to T3 which also showed a significant positive association with increases in both left and right hippocampal CBF identified earlier in the time course at T2. Additionally, the two cardiovascular parameters, VO2 max and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) showed gains, compared to the control group. These data suggest that even shorter term aerobic exercise can facilitate neuroplasticity to reduce both the biological and cognitive consequences of aging to benefit brain health in sedentary adults.

Chapman, Sandra B.; Aslan, Sina; Spence, Jeffrey S.; DeFina, Laura F.; Keebler, Molly W.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Lu, Hanzhang

2013-01-01

174

Heat acclimation improves exercise performance  

PubMed Central

This study examined the impact of heat acclimation on improving exercise performance in cool and hot environments. Twelve trained cyclists performed tests of maximal aerobic power (V?o2max), time-trial performance, and lactate threshold, in both cool [13°C, 30% relative humidity (RH)] and hot (38°C, 30% RH) environments before and after a 10-day heat acclimation (?50% V?o2max in 40°C) program. The hot and cool condition V?o2max and lactate threshold tests were both preceded by either warm (41°C) water or thermoneutral (34°C) water immersion to induce hyperthermia (0.8–1.0°C) or sustain normothermia, respectively. Eight matched control subjects completed the same exercise tests in the same environments before and after 10 days of identical exercise in a cool (13°C) environment. Heat acclimation increased V?o2max by 5% in cool (66.8 ± 2.1 vs. 70.2 ± 2.3 ml·kg?1·min?1, P = 0.004) and by 8% in hot (55.1 ± 2.5 vs. 59.6 ± 2.0 ml·kg?1·min?1, P = 0.007) conditions. Heat acclimation improved time-trial performance by 6% in cool (879.8 ± 48.5 vs. 934.7 ± 50.9 kJ, P = 0.005) and by 8% in hot (718.7 ± 42.3 vs. 776.2 ± 50.9 kJ, P = 0.014) conditions. Heat acclimation increased power output at lactate threshold by 5% in cool (3.88 ± 0.82 vs. 4.09 ± 0.76 W/kg, P = 0.002) and by 5% in hot (3.45 ± 0.80 vs. 3.60 ± 0.79 W/kg, P < 0.001) conditions. Heat acclimation increased plasma volume (6.5 ± 1.5%) and maximal cardiac output in cool and hot conditions (9.1 ± 3.4% and 4.5 ± 4.6%, respectively). The control group had no changes in V?o2max, time-trial performance, lactate threshold, or any physiological parameters. These data demonstrate that heat acclimation improves aerobic exercise performance in temperate-cool conditions and provide the scientific basis for employing heat acclimation to augment physical training programs.

Lorenzo, Santiago; Halliwill, John R.; Sawka, Michael N.

2010-01-01

175

Caffeine and alcohol intakes and overall nutrient adequacy are associated with longitudinal cognitive performance among U.S. adults.  

PubMed

Among modifiable lifestyle factors, diet may affect cognitive health. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations may exist between dietary exposures [e.g., caffeine (mg/d), alcohol (g/d), and nutrient adequacy] and cognitive performance and change over time. This was a prospective cohort study, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (n = 628-1305 persons depending on the cognitive outcome; ?2 visits/person). Outcomes included 10 cognitive scores, spanning various domains of cognition. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and a nutrient adequacy score (NAS) were estimated from 7-d food diaries. Among key findings, caffeine intake was associated with better baseline global cognition among participants with a baseline age (Agebase) of ?70 y. A higher NAS was associated with better baseline global cognition performance (overall, women, Agebase <70 y), better baseline verbal memory (immediate and delayed recall, Agebase ?70 y), and slower rate of decline or faster improvement in the attention domain (women). For an Agebase of <70 y, alcohol consumption was associated with slower improvement on letter fluency and global cognition over time. Conversely, for an Agebase of ?70 y and among women, alcohol intake was related to better baseline attention and working memory. In sum, patterns of diet and cognition associations indicate stratum-specific associations by sex and baseline age. The general observed trend was that of putative beneficial effects of caffeine intake and nutrient adequacy on domains of global cognition, verbal memory, and attention, and mixed effects of alcohol on domains of letter fluency, attention, and working memory. Further longitudinal studies conducted on larger samples of adults are needed to determine whether dietary factors individually or in combination are modifiers of cognitive trajectories among adults. PMID:24744319

Beydoun, May A; Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Beydoun, Hind A; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tucker, Katherine L; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B

2014-06-01

176

Selective GABAA ?5 Positive Allosteric Modulators Improve Cognitive Function in Aged Rats with Memory Impairment  

PubMed Central

A condition of excess activity in the hippocampal formation is observed in the aging brain and in conditions that confer additional risk during aging for Alzheimer’s disease. Compounds that act as positive allosteric modulators at GABAA ?5 receptors might be useful in targeting this condition because GABAA ?5 receptors mediate tonic inhibition of principal neurons in the affected network. While agents to improve cognitive function in the past focused on inverse agonists, which are negative allosteric modulators at GABAA ?5 receptors, research supporting that approach used only young animals and predated current evidence for excessive hippocampal activity in age-related conditions of cognitive impairment. Here, we used two compounds, Compound 44 [6,6-dimethyl-3-(3-hydroxypropyl)thio-1-(thiazol-2-yl)-6,7-dihydro-2-benzothiophen-4(5H)-one] and Compound 6 [methyl 3,5-diphenylpyridazine-4-carboxylate], with functional activity as potentiators of ?-aminobutyric acid at GABAA ?5 receptors, to test their ability to improve hippocampal-dependent memory in aged rats with identified cognitive impairment. Improvement was obtained in aged rats across protocols differing in motivational and performance demands and across varying retention intervals. Significant memory improvement occurred after either intracereboventricular infusion with Compound 44 (100 ?g) in a water maze task or systemic administration with Compound 6 (3 mg/kg) in a radial arm maze task. Furthermore, systemic administration improved behavioral performance at dosing shown to provide drug exposure in the brain and in vivo receptor occupancy in the hippocampus. These data suggest a novel approach to improve neural network function in clinical conditions of excess hippocampal activity.

Koh, Ming Teng; Rosenzweig-Lipson, Sharon; Gallagher, Michela

2012-01-01

177

Improvement and decline of cognitive function in schizophrenia over one year: a longitudinal investigation using latent growth modelling  

PubMed Central

Background Long-term follow-up studies of people with schizophrenia report stability of cognitive performance; less is known about any shorter-term changes in cognitive function. Methods This longitudinal study aimed to establish whether there was stability, improvement or decline in memory and executive functions over four assessments undertaken prospectively in one year. Cognitive performance was assessed during randomized controlled trials of first- and second-generation antipsychotic medication. Analyses used a latent growth modeling approach, so that individuals who missed some testing occasions could be included and trajectories of cognitive change explored despite missing data. Results Over the year there was significant decline in spatial recognition but no change in pattern recognition or motor speed. Improvement was seen in planning and spatial working memory tasks; this may reflect improved strategy use with practice. There were significant individual differences in the initial level of performance on all tasks but not in rate of change; the latter may have been due to sample size limitations. Age, sex, premorbid IQ and drug class allocation explained significant variation in level of performance but could not predict change. Patients randomized to first-generation drugs improved more quickly than other groups on the planning task. Conclusion We conclude that cognitive change is present in schizophrenia but the magnitude of change is small when compared with the large differences in cognitive function that exist between patients. Analyses that retain patients who drop out of longitudinal studies, as well as those who complete testing protocols, are important to our understanding of cognition in schizophrenia.

Barnett, Jennifer H; Croudace, Tim J; Jaycock, Sue; Blackwell, Candice; Hynes, Fiona; Sahakian, Barbara J; Joyce, Eileen M; Jones, Peter B

2007-01-01

178

Creatine supplementation and cognitive performance in elderly individuals.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of creatine supplementation on the cognitive performance of elderly people. Participants were divided into two groups, which were tested on random number generation, forward and backward number and spatial recall, and long-term memory tasks to establish a baseline level. Group 1 (n = 15) were given 5 g four times a day of placebo for 1 week, followed by the same dosage of creatine for the second week. Group 2 (n = 17) were given placebo both weeks. Participants were retested at the end of each week. Results showed a significant effect of creatine supplementation on all tasks except backward number recall. It was concluded that creatine supplementation aids cognition in the elderly. PMID:17828627

McMorris, Terry; Mielcarz, Gregorsz; Harris, Roger C; Swain, Jonathan P; Howard, Alan

2007-09-01

179

Comparing cognitive performance in illiterate and literate children  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While it is known that the process of becoming literate begins in early childhood and usually involves several years of schooling, research related to cognitive characteristics has been done mostly on illiterate adults, and information concerning illiterate children is therefore limited. The aim of the present study, involving 21 illiterate and 22 literate Mexican children aged 6 to 13, was to investigate the effects of literacy on neuropsychological characteristics during childhood. The children's performance on 16 cognitive domains of the Evaluación Neuropsicológica Infantil (ENI, Child Neuropsychological Assessment) was examined in three mixed within- and between-groups profile analyses. The results suggest that the effect of literacy observed in adults is already evident in children in almost every task analysed. Moreover, the fact that an age effect was detected for the calculation abilities suggests that maths learning is school- and environment-dependent.

Matute, Esmeralda; Montiel, Teresita; Pinto, Noemí; Rosselli, Monica; Ardila, Alfredo; Zarabozo, Daniel

2012-02-01

180

Mindfulness based cognitive therapy improves frontal control in bipolar disorder: a pilot EEG study  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive processing in Bipolar Disorder is characterized by a number of attentional abnormalities. Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy combines mindfulness meditation, a form of attentional training, along with aspects of cognitive therapy, and may improve attentional dysfunction in bipolar disorder patients. Methods 12 euthymic BD patients and 9 control participants underwent record of electroencephalography (EEG, band frequency analysis) during resting states (eyes open, eyes closed) and during the completion of a continuous performance task (A-X version, EEG event-related potential (ERP) wave component analysis). The individuals with BD completed an 8-week MBCT intervention and record of EEG was repeated. Results (1) Brain activity, individuals with BD showed significantly decreased theta band power, increased beta band power, and decreased theta/beta ratios during the resting state, eyes closed, for frontal and cingulate cortices. Post MBCT intervention improvement over the right frontal cortex was seen in the individuals with BD, as beta band power decreased. (2) Brain activation, individuals with BD showed a significant P300-like wave form over the frontal cortex during the cue. Post MBCT intervention the P300-like waveform was significantly attenuated over the frontal cortex. Conclusions Individuals with BD show decreased attentional readiness and activation of non-relevant information processing during attentional processes. These data are the first that show, MBCT in BD improved attentional readiness, and attenuated activation of non-relevant information processing during attentional processes.

2012-01-01

181

Differential effect of motivational features on training improvements in school-based cognitive training.  

PubMed

Cognitive training often utilizes game-like motivational features to keep participants engaged. It is unclear how these elements, such as feedback, reward, and theming impact player performance during training. Recent research suggests that motivation and engagement are closely related to improvements following cognitive training. We hypothesized that training paradigms featuring game-like motivational elements would be more effective than a version with no motivational elements. Five distinct motivational features were chosen for examination: a real-time scoring system, theme changes, prizes, end-of-session certificates, and scaffolding to explain the lives and leveling system included in the game. One version of the game was created with all these motivational elements included, and one was created with all of them removed. Other versions removed a single element at a time. Seven versions of a game-like n-back working memory task were then created and administered to 128 students in second through eight grade at school-based summer camps in southeastern Michigan. The inclusion of real-time scoring during play, a popular motivational component in both entertainment games and cognitive training, was found to negatively impact training improvements over the three day period. Surprisingly, scaffolding to explain lives and levels also negatively impacted training gains. The other game adjustments did not significantly impact training improvement compared to the original version of the game with all features included. These findings are preliminary and are limited by both the small sample size and the brevity of the intervention. Nonetheless, these findings suggest that certain motivational elements may distract from the core cognitive training task, reducing task improvement, especially at the initial stage of learning. PMID:24795603

Katz, Benjamin; Jaeggi, Susanne; Buschkuehl, Martin; Stegman, Alyse; Shah, Priti

2014-01-01

182

Differential effect of motivational features on training improvements in school-based cognitive training  

PubMed Central

Cognitive training often utilizes game-like motivational features to keep participants engaged. It is unclear how these elements, such as feedback, reward, and theming impact player performance during training. Recent research suggests that motivation and engagement are closely related to improvements following cognitive training. We hypothesized that training paradigms featuring game-like motivational elements would be more effective than a version with no motivational elements. Five distinct motivational features were chosen for examination: a real-time scoring system, theme changes, prizes, end-of-session certificates, and scaffolding to explain the lives and leveling system included in the game. One version of the game was created with all these motivational elements included, and one was created with all of them removed. Other versions removed a single element at a time. Seven versions of a game-like n-back working memory task were then created and administered to 128 students in second through eight grade at school-based summer camps in southeastern Michigan. The inclusion of real-time scoring during play, a popular motivational component in both entertainment games and cognitive training, was found to negatively impact training improvements over the three day period. Surprisingly, scaffolding to explain lives and levels also negatively impacted training gains. The other game adjustments did not significantly impact training improvement compared to the original version of the game with all features included. These findings are preliminary and are limited by both the small sample size and the brevity of the intervention. Nonetheless, these findings suggest that certain motivational elements may distract from the core cognitive training task, reducing task improvement, especially at the initial stage of learning.

Katz, Benjamin; Jaeggi, Susanne; Buschkuehl, Martin; Stegman, Alyse; Shah, Priti

2014-01-01

183

Glucose administration, heart rate and cognitive performance: effects of increasing mental effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: It is known that glucose administration is capable of improving performance on tests of declarative verbal memory and non-mnemonic\\u000a tasks requiring high ”mental effort”. At the same time, cognitively demanding tasks are associated with elevated heart rate,\\u000a a response that could feasibly be part of a physiological mechanism serving to increase the delivery of glucose to active\\u000a brain substrates.

David O. Kennedy; Andrew B. Scholey

2000-01-01

184

Impact of a poka-yoke device on job performance of individuals with cognitive impairments.  

PubMed

Job performance and production related issues are important not only to successful vocational training and ultimate job placement for individuals with cognitive disabilities, but also for their ability to have expanded vocational options. This study hypothesized that the application of Kaizen philosophy, and poka-yoke techniques in particular, could create job opportunities and improve productivity of individuals with cognitive disabilities. Poka-yoke or error-proofing techniques are part of the collection of Kaizen techniques. Kaizen refers to continuous improvement in performance, cost/effectiveness, and quality. Kaizen strives to empower the worker, increase worker satisfaction, facilitate a sense of accomplishment, and thereby create pride-of-work. These techniques typically reduce the physical and cognitive demands of a task and thereby render the task more accessible. The job was a fuel clamp assembly. A redesigned assembly fixture was the poka-yoke intervention. Consistent with poka-yoke principles, the intervention improved the productivity of everyone attempting the assembly. In particular, the workers in this study showed an 80% increase in productivity and an average percent error drop from 52% to about 1% after the process redesign. Furthermore, the workers showed improved morale, self-esteem, and pride-of-work. Prior to the process redesign, only the higher functioning workers could successfully perform the assembly. After the redesign a greater number of workers could successfully perform the assembly. These results not only validated the study hypothesis, but demonstrated that the success facilitated by applying Kaizen techniques had similar results with individuals with cognitive disabilities as with nondisabled workers. PMID:9749904

Erlandson, R F; Noblett, M J; Phelps, J A

1998-09-01

185

Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Factors: Affecting the Academic Performance and Retention of Conditionally Admitted Freshmen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which cognitive and non-cognitive measures predict academic success for conditionally-admitted students enrolled in a comprehensive public university. Stepwise multiple regression analyses reveal that one cognitive variable (high school grade point average) and two non-cognitive measures…

Adebayo, Bob

2008-01-01

186

Improvement in cognitive and psychosocial functioning and self image among adolescent inpatient suicide attempters  

PubMed Central

Background Psychiatric treatment of suicidal youths is often difficult and non-compliance in treatment is a significant problem. This prospective study compared characteristics and changes in cognitive functioning, self image and psychosocial functioning among 13 to 18 year-old adolescent psychiatric inpatients with suicide attempts (n = 16) and with no suicidality (n = 39) Methods The two-group pre-post test prospective study design included assessments by a psychiatrist, a psychologist and medical staff members as well as self-rated measures. DSM-III-R diagnoses were assigned using the SCID and thereafter transformed to DSM-IV diagnoses. Staff members assessed psychosocial functioning using the Global Assessment Scale (GAS). Cognitive performance was assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, while the Offer Self-Image Questionnaire (OSIQ) was used to assess the subjects' self-image. ANCOVA with repeated measures was used to test changes from entry to discharge among the suicide attempters and non suicidal patients. Logistic regression modeling was used to assess variables associated with an improvement of 10 points or more in the GAS score. Results Among suicide attempter patients, psychosocial functioning, cognitive performance and both the psychological self and body-image improved during treatment and their treatment compliance and outcome were as good as that of the non-suicidal patients. Suicidal ideation and hopelessness declined, and psychosocial functioning improved. Changes in verbal cognitive performance were more pronounced among the suicide attempters. Having an improved body-image associated with a higher probability of improvement in psychosocial functioning while higher GAS score at entry was associated with lower probability of functional improvement in both patient groups. Conclusion These findings illustrate that a multimodal treatment program seems to improve psychosocial functioning and self-image among severely disordered suicidal adolescent inpatients. There were no changes in familial relationships, possibly indicating a need for more intensive family interventions when treating suicidal youths. Multimodal inpatient treatment including an individual therapeutic relationship seems recommendable for severely impaired psychiatric inpatients tailored to the suicidal adolescent's needs.

Hintikka, Ulla; Marttunen, Mauri; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Laukkanen, Eila; Viinamaki, Heimo; Lehtonen, Johannes

2006-01-01

187

Micronutrient deficiency and cognitive and physical performance in Indian children.  

PubMed

Several micronutrient deficiencies affect functional, particularly cognition and physical performance of children. Identifying and preventing sub-clinical deficiencies may be important so that adverse effects on functional performance by these deficiencies, particularly of iron and the B vitamins, are prevented. There is also the potential for childhood micronutrient deficiencies to have long-term effects that affect health and productivity in adulthood. This is especially relevant in a developing country such as India, which faces the dual burden of malnutrition and where the prevalence of these deficiencies is high. This review highlights the extent of micronutrient deficiencies in Indian children and focuses on the effect of deficiencies of the B vitamins and iron on cognitive and physical performance in children. Most studies on multiple micronutrient supplementation or fortification in Indian school children show modest effects on cognitive and physical performance, and it is relevant to point out that these studies have largely been conducted on urban children with mild deficiency at most; children with moderate or severe deficiency have not been studied. However, diets of rural children indicate large deficits in micronutrient intake, particularly of folic acid, riboflavin and iron, and their consequences have not been studied. With the limited evidence available, a short term but economical solution to ensure adequate micronutrient intakes could be through the fortification of staple cereals taken throughout the day. As increasing household incomes translate into an increase in food expenditure and diet diversification, it may become necessary to define upper limits of intake for nutrients in India, particularly as many commercial foods are fortified. PMID:23403875

Swaminathan, S; Edward, B S; Kurpad, A V

2013-05-01

188

Neural changes after training to perform cognitive tasks  

PubMed Central

Cognitive operations requiring working memory rely on the activity of neurons in areas of the association cortex, most prominently the lateral prefrontal cortex. Human imaging and animal neurophysiological studies indicate that this activity is shaped by learning, though much is unknown about how much training alters neural activity and cortical organization. Results from non-human primates demonstrate that prior to any training in cognitive tasks, prefrontal neurons respond to stimuli, exhibit persistent activity after their offset, and differentiate between matching and non-matching stimuli presented in sequence. A number of important changes also occur after training in a working memory task. More neurons are recruited by the stimuli and exhibit higher firing rates, particularly during the delay period. Operant stimuli that need to be recognized in order to perform the task elicit higher overall rates of responses, while the variability of individual discharges and correlation of discharges between neurons decrease after training. New information is incorporated in the activity of a small population of neurons highly specialized for the task and in a larger population of neurons that exhibit modest task related information, while information about other aspects of stimuli remains present in neuronal activity. Despite such changes, the relative selectivity of the dorsal and ventral aspect of the lateral prefrontal cortex is not radically altered with regard to spatial and non-spatial stimuli after training. Collectively, these results provide insights on the nature and limits of cortical plasticity mediating cognitive tasks.

Qi, Xue-Lian; Constantinidis, Christos

2012-01-01

189

Performance monitoring following conflict: internal adjustments in cognitive control?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of strategic conflict-related adjustments in cognitive control processes on indices of performance monitoring. Previous research has examined the ability of parametric task-related manipulations to bias attention to errors; however, the present study sought to elucidate the effects of internal adjustments in control mediated by the anterior cingulate cortex on error-related conflict processing. High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were obtained from 124 healthy individuals (68 female, 66 male) during a modified Eriksen flanker task. Behavioral measures (i.e., error rates, response times [RTs]) and N2 amplitudes showed significant conflict adaptation (i.e., previous-trial congruencies influenced current-trial measures). For error trials, the error-related negativity (ERN) was more negative for errors on high-conflict (i.e., incongruent) trials following high-conflict trials relative to errors on high-conflict trials following low-conflict (i.e., congruent) trials. These findings indicate that error-related conflict-monitoring processes adjust according to the post-conflict recruitment of strategic cognitive control and suggest an ongoing interplay between conflict and internal adjustments in control resources. Interpretations from the perspective of the conflict monitoring theory of cognitive control, the reinforcement learning theory, and the response-outcome theory of the ERN are discussed. PMID:22234168

Larson, Michael J; Clayson, Peter E; Baldwin, Scott A

2012-02-01

190

Using the Cognitive Apprenticeship Web-based Argumentation System to Improve Argumentation Instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated how the instruction of argumentation skills could be promoted by using an online argumentation system. This system entitled `Cognitive Apprenticeship Web-based Argumentation' (CAWA) system was based on cognitive apprenticeship model. One hundred eighty-nine fifth grade students took part in this study. A quasi-experimental design was adopted and qualitative and quantitative analyses were used to evaluate the effectiveness of this online system in measuring students' progress in learning argumentation. The results of this study showed that different teaching strategies had effects on students' use of argumentation in the topics of daily life and the concept of `vision.' When the CAWA system was employed during the instruction and practice of argumentation on these two topics, the students' argumentation performance improved. Suggestions on how the CAWA system could be used to enhance the instruction of argumentation skills in science education were also discussed.

Tsai, Chun-Yen; Jack, Brady Michael; Huang, Tai-Chu; Yang, Jin-Tan

2012-08-01

191

Cognitive Performance in Men and Women Infected with HIV-1  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Very few studies have examined the neuropsychological performance of HIV-positive women, and even fewer have attempted a comparison of cognitive functioning by gender. The aim of this study was to describe the nature of the neuropsychological performance of HIV seropositive patients by gender. Methods. A clinical sample made up of 151 subjects was recruited to participate in this study. All of the subjects underwent the same assessment process, consisting of a neuropsychological evaluation and an interview to gather sociodemographic, toxicological, and clinical data. Results and Discussion. Despite the fact that men obtained higher scores in visual memory, attention/psychomotor speed, and abstract reasoning/verbal intelligence, these differences were not statistically significant. In contrast, significant differences were found depending on subjects' serological status. Seropositive participants' neuropsychological performance was significantly lower than that of the seronegative participants in all of the areas assessed as follows: (1) visual memory; (2) attention/psychomotor speed; (3) abstract reasoning/verbal intelligence; (4) verbal memory for texts; (5) verbal memory for digits and words. Conclusions. The results from this study reveal no significant gender differences in the cognitive performance of patients infected with HIV-1.

Failde Garrido, Jose Maria; Lameiras Fernandez, Maria; Foltz, Marika; Rodriguez Castro, Yolanda; Carrera Fernandez, Maria Victoria

2013-01-01

192

Arachnoid cysts of the left temporal fossa: impaired preoperative cognition and postoperative improvement.  

PubMed Central

Thirteen adult patients were operated on for symptomatic arachnoid cysts in the left temporal fossa; seven with an internal shunt procedure during local anaesthesia, and five with a craniotomy with fenestration of the cyst to the basal cisterns. In one patient, an initial internal shunt was transformed to a cystoperitoneal shunt. After surgery, all patients experienced relief of symptoms. Reduction of cyst volume occurred in 11 patients. The patients were tested for brain asymmetries related to language and verbal memory before and after operation, with a dichotic listening technique with simultaneous presentation of different auditory stimuli to the two ears. In the preoperative memory test, the patients showed impaired total recall compared with healthy control subjects, and recall from the right ear was significantly impaired. The patients also performed poorly in a forced attention task consisting of dichotic presentations of consonant-vowel syllables. In addition to clinical improvement, the surgical procedures led to improvements in both dichotic perception and memory. Overall memory performance was enhanced, mainly because of improved recall from the right ear. This normalisation of memory function was found as early as four hours after the operation. The results indicate that arachnoid cysts in the left temporal fossa may impair cognitive function, that neuropsychological tests are necessary to disclose these impairments, and that cognitive improvement occurs after surgery.

Wester, K; Hugdahl, K

1995-01-01

193

Improve Relationships to Improve Student Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to raise student performance have focused primarily on either relationships between adults in the system or formal curriculum. Relatively ignored has been a focus on what sociologists believe is the primary relationship of consequence for student outcomes--authority relationships between students and educators. Successful school reform is…

Arum, Richard

2011-01-01

194

Recent performance improvements on FXR  

SciTech Connect

The FXR machine is a nominal 4 kA, 20 MeV, linear induction, electron accelerator for flash radiography at LLNL. The machine met its baseline requirements in March 1982. Since then, the performance has been greatly improved. The authors have achieved stable and repeatable beam acceleration and transport, with over 80% transmission to the tungsten bremsstrahlung target located some 35 m downstream. For best stability, external beam steering has been eliminated almost entirely. They regularly produce over 500 Roentgen at 1 m from the target (TLD measurement), with a radiographic spot size of 3-5 mm. Present efforts are directed towards the development of a 4 kA tune, working interactively with particle-field and beam transport code models. A remaining uncertainty is the possible onset of RF instabilities at the higher current levels.

Kulke, B.; Kihara, R.

1983-08-01

195

Recent performance improvements on FXR  

SciTech Connect

The FXR machine is a nominal 4-kA, 20-MeV, linear-induction, electron accelerator for flash radiography at LLNL. The machine met its baseline requirements in March 1982. Since then, the performance has been greatly improved. We have achieved stable and repeatable beam acceleration and transport, with over 80% transmission to the tungsten bremsstrahlung target located some 35 m downstream. For best stability, external-beam steering has been eliminated almost entirely. We regularly produce over 500 Roentgen at 1 m from the target (TLD measurement), with a radiographic spot size of 3 to 5 mm. Present efforts are directed towards the development of a 4-kA tune, working interactively with particle-field and beam transport code models. A remaining uncertainty is the possible onset of RF instabilities at the higher current levels.

