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1

Preschoolers' Cognitive Performance Improves Following Massage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effects of massage on preschoolers' cognitive performance were assessed. Preschoolers were given Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised subtests before and after receiving 15-minute massage or spending 15 minutes reading stories with the experimenter. Children's performance on Block Design improved following massage, and…

Hart, Sybil; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Lundy, Brenda

1998-01-01

2

Social housing improves dairy calves' performance in two cognitive tests.  

PubMed

Early social housing is known to benefit cognitive development in laboratory animals. Pre-weaned dairy calves are typically separated from their dam immediately after birth and housed alone, but no work to date has addressed the effect of individual housing on cognitive performance of these animals. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of individual versus social housing on two measures of cognitive performance: reversal learning and novel object recognition. Holstein calves were either housed individually in a standard calf pen (n?=?8) or kept in pairs using a double pen (n?=?10). Calves were tested twice daily in a Y-maze starting at 3 weeks of age. Calves were initially trained to discriminate two colours (black and white) until they reached a learning criterion of 80% correct over three consecutive sessions. Training stimuli were then reversed (i.e. the previously rewarded colour was now unrewarded, and vice-versa). Calves from the two treatments showed similar rates of learning in the initial discrimination task, but the individually housed calves showed poorer performance in the reversal task. At 7 weeks of age, calves were tested for their response to a novel object in eight tests over a two-day period. Pair-housed calves showed declining exploration with repeated testing but individually reared calves did not. The results of these experiments provide the first direct evidence that individual housing impairs cognitive performance in dairy calves. PMID:24587281

Gaillard, Charlotte; Meagher, Rebecca K; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Weary, Daniel M

2014-01-01

3

Does education improve cognitive performance four decades after school completion?  

PubMed

We study the effect of secondary education on cognitive performance toward the end of working age. We exploit the exogenous variation in years of schooling arising from compulsory schooling reforms implemented in six European countries during the 1950s and 1960s. Using data of individuals, approximately age 60, from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), we assess the causal effect of education on memory, fluency, numeracy, and orientation-to-date. Furthermore, we study education effects on cognitive decline. We find a positive impact of schooling on memory scores. One year of education increases the memory score approximately four decades later by about 0.2, which amounts to 10 % of a standard deviation. Furthermore, we find some evidence for a protective effect of schooling on cognitive decline in terms of verbal fluency. PMID:24578168

Schneeweis, Nicole; Skirbekk, Vegard; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

2014-04-01

4

Tamoxifen Improves Cholinergically Modulated Cognitive Performance in Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Tamoxifen (TMX) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that is used as an estrogen receptor antagonist for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Whether TMX has antagonist activities in the human brain is less clear and its effects on cognitive function have not been experimentally explored. This study examined how TMX affected cognitive performance in older women using a model of anticholinergic drug-induced cognitive dysfunction. Twenty-one postmenopausal women were administered 20?mg of oral TMX or placebo for 3 months. Participants then took part in five drug challenges using the anticholinergic antinicotinic agent mecamylamine (MECA) and antimuscarinic agent scopolamine (SCOP) and were tested on a comprehensive battery including tasks of attention and psychomotor function, verbal episodic memory, and spatial navigation. After a 3-month placebo washout, participants were then crossed over to the alternate treatment and repeated the drug challenges after 3 months. Compared with placebo treatment, TMX significantly attenuated the impairment from cholinergic blockade on tasks of verbal episodic memory and spatial navigation, but effects on attentional/psychomotor tasks were more variable. Analysis by APOE genotype showed that APO ?4+ women showed a greater beneficial effect of TMX on reversing the cholinergic impairment than APO ?4? women on most tasks. This study provides evidence that TMX may act as an estrogen-like agonist to enhance cholinergic system activity and hippocampally mediated learning. PMID:23867982

Newhouse, Paul; Albert, Kimberly; Astur, Robert; Johnson, Julia; Naylor, Magdalena; Dumas, Julie

2013-01-01

5

Induced mild systemic inflammation is associated with impaired ability to improve cognitive task performance by practice.  

PubMed

Elevated inflammatory levels are linked to poorer cognition, but experimental confirmation is lacking. This report examined associations between cognitive performance and inflammation induced by exercise and vaccination. Thirty-six (exercise N?=?18, vaccination N?=?18) healthy males completed a paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT), which is a multifaceted measure of cognitive function. The task was completed in placebo and elevated inflammation states. Improvements in PASAT performance were related to inflammation. In the exercise study, IL-6 during the first PASAT negatively correlated with PASAT improvement (p?=?.022). In the vaccination study, increases in C-reactive protein between PASATs correlated with reduced PASAT improvement (p?improvements in cognitive performance. Further research should identify the specific cognitive functions affects and the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25366393

Paine, Nicola J; Bosch, Jos A; Ring, Christopher; Drayson, Mark T; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, Jet J C S

2015-03-01

6

Therapeutic approaches in the improvement of cognitive performance in Down syndrome: past, present, and future.  

PubMed

Clinical trials with drugs aimed at treatment of Alzheimer disease to decelerate cognitive decline and translated mimetically to demented and young nondemented Down syndrome patients have been unable to demonstrate improvements in cognitive performance and functioning. Unfortunately, results from clinical trials do not support the use of NMDA antagonists like memantine and we should await at the development of safer GABA(A) antagonists to conclude about the efficacy of approaching Down syndrome therapeutics by modulating neurotransmission systems altered in this pathology. The use of folinic acid or antioxidants in DS patients is not supported by scientific evidence and do not provide improvement in cognitive performance to patients. Alternatively to the modulation of neurotransmission systems, future therapeutic approaches should focus at normalizing the expression levels or function of candidate molecules. Epigallocatechin gallate, a green tea polyphenol, that modulates DYRK1A functioning has already shown preliminarily that this approach may prove useful in therapeutics. PMID:22541285

de la Torre, Rafael; Dierssen, Mara

2012-01-01

7

A diet based on multiple functional concepts improves cognitive performance in healthy subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Disorders such as the metabolic syndrome (MetS), impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes, are associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Also several of the individual key features that define the MetS, e.g. hypertension, impaired glucose regulation, dyslipidemia, obesity, and inflammation, are related to an increased risk of cognitive decline. Consequently, a diet that prevents metabolic disorders might be expected to prevent cognitive decline. The purpose of the present study was to, in overweight but otherwise healthy subjects, investigate effects on cognitive functions of a dietary regime combining multiple functional concepts potentially beneficial to risk markers associated with MetS. The purpose was in addition to evaluate cognitive performance in relation to results on cardiometabolic risk variables (BMI, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, lipoprotein A-1 and B, hs-CRP, HbA1c, interleukin-6, TNF-?, and PAI-1). Methods Fourty-four healthy women and men (50–73 years, BMI 25–33, fasting glycemia???6.1 mmol/L) participated in a randomized, controlled crossover intervention, comparing a multifunctional diet (active diet (AD)) including foods with a potential anti-inflammatory action, with a control diet (CD) devoid of the “active” components. Both diets were composed in close agreement with the Nordic dietary recommendations. Each diet was consumed during 4 wk, separated by a 4 wk washout period. Cognitive tests were performed at fasting and in the postprandial period after a standardized breakfast, after each diet period. Results In comparison with the CD, the AD improved performance in the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning test (recognition test, p?improved performance in test of selective attention, which also included aspects of working memory (p?Performance in cognitive tests was inversely associated with plasma concentrations of cardiometabolic risk markers (fasting cholesterol, blood glucose, blood pressure) and cardiovascular risk scores (Framingham and Reynols), and positivly associated with apolipoprotein A1 (p?cognitive performance. A relationship seems to exist between cardiometabolic risk markers and cognitive performance in apparently healthy subjects. The results provide additional motives for diet based prevention of metabolic disturbances related to the MetS. PMID:23855966

2013-01-01

8

Music Lessons Improve Auditory Perceptual and Cognitive Performance in Deaf Children  

PubMed Central

Despite advanced technologies in auditory rehabilitation of profound deafness, deaf children often exhibit delayed cognitive and linguistic development and auditory training remains a crucial element of their education. In the present cross-sectional study, we assess whether music would be a relevant tool for deaf children rehabilitation. In normal-hearing children, music lessons have been shown to improve cognitive and linguistic-related abilities, such as phonetic discrimination and reading. We compared auditory perception, auditory cognition, and phonetic discrimination between 14 profoundly deaf children who completed weekly music lessons for a period of 1.5–4?years and 14 deaf children who did not receive musical instruction. Children were assessed on perceptual and cognitive auditory tasks using environmental sounds: discrimination, identification, auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory. Transfer to the linguistic domain was tested with a phonetic discrimination task. Musically trained children showed better performance in auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory and phonetic discrimination tasks, and multiple regressions showed that success on these tasks was at least partly driven by music lessons. We propose that musical education contributes to development of general processes such as auditory attention and perception, which, in turn, facilitate auditory-related cognitive and linguistic processes. PMID:25071518

Rochette, Françoise; Moussard, Aline; Bigand, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

9

The combination of L-theanine and caffeine improves cognitive performance and increases subjective alertness.  

PubMed

The non-proteinic amino acid L-theanine and caffeine, a methylxanthine derivative, are naturally occurring ingredients in tea. The present study investigated the effect of a combination of 97 mg L-theanine and 40 mg caffeine as compared to placebo treatment on cognitive performance, alertness, blood pressure, and heart rate in a sample of young adults (n = 44). Cognitive performance, self-reported mood, blood pressure, and heart rate were measured before L-theanine and caffeine administration (i.e. at baseline) and 20 min and 70 min thereafter. The combination of moderate levels of L-theanine and caffeine significantly improved accuracy during task switching and self-reported alertness (both P < 0.01) and reduced self-reported tiredness (P < 0.05). There were no significant effects on other cognitive tasks, such as visual search, choice reaction times, or mental rotation. The present results suggest that 97 mg of L-theanine in combination with 40 mg of caffeine helps to focus attention during a demanding cognitive task. PMID:21040626

Giesbrecht, T; Rycroft, J A; Rowson, M J; De Bruin, E A

2010-12-01

10

Cognitive Performance and Cognitive Style.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates (1) the relationships between cognitive performance and cognitive styles and predictive possibilities and (2) performance differences by sex, school, grade, and income in 92 Indian adolescents. Assessment measures included Liquid Conservation, Islands, Goat-Lion, Hanoi-Tower, Rabbits (Piagetian); Block Design (WISC-R); Paper Cutting…

International Journal of Behavioral Development, 1985

1985-01-01

11

Computer-aided cognitive rehabilitation improves cognitive performances and induces brain functional connectivity changes in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis patients: an exploratory study.  

PubMed

To better understand the effects of short-term computer-based cognitive rehabilitation (cCR) on cognitive performances and default mode network (DMN) intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) in cognitively impaired relapsing remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Eighteen cognitively impaired RRMS patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation by the Rao's brief repeatable battery and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate FC of the DMN before and after a short-term (8 weeks, twice a week) cCR. A control group of 14 cognitively impaired RRMS patients was assigned to an aspecific cognitive training (aCT), and underwent the same study protocol. Correlations between DMN and cognitive performances were also tested. After cCR, there was a significant improvement of the following tests: SDMT (p < 0.01), PASAT 3? (p < 0.00), PASAT 2? (p < 0.03), SRT-D (p < 0.02), and 10/36 SPART-D (p < 0.04); as well as a significant increase of the FC of the DMN in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and bilateral inferior parietal cortex (IPC). After cCR, a significant negative correlation between Stroop Color-Word Interference Test and FC in the PCC emerged. After aCT, the control group did not show any significant effect either on FC or neuropsychological tests. No significant differences were found in brain volumes and lesion load in both groups when comparing data acquired at baseline and after cCR or aCT. In cognitively impaired RRMS patients, cCR improves cognitive performances (i.e., processing speed and visual and verbal sustained memory), and increases FC in the PCC and IPC of the DMN. This exploratory study suggests that cCR may induce adaptive cortical reorganization favoring better cognitive performances, thus strengthening the value of cognitive exercise in the general perspective of building either cognitive or brain reserve. PMID:25308631

Bonavita, S; Sacco, R; Della Corte, M; Esposito, S; Sparaco, M; d'Ambrosio, A; Docimo, R; Bisecco, A; Lavorgna, L; Corbo, D; Cirillo, S; Gallo, A; Esposito, F; Tedeschi, G

2015-01-01

12

Monoterpenoid extract of sage (Salvia lavandulaefolia) with cholinesterase inhibiting properties improves cognitive performance and mood in healthy adults.  

PubMed

Extracts of sage (Salvia officinalis/lavandulaefolia) with terpenoid constituents have previously been shown to inhibit cholinesterase and improve cognitive function. The current study combined an in vitro investigation of the cholinesterase inhibitory properties and phytochemical constituents of a S. lavandulaefolia essential oil, with a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover study assessing the effects of a single dose on cognitive performance and mood. In this latter investigation 36 healthy participants received capsules containing either 50 µL of the essential oil or placebo on separate occasions, 7 days apart. Cognitive function was assessed using a selection of computerized memory and attention tasks and the Cognitive Demand Battery before the treatment and 1-h and 4-h post-dose. The essential oil was a potent inhibitor of human acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and consisted almost exclusively of monoterpenoids. Oral consumption lead to improved performance of secondary memory and attention tasks, most notably at the 1-h post-dose testing session, and reduced mental fatigue and increased alertness which were more pronounced 4-h post-dose. These results extend previous observations of improved cognitive performance and mood following AChE inhibitory sage extracts and suggest that the ability of well-tolerated terpenoid-containing extracts to beneficially modulate cholinergic function and cognitive performance deserves further attention. PMID:20937617

Kennedy, David O; Dodd, Fiona L; Robertson, Bernadette C; Okello, Edward J; Reay, Jonathon L; Scholey, Andrew B; Haskell, Crystal F

2011-08-01

13

Electrical brain stimulation improves cognitive performance by modulating functional connectivity and task-specific activation.  

PubMed

Excitatory anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS) can improve human cognitive functions, but neural underpinnings of its mode of action remain elusive. In a cross-over placebo ("sham") controlled study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neurofunctional correlates of improved language functions induced by atDCS over a core language area, the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Intrascanner transcranial direct current stimulation-induced changes in overt semantic word generation assessed behavioral modulation; task-related and task-independent (resting-state) fMRI characterized language network changes. Improved word-retrieval during atDCS was paralleled by selectively reduced task-related activation in the left ventral IFG, an area specifically implicated in semantic retrieval processes. Under atDCS, resting-state fMRI revealed increased connectivity of the left IFG and additional major hubs overlapping with the language network. In conclusion, atDCS modulates endogenous low-frequency oscillations in a distributed set of functionally connected brain areas, possibly inducing more efficient processing in critical task-relevant areas and improved behavioral performance. PMID:22302824

Meinzer, Marcus; Antonenko, Daria; Lindenberg, Robert; Hetzer, Stefan; Ulm, Lena; Avirame, Keren; Flaisch, Tobias; Flöel, Agnes

2012-02-01

14

Some strategies to improve performance in school chemistry, based on two cognitive factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The background to this study are the difficulties facing the majority of Greek pupils in understanding chemistry concepts and, therefore, performing well in the National Examinations. The aim was to explore the problems and to suggest ways in which the situation might be improved. Working with 105 Greek pupils aged 15 to 16, the first stage of the enquiry confirmed that both working memory space and extent of field dependency were two psychological factors affecting performance. This is at least part of the nature of the problem. In the second stage, an attempt was made to explore how the problems might be reduced. New teaching materials were constructed to minimize any limitations to learning caused by working memory space and problems associated with being field dependent. The use of the new materials was compared to the normal teaching process working with 210 Greek pupils aged 15 to16. It was found that there was a significant difference in the average improvement of the experimental group and the control group, in favour of the experimental group. This result was independent of the effect of the teacher, and of the interaction of teaching method and teacher. It is suggested that approaches to learning must take into account cognitive factors in the learners in the context of information processing understandings of learning. If this is done, learning is much more effective.

Danili, Eleni; Reid, Norman

2004-02-01

15

Cognitive aspects of performance.  

PubMed Central

The study of cognitive structures and processes in the control of skilled performance is considered and reviewed with special reference to a proposed hierarchical system incorporating levels of motor integration. Cognitive styles and dispositions of general behaviour are suggested as factors which may determine performance levels. The relative importance of these personal factors and stronger personality traits in accounting for variance in performance is considered in the light of a critique of the current interactional controversy. PMID:444808

Kane, J. E.

1978-01-01

16

?-alanine supplementation improves tactical performance but not cognitive function in combat soldiers  

PubMed Central

Background There are no known studies that have examined ?-alanine supplementation in military personnel. Considering the physiological and potential neurological effects that have been reported during sustained military operations, it appears that ?-alanine supplementation may have a potential benefit in maintaining physical and cognitive performance during high-intensity military activity under stressful conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 28 days of ?-alanine ingestion in military personnel while fatigued on physical and cognitive performance. Methods Twenty soldiers (20.1?±?0.9 years) from an elite combat unit were randomly assigned to either a ?-alanine (BA) or placebo (PL) group. Soldiers were involved in advanced military training, including combat skill development, navigational training, self-defense/hand-to-hand combat and conditioning. All participants performed a 4-km run, 5-countermovement jumps using a linear position transducer, 120-m sprint, a 10-shot shooting protocol with assault rifle, including overcoming a misfire, and a 2-min serial subtraction test to assess cognitive function before (Pre) and after (Post) 28 days of supplementation. Results The training routine resulted in significant increases in 4-km run time for both groups, but no between group differences were seen (p?=?0.597). Peak jump power at Post was greater for BA than PL (p?=?0.034), while mean jump power for BA at Post was 10.2% greater (p?=?0.139) than PL. BA had a significantly greater (p?=?0.012) number of shots on target at Post (8.2?±?1.0) than PL (6.5?±?2.1), and their target engagement speed at Post was also significantly faster (p?=?0.039). No difference in serial subtraction performance was seen between the groups (p?=?0.844). Conclusion Results of this study indicate that 4-weeks of ?-alanine ingestion in young, healthy soldiers did not impact cognitive performance, but did enhance power performance, marksmanship and target engagement speed from pre-ingestion levels. PMID:24716994

2014-01-01

17

Memory Decline in Peri- and Post-menopausal Women: The Potential of Mind–Body Medicine to Improve Cognitive Performance  

PubMed Central

Cognitive decline is a frequent complaint during the menopause transition and among post-menopausal women. Changes in memory correspond with diminished estrogen production. Further, many peri- and post-menopausal women report sleep concerns, depression, and hot flashes, and these factors may contribute to cognitive decline. Hormone therapy can increase estrogen but is contraindicated for many women. Mind–body medicine has been shown to have beneficial effects on sleep, mood, and hot flashes, among post-menopausal women. Further, mind–body medicine holds potential in addressing symptoms of cognitive decline post-menopause. This study proposes an initial framework for how mind–body interventions may improve cognitive performance and inform future research seeking to identify the common and specific factors associated with mind–body medicine for addressing memory decline in peri- and post-menopausal women. It is our hope that this article will eventually lead to a more holistic and integrative approach to the treatment of cognitive deficits in peri- and post-menopausal women. PMID:25125972

Sliwinski, Jim R; Johnson, Aimee K; Elkins, Gary R

2014-01-01

18

Slowing down after a mild traumatic brain injury: a strategy to improve cognitive task performance?  

PubMed

Long-term persistent attention and memory difficulties following a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) often go undetected on standard neuropsychological tests, despite complaints by mild TBI individuals. We conducted a visual Repetition Detection working memory task to digits, in which we manipulated task difficulty by increasing cognitive load, to identify subtle deficits long after a mild TBI. Twenty-six undergraduate students with a self-report of one mild TBI, which occurred at least 6 months prior, and 31 non-head-injured controls took part in the study. Participants were not informed until study completion that the study's purpose was to examine cognitive changes following a mild TBI, to reduce the influence of "diagnosis threat" on performance. Neuropsychological tasks did not differentiate the groups, though mild TBI participants reported higher state anxiety levels. On our working memory task, the mild TBI group took significantly longer to accurately detect repeated targets on our task, suggesting that slowed information processing is a long-term consequence of mild TBI. Accuracy was comparable in the low-load condition and, unexpectedly, mild TBI performance surpassed that of controls in the high-load condition. Temporal analysis of target identification suggested a strategy difference between groups: mild TBI participants made a significantly greater number of accurate responses following the target's offset, and significantly fewer erroneous distracter responses prior to target onset, compared with controls. Results suggest that long after a mild TBI, high-functioning young adults invoke a strategy of delaying their identification of targets in order to maintain, and facilitate, accuracy on cognitively demanding tasks. PMID:22068441

Ozen, Lana J; Fernandes, Myra A

2012-01-01

19

Effectiveness of interventions to improve occupational performance of people with cognitive impairments after stroke: an evidence-based review.  

PubMed

This evidence-based review was conducted to determine which interventions are effective in improving occupational performance after stroke. Forty-six articles met the inclusion criteria and were examined. Interventions for the following impairments were reviewed: general cognitive deficits, executive dysfunction, apraxia, memory loss, attention deficits, visual field deficits (included because of their close relationship with neglect), and unilateral neglect. Evidence is available from a variety of clinical trials to guide interventions regarding general cognition, apraxia, and neglect. The evidence regarding interventions for executive dysfunction and memory loss is limited. There is insufficient evidence regarding impairments of attention and mixed evidence regarding interventions for visual field deficits. The effective interventions have some commonalities, including being performance focused, involving strategy training, and using a compensatory as opposed to a remediation approach. The implications of the findings for practice, research, and education are discussed. PMID:25553743

Gillen, Glen; Nilsen, Dawn M; Attridge, Jessica; Banakos, Erasmia; Morgan, Marie; Winterbottom, Lauren; York, Wesley

2015-01-01

20

Nitric oxide synthase mediates the ability of darbepoetin alpha to improve the cognitive performance of STOP null mice.  

PubMed

STOP (stable tubule only polypeptide) null mice display neurochemical and behavioral abnormalities that resemble several well-recognized features of schizophrenia. Recent evidence suggests that the hematopoietic growth factor erythropoietin improves the cognitive performance of schizophrenics. The mechanism, however, by which erythropoietin is able to improve the cognition of schizophrenics is unclear. To address this question, we first determined whether acute administration of the erythropoietin analog known as darbepoetin alpha (D. alpha) improved performance deficits of STOP null mice in the novel objective recognition task (NORT). NORT performance of STOP null mice, but not wild-type littermates, was enhanced 3 h after a single injection of D. alpha (25 microg/kg, i.p.). Improved NORT performance was accompanied by elevated NADPH diaphorase staining in the ventral hippocampus as well as medial and cortical aspects of the amygdala, indicative of increased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in these structures. NOS generates the intracellular messenger nitric oxide (NO) implicated in learning and memory. In keeping with this hypothesis, D. alpha significantly increased NO metabolite levels (nitrate and nitrite, NOx) in the hippocampus of both wild-type and STOP null mice. The NOS inhibitor, N (G)-nitro-L- arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 25 mg/kg, i.p.), completely reversed the increase in hippocampal NOx levels produced by D. alpha. Moreover, L-NAME also inhibited the ability of D. alpha to improve the NORT performance of STOP null mice. Taken together, these observations suggest D. alpha enhances the NORT performance of STOP null mice by increasing production of NO. PMID:20336057

Kajitani, Kosuke; Thorne, Michael; Samson, Michel; Robertson, George S

2010-07-01

21

Semi-supervised multimodal relevance vector regression improves cognitive performance estimation from imaging and biological biomarkers.  

PubMed

Accurate estimation of cognitive scores for patients can help track the progress of neurological diseases. In this paper, we present a novel semi-supervised multimodal relevance vector regression (SM-RVR) method for predicting clinical scores of neurological diseases from multimodal imaging and biological biomarker, to help evaluate pathological stage and predict progression of diseases, e.g., Alzheimer's diseases (AD). Unlike most existing methods, we predict clinical scores from multimodal (imaging and biological) biomarkers, including MRI, FDG-PET, and CSF. Considering that the clinical scores of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects are often less stable compared to those of AD and normal control (NC) subjects due to the heterogeneity of MCI, we use only the multimodal data of MCI subjects, but no corresponding clinical scores, to train a semi-supervised model for enhancing the estimation of clinical scores for AD and NC subjects. We also develop a new strategy for selecting the most informative MCI subjects. We evaluate the performance of our approach on 202 subjects with all three modalities of data (MRI, FDG-PET and CSF) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. The experimental results show that our SM-RVR method achieves a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 1.91 and a correlation coefficient (CORR) of 0.80 for estimating the MMSE scores, and also a RMSE of 4.45 and a CORR of 0.78 for estimating the ADAS-Cog scores, demonstrating very promising performances in AD studies. PMID:23504659

Cheng, Bo; Zhang, Daoqiang; Chen, Songcan; Kaufer, Daniel I; Shen, Dinggang

2013-07-01

22

COG1410 improves cognitive performance and reduces cortical neuronal loss in the traumatically injured brain.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that a single dose of COG1410, a small molecule ApoE-mimetic peptide derived from the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) receptor binding region, improves sensorimotor and motor outcome following cortical contusion injury (CCI). The present study evaluated a regimen of COG1410 following frontal CCI in order to examine its preclinical efficacy on cognitive recovery. Animals were prepared with a bilateral CCI of the frontal cortex. A regimen of COG1410 (0.8mg/kg intravenously [IV]) was administered twice, at 30min and again at 24h post-CCI. Starting on day 11, the animals were tested for their acquisition of a reference memory task in the Morris water maze (MWM), followed by a working memory task in the MWM on day 15. Following CCI, the animals were also tested on the bilateral tactile adhesive removal test to measure sensorimotor dysfunction. On all of the behavioral tests the COG1410 group was no different from the uninjured sham group. Administration of the regimen of COG1410 significantly improved recovery on the reference and working memory tests, as well as on the sensorimotor test. Lesion analysis revealed that COG1410 significantly reduced the size of the injury cavity. Administration of COG1410 also reduced the number of degenerating neurons, as measured by Fluoro-Jade C staining, in the frontal cortex at 48h post-CCI. These results suggest that a regimen of COG1410 appeared to block the development of significant behavioral deficits and reduced tissue loss. These combined findings suggest that COG1410 appears to have strong preclinical efficacy when administered following traumatic brain injury (TBI). PMID:19119914

Hoane, Michael R; Kaufman, Nicholas; Vitek, Michael P; McKenna, Suzanne E

2009-01-01

23

Multi-domain computerized cognitive training program improves performance of bookkeeping tasks: a matched-sampling active-controlled trial.  

PubMed

Cognitive skills are important predictors of job performance, but the extent to which computerized cognitive training (CCT) can improve job performance in healthy adults is unclear. We report, for the first time, that a CCT program aimed at attention, memory, reasoning and visuo-spatial abilities can enhance productivity in healthy younger adults on bookkeeping tasks with high relevance to real-world job performance. 44 business students (77.3% female, mean age 21.4 ± 2.6 years) were assigned to either (a) 20 h of CCT, or (b) 20 h of computerized arithmetic training (active control) by a matched sampling procedure. Both interventions were conducted over a period of 6 weeks, 3-4 1-h sessions per week. Transfer of skills to performance on a 60-min paper-based bookkeeping task was measured at three time points-baseline, after 10 h and after 20 h of training. Repeated measures ANOVA found a significant Group X Time effect on productivity (F = 7.033, df = 1.745; 73.273, p = 0.003) with a significant interaction at both the 10-h (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.38, p = 0.014) and 20-h time points (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.40, p = 0.003). No significant effects were found on accuracy or on Conners' Continuous Performance Test, a measure of sustained attention. The results are discussed in reference to previous findings on the relationship between brain plasticity and job performance. Generalization of results requires further study. PMID:25120510

Lampit, Amit; Ebster, Claus; Valenzuela, Michael

2014-01-01

24

Multi-domain computerized cognitive training program improves performance of bookkeeping tasks: a matched-sampling active-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Cognitive skills are important predictors of job performance, but the extent to which computerized cognitive training (CCT) can improve job performance in healthy adults is unclear. We report, for the first time, that a CCT program aimed at attention, memory, reasoning and visuo-spatial abilities can enhance productivity in healthy younger adults on bookkeeping tasks with high relevance to real-world job performance. 44 business students (77.3% female, mean age 21.4 ± 2.6 years) were assigned to either (a) 20 h of CCT, or (b) 20 h of computerized arithmetic training (active control) by a matched sampling procedure. Both interventions were conducted over a period of 6 weeks, 3–4 1-h sessions per week. Transfer of skills to performance on a 60-min paper-based bookkeeping task was measured at three time points—baseline, after 10 h and after 20 h of training. Repeated measures ANOVA found a significant Group X Time effect on productivity (F = 7.033, df = 1.745; 73.273, p = 0.003) with a significant interaction at both the 10-h (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.38, p = 0.014) and 20-h time points (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.40, p = 0.003). No significant effects were found on accuracy or on Conners' Continuous Performance Test, a measure of sustained attention. The results are discussed in reference to previous findings on the relationship between brain plasticity and job performance. Generalization of results requires further study. PMID:25120510

Lampit, Amit; Ebster, Claus; Valenzuela, Michael

2014-01-01

25

Dietary supplementation with coffee improves motor and cognitive performance in aged rats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Polyphenols found in fruits and nuts have anti-inflammatory properties that may provide protection against the decline of cognitive, motor and neuronal function in senescence. The presence of a number of bioactive compounds (e.g., polyphenols) implicates coffee as a potential nutritional therapeutic...

26

Effectiveness of Cognitive/Relaxation Therapy and Study-Skills Training in Reducing Self-Reported Anxiety and Improving the Academic Performance of Test-Anxious Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results indicated relaxation/cognitive therapy was effective in reducing anxiety but failed to improve classroom test scores; study-skills training had no significant effect. The combined therapy both reduced anxiety and improved performance relative to the no-treatment control condition and was significantly more effective than was either…

Dendato, Kenneth M.; Diener, Don

1986-01-01

27

Cognitive Readiness Assessment and Reporting: An Open Source Mobile Framework for Operational Decision Support and Performance Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive readiness (CR) and performance for operational time-critical environments are continuing points of focus for military and academic communities. In response to this need, we designed an open source interactive CR assessment application as a highly adaptive and efficient open source testing administration and analysis tool. It is capable…

Heric, Matthew; Carter, Jenn

2011-01-01

28

An enriched environment improves cognitive performance in mice from the senescence-accelerated prone mouse 8 strain  

PubMed Central

In this study, we examined 3-month-old female mice from the senescence-accelerated prone mouse 8 strain and age-matched homologous normal aging female mice from the senescence accelerated- resistant mouse 1 strain. Mice from each strain were housed in an enriched environment (including a platform, running wheels, tunnel, and some toys) or a standard environment for 3 months. The mice housed in the enriched environment exhibited shorter escape latencies and a greater percentage of time in the target quadrant in the Morris water maze test, and they exhibited reduced errors and longer latencies in step-down avoidance experiments compared with mice housed in the standard environment. Correspondently, brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus was significantly higher in mice housed in the enriched environment compared with those housed in the standard environment, and the level of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein was positively correlated with the learning and memory abilities of mice from the senescence-accelerated prone mouse 8 strain. These results suggest that an enriched environment improved cognitive performance in mice form the senescence-accelerated prone mouse 8 strain by increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the hippocampus.

Yuan, Zhenyun; Wang, Mingwei; Yan, Baoyong; Gu, Ping; Jiang, Xiangming; Yang, Xiufen; Cui, Dongsheng

2012-01-01

29

Effect of a Kinect-Based Exercise Game on Improving Executive Cognitive Performance in Community-Dwelling Elderly: Case Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background Decrease of dual-task (DT) ability is known to be one of the risk factors for falls. We developed a new game concept, Dual-Task Tai Chi (DTTC), using Microsoft’s motion-capture device Kinect, and demonstrated that the DTTC test can quantitatively evaluate various functions that are known risk factors for falling in elderly adults. Moreover, DT training has been attracting attention as a way to improve balance and DT ability. However, only a few studies have reported that it improves cognitive performance. Objective The purpose of this study was to demonstrate whether or not a 12-week program of DTTC training would effectively improve cognitive functions. Methods This study examined cognitive functions in community-dwelling older adults before and after 12 weeks of DTTC training (training group [TG]) or standardized training (control group [CG]). Primary end points were based on the difference in cognitive functions between the TG and the CG. Cognitive functions were evaluated using the trail-making test (part A and part B) and verbal fluency test. Results A total of 41 elderly individuals (TG: n=26, CG: n=15) participated in this study and their cognitive functions were assessed before and after DTTC training. Significant differences were observed between the two groups with significant group × time interactions for the executive cognitive function measure, the delta-trail-making test (part B?part A; F 1,36=4.94, P=.03; TG: pre mean 48.8 [SD 43.9], post mean 42.2 [SD 29.0]; CG: pre mean 49.5 [SD 51.8], post mean 64.9 [SD 54.7]). Conclusions The results suggest that DTTC training is effective for improving executive cognitive functions. Trial Registration Japan Medical Association Clinical Trial Registration Number: JMA-IIA00092; https://dbcentre3.jmacct.med.or.jp/jmactr/App/JMACTRS06/JMACTRS06.aspx?seqno=2682 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6NRtOkZFh). PMID:24565806

Okamoto, Kazuya; Nishiguchi, Shu; Yamada, Minoru; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Aoyama, Tomoki

2014-01-01

30

Antecedents and correlates of improved cognitive performance in children exposed in utero to low levels of lead.  

PubMed Central

Up to 2 years of age, children with umbilical cord blood lead levels of 10 to 25 micrograms/dL achieve significantly lower scores on tests of cognitive development than do children with lower prenatal exposures. By age 5 years, however, they appear to have recovered from, or at least compensated for, this early insult. Change in performance between 24 and 57 months of age was examined in relation to level of postnatal lead exposure and various sociodemographic factors. Among children with high prenatal lead exposure, greater recovery of function was associated with lower blood level at 57 months, higher socioeconomic status, higher Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scores, higher maternal IQ, and female gender. The difference between the scores at 57 months of children with optimal and less optimal values on these variables generally exceed 1/2 standard deviation. Higher prenatal lead exposure is associated with an increased risk of early cognitive deficit. Furthermore, the risk that a deficit will persist through the preschool years is increased among children with high prenatal exposure and either high postnatal exposure or less optimal sociodemographic characteristics. PMID:2088755

Bellinger, D; Leviton, A; Sloman, J

1990-01-01

31

Antecedents and correlates of improved cognitive performance in children exposed in Utero to low levels of lead  

SciTech Connect

Up to 2 years of age, children with umbilical cord blood lead levels of 10 to 25 {mu}g/dL achieve significantly lower scores on tests of cognitive development than do children with lower prenatal exposures. By age 5 years, however, they appear to have recovered from, or at least compensated for, this early insult. Change in performance between 24 and 57 months of age was examined in relation to level of postnatal lead exposure and various sociodemographic factors. Among children with high prenatal lead exposure, greater recovery of function was associated with lower blood level at 57 months, higher socioeconomic status, higher Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scores, higher maternal IQ, and female gender. The difference between the scores at 57 months of children with optimal and less optimal values on these variables generally exceed 1/2 standard deviation. Higher prenatal lead exposure is associated with an increased risk of early cognitive deficit. Furthermore, the risk that a deficit will persist through the preschool years is increased among children with high prenatal exposure and either high postnatal exposure or less optimal sociodemographic characteristics.

Bellinger, D.; Leviton, A. (Children's Hospital, Boston, MA (USA) Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA)); Sloman, J. (Children's Hospital, Boston, MA (USA) Wheelock College, Boston, MA (USA))

1990-11-01

32

Cognitive Training Improves Sleep Quality and Cognitive Function among Older Adults with Insomnia  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives To investigate the effect of an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program on sleep quality and cognitive performance among older adults with insomnia. Design Participants (n?=?51) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group (n?=?34) or to an active control group (n?=?17). The participants in the cognitive training group completed an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program, while the participants in the active control group completed an eight-week, home-based program involving computerized tasks that do not engage high-level cognitive functioning. Before and after training, all participants' sleep was monitored for one week by an actigraph and their cognitive performance was evaluated. Setting Community setting: residential sleep/performance testing facility. Participants Fifty-one older adults with insomnia (aged 65–85). Interventions Eight weeks of computerized cognitive training for older adults with insomnia. Results Mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed between-group improvements for the cognitive training group on both sleep quality (sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency) and cognitive performance (avoiding distractions, working memory, visual memory, general memory and naming). Hierarchical linear regressions analysis in the cognitive training group indicated that improved visual scanning is associated with earlier advent of sleep, while improved naming is associated with the reduction in wake after sleep onset and with the reduction in number of awakenings. Likewise the results indicate that improved “avoiding distractions” is associated with an increase in the duration of sleep. Moreover, the results indicate that in the active control group cognitive decline observed in working memory is associated with an increase in the time required to fall asleep. Conclusions New learning is instrumental in promoting initiation and maintenance of sleep in older adults with insomnia. Lasting and personalized cognitive training is particularly indicated to generate the type of learning necessary for combined cognitive and sleep enhancements in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00901641 PMID:23577218

Haimov, Iris; Shatil, Evelyn

2013-01-01

33

Toward the Anthropological Study of Cognitive Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the logical and empirical basis for cognitive analysis in anthropology. A review of the assumptions that cognitive anthropology makes about the nature of human cognition and behavior is followed by a critical discussion focusing on four problems: (1) the psychological reality of analyses, (2) the competence versus performance dichotomy, (3) the sharedness of cognitive systems, and (4)

Robert A. Rubinstein

1981-01-01

34

Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia II: Developing  

E-print Network

in treatment development for impaired cognition in schizophre- nia by developing tools from cognitive of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia, which seeks to developREVIEWS Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia II

35

Significant improvements in cognitive performance post-transcranial, red/near-infrared light-emitting diode treatments in chronic, mild traumatic brain injury: open-protocol study.  

PubMed

This pilot, open-protocol study examined whether scalp application of red and near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes (LED) could improve cognition in patients with chronic, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Application of red/NIR light improves mitochondrial function (especially in hypoxic/compromised cells) promoting increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) important for cellular metabolism. Nitric oxide is released locally, increasing regional cerebral blood flow. LED therapy is noninvasive, painless, and non-thermal (cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration [FDA], an insignificant risk device). Eleven chronic, mTBI participants (26-62 years of age, 6 males) with nonpenetrating brain injury and persistent cognitive dysfunction were treated for 18 outpatient sessions (Monday, Wednesday, Friday, for 6 weeks), starting at 10 months to 8 years post- mTBI (motor vehicle accident [MVA] or sports-related; and one participant, improvised explosive device [IED] blast injury). Four had a history of multiple concussions. Each LED cluster head (5.35 cm diameter, 500 mW, 22.2 mW/cm(2)) was applied for 10 min to each of 11 scalp placements (13 J/cm(2)). LEDs were placed on the midline from front-to-back hairline; and bilaterally on frontal, parietal, and temporal areas. Neuropsychological testing was performed pre-LED, and at 1 week, and 1 and 2 months after the 18th treatment. A significant linear trend was observed for the effect of LED treatment over time for the Stroop test for Executive Function, Trial 3 inhibition (p=0.004); Stroop, Trial 4 inhibition switching (p=0.003); California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)-II, Total Trials 1-5 (p=0.003); and CVLT-II, Long Delay Free Recall (p=0.006). Participants reported improved sleep, and fewer post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, if present. Participants and family reported better ability to perform social, interpersonal, and occupational functions. These open-protocol data suggest that placebo-controlled studies are warranted. PMID:24568233

Naeser, Margaret A; Zafonte, Ross; Krengel, Maxine H; Martin, Paula I; Frazier, Judith; Hamblin, Michael R; Knight, Jeffrey A; Meehan, William P; Baker, Errol H

2014-06-01

36

Xanthohumol improved cognitive flexibility in young mice.  

PubMed

The protein palmitoylation cycle has been shown to be important for protein signaling and synaptic plasticity. Data from our lab showed a change in the palmitoylation status of certain proteins with age. A greater percentage of the NMDA receptor subunits GluN2A and GluN2B, along with Fyn and PSD95 proteins, were palmitoylated in the old mice. The higher level of protein palmitoylation was also associated with poorer learning scores. Xanthohumol is a prenylated flavonoid that has been shown to increase beta-oxidation in the livers of rodents, decreasing circulating free fatty acids in the serum. What is not known is whether the application of xanthohumol could influence the palmitoylation status of proteins. In this study, young and old mice were fed a diet supplemented with xanthohumol for 8 weeks. Spatial memory was assessed with the Morris water maze and protein palmitoylation quantified. The young xanthohumol-treated mice showed a significant improvement in cognitive flexibility. However, this appeared to be associated with the young control mice, on a defined, phytoestrogen-deficient diet, performing as poorly as the old mice and xanthohumol reversing this effect. The old mice receiving xanthohumol did not significantly improve their learning scores. Xanthohumol treatment was unable to affect the palmitoylation of NMDA receptor subunits and associated proteins assessed in this study. This evidence suggests that xanthohumol may play a role in improving cognitive flexability in young animals, but it appears to be ineffective in adjusting the palmitoylation status of neuronal proteins in aged individuals. PMID:25192637

Zamzow, Daniel R; Elias, Valerie; Legette, LeeCole L; Choi, Jaewoo; Stevens, J Fred; Magnusson, Kathy R

2014-12-15

37

Post-injury administration of BIBN 99, a selective muscarinic M2 receptor antagonist, improves cognitive performance following traumatic brain injury in rats.  

PubMed

Mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with enduring impairments of cognitive function in both humans and animals. However, few experiments have investigated the role of post-injury pharmacologic strategies for attenuating the observed cognitive impairment after TBI. This investigation examined the effects of selective blockade of the presynaptic muscarinic M2 autoreceptor with BIBN 99 on cognitive recovery following rodent TBI. Experiment 1 investigated the effects of delayed post-injury administration of BIBN 99 on cognitive performance following moderate central fluid percussion TBI (2.1 +/- 0.05 atm). On days 11-15 after injury-cognitive performance was assessed with a Morris water maze (MWM) task. One hour before MWM testing injured rats were injected (s.c.) with either vehicle (n = 9), 0.5 (n = 8), or 1.0 (n = 8) mg/kg of BIBN 99. Results indicated that injured rats receiving the delayed post-injury treatment with BIBN 99 performed no better than injured-vehicle treated rats. In experiment 2, injured rats were injected (s.c.) once daily with either vehicle (n = 9), 0.5 (n = 9), or 1.0 (n = 9) mg/kg of BIBN 99 throughout the duration of the experiment beginning 24 h after TBI. Sham-injured animals injected (s.c.) with vehicle (n = 9) or 1.0 (n = 8) mg/kg of BIBN 99 were included for comparison. On days 11-15 after injury, cognitive performance was assessed with the MWM procedure. Results of the second experiment indicated that both doses of BIBN 99 were effective in attenuating cognitive deficits in the MWM as compared to the injured-vehicle treated animals (P < 0.05 for both comparisons).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7583269

Pike, B R; Hamm, R J

1995-07-17

38

Amphetamine improves cognitive function in medicated individuals with schizophrenia and in healthy volunteers  

E-print Network

-treated with typical antipsychotics, as well as in healthy controls performing under dual task conditions designed improve cognitive in individuals with schizophrenia taking typical antipsychotics. The results

39

Leptin Replacement Improves Cognitive Development  

PubMed Central

Background Leptin changes brain structure, neuron excitability and synaptic plasticity. It also regulates the development and function of feeding circuits. However, the effects of leptin on neurocognitive development are unknown. Objective To evaluate the effect of leptin on neurocognitive development. Methodology A 5-year-old boy with a nonconservative missense leptin gene mutation (Cys-to-Thr in codon 105) was treated with recombinant methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin) at physiologic replacement doses of 0.03 mg/kg/day. Cognitive development was assessed using the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), a measure of general verbal and nonverbal functioning; and selected subtests from the NEPSY, a measure of neuropsychological functioning in children. Principal Findings Prior to treatment, the patient was morbidly obese, hypertensive, dyslipidemic, and hyperinsulinemic. Baseline neurocognitive tests revealed slower than expected rates of development (developmental age lower than chronological age) in a majority of the areas assessed. After two years, substantial increases in the rates of development in most neurocognitive domains were apparent, with some skills at or exceeding expectations based on chronological age. We also observed marked weight loss and resolution of hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperinsulinemia. Conclusions We concluded that replacement with r-metHuLeptin is associated with weight loss and changes in rates of development in many neurocognitive domains, which lends support to the hypothesis that, in addition to its role in metabolism, leptin may have a cognitive enhancing role in the developing central nervous system. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00659828 PMID:18769731

Paz-Filho, Gilberto J.; Babikian, Talin; Asarnow, Robert; Esposito, Karin; Erol, Halil K.; Wong, Ma-Li; Licinio, Julio

2008-01-01

40

Ketogenic Diet Improves Motor Performance but Not Cognition in Two Mouse Models of Alzheimer’s Pathology  

PubMed Central

Dietary manipulations are increasingly viewed as possible approaches to treating neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies suggest that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients present an energy imbalance with brain hypometabolism and mitochondrial deficits. Ketogenic diets (KDs), widely investigated in the treatment and prevention of seizures, have been suggested to bypass metabolic deficits present in AD brain by providing ketone bodies as an alternative fuel to neurons. We investigated the effects of a ketogenic diet in two transgenic mouse lines. Five months old APP/PS1 (a model of amyloid deposition) and Tg4510 (a model of tau deposition) mice were offered either a ketogenic or a control (NIH-31) diet for 3 months. Body weight and food intake were monitored throughout the experiment, and blood was collected at 4 weeks and 4 months for ketone and glucose assessments. Both lines of transgenic mice weighed less than nontransgenic mice, yet, surprisingly, had elevated food intake. The ketogenic diet did not affect these differences in body weight or food consumption. Behavioral testing during the last two weeks of treatment found that mice offered KD performed significantly better on the rotarod compared to mice on the control diet independent of genotype. In the open field test, both transgenic mouse lines presented increased locomotor activity compared to nontransgenic, age-matched controls, and this effect was not influenced by KD. The radial arm water maze identified learning deficits in both transgenic lines with no significant differences between diets. Tissue measures of amyloid, tau, astroglial and microglial markers in transgenic lines showed no differences between animals fed the control or the ketogenic diet. These data suggest that ketogenic diets may play an important role in enhancing motor performance in mice, but have minimal impact on the phenotype of murine models of amyloid or tau deposition. PMID:24069439

Brownlow, Milene L.; Benner, Leif; D’Agostino, Dominic; Gordon, Marcia N.; Morgan, Dave

2013-01-01

41

Cognitive performance modeling based on general systems performance theory.  

PubMed

General Systems Performance Theory (GSPT) was initially motivated by problems associated with quantifying different aspects of human performance. It has proved to be invaluable for measurement development and understanding quantitative relationships between human subsystem capacities and performance in complex tasks. It is now desired to bring focus to the application of GSPT to modeling of cognitive system performance. Previous studies involving two complex tasks (i.e., driving and performing laparoscopic surgery) and incorporating measures that are clearly related to cognitive performance (information processing speed and short-term memory capacity) were revisited. A GSPT-derived method of task analysis and performance prediction termed Nonlinear Causal Resource Analysis (NCRA) was employed to determine the demand on basic cognitive performance resources required to support different levels of complex task performance. This approach is presented as a means to determine a cognitive workload profile and the subsequent computation of a single number measure of cognitive workload (CW). Computation of CW may be a viable alternative to measuring it. Various possible "more basic" performance resources that contribute to cognitive system performance are discussed. It is concluded from this preliminary exploration that a GSPT-based approach can contribute to defining cognitive performance models that are useful for both individual subjects and specific groups (e.g., military pilots). PMID:21096046

Kondraske, George V

2010-01-01

42

Review of Human Cognitive Performance in Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human space exploration is inherently hazardous, particularly for lon g duration (LD) missions (22 days or longer). Maintenance of cognitive functioning is essential, but flight environments pose numerous pote ntial risks to the brain and cognitive performance (eg, radiation, to xins, chronic stress, sleep deprivation, hypercarbia, fluid shifts, h ormone imbalances, and injury). There have been persistent anecdotal reports of cognitive deficits during missions, but an up?-to-date rev iew of the evidence for such changes has remained unavailable. Method s: We identified and reviewed English language publications found via electronic searches in PubMed, PsycInfo, Inspec, the NASA Technical Report Server, and the Defense Technical Information Center, plus rec ursive searches of publication bibliographies. Search terms included the word cognition, cognitive, or performance along with spaceflight, flight, mission, or closely related terms. Results: Inter?-study variability precluded meta?-analysis. Some 32 published studies involving cognitive assessment during spaceflight were identified, involving a total of 110 participants (mean: 3.4 participants per study). The lo ngest?-duration study spanned 438 days, with six additional studies i nvolving flight durations of 90 days, and 11 more studies involved fl ight durations exceeding 21 days. The available evidence failed to st rongly support or refute the existence of cognitive deficits in LD sp aceflight, in part due to inadequate power or control conditions. Evi dence of increased variability in cognitive performance during spacef light, both within and between individuals, was common. Discussion: T hese results represent a negative finding based on small numbers of s ubjects for any given cognitive function. The increased variability within and (particularly) between individuals highlights the potential danger of generalizing from case studies. A mismatch therefore remain s between anecdotal reports describing generalized cognitive slowing, attention and memory problems during missions and the experimental e vidence supporting such deficits. Since a major justification for man ned spaceflight rests with the cognitive flexibility of humans, addit ional studies and further analysis of existing operational data appea rs warranted.

Strangman, Gary; Bevan, Gary

2012-01-01

43

Enrichment and Training Improve Cognition in Rats with Cortical Malformations  

PubMed Central

Children with malformations of cortical development (MCD) frequently have associated cognitive impairments which reduce quality of life. We hypothesized that cognitive deficits associated with MCD can be improved with environmental manipulation or additional training. The E17 methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) exposure model bears many anatomical hallmarks seen in human MCDs as well as similar behavioral and cognitive deficits. We divided control and MAM exposed Sprague-Dawley rats into enriched and non-enriched groups and tested performance in the Morris water maze. Another group similarly divided underwent sociability testing and also underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans pre and post enrichment. A third group of control and MAM rats without enrichment were trained until they reached criterion on the place avoidance task. MAM rats had impaired performance on spatial tasks and enrichment improved performance of both control and MAM animals. Although MAM rats did not have a deficit in sociability they showed similar improvement with enrichment as controls. MRI revealed a whole brain volume decrease with MAM exposure, and an increase in both MAM and control enriched volumes in comparison to non-enriched animals. In the place avoidance task, MAM rats required approximately 3 times as long to reach criterion as control animals, but with additional training were able to reach control performance. Environmental manipulation and additional training can improve cognition in a rodent MCD model. We therefore suggest that patients with MCD may benefit from appropriate alterations in educational strategies, social interaction and environment. These factors should be considered in therapeutic strategies. PMID:24358362

Jenks, Kyle R.; Lucas, Marcella M.; Duffy, Ben A.; Robbins, Ashlee A.; Gimi, Barjor; Barry, Jeremy M.; Scott, Rod C.