Kulke, B.; Kihara, R.

1983-01-01

196

Extending and Applying the EPIC Architecture for Human Cognition and Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is the final report for a project on the development and validation of the EPIC cognitive architecture for modeling human cognition and performance. It continued a series of ONRsponsored projects on the development of the EPIC architecture for human ...

D. E. Kieras

2011-01-01

197

Can performance of daily activities discriminate between older adults with normal cognitive function and those with Mild Cognitive Impairment?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Our primary aim was to examine whether preclinical disability in performance of cognitively-focused instrumental activities of daily living (C-IADL) tasks can discriminate between older adults with normal cognitive function and those with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The secondary purpose was to determine the two tasks with the strongest psychometric properties and assess their discriminative ability. Our goal was to generate diagnosis-relevant information about cognitive changes associated with MCI and DSM-5 Mild Neurocognitive Disorder. DESIGN Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from a cohort of individuals diagnosed with normal cognitive function or MCI. SETTING Private home locations in Pittsburgh, PA. PARTICIPANTS Older adults with remitted major depression (N=157). MEASUREMENTS Diagnosis of cognitive status was made by the Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center at the University of Pittsburgh. Performance of 8 C-IADL was measured using the criterion-referenced, observation-based Performance Assessment of Self-Care Skills (PASS). RESULTS A total of 96 older adults with normal cognitive function (mean age=72.5, SD=5.9) and 61 older adults with MCI (mean age=75.5, SD=6.3) participated. The 8 C-IADL demonstrated 81% accuracy in discriminating cognitive status (area under curve 0.81, p<0.001). Two tasks (shopping and checkbook balancing) were the most discriminating (area under curve 0.80, p<0.001); they demonstrated similar ability, as the 8 C-IADL, to discriminate cognitive status. Assessing performance on these two C-IADL takes 10–15 minutes. CONCLUSION This is the first demonstration of the discriminative ability of preclinical disability in distinguishing MCI from cognitively normal older adults. These findings highlight potential tasks, when measured with the observation-based PASS, which demonstrate increased effort for individuals with MCI. These tasks may be considered when attempting to diagnose MCI or Mild Neurocognitive Disorder in clinical practice and research.

Rodakowski, Juleen; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Butters, Meryl A.; Holm, Margo B.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Rogers, Joan C.

2014-01-01

198

Cognitive performance in methadone maintenance patients: Effects of time relative to dosing and maintenance dose level.  

PubMed

Given the long-term nature of methadone maintenance treatment, it is important to assess the extent of cognitive side effects. This study investigated cognitive and psychomotor performance in 51 methadone maintenance patients (MMP) as a function of time since last methadone dose and maintenance dose level. MMP maintained on doses ranging from 40 to 200 mg (mean = 97 mg) completed a battery of psychomotor and cognitive measures across 2 sessions, during peak and trough states, in a double-blind crossover design. Peak sessions were associated with worse performance on measures of sensory processing, psychomotor speed, divided attention, and working memory, compared with trough sessions. The effects of maintenance dose were mixed, with higher dose resulting in worse performance on aspects of attention and working memory, improved performance on executive function, and no effects on several measures. Longer treatment duration was associated with better performance on some measures, but was also associated with increased sensitivity to time since last dose (i.e., worse performance at peak vs. trough) on some measures. The results suggest that cognitive functioning can fluctuate as a function of time since last dose even in MMP who have been maintained on stable doses for an extended time (mean duration in treatment = 4 years), but worsened performance at peak is limited to a subset of functions and may not be clinically significant at these modest levels of behavioral effect. For patients on stable methadone maintenance doses, maintenance at higher doses may not significantly increase the risk of performance impairment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24548244

Rass, Olga; Kleykamp, Bethea A; Vandrey, Ryan G; Bigelow, George E; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie; Stitzer, Maxine L; Strain, Eric C; Copersino, Marc L; Mintzer, Miriam Z

2014-06-01

199

Influence of cognition and symptoms of schizophrenia on IADL performance.  

PubMed

People with schizophrenia experience difficulties with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), which are required for independent living. Yet, factors that influence IADL performance are still poorly understood. Identification of such factors will contribute to the rehabilitation process and recovery. The present study aimed to examine the influence of cognitive abilities, schizophrenia symptoms, and demographic variables on IADL functioning during acute hospital admission. The participants were 81 adults with DSM-IV chronic schizophrenia. They were assessed on the Revised Observed Tasks of Daily Living (OTDL-R), the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (Cognistat), and the Kitchen Task Assessment (KTA) at acute hospitalization. The prediction model of IADL performance at this time consists of executive functioning (explained 21% of variance), memory and abstract thinking (explained 13.5%), negative symptoms (explained 13%), age of illness onset and years of education (explained 8%). The total explained variance is 53.5%. These results provide evidence-based guidelines for the evaluation process in inpatient settings. Such guidelines are important since planning of intervention processes and appropriate community integration programs often occurs during acute hospitalization, while the structured nature of inpatient settings limits natural variability in occupational performance. PMID:20560806

Lipskaya, Lena; Jarus, Tal; Kotler, Moshe

2011-09-01

200

Cognitive and visual predictors of UFOV performance in older adults.  

PubMed

Eighty two community dwelling older adults (52 females) aged 62-92 years (mean=75) completed a battery of cognitive and visual tests selected to assess functions relevant to driving performance. These were visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, general mental competence (Mini Mental State Examination, MMSE), processing speed (Inspection Time, IT), crowding across the visual field (Proficiency of Peripheral Vision Processing, ProPerVis) and change detection (DriverScan). These six tasks provided predictor variables for performance on the Useful Field of View test (UFOV), a well validated test of fitness to drive that includes subtests for (i) processing speed; (ii) divided attention; and (iii) selective attention. Relative importance regression analyses confirmed that UFOV is sensitive to attentional and speed processes but suggested that subtest (i) primarily reflects visual acuity and contrast sensitivity; subtest (ii) is better explained by change detection and processing speed; and subtest (iii) predominantly reflects crowding and contrast sensitivity. Unexpectedly, given no evidence of substantial cognitive decline, MMSE contributed significantly to performance on the more complex subtests (ii) and (iii). PMID:24705277

Matas, Nicole A; Nettelbeck, Ted; Burns, Nicholas R

2014-09-01

201

Aerobic Exercise Improves Cognition for Older Adults with Glucose Intolerance, A Risk Factor for Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Impaired glucose regulation is a defining characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathology and has been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Although the benefits of aerobic exercise for physical health are well-documented, exercise effects on cognition have not been examined for older adults with poor glucose regulation associated with prediabetes and early T2DM. Using a randomized controlled design, twenty-eight adults (57–83 y old) meeting 2-h tolerance test criteria for glucose intolerance completed 6 months of aerobic exercise or stretching, which served as the control. The primary cognitive outcomes included measures of executive function (Trails B, Task Switching, Stroop, Self-ordered Pointing Test, and Verbal Fluency). Other outcomes included memory performance (Story Recall, List Learning), measures of cardiorespiratory fitness obtained via maximal-graded exercise treadmill test, glucose disposal during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, body fat, and fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, amyloid-? (A?40 and A?42). Six months of aerobic exercise improved executive function (MANCOVA, p = 0.04), cardiorespiratory fitness (MANOVA, p = 0.03), and insulin sensitivity (p = 0.05). Across all subjects, 6-month changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and insulin sensitivity were positively correlated (p = 0.01). For A?42, plasma levels tended to decrease for the aerobic group relative to controls (p = 0.07). The results of our study using rigorous controlled methodology suggest a cognition-enhancing effect of aerobic exercise for older glucose intolerant adults. Although replication in a larger sample is needed, our findings potentially have important therapeutic implications for a growing number of adults at increased risk of cognitive decline.

Baker, Laura D.; Frank, Laura L.; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Green, Pattie S; Wilkinson, Charles W.; McTiernan, Anne; Cholerton, Brenna A.; Plymate, Stephen R.; Fishel, Mark A.; Watson, G. Stennis; Duncan, Glen E.; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Craft, Suzanne

2011-01-01

202

Environmental enrichment and social interaction improve cognitive function and decrease reactive oxidative species in normal adult mice.  

PubMed

Environmental stimulation and increased social interactions stimulate cognitive performance, while decrease in these parameters can exacerbate cognitive decline as a function of illness, injury, or age. We examined the impact of environmental stimulation and social interactions on cognitive performance in healthy adult C57B1/6J mice. Mice were housed for 1 month individually or in groups of three (to prevent or allow social interaction) in either a standard environment (SE) or an enlarged cage containing nesting material and items classically utilized to stimulate exploration and activity ("enriched environment"; EE). Cognitive performance was tested by Y maze navigation and Novel Object Recognition (NOR; which compares the relative amount of time mice spent investigating a novel vs. a familiar object). Mice maintained for 1 month under isolated conditions in the SE statistically declined in performance versus baseline in the Y maze (p < 0.02; ANOVA). Performance under all other conditions did not change from baseline. Maintenance in groups in the SE statistically improved NOR (p < 0.01), whereas maintenance in isolation in the SE did not alter performance from baseline. Maintenance in the EE statistically improved performance in NOR for mice housed in groups and individually (p < 0.01). Maintenance under isolated conditions slightly increased reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) in brain. Environmental enrichment did not influence ROS/RNS. These findings indicate that environmental and social enrichment can positively influence cognitive performance in healthy adult mice, and support the notion that proactive approaches may delay age-related cognitive decline. PMID:24102158

Doulames, Vanessa; Lee, Sangmook; Shea, Thomas B

2014-05-01

203

Subjective Perception of Cognition is Related to Mood and Not Performance  

PubMed Central

Background Clinicians monitor cognitive effects of drugs primarily by asking patients to describe their side effects. We examined the relationship of subjective perception of cognition to mood and objective cognitive performance in healthy volunteers and neurological patients. Methods Three separate experiments using healthy adults treated with lamotrigine (LTG) and topiramate (TPM), adults with epilepsy on LTG or TPM, and patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Correlations were calculated for change scores on and off drugs in the first two experiments and for the single assessment in experiment three. Results Across all three experiments, significant correlations were more frequent (Chi square = 259; p?.000) for mood vs. subjective cognitive perception (59%) compared to subjective vs. objective cognition (2%) and mood vs. objective cognitive performance (2%). Conclusions Subjective perception of cognitive effects is related more to mood than objective performance. Clinicians should be aware of this relation when assessing patients’ cognitive complaints.

Marino, SE; Meador, KJ; Loring, DW; Okun, MS; Fernandez, HH; Fessler, AJ; Kustra, RP; Miller, JM; Ray, PG; Roy, A; Schoenberg, MR; Vahle, VJ; Werz, MA

2009-01-01

204

Alterations in cognitive performance during passive hyperthermia are task dependent  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to (1) assess the effect of passive heating upon attention and memory task performance, and (2) evaluate the effectiveness of the application of cold packs to the head on preserving these functions. Using a counterbalance design 16 subjects underwent three trials: a control (CON, 20°C, 40% rH), hot (HOT, 50°C, 50% rH) and hot with the head kept cool (HHC). In each condition, three attention tests and two memory tests were performed. Mean core, forehead and tympanic temperatures were all significantly higher (p< 0.05) during HOT (38.6° ±0.1°, 39.6° ±0.2° and 38.8°±0.1°C, respectively) and HHC (38°±0.2, 37.7°±0.3° and 37.7°C, respectively) than in CON (37.1°±0.6°, 33.3° ±0.2° and 35.9°±0.3°C, respectively). Results indicate that there was impairment in working memory with heat exposure (p < 0.05) without alteration in attentional processes. The regular application of cold packs only prevented the detrimental effect of hyperthermia on short-term memory. Our results show that impairments in cognitive function with passive hyperthermia and the beneficial effect of head cooling are task dependent and suggests that exposure to a hot environment is a competing variable to the cognitive processes.

Gaoua, Nadia; Racinais, Sebastien; Grantham, Justin; Massioui, Farid El

2011-01-01

205

Correlates of Canadian native children's reading performance: From cognitive styles to cognitive processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in reading and cognitive processing among a sample of generally poor readers were studied in order to answer two major questions: Do they have a specific cognitive style that favors global-simultaneous strategies and a weak sequential strategy? If they do not have a distinct cognitive style or strategy, but are merely poor in using sequential (Successive) strategies, then,

J. P. Das; Troy Janzen; George K. Georgiou

2007-01-01

206

Improving pulverized coal plant performance  

SciTech Connect

A major deliverable of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project ``Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emissions Boiler Systems`` (LEBS) is the design of a large, in this case 400 MWe, commercial generating unit (CGU) which will meet the Project objectives. The overall objective of the LEBS Project is to dramatically improve environmental performance of future pulverized coal fired power plants without adversely impacting efficiency or the cost of electricity. The DOE specified the use of near-term technologies, i.e., advanced technologies that partially developed, to reduce NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions to be substantially less than current NSPS limits. In addition, air toxics must be in compliance and waste must be reduced and made more disposable. The design being developed by the ABB Team is projected to meet all the contract objectives and to reduce emission of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particulates to one-fifth to one-tenth NSPS limits while increasing net station efficiency significantly and reducing the cost of electricity. This design and future work are described in the paper.

Regan, J.W.; Borio, R.W.; Palkes, M.; Mirolli, M. [ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Wesnor, J.D. [ABB Environmental Systems, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bender, D.J. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc., New York, NY (United States)

1995-12-31

207

Applying Neuroscience to Enhance Tactical Leader Cognitive Performance in Combat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Army relies on tactical-level leaders not for their physical warfighting skills, but for their ability to employ cognitive thought during stressful situations. Cognitive tasks include sensing patterns, deciphering complex environments, creating n...

A. C. Steadman

2011-01-01

208

Effects of isradipine on cocaine-induced changes in cognitive performance in recently abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals.  

PubMed

Recently abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals, compared with healthy controls, appear more likely to exhibit deficits in cognitive performance and attention. Individuals with such cognitive deficits might be less able to avail themselves of rehabilitative or relapse-prevention efforts. Pharmacotherapy that reduces the impairment in cognitive performance among cocaine-dependent individuals would be a useful clinical tool. Preclinical and human studies suggest that the dihydropyridine-class calcium-channel antagonist, isradipine, can enhance neurocognitive function in some neuropsychiatric disorders. Isradipine, presumably by increasing cerebral blood flow and its actions at various neurotransmitter systems, might, therefore, ameliorate the impairment in cognitive performance and attention seen in cocaine addicts and enhance the expected modest improvement in performance during acute cocaine-taking in these same individuals. Among 12 male and female cocaine-dependent individuals, we examined the effects of low and high doses of intravenous cocaine (0, 0.325, and 0.650 mg/kg) on cognitive performance and attention in both the presence and absence of isradipine (0 or 30 mg sustained release each evening prior to testing, plus 0 or 15 mg immediate release each morning 2 h before the cocaine or placebo cocaine infusion and on the day of testing). Intravenous cocaine produced a modest increase in cognitive performance and attention. Isradipine, both with and without cocaine, had no effect on these same parameters. Hence, cocaine-taking by cocaine-dependent individuals produces little improvement in cognitive performance and attention in either the presence or absence of isradipine. PMID:15916717

Johnson, Bankole A; Roache, John D; Ait-Daoud, Nassima; Wallace, Christopher L; Wells, Lynda T; Wang, Yanmei; Dawes, Michael A

2005-12-01

209

How does emotion influence different creative performances? The mediating role of cognitive flexibility.  

PubMed

Cognitive flexibility is proposed to be one of the factors underlying how positive emotions can improve creativity. However, previous works have seldom set up or empirically measured an independent index to demonstrate its mediating effect, nor have they investigated its mediating role on different types of creative performances, which involve distinct processes. In this study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to positive, neutral or negative affect conditions. Their levels of cognitive flexibility were then measured by a switch task. Finally, their creative performances were calibrated by either an open-ended divergent thinking test or a closed-ended insight problem-solving task. The results showed that positive emotional states could reduce switch costs and enhance both types of creative performances. However, cognitive flexibility exhibited a full mediating effect only on the relationship between positive emotion and insight problem solving, but not between positive emotion and divergent thinking. Divergent thinking was instead more associated with arousal level. These results suggest that emotions might influence different creative performances through distinct mechanisms. PMID:24237485

Lin, Wei-Lun; Tsai, Ping-Hsun; Lin, Hung-Yu; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

2014-08-01

210

Improving memory in Parkinson's disease: a healthy brain ageing cognitive training program.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of a multifactorial 'healthy brain ageing cognitive training program' for Parkinson's disease. Using a single-blinded waitlist control design, 50 participants with Parkinson's disease were recruited from the Brain & Mind Research Institute, Sydney, Australia. The intervention encompassed both psychoeducation and cognitive training; each component lasted 1-hour. The 2-hour sessions were delivered in a group format, twice-weekly over a 7-week period. Multifactorial psychoeducation was delivered by a range of health professionals. In addition to delivering cognitive strategies, it targeted depression, anxiety, sleep, vascular risk factors, diet, and exercise. Cognitive training was computer-based and was conducted by clinical neuropsychologists. The primary outcome was memory. Secondary outcomes included other aspects of cognition and knowledge pertaining to the psychoeducation material. Results demonstrated that cognitive training was associated with significant improvements in learning and memory corresponding to medium to large effect sizes. Treatment was also associated with medium effect size improvements in knowledge. Although the study was limited by the lack of randomized allocation to treatment and control groups, these findings suggest that a healthy brain ageing cognitive training program may be a viable tool to improve memory and/or slow cognitive decline in people with Parkinson's disease. It also appeared successful for increasing awareness of adaptive and/or compensatory cognitive strategies, as well as modifiable risk factors to optimize brain functioning. PMID:23630134

Naismith, Sharon L; Mowszowski, Loren; Diamond, Keri; Lewis, Simon J G

2013-07-01

211

Human performance cognitive-behavioral modeling: a benefit for occupational safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human Performance Modeling (HPM) is a computer-aided job analysis software methodology used to generate predictions of complex human-automation integration and system flow patterns with the goal of improving operator and system safety. The use of HPM tools has recently been increasing due to reductions in computational cost, augmentations in the tools' fidelity, and usefulness in the generated output. An examination of an Air Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (Air MIDAS) model evaluating complex human-automation integration currently underway at NASA Ames Research Center will highlight the importance to occupational safety of considering both cognitive and physical aspects of performance when researching human error.

Gore, Brian F.

2002-01-01

212

Cognitive-motor performance of methadone-maintained patients.  

PubMed

Fifty-four methadone-maintained patients and 54 healthy controls, matched for age, gender and educational attainment, completed a battery of six cognitive-psychomotor performance tests. Results of previous studies were replicated in four areas. An attention task was performed less well by patients [mean difference more than 0.7 standard deviations (SD)] as was a tachistoscopic perception task (0. 3 SD). On a simple-choice reaction test, patients showed higher speed in decision making and motor reaction as well as an increased number of decision errors (0.3 SD each). Performing a tracking test, patients showed less deviations (0.4 SD) combined with more time needed (0.8 SD). Our data go beyond previous (seemingly inconsistent) research findings by showing that patients did less well by more than 0.6 SD when on higher speed levels. Absolving a test on visual structuring, more patients than controls achieved a 100% accuracy level (52 vs. 30%), but at the same time patients were slower (0.6 SD) than controls. An inferior test performance of patients in methadone maintenance treatment has been confirmed in some areas, especially in attention. However, the fairly moderate size of these effects and the fact that in the majority of measures the observed variance was better explained by sociodemographic features than by group membership lead on the conclusion that belonging to the group of methadone patients alone is not necessarily sufficient to predict an impairment in cognitive-psychomotor skills. To conclude, assessment of fitness for certain tasks or occupations should be done individually for each patient and should take into account comorbidity, including the extent of alcohol and other drug use. PMID:10729738

Specka, M; Finkbeiner, T; Lodemann, E; Leifert, K; Kluwig, J; Gastpar, M

2000-03-01

213

Cognitive Performance and Neural Correlates of Detecting Driving Hazards in Healthy Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: In spite of the growing number of seniors who drive and their relatively frequent involvement in accidents, little is known about the cognitive substrates of road hazard recognition and their relationship with general cognitive performance in this population. We aimed to investigate, using a combination of functional MRI (fMRI) and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, the anatomical and cognitive components

Victor A. Hirth; Ben Davis; Julius Fridriksson; Chris Rorden; Leonardo Bonilha

2007-01-01

214

Effects of Cognitive Styles on 2D Drafting and Design Performance in Digital Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the interactions between design students' cognitive styles, as measured by Riding's Cognitive Styles Analysis, and performance in 2D drafting and design tasks in digital media. An empirical research revealed that Imager students outperformed Verbalisers in both drafting and creativity scores. Wholist-Analytic cognitive

Pektas, Sule Tasli

2010-01-01

215

Cognitive performance in recreational users of MDMA or 'ecstasy': evidence for memory deficits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive task performance was assessed in three groups of young people: 10 regular users of 3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) who had taken 'ecstasy' 10 times or more; 10 novice MDMA users who had taken 'ecstasy' one to nine times; and 10 control subjects who had never taken MDMA. A computerized battery of cognitive tasks (Cognitive Drug Research system) was undertaken on

A. C. Parrott; A. Lees; N. J. Garnham; M. Jones; K. Wesnes

1998-01-01

216

Heritability in Cognitive Performance: Evidence Using Computer-Based Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is overwhelming evidence of genetic influence on cognition. The effect is seen in general cognitive ability, as well as in specific cognitive domains. A conventional assessment approach using face-to-face paper and pencil testing is difficult for large-scale studies. Computerized neurocognitive testing is a suitable alternative. A total of…

Hervey, Aaron S.; Greenfield, Kathryn; Gualtieri, C. Thomas

2012-01-01

217

Measurement of cognitive performance in computer programming concept acquisition: interactive effects of visual metaphors and the cognitive style construct.  

PubMed

An innovative research program was devised to investigate the interactive effect of instructional strategies enhanced with text-plus-textual metaphors or text-plus-graphical metaphors, and cognitive style on the acquisition of programming concepts. The Cognitive Styles Analysis (CSA) program (Riding,1991) was used to establish the participants' cognitive style. The QUEST Interactive Test Analysis System (Adams and Khoo,1996) provided the cognitive performance measuring tool, which ensured an absence of error measurement in the programming knowledge testing instruments. Therefore, reliability of the instrumentation was assured through the calibration techniques utilized by the QUEST estimate; providing predictability of the research design. A means analysis of the QUEST data, using the Cohen (1977) approach to size effect and statistical power further quantified the significance of the findings. The experimental methodology adopted for this research links the disciplines of instructional science, cognitive psychology, and objective measurement to provide reliable mechanisms for beneficial use in the evaluation of cognitive performance by the education, training and development sectors. Furthermore, the research outcomes will be of interest to educators, cognitive psychologists, communications engineers, and computer scientists specializing in computer-human interactions. PMID:12029171

McKay, E

2000-01-01

218

Gender differences in premorbid cognitive performance in a national cohort of schizophrenic patients.  

PubMed

Despite significant research, there are still inconsistent findings regarding gender differences in cognitive performance in individuals already diagnosed with schizophrenia; studies have found that males suffering from schizophrenia are more, less or equally impaired compared with females. Gender differences in cognitive performance in individuals suffering from schizophrenia may be influenced by gender differences in premorbid cognitive performance; the very few and very small N studies published indicated that males have a poorer pre-morbid cognitive performance than females. This study examined the gender differences in premorbid cognition, utilizing cognitive assessments performed on female and male adolescents before induction into military service. The Israeli Draft Board Registry, which contains cognitive assessments equivalent to IQ scores on 16-18 year old Israeli adolescents, was linked with the Israeli National Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry, which records all psychiatric hospitalizations in the country. Scores on premorbid cognitive performance in schizophrenia were examined in 90 female-male case pairs matched for school attended as a proxy for socio-economic status. The mean age of first hospitalization was 20. 1+/-1.8 years of age for males and 19.6+/-1.8 years of age for females. A repeated-measures ANCOVA with age of first hospitalization and years of formal education as covariates, and controlling for gender differences in cognitive performance in healthy adolescents, revealed a significant difference in pre-morbid cognitive performance between males and females on all four cognitive measures [F(1,87)=8.07, P=0.006] with females scoring lower (worse) than males. In this national cohort, pre-morbid cognition was poorer in female, compared with male, adolescents who will suffer from schizophrenia in the future, a result consistent with some, but not all, similar studies. These results may be valid only for patients with first hospitalization around age 20. Hence, gender differences in premorbid cognition should be taken into account when assessing gender differences in cognition in schizophrenia. PMID:11042436

Weiser, M; Reichenberg, A; Rabinowitz, J; Kaplan, Z; Mark, M; Nahon, D; Davidson, M

2000-10-27

219

Improving cognitive abilities of elderly Alzheimer's patients with intense exercise therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on changes in the cognitive abilities of Alzheimer's patients residing in two separate long term care facilities as they were part of a group exercise therapy program. The research problem of this study was how to measure possible improvement in cognitive abilities in this population. The sample consisted of43 elderly (65-98 years old) Alzheimer's patients who resided

G. Frank Lindenmuth; Barbara Moose

1990-01-01

220

Effectiveness of a Cognitive Strategy Intervention in Improving Arithmetic Computation Based on the PASS Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated whether an instruction designed to facilitate planning would have differential effects depending on specific planning, attention, simultaneous, successive (PASS) cognitive characteristics of 19 students (ages 12-14) with learning disabilities and mild mental impairments. Children with a cognitive weakness in planning improved

Naglieri, Jack A.; Johnson, Deanne

2000-01-01

221

Improving Performance in a Nuclear Cardiology Department  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improving performance in the medical industry is an area that is ideally suited for the tools advocated by the International Society of Performance Improvement (ISPI). This paper describes an application of the tools that have been developed by Dale Brethower and Geary Rummler, two pillars of the performance improvement industry. It allows the…

LaFleur, Doug; Smalley, Karolyn; Austin, John

2005-01-01

222

Does duloxetine improve cognitive function independently of its antidepressant effect in patients with major depressive disorder and subjective reports of cognitive dysfunction?  