2013-01-01

44

Cognitive performance modeling based on general systems performance theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

General Systems Performance Theory (GSPT) was initially motivated by problems associated with quantifying different aspects of human performance. It has proved to be invaluable for measurement development and understanding quantitative relationships between human subsystem capacities and performance in complex tasks. It is now desired to bring focus to the application of GSPT to modeling of cognitive system performance. Previous studies

George V. Kondraske

2010-01-01

45

Cognitive aging affects motor performance and learning.  

PubMed

Substantial evidence indicates that declines in cognitive and motor functioning are often observed when we age. The interdependence of cognition and behavior has been reported in a wide range of studies. However, research on the cognitive-motor associations in aging has been lacking. We review behavioral and neural characteristics of cognitive aging in relation to motor aging and aim to elucidate their interrelationships in an aging context. From a developmental view, we propose an integrative concept focusing on the dynamics of cognitive functioning, motor performance and skill acquisition. In the framework, representations and motor learning potential are closely related. and supported by distributed neural systems, which are less susceptible to functional declines in the aging process. Mostly supported by high-level areas, control processes, motor learning efficiency and motor performance are closely related. As high-level areas are more vulnerable during aging, control processes, motor learning efficiency and motor performance are substantially affected when one approaches late adulthood. Practical implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:22817645

Ren, Jie; Wu, Yan D; Chan, John S Y; Yan, Jin H

2013-01-01

46

Novel Television-Based Cognitive Training Improves Working Memory and Executive Function  

PubMed Central

The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60–87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of “adequate” to “high” system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition. PMID:24992187

Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bureš, Vladimír

2014-01-01

47

Novel television-based cognitive training improves working memory and executive function.  

PubMed

The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60-87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of "adequate" to "high" system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition. PMID:24992187

Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bureš, Vladimír

2014-01-01

48

Cognitive Correlates of Performance in Advanced Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Much research has been devoted to understanding cognitive correlates of elementary mathematics performance, but little such research has been done for advanced mathematics (e.g., modern algebra, statistics, and mathematical logic).Aims: To promote mathematical knowledge among college students, it is necessary to understand what factors…

Wei, Wei; Yuan, Hongbo; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhou, Xinlin

2012-01-01

49

Effects of flavonoids on cognitive performance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent studies suggest that nutritional interventions, such as increasing dietary intake of fruits and vegetables, could possibly delay and even reverse age-related declines in brain function such as cognitive and motor performance. Fruits and vegetables rich in flavonoids play a critical role in pr...

50

Microgravity effects on standardized cognitive performance measures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this experiment, selected to fly on the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) Spacelab mission, is to determine the effects of microgravity upon the cognitive skills which are critical to successful performance of many tasks on board the Space Shuttle. Six tests from the Unified Tri-service Cognitive Performance Assessment Battery (UTC-PAB) will be administered to the Mission Specialists to fulfill the goals of this experiment. These tests are based upon current theoretical models of human performance and the hypothesized effects of microgravity. The principle objective is the identification of the effects of microgravity upon specific information processing skills affecting performance from those of fatigue and shifts in work/rest cycles. Multiple measures of both short and long term fatigue will be obtained and used as a major independent variable for the analysis of these performance data. Scientific supporting studies will determine optimum practice and performance testing schedules for the astronauts. The same tests will be used post-flight to collect data on the recovery of any cognitive performance impairment compared with pre-flight, baseline levels.

Schiflett, Samuel G.

1992-01-01

51

Does caffeine intake enhance absolute levels of cognitive performance?  

PubMed

The relationship between habitual coffee and tea consumption and cognitive performance was examined using data from a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 9003 British adults (the Health and Lifestyle Survey). Subjects completed tests of simple reaction time, choice reaction time, incidental verbal memory, and visuo-spatial reasoning, in addition to providing self-reports of usual coffee and tea intake. After controlling extensively for potential confounding variables, a dose-response trend to improved performance with higher levels of coffee consumption was observed for all four tests (P < 0.001 in each case). Similar but weaker associations were found for tea consumption, which were significant for simple reaction time (P = 0.02) and visuo-spatial reasoning (P = 0.013). Estimated overall caffeine consumption showed a dose-response relationship to improved cognitive performance (P < 0.001 for each cognitive test, after controlling for confounders). Older people appeared to be more susceptible to the performance-improving effects of caffeine than were younger. The results suggest that tolerance to the performance-enhancing effects of caffeine, if it occurs at all, is incomplete. PMID:7870897

Jarvis, M J

1993-01-01

52

The influence of agility training on physiological and cognitive performance.  

PubMed

Agility training (AT) has recently been instituted in several military communities in hopes of improving combat performance and general fitness. The purpose of this study was to determine how substituting AT for traditional military physical training (PT) influences physical and cognitive performance. Forty-one subjects undergoing military technical training were divided randomly into 2 groups for 6 weeks of training. One group participated in standard military PT consisting of calisthenics and running. A second group duplicated the amount of exercise of the first group but used AT as their primary mode of training. Before and after training, subjects completed a physical and cognitive battery of tests including V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, reaction time, Illinois Agility Test, body composition, visual vigilance, dichotic listening, and working memory tests. There were significant improvements within the AT group in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, Illinois Agility Test, visual vigilance, and continuous memory. There was a significant increase in time-to-exhaustion for the traditional group. We conclude that AT is as effective or more effective as PT in enhancing physical fitness. Further, it is potentially more effective than PT in enhancing specific measures of physical and cognitive performance, such as physical agility, memory, and vigilance. Consequently, we suggest that AT be incorporated into existing military PT programs as a way to improve war-fighter performance. Further, it seems likely that the benefits of AT observed here occur in various other populations. PMID:23442271

Lennemann, Lynette M; Sidrow, Kathryn M; Johnson, Erica M; Harrison, Catherine R; Vojta, Christopher N; Walker, Thomas B

2013-12-01

53

Consider the Simple Screw: Cognitive Science, Quality Improvement, and Psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological therapy based on cognitive science advances as psychological states can be precisely measured. This article describes a treatment approach, personal quality improvement (PQI), that draws on (a) the states of mind (SOM) model, a mathematical model built on cognitive assessment research on the balance of positive and negative thoughts and feelings; (b) total quality control, a method for improving

Robert M. Schwartz

1997-01-01

54

Exercise therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy to improve fatigue, daily activity performance and quality of life in Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome: the protocol of the FACTS-2-PPS trial  

PubMed Central

Background Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome (PPS) is a complex of late onset neuromuscular symptoms with new or increased muscle weakness and muscle fatigability as key symptoms. Main clinical complaints are severe fatigue, deterioration in functional abilities and health related quality of life. Rehabilitation management is the mainstay of treatment. Two different therapeutic interventions may be prescribed (1) exercise therapy or (2) cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). However, the evidence on the effectiveness of both interventions is limited. The primary aim of the FACTS-2-PPS trial is to study the efficacy of exercise therapy and CBT for reducing fatigue and improving activities and quality of life in patients with PPS. Additionally, the working mechanisms, patients' and therapists' expectations of and experiences with both interventions and cost-effectiveness will be evaluated. Methods/Design A multi-centre, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial will be conducted. A sample of 81 severely fatigued patients with PPS will be recruited from 3 different university hospitals and their affiliate rehabilitation centres. Patients will be randomized to one of three groups i.e. (1) exercise therapy + usual care, (2) CBT + usual care, (3) usual care. At baseline, immediately post-intervention and at 3- and 6-months follow-up, fatigue, activities, quality of life and secondary outcomes will be assessed. Costs will be based on a cost questionnaire, and statistical analyses on GEE (generalized estimated equations). Analysis will also consider mechanisms of change during therapy. A responsive evaluation will be conducted to monitor the implementation process and to investigate the perspectives of patients and therapists on both interventions. Discussion A major strength of the FACTS-2-PPS study is the use of a mixed methods design in which a responsive and economic evaluation runs parallel to the trial. The results of this study will generate new evidence for the rehabilitation treatment of persons with PPS. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR1371. PMID:20082714

2010-01-01

55

Physical Performance Is Associated with Working Memory in Older People with Mild to Severe Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Background. Physical performances and cognition are positively related in cognitively healthy people. The aim of this study was to examine whether physical performances are related to specific cognitive functioning in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 134 people with a mild to severe cognitive impairment (mean age 82 years). Multiple linear regression was performed, after controlling for covariates and the level of global cognition, with the performances on mobility, strength, aerobic fitness, and balance as predictors and working memory and episodic memory as dependent variables. Results. The full models explain 49–57% of the variance in working memory and 40–43% of episodic memory. Strength, aerobic fitness, and balance are significantly associated with working memory, explaining 3–7% of its variance, irrespective of the severity of the cognitive impairment. Physical performance is not related to episodic memory in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Conclusions. Physical performance is associated with working memory in older people with cognitive impairment. Future studies should investigate whether physical exercise for increased physical performance can improve cognitive functioning. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NTR1482. PMID:24757674

Volkers, K. M.; Scherder, E. J. A.

2014-01-01

56

Reciprocal Modulation of Cognitive and Emotional Aspects in Pianistic Performances  

PubMed Central

Background High level piano performance requires complex integration of perceptual, motor, cognitive and emotive skills. Observations in psychology and neuroscience studies have suggested reciprocal inhibitory modulation of the cognition by emotion and emotion by cognition. However, it is still unclear how cognitive states may influence the pianistic performance. The aim of the present study is to verify the influence of cognitive and affective attention in the piano performances. Methods and Findings Nine pianists were instructed to play the same piece of music, firstly focusing only on cognitive aspects of musical structure (cognitive performances), and secondly, paying attention solely on affective aspects (affective performances). Audio files from pianistic performances were examined using a computational model that retrieves nine specific musical features (descriptors) – loudness, articulation, brightness, harmonic complexity, event detection, key clarity, mode detection, pulse clarity and repetition. In addition, the number of volunteers' errors in the recording sessions was counted. Comments from pianists about their thoughts during performances were also evaluated. The analyses of audio files throughout musical descriptors indicated that the affective performances have more: agogics, legatos, pianos phrasing, and less perception of event density when compared to the cognitive ones. Error analysis demonstrated that volunteers misplayed more left hand notes in the cognitive performances than in the affective ones. Volunteers also played more wrong notes in affective than in cognitive performances. These results correspond to the volunteers' comments that in the affective performances, the cognitive aspects of piano execution are inhibited, whereas in the cognitive performances, the expressiveness is inhibited. Conclusions Therefore, the present results indicate that attention to the emotional aspects of performance enhances expressiveness, but constrains cognitive and motor skills in the piano execution. In contrast, attention to the cognitive aspects may constrain the expressivity and automatism of piano performances. PMID:21931716

Higuchi, Marcia K. Kodama; Fornari, José; Del Ben, Cristina M.; Graeff, Frederico G.; Leite, João Pereira

2011-01-01

57

Effect of Vinpocetine (Cognitol™) on Cognitive Performances of a Nigerian Population  

PubMed Central

Background: Chronic medical disorders are often complicated by cognitive impairments, making medical intervention that can alleviate cognitive disturbances desirable. Vinpocetine enhances cerebral utilization of oxygen and glucose and consequently improves cerebral functions including memory. Aim: This study assessed the efficacy of vinpocetine (Cognitol™) in improving memory and concentration in cognitively impaired patients. Subjects and Methods: A prospective analytical study of 56 cognitively impaired patients compared with age, sex and level of education matched 56 controls. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Short Blessed Test, which was pilot-tested. Baseline cognitive performances of the patients and controls were obtained and thereafter cognitive performances of the patients were assessed at 6 and 12 weeks after administration of vinpocetine at a dose of 5 mg twice-a-day. Comparative analysis of their performances at baseline was done using the Student t-test, while the improvement in patients’ performances and effect of disease variables on cognitive performances were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and likelihood ratio analysis respectively. Results: The mean (standard deviation) [SD] ages of the cognitively impaired patients (56/112) and controls (56/112) were 49.5 (18.9) and 53.8 (15.8) years respectively (P = 0.19; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.2-10.8). The pilot study yielded an optimal cut-off error score of 6 with a sensitivity of 71.4%, specificity of 96.4% and accuracy of 83.9%. Patients performed significantly worse than the controls (P < 0.001; 95% CI 6.7-11.4). There were significant improvements in memory and concentration with vinpocetine therapy (P < 0.05). The clinical variables of the patients had no effect on the trend of cognitive performances. Conclusions: Vinpocetine was effective in improving memory and concentration of patients with epilepsy and dementia although the efficacy was minimal in demented patients. PMID:25221724

Ogunrin, AO

2014-01-01

58

High altitude cognitive performance and COPD interaction  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Thousands of people work and perform everyday in high altitude environment, either as pilots, or shift workers, or mountaineers. The problem is that most of the accidents in this environment have been attributed to human error. The objective of this study was to assess complex cognitive performance as it interacts with respiratory insufficiency at altitudes of 8000 feet and identify the potential effect of hypoxia on safe performance. Methods: Twenty subjects participated in the study, divided in two groups: Group I with mild asymptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and Group II with normal respiratory function. Altitude was simulated at 8000 ft. using gas mixtures. Results: Individuals with mild COPD experienced notable hypoxemia with significant performance decrements and increased number of errors at cabin altitude, compared to normal subjects, whereas their blood pressure significantly increased. PMID:19048098

Kourtidou-Papadeli, C; Papadelis, C; Koutsonikolas, D; Boutzioukas, S; Styliadis, C; Guiba-Tziampiri, O

2008-01-01

59

Does non-invasive brain stimulation improve cognition in major depressive disorder? A systematic review.  

PubMed

Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques, such as repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), have been increasingly used in different contexts to improve cognitive performance and ameliorate depression symptoms. Considering that major depression is usually accompanied with cognitive deficits, NIBS techniques could be also helpful to improve cognition in depressed patients. In this systematic review, we looked for articles published in PubMed/MEDLINE from the first date available to June 2014 that assessed cognitive performance in patients with depression before and after NIBS. Out of 191 references, 25 (16 for rTMS and 9 for tDCS) studies matched our eligibility criteria. Non-invasive brain stimulation interventions such as rTMS and tDCS seem to be a promising tool for cognitive enhancement in MDD, although several issues and biases (e.g., blinding issues, tests without correction for multiple comparisons, placebo effects and exploratory analyses, practice effects) hinder us to conclude that NIBS is able to improve cognition in patients with depression. We discuss possible shortcomings of the included studies, such as the use of different depression treatment protocols, the possibility that some findings were false-positive results of the employed cognitive tasks and whether cognition improvement could have been an epiphenomenon secondary to depression improvement. To conclude, whereas these non-pharmacological, non-invasive techniques are particularly appealing for cognitive improvement in depression, further studies are still warranted to disentangle whether NIBS induce positive effects on cognition beyond of their antidepressant effects. PMID:25470400

Tortella, G; Selingardi, P Ml; Moreno, M L; Veronezi, B P; Brunoni, A R

2014-11-30

60

Social Priming Improves Cognitive Control in Elderly Adults—Evidence from the Simon Task  

PubMed Central

We examined whether social priming of cognitive states affects the inhibitory process in elderly adults, as aging is related to deficits in inhibitory control. Forty-eight elderly adults and 45 young adults were assigned to three groups and performed a cognitive control task (Simon task), which was followed by 3 different manipulations of social priming (i.e., thinking about an 82 year-old person): 1) negative—characterized by poor cognitive abilities, 2) neutral—characterized by acts irrelevant to cognitive abilities, and 3) positive—excellent cognitive abilities. After the manipulation, the Simon task was performed again. Results showed improvement in cognitive control effects in seniors after the positive manipulation, indicated by a significant decrease in the magnitude of the Simon and interference effects, but not after the neutral and negative manipulations. Furthermore, a healthy pattern of sequential effect (Gratton) that was absent before the manipulation in all 3 groups appeared after the positive manipulation. Namely, the Simon effect was only present after congruent but not after incongruent trials for the positive manipulation group. No influence of manipulations was found in young adults. These meaningful results were replicated in a second experiment and suggest a decrease in conflict interference resulting from positive cognitive state priming. Our study provides evidence that an implicit social concept of a positive cognitive condition in old age can affect the control process of the elderly and improve cognitive abilities. PMID:25635946

Aisenberg, Daniela; Cohen, Noga; Pick, Hadas; Tressman, Iris; Rappaport, Michal; Shenberg, Tal; Henik, Avishai

2015-01-01

61

Instructional Design for the Improvement of Learning and Cognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper proposes a basic instructional design model that focuses on the planning of a learning environment so that students not only acquire factual knowledge, but also improve their cognitive abilities to use and extend their knowledge. The model describes the direct relationships between learning time, cognitive objectives, memory system…

Tennyson, Robert D.; Rasch, Mariana

62

Aging and Cognitive Performance: Challenges and Implications for Physicians Practicing in the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The demands of physician practice are growing. Some specialties face critical shortages and a significant percentage of physicians are aging. To improve health care it is paramount to understand and address challenges, including cognitive issues, facing aging physicians. In this article, we outline several issues related to cognitive performance

Durning, Steven J.; Artino, Anthony R.; Holmboe, Eric; Beckman, Thomas J.; van der Vleuten, Cees; Schuwirth, Lambert

2010-01-01

63

How Does Exercise Benefit Performance on Cognitive Tests in Primary-School Pupils?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: We have previously demonstrated improved cognitive performance after a classroom-based exercise regime. In this study, we examined the reproducibility of this effect in a more socio-economically diverse sample and also investigated whether cognitive benefits of exercise were moderated by body mass index (BMI) or symptoms of…

Hill, Liam J. B.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Aucott, Lorna; Thomson, Jenny; Mon-Williams, Mark

2011-01-01

64

Please cite this article in press as: Moore, H., et al., Harnessing cognitive neuroscience to develop new treatments for improv-ing cognition in schizophrenia: CNTRICS selected cognitive paradigms for animal models. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (2013),  

E-print Network

to develop new treatments for improv- ing cognition in schizophrenia: CNTRICS selected cognitive paradigms.elsevier.com/locate/neubiorev Editorial Harnessing cognitive neuroscience to develop new treatments for improving cognition Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative was developed. The goal of CNTRICS

65

Review of cognitive performance in hoarding disorder.  

PubMed

Hoarding disorder is characterized by extreme difficulty letting go of objects other people would routinely discard or give away, such that the home becomes dysfunctionally cluttered with possessions. Specific cognitive processes, such as decision-making, categorization, and attention, have been hypothesized to contribute to the overvaluing of objects. This review synthesizes the evidence related to those propositions and other executive functioning processes that have received research attention. In this paper, we are primarily interested in cognitive processes that can be, but are not always, studied using performance tasks. Compared to both healthy controls and clinical controls, participants with clinical levels of compulsive hoarding show replicable performance deficits in several areas: planning/problem-solving decisions, visuospatial learning and memory, sustained attention/working memory, and organization. Categorization/concept formation, visuospatial processing, and inhibitory control require further investigation and more detailed testing methods to address inconsistencies in reported findings. Many studies fail to account for potential confounds presented by comorbid depression and between-group differences in age, a problem that should be rectified in future research on this topic. The article concludes with recommendations for a research agenda to better understand contributors to abnormal valuing of objects in hoarding disorder. PMID:24794835

Woody, Sheila R; Kellman-McFarlane, Kirstie; Welsted, Alison

2014-06-01

66

RC2S: A Cognitive Remediation Program to Improve Social Cognition in Schizophrenia and Related Disorders  

PubMed Central

In people with psychiatric disorders, particularly those suffering from schizophrenia and related illnesses, pronounced difficulties in social interactions are a key manifestation. These difficulties can be partly explained by impairments in social cognition, defined as the ability to understand oneself and others in the social world, which includes abilities such as emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), attributional style, and social perception and knowledge. The impact of several kinds of interventions on social cognition has been studied recently. The best outcomes in the area of social cognition in schizophrenia are those obtained by way of cognitive remediation programs. New strategies and programs in this line are currently being developed, such as RC2S (cognitive remediation of social cognition) in Lyon, France. Considering that the social cognitive deficits experienced by patients with schizophrenia are very diverse, and that the main objective of social cognitive remediation programs is to improve patients’ functioning in their daily social life, RC2S was developed as an individualized and flexible program that allows patients to practice social interaction in a realistic environment through the use of virtual reality techniques. In the RC2S program, the patient’s goal is to assist a character named Tom in various social situations. The underlying idea for the patient is to acquire cognitive strategies for analyzing social context and emotional information in order to understand other characters’ mental states and to help Tom manage his social interactions. In this paper, we begin by presenting some data regarding the social cognitive impairments found in schizophrenia and related disorders, and we describe how these deficits are targeted by social cognitive remediation. Then we present the RC2S program and discuss the advantages of computer-based simulation to improve social cognition and social functioning in people with psychiatric disorders. PMID:24982627

Peyroux, Elodie; Franck, Nicolas

2014-01-01

67

Improvement of cognitive function after carotid endarterectomy--a new strategy for the evaluation of cognitive function.  

PubMed

Significant carotid stenosis is known to cause ischemic stroke and cognitive impairment. However, it remains controversial whether carotid endarterectomy (CEA) can improve cognitive function in patients with carotid stenosis. We used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) to compare cognitive function between before and after CEA. Patients were prospectively registered to evaluate cognitive function from October 2011 to December 2012 after we determined them to have significant carotid stenosis. Patients were examined by 3-dimensional computed tomographic angiography or digital subtraction angiography. Although symptomatic cases were included, their modified Rankin Scale was grade 0 or 1 before CEA. All CEA procedures were performed by the same neurosurgical team. Cognitive function was evaluated by MoCA and MMSE performed before and after surgery. Data were analyzed statistically using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Thirty-six patients were included in this study. The MoCA score after surgery, whereas the MMSE score was not. After surgery, the MoCA score improved in patients who were 73 years or younger, who underwent CEA in the left side of their carotid lesion, who had severe carotid stenosis of more than 80%, who had bilateral lesion, who did not have abnormal lesion on diffusion-weighted imaging after surgery, or who had cerebral blood flow of pre-CEA over 34.5 mL. In conclusion, MoCA was feasible in patients soon after undergoing CEA. Using MoCA not MMSE, CEA may improve cognitive function in patients with significant carotid stenosis. PMID:24462461

Watanabe, Junko; Ogata, Toshiyasu; Hamada, Omi; Nonaka, Masani; Abe, Hiroshi; Higashi, Toshio; Shiota, Etsuji; Inoue, Tooru

2014-07-01

68

Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone Differentially Improve Cognition in Aged Female Mice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared with age-matched male mice, female mice experience a more severe age-related cognitive decline (ACD). Since androgens are less abundant in aged female mice compared with aged male mice, androgen supplementation may enhance cognition in aged female mice. To test this, we assessed behavioral performance on a variety of tasks in 22- to…

Benice, Ted S.; Raber, Jacob

2009-01-01

69

Indicators for cognitive performance and subjective cognitive complaints in multiple sclerosis: a role for advanced MRI?  

PubMed

Previous studies showed that advanced neuroimaging measures (functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging) could distinguish multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with and without cognitive impairment. Are these measures indeed better indicators for cognitive impairment or subjective cognitive complaints than conventional MRI? Fifty MS patients and 29 controls were investigated. Regression analysis, including socio-demographic data, disease characteristics, psychological measures, and (advanced) neuroimaging, showed that worse cognitive performance was associated with male sex, lower education, and lower gray matter volume. Subjective cognitive complaints were associated with fatigue and less hippocampal atrophy. Advanced MRI measures did not add to the predictive power of our model. PMID:24277326

Hulst, Hanneke E; Gehring, Karin; Uitdehaag, Bernard Mj; Visser, Leo H; Polman, Chris H; Barkhof, Frederik; Sitskoorn, Margriet M; Geurts, Jeroen Jg

2013-11-25

70

QUASAR's QStates cognitive gauge performance in the cognitive state assessment competition 2011.  

PubMed

The Cognitive State Assessment Competition 2011 was organized by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to compare the performance of real-time cognitive state classification software. This paper presents results for QUASAR's data classification module, QStates, which is a software package for real-time (and off-line) analysis of physiologic data collected during cognitive-specific tasks. The classifier's methodology can be generalized to any particular cognitive state; QStates identifies the most salient features extracted from EEG signals recorded during different cognitive states or loads. PMID:22255838

McDonald, Neil J; Soussou, Walid

2011-01-01

71

Improved cognition after control of risk factors for multi-infarct dementia  

SciTech Connect

A cohort of 52 patients (30 men and 22 women) with multi-infarct dementia (MID) has been followed up prospectively for a mean interval of 22.2 months. Clinical course has been documented by serial history taking and interviews and neurological, medical, and psychological examinations, and correlated with measurements of cerebral blood flow. The clinical course and cognitive performance have been compared with those of age-matched normal volunteers and patients with Alzheimer's disease. Patients with MID were subdivided into hypertensive and normotensive groups, and also into those displaying stabilized or improved cognition and those whose condition deteriorated. Among hypertensive patients with MID, improved cognition and clinical course correlated with control of systolic blood pressure within upper limits of normalf (135 to 150 mm Hg), but if systolic blood pressure was reduced below this level, patients with MID deteriorated. Among normotensive patients with MID, improved cognition was associated with cessation of smoking cigarettes.

Meyer, J.S.; Judd, B.W.; Tawaklna, T.; Rogers, R.L.; Mortel, K.F.

1986-10-24

72

Deconstructing and Reconstructing Cognitive Performance in Sleep Deprivation  

PubMed Central

Summary Mitigation of cognitive impairment due to sleep deprivation in operational settings is critical for safety and productivity. Achievements in this area are hampered by limited knowledge about the effects of sleep loss on actual job tasks. Sleep deprivation has different effects on different cognitive performance tasks, but the mechanisms behind this task-specificity are poorly understood. In this context it is important to recognize that cognitive performance is not a unitary process, but involves a number of component processes. There is emerging evidence that these component processes are differentially affected by sleep loss. Experiments have been conducted to decompose sleep-deprived performance into underlying cognitive processes using cognitive-behavioral, neuroimaging and cognitive modeling techniques. Furthermore, computational modeling in cognitive architectures has been employed to simulate sleep-deprived cognitive performance on the basis of the constituent cognitive processes. These efforts are beginning to enable quantitative prediction of the effects of sleep deprivation across different task contexts. This paper reviews a rapidly evolving area of research, and outlines a theoretical framework in which the effects of sleep loss on cognition may be understood from the deficits in the underlying neurobiology to the applied consequences in real-world job tasks. PMID:22884948

Jackson, Melinda L.; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M.; Belenky, Gregory; Rabat, Arnaud; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.

2012-01-01

73

Performance Improvement [in HRD].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These four papers are from a symposium that was facilitated by Richard J. Torraco at the 1995 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (HRD). "Performance Technology--Isn't It Time We Found Some New Models?" (William J. Rothwell) reviews briefly two classic models, describes criteria for the high performance workplace (HPW), and…

1995

74

Can Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Improve Cognitive Functioning in Adults with Schizophrenia?  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment is nearly ubiquitous in schizophrenia. First-degree relatives of persons with schizophrenia often show similar but milder deficits. Current methods for the treatment of schizophrenia are often ineffective in cognitive remediation. Since transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance cognitive functioning in healthy adults, it might provide a viable option to enhance cognition in schizophrenia. We sought to explore whether tDCS can be tolerated by persons with schizophrenia and potentially improve their cognitive functioning. We examined the effects of anodal versus cathodal tDCS on working memory and other cognitive tasks in five outpatients with schizophrenia and six first-degree relatives of persons with schizophrenia. Each participant completed tasks thought to be mediated by the prefrontal cortex during two 30-minute sessions of tDCS to the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Anodal stimulation over the left DLPFC improved performance relative to cathodal stimulation on measures of working memory and aspects of verbal fluency relevant to word retrieval. The patient group showed differential changes in novel design production without alteration of overall productivity, suggesting that tDCS might be capable of altering selfmonitoring and executive control. All participants tolerated tDCS well. None withdrew from the study or experienced any adverse reaction. We conclude that adults with schizophrenia can tolerate tDCS while engaging in cognitive tasks and that tDCS can alter their performance. PMID:25367166

Schretlen, David J; van Steenburgh, Joseph J; Varvaris, Mark; Vannorsdall, Tracy D; Andrejczuk, Megan A; Gordon, Barry

2014-11-01

75

The Hydration Equation: Update on Water Balance and Cognitive Performance  

PubMed Central

LEARNING OBJECTIVES To become aware of the most practical measures of hydration status.To describe sources of water input and output and the basics of water balance.To understand how hydration status may impact daily cognitive performance. CONDENSED VERSION AND BOTTOM LINE Water is a crucial nutrient and euhydration is necessary for optimal daily functioning. Water balance is precisely regulated within the body and many methods exist for assessing hydration status. Cognitive performance measures an individual’s attentiveness, critical thinking skills, and memory. Traditionally a 2% or more body water deficit was thought to produce cognitive performance decrements; however, recent literature suggests that even mild dehydration – a body water loss of 1–2% – can impair cognitive performance. Counseling clients about their health and wellbeing should include conveying the importance of water for normal body functioning, as well as its effects on physical and cognitive performance. PMID:25346594

Riebl, Shaun K; Davy, Brenda M.

2013-01-01

76

Cognitive Styles, Dynamic Geometry and Measurement Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the outcomes of an empirical study undertaken to investigate the effect of students' cognitive styles on achievement in measurement tasks in a dynamic geometry learning environment, and to explore the ability of dynamic geometry learning in accommodating different cognitive styles and enhancing students' learning. A total of 49…

Pitta-Pantazi, Demetra; Christou, Constantinos

2009-01-01

77

Improving Cognition: A Multi-Cultural Approach. Final Report, MICA Project: Multi-Cultural Improvement of Cognitive Abilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described and summarized are the results of a program designed to improve the intellectual, academic, and linguistic functioning of children in a linguistically and culturally mixed setting. The program, Multicultural Improvement of Cognitive Abilities (MICA), was installed and supported by project staff in nine participating classrooms under two…

De Avila, Edward; And Others

78

Improving influence of insulin on cognitive functions in humans.  

PubMed

Insulin receptors have been identified in limbic brain structures, but their functional relevance is still unclear. In order to characterize some of their effects, we evaluated auditory evoked brain potentials (AEP) in a vigilance task, behavioral measures of memory (recall of words) and selective attention (Stroop test) during infusion of insulin. The hormone was infused at two different rates (1.5 mU/kg x min, "low insulin", and 15 mU/kg x min, "high insulin"), inducing respectively serum levels of 543 +/- 34 and 24,029 +/- 1,595 pmol/l. This experimental design allowed to compare cognitive parameters under two conditions presenting markedly different insulin levels, but with minimal incidence on blood glucose concentrations since these were kept constant by glucose infusion. A "no insulin treatment" group was not included in order to avoid leaving patients infused with glucose without insulin treatment. Measures were taken during a baseline phase preceding insulin infusion and every 90 min during the 360 min of insulin infusion. Compared with "low insulin", "high insulin" induced a slow negative potential shift in the AEP over the frontal cortex (average amplitude, high insulin: 0.27 +/- 0.48 microV; low insulin: 1.87 +/- 0.48 microV, p < 0.005), which was paralleled by enhanced memory performance (words recalled, high insulin: 22.04 +/- 0.93; low insulin: 19.29 +/- 0.92, p < 0.05). Also, during "high insulin" subjects displayed enhanced performance on the Stroop test (p < 0.05) and expressed less difficulty in thinking than during "low insulin" (p < 0.03). Results indicate an improving effect of insulin on cognitive function, and may provide a frame for further investigations of neurobehavioral effects of insulin in patients with lowered or enhanced brain insulin, i.e., patients with Alzheimer's disease or diabetes mellitus. PMID:11598383

Kern, W; Peters, A; Fruehwald-Schultes, B; Deininger, E; Born, J; Fehm, H L

2001-10-01

79

Prediction of Later Cognitive Behavior from Early School Perceptual-Motor, Perceptual, and Cognitive Performances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The battery of perceptual and perceptual-motor tests (including one fine and two gross perceptual-motor tasks, and one visual and two auditory perceptual tasks) were useful for prediction of cognitive performance one year later at kindergarten age. However, cognitive achievement in first grade, and even more so in second grade, was best predicted…

Belka, David E.; Williams, Harriet G.

1979-01-01

80

[Cognitive reserve in substance addicts in treatment: relation to cognitive performance and activities of daily living].  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION. The concept of cognitive reserve has gradually attracted more interest as a greater body of evidence has been collected on its relationship with the resistance of the brain to decline in its functioning when faced with neurological threats or disorders. Although a large amount of research has been conducted on (degenerative, traumatic, psychopathological) conditions, very few studies relate cognitive reserve with substance addiction, a multidimensional process with a clear neurological base. AIMS. To explore the cognitive reserve of patients undergoing treatment for addiction to drugs of abuse by relating it with their cognitive performance in neuropsychological tests and in activities of daily living. PATIENTS AND METHODS. The study involved a sample of 57 patients being treated for substance abuse at a centre set up for this specific purpose. The cognitive reserve questionnaire, the Montreal cognitive assessment and the prefrontal symptoms inventory were administered, and variables related with the addiction were collected. RESULTS. A positive relation was found between the cognitive reserve and the time of abstinence, and a negative one was seen with the severity of the addiction. Significant differences were observed according to the cognitive reserve in neuropsychological performance (especially in certain cognitive domains) and in daily activities. CONCLUSIONS. The cognitive reserve appears as a variable related to addiction and the cognitive deficits that accompany it. It is thus a potential target for rehabilitation activities and is linked to the environmental enrichment paradigm, as a strategy for enhancing resistance against the cognitive impairment that favours and maintains the addiction, and for lowering the reinforcing potential of the behaviour of consuming. PMID:25418142

Pedrero-Perez, E J; Rojo-Mota, G; Ruiz-Sanchez de Leon, J M; Fernandez-Mendez, L M; Morales-Alonso, S; Prieto-Hidalgo, A

2014-12-01

81

The Effect of Anxiety and Boredom on Cognitive Test Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two factors which act to depress cognitive test performance are referred to as anxiety and boredom. The responses to a 20-item adjectival checklist administered to high school seniors after completing a cognitive test battery were subjected to iterative principal axes factor analysis. The relationships between anxiety or boredom and test…

Brown, George H.; Carroll, C. Dennis

82

Priming Ability-Relevant Social Categories Improves Intellectual Test Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that priming affects behavioral tasks; fewer studies, however, have been conducted on how social category primes affect cognitive tasks. The present study aimed to examine the effects of social category primes on math performance and word recall. It was hypothesized that Asian prime words would improve math performance and word…

Lin, Phoebe S.; Kennette, Lynne N.; Van Havermaet, Lisa R.; Frank, Nichole M.; McIntyre, Rusty B.

2012-01-01

83

Patients Undergoing Subacute Physical Rehabilitation following an Acute Hospital Admission Demonstrated Improvement in Cognitive Functional Task Independence  

PubMed Central

Objective. This study investigated cognitive functioning among older adults with physical debility not attributable to an acute injury or neurological condition who were receiving subacute inpatient physical rehabilitation. Design. A cohort investigation with assessments at admission and discharge. Setting. Three geriatric rehabilitation hospital wards. Participants. Consecutive rehabilitation admissions (n = 814) following acute hospitalization (study criteria excluded orthopaedic, neurological, or amputation admissions). Intervention. Usual rehabilitation care. Measurements. The Functional Independence Measure (FIM) Cognitive and Motor items. Results. A total of 704 (86.5%) participants (mean age = 76.5 years) completed both assessments. Significant improvement in FIM Cognitive items (Z-score range 3.93–8.74, all P < 0.001) and FIM Cognitive total score (Z-score = 9.12, P < 0.001) occurred, in addition to improvement in FIM Motor performance. A moderate positive correlation existed between change in Motor and Cognitive scores (Spearman's rho = 0.41). Generalized linear modelling indicated that better cognition at admission (coefficient = 0.398, P < 0.001) and younger age (coefficient = ?0.280, P < 0.001) were predictive of improvement in Motor performance. Younger age (coefficient = ?0.049, P < 0.001) was predictive of improvement in FIM Cognitive score. Conclusions. Improvement in cognitive functioning was observed in addition to motor function improvement among this population. Causal links cannot be drawn without further research. PMID:25544961

McPhail, Steven M.; Varghese, Paul N.; Kuys, Suzanne S.

2014-01-01

84

Cognitive Performance as a Zeitgeber: Cognitive Oscillators and Cholinergic Modulation of the SCN Entrain Circadian Rhythms  

PubMed Central

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the primary circadian pacemaker in mammals that can synchronize or entrain to environmental cues. Although light exerts powerful influences on SCN output, other non-photic stimuli can modulate the SCN as well. We recently demonstrated that daily performance of a cognitive task requiring sustained periods of attentional effort that relies upon basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic activity dramatically alters circadian rhythms in rats. In particular, normally nocturnal rats adopt a robust diurnal activity pattern that persists for several days in the absence of cognitive training. Although anatomical and pharmacological data from non-performing animals support a relationship between cholinergic signaling and circadian rhythms, little is known about how endogenous cholinergic signaling influences SCN function in behaving animals. Here we report that BF cholinergic projections to the SCN provide the principal signal allowing for the expression of cognitive entrainment in light-phase trained animals. We also reveal that oscillator(s) outside of the SCN drive cognitive entrainment as daily timed cognitive training robustly entrains SCN-lesioned arrhythmic animals. Ablation of the SCN, however, resulted in significant impairments in task acquisition, indicating that SCN-mediated timekeeping benefits new learning and cognitive performance. Taken together, we conclude that cognition entrains non-photic oscillators, and cholinergic signaling to the SCN serves as a temporal timestamp attenuating SCN photic-driven rhythms, thereby permitting cognitive demands to modulate behavior. PMID:23441168

Gritton, Howard J.; Stasiak, Ashley M.; Sarter, Martin; Lee, Theresa M.

2013-01-01

85

The effects of nicotine on cognition are dependent on baseline performance.  

PubMed

Since cholinergic neurotransmission plays a major role in cognition, stimulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor may be a target for cognitive enhancement. While nicotine improves performance on several cognitive domains, results of individual studies vary. A possible explanation for these findings is that the effect of nicotine administration may be dependent on baseline cognitive function, where subjects with a suboptimal cognitive performance may benefit from nicotine, while subjects who already perform optimally may show a decline in performance after nicotinic stimulation. We conducted a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled crossover trial, examining the effects of placebo, 1, and 2mg of nicotine on cognition in young (n=16, age 18-30 years) and healthy elderly (n=16, age 60-75 years) subjects. We hypothesised that the elderly would benefit more from nicotine compared to young subjects, as normal ageing is associated with decreases in cognitive function. Attention, working memory, visual memory, information-processing speed, psychomotor function, stereotypy, and emotion recognition were assessed. Compared to the young volunteers, the elderly performed significantly worse on psychomotor function and emotion recognition in the placebo condition. Nicotine had no effect in the young volunteers and decreased performance on working memory and visual memory in the elderly. Contrary to our hypothesis, the effect of nicotine was dependent on baseline performance in both the groups, with subjects with lower baseline performance benefiting from nicotine administration, while those with higher baseline performance performed worse after nicotine administration. This suggests that subjects with lower cognitive performance, irrespective of age, may benefit from nicotine. PMID:24766971

Niemegeers, Peter; Dumont, Glenn J H; Quisenaerts, Charel; Morrens, Manuel; Boonzaier, Julia; Fransen, Erik; de Bruijn, Ellen R A; Hulstijn, Wouter; Sabbe, Bernard G C

2014-07-01

86

Cognitive Improvement Following Treatment in Late-Life Depression  

E-print Network

baseline Mini-Mental State Exami- nation scores predicted less change in working memory. Furthermore, olderCognitive Improvement Following Treatment in Late-Life Depression: Relationship to Vascular Risk, episodic memory, and executive function). We mea- sured vascular risk using the Framingham Stroke Risk

87

The functional role of cognitive frameworks on visuomotor adaptation performance.  

PubMed

The authors investigated the effects of cognitive representations of movement directions on sensorimotor adaptation performance. Adaptation performance was measured via a pointing experiment in which participants were provided with visual feedback that was distorted along the midsagittal plane (i.e., left-right reversal). Performance was analyzed relative to participants' individual adaptation gains and 3 groups were subsequently defined (i.e., skilled, average, and poor adapters). The group separation was kept for the Cognitive Measurement of Represented Directions, which was used to analyze participants' cognitive representation of movement directions. The results showed that skilled adapters, in contrast to poor adapters, possess a global representation of movement directions aligned to the cardinal axes. The cognitive representation structure hence supports the sensorimotor adaptation performance. PMID:25205332

Lex, Heiko; Weigelt, Matthias; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

2014-01-01

88

Short Report Testosterone and Male Cognitive Performance in Tsimane  

E-print Network

Short Report Testosterone and Male Cognitive Performance in Tsimane Forager,2 AND MICHAEL GURVEN1 1 Department of Anthropology, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 2 Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 3

Cosmides, Leda

89

Cognitive aging and flight performances in general aviation pilots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike professional pilots who are limited by the FAA's age rule, no age limit is defined in general aviation. Our overall goal was to examine how age-related cognitive decline impacts piloting performance and weather-related decision-making. This study relied on three components: cognitive assessment (in particular executive functioning), pilot characteristics (age and flight experience), and flight performance. The results suggest that

Mickaël Causse; Frédéric Dehais; Mahé Arexis; Josette Pastor

2011-01-01

90

Dietary Effects on Cognition and Pilots' Flight Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of diet on cognition and flight performance of 45 pilots. Based on a theory of self-care, this clinical study used a repeated-measure, counterbalanced crossover design. Pilots were randomly rotated through 4-day high-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat, and control diets. Cognitive flight performance was evaluated using a GAT-2 full-motion flight simulator. The Sternberg

Glenda N. Lindseth; Paul D. Lindseth; Warren C. Jensen; Thomas V. Petros; Brian D. Helland; Debra L. Fossum

2011-01-01

91

Arctic cognition: a study of cognitive performance in summer and winter at 69 degrees N  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evidence has accumulated over the past 15 years that affect in humans is cyclical. In winter there is a tendency to depression, with remission in summer, and this effect is stronger at higher latitudes. In order to determine whether human cognition is similarly rhythmical, this study investigated the cognitive processes of 100 participants living at 69 degrees N. Participants were tested in summer and winter on a range of cognitive tasks, including verbal memory, attention and simple reaction time tasks. The seasonally counterbalanced design and the very northerly latitude of this study provide optimal conditions for detecting impaired cognitive performance in winter, and the conclusion is negative: of five tasks with seasonal effects, four had disadvantages in summer. Like the menstrual cycle, the circannual cycle appears to influence mood but not cognition.

Brennen, T.; Martinussen, M.; Hansen, B. O.; Hjemdal, O.

1999-01-01

92

Cognitive performance in healthy women during induced hypogonadism and ovarian steroid addback.  

PubMed

Gynecology clinic-based studies have consistently demonstrated that induced hypogonadism is accompanied by a decline in cognitive test performance. However, a recent study in healthy asymptomatic controls observed that neither induced hypogonadism nor estradiol replacement influenced cognitive performance. Thus, the effects of induced hypogonadism on cognition might not be uniformly experienced across individual women. Moreover, discrepancies in the effects of hypogonadism on cognition also could suggest the existence of specific risk phenotypes that predict a woman's symptomatic experience during menopause. In this study, we examined the effects of induced hypogonadism and ovarian steroid replacement on cognitive performance in healthy premenopausal women. Ovarian suppression was induced with a GnRH agonist (Lupron) and then physiologic levels of estradiol and progesterone were reintroduced in 23 women. Cognitive tests were administered during each hormone condition. To evaluate possible practice effects arising during repeated testing, an identical battery of tests was administered at the same time intervals in 11 untreated women. With the exception of an improved performance on mental rotation during estradiol, we observed no significant effects of estradiol or progesterone on measures of attention, concentration, or memory compared with hypogonadism. In contrast to studies in which a decline in cognitive performance was observed in women receiving ovarian suppression therapy for an underlying gynecologic condition, we confirm a prior report demonstrating that short-term changes in gonadal steroids have a limited effect on cognition in young, healthy women. Differences in the clinical characteristics of the women receiving GnRH agonists could predict a risk for ovarian steroid-related changes in cognitive performance during induced, and possibly, natural menopause. PMID:23188540

Schmidt, Peter J; Keenan, P A; Schenkel, Linda A; Berlin, Kate; Gibson, Carolyn; Rubinow, David R

2013-02-01

93

Nutrition, brain function and cognitive performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military interest in the effects of nutritional factors on cognitive function has stimulated considerable research on a variety of food constituents. This paper will review the research on the amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine, caffeine and carbohydrate. It will focus on research that addresses the potential utility of these compounds in military applications, particularly the acute, as opposed to chronic,

Harris R Lieberman

2003-01-01

94

Improving Reading Performance through Hypnosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study investigating the effects of group hypnosis on the reading performance of university students in a reading and writing center. Discusses study procedures and presents data on pretest scores and gains in vocabulary and comprehension scores. Concludes that regular use of self-hypnosis significantly improved performance. (DMM)

Fillmer, H. Thompson; And Others

1981-01-01

95

Evaluating and Improving Teacher Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This workbook, coordinated with Manatt Teacher Performance Evaluation (TPE) workshops, summarizes large group presentation in sequence with the transparancies used. The first four modules of the workbook deal with the state of the art of evaluating and improving teacher performance; the development of the TPE system, including selection of…

Manatt, Richard P.

96

Improving functional disability and cognition in Parkinson disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To examine the efficacy of an integrative cognitive training program (REHACOP) to improve cognition, clinical symptoms, and functional disability of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: Forty-two patients diagnosed with PD in Hoehn & Yahr stages 1 to 3 were randomly assigned to either the cognitive training group (REHACOP) or the control group (occupational activities) for 3 months (3 sessions, 60 min/wk). Primary outcomes were change on processing speed, verbal memory, visual memory, executive functioning, and theory of mind. Secondary outcomes included changes on neuropsychiatric symptoms, depression, apathy, and functional disability. The trial was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02118480). Results: No baseline group differences were found. Bootstrapped analysis of variance results showed significant differences in the mean change scores between the REHACOP group and control group in processing speed (0.13 [SE = 0.07] vs ?0.15 [SE = 0.09], p = 0.025), visual memory (0.10 [SE = 0.10] vs ?0.24 [SE = 0.09], p = 0.011), theory of mind (1.00 [SE = 0.37] vs ?0.27 [SE = 0.29], p = 0.013), and functional disability (?5.15 [SE = 1.35] vs 0.53 [SE = 1.49], p = 0.012). Conclusions: Patients with PD receiving cognitive training with REHACOP demonstrated statistically significant and clinically meaningful changes in processing speed, visual memory, theory of mind, and functional disability. Future studies should consider the long-term effect of this type of intervention. These findings support the integration of cognitive training into the standard of care for patients with PD. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with PD, an integrative cognitive training program improves processing speed, visual memory, theory of mind, and functional disability. PMID:25361785

Peña, Javier; García-Gorostiaga, Inés; Gomez-Beldarrain, Maria Angeles; Díez-Cirarda, María; Ojeda, Natalia

2014-01-01

97

Targeting Neural Synchrony Deficits is Sufficient to Improve Cognition in a Schizophrenia-Related Neurodevelopmental Model  

PubMed Central

Cognitive symptoms are core features of mental disorders but procognitive treatments are limited. We have proposed a “discoordination” hypothesis that cognitive impairment results from aberrant coordination of neural activity. We reported that neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion (NVHL) rats, an established neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia, have abnormal neural synchrony and cognitive deficits in the active place avoidance task. During stillness, we observed that cortical local field potentials sometimes resembled epileptiform spike-wave discharges with higher prevalence in NVHL rats, indicating abnormal neural synchrony due perhaps to imbalanced excitation–inhibition coupling. Here, within the context of the hypothesis, we investigated whether attenuating abnormal neural synchrony will improve cognition in NVHL rats. We report that: (1) inter-hippocampal synchrony in the theta and beta bands is correlated with active place avoidance performance; (2) the anticonvulsant ethosuximide attenuated the abnormal spike-wave activity, improved cognitive control, and reduced hyperlocomotion; (3) ethosuximide not only normalized the task-associated theta and beta synchrony between the two hippocampi but also increased synchrony between the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus above control levels; (4) the antipsychotic olanzapine was less effective at improving cognitive control and normalizing place avoidance-related inter-hippocampal neural synchrony, although it reduced hyperactivity; and (5) olanzapine caused an abnormal pattern of frequency-independent increases in neural synchrony, in both NVHL and control rats. These data suggest that normalizing aberrant neural synchrony can be beneficial and that drugs targeting the pathophysiology of abnormally coordinated neural activities may be a promising theoretical framework and strategy for developing treatments that improve cognition in neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:24592242

Lee, Heekyung; Dvorak, Dino; Fenton, André A.

2014-01-01

98

Improved Behavior, Motor, and Cognition Assessments in Neonatal Piglets  

PubMed Central

Abstract The alterations of animal behavior after traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be subtle, and their quantitative characterization can present significant methodological challenges. Meeting these challenges is a critical need, because quantitative measures are required in studies that compare the efficacy of different clinical interventions. We developed a battery of assessments to quantify behavioral, motor, and cognitive changes in neonatal piglets with good sensitivity and specificity to the detection of persistent deficits that correlate with axonal injury severity after a rapid non-impact head rotation with a diffuse pattern of axonal injury. The battery of measures developed included open field behaviors of sniffing and moving a toy, locomotion measures of Lempel-Ziv complexity and the probability of remaining in the current location, and a novel metric for evaluating motor performance. Our composite porcine disability score was able to detect brain injury with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 85.7% at day +4 post-injury for n=8 injured and n=7 sham piglets and significantly correlated with the percent axonal injury in these animals (day +4: ?=0.76, p=0.0011). A significant improvement over our previous assessments, this new porcine disability score has potential use in a wide variety of porcine disease and injury models. PMID:23758416

Sullivan, Sarah; Friess, Stuart H.; Ralston, Jill; Smith, Colin; Propert, Kathleen J.; Rapp, Paul E.

2013-01-01

99

Rationale for Combined Exercise and Cognition-Focused Interventions to Improve Functional Independence in People with Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that exercise and some cognition-focused intervention approaches can be used to elicit functional improvements in older people and, to some degree, those diagnosed with dementia. Independently, the two intervention types have been found to improve functional performance in people with dementia. The mechanisms underpinning these improvements come from comparable and diverse pathways. This suggests that it may be

Jeanette M. Thom; Linda Clare

2011-01-01

100

Improving brain injury cognitive rehabilitation by personalized tele-rehabilitation services: Guttmann Neuro Personal Trainer system.  