PubMed

Introduction. Cognitive deficits are commonly reported by patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Duloxetine, a dual serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, may improve cognitive deficits in MDD. It is unclear if cognitive improvements occur independently of antidepressant effects with standard antidepressant medications. Methods. Thirty participants with MDD who endorsed cognitive deficits at screening received 12-week duloxetine treatment. Twenty-one participants completed treatment and baseline and posttreatment cognitive testing. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery was used to assess the following cognitive domains: attention, visual memory, executive function/set shifting and working memory, executive function/spatial planning, decision making and response control, and verbal learning and memory. Results. Completers showed significant cognitive improvements across several domains on tasks assessing psychomotor function and mental processing speed, with additional improvements in visual and verbal learning and memory, and affective decision making and response control. Overall significance tests for executive function tasks were also significant, although individual tasks were not, perhaps due to the small sample size. Most notably, cognitive improvements were observed independently of symptom reduction on all domains except verbal learning and memory. Conclusions. Patients reporting baseline cognitive deficits achieved cognitive improvements with duloxetine treatment, most of which were independent of symptomatic improvement. This trial is registered with NCT00933439. PMID:24563781

Greer, Tracy L; Sunderajan, Prabha; Grannemann, Bruce D; Kurian, Benji T; Trivedi, Madhukar H

2014-01-01

223

Nicotinamide Forestalls Pathology and Cognitive Decline in Alzheimer Mice: Evidence for Improved Neuronal Bioenergetics and Autophagy Procession  

PubMed Central

Impaired brain energy metabolism and oxidative stress are implicated in cognitive decline and the pathological accumulations of amyloid ?-peptide (A?) and hyperphosphorylated Tau (p-Tau) in Alzheimer's disease (AD). To determine whether improving brain energy metabolism will forestall disease progress in AD, the impact of the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide on brain cell mitochondrial function and macroautophagy, bioenergetics-related signaling and cognitive performance were studied in cultured neurons and in a mouse model of AD. Oxidative stress resulted in decreased mitochondrial mass, mitochondrial degeneration and autophagosome accumulation in neurons. Nicotinamide preserved mitochondrial integrity and autophagy function, and reduced neuronal vulnerability to oxidative/metabolic insults and A? toxicity. NAD+ biosynthesis, autophagy and PI3K signaling were required for the neuroprotective action of nicotinamide. Treatment of 3xTgAD mice with nicotinamide for 8 months resulted in improved cognitive performance, and reduced A? and p-Tau pathologies in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Nicotinamide treatment preserved mitochondrial integrity, and improved autophagy-lysosome procession by enhancing lysosome/autolysosome acidification to reduce autophagosome accumulation. Treatment of 3xTgAD mice with nicotinamide resulted in elevated levels of activated neuroplasticity-related kinases (Akt and ERKs) and the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element-binding protein in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Thus, nicotinamide suppresses AD pathology and cognitive decline in a mouse model of AD by a mechanism involving improved brain bioenergetics with preserved functionality of mitochondria and the autophagy system.

Liu, Dong; Pitta, Michael; Jiang, Haiyang; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Zhang, Guofeng; Chen, Xinzhi; Kawamoto, Elisa M.; Mattson, Mark P.

2012-01-01

224

Improvements in Iron Status and Cognitive Function in Young Women Consuming Beef or Non-Beef Lunches  

PubMed Central

Iron status is associated with cognitive performance and intervention trials show that iron supplementation improves mental function in iron-deficient adults. However, no studies have tested the efficacy of naturally iron-rich food in this context. This investigation measured the hematologic and cognitive responses to moderate beef consumption in young women. Participants (n = 43; age 21.1 ± 0.4 years) were randomly assigned to a beef or non-beef protein lunch group [3-oz (85 g), 3 times weekly] for 16 weeks. Blood was sampled at baseline, and weeks 8 and 16, and cognitive performance was measured at baseline and week 16. Body iron increased in both lunch groups (p < 0.0001), with greater improvement demonstrated in women with lower baseline body iron (p < 0.0001). Body iron had significant beneficial effects on spatial working memory and planning speed (p < 0.05), and ferritin responders (n = 17) vs. non-responders (n = 26) showed significantly greater improvements in planning speed, spatial working memory strategy, and attention (p < 0.05). Lunch group had neither significant interactions with iron status nor consistent main effects on test performance. These findings support a relationship between iron status and cognition, but do not show a particular benefit of beef over non-beef protein consumption on either measure in young women.

Blanton, Cynthia

2013-01-01

225

Balance, Sensorimotor, and Cognitive Performance in Long-Year Expert Senior Ballroom Dancers  

PubMed Central

Physical fitness is considered a major factor contributing to the maintenance of independent living and everyday competence. In line with this notion, it has been shown that several years of amateur dancing experience can exert beneficial effects not only on balance and posture but also on tactile, motor, and cognitive functions in older people. This raises the question of whether an even more extensive schedule of dancing, including competitive tournaments, would further enhance these positive effects. We therefore assessed posture, balance, and reaction times, as well as motor, tactile, and cognitive performance in older expert ballroom dancers with several years of competitive experience. We found substantially better performance in the expert group than in the controls in terms of expertise-related domains like posture, balance, and reaction times. However, there was no generalization of positive effects to those domains that were found to be improved in amateur dancers, such as tactile and cognitive performance, suggesting that there might be an optimal range of intervention intensity to maintain health and independence throughout the human lifespan.

Kattenstroth, Jan-Christoph; Kalisch, Tobias; Kolankowska, Izabela; Dinse, Hubert R.

2011-01-01

226

Striatal Volume Increases in Active Methamphetamine-Dependent Individuals and Correlation with Cognitive Performance  

PubMed Central

The effect of methamphetamine (MA) dependence on the structure of the human brain has not been extensively studied, especially in active users. Previous studies reported cortical deficits and striatal gains in grey matter (GM) volume of abstinent MA abusers compared with control participants. This study aimed to investigate structural GM changes in the brains of 17 active MA-dependent participants compared with 20 control participants aged 18–46 years using voxel-based morphometry and region of interest volumetric analysis of structural magnetic resonance imaging data, and whether these changes might be associated with cognitive performance. Significant volume increases were observed in the right and left putamen and left nucleus accumbens of MA-dependent compared to control participants. The volumetric gain in the right putamen remained significant after Bonferroni correction, and was inversely correlated with the number of errors (standardised z-scores) on the Go/No-go task. MA-dependent participants exhibited cortical GM deficits in the left superior frontal and precentral gyri in comparison to control participants, although these findings did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. In conclusion, consistent with findings from previous studies of abstinent users, active chronic MA-dependent participants showed significant striatal enlargement which was associated with improved performance on the Go/No-go, a cognitive task of response inhibition and impulsivity. Striatal enlargement may reflect the involvement of neurotrophic effects, inflammation or microgliosis. However, since it was associated with improved cognitive function, it is likely to reflect a compensatory response to MA-induced neurotoxicity in the striatum, in order to maintain cognitive function. Follow-up studies are recommended to ascertain whether this effect continues to be present following abstinence. Several factors may have contributed to the lack of more substantial cortical and subcortical GM changes amongst MA-dependent participants, including variability in MA exposure variables and difference in abstinence status from previous studies.

Jan, Reem K.; Lin, Joanne C.; Miles, Sylvester W.; Kydd, Rob R.; Russell, Bruce R.

2012-01-01

227

Developing models of how cognitive improvements change functioning: Mediation, moderation and moderated mediation  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive remediation (CRT) affects functioning but the extent and type of cognitive improvements necessary are unknown. Aim To develop and test models of how cognitive improvement transfers to work behaviour using the data from a current service. Method Participants (N49) with a support worker and a paid or voluntary job were offered CRT in a Phase 2 single group design with three assessments: baseline, post therapy and follow-up. Working memory, cognitive flexibility, planning and work outcomes were assessed. Results Three models were tested (mediation — cognitive improvements drive functioning improvement; moderation — post treatment cognitive level affects the impact of CRT on functioning; moderated mediation — cognition drives functioning improvements only after a certain level is achieved). There was evidence of mediation (planning improvement associated with improved work quality). There was no evidence that cognitive flexibility (total Wisconsin Card Sorting Test errors) and working memory (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III digit span) mediated work functioning despite significant effects. There was some evidence of moderated mediation for planning improvement if participants had poorer memory and/or made fewer WCST errors. The total CRT effect on work quality was d = 0.55, but the indirect (planning-mediated CRT effect) was d = 0.082 Conclusion Planning improvements led to better work quality but only accounted for a small proportion of the total effect on work outcome. Other specific and non-specific effects of CRT and the work programme are likely to account for some of the remaining effect. This is the first time complex models have been tested and future Phase 3 studies need to further test mediation and moderated mediation models.

Wykes, Til; Reeder, Clare; Huddy, Vyv; Taylor, Rumina; Wood, Helen; Ghirasim, Natalia; Kontis, Dimitrios; Landau, Sabine

2012-01-01

228

Performance-Based Measures of Everyday Function in Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Objective The view that everyday function is preserved in mild cognitive impairment may be problematic. The objectives of this study were to determine the magnitude of impairment in everyday function in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease using a novel sensitive performance-based measure (the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment; UPSA), contrast it with use of an informant-based measure (the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study–Activities of Daily Living Inventory; ADCS-ADL), and model the relationship between cognitive measures and the performance-based measure. Method Fifty cognitively normal elders, 26 patients who met criteria for amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and 22 patients who suffered from mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease were assessed on the UPSA, the ADCS-ADL, and a battery of neurocognitive tests. Results Patients with mild cognitive impairment had significant impairments on the UPSA but not on the ADCS-ADL. The magnitude of the effect size between the cognitively healthy and the mild cognitive impairment group for the UPSA was large (d=0.86). A strong and significant relationship was observed between cognitive performances in speed (R2=0.37), episodic memory (R2=0.10), and semantic processing (R2=0.03) and UPSA score using multiple regression models. The psychometric properties of the UPSA were acceptable, as were its sensitivity and specificity in contrasts between cognitively normal elders and patients with mild cognitive impairment and between the latter group and patients with Alzheimer's disease. Conclusions These findings indicate that performance-based measures of function may be a sensitive tool in studies of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment and suggest the need for a reconceptualization of the relationship between cognition and function in mild cognitive impairment so that they can be usefully aligned.

Goldberg, Terry E.; Koppel, Jeremy; Keehlisen, Lynda; Christen, Erica; Dreses-Werringloer, Ute; Conejero-Goldberg, Concepcion; Gordon, Marc L.; Davies, Peter

2010-01-01

229

Performance Pay Path to Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary goal of performance pay for the past decade has been higher test scores, and the most prominent strategy has been to increase teacher performance through financial incentives. If teachers are rewarded for success, according to this logic, they will try harder. If they try harder, more children will achieve higher test scores. The…

Gratz, Donald B.

2011-01-01

230

EFFECT OF SEIZURE CONTROL ON IMPROVEMENT OF COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS IN EPILEPTIC PATIENTS  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY A group of fifty epileptic patients were tested with neuropsychological tools for cognitive functions like memory, intelligence, visuomotor coordination, spatial perception and body schema perception. Patients were on carbamazepine and were tested after three months. Seizure improvement was shown to have different effects on different cognitive functions. Memory and intellectual deficits improved, while no difference was observed in visuomotor coordination, spatial and personal perception.

Nainian, M.R.; Behere, P.B.; Mohanti, S.

1993-01-01

231

Cognitive ability, personality, and academic performance in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does positive thinking predict variance in school grades over and above that predicted by cognitive ability? Six hundred and thirty nine high school students participated in a three-year longitudinal study that predicted grades using cognitive ability and three positive thinking variables – self-esteem, hope, and attributional style. Hope, positive attributional style and cognitive ability predicted higher grades, whilst self-esteem was

Peter Leeson; Joseph Ciarrochi; Patrick C. L. Heaven

2008-01-01

232

Gas-turbine performance improvements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of gas turbines is increasing for producing electricity, operating airplanes and for various industrial applications. In the last three decades, improvements in gas turbines have shown their success in increasing the amount of energy output from power stations. This is because of advances in metallurgical science and especially the materials used in gas turbines, so that it is

Omar Othman Badran

1999-01-01

233

Linkages of biomarkers of zinc with cognitive performance and taste acuity in adolescent girls.  

PubMed

Abstract A cross-sectional study (n?=?403) was conducted to examine the relationship of plasma zinc (PZ) and erythrocyte zinc (EZ) levels with cognitive performance and taste acuity for salt in Indian adolescent girls. PZ, EZ and hemoglobin were estimated in schoolgirls (10-16 years). Cognitive performance was assessed by simple-reaction-time (SRT), recognition-reaction-time (RRT), visual-memory, Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test. Taste acuity was determined by recognition-thresholds-for-salt (RTS) using 10 different salt concentrations. Low PZ (<0.7?mg/l) and EZ (<8?µg/g of packed cells) were observed in 72% and 23.6% of girls, respectively. PZ and EZ were negatively associated with SRT (r?=?-0.41, -0.34), RRT (r?=?-0.49, -0.4), and positively with Memory (r?=?0.43, 0.34) and RPM (r?=?0.39, 0.31; p?cognition and taste function implying need for improving their dietary zinc intakes. PMID:24490852

Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Kawade, Rama

2014-06-01

234

Effects of memantine and galantamine on cognitive performance in aged rhesus macaques.  

PubMed

Current pharmacotherapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) are focused on improving performance of daily activities, personal care, and management of problematic behaviors. Both memantine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate channel blocker and galantamine, a selective acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, are currently prescribed as symptomatic therapies for AD. However, drugs that progressed directly from testing in rodent models to testing in AD patients in clinical trials failed to demonstrate consistent effects on cognitive symptoms. Considering the lack of nonhuman primate data on the effects of memantine and galantamine alone or in combination on cognitive dysfunction in aged nonhuman primates, the present study examined how closely data derived from aged nonhuman primates reflects data obtained in humans. Mild beneficial effects on aspects of cognitive performance in aged primates were found, in general agreement with the human clinical experience with these drugs but in contrast to the more positive effects reported in the rodent literature. These data suggest that the nonhuman primate might have more predictive validity for drug development in this area than comparable rodent assays. PMID:23158762

Schneider, Jay S; Pioli, Elsa Y; Jianzhong, Yang; Li, Qin; Bezard, Erwan

2013-04-01

235

Slow release caffeine and prolonged (64-h) continuous wakefulness: effects on vigilance and cognitive performance.  

PubMed

Some long work or shift work schedules necessitate an elevated and prolonged level of vigilance and performance but often result in sleep deprivation (SD), fatigue and sleepiness, which may impair efficiency. This study investigated the effects of a slow-release caffeine [(SRC) at the daily dose of 600 mg] on vigilance and cognitive performance during a 64 h continuous wakefulness period. Sixteen healthy males volunteered for this double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled, two-way crossover study. A total of 300-mg SRC or placebo (PBO) was given twice a day at 21:00 and 9:00 h during the SD period. Vigilance was objectively assessed with continuous electroencephalogram (EEG), the multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT) and wrist actigraphy. Cognitive functions (information processing and working memory), selective and divided attention were determined with computerised tests from the AGARD-NATO STRES Battery (Standardised Tests for Research with Environmental Stressors). Attention was also assessed with a symbol cancellation task and a Stroop's test; alertness was appreciated from visual analogue scales (VAS). Tests were performed at the hypo (02:00-04:00 h, 14:00-16:00 h) and hypervigilance (10:00-12:00 h, 22:00-00:00 h) periods during SD. Central temperature was continuously measured and safety of treatment was assessed from repeated clinical examinations. Compared with PBO, MSLT showed that SRC subjects were more vigilant from the onset (P=0.001) to the end of SD (P < 0.0001) whereas some cognitive functions were improved till the thirty third of SD but others were ameliorated through all the SD period and alertness was better from the thirteenth hour of SD, as shown by Stroop's test (P=0.048). We showed that 300-mg SRC given twice daily during a 64-h SD is able to antagonize the impairment produced on vigilance and cognitive functions. PMID:11903856

Beaumont, M; Batejat, D; Pierard, C; Coste, O; Doireau, P; Van Beers, P; Chauffard, F; Chassard, D; Enslen, M; Denis, J B; Lagarde, D

2001-12-01

236

Mindfulness meditation improves cognition: Evidence of brief mental training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although research has found that long-term mindfulness meditation practice promotes executive functioning and the ability to sustain attention, the effects of brief mindfulness meditation training have not been fully explored. We examined whether brief meditation training affects cognition and mood when compared to an active control group. After four sessions of either meditation training or listening to a recorded book,

Fadel Zeidan; Susan K. Johnson; Bruce J. Diamond; Zhanna David; Paula Goolkasian

2010-01-01

237

An investigation into the effects of tDCS dose on cognitive performance over time in patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia underlie more functional disability than any other symptom of the illness and existing treatments are largely inadequate. Non-invasive brain stimulation has been shown to enhance aspects of cognition in both healthy controls and patient populations; however there has been very little research into the use of tDCS for enhancing cognitive performance in schizophrenia. We conducted an initial investigation into the post stimulation effects of tDCS on cognitive performance in a repeated measures design in 18 patients with schizophrenia; in particular looking at dose of stimulation. Specifically, we provided a single 20-minute session of anodal left dorsolateral prefrontal tDCS (1mA, 2mA, sham) and measured performance on a working memory task across three time points post-stimulation (0, 20 and 40min). Our results revealed a significant improvement in performance over time following 2mA stimulation only. These findings speak to the feasibility of tDCS for enhancing cognitive performance in schizophrenia, as well as the importance of dose of stimulation. PMID:24703529

Hoy, Kate E; Arnold, Sara L; Emonson, Melanie R L; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Fitzgerald, Paul B

2014-05-01

238

Impact of Sociodemographic Characteristics on Cognitive Performance in an Elderly Sicilian Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess cognitive levels in an elderly Sicilian population and to evaluate the role of education and other sociodemographic characteristics in cognitive performance. Background: The pattern of cognitive performance in the elderly has not been investigated extensively in well-defined Italian populations. This study was conducted as part of a door-to-door survey of common neurologic disorders (the Sicilian Neuro-Epidemiologic Study

Giuseppe Salemi; Arturo Reggio; Letterio Morgante; Francesco Grigoletto; Francesco Patti; Francesca Meneghini; Paolo Aridon; Raoul Di Perri; Giovanni Savettieri

2002-01-01

239

Cognitive performance of neuromyelitis optica patients: comparison with multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

The aim of the present research was to investigate cognitive pattern of patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and to compare it with multiple sclerosis (MS) patients' performance. Methods: Fourteen NMO, 14 relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and 14 healthy control patients participated in the investigation. Neuropsychological functions were evaluated with the Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery for MS; Symbol Digit Modalities Test; Digit Span; and Semantic Fluency. Results: Fifty-seven percent of NMO patients and 42.85% of the MS ones had abnormal performance in at least two cognitive tests. The NMO Group showed abnormal performance in verbal fluency, verbal and visual memories, with greater attention deficits. NMO patients outperformed healthy control in the paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT). However, no difference was found between NMO and RRMS patients. Conclusions: The NMO Group showed more dysfunction in attention and verbal fluencies than in verbal and visual memories. When compared with the MS patients, a similar dysfunction pattern was found. O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi investigar o padrão cognitivo de pacientes com neuromielite óptica (NMO) e compará-lo com o desempenho de pacientes com esclerose múltipla (EM). Métodos: Quatorze pacientes com NMO, 14 com esclerose múltipla recorrente remitente (EMRR) e 14 participantes do Controle saudáveis participaram da presente investigação. As funções neuropsicológicas foram avaliadas com a Bateria Breve de Testes Neuropsicológicos de Rao, Teste Símbolo Digit e a Fluência Semântica. Resultados: Cinquenta e sete por cento dos pacientes com NMO e 42,85% daqueles com EM apresentaram desempenho anormal em pelo menos dois testes cognitivos. O Grupo NMO apresentarou desempenho anormal na fluência verbal e nas memórias visual e verbal, com maiores déficits de atenção. Pacientes com NMO superaram os controles saudáveis em PASAT. No entanto, não foi encontrada diferença entre os pacientes com NMO e aqueles com EMRR. Conclusões: O Grupo NMO mostrou mais disfunção nas fluências de atenção e verbais do que nas memórias verbal e visual. Quando comparados com os pacientes com EM, um padrão de disfunção semelhante foi encontrado. PMID:23828523

Vanotti, Sandra; Cores, Evangelina Valeria; Eizaguirre, Barbara; Melamud, Luciana; Rey, Raúl; Villa, Andrés

2013-06-01

240

Recombinant human growth hormone improves cognitive capacity in a pain patient exposed to chronic opioids.  

PubMed

During recent decades, the increasing use of opioids for chronic non-cancer pain has raised concerns regarding tolerance, addiction, and importantly cognitive dysfunction. Current research suggests that the somatotrophic axis could play an important role in cognitive function. Administration of growth hormone (GH) to GH-deficient humans and experimental animals has been shown to result in significant improvements in cognitive capacity. In this report, a patient with cognitive disabilities resulting from chronic treatment with opioids for neuropathic pain received recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) replacement therapy. A 61-year-old man presented with severe cognitive dysfunction after long-term methadone treatment for intercostal neuralgia and was diagnosed with GH insufficiency by GH releasing hormone-arginine testing. The effect of rhGH replacement therapy on his cognitive capacity and quality of life was investigated. The hippocampal volume was measured using magnetic resonance imaging, and the ratios of the major metabolites were calculated using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Cognitive testing revealed significant improvements in visuospatial cognitive function after rhGH. The hippocampal volume remained unchanged. In the right hippocampus, the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio (reflecting nerve cell function) was initially low but increased significantly during rhGH treatment, as did subjective cognitive, physical and emotional functioning. This case report indicates that rhGH replacement therapy could improve cognitive behaviour and well-being, as well as hippocampal metabolism and functioning in opioid-treated patients with chronic pain. The idea that GH could affect brain function and repair disabilities induced by long-term exposure to opioid analgesia is supported. PMID:24712862

Rhodin, A; von Ehren, M; Skottheim, B; Grönbladh, A; Ortiz-Nieto, F; Raininko, R; Gordh, T; Nyberg, F

2014-07-01

241

Large-Scale Organizational Performance Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the steps involved in a performance improvement program in the context of a large multinational corporation. Highlights include a training program for managers that explained performance improvement; performance matrices; divisionwide implementation, including strategic planning; organizationwide training of all personnel; and the…

Pilotto, Rudy; Young, Jonathan O'Donnell

1999-01-01

242

ENHANCING PERFORMANCE THROUGH IMPROVED COORDINATION (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhancing Performance through Improved Coordination (EPIC) is an approach to improving team performance that emphasizes identifying potential threats to coordination such as heavy workload, accelerated op tempo, or off- nominal states. Our long-term interest is in creating a coordination-aware system to promote better team performance by modeling situational properties and their relationship to crew coordination. Our current investigations focus on

Benjamin Bell; Jennifer Fowlkes; John Deaton

2003-01-01

243

Seven practical principles for improving patient education: Evidence-based ideas from cognition science.  

PubMed

An important role of the paediatrician is that of a teacher - every clinician is an educator to patients and their families. This education, however, often occurs under difficult or time-pressured learning conditions. The authors present principles derived from three basic theories of human cognition that may help to guide clinicians' instruction of parents and patients. Cognitive load theory holds that an individual's capacity to process information is finite. By controlling information flow rate, decreasing reliance on working memory and removing extraneous cognitive load, learning is improved. Dual code theory suggests that humans have separate cognitive 'channels' for text/audio information versus visual information. By constructing educational messages that take advantage of both channels simultaneously, information uptake may be improved. Multimedia theory is based on the notion that there is an optimal blend of media to accomplish a given learning objective. The authors suggest seven practical strategies that clinicians may use to improve patient education. PMID:24665218

Pusic, Martin V; Ching, Kevin; Yin, Hsiang Shonna; Kessler, David

2014-03-01

244

Human Performance Improvement: Lessons To Be Learned from Quality Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses quality improvement (QI) and how it can help human performance improvement (HPI). Compares QI and HPI and discusses focusing on products and services; focusing on the customer; using data more effectively; continuous improvement; benchmarking; establishing standards; specialization; and involving the clients. (LRW)

Hummel, Paul A.

2003-01-01

245

A Framework for Designing Scaffolds That Improve Motivation and Cognition  

PubMed Central

A problematic, yet common, assumption among educational researchers is that when teachers provide authentic, problem-based experiences, students will automatically be engaged. Evidence indicates that this is often not the case. In this article, we discuss (a) problems with ignoring motivation in the design of learning environments, (b) problem-based learning and scaffolding as one way to help, (c) how scaffolding has strayed from what was originally equal parts motivational and cognitive support, and (d) a conceptual framework for the design of scaffolds that can enhance motivation as well as cognitive outcomes. We propose guidelines for the design of computer-based scaffolds to promote motivation and engagement while students are solving authentic problems. Remaining questions and suggestions for future research are then discussed.

Belland, Brian R.; Kim, ChanMin; Hannafin, Michael J.

2013-01-01

246

Improving dementia care: the role of screening and detection of cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

The value of screening for cognitive impairment, including dementia and Alzheimer's disease, has been debated for decades. Recent research on causes of and treatments for cognitive impairment has converged to challenge previous thinking about screening for cognitive impairment. Consequently, changes have occurred in health care policies and priorities, including the establishment of the annual wellness visit, which requires detection of any cognitive impairment for Medicare enrollees. In response to these changes, the Alzheimer's Foundation of America and the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation convened a workgroup to review evidence for screening implementation and to evaluate the implications of routine dementia detection for health care redesign. The primary domains reviewed were consideration of the benefits, harms, and impact of cognitive screening on health care quality. In conference, the workgroup developed 10 recommendations for realizing the national policy goals of early detection as the first step in improving clinical care and ensuring proactive, patient-centered management of dementia. PMID:23375564

Borson, Soo; Frank, Lori; Bayley, Peter J; Boustani, Malaz; Dean, Marge; Lin, Pei-Jung; McCarten, J Riley; Morris, John C; Salmon, David P; Schmitt, Frederick A; Stefanacci, Richard G; Mendiondo, Marta S; Peschin, Susan; Hall, Eric J; Fillit, Howard; Ashford, J Wesson

2013-03-01

247

Improving dementia care: The role of screening and detection of cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

The value of screening for cognitive impairment, including dementia and Alzheimer's disease, has been debated for decades. Recent research on causes of and treatments for cognitive impairment has converged to challenge previous thinking about screening for cognitive impairment. Consequently, changes have occurred in health care policies and priorities, including the establishment of the annual wellness visit, which requires detection of any cognitive impairment for Medicare enrollees. In response to these changes, the Alzheimer's Foundation of America and the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation convened a workgroup to review evidence for screening implementation and to evaluate the implications of routine dementia detection for health care redesign. The primary domains reviewed were consideration of the benefits, harms, and impact of cognitive screening on health care quality. In conference, the workgroup developed 10 recommendations for realizing the national policy goals of early detection as the first step in improving clinical care and ensuring proactive, patient-centered management of dementia.

Borson, Soo; Frank, Lori; Bayley, Peter J.; Boustani, Malaz; Dean, Marge; Lin, Pei-Jung; McCarten, J. Riley; Morris, John C.; Salmon, David P.; Schmitt, Frederick A.; Stefanacci, Richard G.; Mendiondo, Marta S.; Peschin, Susan; Hall, Eric J.; Fillit, Howard; Ashford, J. Wesson

2014-01-01

248

Cognitive Strategies and Skill Acquisition in Musical Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a longitudinal study of high school instrumentalists that examined the development of four distinct types of musical performance (playing by ear, playing from memory, sight reading, and improvising) over three years. Reveals a significant improvement in these skills while also demonstrating changes in aural and creative activities. (CMK)

McPherson, Gary E.

1997-01-01

249

Marital Conflict, Allostatic Load, and the Development of Children's Fluid Cognitive Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relations between marital conflict, children's respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and fluid cognitive performance were examined over 3 years to assess allostatic processes. Participants were 251 children reporting on marital conflict, baseline RSA, and RSA reactivity (RSA-R) to a lab challenge were recorded, and fluid cognitive performance

Hinnant, J. Benjamin; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Buckhalt, Joseph A.

2013-01-01

250

A Comparative Study of Autistic Subjects' Performance at Two Levels of Visual and Cognitive Perspective Taking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study found that 13 autistic subjects performed less well on cognitive than on visual perspective-taking tasks at two levels of difficulty. Autistic subjects performed as well as 13 intellectually handicapped controls and 13 normal controls on visual perspective-taking tasks but more poorly than controls on cognitive perspective-taking tasks.…

Reed, Taffy; Peterson, Candida

1990-01-01

251

An empirical investigation of operator performance in cognitively demanding simulated emergencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report documents the results of an empirical study of nuclear power plant operator performance in cognitively demanding simulated emergencies. During emergencies operators follow highly prescriptive written procedures. The objectives of the study were to understand and document what role higher-level cognitive activities such as diagnosis, or more generally `situation assessment`, play in guiding operator performance, given that operators utilize

E. M. Roth; R. J. Mumaw; P. M. Lewis

1994-01-01

252

Performance of Children with Autism on Selected Measures of Reading Achievement and Cognitive-Linguistic Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the performance of children with autism on selected measures of reading achievement and cognitive-linguistic ability. How children with autism performed on three reading achievement measures, Letter-Word Identification, Passage Comprehension, and Oral Reading Fluency, and two cognitive-linguistic measures, Rapid Letter Naming…

Turner, Vicky

2010-01-01

253

Mother-Child Attachment and Cognitive Performance in Middle Childhood: An Examination of Mediating Mechanisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although mother-child attachment has been shown to predict cognitive performance, there has been a lack of attention to the mediating mechanisms that explain these associations. In the present study, we investigated relations of early mother-child attachment and cognitive performance in middle childhood (the latter in terms of both academic…

West, Katara K.; Mathews, Brittany L.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

2013-01-01

254

The Relationship Between Computer Experience and Computerized Cognitive Test Performance Among Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective. This study compared the relationship between computer experience and performance on computerized cognitive tests and a traditional paper-and-pencil cognitive test in a sample of older adults (N = 634). Method. Participants completed computer experience and computer attitudes questionnaires, three computerized cognitive tests (Useful Field of View (UFOV) Test, Road Sign Test, and Stroop task) and a paper-and-pencil cognitive measure (Trail Making Test). Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to examine differences in cognitive performance across the four measures between those with and without computer experience after adjusting for confounding variables. Results. Although computer experience had a significant main effect across all cognitive measures, the effect sizes were similar. After controlling for computer attitudes, the relationship between computer experience and UFOV was fully attenuated. Discussion. Findings suggest that computer experience is not uniquely related to performance on computerized cognitive measures compared with paper-and-pencil measures. Because the relationship between computer experience and UFOV was fully attenuated by computer attitudes, this may imply that motivational factors are more influential to UFOV performance than computer experience. Our findings support the hypothesis that computer use is related to cognitive performance, and this relationship is not stronger for computerized cognitive measures. Implications and directions for future research are provided.

2013-01-01

255

Randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral social skills training for older consumers with schizophrenia: Defeatist performance attitudes and functional outcome  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether cognitive behavioral social skills training (CBSST) is an effective psychosocial intervention to improve functioning in older consumers with schizophrenia, and whether defeatist performance attitudes are associated with change in functioning in CBSST. Design An 18-month, single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Setting Outpatient clinic at a university-affiliated Veterans Affairs hospital. Participants Veteran and non-veteran consumers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N=79) age 45–78. Interventions CBSST was a 36-session, weekly group therapy that combined cognitive behavior therapy with social skills training and problem solving training to improve functioning. The comparison intervention, goal-focused supportive contact (GFSC), was supportive group therapy focused on achieving functioning goals. Measurements Blind raters assessed functioning (primary outcome: Independent Living Skills Survey) CBSST skill mastery, positive and negative symptoms, depression, anxiety, defeatist attitudes, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Results Functioning trajectories over time were significantly more positive in CBSST than in GFSC, especially for participants with more severe defeatist performance attitudes. Greater improvement in defeatist attitudes was also associated with better functioning in CBSST, but not GFSC. Both treatments showed comparable significant improvements in amotivation, depression, anxiety, positive self-esteem and life satisfaction. Conclusions CBSST is an effective treatment to improve functioning in older consumers with schizophrenia, and both CBSST and other supportive goal-focused interventions can reduce symptom distress, increase motivation and self esteem, and improve life satisfaction. Participants with more severe defeatist performance attitudes may benefit most from cognitive behavioral interventions that target functioning.

Granholm, Eric; Holden, Jason; Link, Peter C.; McQuaid, John R.; Jeste, Dilip V.

2012-01-01

256

Automating and Improving the Performance of Telescopes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research investigated the many options of automating the telescope, ways to improve the performance, and ways to reduce the cost of producing an automated telescope. Basic research into the required performance and the corrections required to achieve ...

F. Melshiemer

1985-01-01

257

An Examination of Mediators of the Transfer of Cognitive Speed of Processing Training to Everyday Functional Performance  

PubMed Central

The purpose of these analyses was to examine mediators of the transfer of cognitive speed of processing training to improved everyday functional performance (Edwards, Wadley, Vance, Roenker, & Ball, 2005). Cognitive speed of processing and visual attention (as measured by the Useful Field of View Test; UFOV) were examined as mediators of training transfer. Secondary data analyses were conducted from the Staying Keen in Later Life (SKILL) study, a randomized cohort study including 126 community dwelling adults 63 to 87 years of age. In the SKILL study, participants were randomized to an active control group or cognitive speed of processing training (SOPT), a non-verbal, computerized intervention involving perceptual practice of visual tasks. Prior analyses found significant effects of training as measured by the UFOV and Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TIADL) Tests. Results from the present analyses indicate that speed of processing for a divided attention task significantly mediated the effect of SOPT on everyday performance (e.g., TIADL) in a multiple mediation model accounting for 91% of the variance. These findings suggest that everyday functional improvements found from SOPT are directly attributable to improved UFOV performance, speed of processing for divided attention in particular. Targeting divided attention in cognitive interventions may be important to positively affect everyday functioning among older adults.

Edwards, Jerri D.; Ruva, Christine L.; O'Brien, Jennifer L.; Haley, Christine B.; Lister, Jennifer J.

2013-01-01

258

The Association of Statin Use and Statin Type on Cognitive Performance: Analysis of The REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Context Statin use and type has been variably associated with impaired or improved cognitive performance. Objective To assess the association of statin use and type (lipophilic vs hydrophilic) and cognitive impairment Design Cross-sectional analysis of 24595 (7191 statin users and 17404 non-users) participants (age >45), from a population-based national cohort study (REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke) enrolled from January 2003-October 2008 with over-sampling from the southeastern Stroke Belt, and African Americans. Main Outcomes Statin use and type were documented in participants’ homes by a trained health professional. Cognitive performance was assessed with a prior validated instrument of global cognitive status (Six-Item Screener). Cognitive impairment was defined as a score of < 4. . Results Overall, an association of cognitive impairment and statin use was observed (8.6% of users vs 7.7% or non-users had cognitive impairment p=.014) but, after adjusting for variables known to be associated with cognition (age, gender, race, income, levels of education, and cardiovascular disease) the association was attenuated (OR 0.98, CI; 0.87;1.10). No association was observed between statin type (lipophilic vs hydrophilic) and cognition (OR 1.03, CI; 0.86;1.24), and there were no regional differences in cognitive impairment in statin users (8% in the stroke belt and 7.9% other regions p=0.63). Conclusions Statin use and type was marginally associated with cognitive impairment. After adjusting for known variables that affect cognition, no association was observed. No regional differences were observed. This large study found no evidence to support an association between statins and cognitive performance.

Glasser, Stephen P; Wadley, Virginia; Judd, Suzanne; Kana, Bhumika; Prince, Valerie; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Kissela, Brett; Safford, Monika; Prineas, Ronald; Howard, George

2010-01-01

259

An accelerometer-based handheld system to reduce breaks in performance of young adults with cognitive impairments.  

PubMed

This study assessed the possibility of training two individuals with cognitive impairments using a system that reduced breaks in performance. This study was carried out according to an ABAB sequence in which A represented the baseline and B represented intervention phases. Data showed that the two participants significantly increased their target response, thus reducing breaks and improving vocational job performance during the intervention phases. Practical and developmental implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21803541

Chang, Yao-Jen; Chen, Shu-Fang; Lu, Zhi-Zhan

2011-01-01

260

Reducing Dysfunctional Beliefs about Sleep Does Not Significantly Improve Insomnia in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy  

PubMed Central

The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals’ scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia.

Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi

2014-01-01

261

High-Performance Reconfigurable Fabric for Cognitive Information Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cognitive systems have requirements that are not met by existing commercially available architectures such as multi-core microprocessors or reconfigurable logic. In collaboration with Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), this project had the goal of crea...

R. Manohar

2010-01-01

262

Performance Targets and Public Service Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories of rational planning suggest that organizational performance improves if targets for future achievements are set. We test this proposition using panel data for 147 English local education authorities between 1998 and 2003. The dependent variables in the analysis are exam results for school pupils. We find that, controlling for other variables, the extent of performance improvement is influenced positively

George A. Boyne; Alex A. Chen

2007-01-01

263

Restoring Executive Confidence in Performance Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many organizations have significantly decreased their investment in performance improvement initiatives because they believe they are too risky. In fact, organizations should invest in performance improvements to build cash reserves and gain market share. Recent scientific breakthroughs have led to the development of methodologies and technologies…

Seidman, William; McCauley, Michael

2012-01-01

264

Gear Performance Improved by Coating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gears, bearings, and other mechanical elements transmit loads through contacting surfaces. Even if properly designed, manufactured, installed, and maintained, gears and bearings will eventually fail because of the fatigue of the working surfaces. Economical means for extending the fatigue lives of gears and bearings are highly desired, and coatings offer the opportunity to engineer surfaces to extend the fatigue lives of mechanical components. A tungsten-containing diamondlike-carbon coating exhibiting high hardness, low friction, and good toughness was evaluated for application to spur gears. Fatigue testing was done at the NASA Glenn Research Center on both uncoated and coated spur gears. The results showed that the coating extended the surface fatigue lives of the gears by a factor of about 5 relative to the uncoated gears. For the experiments, a lot of spur test gears made from AISI 9310 gear steel were case-carburized and ground to aerospace specifications. The geometries of the 28-tooth, 8-pitch gears were verified as meeting American Gear Manufacturing Association (AGMA) quality class 12. One-half of the gears were randomly selected for coating. The method of coating was selected to achieve desired adherence, toughness, hardness, and low-friction characteristics. First the gears to be coated were prepared by blasting (vapor honing) with Al2O3 particles and cleaning. Then, the gears were provided with a thin adhesion layer of elemental chromium followed by magnetron sputtering of the outer coating consisting of carbon (70 at.%), hydrogen (15 at.%), tungsten (12 at.%), and nickel (3 at.%) (atomic percent at the surface). In total, the coating thickness was about 2.5 to 3 microns. As compared with the steel substrate, the coated surface was harder by a factor of about 2 and had a smaller elastic modulus. All gears were tested using a 5-centistoke synthetic oil, a 10,000-rpm rotation speed, and a hertzian contact stress of at least 1.7 GPa (250 ksi). Tests were run until either surface fatigue occurred or 300 million stress cycles were completed. Tests were run using either a pair of uncoated gears or a pair of coated gears (coated gears mated with uncoated gears were not evaluated). The fatigue test results, shown on Weibull coordinates in the graph, demonstrate that the coating provided substantially longer fatigue lives even though some of the coated gears endured larger stresses. The increase in fatigue life was a factor of about 5 and the statistical confidence for the improvement is high (greater than 99 percent). Examination of the tested gears revealed substantial reductions of total wear for coated gears in comparison to uncoated gears. The coated gear surface topography changed with running, with localized areas of the tooth surface becoming smoother with running. Theories explaining how coatings can extend gear fatigue lives are research topics for coating, tribology, and fatigue specialists. This work was done as a partnership between NASA, the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, United Technologies Research Corporation, and Sikorsky Aircraft.

Krantz, Timothy L.

2004-01-01

265

The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities III's Cognitive Performance Model: Empirical Support for Intermediate Factors within CHC Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability Third Edition is developed using the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) measurement-theory test design as the instrument's theoretical blueprint. The instrument provides users with cognitive scores based on the Cognitive Performance Model (CPM); however, the CPM is not a part of CHC theory. Within the…

Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.

2014-01-01

266

Improvement of cognitive functions in chronic schizophrenic patients by recombinant human erythropoietin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizophrenia is increasingly recognized as a neurodevelopmental disease with an additional degenerative component, comprising cognitive decline and loss of cortical gray matter. We hypothesized that a neuroprotective\\/neurotrophic add-on strategy, recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) in addition to stable antipsychotic medication, may be able to improve cognitive function even in chronic schizophrenic patients. Therefore, we designed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, multicenter, proof-of-principle

H Ehrenreich; D Hinze-Selch; S Stawicki; C Aust; S Knolle-Veentjer; S Wilms; G Heinz; S Erdag; H Jahn; D Degner; M Ritzen; A Mohr; M Wagner; U Schneider; M Bohn; M Huber; A Czernik; T Pollmächer; W Maier; A-L Sirén; J Klosterkötter; P Falkai; E Rüther; J B Aldenhoff; H Krampe

2007-01-01

267

Association between cognitive performance, physical fitness, and physical activity level in women with chronic fatigue syndrome.  

PubMed

Limited scientific evidence suggests that physical activity is directly related to cognitive performance in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). To date, no other study has examined the direct relationship between cognitive performance and physical fitness in these patients. This study examined whether cognitive performance and physical fitness are associated in female patients with CFS and investigated the association between cognitive performance and physical activity level (PAL) in the same study sample. We hypothesized that patients who performed better on cognitive tasks would show increased PALs and better performance on physical tests. The study included 31 women with CFS and 13 healthy inactive women. Participants first completed three cognitive tests. Afterward, they undertook a test to determine their maximal handgrip strength, performed a bicycle ergometer test, and were provided with an activity monitor. In patients with CFS, lower peak oxygen uptake and peak heart rate were associated with slower psychomotor speed (p < 0.05). Maximal handgrip strength was correlated with working memory performance (p < 0.05). Both choice and simple reaction time were lower in patients with CFS relative to healthy controls (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, physical fitness, but not PAL, is associated with cognitive performance in female patients with CFS. PMID:24203542

Ickmans, Kelly; Clarys, Peter; Nijs, Jo; Meeus, Mira; Aerenhouts, Dirk; Zinzen, Evert; Aelbrecht, Senne; Meersdom, Geert; Lambrecht, Luc; Pattyn, Nathalie

2013-01-01

268

Chronic Treatment with Anesthetic Propofol Improves Cognitive Function and Attenuates Caspase Activation in Both Aged and Alzheimer's Disease Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

There is a need to seek new treatment(s) for Alzheimer's disease (AD). A recent study showed that AD patients may have decreased levels of functional GABA receptors. Propofol, a commonly used anesthetic, is a GABA receptor agonist. We therefore set out to perform a proof of concept study to determine whether chronic treatment with propofol (50 mg/kg/week) can improve cognitive function in both aged wild-type (WT) and AD transgenic (Tg) mice. Propofol was administrated to the WT and AD Tg mice once a week for 8 or 12 weeks, respectively. Morris water maze was used to assess the cognitive function of the mice following the propofol treatment. Activation of caspase-3, caspase-9, and caspase-8 was investigated using western blot analysis at the end of the propofol treatment. In the mechanistic studies, effects of propofol, amyloid-? protein (A?), and GABA receptor antagonist flumazenil on caspase-3 activation and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore were assessed in H4 human neuroglioma and mouse neuroblastoma cells by western blot analysis and flow cytometry. Here we showed that the propofol treatment improved cognitive function and attenuated brain caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation in both aged WT and AD Tg mice. Propofol attenuated A?-induced caspase-3 activation and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in the cells, and flumazenil inhibited the propofol's effects. These results suggested that propofol might improve cognitive function via attenuating the A?-induced mitochondria dysfunction and caspase activation, which explored the potential that anesthetic propofol could improve cognitive function in elderly and AD patients.

Dong, Yuanlin; Yu, Buwei; Xia, Weiming; Xie, Zhongcong

2014-01-01

269

Cross-Domain Variability of Cognitive Performance in Very Old Nursing Home Residents and Community Dwellers: Relationship to Functional Status  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent evidence suggests that cross-domain variability in cognition may be related to subsequent cognitive decline beyond mean performance levels in cognitive tasks. Objectives: To examine age-related changes in cross-domain variability across cognitive task performance in very old nursing home residents in contrast to community-dwelling older adults. To explore the relationship between cross-domain variability in cognition and functional disability in

Michael A. Rapp; Michael Schnaider-Beeri; Mary Sano; Jeremy M. Silverman; Vahram Haroutunian

2005-01-01

270

Cognition Improvement in Taekwondo Novices Over 40. Results from the SEKWONDO Study  

PubMed Central

Age-related cognitive decline is associated with increased risk of disability, dementia, and death. Recent studies suggest improvement in cognitive speed, attention, and executive functioning with physical activity. However, whether such improvements are activity specific is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to study the effect of 1?year age-adapted Taekwondo training on several cognitive functions, including reaction/motor time, information processing speed, and working and executive memory, in 24 healthy volunteers over 40. Reaction and motor time decreased with 41.2 and 18.4?s (p?=?0.004, p?=?0.015), respectively. Digit symbol coding task improved with a mean of 3.7 digits (p?=?0.017). Digit span, letter fluency, and trail making test task-completion-time all improved, but not statistically significant. The questionnaire reported “better” reaction time in 10 and “unchanged” in 9 of the 19 study compliers. In conclusion, our data suggest that age-adapted Taekwondo training improves various aspects of cognitive function in people over 40, which may, therefore, offer a cheap, safe, and enjoyable way to mitigate age-related cognitive decline.

Pons van Dijk, Gaby; Huijts, Marjolein; Lodder, Jan

2013-01-01

271

Correlation between menstrual cycle and cognitive performance in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).  

PubMed

Extensive research on human subjects has tried to investigate whether there is a correlation between cognitive performance and the menstrual cycle. Less is known about the relationship between the menstrual cycle and task performance in other cognitive animals. We test whether the secretion of a sex hormone [luteinizing hormone(LH)] influences the performance of cognitive tasks by a female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) who is part of a long-term cognition research program. We focus on two cognitive tasks: an "easy task," which consists of simple numerical ordering, and a "difficult task," which combines numerical ordering with memorizing the numerals' spatial location. Data on the performance of these cognitive tasks, urine samples, and sexual swelling over six menstrual cycles showed that the chimpanzee's performance accuracy decreased and that the intertrial interval was longer during the LH-surge of the menstrual cycle, but only for the performance of the difficult task. These performance attributes seem to reflect a decrease in attention or motivation during ovulation. In summary, the cognitive performance of a chimpanzee was disturbed by hormonal changes despite her long-term experience in the tasks. PMID:21341914

Inoue, Sana; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

2011-02-01

272

Li Anode Technology for Improved Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel, low-cost approach to stabilization of Li metal anodes for high-performance rechargeable batteries was developed. Electrolyte additives are selected and used in Li cell electrolyte systems, promoting formation of a protective coating on Li metal anodes for improved cycle and safety performance. Li batteries developed from the new system will show significantly improved battery performance characteristics, including energy/power density, cycle/ calendar life, cost, and safety.

Chen, Tuqiang

2011-01-01

273

Lower but not higher doses of transdermal nicotine facilitate cognitive performance in smokers on gender non-preferred tasks.  

PubMed

One of the most widely used treatments for smoking cessation is nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). There is some evidence that smokers experience abstinence-induced deficits in cognitive function, which are attenuated by NRTs. Additionally it's been suggested that the degree of reversal of cognitive deficits may depend on the NRT dose and the smoker's gender. In the present placebo-controlled study we investigated effects of three doses of transdermal nicotine (7 mg, 14 mg and 21 mg) on cognitive performance of 48 male and 48 female smokers after overnight abstinence and 6h of patch application. Cognitive tasks used in the study included the Conners' CPT, emotional Stroop, mental arithmetic, and verbal recall of affective prose passages. The results showed greater probability of attentional problems in the male sample compared to females as identified by the Conners' CPT. Within gender women showed improved performance in the 7 mg and 14 mg conditions on several measures of the Conners' CPT, and faster hit reaction time on the emotional Stroop test compared to women in the placebo and 21 mg of nicotine groups. Conversely, males showed a moderate overall advantage on the mental arithmetic task and were differentially sensitive to nicotine treatment on the prose recall task, on which the greatest improvement in recall of affective material was observed for the 14 mg group compared to the 21 mg group. The results are explained on the basis of an inverted U-shaped relationship between nicotinic stimulation and cognitive performance as well as greater sensitivity to nicotine dose manipulation on gender non-preferred cognitive tasks. PMID:22691869

Poltavski, Dmitri V; Petros, Thomas V; Holm, Jeffrey E

2012-09-01

274

Cognitively automated assembly processes: a simulation based evaluation of performance.  

PubMed

The numerical control of an experimental assembly cell with two robots--termed a cognitive control unit (CCU)--is able to simulate human information processing at a rule-based level of cognitive control. To enable the CCU to work on a large range of assembly tasks expected of a human operator, the cognitive architecture SOAR is used. The CCU can plan assembly processes autonomously and react to ad-hoc changes in assembly sequences effectively. Extensive simulation studies have shown that cognitive automation based on SOAR is especially suitable for random parts supply, which reduces planning effort in logistics. Conversely, a disproportional increase in processing time was observed for deterministic parts supply, especially for assemblies containing large numbers of identical parts. In this contribution, the effect of phase-shifts in deterministic part supply is investigated for assemblies containing maximal different parts. It can be shown that the concept of cognitive automation is as well suitable for these planning problems. PMID:22317246

Mayer, Marcel Ph; Odenthal, Barbara; Faber, Marco; Schlick, Christopher M

2012-01-01

275

Hunger in the Absence of Caloric Restriction Improves Cognition and Attenuates Alzheimer's Disease Pathology in a Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that caloric restriction (CR) delays aging and possibly delays the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We conjecture that the mechanism may involve interoceptive cues, rather than reduced energy intake per se. We determined that hunger alone, induced by a ghrelin agonist, reduces AD pathology and improves cognition in the APP-SwDI mouse model of AD. Long-term treatment with a ghrelin agonist was sufficient to improve the performance in the water maze. The treatment also reduced levels of amyloid beta (A?) and inflammation (microglial activation) at 6 months of age compared to the control group, similar to the effect of CR. Thus, a hunger-inducing drug attenuates AD pathology, in the absence of CR, and the neuroendocrine aspects of hunger also prevent age-related cognitive decline.

Dhurandhar, Emily J.; Allison, David B.; van Groen, Thomas; Kadish, Inga

2013-01-01

276

Retrospective lifetime dietary patterns predict cognitive performance in community-dwelling older Australians.  

PubMed

Dietary intake is a modifiable exposure that may have an impact on cognitive outcomes in older age. The long-term aetiology of cognitive decline and dementia, however, suggests that the relevance of dietary intake extends across the lifetime. In the present study, we tested whether retrospective dietary patterns from the life periods of childhood, early adulthood, adulthood and middle age predicted cognitive performance in a cognitively healthy sample of 352 older Australian adults >65 years. Participants completed the Lifetime Diet Questionnaire and a battery of cognitive tests designed to comprehensively assess multiple cognitive domains. In separate regression models, lifetime dietary patterns were the predictors of cognitive factor scores representing ten constructs derived by confirmatory factor analysis of the cognitive test battery. All regression models were progressively adjusted for the potential confounders of current diet, age, sex, years of education, English as native language, smoking history, income level, apoE ?4 status, physical activity, other past dietary patterns and health-related variables. In the adjusted models, lifetime dietary patterns predicted cognitive performance in this sample of older adults. In models additionally adjusted for intake from the other life periods and mechanistic health-related variables, dietary patterns from the childhood period alone reached significance. Higher consumption of the 'coffee and high-sugar, high-fat extras' pattern predicted poorer performance on simple/choice reaction time, working memory, retrieval fluency, short-term memory and reasoning. The 'vegetable and non-processed' pattern negatively predicted simple/choice reaction time, and the 'traditional Australian' pattern positively predicted perceptual speed and retrieval fluency. Identifying early-life dietary antecedents of older-age cognitive performance contributes to formulating strategies for delaying or preventing cognitive decline. PMID:24709049

Hosking, Diane E; Nettelbeck, Ted; Wilson, Carlene; Danthiir, Vanessa

2014-07-01

277

Clock Drawing Performance and Brain Morphology in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a widely used instrument in the neuropsychological assessment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As CDT performance necessitates several cognitive functions (e.g., visuospatial and constructional abilities, executive functioning), an interaction of multiple brain regions is likely. Fifty-one subjects with mild cognitive

Thomann, Philipp A.; Toro, Pablo; Santos, Vasco Dos; Essig, Marco; Schroder, Johannes

2008-01-01

278

Physical Fitness Performance of Young Adults with and without Cognitive Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the physical fitness performance of young adults with and without cognitive impairments. Participants were 75 young adults, including 41 without disabilities (23 females, 18 males; M of age = 21.88) and 34 with mild cognitive impairments (14 females, 20 males; M of age = 21.79). They received…

Zhang, Jiabei; Piwowar, Nathan; Reilly, Coleen Jennifer

2009-01-01

279

Relationship between Poor Sleep and Daytime Cognitive Performance in Young Adults with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poor sleep is a common feature in autism even though patients themselves do not necessarily complain. The impact of poor sleep on daytime cognitive functioning in autism is not well-known and we therefore investigated whether sleep in autism correlates with daytime cognitive performance. A battery of non-verbal tasks was administered, in the…

Limoges, Elyse; Bolduc, Christianne; Berthiaume, Claude; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

2013-01-01

280

Genetic associations between fibrinogen and cognitive performance in three Scottish cohorts.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence to suggest that elevated plasma levels of fibrinogen are associated with late-life cognitive performance. This study tested the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the fibrinogen ? (FGA) and ? (FGB) genes with cognitive performance. Data were analysed from three community-dwelling populations of older persons (>50 years) in central Scotland: the Aspirin for Asymptomatic Atherosclerosis (AAA) Trial (n = 2,091), the Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study (ET2DS, n = 1,066), and the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936, n = 1,091). Cognition was assessed using a battery of five, seven, and four psychometric tests, respectively. This information was used to derive a general cognitive factor. Weakly significant associations were found between the rs4220 (FGB), and rs2227412 (FGB) SNPs and a single test of cognitive performance in the AAA Trial (p < 0.05). These findings did not replicate in the LBC1936 or ET2DS cohorts, except for the rs2227412 SNP, which was significantly associated with the general cognitive factor in the ET2DS (p = 3.3 × 10(-4)). A summary term that combined results from all three studies suggested that the rs2227412 genotype associated with reduced cognitive ability also associated with higher plasma fibrinogen levels. These findings suggest a tentative role for fibrinogen as a determinant of late-life cognitive performance and justify further attempts at replication in older persons. PMID:21258858

Marioni, Riccardo E; Deary, Ian J; Murray, Gordon D; Lowe, Gordon D O; Strachan, Mark W J; Luciano, Michelle; Houlihan, Lorna M; Gow, Alan J; Harris, Sarah E; Rumley, Ann; Stewart, Marlene C; Fowkes, F Gerry R; Price, Jackie F

2011-09-01

281

Association of Pulmonary Function with Cognitive Performance in Early, Middle and Late Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Pulmonary function has been associated with some measures of cognitive performance, mostly in late adulthood. This study investigated whether this association is present for a range of cognitive measures, at three stages of adulthood, and whether it remains after controlling for demographic, health and lifestyle factors. Method: The relationship between forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1), a measure

Kaarin J. Anstey; Timothy D. Windsor; Anthony F. Jorm; Helen Christensen; Bryan Rodgers

2004-01-01

282

Cognitive performance in schizophrenia patients assessed before and following the first psychotic episode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of this historical prospective study was to follow the cognitive impairment in schizophrenia from the premorbid period until shortly after the onset of the first psychotic episode within the same subjects. Methods: Forty-four first episode schizophrenia patients were enrolled in the study. Their cognitive performance was assessed as part of the Israeli Draft Board aptitude assessments at

Asaf Caspi; Abraham Reichenberg; Mark Weiser; Jonathan Rabinowitz; Ze'ev Kaplan; Haim Knobler; Noa Davidson-Sagi; Michael Davidson

2003-01-01

283

Inspiratory muscle training improves rowing performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

VOLIANITIS, S., A. K. MCCONNELL, Y. KOUTEDAKIS, L. MCNAUGHTON, K. BACKX, and D. A. JONES. Inspiratory muscle training improves rowing performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 33, No. 5, 2001, pp. 803- 809. Purpose: To investigate the effects of a period of resistive inspiratory muscle training (IMT) upon rowing performance. Methods: Performance was appraised in 14 female competitive rowers at

STEFANOS VOLIANITIS; ALISON K. MCCONNELL; YIANNIS KOUTEDAKIS; LARS MCNAUGHTON; KARRIANNE BACKX; DAVID A. JONES

2001-01-01

284

Improving Outage Performance: Outage Optimization Process  

SciTech Connect

Planned outage performance is a key measure of how well an Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is operated. Performance during planned outages strongly affects virtually all of a plant's performance metrics. In recognition of this fact, NPP operators worldwide have and continue to focus on improving their outage performance. The process of improving outage performance is commonly referred to as 'Outage Optimization' in the industry. This paper starts with a summary of the principles of Outage Optimization. It then provides an overview of a process in common use in the USA and elsewhere to manage the improvement of planned outages. The program described is comprehensive in that it involves managing improvement in both the Preparation and Execution phases of outage management. (author)

LaPlatney, Jere J. [AREVA NP (United States)

2006-07-01

285

Low-level laser light therapy improves cognitive deficits and inhibits microglial activation after controlled cortical impact in mice.  