PubMed

Cognitive rehabilitation aims to remediate or alleviate the cognitive deficits appearing after an episode of Acquired Brain Injury (ABI). The purpose of this work is to describe the tele-rehabilitation platform called Guttmann Neuro Personal Trainer (GNPT) which provides new strategies for cognitive rehabilitation, improving efficiency and access to treatments, and to increase knowledge generation from the process. Cognitive rehabilitation process has been modeled to design and develop the system, which allows neuropsychologists to configure and schedule rehabilitation sessions, consisting of set of personalized computerized cognitive exercises grounded on neuroscience and plasticity principles. It provides remote continuous monitoring of patient's performance, by an asynchronous communication strategy. An automatic knowledge extraction method has been used to implement a decision support system, improving treatment customization. GNPT has been implemented in 27 rehabilitation centers and in 83 patients' homes, facilitating the access to the treatment. In total, 1660 patients have been treated. Usability and cost analysis methodologies have been applied to measure the efficiency in real clinical environments. The usability evaluation reveals a System Usability Score higher than 70 for all target users. The cost efficiency study results show a relation of 1 to 20 compared to face-to-face rehabilitation. GNPT enables brain-damaged patients to continue and further extend rehabilitation beyond the hospital, improving the efficiency of the rehabilitation process. It allows customized therapeutic plans, providing information to further development of clinical practice guidelines. PMID:25204001

Solana Sanchez, Javier; Caceres, Cesar; Garcia-Molina, Alberto; Opisso, Eloy; Roig, Teresa; Tormos, Jose; Gomez, Enrique

2014-09-01

101

25-Hydroxyvitamin D and cognitive performance in mid-life.  

PubMed

Hypovitaminosis D has been linked with poor cognitive function, particularly in older adults, but studies lack a lifespan approach; hence, the effects of reverse causality remain unknown. In the present study, we aimed to assess the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and subsequent cognitive performance in mid-adulthood and the influence of earlier life factors, including childhood cognitive ability, on this association. Information for the present study was obtained from the members of the 1958 British birth cohort (n 6496). Serum 25(OH)D concentration, indicating vitamin D status, was measured at age 45 years. Verbal memory (immediate and delayed word recall), verbal fluency (animal naming) and speed of processing were tested at age 50 years. Information on childhood cognitive ability, educational attainment, vitamin D-related behaviours and other covariates was collected prospectively from participants throughout their life. Childhood cognitive ability and educational attainment by age 42 years were strongly correlated with cognitive performance at age 50 years and with several vitamin D-related behaviours in mid-adulthood, but not with 25(OH)D concentrations at age 45 years. Participants with both low (<25 nmol/l) and high (?75 nmol/l) 25(OH)D concentrations at age 45 years performed significantly worse on immediate word recall. The associations attenuated after adjustment for childhood cognitive ability, education, and socio-economic position; however, for the immediate word recall test, there was a non-linear association with 25(OH)D after further adjustment for obesity, menopausal status, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and depressive symptoms at age 45 years (P(curvature)=0·01). The present study demonstrated that 25(OH)D concentrations were non-linearly associated with immediate word recall in mid-life. A clarification of the level of 25(OH)D concentrations that is most beneficial for predicting better cognitive performance in mid-life is required. PMID:24135155

Maddock, Jane; Geoffroy, Marie-Claude; Power, Chris; Hyppönen, Elina

2014-03-14

102

Prevention of Intellectual Disabilities: Early Interventions to Improve Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a conceptual framework that has guided three randomized, controlled early intervention trials designed to improve cognitive development and social competence in high-risk young children from birth to 3 years of age. Two of the projects (Abecedarian and CARE) enrolled infants from economically and socially low-resource families and the other project (IHDP) was an eight-site randomized controlled trial

Craig T. Ramey; Sharon Landesman Ramey

1998-01-01

103

Quetiapine improves psychotic symptoms and cognition in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Twenty-nine elderly patients who failed treatment with clozapine, risperidone, or olanzapine entered this 24-week, single-center, open-label trial to assess the efficacy of quetiapine (12.5-400 mg/day) for psychosis in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Psychiatric, motor, and cognitive assessments were administered at baseline and at periodic intervals for 24 weeks. These included the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and tests of intellectual functioning, attention, and memory. Repeated measures statistical analysis was used to assess change from baseline. The results revealed significant improvements in the 24-week BPRS total score and NPI psychosis subscale scores, with no decline in UPDRS total or motor subscale scores. There was also significant improvement in recall scores on cognitive measures. These results indicate that quetiapine may treat psychotic symptoms and improve cognition without worsening motor function in patients with PD, suggesting that quetiapine is an effective and well-tolerated antipsychotic in this population. PMID:14743357

Juncos, Jorge L; Roberts, Vicki J; Evatt, Marian L; Jewart, Rita D; Wood, Colleen D; Potter, Larry S; Jou, Hann-Chang; Yeung, Paul P

2004-01-01

104

Study Abroad Field Trip Improves Test Performance through Engagement and New Social Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although study abroad trips provide an opportunity for affective and cognitive learning, it is largely assumed that they improve learning outcomes. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a study abroad field trip improved cognitive learning by comparing test performance between the study abroad participants (n = 20) and their peers who…

Houser, Chris; Brannstrom, Christian; Quiring, Steven M.; Lemmons, Kelly K.

2011-01-01

105

Dexmedetomidine improves early postoperative cognitive dysfunction in aged mice.  

PubMed

Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a frequent complication following major surgery in the elderly. However, the exact pathogenic mechanisms are still unknown. Dexmedetomidine, a selective alpha 2 adrenal receptor agonist, was revealed anesthesia and brain protective role. The present study aimed to examine whether dexmedetomdine protects against POCD induced by major surgical trauma under general anesthesia in aged mice. In the present study, cognitive function was assessed by Y-maze. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-?), apoptosis-related factor caspase-3 and Bax were detected by real-time PCR, Western blot or immunohistochemistry. The results showed that anesthesia alone caused weak cognitive dysfunction on the first day after general anesthesia. Cognitive function in mice with splenectomy under general anesthesia was significantly exacerbated at the first and third days after surgery, and was significantly improved by dexmedetomidine administration. Splenectomy increased the expression of IL-1?, TNF-?, Bax and caspase-3 in hippocampus. These changes were significantly inversed by dexmedetomidine. These results suggest that hippocampal inflammatory response and neuronal apoptosis may contribute to POCD, and selective alpha 2 adrenal receptor excitation play a protective role. PMID:25460022

Qian, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Ming-Zheng; Zhou, Yu-Bing; Zhang, Jing-Min; Han, Li; Peng, You-Mei; Jiang, Jin-Hua; Wang, Qing-Duan

2015-01-01

106

Cognitive activities and cognitive performance in middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimer’s disease  

PubMed Central

Cognitive activity is thought to provide some protection against dementia, but the mechanism and timing of these effects are unknown. Data for this study were drawn from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention (WRAP), an at-risk middle-aged sample (mean age = 54 years) enriched for parental family history of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We had two main aims: (1) to determine the relative contribution of three facets of cognitive activity -- education, occupational complexity with data, and cognitive leisure activities – to WRAP participants’ cognitive performance; and (2) to assess for interactions between genetic risk factors and cognitive activity in explaining cognitive performance. Results from mixed effects models indicate that some of the variance usually attributed to education may be more closely accounted for by cognitive activities later in life. Overall, our analyses suggest cautious optimism for cognitive activities, especially game-playing, as a strategy for preserving cognitive strengths in midlife. PMID:24364404

Jonaitis, Erin; La Rue, Asenath; Mueller, Kim; Koscik, Rebecca; Hermann, Bruce; Sager, Mark A.

2014-01-01

107

Methylphenidate Decreased the Amount of Glucose Needed by the Brain to Perform a Cognitive Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of stimulants (methylphenidate and amphetamine) as cognitive enhancers by the general public is increasing and is controversial. It is still unclear how they work or why they improve performance in some individuals but impair it in others. To test the hypothesis that stimulants enhance signal to noise ratio of neuronal activity and thereby reduce cerebral activity by increasing

Nora D. Volkow; Joanna S. Fowler; Gene-Jack Wang; Frank Telang; Jean Logan; Christopher Wong; Jim Ma; Kith Pradhan; Helene Benveniste; James M. Swanson; Kenji Hashimoto

2008-01-01

108

Physical exercise improves peripheral BDNF levels and cognitive functions in mild cognitive impairment elderly with different bdnf Val66Met genotypes.  

PubMed

The benefits of physical exercise on improvements in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and cognitive functioning have been reported in the literature. However, the variability of individual responses may be linked to genetic differences. BDNF is considered one of the most plausible factors involved in the cognitive benefits associated with physical activity practice. A single nucleotide polymorphism localized in the gene that codes BDNF results in a missense mutation that promotes an amino acid substitution (Val66Met) in the protein. This process has been associated with decreased levels of BDNF secretion, with corresponding impairments in specific cognitive functions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a multimodal physical exercise program on peripheral BDNF levels and cognitive functions in elderly individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The participants were genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. Cognitive functions were assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) prior to and after the intervention. Forty-five participants were assigned to the control and trained groups. The trained group participated in a multimodal physical training for a 16-week period. The results showed a significant between-subjects interaction (p < 0.05), which indicates the beneficial contribution of training on cognitive functions independent of the BDNF genotype. However, only participants with BDNF-Met genotypes exhibited significant improvements in peripheral BDNF levels. The BDNF genotype appears to modulate the effects of physical exercise on BDNF secretion, but it does not influence cognition. This is the first study that evaluated the influence of a BDNF polymorphism on physical activity and cognition performance in elderly MCI individuals. PMID:25062900

Nascimento, Carla Manuela Crispim; Pereira, Jessica Rodrigues; Pires de Andrade, Larissa; Garuffi, Marcelo; Ayan, Carlos; Kerr, Daniel Shikanai; Talib, Leda Leme; Cominetti, Márcia Regina; Stella, Florindo

2015-01-01

109

Aging and Concurrent Task Performance: Cognitive Demand and Motor Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A motor task that requires fine control of upper limb movements and a cognitive task that requires executive processing--first performing them separately and then concurrently--was performed by 18 young and 18 older adults. The motor task required participants to tap alternatively on two targets, the sizes of which varied systematically. The…

Albinet, Cedric; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Beasman, Kathryn

2006-01-01

110

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves cognitive functioning after brain injury  

PubMed Central

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been widely applied and recognized in the treatment of brain injury; however, the correlation between the protective effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and changes of metabolites in the brain remains unclear. To investigate the effect and potential mechanism of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cognitive functioning in rats, we established traumatic brain injury models using Feeney's free falling method. We treated rat models with hyperbaric oxygen therapy at 0.2 MPa for 60 minutes per day. The Morris water maze test for spatial navigation showed that the average escape latency was significantly prolonged and cognitive function decreased in rats with brain injury. After treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy for 1 and 2 weeks, the rats’ spatial learning and memory abilities were improved. Hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis showed that the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased at 1 week, and the N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio was significantly increased at 2 weeks after hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Nissl staining and immunohistochemical staining showed that the number of nerve cells and Nissl bodies in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased, and glial fibrillary acidic protein positive cells were decreased after a 2-week hyperbaric oxygen therapy treatment. Our findings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen therapy significantly improves cognitive functioning in rats with traumatic brain injury, and the potential mechanism is mediated by metabolic changes and nerve cell restoration in the hippocampal CA3 region. PMID:25206655

Liu, Su; Shen, Guangyu; Deng, Shukun; Wang, Xiubin; Wu, Qinfeng; Guo, Aisong

2013-01-01

111

Effects of occupational exposure to organic solvents upon cognitive performance  

SciTech Connect

Twenty-three individuals exposed to mixed organic solvents were compared with 23 nonexposed controls on a number of cognitive performance tasks. Solvent exposure resulted in a significantly poorer performance on the forward digit span test, copying of a complex figure, and on semantic memory tests which also measure individual's ability to integrate linguistic information into cohesive units. These tasks rely heavily upon short-term memory and its integrative operations in higher cognitive function. Acute exposure effect was also observed for the linguistic integrative task.

Milanovic, L.; Spilich, G.; Vucinic, G.; Knezevic, S.; Ribaric, B.; Mubrin, Z. (DZ Medvescak Marticeva, Zagreb (Yugoslavia))

1990-11-01

112

The combined effects of L-theanine and caffeine on cognitive performance and mood.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare 50 mg caffeine, with and without 100 mg L-theanine, on cognition and mood in healthy volunteers. The effects of these treatments on word recognition, rapid visual information processing, critical flicker fusion threshold, attention switching and mood were compared to placebo in 27 participants. Performance was measured at baseline and again 60 min and 90 min after each treatment (separated by a 7-day washout). Caffeine improved subjective alertness at 60 min and accuracy on the attention-switching task at 90 min. The L-theanine and caffeine combination improved both speed and accuracy of performance of the attention-switching task at 60 min, and reduced susceptibility to distracting information in the memory task at both 60 min and 90 min. These results replicate previous evidence which suggests that L-theanine and caffeine in combination are beneficial for improving performance on cognitively demanding tasks. PMID:18681988

Owen, Gail N; Parnell, Holly; De Bruin, Eveline A; Rycroft, Jane A

2008-08-01

113

The effect of breakfast cereal consumption on adolescents' cognitive performance and mood  

PubMed Central

The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of breakfast consumption on cognitive performance and mood in adolescents, and any interaction that breakfast consumption might have with cognitive load. The rationale for this approach was that the beneficial effects of any intervention with regard to cognitive function may be more readily apparent when more demands are placed on the system. Furthermore, as skipping breakfast is particularly prevalent within this age group, thus, we focused on adolescents who habitually skip breakfast. Cognitive load was modulated by varying the level of difficulty of a series of cognitive tasks tapping memory, attention, and executive functions. Mood measured with Bond–Lader scales (1974) as well as measures of thirst, hunger, and satiety were recorded at each test session both at baseline and after the completion of each test battery. Forty adolescents (mean age = 14:2) participated in this within-subjects design study. According to treatment, all participants were tested before and after the intake of a low Glycaemic index breakfast (i.e., a 35 g portion of AllBran and 125 ml semi-skimmed milk) and before and after no breakfast consumption. Assessment time had two levels: 8.00 am (baseline) and 10.45 am. The orders of cognitive load tasks were counterbalanced. Overall it appeared that following breakfast participants felt more alert, satiated, and content. Following breakfast consumption, there was evidence for improved cognitive performance across the school morning compared to breakfast omission in some tasks (e.g., Hard Word Recall, Serial 3's and Serial 7's). However, whilst participants performance on the hard version of each cognitive task was significantly poorer compared to the corresponding easy version, there was limited evidence to support the hypothesis that the effect of breakfast was greater in the more demanding versions of the tasks. PMID:24312043

Defeyter, Margaret A.; Russo, Riccardo

2013-01-01

114

Homocysteine and Cognitive Performance in Elders with Self-Neglect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Elevated plasma homocysteine has been associated with altered cognitive performance in older adults. Elders referred to Adult Protective Services (APS) for self-neglect have been reported to have elevated plasma homocysteine levels and to suffer from cognitive impairment. This study assesses the association, if any, between plasma homocysteine and cognitive performance among elders with self-neglect. Methods: Sixty-five community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 matched controls (matched for age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS), the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Tests (CDT) and a comprehensive nutritional biochemistry panel, which included plasma homocysteine. Student s t tests and Pearson correlations were conducted to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Elders with self-neglect had significantly higher plasma homocysteine levels (M=12.68umol/L, sd=4.4) compared to the controls (M=10.40umol/L, sd=3.61;t=3.21, df=127, p=.002). There were no statistically significant associations between cognitive performance and plasma homocysteine in the self-neglect group, however there was a significant correlation between plasma homocysteine and the CDT among the controls (r=-.296, p=.022). Conclusion: Mean plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in elders with self-neglect, however, they do not appear to be related to cognitive performance, indicating that cognitive impairment in elder self-neglect involve mechanisms other than hyperhomocysteinemia. These findings warrant further investigation

Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

2009-01-01

115

Effects of acetazolamide on cognitive performance during high-altitude exposure.  

PubMed

High-altitude hypoxia impedes cognitive performance. It is not well known whether the prophylactic use of acetazolamide for altitude sickness can influence cognitive performance at high altitude. When ascending to high altitude locations, one may face medical risks, including cognitive impairment, which may significantly hinder climbing abilities or exploratory behavior. Effective prophylactic drugs have rarely been reported. Because acetazolamide is commonly used to treat acute mountain sickness (AMS), we assessed the potential effects of acetazolamide on cognitive performance during high-altitude exposure. Twenty-one volunteers aged 22-26 years were randomized to receive a 4-day treatment of acetazolamide (125 mg Bid, n=11) or placebo (n=10) before and after air travel from Xianyang (402 m) to Lhasa (3561 m). Neuropsychological performance was assessed using the digit symbol substitution test (DSST), paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT), operation span task, and free recall test at 6, 30, and 54 h after arrival at Lhasa. The Lake Louise Score (LLS) was used to diagnose AMS. At high altitude, acetazolamide impaired rather than improved neuropsychological measures of concentration, cognitive processing speed, reaction time, short-term memory, and working memory, which were assessed by DSST, PASAT, and operation span task at 6 and 30 h after arrival (p<0.05). However, the prophylactic use of acetazolamide was found to reduce the incidence of AMS compared to the placebo (p<0.05). In conclusion, acetazolamide impairs neuropsychological function, at least in part, shortly after the ascent to high altitude. PMID:23280141

Wang, Jiye; Ke, Tao; Zhang, Xiangnan; Chen, Yaoming; Liu, Mingchao; Chen, Jingyuan; Luo, Wenjing

2013-01-01

116

Working memory training shows immediate and long-term effects on cognitive performance in children  

PubMed Central

Working memory is important for mental reasoning and learning processes. Several studies in adults and school-age children have shown performance improvement in cognitive tests after working memory training. Our aim was to examine not only immediate but also long-term effects of intensive working memory training on cognitive performance tests in children. Fourteen healthy male subjects between 10 and 16 years trained a visuospatial n-back task over 3 weeks (30 min daily), while 15 individuals of the same age range served as a passive control group. Significant differences in immediate (after 3 weeks of training) and long-term effects (after 2-6 months) in an auditory n-back task were observed compared to controls (2.5 fold immediate and 4.7 fold long-term increase in the training group compared to the controls). The improvement was more pronounced in subjects who improved their performance during the training. Other cognitive functions (matrices test and Stroop task) did not change when comparing the training group to the control group. We conclude that visuospatial working memory training in children boosts performance in similar memory tasks such as the auditory n-back task. The sustained performance improvement several months after the training supports the effectiveness of the training. PMID:25671082

Pugin, Fiona; Metz, Andreas J.; Stauffer, Madlaina; Wolf, Martin; Jenni, Oskar G.; Huber, Reto

2014-01-01

117

Composition Instruction and Cognitive Performance: Results of a Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a composition program, Composers in Public Schools (CiPS), on cognitive skills essential for academic success. The underlying hypothesis is that composition instruction will promote creative expression and increase performance on music-specific skills such as music reading, as well as foster…

Bugos, Jennifer; Jacobs, Edward

2012-01-01

118

Performance Analysis of Dispersed Spectrum Cognitive Radio Systems  

E-print Network

of modulation type and order by considering M-PSK and M-QAM modulation schemes. We then study the impacts of topology on the effective transport capacity performance of ad hoc dispersed spectrum cognitive radio systems where the nodes assume 3- dimensional (3D...

Mohammad, Muneer

2011-02-22

119

HYDRATION STATUS AND COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG ADULTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adequate hydration levels are important for both mental and physical functioning. Research conducted in young adults suggests that mild levels of dehydration (2%-4%) can negatively influence cognitive performance in a variety of tasks, but these data are inconsistent. Dehydration may be relatively...

120

Ginseng: potential for the enhancement of cognitive performance and mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ginseng has been used medicinally in the Far East for several millennia and is currently one of the most widely taken herbal products throughout the world. It has been attributed with a plethora of physiological effects that could potentially benefit cognitive performance or mood. Studies involving animals show that ginseng and its constituent ginsenosides can modulate indices of stress, fatigue,

David O Kennedy; Andrew B Scholey

2003-01-01

121

An Overview of the EPIC Architecture for Cognition and Performance  

E-print Network

An Overview of the EPIC Architecture for Cognition and Performance with Application to Human Report No. 5 (TR-95/ONR-EPIC-5) December 5, 1995 This research was supported by the Office of Naval Government. Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited #12;An Overview of the EPIC Architecture

Hornof, Anthony

122

Prospective Associations between Dietary Patterns and Cognitive Performance during Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The aim of the study was to investigate prospective associations between dietary patterns and cognitive performance during adolescence. Methods: Participants were sourced from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study that includes 2868 children born between 1989 and 1992 in Perth, Western Australia. When the children were…

Nyaradi, Anett; Foster, Jonathan K.; Hickling, Siobhan; Li, Jianghong; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Jacques, Angela; Oddy, Wendy H.

2014-01-01

123

Distributed Cognition in Sports Teams: Explaining Successful and Expert Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we use a hybrid methodology to better understand the skilful performance of sports teams as an exemplar of distributed cognition. We highlight key differences between a team of individual experts (an aggregate system) and an expert team (an emergent system), and outline the kinds of shared characteristics likely to be found in an…

Williamson, Kellie; Cox, Rochelle

2014-01-01

124

Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Relations between Performance on the Social Attribution Task and Cognitive and Behavioral Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder of genetic origin, with characteristic cognitive and personality profiles. Studies of WS point to an outgoing and gregarious personality style, often contrasted with autism spectrum disorders; however, recent research has uncovered underlying social reciprocity difficulties in people with WS. Social information processing difficulties that underlie these social reciprocity difficulties have been sparsely examined. Participants in the current study included 24 children with WS ages 8 through 15. A lab-based measure of social perception and social cognition was administered (Social Attribution Test), as well as an intellectual functioning measure (KBIT-II) and parent reports of communication and reciprocal social skills (Social Communication Questionnaire, Social Responsiveness Scale). Relations between social cognition, cognitive abilities, and social-communication were examined. Results demonstrated relations between parent-reported social reciprocity and the typicality of the responses provided in the lab-based measure, even once variability in intellectual functioning was taken into account. Specifically, those individuals who produced narratives in response to the social attribution task (SAT) that were more similar to those described in previous studies of typically developing individuals were also reported to have fewer social reciprocity difficulties in the real world setting as reported by parents. In addition, a significant improvement in performance on the SAT was seen with added scaffolding, particularly for participants with stronger intellectual functioning. These findings indicate that difficulties interpreting the social dynamics between others in ambiguous situations may contribute to the social relationship difficulties observed in people with WS, above and beyond the role of intellectual functioning. Exploratory analyses indicated that performance by individuals with stronger intellectual functioning is improved with additional structure to a greater degree than for those with weaker intellectual functioning. Interventions that specifically target these social information processing of individuals with WS would likely be beneficial. PMID:22737137

van der Fluit, Faye; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Klein-Tasman, Bonita P.

2012-01-01

125

EEG Analysis of the Effects of Therapeutic Cooling on the Cognitive Performance of Multiple Sclerosis Patients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this project was to determine whether a controlled period of head and torso cooling would enhance the cognitive performance of multiple sclerosis patients. Nineteen MS patients (11 men and 8 women) participated in the study. Control data were taken from nineteen healthy volunteers (12 men and 7 women). All but six of nineteen MS patients tested improved their cognitive performance, as measured by their scores on the Rao test battery. A second objective was to gain insight into the neurological effects of cooling. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) stimulated by a reversing checkerboard pattern were recorded before and after cooling. We found that cooling selectively benefited the cognitive performance of those MS patients whose pre-cooling VEPs were abnormally shaped (which is an indication of visual pathway impairment due to demyelinization). Moreover, for female MS patients, the degree of cognitive performance improvement following cooling was correlated with a change in the shape of their VEPs toward a more normal shape following cooling.

Montgomery, Leslie D.; Montgomery, Richard W.; Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Luna, Bernadette; Lee, Hank C.; Kliss, Mark; Webbon, Bruce; Mead, Susan C. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

126

Neuropsychological Criteria for Mild Cognitive Impairment Improves Diagnostic Precision, Biomarker Associations, and Progression Rates  

PubMed Central

We compared two methods of diagnosing mild cognitive impairment (MCI): conventional Petersen/Winblad criteria as operationalized by the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and an actuarial neuropsychological method put forward by Jak and Bondi designed to balance sensitivity and reliability. 1,150 ADNI participants were diagnosed at baseline as cognitively normal (CN) or MCI via ADNI criteria (MCI: n = 846; CN: n = 304) or Jak/Bondi criteria (MCI: n = 401; CN: n = 749), and the two MCI samples were submitted to cluster and discriminant function analyses. Resulting cluster groups were then compared and further examined for APOE allelic frequencies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biomarker levels, and clinical outcomes. Results revealed that both criteria produced a mildly impaired Amnestic subtype and a more severely impaired Dysexecutive/Mixed subtype. The neuropsychological Jak/Bondi criteria uniquely yielded a third Impaired Language subtype, whereas conventional Petersen/Winblad ADNI criteria produced a third subtype comprising nearly one-third of the sample that performed within normal limits across the cognitive measures, suggesting this method’s susceptibility to false positive diagnoses. MCI participants diagnosed via neuropsychological criteria yielded dissociable cognitive phenotypes, significant CSF AD biomarker associations, more stable diagnoses, and identified greater percentages of participants who progressed to dementia than conventional MCI diagnostic criteria. Importantly, the actuarial neuropsychological method did not produce a subtype that performed within normal limits on the cognitive testing, unlike the conventional diagnostic method. Findings support the need for refinement of MCI diagnoses to incorporate more comprehensive neuropsychological methods, with resulting gains in empirical characterization of specific cognitive phenotypes, biomarker associations, stability of diagnoses, and prediction of progression. Refinement of MCI diagnostic methods may also yield gains in biomarker and clinical trial study findings because of improvements in sample compositions of ‘true positive’ cases and removal of ‘false positive’ cases. PMID:24844687

Bondi, Mark W.; Edmonds, Emily C.; Jak, Amy J.; Clark, Lindsay R.; Delano-Wood, Lisa; McDonald, Carrie R.; Nation, Daniel A.; Libon, David J.; Au, Rhoda; Galasko, Douglas; Salmon, David P.