PubMed

Low-level laser light therapy (LLLT) exerts beneficial effects on motor and histopathological outcomes after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI), and coherent near-infrared light has been reported to improve cognitive function in patients with chronic TBI. However, the effects of LLLT on cognitive recovery in experimental TBI are unknown. We hypothesized that LLLT administered after controlled cortical impact (CCI) would improve post-injury Morris water maze (MWM) performance. Low-level laser light (800?nm) was applied directly to the contused parenchyma or transcranially in mice beginning 60-80?min after CCI. Injured mice treated with 60?J/cm² (500?mW/cm²×2?min) either transcranially or via an open craniotomy had modestly improved latency to the hidden platform (p<0.05 for group), and probe trial performance (p<0.01) compared to non-treated controls. The beneficial effects of LLLT in open craniotomy mice were associated with reduced microgliosis at 48?h (21.8±2.3 versus 39.2±4.2 IbA-1+ cells/200×field, p<0.05). Little or no effect of LLLT on post-injury cognitive function was observed using the other doses, a 4-h administration time point and 7-day administration of 60?J/cm². No effect of LLLT (60?J/cm² open craniotomy) was observed on post-injury motor function (days 1-7), brain edema (24?h), nitrosative stress (24?h), or lesion volume (14 days). Although further dose optimization and mechanism studies are needed, the data suggest that LLLT might be a therapeutic option to improve cognitive recovery and limit inflammation after TBI. PMID:21851183

Khuman, Jugta; Zhang, Jimmy; Park, Juyeon; Carroll, James D; Donahue, Chad; Whalen, Michael J

2012-01-20

286

Effects of interferon beta-1b on cognitive performance in patients with a first event suggestive of multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Cognitive dysfunction occurs at the earliest stages of multiple sclerosis (MS), including the stage of clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). Methods: We evaluated the impact of interferon beta-1b (IFN?-1b) 250 µg on cognitive performance during the CIS stage in the BENEFITstudy. Cognition was assessed by Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test-3” (PASAT-3”) scores. Results: Improvement in PASAT-3” score from baseline to year two was greater for IFN?-1b treatment than placebo in patients not reaching clinically definite MS (CDMS) by year two. The treatment effect was maintained at year five and was statistically significant. Conclusions: To conclude, early IFN?-1b treatment had a sustained positive effect on PASAT-3” score over the 5-year BENEFIT study.

Stemper, Brigitte; Calabrese, Pasquale; Freedman, Mark S; Polman, Chris H; Edan, Gilles; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Miller, David H; Montalban, Xavier; Barkhof, Frederik; Pleimes, Dirk; Lanius, Vivian; Pohl, Christoph; Kappos, Ludwig; Sandbrink, Rupert

2012-01-01

287

Six months of dance intervention enhances postural, sensorimotor, and cognitive performance in elderly without affecting cardio-respiratory functions  

PubMed Central

During aging, sensorimotor, cognitive and physical performance decline, but can improve by training and exercise indicating that age-related changes are treatable. Dancing is increasingly used as an intervention because it combines many diverse features making it a promising neuroplasticity-inducing tool. We here investigated the effects of a 6-month dance class (1 h/week) on a group of healthy elderly individuals compared to a matched control group (CG). We performed a broad assessment covering cognition, intelligence, attention, reaction time, motor, tactile, and postural performance, as well as subjective well-being and cardio-respiratory performance. After 6 months, in the CG no changes, or further degradation of performance was found. In the dance group, beneficial effects were found for dance-related parameters such as posture and reaction times, but also for cognitive, tactile, motor performance, and subjective well-being. These effects developed without alterations in the cardio-respiratory performance. Correlation of baseline performance with the improvement following intervention revealed that those individuals, who benefitted most from the intervention, were those who showed the lowest performance prior to the intervention. Our findings corroborate previous observations that dancing evokes widespread positive effects. The pre-post design used in the present study implies that the efficacy of dance is most likely not based on a selection bias of particularly gifted individuals. The lack of changes of cardio-respiratory fitness indicates that even moderate levels of physical activity can in combination with rich sensorimotor, cognitive, social, and emotional challenges act to ameliorate a wide spectrum of age-related decline.

Kattenstroth, Jan-Christoph; Kalisch, Tobias; Holt, Stephan; Tegenthoff, Martin; Dinse, Hubert R.

2013-01-01

288

Cultural Factors Affecting the Differential Performance of Israeli and Palestinian Children on the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive performance is essential for children's functioning and may also predict school readiness. The suitability of Western standardized assessments for cognitive performance among children from different cultures needs to be elaborated. This study referred to the existence of differences in cognitive performance between and within children…

Josman, Naomi; Abdallah, Taisir M.; Engel-Yeger, Batya

2010-01-01

289

The role of alcohol on platelets, thymus and cognitive performance among HIV-infected subjects: are they related?  

PubMed

Our objective was to evaluate whether thrombocytopenia and small thymus volume, which may be associated with hazardous alcohol consumption, are predictors of cognitive performance after highly-active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). To achieve this goal 165 people living with HIV starting HAART underwent thymus magnetic resonance imaging, cognitive (HIV Dementia Score [HDS] and the California Verbal Learning Test [CVLT]), immune and laboratory assessments at baseline and after 6 months of HAART. At baseline, hazardous alcohol consumption was significantly correlated with both thymus size (r = -0.44, p = 0.003) and thrombocytopenia (r = 0.28, p = 0.001). Of interest, thrombocytopenic patients were characterized by a smaller thymus size. Individuals with and without cognitive impairment differed in alcohol consumption, platelet counts and thymus size, suggesting that they may be risk factors for neurological abnormalities. In fact, after HAART hazardous alcohol use associations with thrombocytopenia were related to cognitive decline (learning = -0.2 +/- 0.8, recall = -0.3 +/- 0.1 and HDS = -0.5). This contrasted with improvements on every cognitive measure (learning = 1.6 +/- 0.3, p = 0.0001, recall = 2.2 +/- 0.4, p = 0.0001 and HDS = 1.0, p = 0.05) in those with neither alcohol use nor thrombocytopenia. In adjusted analyses for sociodemographics, adherence and immune measurements, reduced thymus size was associated with a 90% and thrombocytopenia with a 70% increase in the risk of scoring in the demented range after HAART (RR = 1.9, p < 0.05 and RR = 1.7, p = 0.03) and with low CVLT scores (thymus volume RR = 2.0, p = 0.04, chronic alcohol use p = 0.05 and thrombocytopenia p = 0.06). Thymus volume and platelet counts were negatively affected by alcohol and were predictors of cognitive performance and improvements after HAART. These results could have important clinical and therapeutic implications. PMID:19459132

Míguez-Burbano, María Jose; Nair, Madhavan; Lewis, John E; Fishman, Joel

2009-06-01

290

Carbohydrates, Muscle Glycogen, and Improved Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One way to improve athletic performance without harming the athlete's health is diet manipulation. This article explores the relationship between muscular endurance and muscle glycogen and discusses a diet and training approach to competition. (Author/MT)

Sherman, W. Mike

1987-01-01

291

Effects of artificial dawn and morning blue light on daytime cognitive performance, well-being, cortisol and melatonin levels.  

PubMed

Light exposure elicits numerous effects on human physiology and behavior, such as better cognitive performance and mood. Here we investigated the role of morning light exposure as a countermeasure for impaired cognitive performance and mood under sleep restriction (SR). Seventeen participants took part of a 48h laboratory protocol, during which three different light settings (separated by 2 wks) were administered each morning after two 6-h sleep restriction nights: a blue monochromatic LED (light-emitting diode) light condition (BL; 100 lux at 470 nm for 20 min) starting 2 h after scheduled wake-up time, a dawn-simulating light (DsL) starting 30 min before and ending 20 min after scheduled wake-up time (polychromatic light gradually increasing from 0 to 250 lux), and a dim light (DL) condition for 2 h beginning upon scheduled wake time (<8 lux). Cognitive tasks were performed every 2 h during scheduled wakefulness, and questionnaires were administered hourly to assess subjective sleepiness, mood, and well-being. Salivary melatonin and cortisol were collected throughout scheduled wakefulness in regular intervals, and the effects on melatonin were measured after only one light pulse. Following the first SR, analysis of the time course of cognitive performance during scheduled wakefulness indicated a decrease following DL, whereas it remained stable following BL and significantly improved after DsL. Cognitive performance levels during the second day after SR were not significantly affected by the different light conditions. However, after both SR nights, mood and well-being were significantly enhanced after exposure to morning DsL compared with DL and BL. Melatonin onset occurred earlier after morning BL exposure, than after morning DsL and DL, whereas salivary cortisol levels were higher at wake-up time after DsL compared with BL and DL. Our data indicate that exposure to an artificial morning dawn simulation light improves subjective well-being, mood, and cognitive performance, as compared with DL and BL, with minimal impact on circadian phase. Thus, DsL may provide an effective strategy for enhancing cognitive performance, well-being, and mood under mild sleep restriction. PMID:23841684

Gabel, Virginie; Maire, Micheline; Reichert, Carolin F; Chellappa, Sarah L; Schmidt, Christina; Hommes, Vanja; Viola, Antoine U; Cajochen, Christian

2013-10-01

292

Performance improvements in diode laser arrays  

SciTech Connect

The average power performance capability of semiconductor laser diode arrays has improved dramatically over the past several years. Additionally, optical conditioning technologies have been developed that increase the effective radiance of stacked two-dimensional arrays by nearly two orders of magnitude. These performance improvements have been accompanied by cost reductions that now make feasible the replacement of flashlamp pump sources by laser diode arrays in a large variety of military and commercial solid state laser systems.

Beach, R.J.; Emanuel, M.A.; Freitas, B.L.; Benett, W.J.; Skidmore, J.A.; Carlson, N.W.; Solarz, R.W.

1994-06-01

293

Effects of hydration status on cognitive performance and mood.  

PubMed

Although it is well known that water is essential for human homeostasis and survival, only recently have we begun to understand its role in the maintenance of brain function. Herein, we integrate emerging evidence regarding the effects of both dehydration and additional acute water consumption on cognition and mood. Current findings in the field suggest that particular cognitive abilities and mood states are positively influenced by water consumption. The impact of dehydration on cognition and mood is particularly relevant for those with poor fluid regulation, such as the elderly and children. We critically review the most recent advances in both behavioural and neuroimaging studies of dehydration and link the findings to the known effects of water on hormonal, neurochemical and vascular functions in an attempt to suggest plausible mechanisms of action. We identify some methodological weaknesses, including inconsistent measurements in cognitive assessment and the lack of objective hydration state measurements as well as gaps in knowledge concerning mediating factors that may influence water intervention effects. Finally, we discuss how future research can best elucidate the role of water in the optimal maintenance of brain health and function. PMID:24480458

Masento, Natalie A; Golightly, Mark; Field, David T; Butler, Laurie T; van Reekum, Carien M

2014-05-01

294

Glucose tolerance predicts performance on tests of memory and cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis that the ability to control blood glucose levels influence memory and other aspects of cognition was considered. Individual differences in the ability to control blood glucose were measured by giving a glucose tolerance test (GTT) to 46 young adult females. A factor analysis of a series of measures of glucose tolerance produced four dimensions. A week later, having

Rachael T Donohoe; David Benton

2000-01-01

295

Effects of Cholinergic Perturbations on Neuromotor - Cognitive Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Atropine dosing ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 mg demonstrated significant cognitive-neuromotor impairment effects in the 2.0 and 4.0 mg dose. The effects shown after the 4.0 mg dose was of a much greater magnitude and duration than that of the 2.0 mg dose. Howe...

A. M. Nikaido D. G. Heatherly E. H. Ellinwood J. K. Nishita S. Gupta

1988-01-01

296

Male cognitive performance declines in the absence of sexual selection.  

PubMed

Sexual selection is responsible for the evolution of male ornaments and armaments, but its role in the evolution of cognition--the ability to process, retain and use information--is largely unexplored. Because successful courtship is likely to involve processing information in complex, competitive sexual environments, we hypothesized that sexual selection contributes to the evolution and maintenance of cognitive abilities in males. To test this, we removed mate choice and mate competition from experimental populations of Drosophila melanogaster by enforcing monogamy for over 100 generations. Males evolved under monogamy became less proficient than polygamous control males at relatively complex cognitive tasks. When faced with one receptive and several unreceptive females, polygamous males quickly focused on receptive females, whereas monogamous males continued to direct substantial courtship effort towards unreceptive females. As a result, monogamous males were less successful in this complex setting, despite being as quick to mate as their polygamous counterparts with only one receptive female. This diminished ability to use past information was not limited to the courtship context: monogamous males (but not females) also showed reduced aversive olfactory learning ability. Our results provide direct experimental evidence that the intensity of sexual selection is an important factor in the evolution of male cognitive ability. PMID:24573848

Hollis, Brian; Kawecki, Tadeusz J

2014-04-22

297

Comparing Cognitive Performance in Illiterate and Literate Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While it is known that the process of becoming literate begins in early childhood and usually involves several years of schooling, research related to cognitive characteristics has been done mostly on illiterate adults, and information concerning illiterate children is therefore limited. The aim of the present study, involving 21 illiterate and 22…

Matute, Esmeralda; Montiel, Teresita; Pinto, Noemi; Rosselli, Monica; Ardila, Alfredo; Zarabozo, Daniel

2012-01-01

298

Performance on the Cognitive Estimation Test in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cognitive Estimation Test (CET) is generally considered to be a measure of executive function, but there is little information with respect to its clinical utility in patients with schizophrenia. In the present investigation, we evaluated the clinical utility of the CET in 42 patients with schizophrenia relative to 42 healthy comparison subjects matched for age, gender, and parental education.

Robert M. Roth; Heather S. Pixley; Carrie L. Kruck; Matthew A. Garlinghouse; Peter R. Giancola; Laura A. Flashman

2012-01-01

299

Neural stem cells improve cognition via BDNF in a transgenic model of Alzheimer disease  

PubMed Central

Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation represents an unexplored approach for treating neurodegenerative disorders associated with cognitive decline such as Alzheimer disease (AD). Here, we used aged triple transgenic mice (3xTg-AD) that express pathogenic forms of amyloid precursor protein, presenilin, and tau to investigate the effect of neural stem cell transplantation on AD-related neuropathology and cognitive dysfunction. Interestingly, despite widespread and established Aß plaque and neurofibrillary tangle pathology, hippocampal neural stem cell transplantation rescues the spatial learning and memory deficits in aged 3xTg-AD mice. Remarkably, cognitive function is improved without altering Aß or tau pathology. Instead, the mechanism underlying the improved cognition involves a robust enhancement of hippocampal synaptic density, mediated by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Gain-of-function studies show that recombinant BDNF mimics the beneficial effects of NSC transplantation. Furthermore, loss-of-function studies show that depletion of NSC-derived BDNF fails to improve cognition or restore hippocampal synaptic density. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that neural stem cells can ameliorate complex behavioral deficits associated with widespread Alzheimer disease pathology via BDNF.

Blurton-Jones, Mathew; Kitazawa, Masashi; Martinez-Coria, Hilda; Castello, Nicholas A.; Muller, Franz-Josef; Loring, Jeanne F.; Yamasaki, Tritia R.; Poon, Wayne W.; Green, Kim N.; LaFerla, Frank M.

2009-01-01

300

Cognitive improvement in children with CKD after transplant.  

PubMed

The primary purpose of this paper was to examine the cognitive functioning of children with CKD receiving transplantation to children with CKD not receiving transplantation, and a healthy control group. The sample included six children with CKD receiving transplant, 28 children with CKD being treated conservatively, and 23 healthy controls. All participants were administered intellectual (IQ) or developmental assessments at baseline and at a one-yr follow-up. Results revealed that children with CKD who had received transplant showed a significant increase in their intellectual/developmental functioning post transplant compared to children with CKD not receiving transplant. Although their overall intellectual/developmental level was not fully normalized, when compared with the healthy control group, the change scores for the transplant group reflected over a 12 point increase, moving the group from the borderline range to the low average range of functioning. In this regard, pediatric transplantation appears to have a positive impact on the intellectual and developmental functioning of children with CKD. PMID:20667033

Icard, Phil; Hooper, Stephen R; Gipson, Debbie S; Ferris, Maria E

2010-11-01

301

Dissociative Effects of Methylphenidate in Nonhuman Primates: Trade-offs between Cognitive and Behavioral Performance  

PubMed Central

Low doses of methylphenidate reduce hyperactivity and improve attention in individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as in healthy humans and animals. Despite its extensive use, relatively little is known about its mechanisms of action. This study investigated the effects of methylphenidate on working memory performance, impulsivity, response accuracy and precision, and the ability to stay on task in rhesus monkeys using an oculomotor delayed response task. Methylphenidate affected task performance in an inverted-U manner in all three subjects tested. The improvements resulted from a reduction in premature responses and, importantly, not from improvement in the memory of target location. The length of time subjects participated in each session was also affected dose dependently. However, the dose at which the length of participation was maximally increased significantly impaired performance on the working memory task. This dissociation of effects has implications for the treatment of ADHD, for the non-prescription use of methylphenidate for cognitive enhancement, and for furthering the basic understanding of the neural substrate underlying these processes.

Rajala, Abigail Z.; Henriques, Jeffrey B.; Populin, Luis C.

2012-01-01

302

The CF6 engine performance improvement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the NASA-sponsored Engine Component Improvement (ECI) Program, a feasibility analysis of performance improvement and retention concepts for the CF6-6 and CF6-50 engines was conducted and seven concepts were identified for development and ground testing: new fan, new front mount, high pressure turbine aerodynamic performance improvement, high pressure turbine roundness, high pressure turbine active clearance control, low pressure turbine active clearance control, and short core exhaust nozzle. The development work and ground testing are summarized, and the major test results and an enomic analysis for each concept are presented.

Fasching, W. A.

1982-01-01

303

Proxies of cognitive reserve and their effects on neuropsychological performance in patients with mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Cognitive reserve (CR) modulates the relationship between clinical and pathological phenotypes by restricting the negative effect of cerebral lesions on cognition, according to the CR hypothesis. In this study, we evaluated 18 healthy subjects and 21 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using conventional MRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS), and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The MMSE, WMS and MoCA assessments were repeated 1year later. The MRS analysis results showed that the N-acetyl-aspartate peak area (NAA; t=5.122, P<0.001) and the NAA/creatine (Cr), NAA/myo-inositol (mI) and NAA/choline (Cho) ratios were significantly changed in patients with MCI compared with the control subjects (all P<0.01). The MoCA was significantly related to the NAA/Cho ratio (R=0.443), the NAA/Cr ratio (R=0.533), and the NAA peak area (R=0.814; all P<0.05), but was unrelated to the NAA/mI ratio (R=0.400, P=0.072). We found that the hippocampal volume was significantly correlated with the MoCA, WMS and MMSE (R=0.704, 0.677, 0.542 respectively; all P<0.05). Education level had a positive effect on changes in the MoCA, MMSE, and WMS 1year later. We believe that MoCA and WMS results, MRI hippocampal volume and other related indicators (NAA peak area, NAA/Cr ratio, NAA/mI ratio, and NAA/Cho ratio) may reflect the degree of CR capacity, and that the number of years of education can significantly affect the changes in cognitive function in patients with MCI. Therefore, increasing levels of education and life skills training can help increase CR, reduce the risk of MCI, and slow down the appearance of clinical manifestations and clinical progress in patients with MCI. PMID:23406880

Liu, Yuanyuan; Cai, Zeng-Lin; Xue, Shouru; Zhou, Xinyu; Wu, Fangping

2013-04-01

304

Cognitive Style and Learning: Performance of Adaptors and Innovators in a Novel Dynamic Task.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This research investigated whether cognitive style (Kirton, 1976) influenced performance in a novel dynamic task modeled on the task of controlling air traffic. It was hypothesized that participants who preferred a more adaptive style of processing would ...

J. Pounds L. L. Bailey

1999-01-01

305

Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cognitive Performance Before and After Confinement in a Nuclear Submarine.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study sought to document physiological deconditioning from occupational exposure to submarines and determine whether cognitive performance parallels the physiological changes associated with physical training and deconditioning. We examined cardiores...

B. L. Bennett C. L. Schlichting K. R. Bondi

1985-01-01

306

Improving Hadoop performance in intercloud environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intercloud is a federated environment of private clusters and public clouds. The performance of Hadoop could be degraded significantly in intercloud environments. Because previous solutions for intercloud environments rely on speculative execution, they require additional cost in the cloud. In this paper, we propose a new task scheduler that improves performance without the help of speculative execution in intercloud environments.

Shingyu Kim; Junghee Won; Hyuck Han; Hyeonsang Eom; Heon Y. Yeom

2011-01-01

307

Performance, Productivity and Continuous Improvement. Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers from a symposium on performance, productivity, and continuous improvement. "Investigating the Association between Productivity and Quality Performance in Two Manufacturing Settings" (Constantine Kontoghiorghes, Robert Gudgel) summarizes a study that identified the following quality management variables as the…

2002

308

Metabolic Agents that Enhance ATP can Improve Cognitive Functioning: A Review of the Evidence for Glucose, Oxygen, Pyruvate, Creatine, and L-Carnitine  

PubMed Central

Over the past four or five decades, there has been increasing interest in the neurochemical regulation of cognition. This field received considerable attention in the 1980s, with the identification of possible cognition enhancing agents or “smart drugs”. Even though many of the optimistic claims for some agents have proven premature, evidence suggests that several metabolic agents may prove to be effective in improving and preserving cognitive performance and may lead to better cognitive aging through the lifespan. Aging is characterized by a progressive deterioration in physiological functions and metabolic processes. There are a number of agents with the potential to improve metabolic activity. Research is now beginning to identify these various agents and delineate their potential usefulness for improving cognition in health and disease. This review provides a brief overview of the metabolic agents glucose, oxygen, pyruvate, creatine, and L-carnitine and their beneficial effects on cognitive function. These agents are directly responsible for generating ATP (adenosine triphosphate) the main cellular currency of energy. The brain is the most metabolically active organ in the body and as such is particularly vulnerable to disruption of energy resources. Therefore interventions that sustain adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels may have importance for improving neuronal dysfunction and loss. Moreover, recently, it has been observed that environmental conditions and diet can affect transgenerational gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms. Metabolic agents might play a role in regulation of nutritional epigenetic effects. In summary, the reviewed metabolic agents represent a promising strategy for improving cognitive function and possibly slowing or preventing cognitive decline.

Owen, Lauren; Sunram-Lea, Sandra I.

2011-01-01

309

Applying Real Time Physiological Measures of Cognitive Load to Improve Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses how the fields of augmented cognition and neuroergonomics can be expanded into training. Several classification algorithms based upon EEG data and occular data are discussed in terms of their ability to classify operator state in real time. These indices have been shown to enhance operator performance within adaptive automation paradigms. Learning is different from performing a task

Joseph T. Coyne; Carryl Baldwin; Anna Cole; Ciara Sibley; Daniel M. Roberts

2009-01-01

310

Cognitive improvement of mice induced by exercise prior to traumatic brain injury is associated with cytochrome c oxidase.  

PubMed

Though the evidence demonstrated that voluntary exercise programs could be implemented to enhance recovery of cognitive function induced by traumatic brain injury (TBI), the exact mechanisms were still not known. We proposed that the cognitive improvement induced by exercise in TBI mice is associated with cytochrome c oxidase (COX). To demonstrate this hypothesis, adult mice were housed with or without access to a running wheel (RW) for three weeks followed by TBI operation. Acquisition of spatial learning and memory retention was assessed by using the Morris Water Maze (MWM) on days 15 post TBI. The synaptic density was measured by Golji staining. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for NeuN, GFAP and growth associated protein 43 (GAP43) were also performed. Using Western blot, the expressions of COX I, II, III, BDNF, synapsin I, synaptophysin (SYP) and GAP43 in hippocampus of TBI mice were determinated. Lastly, CcO activity and ATP amount were also detected. Results showed that voluntary exercise prior TBI: (i) counteracted the cognitive deficits and neuron and synaptic density loss associated with the injury; (ii) increased the levels of COX I, II, III, BDNF, synapsin I, SYP and GAP43; (iii) switched the mitochondrial CcO activity and ATP amounts. These studies demonstrated that the COX plays an important role in exercise's cognitive effects in TBI model and also provide evidence that RW training is a promise exercise for traumatically injured mice. PMID:24746931

Gu, Ying Li; Zhang, Li Wei; Ma, Ning; Ye, Lin Lin; Wang, De Xin; Gao, Xu

2014-06-01

311

Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Treatment is Associated with Improved Cognition in Cancer Patients.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Endogenous Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GMCSF) is released in rheumatoid arthritis patients, who are largely protected from Alzheimer's disease (AD). Introducing exogenous GMCSF into an AD mouse model reduced amyloid deposition by 55% and restored normal cognition. No published studies have examined exogenous GMCSF and cognitive functioning in humans. OBJECTIVES/DESIGN: The goal of the current study was to examine the association between receipt of GMCSF and cognitive functioning in patients receiving colony stimulating factors as part of routine supportive care for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Archived neuropsychological data were examined from a longitudinal study of cognitive functioning in 95 patients receiving HCT at the Moffitt Cancer Center. INTERVENTION: Receipt of GMCSF and/or Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (GCSF) was ascertained through patient billing records. MEASUREMENTS: Patients were assessed with a battery of neuropsychological tests prior to transplant and 6 and 12 months post-transplant. RESULTS: Patients treated with GMCSF and GCSF (n=19) showed significantly greater improvement in total neuropsychological functioning (TNP) at 6 months than patients treated with GCSF only (n=76) (p=.04). There was no group difference in TNP at 12 months (p=.24). Improvement in TNP from baseline to 6 months post-HCT was significant in the GMCSF+GCSF group (p=.01) but not the GCSF only group (p=.33). Improvement in TNP from baseline to 12 months post-HCT was significant in both groups (ps<.01). CONCLUSION: Preliminary data from this study of humans receiving colony stimulating factors suggest that receipt of GMCSF+GCSF was associated with greater cognitive improvement than GCSF alone. Randomized controlled trials of the effects of GMCSF on cognitive functioning in humans are warranted and underway to confirm these findings. PMID:22905341

Jim, Heather Sl; Boyd, Tim D; Booth-Jones, Margaret; Pidala, Joseph; Potter, Huntington

2012-01-01

312

Fuzzy Cognitive Maps in Banking Business Process Performance Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper addresses the problem of designing an “intelligent” decision support methodology tool to act as a back end to financial\\u000a planning. The methodology tool proposes a novel approach to supplementing typical financial strategy formulation projects\\u000a by utilizing the fuzzy causal characteristics of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) to generate a hierarchical and dynamic network\\u000a of interconnected profit and loss (P&L)

George Xirogiannis; Michael Glykas; Christos Staikouras

313

Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to improve cognitive dysfunction and functional ability in clinical depression--a systematic review.  

PubMed

Cognitive dysfunction is of clinical significance and exerts longstanding implication on patients? function. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments of cognitive dysfunction are emerging. This review evaluates pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments of cognitive impairment primarily in the domains of memory, attention, processing speed and executive function in clinical depression. A total of 35 studies were retrieved from Pubmed, PsycInfo and Scopus after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results show that various classes of antidepressants exert improving effects on cognitive function across several cognitive domains. Specifically, studies suggest that SSRIs, the SSRE tianeptine, the SNRI duloxetine, vortioxetine and other antidepressants such as bupropion and moclobemide may exert certain improving effects on cognitive function in depression, such as in learning and memory and executive function. Class-specific cognitive domains or specific dose-response relationships were not identified yet. The few non-pharmacological studies conducted employing cognitive orientated treatments and cognitive remediation therapy show promising results for the improvement of cognitive impairment in depression. However, several methodological constraints of studies limit generalizability of the results and caution the interpretation. Future direction should consider the development of a neuropsychological consensus cognitive battery to support the discovery, clinical assessment, comparison of studies and registration of new agents in clinical depression. PMID:24863864

Baune, Bernhard T; Renger, Lisa

2014-09-30

314

An improved shuffled frog leaping algorithm with cognitive behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shuffled frog leaping (SFL) is a population based, cooperative search metaphor inspired by natural memetics. Its ability of adapting to dynamic environment makes SFL become one of the most important memetic algorithms. In order to improve the algorithmpsilas stability and the ability to search the global optimum, a novel dasiacognition componentpsila is introduced to enhance the effectiveness of the SFL,

Xuncai Zhang; Xuemei Hu; Guangzhao Cui; Yanfeng Wang; Ying Niu

2008-01-01

315

Assessing Cognitive Load Theory to Improve Student Learning for Mechanical Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer programming class for students of mechanical engineering was redesigned and assessed: Cognitive Load Theory was used to redesign the content; online technologies were used to redesign the delivery. Student learning improved and the dropout rate was reduced. This article reports on both attitudinal and objective assessment: comparing…

Impelluso, Thomas J.

2009-01-01

316

Tailored cognitive-behavioural therapy and exercise training improves the physical fitness of patients with fibromyalgia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Patients with fibromyalgia have diminished levels of physical fitness, which may lead to functional disability and exacerbating complaints. Multidisciplinary treatment comprising cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and exercise training has been shown to be effective in improving physical fitness. However, due to the high drop-out rates and large variability in patients' functioning, it was proposed that a tailored treatment approach might

S. Spillekom-van Koulil; W. G. J. M. van Lankveld; F. W. Kraaimaat; T. van Helmond; A. Vedder; H. van Hoorn; A. R. T. Donders; L. Wirken; H. Cats; A. W. M. Evers

2011-01-01

317

Residual Negative Symptoms Differentiate Cognitive Performance in Clinically Stable Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits in various domains have been shown in patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The purpose of the present study was to examine if residual psychopathology explained the difference in cognitive function between clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We compared the performance on tests of attention, visual and verbal memory, and executive function of 25 patients with schizophrenia in remission and 25 euthymic bipolar disorder patients with that of 25 healthy controls. Mediation analysis was used to see if residual psychopathology could explain the difference in cognitive function between the patient groups. Both patient groups performed significantly worse than healthy controls on most cognitive tests. Patients with bipolar disorder displayed cognitive deficits that were milder but qualitatively similar to those of patients with schizophrenia. Residual negative symptoms mediated the difference in performance on cognitive tests between the two groups. Neither residual general psychotic symptoms nor greater antipsychotic doses explained this relationship. The shared variance explained by the residual negative and cognitive deficits that the difference between patient groups may be explained by greater frontal cortical neurophysiological deficits in patients with schizophrenia, compared to bipolar disorder. Further longitudinal work may provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie these deficits.

Ramanathan, Seethalakshmi; Wong, Eugene; Nayak, Ajita; Moore, Brian

2014-01-01

318

Cognitive performance in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: A longitudinal study in daily practice using a brief computerized cognitive battery  

PubMed Central

Background There is need for a cognitive test battery that can be easily used in clinical practice to detect or monitor cognitive performance in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In order to conduct, in this patient group, a preliminary investigation of the validity and utility of a brief computerized battery, the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) battery, we longitudinally assessed cognition in patients with relapsing remitting (RR) MS. Methods Forty-three mildly disabled, clinically active RRMS patients were repeatedly assessed with the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and five composite scores derived from the CDR computerized cognitive test system (CDR System): Power of Attention, Continuity of Attention, Quality of Working Memory, Quality of Episodic Memory and Speed of Memory. The Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) measured disability. Results The composite scores from the CDR battery generally showed excellent test-retest reliability over the repeated assessments, though was low on occasions for the Quality of Working Memory and Quality of Episodic Memory measures. The CDR measures tended to be highly correlated with other measures of cognition (DSST and PASAT) and were also strongly related to disability (EDSS and MSFC). Baseline scores indicated large impairments to visual information processing speed and attention (DSST, Cohen's d 1.1; Power of Attention d 1.4 [reaction time on tasks of focussed and sustained attention]), and a moderate impairment both to sustained attention (Continuity of Attention d 0.6) and complex information processing speed (Speed of memory d 0.7 [reaction time on tasks of working and episodic Memory]), when compared to normative data derived from healthy volunteers enrolled in a series of separate, prior clinical trials. Working memory (Quality of Working Memory) and episodic memory (Quality of Episodic Memory) were unimpaired. Conclusions Preliminary validation of the CDR System indicated that for most, but not all measures psychometric properties were adequate and the measures were related to disability (EDSS and MSFC) and other measures of cognition.

2011-01-01

319

Engine component improvement program: Performance improvement. [fuel consumption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel consumption of commercial aircraft is considered. Fuel saving and retention components for new production and retrofit of JT9D, JT8D, and CF6 engines are reviewed. The manner in which the performance improvement concepts were selected for development and a summary of the current status of each of the 16 selected concepts are discussed.

Mcaulay, J. E.

1979-01-01

320

THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL AND OPIATE ABUSE ON COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE MEASURES (NEUROPSYCHOLOGY, NEUROTOXICITY, CATEGORY TEST, RAVENS' PROGRESSIVE MATRICES)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research concerning the cognitive functioning of opiate abusers has indicated performance deficits in visual motor and abstract thinking skills. It has also been established that alcoholics manifest these deficits. As many opiate abusers are also alcoholics, previous findings regarding the cognitive performance of opiate abusers may have been obscured by alcohol effects.^ This study was undertaken to test the cognitive

RICHARD ANTHONY FILIPPONE

1985-01-01

321

Resting-state slow wave power, healthy aging and cognitive performance  

PubMed Central

Cognitive functions and spontaneous neural activity show significant changes over the life-span, but the interrelations between age, cognition and resting-state brain oscillations are not well understood. Here, we assessed performance on the Trail Making Test and resting-state magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings from 53 healthy adults (18–89 years old) to investigate associations between age-dependent changes in spontaneous oscillatory activity and cognitive performance. Results show that healthy aging is accompanied by a marked and linear decrease of resting-state activity in the slow frequency range (0.5–6.5?Hz). The effects of slow wave power on cognitive performance were expressed as interactions with age: For older (>54 years), but not younger participants, enhanced delta and theta power in temporal and central regions was positively associated with perceptual speed and executive functioning. Consistent with previous work, these findings substantiate further the important role of slow wave oscillations in neurocognitive function during healthy aging.

Vlahou, Eleni L.; Thurm, Franka; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Schlee, Winfried

2014-01-01

322

Student Cognitive Attributes and Performance in a Computer-Managed Instructional Setting. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This chapter focused on four studies that addressed salient issues involving individual differences in student cognitive characteristics and performance in a computer-managed instructional environment. The first study investigated whether cognitive styles...

P. A. Federico

1991-01-01

323

The Use of Bayesian Latent Class Cluster Models to Classify Patterns of Cognitive Performance in Healthy Ageing  

PubMed Central

The main focus of this study is to illustrate the applicability of latent class analysis in the assessment of cognitive performance profiles during ageing. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to detect main cognitive dimensions (based on the neurocognitive test variables) and Bayesian latent class analysis (LCA) models (without constraints) were used to explore patterns of cognitive performance among community-dwelling older individuals. Gender, age and number of school years were explored as variables. Three cognitive dimensions were identified: general cognition (MMSE), memory (MEM) and executive (EXEC) function. Based on these, three latent classes of cognitive performance profiles (LC1 to LC3) were identified among the older adults. These classes corresponded to stronger to weaker performance patterns (LC1>LC2>LC3) across all dimensions; each latent class denoted the same hierarchy in the proportion of males, age and number of school years. Bayesian LCA provided a powerful tool to explore cognitive typologies among healthy cognitive agers.

Cunha, Pedro; Palha, Joana Almeida; Sousa, Nuno

2013-01-01

324

Does Consumption of LC Omega-3 PUFA Enhance Cognitive Performance in Healthy School-Aged Children and throughout Adulthood? Evidence from Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Long-chain (LC) omega-3 PUFA derived from marine sources may play an important role in cognitive performance throughout all life stages. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the dominant omega-3 in the brain, is a major component of neuronal cell membranes and affects various neurological pathways and processess. Despite its critical role in brain function, human’s capacity to synthesize DHA de novo is limited and its consumption through the diet is important. However, many individuals do not or rarely consume seafood. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the current evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) in healthy school-aged children, younger and older adults to determine whether consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA improves cognitive performance and to make recommendations for future research. Current evidence suggests that consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA, particularly DHA, may enhance cognitive performance relating to learning, cognitive development, memory and speed of performing cognitive tasks. Those who habitually consume diets low in DHA, children with low literacy ability and malnourished and older adults with age-related cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment seem to benefit most. However, study design limitations in many RCTs hamper firm conclusions. The measurement of a uniform biomarker, e.g., % DHA in red blood cells, is essential to establish baseline DHA-status, to determine targets for cognitive performance and to facilitate dosage recommendations. It is recommended that future studies be at least 16 weeks in duration, account for potential interaction effects of gender, age and apolipoprotein E genotype, include vegan/vegetarian populations, include measures of speed of cognitive performance and include brain imaging technologies as supportive information on working mechanisms of LC omega-3 PUFA.

Stonehouse, Welma

2014-01-01

325

Does Consumption of LC Omega-3 PUFA Enhance Cognitive Performance in Healthy School-Aged Children and throughout Adulthood? Evidence from Clinical Trials.  

PubMed

Long-chain (LC) omega-3 PUFA derived from marine sources may play an important role in cognitive performance throughout all life stages. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the dominant omega-3 in the brain, is a major component of neuronal cell membranes and affects various neurological pathways and processess. Despite its critical role in brain function, human's capacity to synthesize DHA de novo is limited and its consumption through the diet is important. However, many individuals do not or rarely consume seafood. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the current evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) in healthy school-aged children, younger and older adults to determine whether consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA improves cognitive performance and to make recommendations for future research. Current evidence suggests that consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA, particularly DHA, may enhance cognitive performance relating to learning, cognitive development, memory and speed of performing cognitive tasks. Those who habitually consume diets low in DHA, children with low literacy ability and malnourished and older adults with age-related cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment seem to benefit most. However, study design limitations in many RCTs hamper firm conclusions. The measurement of a uniform biomarker, e.g., % DHA in red blood cells, is essential to establish baseline DHA-status, to determine targets for cognitive performance and to facilitate dosage recommendations. It is recommended that future studies be at least 16 weeks in duration, account for potential interaction effects of gender, age and apolipoprotein E genotype, include vegan/vegetarian populations, include measures of speed of cognitive performance and include brain imaging technologies as supportive information on working mechanisms of LC omega-3 PUFA. PMID:25054550

Stonehouse, Welma

2014-01-01

326

Neurocognitive monitors: toward the prevention of cognitive performance decrements and catastrophic failures in the operational environment.  

PubMed

Network-centric doctrine and the proposed C41SR (command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance) distributions to the individual warfighter require that the cognitive performance, judgment, and decision making of warfighters must be sustained and effectively managed in the forward operating environment, where various physiological and psychological stressors abound, in order to reduce human errors and catastrophic failures. The U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC) established the Cognitive Performance, Judgment, and Decision-Making Research Program (CPJDRP) in 2004 to direct research to this issue. A Neurophysiological Measures and Cognition Focus Team (NMFCT) was formed to work with augmented cognition investigators and to specifically address the development of neurophysiological measures as potential monitors of alertness-cognitive state in warfighters. The USAM-RMC approach complemented the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Augmented Cognition approach, which focused on the detection of workload-related impaired cognitive state, and subsequent modification of information flow through automation. In this preface, the premise for neurophysiological measures as neurocognitive monitors is explained using an example of a neurophysiological index: the oculomotor measure, saccadic velocity. The progress of the NMFCT on the development of a neurocognitive monitor is described, as well as the recommendations of a 2005 USAMRMC/Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC)-sponsored workshop. Awareness of neurocognitive monitoring is discussed, as are future endeavors related to operational testing and fieldability. Four papers are summarized in this Neurophysiological Monitoring and Augmented Cognition section involving technologies to enhance cognitive performance in the operational environment: one on dynamic cortical electroencephalography, two on oculometrics, and one on a spatial orientation enhancement system. PMID:17547315

Thomas, Maria L; Russo, Michael B

2007-05-01

327

Improving satisfaction performance through faster turnaround times.  

PubMed

In order to increase satisfaction and improve department performance, Florida Hospital Memorial Medical Center focused on decreasing report turnaround time with a goal of two hours from completion of the examination by the technologist to a final signed report by the radiologist. Through the introduction of voice recognition software, not only were efficiencies gained, but there was a dramatic reduction in transcription costs--from $30,000 per month to less than $300. Turnaround times were ultimately reduced, thus improving performance and increasing satisfaction. This was made evident by the tracking over time of physician satisfaction scores and HCAHPS scores rating patient satisfaction. PMID:22043733

Kelley, Lisa

2011-01-01

328

Ginger pharmacopuncture improves cognitive impairment and oxidative stress following cerebral ischemia.  

PubMed

Recent findings have demonstrated that acupuncture and ginger can each improve memory impairment following cerebral ischemia. We hypothesized that ginger pharmacopuncture, a combination of these two treatments, could increase the beneficial effects. Due to the limitation of supporting evidence, we aimed to determine whether ginger pharmacopuncture could improve cognitive function and oxidative stress following cerebral ischemia. Male Wistar rats were induced by right middle cerebral artery occlusion (Rt. MCAO) and subjected to either acupuncture or ginger pharmacopuncture once daily over a period of 14 days after Rt. MCAO. Cognitive function was determined every 7 days, using escape latency and retention time as indices, and the oxidative stress status of the rats was determined at the end of the study. Rats subjected either to acupuncture or to ginger pharmacopuncture at GV20 demonstrated enhanced spatial memory, and the activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus were improved. Elevation of superoxide dismutase activity was observed only in the hippocampus. Cognitive enhancement was observed sooner with ginger pharmacopuncture than with acupuncture. The cognitive enhancing effect of acupuncture and ginger pharmacopuncture is likely to be at least partially attributable to decreased oxidative stress. However, other mechanisms may also be involved, and this requires further study. PMID:23265080

Jittiwat, Jinatta; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn

2012-12-01

329

Houttuynia cordata Improves Cognitive Deficits in Cholinergic Dysfunction Alzheimer's Disease-Like Models  

PubMed Central

Cognitive impairment is a result of dementia of diverse causes, such as cholinergic dysfunction and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (Saururaceae) has long been used as a traditional herbal medicine. It has biological activities including protective effects against amyloid beta (A?) toxicity, via regulation of calcium homeostasis, in rat hippocampal cells. To extend previous reports, we investigated the effects of water extracts of H. cordata herb (HCW) on tauopathies, also involving calcium influx. We then confirmed the effects of HCW in improving memory impairment and neuronal damage in mice with A?-induced neurotoxicity. We also investigated the effects of HCW against scopolamine-induced cholinergic dysfunction in mice. In primary neuronal cells, HCW inhibited the phosphorylation of tau by regulating p25/p35 expression in A?-induced neurotoxicity. In mice with A?-induced neurotoxicity, HCW improved cognitive impairment, as assessed with behavioral tasks, such as novel object recognition, Y-maze, and passive avoidance tasks. HCW also inhibited the degeneration of neurons in the CA3 region of the hippocampus in A?-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, HCW, which had an IC50 value of 79.7 ?g/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibition, ameliorated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment significantly in Y-maze and passive avoidance tasks. These results indicate that HCW improved cognitive impairment, due to cholinergic dysfunction, with inhibitory effects against tauopathies and cholinergic antagonists, suggesting that HCW may be an interesting candidate to investigate for the treatment of AD.

Huh, Eugene; Kim, Hyo Geun; Park, Hanbyeol; Kang, Min Seo; Lee, Bongyong; Oh, Myung Sook

2014-01-01

330

Houttuynia cordata Improves Cognitive Deficits in Cholinergic Dysfunction Alzheimer's Disease-Like Models.  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment is a result of dementia of diverse causes, such as cholinergic dysfunction and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (Saururaceae) has long been used as a traditional herbal medicine. It has biological activities including protective effects against amyloid beta (A?) toxicity, via regulation of calcium homeostasis, in rat hippocampal cells. To extend previous reports, we investigated the effects of water extracts of H. cordata herb (HCW) on tauopathies, also involving calcium influx. We then confirmed the effects of HCW in improving memory impairment and neuronal damage in mice with A?-induced neurotoxicity. We also investigated the effects of HCW against scopolamine-induced cholinergic dysfunction in mice. In primary neuronal cells, HCW inhibited the phosphorylation of tau by regulating p25/p35 expression in A?-induced neurotoxicity. In mice with A?-induced neurotoxicity, HCW improved cognitive impairment, as assessed with behavioral tasks, such as novel object recognition, Y-maze, and passive avoidance tasks. HCW also inhibited the degeneration of neurons in the CA3 region of the hippocampus in A?-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, HCW, which had an IC50 value of 79.7 ?g/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibition, ameliorated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment significantly in Y-maze and passive avoidance tasks. These results indicate that HCW improved cognitive impairment, due to cholinergic dysfunction, with inhibitory effects against tauopathies and cholinergic antagonists, suggesting that HCW may be an interesting candidate to investigate for the treatment of AD. PMID:25009697

Huh, Eugene; Kim, Hyo Geun; Park, Hanbyeol; Kang, Min Seo; Lee, Bongyong; Oh, Myung Sook

2014-05-01

331

Cognitive performance in hypotensive persons with spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Due to sympathetic de-centralization, individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI), especially those with tetraplegia, often\\u000a present with hypotension, worsened with upright posture. Several investigations in the non-SCI population have noted a relationship\\u000a between chronic hypotension and deficits in memory, attention and processing speed and delayed reaction times.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  To determine cognitive function in persons with SCI who were normotensive or hypotensive

Adejoke B. Jegede; Dwindally Rosado-Rivera; William A. Bauman; Christopher P. Cardozo; Mary Sano; Jeremy M. Moyer; Monifa Brooks; Jill Maria Wecht

2010-01-01

332

Cerebral Malaria; Mechanisms Of Brain Injury And Strategies For Improved Neuro-Cognitive Outcome  

PubMed Central

Cerebral malaria is the most severe neurological complication of infection with Plasmodium falciparum. With over 575,000 cases annually, children in sub-Saharan Africa are the most affected. Surviving patients have an increased risk of neurological and cognitive deficits, behavioral difficulties and epilepsy making cerebral malaria a leading cause of childhood neuro-disability in the region. The pathogenesis of neuro-cognitive sequelae is poorly understood: coma develops through multiple mechanisms and there may be several mechanisms of brain injury. It is unclear how an intravascular parasite causes such brain injury. Understanding these mechanisms is important to develop appropriate neuro-protective interventions. This paper examines possible mechanisms of brain injury in cerebral malaria, relating this to the pathogenesis of the disease and explores prospects for improved neuro-cognitive outcome.

Idro, Richard; Marsh, Kevin; John, Chandy C; Newton, Charles RJ

2011-01-01

333

Hypnotherapy and Test Anxiety: Two Cognitive-Behavioral Constructs. The Effects of Hypnosis in Reducing Test Anxiety and Improving Academic Achievement in College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-group randomized multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the effects of cognitive-behavioral hypnosis in reducing test anxiety and improving academic performance in comparison to a Hawthorne control group. Subjects were enrolled in a rigorous introductory psychology course which covered an entire text in one…

Sapp, Marty

334

Improved Neurobehavioral Performance during the Wake Maintenance Zone  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Although impairment of daytime functioning is a symptom of many sleep disorders, there are limited data on their nature for some patient groups. The role of the circadian system on impaired functioning, specifically the wake maintenance zone (WMZ)—a ?3-h window of reduced sleep propensity that occurs shortly before the onset of melatonin synthesis—has received little attention. The study examined the influence of the WMZ on neurobehavioral performance under normal conditions and following sleep deprivation. Methods: Thirty-one adults (8 F; 18-29 y) completed an in-patient protocol including a baseline day (8-h sleep:16-h wake) and a ?50-h constant routine (CR), including regular assessment of plasma melatonin and neurobehavioral performance (i.e., auditory and visual psychomotor vigilance tests [aPVT, vPVT], Digit Symbol Substitution Test [DSST], and subjective sleepiness). Results: Performance in the 3 hours before the onset of melatonin secretion (i.e., the expected WMZ) was significantly improved compared to performance during a 3-hour block earlier in the biological day, despite a longer time awake. The improvement during WMZ was most prominent after extended wakefulness (i.e., day 2 of the CR). Conclusions: These results suggest that alignment of circa-dian phase with respect to sleep-wake timing may affect cognitive performance, particularly when homeostatic sleep pressure is high, and especially when performance is assessed in the evening, near the predicted WMZ. The potential contribution of the WMZ to sleep-onset insomnia complaints should be assessed further, using objective neurobehavioral testing and simultaneous circadian phase measurement. Citation: Shekleton JA; Rajaratnam SMW; Gooley JJ; Van Reen E; Czeisler CA; Lockley SW. Improved neurobehavioral performance during the wake maintenance zone. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(4):353-362.

Shekleton, Julia A.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.; Gooley, Joshua J.; Van Reen, Eliza; Czeisler, Charles A.; Lockley, Steven W.

2013-01-01

335

Cognitive-behaviour therapy and skilled motor performance in adults with chronic tic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first aim of the present study was to compare performance of people with tic disorders (TD) and controls on executive function and a range of skilled motor tests requiring complex performance, guided movements, hand co-ordination, and fine control of steadiness. The second aim was to investigate the effect of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) on motor performance. A total of

Kieron P. Oconnor; Marc E. Lavoie; Emmanuel Stip; François Borgeat; Anick Laverdure

2008-01-01

336

Measuring Cognitive Complexity: An Analysis of Performance-Based Assessment in Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new test theory for performance-based assessment is proposed. Criteria for "good" performance-based items, ways of measuring cognitive complexity, methods for determining maturity levels of understanding, and scaling systems are discussed. A performance-based task completed by 51 ninth and tenth graders in June 1993 was studied. Results…

Suzuki, Kyoko; Harnisch, Delwyn L.

337

Tartary buckwheat improves cognition and memory function in an in vivo amyloid-?-induced Alzheimer model.  