2014-01-01

127

Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in healthy older people.  

PubMed

Worse cognitive performance in older people has been associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation (in particular, higher cortisol levels). Analysis of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) is a novel method to measure long-term cortisol exposure, and its relationship with cognition in healthy older people has not yet been studied. We investigated whether HCC (measured in hair scalp) and diurnal salivary cortisol levels (awakening, 30min after awakening, and evening, across two days) were related to cognitive performance (assessed with the Trail-making Test A and B, Digit Span Forward and Backward, word list-RAVLT and Stories subtest of the Rivermead) in 57 healthy older people (mean age=64.75 years, SD=4.17). Results showed that lower HCC were consistently related to worse working memory, learning, short-term verbal memory (RAVLT first trial and immediate recall) and long-term verbal memory. In contrast, higher mean levels and higher diurnal area under the curve of diurnal salivary cortisol were related to worse attention and short-term verbal memory (immediate story recall), respectively. Interestingly, a higher ratio of mean levels of diurnal salivary cortisol over HCC were related to worse performance on working memory and short-term verbal memory, suggesting that those individuals with lower long-term cortisol exposure might be more vulnerable to the negative effect of HPA-axis dysregulation on these cognitive processes. Our findings suggest that both low long-term cortisol exposure and a possible dysregulation of the diurnal rhythm of the HPA-axis may account, at least in part, for the inter-individual variability in cognitive performance in healthy older people. PMID:24767624

Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia

2014-06-01

128

Effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive performance and individual psychopathology in depressive and schizophrenia patients.  

PubMed

Cognitive deficits are core symptoms in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD), but specific and approved treatments for cognitive deterioration are scarce. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that aerobic exercise may help to reduce psychopathological symptoms and support cognitive performance, but this has not yet been systematically investigated. In the current study, we examined the effects of aerobic training on cognitive performance and symptom severity in psychiatric inpatients. To our knowledge, to date, no studies have been published that directly compare the effects of exercise across disease groups in order to acquire a better understanding of disease-specific versus general or overlapping effects of physical training intervention. Two disease groups (n=22 MDD patients, n=29 SZ patients) that were matched for age, gender, duration of disease and years of education received cognitive training combined either with aerobic physical exercise or with mental relaxation training. The interventions included 12 sessions (3 times a week) over a time period of 4 weeks, lasting each for 75 min (30 min of cognitive training+45 min of cardio training/mental relaxation training). Cognitive parameters and psychopathology scores of all participants were tested in pre- and post-testing sessions and were then compared with a waiting control group. In the total group of patients, the results indicate an increase in cognitive performance in the domains visual learning, working memory and speed of processing, a decrease in state anxiety and an increase in subjective quality of life between pre- and post-testing. The effects in SZ patients compared with MDD patients were stronger for cognitive performance, whereas there were stronger effects in MDD patients compared with SZ patients in individual psychopathology values. MDD patients showed a significant reduction in depressive symptoms and state anxiety values after the intervention period. SZ patients reduced their negative symptoms severity from pre- to post-testing. In sum, the effects for the combined training were superior to the other forms of treatment. Physical exercise may help to reduce psychopathological symptoms and improve cognitive skills. The intervention routines employed in this study promise to add the current psychopathological and medical treatment options and could aid the transition to a multidisciplinary approach. However, a limitation of the current study is the short time interval for interventions (6 weeks including pre- and post-testing). PMID:24487666

Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Mehler, Pia; Thiel, Christian; Steinbrecher, Kristina; Malchow, Berend; Tesky, Valentina; Ademmer, Karin; Prvulovic, David; Banzer, Winfried; Zopf, Yurdagül; Schmitt, Andrea; Hänsel, Frank

2014-10-01

129

Improved Processing Speed: Online Computer-Based Cognitive Training in Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an increasingly aging population, a number of adults are concerned about declines in their cognitive abilities. Online computer-based cognitive training programs have been proposed as an accessible means by which the elderly may improve their cognitive abilities; yet, more research is needed in order to assess the efficacy of these programs. In…

Simpson, Tamara; Camfield, David; Pipingas, Andrew; Macpherson, Helen; Stough, Con

2012-01-01

130

"I think therefore I am" -Improving cognition Karen Ritchie PhD  

E-print Network

"I think therefore I am" - Improving cognition Karen Ritchie PhD Florence Portet MD INSERM (French of review : In the absence of a specific treatment for dementia, the effective management of cognitive of cognitive complaints observed in sub-types of dementia, there is increasing recognition of common

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

131

Early markers of cognitive enhancement: developing an implicit measure of cognitive performance.  

PubMed

There is intense interest in the development of effective cognitive enhancing drugs which would have therapeutic application across a number of neurological and psychological disorders including dementia, schizophrenia and depression. However, development in this area has been limited by the absence of sensitive biomarkers which can be used to detect and refine therapeutic-like action in phase 1 clinical studies. The aim of the present study was therefore to develop a measure of cognition relevant to the action of candidate cognitive enhancers which might be sensitive to pharmacological manipulation in healthy volunteers. Healthy volunteers (n?=?34) were randomised to receive a single dose of modafinil (100 mg) or placebo. Five hours post dose, attentional flexibility in learning was assessed using a novel implicit learning task. Volunteers also completed an auditory digit span task and visual analogue scales (VAS). Modafinil increased alertness as measured by the VAS. In the implicit learning task, modafinil enhanced learning rates in terms of both accuracy and reaction time, suggesting an increase in implicit rule learning. These results suggest that the novel learning task should be explored as a biomarker of early cognitive improvement which could be more sensitive than conventional measures. PMID:23820927

Pringle, Abbie; Browning, Michael; Parsons, Elizabeth; Cowen, Phil J; Harmer, Catherine J

2013-12-01

132

Electrophysiological correlates of cognition improve with nap during sleep deprivation.  

PubMed

The efficacy of a 30-min nap as a countermeasure in the reduction of cognitive decline following 24 h of sleep deprivation (SD) on subjective sleepiness scales, event-related potential (ERP) P300, and contingent negative variation (CNV) was evaluated. The experiment was performed in three sessions on different days between 7 and 8 a.m. on nine normal, healthy males, of age 25-30 years: Session 1. Baseline recordings; Session 2, after one night's total sleep deprivation, and; Session 3, after 1 week of Session 1, following one night's sleep deprivation along with a 30-min nap opportunity between 1.00 and 3.00 a.m. Subjective sleepiness scores increased after SD as compared to baseline, but reduced significantly after nap (P < 0.05). There was an increase in P3 peak latency of ERP following SD (16%, P < 0.01), which was reduced with nap (10.7%, P < 0.05).There was an increase in CNV M1 peak latency after SD (18%) which decreased with the use of nap (12.5%) (P < 0.01). The CNV reaction time increased following SD (39.3%) and decreased with the use of nap (24%) (P < 0.01). No significant effects on ERP N1, P1, N2 latencies, P2 and P3 amplitudes and CNV N1, P3, M2 peak latencies and M1, and M2 amplitudes were observed. It was concluded that a 30-min nap, between 1.00 and 3.00 a.m. during night SD, reduces the cognitive decline following 24 h of SD in terms of its electro-physiological correlates. The study is of applied value in optimization of cognitive performance in professions demanding night work schedules. PMID:19865829

Panjwani, Usha; Ray, Koushik; Chatterjee, Abhirup; Bhaumik, Sangeet; Kumar, Sanjeev

2010-02-01

133

Plasma 1,8-cineole correlates with cognitive performance following exposure to rosemary essential oil aroma  

PubMed Central

Objective The mode of influence of the aromas of plant essential oils on human behaviour is largely unclear. This study was designed to assess the potential pharmacological relationships between absorbed 1,8-cineole following exposure to rosemary aroma, cognitive performance and mood. Methods Twenty healthy volunteers performed serial subtraction and visual information processing tasks in a cubicle diffused with the aroma of rosemary. Mood assessments were made pre and post testing, and venous blood was sampled at the end of the session. Pearson correlations were carried out between serum levels of 1,8-cineole, cognitive performance measures and change in mood scores. Results Here we show for the first time that performance on cognitive tasks is significantly related to concentration of absorbed 1,8-cineole following exposure to rosemary aroma, with improved performance at higher concentrations. Furthermore, these effects were found for speed and accuracy outcomes, indicating that the relationship is not describing a speed–accuracy trade off. The relationships between 1,8-cineole levels and mood were less pronounced, but did reveal a significant negative correlation between change in contentment and plasma 1,8-cineole levels. Conclusion These findings suggest that compounds absorbed from rosemary aroma affect cognition and subjective state independently through different neurochemical pathways. PMID:23983963

Oliver, Lorraine

2012-01-01

134

Alcohol consumption and cognitive performance: a Mendelian randomization study  

PubMed Central

Aims To use Mendelian randomization to assess whether alcohol intake was causally associated with cognitive function. Design Mendelian randomization using a genetic variant related to alcohol intake (ADH1B rs1229984) was used to obtain unbiased estimates of the association between alcohol intake and cognitive performance. Setting Europe. Participants More than 34?000 adults. Measurements Any versus no alcohol intake and units of intake in the previous week was measured by questionnaire. Cognitive function was assessed in terms of immediate and delayed word recall, verbal fluency and processing speed. Findings Having consumed any versus no alcohol was associated with higher scores by 0.17 standard deviations (SD) [95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.15, 0.20] for immediate recall, 0.17 SD (95% CI?=?0.14, 0.19) for delayed recall, 0.17 SD (95% CI?=?0.14, 0.19) for verbal fluency and 0.12 SD (95% CI?=?0.09, 0.15) for processing speed. The minor allele of rs1229984 was associated with reduced odds of consuming any alcohol (odds ratio?=?0.87; 95% CI?=?0.80, 0.95; P?=?0.001; R2?=?0.1%; F-statistic?=?47). In Mendelian randomization analysis, the minor allele was not associated with any cognitive test score, and instrumental variable analysis suggested no causal association between alcohol consumption and cognition: ?0.74 SD (95% CI?=??1.88, 0.41) for immediate recall, ?1.09 SD (95% CI?=??2.38, 0.21) for delayed recall, ?0.63 SD (95% CI?=??1.78, 0.53) for verbal fluency and ?0.16 SD (95% CI?=??1.29, 0.97) for processing speed. Conclusions The Mendelian randomization analysis did not provide strong evidence of a causal association between alcohol consumption and cognitive ability. PMID:24716453

Kumari, Meena; Holmes, Michael V; Dale, Caroline E; Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Palmer, Tom M; Pikhart, Hynek; Peasey, Anne; Britton, Annie; Horvat, Pia; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Shankar, Aparna; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Voevoda, Mikhail; Kivimaki, Mika; Hingorani, Aroon D; Marmot, Michael G; Casas, Juan P; Bobak, Martin

2014-01-01

135

Recent performance improvements on FXR  

SciTech Connect

The FXR machine is a nominal 4-kA, 20-MeV, linear-induction, electron accelerator for flash radiography at LLNL. The machine met its baseline requirements in March 1982. Since then, the performance has been greatly improved. We have achieved stable and repeatable beam acceleration and transport, with over 80% transmission to the tungsten bremsstrahlung target located some 35 m downstream. For best stability, external-beam steering has been eliminated almost entirely. We regularly produce over 500 Roentgen at 1 m from the target (TLD measurement), with a radiographic spot size of 3 to 5 mm. Present efforts are directed towards the development of a 4-kA tune, working interactively with particle-field and beam transport code models. A remaining uncertainty is the possible onset of RF instabilities at the higher current levels.

Kulke, B.; Kihara, R.

1983-01-01

136

Improving supply chain performance through improved visibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This paper seeks to investigate the links between different types of visibility, joint initiatives and business performance using the concepts of transparency as a measure of visibility in supply chains. The prognosis that increased supply chain visibility can be achieved through suppliers and customers working on joint initiative(s), the deployment of which leads to collaborative successes, is tested.

Paul A. Bartlett; Denyse M. Julien; Tim S. Baines

2007-01-01

137

Imaging of neuro-cognitive performance in extreme Environments—A (p)review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living in extreme environments is accompanied by a number of stressors, which can be classified either as physiological stressors (e.g. microgravity, missing sunlight) or psychological stressors (e.g. confinement). From earth bound studies a negative impact of stress on mental health and cognitive performance is well known and both factors might impair mission success and mission safety during longer inhabitation of space. Accordingly there is the need to identify adequate countermeasures. Nevertheless causal research of neuro-cognitive impairments in space remains speculative due to missing possibilities of brain imaging. Furthermore the reliability of current psychological tests used to assess and monitor cognitive performance in extreme environments seems to be vulnerable due to a lack of compliance. With on-going plans of international space agencies to send people to moon and/or mars, this manuscript aims to summarize and review research attempts of the past two decades and to identify methodological shortcomings. Finally, following the guideline that research has no legacy for its own but must serve the self-concept and well-being of man, this manuscript presents a number of recommendations to enhance future neuro-cognitive research in extreme environments. A deeper insight into neuro-cognitive coherence is not only desirable to understand the effects of stress on mental health, which seems to be a major issue for our current society, and to develop adequate countermeasures but will also help to maintain and improve mission success and mission safety in manned space flight.

Schneider, Stefan; Bubeev, Juri A.; Choukèr, Alexander; Morukov, Boris; Johannes, Bernd; Strüder, Heiko K.

2012-12-01

138

A pilot study to evaluate the effects of Cerebrolysin on cognition and qEEG in vascular dementia: cognitive improvement correlates with qEEG acceleration.  

PubMed

The effects of the neurotrophic compound Cerebrolysin (Cere) on cognitive performance, evaluated with the ADAS-cog, and on qEEG activity were investigated in forty one patients with mild to moderate severe probable vascular dementia (VaD) according to NINDS-AIREN criteria, included in a placebo-controlled pilot study. Patients received i.v. infusions of Cere (10 or 30 ml) or placebo (normal saline) 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Mean score of change from baseline in the ADAS-cog and percent change from baseline in slow to fast EEG power ratio (PR) scores were the two primary endpoints. Correlations between cognition and qEEG were also evaluated for both baseline scores and for scores of change from baseline in ADAS-cog and in qEEG parameters, including EEG power ratio (PR) as an index of EEG slowing. Baseline ADAS-cog scores showed significant positive correlations with delta power, theta power and PR scores, and correlated negatively with alpha activity. These correlations indicating that an increased EEG slowing is associated with a worst cognitive performance in VaD patients. Cere treatment improved cognitive performance significantly at the 10 ml dose and reduced EEG slowing with both 10 and 30 ml dosages. A significant positive correlation between PR and ADAS-cog scores of change from baseline was observed in Cere-treated patients. According to results of this pilot study, it is concluded that Cere improves cognitive performance and reduces EEG slowing in patients with VaD, and that there is a positive relationship between changes in cognition and qEEG activity induced by Cere. The conduction of further regular clinical trials is required to confirm the potential utility of Cere in the treatment of VaD suggested by the present results. PMID:18048059

Muresanu, Dafin F; Alvarez, X Anton; Moessler, Herbert; Buia, Manuel; Stan, Adina; Pintea, Daniela; Moldovan, Florina; Popescu, Bogdan O

2008-04-15

139

Cyclocreatine treatment improves cognition in mice with creatine transporter deficiency.  

PubMed

The second-largest cause of X-linked mental retardation is a deficiency in creatine transporter (CRT; encoded by SLC6A8), which leads to speech and language disorders with severe cognitive impairment. This syndrome, caused by the absence of creatine in the brain, is currently untreatable because CRT is required for creatine entry into brain cells. Here, we developed a brain-specific Slc6a8 knockout mouse (Slc6a8-/y) as an animal model of human CRT deficiency in order to explore potential therapies for this syndrome. The phenotype of the Slc6a8-/y mouse was comparable to that of human patients. We successfully treated the Slc6a8-/y mice with the creatine analog cyclocreatine. Brain cyclocreatine and cyclocreatine phosphate were detected after 9 weeks of cyclocreatine treatment in Slc6a8-/y mice, in contrast to the same mice treated with creatine or placebo. Cyclocreatine-treated Slc6a8-/y mice also exhibited a profound improvement in cognitive abilities, as seen with novel object recognition as well as spatial learning and memory tests. Thus, cyclocreatine appears promising as a potential therapy for CRT deficiency. PMID:22751104

Kurosawa, Yuko; Degrauw, Ton J; Lindquist, Diana M; Blanco, Victor M; Pyne-Geithman, Gail J; Daikoku, Takiko; Chambers, James B; Benoit, Stephen C; Clark, Joseph F

2012-08-01

140

Cyclocreatine treatment improves cognition in mice with creatine transporter deficiency  

PubMed Central

The second-largest cause of X-linked mental retardation is a deficiency in creatine transporter (CRT; encoded by SLC6A8), which leads to speech and language disorders with severe cognitive impairment. This syndrome, caused by the absence of creatine in the brain, is currently untreatable because CRT is required for creatine entry into brain cells. Here, we developed a brain-specific Slc6a8 knockout mouse (Slc6a8–/y) as an animal model of human CRT deficiency in order to explore potential therapies for this syndrome. The phenotype of the Slc6a8–/y mouse was comparable to that of human patients. We successfully treated the Slc6a8–/y mice with the creatine analog cyclocreatine. Brain cyclocreatine and cyclocreatine phosphate were detected after 9 weeks of cyclocreatine treatment in Slc6a8–/y mice, in contrast to the same mice treated with creatine or placebo. Cyclocreatine-treated Slc6a8–/y mice also exhibited a profound improvement in cognitive abilities, as seen with novel object recognition as well as spatial learning and memory tests. Thus, cyclocreatine appears promising as a potential therapy for CRT deficiency. PMID:22751104

Kurosawa, Yuko; DeGrauw, Ton J.; Lindquist, Diana M.; Blanco, Victor M.; Pyne-Geithman, Gail J.; Daikoku, Takiko; Chambers, James B.; Benoit, Stephen C.; Clark, Joseph F.

2012-01-01

141

Shorter term aerobic exercise improves brain, cognition, and cardiovascular fitness in aging  

PubMed Central

Physical exercise, particularly aerobic exercise, is documented as providing a low cost regimen to counter well-documented cognitive declines including memory, executive function, visuospatial skills, and processing speed in normally aging adults. Prior aging studies focused largely on the effects of medium to long term (>6 months) exercise training; however, the shorter term effects have not been studied. In the present study, we examined changes in brain blood flow, cognition, and fitness in 37 cognitively healthy sedentary adults (57–75 years of age) who were randomized into physical training or a wait-list control group. The physical training group received supervised aerobic exercise for 3 sessions per week 1 h each for 12 weeks. Participants' cognitive, cardiovascular fitness and resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) were assessed at baseline (T1), mid (T2), and post-training (T3). We found higher resting CBF in the anterior cingulate region in the physical training group as compared to the control group from T1 to T3. Cognitive gains were manifested in the exercise group's improved immediate and delayed memory performance from T1 to T3 which also showed a significant positive association with increases in both left and right hippocampal CBF identified earlier in the time course at T2. Additionally, the two cardiovascular parameters, VO2 max and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) showed gains, compared to the control group. These data suggest that even shorter term aerobic exercise can facilitate neuroplasticity to reduce both the biological and cognitive consequences of aging to benefit brain health in sedentary adults. PMID:24282403

Chapman, Sandra B.; Aslan, Sina; Spence, Jeffrey S.; DeFina, Laura F.; Keebler, Molly W.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Lu, Hanzhang

2013-01-01

142

The Effect of S-Adenosylmethionine on Cognitive Performance in Mice: An Animal Model Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequently diagnosed form of dementia resulting in cognitive impairment. Many AD mouse studies, using the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), report improved cognitive ability, but conflicting results between and within studies currently exist. To address this, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of SAM on cognitive ability as measured by Y maze performance. As supporting evidence, we include further discussion of improvements in cognitive ability, by SAM, as measured by the Morris water maze (MWM). Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature review up to April 2014 based on searches querying MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and Proquest Theses and Dissertation databases. We identified three studies containing a total of 12 experiments that met our inclusion criteria and one study for qualitative review. The data from these studies were used to evaluate the effect of SAM on cognitive performance according to two scenarios: 1. SAM supplemented folate deficient (SFD) diet compared to a folate deficient (FD) diet and 2. SFD diet compared to a nutrient complete (NC) diet. Hedge's g was used to calculate effect sizes and mixed effects model meta-regression was used to evaluate moderating factors. Results Our findings showed that the SFD diet was associated with improvements in cognitive performance. SFD diet mice also had superior cognitive performance compared to mice on an NC diet. Further to this, meta-regression analyses indicated a significant positive effect of study quality score and treatment duration on the effect size estimate for both the FD vs SFD analysis and the SFD vs NC analysis. Conclusion The findings of this meta-analysis demonstrate efficacy of SAM in acting as a cognitive performance-enhancing agent. As a corollary, SAM may be useful in improving spatial memory in patients suffering from many dementia forms including AD. PMID:25347725

Montgomery, Sarah E.; Sepehry, Amir A.; Wangsgaard, John D.; Koenig, Jeremy E.

2014-01-01

143

Cognitive Mapping as a Means of Improving Social Studies Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that cognitive mapping is an instructional strategy that encourages active participation, helps young children see relationships, promotes the organization of information, and allows the teacher flexibility. Outlines a five-step process using cognitive mapping in lesson development. (BSR)

Christen, William; Gomez, Reynaldo

1988-01-01

144

Differential effect of motivational features on training improvements in school-based cognitive training.  

PubMed

Cognitive training often utilizes game-like motivational features to keep participants engaged. It is unclear how these elements, such as feedback, reward, and theming impact player performance during training. Recent research suggests that motivation and engagement are closely related to improvements following cognitive training. We hypothesized that training paradigms featuring game-like motivational elements would be more effective than a version with no motivational elements. Five distinct motivational features were chosen for examination: a real-time scoring system, theme changes, prizes, end-of-session certificates, and scaffolding to explain the lives and leveling system included in the game. One version of the game was created with all these motivational elements included, and one was created with all of them removed. Other versions removed a single element at a time. Seven versions of a game-like n-back working memory task were then created and administered to 128 students in second through eight grade at school-based summer camps in southeastern Michigan. The inclusion of real-time scoring during play, a popular motivational component in both entertainment games and cognitive training, was found to negatively impact training improvements over the three day period. Surprisingly, scaffolding to explain lives and levels also negatively impacted training gains. The other game adjustments did not significantly impact training improvement compared to the original version of the game with all features included. These findings are preliminary and are limited by both the small sample size and the brevity of the intervention. Nonetheless, these findings suggest that certain motivational elements may distract from the core cognitive training task, reducing task improvement, especially at the initial stage of learning. PMID:24795603

Katz, Benjamin; Jaeggi, Susanne; Buschkuehl, Martin; Stegman, Alyse; Shah, Priti

2014-01-01

145

Negative Symptom Improvement During Cognitive Rehabilitation: Results from a Two-Year Trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy  

PubMed Central

Cognitive rehabilitation has shown beneficial effects on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which may also help to improve negative symptoms due to overlapping pathophysiology between these two domains. To better understand the possible relationship between these areas, we conducted an exploratory analysis of the effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) on negative symptoms. Early course schizophrenia outpatients (n = 58) were randomized to two years of CET or an Enriched Supportive Therapy (EST) control condition. Results revealed significant and medium-sized (d = .61) differential improvements favoring CET in overall negative symptoms, particularly social withdrawal, affective flattening, and motor retardation. Neurocognitive improvement was associated with reduced negative symptoms in CET, but not EST patients. No relationships were observed between improvements in emotion processing aspects of social cognition, as measured by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, and negative symptoms. CET represents an effective cognitive rehabilitation intervention for schizophrenia that may also have benefits to negative symptoms. Future studies specifically designed to examine negative symptoms during the course of cognitive rehabilitation are needed. PMID:23623449

Eack, Shaun M.; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

2013-01-01

146

Agility improvement through cooperative diversity in cognitive radio  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we illustrate the benefits of cooperation in cognitive radio. Cognitive (unlicensed) users need to continuously monitor spectrum for the presence of primary (licensed) users. We show that by allowing the cognitive radios operating in the same band to cooperate we can reduce the detection time and thus increase the overall agility. We first consider the case of

Ghurumuruhan Ganesan; Ye Li

2005-01-01

147

Flipperons for Improved Aerodynamic Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lightweight, piezoelectrically actuated bending flight-control surfaces have shown promise as means of actively controlling airflows to improve the performances of transport airplanes. These bending flight-control surfaces are called flipperons because they look somewhat like small ailerons, but, unlike ailerons, are operated in an oscillatory mode reminiscent of the actions of biological flippers. The underlying concept of using flipperons and other flipperlike actuators to impart desired characteristics to flows is not new. Moreover, elements of flipperon-based active flow-control (AFC) systems for aircraft had been developed previously, but it was not until the development reported here that the elements have been integrated into a complete, controllable prototype AFC system for wind-tunnel testing to enable evaluation of the benefits of AFC for aircraft. The piezoelectric actuator materials chosen for use in the flipperons are single- crystal solid solutions of lead zinc niobate and lead titanate, denoted generically by the empirical formula (1-x)[Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3]:x[PbTiO3] (where x<1) and popularly denoted by the abbreviation PZN-PT. These are relatively newly recognized piezoelectric materials that are capable of strain levels exceeding 1 percent and strain-energy densities 5 times greater than those of previously commercially available piezoelectric materials. Despite their high performance levels, (1-x)[Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3]:x[PbTiO3] materials have found limited use until now because, relative to previously commercially available piezoelectric materials, they tend to be much more fragile.

Mabe, James H.

2008-01-01

148

Sustaining Performance Improvements in Energy Intensive Industries  

E-print Network

Experience has shown that significant opportunity for performance improvements exists in energy intensive operations. Often, efforts to improve efficiency focus on vendor-led initiatives to improve operations of particular equipment. This approach...

Moore, D. A.

2005-01-01

149

Social hierarchies and emotions: Cortical prefrontal activity, facial feedback (EMG), and cognitive performance in a dynamic interaction.  

PubMed

In the present research, we manipulated the perceived superior/inferior status during a competitive cognitive task. In two experiments, we created an explicit and strongly reinforced social hierarchy based on incidental rating on an attentional task. Based on our hypotheses, social rank may influence nonverbal cues (such as facial mimic related to emotional response), cortical lateralized activity in frontal areas (brain oscillations), and cognitive outcomes in response to rank modulation. Thus, the facial mimic (corrugators vs. zygomatic muscle activity), frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta), and real cognitive performance [(error rate (ER); response times (RTs)] were considered. Specifically, a peer-group comparison was enrolled and an improved (experiment 1, N = 29) or decreased (experiment 2, N = 31) performance was artificially manipulated by the experimenter. Results showed a significant improved cognitive performance (decreased ER and RTs), an increased zygomatic activity (positive emotions), and a more prefrontal left-lateralized cortical response in the case of a perceived increased social ranking. On the contrary, a significant decreased cognitive performance (increased ER and RTs), an increased corrugators activity (negative emotions), and a less left-lateralized cortical response were observed as a consequence of a perceived decreased social ranking. Moreover, the correlational values revealed a consistent trend between behavioral (RTs) and EMG and EEG measures for both experiments. The present results suggest that social status not only guides social behavior, but it also influences cognitive processes and subjects' performance. PMID:25372808

Balconi, Michela; Pagani, Silvia

2015-04-01

150

Improving Adult Literacy Outcomes: Lessons from Cognitive Research for Developing Countries. Directions in Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult literacy program outcomes have been disappointing. A number of principals and methods from cognitive and neuropsychological research can be used to make literacy instruction more effective, including the following: improving cognitive function; fast reading; reading practice; literacy as a motivator; and improving use of class time.…

Abadzi, Helen

151

Motivational Influences on Cognitive Performance in Children: Focus Over Fita  

PubMed Central

Cognitive psychologists have begun to address how motivational factors influence adults’ performance on cognitive tasks. However, little research has examined how different motivational factors interact with one another to affect behavior across the lifespan. The current study examined how children perform on a classification task when placed in a regulatory fit or mismatch. Nine-year-old children performed a classification task in which they either gained or lost points for each response. Additionally, children were given either a global promotion focus (trying to earn a gift card) or a prevention focus (trying to avoid losing a gift card). Previous work indicates that adults in this task tend to perform better when there is a match (or fit) between the overall incentive to earn or avoid losing the incentive and the task reward structure to maximize points gained or minimize points lost. Unlike adults, nine-year-olds perform better in the promotion condition than in the prevention condition regardless of task reward structure. Possible explanations for the differences between adults’ and children’s performance are discussed as well as possible applications for academic settings. PMID:21552510

Worthy, Darrell A.; Brez, Caitlin C.; Markman, Arthur B.; Maddox, W. Todd

2010-01-01

152

Cognitive performance and cardiovascular markers of hyperarousal in primary insomnia.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to assess differences in cardiovascular activity and cognitive performance between insomniacs and good sleepers. Sixteen undergraduates participated in the study, eight insomniacs (age 22.9 ± 2.4) enrolled in accord with DSM-IV criteria for primary insomnia, and eight good sleepers (24.8 ± 2.7) were controls. The task employed, Stop Signal Task, assesses motor inhibition processes and was administered in two sessions, before and after a night of polysomnographic recording. During task performance, cardiovascular measures such as heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), pre-ejection period (PEP) and left ventricular ejection time (LVET) were continuously recorded by means of impedance cardiography. Performance results showed prolonged Stop Signal Delay (SSD) in the morning in both groups and slower Stop Signal Reaction Time (SSRT) in insomniacs compared with good sleepers, while no effects were observed for performance accuracy. Analyses performed on cardiovascular parameters revealed higher HR and lower LVET values in the insomnia group as compared to healthy controls in the evening. PEP, an index inversely related to sympathetic beta-adrenergic activity, was continuously reduced in insomniacs, indicating constantly enhanced sympathetic activation. These findings suggest a deficit of motor inhibition control in insomnia, matched with high levels of cardiovascular arousal. Overall, our results support the notion that insomniacs suffer from both cognitive deficits and a hyperarousal disorder affecting somatic activity, that contribute to diurnal complaints often referred in addition to sleep disruption. PMID:21333698

Covassin, Naima; de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Sarlo, Michela; De Min Tona, Giuliano; Sarasso, Simone; Stegagno, Luciano

2011-04-01

153

Cognitive Training for Improving Executive Function in Chemotherapy-Treated Breast Cancer Survivors  

PubMed Central

Difficulties with thinking and problem solving are very common among breast cancer survivors. We tested a computerized cognitive training program for 41 breast cancer survivors. The training program was associated with significant improvements in thinking and problem-solving skills. Our findings demonstrate potential for our online, home-based cognitive training program to improve cognitive difficulties among breast cancer survivors. Background A majority of breast cancer (BC) survivors, particularly those treated with chemotherapy, experience long-term cognitive deficits that significantly reduce quality of life. Among the cognitive domains most commonly affected include executive functions (EF), such as working memory, cognitive flexibility, multitasking, planning, and attention. Previous studies in other populations have shown that cognitive training, a behavioral method for treating cognitive deficits, can result in significant improvements in a number of cognitive skills, including EF. Materials and Methods In this study, we conducted a randomized controlled trial to investigate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a novel, online EF training program in long-term BC survivors. A total of 41 BC survivors (21 active, 20 wait list) completed the 48 session training program over 12 weeks. The participants were, on average, 6 years after therapy. Results Cognitive training led to significant improvements in cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency and processing speed, with marginally significant downstream improvements in verbal memory as assessed via standardized measures. Self-ratings of EF skills, including planning, organizing, and task monitoring, also were improved in the active group compared with the wait list group. Conclusions Our findings suggest that EF skills may be improved even in long-term survivors by using a computerized, home-based intervention program. These improvements may potentially include subjective EF skills, which suggest a transfer of the training program to real-world behaviors. PMID:23647804

Kesler, Shelli; Hosseini, S. M. Hadi; Heckler, Charles; Janelsins, Michelle; Palesh, Oxana; Mustian, Karen; Morrow, Gary

2013-01-01

154

Cognitive performance of detoxified alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome patients remains stable over two years.  

PubMed

Excessive alcohol consumption is assumed to promote cognitive decline, eventually increasing the risk of dementia. However, little is known about the time course of cognitive functions in patients with chronic alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome (KS). Therefore, we assessed neuropsychological performance in 20 detoxified chronic KS inpatients at time 1 (T1) with a follow-up after two years (T2). The neuropsychological tests assessed verbal and visual short- and long-term memory, working memory, basic executive functions, language, general knowledge, and visual-spatial abilities. Surveys with caregivers and medical records provided information about current and previous disease-related parameters, drinking history, additional pathologies, as well as psychosocial and cognitive therapy within the two-year period. At both sessions, the majority of the KS patients' results were inferior to those of normal subjects. Comparing T1 and T2 revealed no significant decline in any of the investigated functions. Instead, general knowledge, visual long-term memory, and verbal fluency improved slightly after two years, though they still remained within pathological range. Comparing most improved and most deteriorated patients, better outcome occurred more frequently in men than women and was associated with higher premorbid education and fewer detoxifications in the past. In this sample of detoxified KS patients there was no indication of accelerated cognitive decline or onset of dementia-like symptoms over two years. PMID:17852615

Fujiwara, Esther; Brand, Matthias; Borsutzky, Sabine; Steingass, Hans-P; Markowitsch, Hans J

2008-07-01

155

Performance monitoring following conflict: internal adjustments in cognitive control?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of strategic conflict-related adjustments in cognitive control processes on indices of performance monitoring. Previous research has examined the ability of parametric task-related manipulations to bias attention to errors; however, the present study sought to elucidate the effects of internal adjustments in control mediated by the anterior cingulate cortex on error-related conflict processing. High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were obtained from 124 healthy individuals (68 female, 66 male) during a modified Eriksen flanker task. Behavioral measures (i.e., error rates, response times [RTs]) and N2 amplitudes showed significant conflict adaptation (i.e., previous-trial congruencies influenced current-trial measures). For error trials, the error-related negativity (ERN) was more negative for errors on high-conflict (i.e., incongruent) trials following high-conflict trials relative to errors on high-conflict trials following low-conflict (i.e., congruent) trials. These findings indicate that error-related conflict-monitoring processes adjust according to the post-conflict recruitment of strategic cognitive control and suggest an ongoing interplay between conflict and internal adjustments in control resources. Interpretations from the perspective of the conflict monitoring theory of cognitive control, the reinforcement learning theory, and the response-outcome theory of the ERN are discussed. PMID:22234168

Larson, Michael J; Clayson, Peter E; Baldwin, Scott A

2012-02-01

156

Performance comparison of modulation techniques for underlay cognitive radio transceivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we present a quantitative comparison of two agile modulation techniques employed by cognitive radio transceivers operating in a dynamic spectrum access (DSA) network. One of the modulation techniques is single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA). The other modulation technique under study is a variant of multicarrier code division multiple access (MCCDMA). Although several studies comparing conventional OFDM and MC-CDMA has been conducted in literature to justify robust error performance of MC-CDMA, a quantitative performance evaluation of these schemes has not been performed when employed in a DSA network. In this paper we show that their performances can be significantly different from the conventional setup. Analytical expressions for the error probability of an SC-FDMA transceiver have been derived and compared with computer simulation results. The results show that the error robustness of SC-FDMA is relatively better then MC-CDMA in underlay communication.

Khan, Imtiyaz; Singh, Poonam

2013-01-01

157

The influence of exercise on prefrontal cortex activity and cognitive performance during a simulated space flight to Mars (MARS500).  

PubMed

With respect to the plans of national and internationals space agencies to send people to Mars or Moon, long-term isolation studies are performed to learn about the psycho-physiological and psycho-social limitations of such missions. From June 3rd 2010 to November 4th 2011 six participants lived under totally isolated and confined conditions in the MARS500 habitat located in Moscow. Despite the possibility to mimic the condition of space travel, this study allowed for experimental conditions under very reliable and traceable conditions. As exercise is widely discussed to have a positive impact on neuro-cognitive performance, this study aimed to test the effect of different exercise protocol (endurance/strength orientated) on brain cortical activity and cognitive performance. Brain cortical activity was recorded using a 16 channel EEG before and after exercise across the 520 days of confinement. Cognitive performance was assessed using three commercially available brain games. Following the theory of transient hypofrontality, results show a significant decrease of frontal brain cortical activity after exercise (p<.05) which was most expressed after endurance orientated protocols. Cognitive performance was improved following running sessions on an active treadmill (p<.05). Results let us assume that not exercise per se acts as a neuro-enhancer. It is more likely that a general defocusing caused by an immersion into exercise is necessary to improve cognitive performance. PMID:22944515

Schneider, Stefan; Abeln, Vera; Popova, Julia; Fomina, Elena; Jacubowski, Amrei; Meeusen, Romain; Strüder, Heiko K

2013-01-01

158

Cognition and procedure representational requirements for predictive human performance models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models and modeling environments for human performance are becoming significant contributors to early system design and analysis procedures. Issues of levels of automation, physical environment, informational environment, and manning requirements are being addressed by such man/machine analysis systems. The research reported here investigates the close interaction between models of human cognition and models that described procedural performance. We describe a methodology for the decomposition of aircrew procedures that supports interaction with models of cognition on the basis of procedures observed; that serves to identify cockpit/avionics information sources and crew information requirements; and that provides the structure to support methods for function allocation among crew and aiding systems. Our approach is to develop an object-oriented, modular, executable software representation of the aircrew, the aircraft, and the procedures necessary to satisfy flight-phase goals. We then encode in a time-based language, taxonomies of the conceptual, relational, and procedural constraints among the cockpit avionics and control system and the aircrew. We have designed and implemented a goals/procedures hierarchic representation sufficient to describe procedural flow in the cockpit. We then execute the procedural representation in simulation software and calculate the values of the flight instruments, aircraft state variables and crew resources using the constraints available from the relationship taxonomies. The system provides a flexible, extensible, manipulative and executable representation of aircrew and procedures that is generally applicable to crew/procedure task-analysis. The representation supports developed methods of intent inference, and is extensible to include issues of information requirements and functional allocation. We are attempting to link the procedural representation to models of cognitive functions to establish several intent inference methods including procedural backtracking with concurrent search, temporal reasoning, and constraint checking for partial ordering of procedures. Finally, the representation is being linked to models of human decision making processes that include heuristic, propositional and prescriptive judgement models that are sensitive to the procedural content in which the valuative functions are being performed.

Corker, K.

1992-01-01

159

Can performance of daily activities discriminate between older adults with normal cognitive function and those with Mild Cognitive Impairment?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Our primary aim was to examine whether preclinical disability in performance of cognitively-focused instrumental activities of daily living (C-IADL) tasks can discriminate between older adults with normal cognitive function and those with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The secondary purpose was to determine the two tasks with the strongest psychometric properties and assess their discriminative ability. Our goal was to generate diagnosis-relevant information about cognitive changes associated with MCI and DSM-5 Mild Neurocognitive Disorder. DESIGN Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from a cohort of individuals diagnosed with normal cognitive function or MCI. SETTING Private home locations in Pittsburgh, PA. PARTICIPANTS Older adults with remitted major depression (N=157). MEASUREMENTS Diagnosis of cognitive status was made by the Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center at the University of Pittsburgh. Performance of 8 C-IADL was measured using the criterion-referenced, observation-based Performance Assessment of Self-Care Skills (PASS). RESULTS A total of 96 older adults with normal cognitive function (mean age=72.5, SD=5.9) and 61 older adults with MCI (mean age=75.5, SD=6.3) participated. The 8 C-IADL demonstrated 81% accuracy in discriminating cognitive status (area under curve 0.81, p<0.001). Two tasks (shopping and checkbook balancing) were the most discriminating (area under curve 0.80, p<0.001); they demonstrated similar ability, as the 8 C-IADL, to discriminate cognitive status. Assessing performance on these two C-IADL takes 10–15 minutes. CONCLUSION This is the first demonstration of the discriminative ability of preclinical disability in distinguishing MCI from cognitively normal older adults. These findings highlight potential tasks, when measured with the observation-based PASS, which demonstrate increased effort for individuals with MCI. These tasks may be considered when attempting to diagnose MCI or Mild Neurocognitive Disorder in clinical practice and research. PMID:24890517

Rodakowski, Juleen; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Butters, Meryl A.; Holm, Margo B.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Rogers, Joan C.

2014-01-01

160

Cognitive Technology for improving Ultra-Wideband (UWB) Coexistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive radio technology enables the opportunistic operation of secondary devices in frequency bands allocated to primary users. In this paper we explore how this technology can enable ultra-wideband (UWB) systems to coexist with primary users. The distinguishing aspect of cognitive radio technology is the ability to detect and avoid primary users. We discuss two options for detecting the presence of

S. M. Mishra; R. W. Brodersen

2007-01-01

161

Montessori Improved Cognitive Domains in Adults with Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Montessori materials were used in two adult day-care cen­ ters to slow cognitive decline in adults with Alzheimer's disease. Using a within-subject design, participants in one adult day care received three months of the Montessori materials, then standard intervention later. Par­ ticipants were administered a battery of cognitive measures at baseline, three months, and six months. Favorable scores for the

David E. Vance; Rebekah N. Johns

2002-01-01

162

Ultradian rhythms in performance on tests of specialized cognitive function.  

PubMed

Performance on cognitive tasks cycled at ultradian frequencies for 24 males over a test period of eight hours. The verbal task of written word production cycled at 80 minutes; the spatial task of locating points in space cycled at 96 minutes. Multiple cycles were seen for a perceptual speed task that factor loads on both the verbal and spatial task. Replication of the results for the first 12 and second 12 subjects demonstrated their robustness. The verbal and spatial tasks were chosen to reflect specialized functions of the left and right cerebral hemispheres, respectively. Accordingly, the results are interpreted as evidence that specialized task performances are associated with independent neurochemical systems. In addition, blood samples were taken at task performance to assess cyclicity of hormone levels. Luteinizing hormone had a period of 120 minutes, testosterone and cortisol were inconsistent and none seemed to be related to the cognitive tasks. However when subjects were divided according to a winter or summer testing schedule, the spatial periodicity was absent for the summer group and the verbal periodicity was absent for the winter peak. PMID:8869428

Gordon, H W; Stoffer, D S; Lee, P A

1995-12-01

163

Performance Pay Path to Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary goal of performance pay for the past decade has been higher test scores, and the most prominent strategy has been to increase teacher performance through financial incentives. If teachers are rewarded for success, according to this logic, they will try harder. If they try harder, more children will achieve higher test scores. The…

Gratz, Donald B.

2011-01-01

164

Functional relationship between cognitive representations of movement directions and visuomotor adaptation performance.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to explore whether or not different types of learners in a sensorimotor task possess characteristically different cognitive representations. Participants' sensorimotor adaptation performance was measured with a pointing paradigm which used a distortion of the visual feedback in terms of a left-right reversal. The structure of cognitive representations was assessed using a newly established experimental method, the Cognitive Measurement of Represented Directions. A post hoc analysis revealed inter-individual differences in participants' adaptation performance, and three different skill levels (skilled, average, and poor adapters) have been defined. These differences in performance were correlated with the structure of participants' cognitive representations of movement directions. Analysis of these cognitive representations revealed performance advantages for participants possessing a global cognitive representation of movement directions (aligned to cardinal movement axes), rather than a local representation (aligned to each neighboring direction). Our findings are evidence that cognitive representation structures play a functional role in adaptation performance. PMID:23007723

Lex, Heiko; Weigelt, Matthias; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

2012-12-01

165

Large-Scale Organizational Performance Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the steps involved in a performance improvement program in the context of a large multinational corporation. Highlights include a training program for managers that explained performance improvement; performance matrices; divisionwide implementation, including strategic planning; organizationwide training of all personnel; and the…

Pilotto, Rudy; Young, Jonathan O'Donnell

1999-01-01

166

Performance Improvement Competencies for Instructional Technologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The field of instructional design and technology (IDT) evolved during the 1990s to include theories and practices of performance improvement. Some authors have indicated that the goal of our field has shifted from facilitating learning to improving performance; and contemporary definitions of IDT incorporate human performance technology concepts…

Klein, James D.; Fox, Eric J.

2004-01-01

167

Human performance cognitive-behavioral modeling: a benefit for occupational safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human Performance Modeling (HPM) is a computer-aided job analysis software methodology used to generate predictions of complex human-automation integration and system flow patterns with the goal of improving operator and system safety. The use of HPM tools has recently been increasing due to reductions in computational cost, augmentations in the tools' fidelity, and usefulness in the generated output. An examination of an Air Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (Air MIDAS) model evaluating complex human-automation integration currently underway at NASA Ames Research Center will highlight the importance to occupational safety of considering both cognitive and physical aspects of performance when researching human error.

Gore, Brian F.

2002-01-01

168

Human Performance Improvement: Lessons To Be Learned from Quality Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses quality improvement (QI) and how it can help human performance improvement (HPI). Compares QI and HPI and discusses focusing on products and services; focusing on the customer; using data more effectively; continuous improvement; benchmarking; establishing standards; specialization; and involving the clients. (LRW)

Hummel, Paul A.

2003-01-01

169

Improved performance in NASTRAN (R)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three areas of improvement in COSMIC/NASTRAN, 1989 release, were incorporated recently that make the analysis program run faster on large problems. Actual log files and actual timings on a few test samples that were run on IBM, CDC, VAX, and CRAY computers were compiled. The speed improvement is proportional to the problem size and number of continuation cards. Vectorizing certain operations in BANDIT, makes BANDIT run twice as fast in some large problems using structural elements with many node points. BANDIT is a built-in NASTRAN processor that optimizes the structural matrix bandwidth. The VAX matrix packing routine BLDPK was modified so that it is now packing a column of a matrix 3 to 9 times faster. The denser and bigger the matrix, the greater is the speed improvement. This improvement makes a host of routines and modules that involve matrix operation run significantly faster, and saves disc space for dense matrices. A UNIX version, converted from 1988 COSMIC/NASTRAN, was tested successfully on a Silicon Graphics computer using the UNIX V Operating System, with Berkeley 4.3 Extensions. The Utility Modules INPUTT5 and OUTPUT5 were expanded to handle table data, as well as matrices. Both INPUTT5 and OUTPUT5 are general input/output modules that read and write FORTRAN files with or without format. More user informative messages are echoed from PARAMR, PARAMD, and SCALAR modules to ensure proper data values and data types being handled. Two new Utility Modules, GINOFILE and DATABASE, were written for the 1989 release. Seven rigid elements are added to COSMIC/NASTRAN. They are: CRROD, CRBAR, CRTRPLT, CRBE1, CRBE2, CRBE3, and CRSPLINE.

Chan, Gordon C.

1989-01-01

170

Effects of Cognitive Styles on 2D Drafting and Design Performance in Digital Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the interactions between design students' cognitive styles, as measured by Riding's Cognitive Styles Analysis, and performance in 2D drafting and design tasks in digital media. An empirical research revealed that Imager students outperformed Verbalisers in both drafting and creativity scores. Wholist-Analytic cognitive

Pektas, Sule Tasli

2010-01-01

171

Cognitive Performance and Neural Correlates of Detecting Driving Hazards in Healthy Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: In spite of the growing number of seniors who drive and their relatively frequent involvement in accidents, little is known about the cognitive substrates of road hazard recognition and their relationship with general cognitive performance in this population. We aimed to investigate, using a combination of functional MRI (fMRI) and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, the anatomical and cognitive components

Victor A. Hirth; Ben Davis; Julius Fridriksson; Chris Rorden; Leonardo Bonilha

2007-01-01

172

The Relationship between the Need for Cognition, Metacognition, and Intellectual Task Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between the need for cognition, defined as the tendency to engage in effortful cognitive activity, and metacognition which is one's thinking about thinking and how these variables relate to intellectual task performance. Participants completed measures of need for cognition, metacognition, and problem-solved…

Coutinho, Savia A.

2006-01-01

173

Cognitive Performance by Humans During a Smoked Cocaine Binge-Abstinence Cycle  

E-print Network

Cognitive Performance by Humans During a Smoked Cocaine Binge-Abstinence Cycle Edward F. Pace York, USA 3 Cognitive Drug Research, Ltd., Oxon, United Kingdom Abstract: Five cocaine in the afternoon. Data suggest that abstinence can unmask cognitive deficits induced by chronic cocaine use

Walker, Matthew P.

174

Cognitive Style and GCSE Performance in Mathematics, English Language and French  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary study was undertaken of cognitive style and performance in General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), the British public examination for pupils at 16 years. The positions of 182 pupils on two fundamental cognitive styles dimensions (Wholist?Analytic and Verbal?Imagery) were assessed by means of the Cognitive Styles Analysis (CSA). The pupils were from two comprehensive secondary schools and all

Richard Riding; Tracey Caine

1993-01-01

175

Cognitive performance in recreational users of MDMA or 'ecstasy': evidence for memory deficits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive task performance was assessed in three groups of young people: 10 regular users of 3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) who had taken 'ecstasy' 10 times or more; 10 novice MDMA users who had taken 'ecstasy' one to nine times; and 10 control subjects who had never taken MDMA. A computerized battery of cognitive tasks (Cognitive Drug Research system) was undertaken on

A. C. Parrott; A. Lees; N. J. Garnham; M. Jones; K. Wesnes

1998-01-01

176

From IC to I see: amusing interactive platform to improve kids' cognition process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kids' observation is a psychological behavior. It takes long to change their cognitive habit and get used to new ones. Our project aims to build an amusing interactive platform with electronic technology, which is easy for kids to control and can quickly improve their cognition process.

Tao Ma; Rong Yong; Yue Meng

2007-01-01

177

Improving cognitive abilities of elderly Alzheimer's patients with intense exercise therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on changes in the cognitive abilities of Alzheimer's patients residing in two separate long term care facilities as they were part of a group exercise therapy program. The research problem of this study was how to measure possible improvement in cognitive abilities in this population. The sample consisted of43 elderly (65-98 years old) Alzheimer's patients who resided

G. Frank Lindenmuth; Barbara Moose

1990-01-01

178

Social Cognitive Career Theory, Conscientiousness, and Work Performance: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We performed a meta-analytic path analysis of an abbreviated version of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) model of work performance (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The model we tested included the central cognitive predictors of performance (ability, self-efficacy, performance goals), with the exception of outcome expectations. Results…

Brown, Steven D.; Lent, Robert W.; Telander, Kyle; Tramayne, Selena

2011-01-01

179

Perceptual Learning Improves Adult Amblyopic Vision Through Rule-Based Cognitive Compensation  

PubMed Central

Purpose. We investigated whether perceptual learning in adults with amblyopia could be enabled to transfer completely to an orthogonal orientation, which would suggest that amblyopic perceptual learning results mainly from high-level cognitive compensation, rather than plasticity in the amblyopic early visual brain. Methods. Nineteen adults (mean age = 22.5 years) with anisometropic and/or strabismic amblyopia were trained following a training-plus-exposure (TPE) protocol. The amblyopic eyes practiced contrast, orientation, or Vernier discrimination at one orientation for six to eight sessions. Then the amblyopic or nonamblyopic eyes were exposed to an orthogonal orientation via practicing an irrelevant task. Training was first performed at a lower spatial frequency (SF), then at a higher SF near the cutoff frequency of the amblyopic eye. Results. Perceptual learning was initially orientation specific. However, after exposure to the orthogonal orientation, learning transferred to an orthogonal orientation completely. Reversing the exposure and training order failed to produce transfer. Initial lower SF training led to broad improvement of contrast sensitivity, and later higher SF training led to more specific improvement at high SFs. Training improved visual acuity by 1.5 to 1.6 lines (P < 0.001) in the amblyopic eyes with computerized tests and a clinical E acuity chart. It also improved stereoacuity by 53% (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The complete transfer of learning suggests that perceptual learning in amblyopia may reflect high-level learning of rules for performing a visual discrimination task. These rules are applicable to new orientations to enable learning transfer. Therefore, perceptual learning may improve amblyopic vision mainly through rule-based cognitive compensation. PMID:24550359

Zhang, Jun-Yun; Cong, Lin-Juan; Klein, Stanley A.; Levi, Dennis M.; Yu, Cong

2014-01-01

180

Predicting Improved Chiller Performance Through Thermodynamic Modeling  

E-print Network

This paper presents two case studies in which thermodynamic modeling was used to predict improved chiller performance. The model predicted the performance (COP and total energy consumption) of water-cooled centrifugal chillers as a function...