PubMed

Protective effects of Tartary buckwheat (TB) and common buckwheat (CB) on amyloid beta (A?)-induced impairment of cognition and memory function were investigated in vivo in order to identify potential therapeutic agents against Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its associated progressive memory deficits, cognitive impairment, and personality changes. An in vivo mouse model of AD was created by injecting the brains of ICR mice with A?(25-35), a fragment of the full-length A? protein. Damage of mice recognition ability through following A?(25-35) brain injections was confirmed using the T-maze test, the object recognition test, and the Morris water maze test. Results of behavior tests in AD model showed that oral administration of the methanol (MeOH) extracts of TB and CB improved cognition and memory function following A?(25-35) injections. Furthermore, in groups receiving the MeOH extracts of TB and CB, lipid peroxidation was significantly inhibited, and nitric oxide levels in tissue, which are elevated by injection of A?(25-35), were also decrease. In particular, the MeOH extract of TB exerted a stronger protective activity than CB against A?(25-35)-induced memory and cognition impairment. The results indicate that TB may play a promising role in preventing or reversing memory and cognition loss associated with A?(25-35)-induced AD. PMID:23219778

Choi, Ji Yeon; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Hae Song; Lee, Jeong Min; Yoon, Young-Ho; Lee, Sanghyun

2013-03-01

338

B Vitamins and Cognitive Performance in Older Adults: Review  

PubMed Central

A copious amount of scientific scrutiny has been dedicated to documenting typical and atypical human ageing, with a substantial body of work focusing upon the impact of lifestyle choices. One such lifestyle choice is that of diet and, in particular, micronutrient ingestion. Epidemiological studies have reported positive associations between B vitamin status and cognitive function, including negative associations between biological markers (i.e., homocysteine) of dysregulated one-carbon metabolism and cognitive function. This has led to a surge of randomised control trials (RCTs) investigations into B vitamin therapy. However, results have continuingly failed to show beneficial behavioural effects. Despite this, results reliably show treatment-related increases in B vitamin level and decreases in homocysteine level—both of which have been identified as risk factors for atypical ageing. In this paper we argue that it would be premature to conclude that B vitamin therapy has no potential and that more research is needed to systematically investigate the optimal dose, the therapeutic “window,” and individual differences in therapy responders and nonresponders. We start with a brief look at one-carbon metabolism and then consider the evidence from epidemiological studies and RCTs in relation to three specific B vitamins: folic acid (B9), pyridoxine (B6), and cobamides (B12).

Reay, J. L.; Smith, M. A.; Riby, L. M.

2013-01-01

339

Supported Employment Improves Cognitive Performance in Adults with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a supported employment programme on measures of executive functions for 44 adults with autism, assessed at the beginning and the end of the programme period. The average length of time of the community employment was 30 months. Methods: Based on their predominant work activity…

Garca-Villamisar, D.; Hughes, C.

2007-01-01

340

Clock drawing performance and brain morphology in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a widely used instrument in the neuropsychological assessment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). As CDT performance necessitates several cognitive functions (e.g., visuospatial and constructional abilities, executive functioning), an interaction of multiple brain regions is likely. Fifty-one subjects with mild cognitive impairment, 23 with AD and 15 healthy controls underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Optimized voxel-based

Philipp A. Thomann; Pablo Toro; Vasco Dos Santos; Marco Essig; Johannes Schröder

2008-01-01

341

Sex-sensitive cognitive performance in untreated patients with early onset gender identity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. We explored whether the cognitive performance of gender identity disorder patients (GID) was comparable to that of their biological sex or skewed towards that of their gender identity.Method. We tested four potentially sex-sensitive cognitive factors (rotation, visualization, perception, and verbalization) as well as two neutral factors (logic and arithmetic) in GID patients from Norway (GID-N, n=33) or the USA

I. R. Haraldsen; S. Opjordsmoen; T. Egeland; A. Finset

2003-01-01

342

Serum cholesterol, precursors and metabolites and cognitive performance in an aging population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated if a causal relation exists between serum concentrations of precursors and metabolites of cholesterol and cognitive performance in a healthy aging population.Cognitive function addressing four domains of 144 individuals (30–80 years) was tested at baseline and after 6 years of follow-up. Serum concentrations of different sterols related to cholesterol were measured.Serum levels of lathosterol and lanosterol

C. E. Teunissen; J. De Vente; K von Bergmann; H. Bosma; M. P. J van Boxtel; C De Bruijn; J Jolles; H. W. M Steinbusch; D Lütjohann

2003-01-01

343

Personal Helplessness and Action Control: Analysis of Achievement-Related Cognitions, Self-Assessments, and Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of Dweck’s (Dweck & Licht, 1980) research on helplessness in academic achievement situations and Kuhl’s (1981) theory of action control, we investigated cognitive concomitants of performance changes in an achievement-related context. We monitored subjects’ verbalizations of action-oriented and state-oriented cognitions while they experienced success and failure. We analyzed the influence of dispositional action control and perceptions of

Joachim C. Brunstein; Erhard Olbrich

1985-01-01

344

A Longitudinal Investigation of Perceived Control and Cognitive Performance in Young, Midlife and Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Longitudinal associations between generalized control beliefs (one's perceived capacity to influence events) and cognitive test performance were examined in a population-based sample of young, midlife and older adults. Participants provided measures of perceived control, self-assessed health, education and depression and anxiety symptoms, and completed cognitive tests at two assessments, 4 years apart. For each age group, baseline (between-person) control was

Tim D. Windsor; Kaarin J. Anstey

2008-01-01

345

The Relationship between Perceived Cognitive Dysfunction and Objective Neuropsychological Performance in Persons with Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Research shows a gap between perceived cognitive dysfunction and objective neuropsychological performance in persons with chronic diseases. We explored this relationship in persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS Individuals from a longitudinal cohort study of RA participated in a study visit that included physical, psychosocial, and biological metrics. Subjective cognitive dysfunction was assessed using the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire (PDQ; 0–20, higher scores = greater perceived impairment). Objective cognitive impairment was assessed using a battery of 12 standardized neuropsychological measures yielding 16 indices. On each test, subjects were classified as ‘impaired’ if they performed 1 SD below age-based population norms. Total cognitive function scores were calculated by summing the transformed scores (0–16, higher scores = greater impairment). Multiple linear regression analyses determined the relationship of total cognitive function score with PDQ score, controlling for gender, race, marital status, income, education, disease duration, disease severity, depression, and fatigue. RESULTS 120 subjects (mean ± SD age: 58.5 ± 11.0 years) were included. Mean ± SD scores of total cognitive function and PDQ were 2.5 ± 2.2 (0–10) and 5.8 ± 3.8 (0–16), respectively. In multivariate analysis, there was no significant relationship between total cognitive function score and PDQ score. However, depression and fatigue (? = 0.31, p < 0.001; ? = 0.31, p = 0.001) were significantly associated with PDQ score. CONCLUSION The findings emphasize the gap between subjective and objective measures of cognitive impairment and the importance of considering psychological factors within the context of cognitive complaints in clinical settings.

Shin, So Young; Katz, Patricia; Julian, Laura

2013-01-01

346

Rules for Leadership. Improving Unit Performance,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book presents an original set of leadership rules to improve unit performance at all organizational levels. The work is designed to fill the considerable gap between the very position-specific, recipe-type lists of things you should do or not do in t...

J. W. Blades

1986-01-01

347

Does Reflective Journal Writing Improve Course Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether a reflective journal writing assignment would improve students' course performance. A total of 166 students from undergraduate sections of a course taught by the same instructor over three semesters completed the assignment as part of their requirements. Students (N = 317) from five previous semesters of the same…

Cisero, Cheryl A.

2006-01-01

348

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN IMPROVED STREET SWEEPER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an extensive evaluation of the Improved Street Sweeper (ISS) in Bellevue, WA, and in San Diego, CA. The cleaning performance of the ISS was compared with that of broom sweepers and a vacuum sweeper. The ISS cleaned streets better than the other sweeper...

349

JSP Splitting for Improving Execution Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Splitting a JSP (JavaServer Pages) page into fragments can improve the execution performance of JSP pages when the Web application server can separately cache the Web page fragments obtained by executing the JSP fragments. If a JSP page is split into fragments according to the update frequency of each portion of the Web page obtained by executing the JSP page,

Takuya Nakaike; Goh Kondoh; Hiroaki Nakamura; Fumihiko Kitayama; Shin'ichi Hirose

2004-01-01

350

Improved PV system performance using vanadium batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vanadium-vanadium redox battery can improve photovoltaic system performance, reliability and robustness by increasing the energy conversion efficiency of the battery to 87%, by making the battery life, efficiency and ongoing energy capacity independent of state of charge and load profiles and by reducing maintenance requirements. High battery efficiency reduces the required PV while a battery life insensitive to battery

R. L. Largent; M. Skylas-Kazacos; J. Chieng

1993-01-01

351

Using Semantic Coaching to Improve Teacher Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains that semantic coaching is a system of conversational analysis and communication design developed by Fernando Flores, and was based on the earlier research of John Austin and John Searle. Describes how to establish the coaching relationship, and how to coach for improved performance. (PA)

Caccia, Paul F.

1996-01-01

352

A comparison of the CogState Schizophrenia Battery and the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Battery in assessing cognitive impairment in chronic schizophrenia.  

PubMed

This study examined the criterion and construct validity of a brief computerized cognitive test battery (CogState Schizophrenia Battery) compared to a conventional cognitive test battery recommended by the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) consensus. The CogState and MATRICS batteries yielded comparable effect sizes in comparing patients with schizophrenia to healthy controls (Cohen's ds = -1.50 for both batteries). Moderate to large correlations were observed between CogState and MATRICS measures of processing speed, attention/vigilance, working memory, verbal and visual learning, reasoning/problem solving, and social cognition (rs = .56-.79). CogState and MATRICS composite scores also correlated strongly with scores on the University of California at San Diego (UCSD) Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA; rs = .76 and .79, respectively) in patients with schizophrenia. Results of this study suggest that the CogState Schizophrenia Battery provides valid measurement of the cognitive domains nominated by the MATRICS consensus group as being important to consider in the context of pharmacological treatments for cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. PMID:19142774

Pietrzak, Robert H; Olver, James; Norman, Trevor; Piskulic, Danijela; Maruff, Paul; Snyder, Peter J

2009-10-01

353

A New Focus for Educational Improvement Through Cognitive and Other Structuring of Subconscious Personal Axioms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines personal axioms as deeply held beliefs of individuals about themselves and their world that determine their activities, interests, and performance. Discusses the role of the teacher with regard to cognitive restructuring techniques that may help students change negative personal axioms and free themselves to learn more efficiently. (JHZ)

McEntire, Arnold; Kitchens, Anita Narvarte

1984-01-01

354

Does Methylphenidate Improve Inhibition and Other Cognitive Abilities in Adults with Childhood-Onset ADHD?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of methylphenidate (Mph) on inhibition and several other cognitive abilities in 43 adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by use of Conners’ Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and the Change Task (ChT), an extension of the Stop Signal Test (SST). In a double blind, cross-over, placebo controlled study with Mph, tests were administered during the third

A. Marije Boonstra; J. J. Sandra Kooij; Jaap Oosterlaan; Joseph A. Sergeant; Jan K. Buitelaar

2005-01-01

355

Scaling in cognitive performance reflects multiplicative multifractal cascade dynamics  

PubMed Central

Self-organized criticality purports to build multi-scaled structures out of local interactions. Evidence of scaling in various domains of biology may be more generally understood to reflect multiplicative interactions weaving together many disparate scales. The self-similarity of power-law scaling entails homogeneity: fluctuations distribute themselves similarly across many spatial and temporal scales. However, this apparent homogeneity can be misleading, especially as it spans more scales. Reducing biological processes to one power-law relationship neglects rich cascade dynamics. We review recent research into multifractality in executive-function cognitive tasks and propose that scaling reflects not criticality but instead interactions across multiple scales and among fluctuations of multiple sizes.

Stephen, Damian G.; Anastas, Jason R.; Dixon, James A.

2012-01-01

356

Scaling in cognitive performance reflects multiplicative multifractal cascade dynamics.  

PubMed

Self-organized criticality purports to build multi-scaled structures out of local interactions. Evidence of scaling in various domains of biology may be more generally understood to reflect multiplicative interactions weaving together many disparate scales. The self-similarity of power-law scaling entails homogeneity: fluctuations distribute themselves similarly across many spatial and temporal scales. However, this apparent homogeneity can be misleading, especially as it spans more scales. Reducing biological processes to one power-law relationship neglects rich cascade dynamics. We review recent research into multifractality in executive-function cognitive tasks and propose that scaling reflects not criticality but instead interactions across multiple scales and among fluctuations of multiple sizes. PMID:22529819

Stephen, Damian G; Anastas, Jason R; Dixon, James A

2012-01-01

357

Security-reliability performance of cognitive AF relay-based wireless communication system with channel estimation error  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, both the security and the reliability performance of the cognitive amplify-and-forward (AF) relay system are analyzed in the presence of the channel estimation error. The security and the reliability performance are represented by the outage probability and the intercept probability, respectively. Instead of perfect channel state information (CSI) predominantly assumed in the literature, a certain channel estimation algorithm and the influence of the corresponding channel estimation error are considered in this study. Specifically, linear minimum mean square error estimation (LMMSE) is utilized by the destination node and the eavesdropper node to obtain the CSI, and the closed form for the outage probability and that for the intercept probability are derived with the channel estimation error. It is shown that the transmission security (reliability) can be improved by loosening the reliability (security) requirement. Moreover, we compare the security and reliability performance of this relay-based cognitive radio system with those of the direct communication system without relay. Interestingly, it is found that the AF relay-based system has less reliability performance than the direct cognitive radio system; however, it can lower the sum of the outage probability and the intercept probability than the direct communication system. It is also found that there exists an optimal training number to minimize the sum of the outage probability and the intercept probability.

Gu, Qi; Wang, Gongpu; Gao, Li; Peng, Mugen

2014-12-01

358

Improved multimodal biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment diagnosis: data from ADNI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) confers many clinical research and patient care benefits. Studies have shown that multimodal biomarkers provide better diagnosis accuracy of AD and MCI than unimodal biomarkers, but their construction has been based on traditional statistical approaches. The objective of this work was the creation of accurate AD and MCI diagnostic multimodal biomarkers using advanced bioinformatics tools. The biomarkers were created by exploring multimodal combinations of features using machine learning techniques. Data was obtained from the ADNI database. The baseline information (e.g. MRI analyses, PET analyses and laboratory essays) from AD, MCI and healthy control (HC) subjects with available diagnosis up to June 2012 was mined for case/controls candidates. The data mining yielded 47 HC, 83 MCI and 43 AD subjects for biomarker creation. Each subject was characterized by at least 980 ADNI features. A genetic algorithm feature selection strategy was used to obtain compact and accurate cross-validated nearest centroid biomarkers. The biomarkers achieved training classification accuracies of 0.983, 0.871 and 0.917 for HC vs. AD, HC vs. MCI and MCI vs. AD respectively. The constructed biomarkers were relatively compact: from 5 to 11 features. Those multimodal biomarkers included several widely accepted univariate biomarkers and novel image and biochemical features. Multimodal biomarkers constructed from previously and non-previously AD associated features showed improved diagnostic performance when compared to those based solely on previously AD associated features.

Martinez-Torteya, Antonio; Treviño-Alvarado, Víctor; Tamez-Peña, José

2013-02-01

359

Intraindividual Variability May Not Always Indicate Vulnerability in Elders' Cognitive Performance  

PubMed Central

This study examined consistency of performance, or intraindividual variability, in older adults’ performance on 3 measures of cognitive functioning: inductive reasoning, memory, and perceptual speed. Theoretical speculation has suggested that such intraindividual variability may signal underlying vulnerability or neurologic compromise. Thirty-six participants aged 60 and older completed self-administered cognitive assessments twice a day for 60 consecutive days. Intraindividual variability was not strongly correlated among the 3 cognitive measures, but, over the course of the study, intraindividual variability was strongly intercorrelated within a task. Higher average performance on a measure was associated with greater performance variability, and follow-up analyses revealed that a higher level of intraindividual variability is positively associated with the magnitude of a person’s practice-related gain on a particular measure. The authors argue that both adaptive (practice-related) and maladaptive (inconsistency-related) intraindividual variability may exist within the same individuals over time.

Allaire, Jason C.; Marsiske, Michael

2010-01-01

360

Perimenopause and cognition.  

PubMed

The impact of perimenopause on cognition seems to be characterized by an absence of improved scores rather than a decline. In the SWAN, the perimenopausal decrement in cognitive performance was not accounted for; however, increases in anxiety and depressive symptoms had independent, unfavorable effects on performance. Estradiol has been found to protect against changes resulting from serotonin withdrawal and defend against changes from cholinergic depletion. There is support for the critical timing hypothesis--that estrogen benefits cognitive function when instituted early, but not later. The menopausal transition may affect cognitive function in older age owing to worsened cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:21961718

Greendale, Gail A; Derby, Carol A; Maki, Pauline M

2011-09-01

361

Pubertal immune challenge blocks the ability of estradiol to enhance performance on cognitive tasks in adult female mice  

PubMed Central

Summary Puberty is a period characterized by brain reorganization that contributes to the development of neural and behavioral responses to gonadal steroids. Previously, we have shown that a single injection of the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1.5mg/kg IP), during the pubertal period (around 6 weeks old) in mice decreases sexual receptivity in response to estradiol and progesterone in adulthood. These findings suggest that pubertal immune challenge has an enduring effect of decreasing the behavioral responsiveness to gonadal steroid hormones. Since estradiol improves cognitive function in certain tasks in mice, we investigated the effect of pubertal immune challenge on the ability of estradiol to enhance cognitive function. We hypothesized that estradiol would be less effective at enhancing performance on particular cognitive tasks in female mice treated with LPS during puberty. Six-week old (pubertal) and ten-week old (adult) female CD1 mice were injected with either saline or LPS. Five weeks later, they were ovariectomized and implanted subcutaneously with either an estradiol- or oil-filled Silastic© capsule followed one week later with testing for cognitive function. The duration of juvenile investigation during social discrimination and recognition tests was used as a measure of social memory, and the duration of object investigation during object recognition and placement tests was used as a measure of object memory. Chronic estradiol treatment enhanced social and object memory in saline-treated females and in females treated with LPS in adulthood. In contrast, in females treated with LPS at 6 weeks old, estradiol failed to improve social and object memories. These results support the hypothesis that exposure to an immune challenge during puberty reduces at least some of the cognitive effects of estradiol. Moreover, these results support the idea that pubertal immune challenge compromises a wide variety of behavioral influences of ovarian hormones.

Ismail, Nafissa; Blaustein, Jeffrey D.

2012-01-01

362

Exploring Positive and Negative Affect as Key Indicators of Life Satisfaction among Centenarians: Does Cognitive Performance Matter?  

PubMed Central

The aim of this investigation was to determine how cognitive performance was associated with positive and negative affect and life satisfaction over time. This study involved a secondary longitudinal analysis of cross-section data collected at Phase I (1988–1992) and during an 18-month longitudinal followup at Phase II (1992–1998) of the Georgia Centenarian Study. Participants included N = 137 centenarians at Time 1 and N = 68 survivors at Time 2. Significant stability in cognitive impairment existed at Time 1 and Time 2 for positive (? = .55, P < .01) and negative affect (? = .54, P < .01) models. Negative affect at Time 1 was associated with lower life satisfaction at Time 1 (? = ?.42, P < .01 ). In addition, cognitive impairment at Time 2 was associated with decreased positive emotionality at Time 2 (? = ?.39, P > .01). Furthermore, greater positive affect at Time 2 was associated with greater satisfaction with life at Time 2 (? = .35, P < .01). It appears that positive emotionality contemporaneously influences the association between cognitive impairment and life satisfaction among centenarians. Implications relative to improving life satisfaction among centenarians are discussed.

Bishop, Alex J.; Martin, Peter; Poon, Leonard; Johnson, Mary Ann

2011-01-01

363

Cognitive Changes in Adulthood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Originally prepared for the Workshop to Increase and to Improve University Teacher Training Programs in Adult Basic Education, Chicago, March 1969, this paper reviews a five year project, begun in 1966, on adult age differences in cognitive performance and learning. One purpose of this project is to determine differences in cognitive abilities,…

Monge, Rolf H.

364

Cannabis use, cognitive performance and mood in a sample of workers.  

PubMed

There are well documented acute and chronic effects of cannabis use on mental functioning. However, less is known about any effects on cognition within the context of work and everyday life. The aim of the study was to examine any association between cannabis use and cognitive performance, mood and human error at work. Cannabis users and controls completed a battery of laboratory based computer tasks measuring mood and cognitive function pre- and post-work at the start and end of a working week. They also completed daily diaries reporting their work performance. Cannabis use was associated with impairment in both cognitive function and mood, though cannabis users reported no more workplace errors than controls. Cannabis use was associated with lower alertness and slower response organization. In addition, users experienced working memory problems at the start, and psychomotor slowing and poorer episodic recall at the end of the working week. This pattern of results suggests two possible effects. First a 'hangover'-type effect which may increase with frequency of use. Second a subtle effect on cognitive function, perhaps more apparent under cognitive load and/or fatigue, which may increase with more prolonged use. The results also highlight the importance of the timing of testing within the context and routine of everyday life. PMID:16204329

Wadsworth, E J K; Moss, S C; Simpson, S A; Smith, A P

2006-01-01

365

Optimizing treatments for nicotine dependence by increasing cognitive performance during withdrawal.  

PubMed

Introduction: Current FDA-approved smoking cessation pharmacotherapies have limited efficacy and are associated with high rates of relapse. Therefore, there is a clear need to develop novel antismoking medications. Nicotine withdrawal is associated with cognitive impairments that predict smoking relapse. It has been proposed that these cognitive deficits are a hallmark of nicotine withdrawal that could be targeted in order to prevent smoking relapse. Thus, pharmacotherapies that increase cognitive performance during nicotine withdrawal may represent potential smoking cessation agents. Areas covered: The authors review the clinical literature demonstrating that nicotine withdrawal is associated with deficits in working memory, attention and response inhibition. They then briefly summarize different classes of compounds and strategies to increase cognitive performance during nicotine withdrawal. Particular emphasis has been placed on translational research in order to highlight areas for which there is strong rationale for pilot clinical trials of potential smoking cessation medications. Expert opinion: There is emerging evidence that supports deficits in cognitive function as a plausible nicotine withdrawal phenotype. The authors furthermore believe that the translational paradigms presented here may represent efficient and valid means for the evaluation of cognitive-enhancing medications as possible treatments for nicotine dependence. PMID:24707983

Ashare, Rebecca L; Schmidt, Heath D

2014-06-01

366

VEGF Ameliorates Cognitive Impairment in In Vivo and In Vitro Ischemia via Improving Neuronal Viability and Function.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has recently been proved to be a potential therapeutic drug in ischemic disorders depending on the dose, route and time of administration, especially in focal cerebral ischemia. Whether VEGF could exert protection in a long-term total cerebral ischemic model is still uncertain, and the cellular mechanism has not been clarified so far. In order to answer the above issue, an experiment was performed in non-invasively giving exogenous VEGF to a total cerebral ischemic model rats and examining their spatial cognitive function by performing Morris water maze and long-term potential test. Moreover, we performed in vitro experiment to explore the cellular mechanism of VEGF protection effect. In an in vitro ischemia model oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), whole-cell patch-clamp recording was employed to examine neuronal function. Additionally, hematoxylin-eosin and propidium iodide staining were applied in vivo and in vitro in the neuropathological and viability study, separately. Our results showed that intranasal administration of VEGF could improve the cognitive function, synaptic plasticity and damaged hippocampal neurons in a global cerebral ischemia model. In addition, VEGF could retain the membrane potential, neuronal excitability and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in the early stage of ischemia, which further demonstrated that there was an acute effect of VEGF in OGD-induced pyramidal neurons. Simultaneously, it was also found that the death of CA1 pyramidal neuronal was significantly reduced by VEGF, but there was no similar effect in VEGF coexists with SU5416 group. These results indicated that VEGF could ameliorate cognitive impairment and synaptic plasticity via improving neuronal viability and function through acting on VEGFR-2. PMID:24338641

Yang, Jiajia; Yao, Yang; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Tao

2014-06-01

367

Improving performance via mini-applications.  

SciTech Connect

Application performance is determined by a combination of many choices: hardware platform, runtime environment, languages and compilers used, algorithm choice and implementation, and more. In this complicated environment, we find that the use of mini-applications - small self-contained proxies for real applications - is an excellent approach for rapidly exploring the parameter space of all these choices. Furthermore, use of mini-applications enriches the interaction between application, library and computer system developers by providing explicit functioning software and concrete performance results that lead to detailed, focused discussions of design trade-offs, algorithm choices and runtime performance issues. In this paper we discuss a collection of mini-applications and demonstrate how we use them to analyze and improve application performance on new and future computer platforms.

Crozier, Paul Stewart; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Numrich, Robert W. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Williams, Alan B.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Keiter, Eric Richard; Rajan, Mahesh; Willenbring, James M.; Doerfler, Douglas W.; Heroux, Michael Allen

2009-09-01

368

The influence of internal time, time awake, and sleep duration on cognitive performance in shiftworkers.  

PubMed

To date, studies investigating the consequences of shiftwork have predominantly focused on external (local) time. Here, we report the daily variation in cognitive performance in rotating shiftworkers under real-life conditions using the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) and show that this function depends both on external and internal (biological) time. In addition to this high sensitivity of PVT performance to time-of-day, it has also been extensively applied in sleep deprivation protocols. We, therefore, also investigated the impact of shift-specific sleep duration and time awake on performance. In two separate field studies, 44 young workers (17 females, 27 males; age range 20-36 yrs) performed a PVT test every 2 h during each shift. We assessed chronotype by the MCTQ(Shift) (Munich ChronoType Questionnaire for shiftworkers). Daily sleep logs over the 4-wk study period allowed for the extraction of shift-specific sleep duration and time awake in a given shift, as well as average sleep duration ("sleep need"). Median reaction times (RTs) significantly varied across shifts, depending on both Local Time and Internal Time. Variability of reaction times around the 24 h mean (? ±5%) was best explained by a regression model comprising both factors, Local Time and Internal Time (p ?improved to levels above average with increasing time awake (p < .05), whereas RT(85%) became worse (p < .05). Hierarchical mixed models confirmed the importance of chronotype and sleep duration on cognitive performance in shiftworkers, whereas the effect of time awake requires further research. Our finding that both Local Time and Internal Time, in conjunction with shift-specific sleep behavior, strongly influence performance extends predictions derived from laboratory studies. PMID:22888791

Vetter, Céline; Juda, Myriam; Roenneberg, Till

2012-10-01

369

Nefiracetam improves Morris water maze performance following traumatic brain injury in rats.  

PubMed

Nefiracetam, a pyrrolidone derivative, is a nootropic agent that has facilitated cognitive function in a wide variety of animal models of cognitive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the chronic postinjury administration of nefiracetam (DM-9384) in improving cognitive performance following central fluid percussion brain injury in rats. Twenty-four hours following surgical preparation, a sham injury or a moderate fluid percussive injury (2.1 atm) was delivered. Nefiracetam was administered chronically (0 or 9 mg/kg, po, for sham animals and 0, 3, or 9 mg/kg for injured animals) on postinjury days 1-15. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM) on postinjury days 11-15. Chronic administration of 3 and 9 mg/kg nefiracetam attenuated MWM deficits produced by central fluid percussive brain injury. Importantly, the MWM performance of the injured animals treated with 9 mg/kg did not significantly differ from uninjured, sham animals. The 9-mg/kg dose of nefiracetam did not have a positive or negative effect on MWM performance of uninjured animals. The results of the present experiment suggest that a nootropic such as nefiracetam may be an appropriate treatment for trauma-induced cognitive dysfunction. PMID:11509223

DeFord, S M; Wilson, M S; Gibson, C J; Baranova, A; Hamm, R J

2001-01-01

370

Application of Cognitive Apprenticeship Model to a Graduate Course in Performance Systems Analysis: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a case study describing how the principles of a cognitive apprenticeship (CA) model developed by Collins, Brown, and Holum (1991) were applied to a graduate course on performance systems analysis (PSA), and the differences this application made in student performance and evaluation of the course compared to the previous…

Darabi, A. Aubteen

2005-01-01

371

Emotional reactivity and cognitive performance in aversively motivated tasks: a comparison between four rat strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cognitive function might be affected by the subjects' emotional reactivity. We assessed whether behavior in different tests of emotional reactivity is correlated with performance in aversively motivated learning tasks, using four strains of rats generally considered to have a different emotional reactivity. METHODS: The performance of male Brown Norway, Lewis, Fischer 344, and Wistar Kyoto rats in open field

F Josef van der Staay; Teun Schuurman; Cornelis G van Reenen; S Mechiel Korte

2009-01-01

372

Effects of Concurrent Performance Monitoring on Cognitive Load as a Function of Task Complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

For self-regulated learning to be effective, students need to be able to accurately monitor their performance while they are working on a task, use this as input for self-assessment of that performance after the task, and select an appropriate new learning task in response to that assessment. From a cognitive load perspective, monitoring can be seen as a secondary task

Tamara van Gog

373

The Influence of Distracting Familiar Vocal Music on Cognitive Performance of Introverts and Extraverts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effect of familiar musical distractors on the cognitive performance of introverts and extraverts. Participants completed a verbal, numerical and logic test in three music conditions: vocal music, instrumental music and silence. It was predicted that introverts would perform worse with vocal music, better with…

Avila, Christina; Furnham, Adrian; McClelland, Alastair

2012-01-01

374

Cognitive Performance During 10 Hours of Continuous Respirator Wear Under Resting Conditions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to assess the effects of long-term respirator wear on cognitive performance and signal detection, nine subjects continuously performed various computer controlled tasks under non-exercise conditions during two 10 hr days one with and one without ...

D. M. Caretti

1995-01-01

375

Exposure to Music and Cognitive Performance: Tests of Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on two experiments of exposure to music and cognitive performance. In Experiment 1, Canadian undergraduates performed better on an IQ subtest (Symbol Search) after listening to an up-tempo piece of music composed by Mozart in comparison to a slow piece by Albinoni. The effect was evident, however, only when the two pieces also…

Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Nakata, Takayuki; Hunter, Patrick G.; Tamoto, Sachiko

2007-01-01

376

Social Cognitive Predictors of Pre-Service Teachers' Technology Integration Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of the study was to examine interrelationships among social cognitive variables (self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and performance goals) and their role in predicting pre-service teachers' technology integration performance. Although researchers have examined the role of these variables in the teacher-education context, the…

Perkmen, Serkan; Pamuk, Sonmez

2011-01-01

377

Parental education, sex differences, and performance on cognitive tasks among two-year-old children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between sex of child, parental educational level, and performance on 3 different types of cognitive tasks 2 vocabulary tasks, an embedded figures task, and a 2-choice discrimination task was investigated among 48 2-yr-old children. It was expected that parental education would be positively related to superior performance on all of the tasks for girls but unrelated for boys.

N. Dickon Repucci

1971-01-01

378

Selected Cognitive Factors and Speech Recognition Performance among Young and Elderly Listeners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The influence of selected cognitive factors on age-related changes in speech recognition was examined by measuring the effects of recall task, speech rate, and availability of contextual cues on the recognition performance of 10 young listeners (ages 18-40) and 10 older listeners (ages 65-76). Hearing loss affected performance. (Author/CR)

Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Fitzgibbons, Peter J.

1997-01-01

379

Quantitative Diffusion Tensor Imaging Tractography Metrics are Associated with Cognitive Performance Among HIV-Infected Patients  

PubMed Central

There have been many studies examining HIV-infection-related alterations of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diffusion metrics. However, examining scalar diffusion metrics ignores the orientation aspect of diffusion imaging, which can be captured with tractography. We examined five different tractography metrics obtained from global tractography maps (global tractography FA, average tube length, normalized number of streamtubes, normalized weighted streamtube length, and normalized total number of tubes generated) for differences between HIV positive and negative patients and the association between the metrics and clinical variables of disease severity. We also examined the relationship between these metrics and cognitive performance across a wide range of cognitive domains for the HIV positive and negative patient groups separately. The results demonstrated a significant difference between the groups for global tractography FA (t=2.13, p= 0.04), but not for any of the other tractography metrics examined (p-value range=0.39 to 0.95). There were also several significant associations between the tractography metrics and cognitive performance (i.e., tapping rates, switching 1 and 2, verbal interference, mazes; r?0.42) for HIV infected patients. In particular, associations were noted between tractography metrics, speed of processing, fine motor control/speed, and executive function for the HIV-infected patients. These findings suggest that tractography metrics capture clinically relevant information regarding cognitive performance among HIV infected patients and suggests the importance of subtle white matter changes in examining cognitive performance.

Conley, Jared; Paul, Robert H.; Coop, Kathryn; Zhang, Song; Zhou, Wenjin; Laidlaw, David H.; Taylor, Lynn E.; Flanigan, Timothy; Navia, Bradford; Cohen, Ronald; Tashima, Karen

2010-01-01

380

Quantitative diffusion tensor imaging tractography metrics are associated with cognitive performance among HIV-infected patients.  

PubMed

There have been many studies examining HIV-infection-related alterations of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diffusion metrics. However, examining scalar diffusion metrics ignores the orientation aspect of diffusion imaging, which can be captured with tractography. We examined five different tractography metrics obtained from global tractography maps (global tractography FA, average tube length, normalized number of streamtubes, normalized weighted streamtube length, and normalized total number of tubes generated) for differences between HIV positive and negative patients and the association between the metrics and clinical variables of disease severity. We also examined the relationship between these metrics and cognitive performance across a wide range of cognitive domains for the HIV positive and negative patient groups separately. The results demonstrated a significant difference between the groups for global tractography FA (t = 2.13, p = 0.04), but not for any of the other tractography metrics examined (p-value range = 0.39 to 0.95). There were also several significant associations between the tractography metrics and cognitive performance (i.e., tapping rates, switching 1 and 2, verbal interference, mazes; r > or = 0.42) for HIV infected patients. In particular, associations were noted between tractography metrics, speed of processing, fine motor control/speed, and executive function for the HIV-infected patients. These findings suggest that tractography metrics capture clinically relevant information regarding cognitive performance among HIV infected patients and suggests the importance of subtle white matter changes in examining cognitive performance. PMID:20503115

Tate, David F; Conley, Jared; Paul, Robert H; Coop, Kathryn; Zhang, Song; Zhou, Wenjin; Laidlaw, David H; Taylor, Lynn E; Flanigan, Timothy; Navia, Bradford; Cohen, Ronald; Tashima, Karen

2010-03-01

381

Improving emergency response and human- robotic performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparedness for chemical, biological, and radiological\\/nuclear incidents at nuclear power plants (NPPs) includes the deployment of well trained emergency response teams. While teams are expected to do well, data from other domains suggests that the timeliness and accuracy associated with incident response can be improved through collaborative human-robotic interaction. Many incident response scenarios call for multiple, complex procedure-based activities performed

David I. Gertman; David J. Bruemmer; R. Scott Hartley

2007-01-01

382

Compression Techniques for Improved Algorithm Computational Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Analysis of thermal data requires the processing of large amounts of temporal image data. The processing of the data for quantitative information can be time intensive especially out in the field where large areas are inspected resulting in numerous data sets. By applying a temporal compression technique, improved algorithm performance can be obtained. In this study, analysis techniques are applied to compressed and non-compressed thermal data. A comparison is made based on computational speed and defect signal to noise.

Zalameda, Joseph N.; Howell, Patricia A.; Winfree, William P.

2005-01-01

383

Optimizing Graph Algorithms for Improved Cache Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop algorithmic optimizations to improve the cache performance of four fundamental graph algorithms. We present a cache-oblivious implementation of the Floyd-Warshall algorithm for the fundamental graph problem of all-pairs shortest paths by relaxing some dependencies in the iterative version. We show that this implementation achieves the lower bound on processor-memory traffic of ?(N3\\/?C), where N and C are the

Joon-sang Park; Michael Penner; Viktor K. Prasanna

2004-01-01

384

Piracetam Improves Cognitive Deficits Caused by Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piracetam is the derivate of gamma-aminobutyric acid, which improves the cognition,memory,consciousness, and is widely applied\\u000a in the clinical treatment of brain dysfunction. In the present experiments, we study the effects of piracetam on chronic cerebral\\u000a hypoperfused rats and observe its influence on amino acids, synaptic plasticity in the Perforant path-CA3 pathway and apoptosis\\u000a in vivo. Cerebral hypoperfusion for 30 days by

Zhi He; Yun Liao; Min Zheng; Fan-Dian Zeng; Lian-Jun Guo

2008-01-01

385

Comment: Performance improvement with computer training in Parkinson disease.  

PubMed

Computer-based memory and attention training methods improve episodic recall in older adults who have amnestic mild cognitive impairment.(1,2) Memory and attention are highly interactive and interdependent processes due to their shared circuitry. The cognitive benefits of computer-based memory training appear to persist for at least 6 months.(1) Traditional cognitive training programs are administered by professionals and may cost as much as $15 to $100 an hour, depending on the educational level of the staff member who delivers the training.(2) More cost-effective methods of computer-based memory training are needed. In the study by Zimmermann et al.(3) on patients with Parkinson disease (PD), 2 types of computer training were compared: a specific cognitive training method (CogniPlus) and a nonspecific method, Nintendo Wii, a game console. PMID:24623844

Hershey, Linda A

2014-04-01

386

?-Melanocyte stimulating hormone prevents GABAergic neuronal loss and improves cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

In Alzheimer's disease (AD), appropriate excitatory-inhibitory balance required for memory formation is impaired. Our objective was to elucidate deficits in the inhibitory GABAergic system in the TgCRND8 mouse model of AD to establish a link between GABAergic dysfunction and cognitive function. We sought to determine whether the neuroprotective peptide ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH) attenuates GABAergic loss and thus improves cognition. TgCRND8 mice with established ?-amyloid peptide pathology and nontransgenic littermates were treated with either ?-MSH or vehicle via daily intraperitoneal injections for 28 d. TgCRND8 mice exhibited spatial memory deficits and altered anxiety that were rescued after ?-MSH treatment. The expression of GABAergic marker glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) and the number of GABAergic GAD67+ interneurons expressing neuropeptide Y and somatostatin are reduced in the hippocampus in vehicle-treated TgCRND8 mice. In the septohippocampal pathway, GABAergic deficits are observed before cholinergic deficits, suggesting that GABAergic loss may underlie behavior deficits in vehicle-treated TgCRND8 mice. ?-MSH preserves GAD67 expression and prevents loss of the somatostatin-expressing subtype of GABAergic GAD67+ inhibitory interneurons. Without decreasing ?-amyloid peptide load in the brain, ?-MSH improves spatial memory in TgCRND8 mice and prevents alterations in anxiety. ?-MSH modulated the excitatory-inhibitory balance in the brain by restoring GABAergic inhibition and, as a result, improved cognition in TgCRND8 mice. PMID:24828629

Ma, Keran; McLaurin, JoAnne

2014-05-14

387

Dejian Mind-Body Intervention Improves the Cognitive Functions of a Child with Autism  

PubMed Central

There has been increasing empirical evidence for the enhancing effects of Dejian Mind-Body Intervention (DMBI), a traditional Chinese Shaolin healing approach, on human frontal brain activity/functions, including patients with autism who are well documented to have frontal lobe problems. This study aims to compare the effects of DMBI with a conventional behavioural/cognitive intervention (CI) on enhancing the executive functions and memory of a nine-year-old boy with low-functioning autism (KY) and to explore possible underlying neural mechanism using EEG theta cordance. At post-one-month DMBI, KY's inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and memory functioning have significantly improved from “severely-to-moderately impaired” to “within-normal” range. This improvement was not observed from previous 12-month CI. Furthermore, KY showed increased cordance gradually extending from the anterior to the posterior brain region, suggesting possible neural mechanism underlying his cognitive improvement. These findings have implicated potential applicability of DMBI as a rehabilitation program for patients with severe frontal lobe and/or memory disorders.

Chan, Agnes S.; Sze, Sophia L.; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Han, Yvonne M. Y.; Leung, Winnie W. M.; Shi, Dejian

2011-01-01

388

Using analogies to improve the teaching performance of preservice teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Prior research in both education and cognitive science has identified analogy making as a powerful tool for explanation as well as a fundamental mechanism for facilitating an individual's construction of knowledge. While a considerable body of research exists focusing on the role analogy plays in learning science concepts, relatively little is known about how instruction in the use of analogies might influence the teaching performance of preservice teachers. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between pedagogical analogy use and pedagogical reasoning ability in a sample of preservice elementary teachers (PTs), a group that has been identified for their particular difficulties in teaching science. The study utilized a treatment/contrast group design in which the treatment group was provided instruction that guided them in the generation of analogies to aid in the explanation phase of learning cycle lessons. A relationship between analogy use and positive indicants of teaching performance was observed and a case study of a low performing preservice teacher who drastically improved teaching performance using analogy-based pedagogy is presented. A notable effect on conceptual understanding of Newton's Third Law as a result of two brief analogy-based demonstration lessons was also observed.

James, Mark C.; Scharmann, Lawrence C.

2012-01-20

389

48 CFR 970.5203-2 - Performance improvement and collaboration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Performance improvement and collaboration. 970.5203-2 Section 970...5203-2 Performance improvement and collaboration. As prescribed in 970.0370-2...clause: Performance Improvement and Collaboration (MAY 2006) (a)...

2010-10-01

390

Correlations between motor performance and cognitive functions in children born < 1250 g at school age.  

PubMed

Very low birth weight born children manifest a higher prevalence of motor and cognitive impairments than term children. Seventy-four prospectively enrolled children born < 1250 g underwent testing of motor (Zurich neuromotor assessment ZNA: timed motor performances and associated movements) and cognitive functions (Kaufman-ABC) at age six years. Children with cerebral palsy or mental retardation were excluded. Adaptive motor tasks (pegboard and dynamic balance) and visuomotor cognitive functions were specifically impaired, and a distinct correlation pattern between motor and cognitive abilities was detected. The adaptive fine motor task (pegboard) correlated with visuomotor functions of the Kaufman-ABC ("triangles", r = 0.35; "matrix analogies", r = 0.39), while pure motor tasks of the ZNA (repetitive, alternating, and sequential movements) did not in spite of impaired motor performance. Timed motor performance below the 10th percentile correlated strongly with cognitive delay (IQ < 85: adaptive fine motor: OR 6.0 [95% CI] 4.7-7.3; adaptive gross motor: OR 7.0 [CI 5.6-8.4]; static balance: OR 9.6 [CI 8.2-11.0]). In conclusion, motor deficits in children born < 1250 g without severe disabilities correlate with specific cognitive impairments, in particular of the visuomotor domain. The correlation pattern may indicate specific dysfunction in visuomotor transformation, the intermediate process between visual-perceptual input and motor output. Early assessment of both motor and cognitive functions using standardized assessment tools is important to determine the extent and combination of specific developmental disturbances and to tailor therapeutic intervention. PMID:16541362

Seitz, J; Jenni, O G; Molinari, L; Caflisch, J; Largo, R H; Latal Hajnal, B

2006-02-01

391

Effects of treatment for intestinal helminth infection on growth and cognitive performance in children: systematic review of randomised trials  

PubMed Central

Objective To summarise the effects of anthelmintic drug treatment on growth and cognitive performance in children. Data sources Electronic databases: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group controlled trial register, Cochrane controlled trials register, Embase, and Medline. Citations of all identified trials. Contact with the World Health Organization and field researchers. Review methods Systematic review of randomised controlled trials in children aged 1-16 that compared anthelmintic treatment with placebo or no treatment. Assessment of validity and data abstraction conducted independently by two reviewers. Main outcome measures Growth and cognitive performance. Results Thirty randomised controlled trials in more than 15?000 children were identified. Effects on mean weight were unremarkable, and heterogeneity was evident in the results. There were some positive effects on mean weight change in the trials reporting this outcome: after a single dose (any anthelmintic) the pooled estimates were 0.24 kg (95% confidence interval 0.15 kg to 0.32 kg; fixed effects model assumed) and 0.38 kg (0.01 kg to 0.77 kg; random effects model assumed). Results from trials of multiple doses showed mean weight change in up to one year of follow up of 0.10 kg (0.04 kg to 0.17 kg; fixed effects) or 0.15 kg (0.00 to 0.30; random effects). At more than one year of follow up, mean weight change was 0.12 kg (?0.02 kg to 0.26 kg; fixed effects) and 0.43 (?0.61 to 1.47; random effects). Results from studies of cognitive performance were inconclusive. Conclusions There is some limited evidence that routine treatment of children in areas where helminths are common has effects on weight gain, but this is not consistent between trials. There is insufficient evidence as to whether this intervention improves cognitive performance.

Dickson, Rumona; Awasthi, Shally; Williamson, Paula; Demellweek, Colin; Garner, Paul

2000-01-01

392

Improving Contract Performance by Corrective Actions Plans  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Plans (CAPs) are required to be developed, submitted, and reported upon by the prime contractors for the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Management and Operations (M and O) contracts. The best known CAP ''type,'' and there are many, is for Price-Anderson Amendments Act (PAAA) ''potential noncompliances.'' The M and O contractor fines for PAAA problems have increased from approximately $100,000 in 1996 to almost $2,000,000 in 2000. In order to improve CAP performance at the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) site at Y-12 in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the contractor chose to centralize the company-wide processes of problem identification and reporting with the PAAA (and other) CAP processes. This directly integrates these functional reports to the contractor General Manager. The functions contained in the M and O contractor central organization, called ''Performance Assurance,'' are: PAAA; Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Liaison; Contract Requirements Management; Issues Management (including the CAP processes); Lessons Learned; Independent and Management Assessments; Internal Audits; and Ethics. By centrally locating and managing these problem identification and problem correction functions, the contractor, BWXT Y-12, L.L.C., has improved PAAA (and other) CAP performance more than 200 percent in the first year of the contract. Much of this improvement (see Table 1 for examples) has been achieved by increasing the knowledge and experience of management and workers in the specific contract and company requirements for CAPs. The remainder of this paper will describe some of the many CAP processes at Y-12 to show the reader the non-trivial scope of the CAP process. Improvements in CAP management will be discussed. In addition, a specific recommendation for CAP management, in a major capital construction project, will be presented.

Dowd, A.S., jr.

2002-06-23

393

Occupational Exposure to Solvents and Cognitive Performance in the GAZEL Cohort: Preliminary Results  

PubMed Central

Background The impact of occupational exposure to solvents on cognitive ageing remains unclear. We examined whether long-term occupational exposure is associated with poor cognitive performance in late midlife. Methods Participants in the GAZEL cohort, set up in 1989, are employees of the French national electricity and gas company. Data on the working environment were used to create measures of cumulative exposures to solvents using a job-exposure matrix. In 2002–2004, cognitive performance was assessed using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) and the Mini Mental State Examination in 5,242 participants (aged 55–65 years). Results In cross-sectional analysis using multiple logistic regression, there was a greater risk of poor cognitive performance (DSST score <25th percentile) among those with high exposure to benzene (OR = 1.58; 95% CI 1.31–1.90) and the grouped categories of chlorinated (OR = 1.39; 95% CI 1.3–2.3), aromatic (OR = 1.76; 95% CI 1.08–2.87), and petroleum solvents (OR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.23–1.81). Conclusions These results suggest that occupational exposures to solvents may be associated later in life with cognitive impairment, even after taking into account the effects of education, employment grade, and numerous health factors.

Berr, C.; Vercambre, M.N.; Bonenfant, S.; Singh Manoux, A.; Zins, M.; Goldberg, M.

2010-01-01

394

Cognitive performance deficits in a simulated climb of Mount Everest - Operation Everest II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cognitive function at simulated altitude was investigated in a repeated-measures within-subject study of performance by seven volunteers in a hypobaric chamber, in which atmospheric pressure was systematically lowered over a period of 40 d to finally reach a pressure equivalent to 8845 m, the approximate height of Mount Everest. The automated performance test system employed compact computer design; automated test administrations, data storage, and retrieval; psychometric properties of stability and reliability; and factorial richness. Significant impairments of cognitive function were seen for three of the five tests in the battery; on two tests, grammatical reasoning and pattern comparison, every subject showed a substantial decrement.

Kennedy, R. S.; Dunlap, W. P.; Banderet, L. E.; Smith, M. G.; Houston, C. S.

1989-01-01

395

Cognitive Performance and Functional Competence as Predictors of Community Independence in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Measures of functional competence have been introduced to supplement standard cognitive and neuropsychological evaluations in schizophrenia research and practice. Functional competence comprises skills and abilities that are more relevant to daily life and community adjustment. However, it is unclear whether relevance translates into significantly enhanced prediction of real-world outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the specific contribution of functional competence in predicting a key aspect of real-world outcome in schizophrenia: community independence. Demographic, clinical, cognitive, and functional competence data were obtained from 127 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and used to predict community independence concurrently and longitudinally after 10 months. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that demographic, clinical, and cognitive predictors accounted jointly for 35%–38% of the variance in community independence across assessment points. Functional competence data failed to add significantly to this validity. Considered separately from demographic and clinical predictors, cognitive and functional competence data accounted for significant amounts of outcome variance. However, the addition of functional competence to standard cognitive test data yielded a significant increase in validity only for concurrent and not for longitudinal prediction of community independence. The specific real-world validity of functional competence is modest, yielding information that is largely redundant with standard cognitive performance.

Heinrichs, R. Walter; Ammari, Narmeen; Miles, Ashley A.; McDermid Vaz, Stephanie

2010-01-01

396

APOE moderates the association between lifestyle activities and cognitive performance: evidence of genetic plasticity in aging.  

PubMed

The current study examined independent and interactive effects between Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and two types of cognitively-stimulating lifestyle activities (CSLA)-integrated information processing (CSLA-II) and novel information processing (CSLA-NI)-on concurrent and longitudinal changes in cognition. Three-wave data across 6 years of follow-up from the Victoria Longitudinal Study (n=278; ages 55-94) and linear mixed model analyses were used to characterize the effects of APOE genotype and participation in CSLA-II and CSLA-NI in four cognitive domains. Significant CSLA effects on cognition were observed. More frequent participation in challenging activities (i.e., CSLA-NI) was associated with higher baseline scores on word recall, fact recall, vocabulary and verbal fluency. Conversely, higher participation in less cognitively-challenging activities (i.e., CSLA-II) was associated with lower scores on fact recall and verbal fluency. No longitudinal CSLA-cognition effects were found. Two significant genetic effects were observed. First, APOE moderated CSLA-II and CSLA-NI associations with baseline verbal fluency and fact recall scores. Second, APOE non-?4 carriers' baseline performance were more likely to be moderated by CSLA participation, compared to APOE-?4 carriers. Our findings suggest APOE may be a "plasticity" gene that makes individuals more or less amenable to the influence of protective factors such as CSLA. PMID:24867440

Runge, Shannon K; Small, Brent J; McFall, G Peggy; Dixon, Roger A

2014-05-01

397

Cognitive test performance and crash risk in an older driver population.  

PubMed

This paper reports on the usefulness of five brief tests of cognitive function for identifying older drivers who may be at increased risk of crash involvement; it also examines the broader issue of whether impaired cognitive function is associated with increased crash risk in the older driver population. Data for the study were collected from 3238 drivers aged 65 and older applying for renewal of their North Carolina driver's license. The specific cognitive assessments examined include the Trail Making Test parts A and B, the Short Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration test of cognitive impairment, a modification of the American Association of Retired Persons 'Reaction Time' test, and a timed Traffic Sign Recognition test. Information on crash involvements during the 3-year period prior to testing was obtained by linkage with the North Carolina driver history file. Although the individual tests were not found to be particularly effective screening tools for identifying subsets of high risk drivers, cognitive test performance remained significantly associated with crash risk even after controlling for driver age, race and measures of driving exposure. Drivers who scored in the lowest 10% on the cognitive tests were approx. 1.5 times more likely to be in crashes than were drivers who scored in the highest 10%. Implications for the counseling and licensing of older drivers are discussed, along with recommendations for future research. PMID:9663293

Stutts, J C; Stewart, J R; Martell, C

1998-05-01

398

APOE Moderates the Association between Lifestyle Activities and Cognitive Performance: Evidence of Genetic Plasticity in Aging  

PubMed Central

The current study examined independent and interactive effects between Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and two types of cognitively-stimulating lifestyle activities (CSLA)—integrated information processing (CSLA-II) and novel information processing (CSLA-NI)—on concurrent and longitudinal changes in cognition. Three-wave data across six years of follow-up from the Victoria Longitudinal Study (n = 278; ages 55–94) and linear mixed model analyses were used to characterize the effects of APOE genotype and participation in CSLA-II and CSLA-NI in four cognitive domains. Significant CSLA effects on cognition were observed. More frequent participation in challenging activities (i.e., CSLA-NI) was associated with higher baseline scores on word recall, fact recall, vocabulary and verbal fluency. Conversely, higher participation in less cognitively-challenging activities (i.e., CSLA-II) was associated with lower scores on fact recall and verbal fluency. No longitudinal CSLA-cognition effects were found. Two significant genetic effects were observed. First, APOE moderated CSLA-II and CSLA-NI associations with baseline verbal fluency and fact recall scores. Second, APOE ?4 non-carriers’ baseline performance were more likely to be moderated by CSLA participation, compared to APOE ?4 carriers. Our findings suggest APOE may be a “plasticity” gene that makes individuals more or less amenable to the influence of protective factors such as CSLA.

Runge, Shannon K.; Small, Brent J.; McFall, G. Peggy; Dixon, Roger A.

2014-01-01

399

A Selective Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitor Improves Prefrontal Cortex-Dependent Cognitive Function: Potential Relevance to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Drugs used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) improve prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent cognitive function. The majority of ADHD-related treatments act either as dual norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) reuptake inhibitors (psychostimulants) or selective NE reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Certain benztropine analogs act as highly selective DA reuptake inhibitors while lacking the rei