Figueroa, I. E.; Cathey, M.; Medina, M. A.; Nutter, D. W.

181

Evaluation of Title I ESEA Projects, 1971-1972. Volume III, Instructional Practices and Student Cognitive Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this volume, ESEA Title I projects related to instructional practices and student cognitive performance, carried out in Philadelphia during 1971-1972, are evaluated. The six projects in this cluster are: Class for Mentally Retarded/Emotionally Distrubed Children; English as a Second Language; Improvement of Reading Skills (Reading Skills…

Prusso, Kenneth W.; And Others

182

Gender differences in premorbid cognitive performance in a national cohort of schizophrenic patients.  

PubMed

Despite significant research, there are still inconsistent findings regarding gender differences in cognitive performance in individuals already diagnosed with schizophrenia; studies have found that males suffering from schizophrenia are more, less or equally impaired compared with females. Gender differences in cognitive performance in individuals suffering from schizophrenia may be influenced by gender differences in premorbid cognitive performance; the very few and very small N studies published indicated that males have a poorer pre-morbid cognitive performance than females. This study examined the gender differences in premorbid cognition, utilizing cognitive assessments performed on female and male adolescents before induction into military service. The Israeli Draft Board Registry, which contains cognitive assessments equivalent to IQ scores on 16-18 year old Israeli adolescents, was linked with the Israeli National Psychiatric Hospitalization Case Registry, which records all psychiatric hospitalizations in the country. Scores on premorbid cognitive performance in schizophrenia were examined in 90 female-male case pairs matched for school attended as a proxy for socio-economic status. The mean age of first hospitalization was 20. 1+/-1.8 years of age for males and 19.6+/-1.8 years of age for females. A repeated-measures ANCOVA with age of first hospitalization and years of formal education as covariates, and controlling for gender differences in cognitive performance in healthy adolescents, revealed a significant difference in pre-morbid cognitive performance between males and females on all four cognitive measures [F(1,87)=8.07, P=0.006] with females scoring lower (worse) than males. In this national cohort, pre-morbid cognition was poorer in female, compared with male, adolescents who will suffer from schizophrenia in the future, a result consistent with some, but not all, similar studies. These results may be valid only for patients with first hospitalization around age 20. Hence, gender differences in premorbid cognition should be taken into account when assessing gender differences in cognition in schizophrenia. PMID:11042436

Weiser, M; Reichenberg, A; Rabinowitz, J; Kaplan, Z; Mark, M; Nahon, D; Davidson, M

2000-10-27

183

Beyond the Purely Cognitive: Metacognition and Social Cognition as Driving Forces in Intellectual Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dimensions of the broad social-cognitive and metacognitive matrix within which pure cognitions reside are examined. Tangible cognitive actions are the cross products of beliefs held about a task, the social environment within which the task takes place, and the problem solvers' perceptions of self and their relation to the task and…

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

184

Correlates of Canadian Native Children's Reading Performance: From Cognitive Styles to Cognitive Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in reading and cognitive processing among a sample of generally poor readers were studied in order to answer two major questions: Do they have a specific cognitive style that favors global-simultaneous strategies and a weak sequential strategy? If they do not have a distinct cognitive style or strategy, but are merely poor…

Das, J. P.; Janzen, Troy; Georgiou, George K.

2007-01-01

185

Balance, Sensorimotor, and Cognitive Performance in Long-Year Expert Senior Ballroom Dancers  

PubMed Central

Physical fitness is considered a major factor contributing to the maintenance of independent living and everyday competence. In line with this notion, it has been shown that several years of amateur dancing experience can exert beneficial effects not only on balance and posture but also on tactile, motor, and cognitive functions in older people. This raises the question of whether an even more extensive schedule of dancing, including competitive tournaments, would further enhance these positive effects. We therefore assessed posture, balance, and reaction times, as well as motor, tactile, and cognitive performance in older expert ballroom dancers with several years of competitive experience. We found substantially better performance in the expert group than in the controls in terms of expertise-related domains like posture, balance, and reaction times. However, there was no generalization of positive effects to those domains that were found to be improved in amateur dancers, such as tactile and cognitive performance, suggesting that there might be an optimal range of intervention intensity to maintain health and independence throughout the human lifespan. PMID:21961064

Kattenstroth, Jan-Christoph; Kalisch, Tobias; Kolankowska, Izabela; Dinse, Hubert R.

2011-01-01

186

Open geometry improves demister performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation of a flue-gas-desulfurization system and control of flue-gas emission levels depends on good demister performance. The most-common demister problem is slurry accumulation on the surfaces, but the ideal element will address this and several design criteria. The proposed design consists of two demister banks in series with open-geometry chevrons to intercept large droplets where they will be easy

Kline

1980-01-01

187

PID tuning for improved performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a simple PID controller design method that achieves high performance for a wide range of linear self-regulating processes is proposed. Satisfactory responses can be expected for processes with various dynamics, including those with low- and high-order, small and large dead time, and monotonic and oscillatory responses. The method is developed based on a second-order plus dead time

Qing-Guo Wang; Tong-Heng Lee; Ho-Wang Fung; Qiang Bi; Yu Zhang

1999-01-01

188

Restoring Executive Confidence in Performance Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many organizations have significantly decreased their investment in performance improvement initiatives because they believe they are too risky. In fact, organizations should invest in performance improvements to build cash reserves and gain market share. Recent scientific breakthroughs have led to the development of methodologies and technologies…

Seidman, William; McCauley, Michael

2012-01-01

189

PTSD symptoms and cognitive performance in recent trauma survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with cognitive impairments involving memory and attention. The association between cognitive impairment and early PTSD symptoms is unknown, yet such association may lead to poorer processing of traumatic memories and thereby contribute to subsequent PTSD. This study evaluated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and cognitive functioning within 10 days of traumatic events.

Dalia Brandes; Gershon Ben-Schachar; Assaf Gilboa; Omer Bonne; Sara Freedman; Arieh Y Shalev

2002-01-01

190

THE IMPACT OF "HOT COGNITION" IN PROFESSIONAL PERFORMANCE  

E-print Network

. KEYWORDS Hot cognition, User Psychological Profile, Personality Traits, Emotional Intelligence, Soft Skills and soft skills5 . They do not stimulate 1 cognition colored by affect - emotional intelligence, personality traits and soft skills. 2 affective information which comes with a hot cognition process. 3

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

191

Heritability in Cognitive Performance: Evidence Using Computer-Based Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is overwhelming evidence of genetic influence on cognition. The effect is seen in general cognitive ability, as well as in specific cognitive domains. A conventional assessment approach using face-to-face paper and pencil testing is difficult for large-scale studies. Computerized neurocognitive testing is a suitable alternative. A total of…

Hervey, Aaron S.; Greenfield, Kathryn; Gualtieri, C. Thomas

2012-01-01

192

Listen to the Noise: Noise Is Beneficial for Cognitive Performance in ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Noise is typically conceived of as being detrimental to cognitive performance. However, given the mechanism of stochastic resonance, a certain amount of noise can benefit performance. We investigate cognitive performance in noisy environments in relation to a neurocomputational model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

Soderlund, Goran; Sikstrom, Sverker; Smart, Andrew

2007-01-01

193

Improving SSL Handshake Performance via Batching  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithmic approach for speeding up SSL's performance on a web server. Our approach improves the performance of SSL's handshake protocol by up to a factor of 2.5 for 1024-bit RSA keys. It is designed for heavily-loaded web servers handling many concurrent SSL sessions. We improve the server's performance by batching the SSL handshake protocol. That is, we

Hovav Shacham; Dan Boneh

2001-01-01

194

Measurement-to-measurement blood pressure variability is related to cognitive performance: the Maine Syracuse study.  

PubMed

The objective was to investigate the association between variability in blood pressure (BP) and cognitive function for sitting, standing, and reclining BP values and variability derived from all 15 measures. In previous studies, only sitting BP values have been examined, and only a few cognitive measures have been used. A secondary objective was to examine associations between BP variability and cognitive performance in hypertensive individuals stratified by treatment success. Cross-sectional analyses were performed on 972 participants of the Maine Syracuse Study for whom 15 serial BP clinic measures (5 sitting, 5 recumbent, and 5 standing) were obtained before testing of cognitive performance. Using all 15 measures, higher variability in systolic and diastolic BP was associated with poorer performance on multiple measures of cognitive performance, independent of demographic factors, cardiovascular risk factors, and pulse pressure. When sitting, reclining, and standing systolic BP values were compared, only variability in standing BP was related to measures of cognitive performance. However, for diastolic BP, variability in all 3 positions was related to cognitive performance. Mean BP values were weaker predictors of cognition. Furthermore, higher overall variability in both systolic and diastolic BP was associated with poorer cognitive performance in unsuccessfully treated hypertensive individuals (with BP ?140/90 mm Hg), but these associations were not evident in those with controlled hypertension. PMID:25156168

Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Dore, Gregory A; Torres, Rachael V; Robbins, Michael A

2014-11-01

195

Tolcapone improves cognition and cortical information processing in normal human subjects.  

PubMed

Prefrontal cortical dopamine (DA) regulates various executive cognitive functions, including attention and working memory. Efforts to enhance prefrontal-related cognition, which have focused on catecholaminergic stimulant drugs, have been unsatisfactory. Recently, the demonstration that a functional polymorphism in the catecholamine-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene impacts prefrontal cognition raises the possibility of a novel pharmacological approach for the treatment of prefrontal lobe executive dysfunction. To explore in a proof of concept study the effects of tolcapone, a CNS penetrant specific COMT inhibitor, we performed a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, and crossover design of this drug in normal subjects stratified by COMT (val158met) genotype. COMT enzyme activity was determined in peripheral blood. Forty-seven normal volunteers with no family history of psychiatric disorders underwent neuropsychological testing and 34 of those subjects underwent physiological measurement of prefrontal information processing assessed by blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found significant drug effects on measures of executive function and verbal episodic memory and a significant drug by genotype interaction on the latter, such that individuals with val/val genotypes improved, whereas individuals with met/met genotypes worsened on tolcapone. fMRI revealed a significant tolcapone-induced improvement in the efficiency of information processing in prefrontal cortex during a working memory test. This study demonstrates enhancement of prefrontal cortical function in normal human subjects with a nonstimulant drug having COMT inhibitory activity. Our results are consistent with data from animal studies and from computational models of the effects of selective enhancement of DA signaling in the prefrontal cortex. PMID:17063156

Apud, José A; Mattay, Venkata; Chen, Jingshan; Kolachana, Bhaskar S; Callicott, Joseph H; Rasetti, Roberta; Alce, Guilna; Iudicello, Jennifer E; Akbar, Natkai; Egan, Michael F; Goldberg, Terry E; Weinberger, Daniel R

2007-05-01

196

Amantadine improves cognitive outcome and increases neuronal survival after fluid percussion traumatic brain injury in rats.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effects of clinically relevant concentrations of amantadine (AMT) on cognitive outcome and hippocampal cell survival in adult rats after lateral fluid percussion traumatic brain injury (TBI). AMT is an antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptor, increases dopamine release, blocks dopamine reuptake, and has an inhibitory effect on microglial activation and neuroinflammation. Currently, AMT is clinically used as an antiparkinsonian drug. Amantadine or saline control was administered intraperitoneally, starting at 1?h after TBI followed by dosing three times daily for 16 consecutive days at 15, 45, and 135?mg/kg/day. Terminal blood draws were obtained from TBI rats at the time of euthanasia at varying time points after the last amantadine dose. Pharmacokinetics analysis confirmed that the doses of AMT achieved serum concentrations similar to those observed in humans receiving therapeutic doses (100-400?mg/day). Acquisition of spatial learning and memory retention was assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM) on days 12-16 after TBI. Brain tissues were collected and stained with Cresyl-violet for long-term cell survival analysis. Treatment with 135mg/kg/day of AMT improved acquisition of learning and terminal cognitive performance on MWM. The 135-mg/kg/day dosing of AMT increased the numbers of surviving CA2-CA3 pyramidal neurons at day 16 post-TBI. Overall, the data showed that clinically relevant dosing schedules of AMT affords neuroprotection and significantly improves cognitive outcome after experimental TBI, suggesting that it has the potential to be developed as a novel treatment of human TBI. PMID:23574258

Wang, Tao; Huang, Xian-Jian; Van, Ken C; Went, Gregory T; Nguyen, Jack T; Lyeth, Bruce G

2014-02-15

197

An Improved Model for Predicting HPL Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an improved model for predicting HPL (High performance Linpack) performance. In order to accurately\\u000a predict the maximal LINPACK performance we first divide the performance model into two parts: computational cost and message\\u000a passing overhead. In the message passing overhead, we adopt Xu and Hwang’s broadcast model instead of the point-to-point message\\u000a passing model. HPL performance

Chau-yi Chou; Hsi-ya Chang; Shuen-tai Wang; Kuo-chan Huang; Cherng-yeu Shen

2007-01-01

198

Relationship between anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance in Southeast Asian school-aged children.  

PubMed

Nutrition is an important factor in mental development and, as a consequence, in cognitive performance. Malnutrition is reflected in children's weight, height and BMI curves. The present cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the association between anthropometric indices and cognitive performance in 6746 school-aged children (aged 6-12 years) of four Southeast Asian countries: Indonesia; Malaysia; Thailand; Vietnam. Cognitive performance (non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ)) was measured using Raven's Progressive Matrices test or Test of Non-Verbal Intelligence, third edition (TONI-3). Height-for-age z-scores (HAZ), weight-for-age z-scores (WAZ) and BMI-for-age z-scores (BAZ) were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Data were weighted using age, sex and urban/rural weight factors to resemble the total primary school-aged population per country. Overall, 21% of the children in the four countries were underweight and 19% were stunted. Children with low WAZ were 3·5 times more likely to have a non-verbal IQ < 89 (OR 3·53 and 95% CI 3·52, 3·54). The chance of having a non-verbal IQ < 89 was also doubled with low BAZ and HAZ. In contrast, except for severe obesity, the relationship between high BAZ and IQ was less clear and differed per country. The odds of having non-verbal IQ levels < 89 also increased with severe obesity. In conclusion, undernourishment and non-verbal IQ are significantly associated in 6-12-year-old children. Effective strategies to improve nutrition in preschoolers and school-aged children can have a pronounced effect on cognition and, in the longer term, help in positively contributing to individual and national development. PMID:24016767

Sandjaja; Poh, Bee Koon; Rojroonwasinkul, Nipa; Le Nyugen, Bao Khanh; Budiman, Basuki; Ng, Lai Oon; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Xuyen, Hoang Thi; Deurenberg, Paul; Parikh, Panam

2013-09-01

199

Galanthamine Plus Estradiol Treatment Enhances Cognitive Performance in Aged Ovariectomized Rats  

PubMed Central

We hypothesize that beneficial effects of estradiol on cognitive performance diminish with age and time following menopause due to a progressive decline in basal forebrain cholinergic function. This study tested whether galanthamine, a cholinesterase inhibitor used to treat memory impairment associated with Alzheimer’s disease, could enhance or restore estradiol effects on cognitive performance in aged rats that had been ovariectomized in middle-age. Rats were ovariectomized at 16–17 months of age. At 21–22 months of age rats began receiving daily injections of galanthamine (5 mg/day) or vehicle. After one week, half of each group also received 17ß-estradiol administered subcutaneously. Rats were then trained on a delayed matching to position (DMP) T-maze task, followed by an operant stimulus discrimination/reversal learning task. Treatment with galanthamine + estradiol significantly enhanced the rate of DMP acquisition and improved short-term delay-dependent spatial memory performance. Treatment with galanthamine or estradiol alone were without significant effect. Effects were task-specific in that galanthamine + estradiol treatment did not significantly improve performance on the stimulus discrimination/reversal learning task. In fact, estradiol was associated with a significant increase in incorrect responses on this task after reversal of the stimulus contingency. In addition, treatments did not significantly affect hippocampal choline acetyltransferase activity or acetylcholine release. This may be an effect of age, or possibly is related to compensatory changes associated with long-term cholinesterase inhibitor treatment. The data suggest that treating with a cholinesterase inhibitor can enhance the effects of estradiol on acquisition of a DMP task by old rats following a long period of hormone deprivation. This could be of particular benefit to older women who have not used hormone therapy for many years and are beginning to show signs of mild cognitive impairment. Potential mechanisms for these effects are discussed. PMID:21889940

Gibbs, R.B.; Chipman, A.M.; Hammond, R.; Nelson, D.

2011-01-01

200

Effectiveness of a cognitive strategy intervention in improving arithmetic computation based on the PASS theory.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine if an instruction designed to facilitate planning, given by teachers to their class as a group, would have differential effects depending on the specific Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive (PASS) cognitive characteristics of each child. A cognitive strategy instruction that encouraged planning was provided to the group of 19 students with learning disabilities and mild mental impairments. All students completed math worksheets during 7 baseline and 14 intervention sessions. During the intervention phase, students engaged in self-reflection and verbalization of strategies about how the arithmetic computation worksheets should be completed. The sample was sorted into one experimental and four contrast groups after the experiment was completed. There were four groups with a cognitive weakness in each PASS scale from the Cognitive Assessment System and one group with no cognitive weakness. The results showed that children with a cognitive weakness in Planning improved considerably (large effect size of 1.4), in contrast to those with a cognitive weakness in Attention (small effect size of 0.3), Simultaneous weakness (a slight deterioration and effect size of -0.2), Successive weakness (medium effect size of 0.4), and no cognitive weakness (small effect size of .2). These data showed that children with a Planning weakness benefitted from the instruction designed to help them be more plaful. Those children who received the planning-based instruction who were not low inplanning did not show the same level of improvement. PMID:15495400

Naglieri, J A; Johnson, D

2000-01-01

201

Inspiratory muscle training improves rowing performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

VOLIANITIS, S., A. K. MCCONNELL, Y. KOUTEDAKIS, L. MCNAUGHTON, K. BACKX, and D. A. JONES. Inspiratory muscle training improves rowing performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 33, No. 5, 2001, pp. 803- 809. Purpose: To investigate the effects of a period of resistive inspiratory muscle training (IMT) upon rowing performance. Methods: Performance was appraised in 14 female competitive rowers at

STEFANOS VOLIANITIS; ALISON K. MCCONNELL; YIANNIS KOUTEDAKIS; LARS MCNAUGHTON; KARRIANNE BACKX; DAVID A. JONES

2001-01-01

202

Recombinant human growth hormone improves cognitive capacity in a pain patient exposed to chronic opioids.  

PubMed

During recent decades, the increasing use of opioids for chronic non-cancer pain has raised concerns regarding tolerance, addiction, and importantly cognitive dysfunction. Current research suggests that the somatotrophic axis could play an important role in cognitive function. Administration of growth hormone (GH) to GH-deficient humans and experimental animals has been shown to result in significant improvements in cognitive capacity. In this report, a patient with cognitive disabilities resulting from chronic treatment with opioids for neuropathic pain received recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) replacement therapy. A 61-year-old man presented with severe cognitive dysfunction after long-term methadone treatment for intercostal neuralgia and was diagnosed with GH insufficiency by GH releasing hormone-arginine testing. The effect of rhGH replacement therapy on his cognitive capacity and quality of life was investigated. The hippocampal volume was measured using magnetic resonance imaging, and the ratios of the major metabolites were calculated using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Cognitive testing revealed significant improvements in visuospatial cognitive function after rhGH. The hippocampal volume remained unchanged. In the right hippocampus, the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio (reflecting nerve cell function) was initially low but increased significantly during rhGH treatment, as did subjective cognitive, physical and emotional functioning. This case report indicates that rhGH replacement therapy could improve cognitive behaviour and well-being, as well as hippocampal metabolism and functioning in opioid-treated patients with chronic pain. The idea that GH could affect brain function and repair disabilities induced by long-term exposure to opioid analgesia is supported. PMID:24712862

Rhodin, A; von Ehren, M; Skottheim, B; Grönbladh, A; Ortiz-Nieto, F; Raininko, R; Gordh, T; Nyberg, F

2014-07-01

203

Recombinant human growth hormone improves cognitive capacity in a pain patient exposed to chronic opioids  

PubMed Central

During recent decades, the increasing use of opioids for chronic non-cancer pain has raised concerns regarding tolerance, addiction, and importantly cognitive dysfunction. Current research suggests that the somatotrophic axis could play an important role in cognitive function. Administration of growth hormone (GH) to GH-deficient humans and experimental animals has been shown to result in significant improvements in cognitive capacity. In this report, a patient with cognitive disabilities resulting from chronic treatment with opioids for neuropathic pain received recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) replacement therapy. A 61-year-old man presented with severe cognitive dysfunction after long-term methadone treatment for intercostal neuralgia and was diagnosed with GH insufficiency by GH releasing hormone-arginine testing. The effect of rhGH replacement therapy on his cognitive capacity and quality of life was investigated. The hippocampal volume was measured using magnetic resonance imaging, and the ratios of the major metabolites were calculated using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Cognitive testing revealed significant improvements in visuospatial cognitive function after rhGH. The hippocampal volume remained unchanged. In the right hippocampus, the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio (reflecting nerve cell function) was initially low but increased significantly during rhGH treatment, as did subjective cognitive, physical and emotional functioning. This case report indicates that rhGH replacement therapy could improve cognitive behaviour and well-being, as well as hippocampal metabolism and functioning in opioid-treated patients with chronic pain. The idea that GH could affect brain function and repair disabilities induced by long-term exposure to opioid analgesia is supported. PMID:24712862

Rhodin, A; von Ehren, M; Skottheim, B; Grönbladh, A; Ortiz-Nieto, F; Raininko, R; Gordh, T; Nyberg, F

2014-01-01

204

Seven practical principles for improving patient education: Evidence-based ideas from cognition science.  

PubMed

An important role of the paediatrician is that of a teacher - every clinician is an educator to patients and their families. This education, however, often occurs under difficult or time-pressured learning conditions. The authors present principles derived from three basic theories of human cognition that may help to guide clinicians' instruction of parents and patients. Cognitive load theory holds that an individual's capacity to process information is finite. By controlling information flow rate, decreasing reliance on working memory and removing extraneous cognitive load, learning is improved. Dual code theory suggests that humans have separate cognitive 'channels' for text/audio information versus visual information. By constructing educational messages that take advantage of both channels simultaneously, information uptake may be improved. Multimedia theory is based on the notion that there is an optimal blend of media to accomplish a given learning objective. The authors suggest seven practical strategies that clinicians may use to improve patient education. PMID:24665218

Pusic, Martin V; Ching, Kevin; Yin, Hsiang Shonna; Kessler, David

2014-03-01

205

Physical Predictors of Cognitive Performance in Healthy Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis  

PubMed Central

There is ample evidence that physical and cognitive performance are related, but the results of studies investigating this relationship show great variability. Both physical performance and cognitive performance are constructs consisting of several subdomains, but it is presently unknown if the relationship between physical and cognitive performance depends on subdomain of either construct and whether gender and age moderate this relationship. The aim of this study is to identify the strongest physical predictors of cognitive performance, to determine the specificity of these predictors for various cognitive subdomains, and to examine gender and age as potential moderators of the relationship between physical and cognitive performance in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. In total, 98 men and 122 women (average age 74.0±5.6 years) were subjected to a series of performance-based physical fitness and neuropsychological tests. Muscle strength, balance, functional reach, and walking ability (combined score of walking speed and endurance) were considered to predict cognitive performance across several domains (i.e. memory, verbal attention, visual attention, set-shifting, visuo-motor attention, inhibition and intelligence). Results showed that muscle strength was a significant predictor of cognitive performance for men and women. Walking ability and balance were significant predictors of cognitive performance for men, whereas only walking ability was significant for women. We did not find a moderating effect of age, nor did we find support for a differential effect of the physical predictors across different cognitive subdomains. In summary, our results showed a significant relationship between cognitive and physical performance, with a moderating effect of gender. PMID:23936251

Blankevoort, Christiaan G.; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Wieling, Martijn B.; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; Geuze, Reint H.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.

2013-01-01

206

An Instructional Strategy Planning Model to Improve Learning and Cognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents model of instructional strategy planning that links specific cognitive learning and thinking processes with specific computer-based instructional strategies. Topics discussed include memory systems; types of knowledge; drill and practice; tutorials; task-oriented simulations; problem-oriented simulations; and self directed experiences.…

Tennyson, Robert D.

1988-01-01

207

A Cognitive Training Program Based on Principles of Brain Plasticity: Results from the Improvement in Memory with Plasticity-based Adaptive Cognitive Training (IMPACT) Study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To investigate the efficacy of a novel brain plasticity–based computerized cognitive training program in older adults and to evaluate the effect on untrained measures of memory and attention and participant-reported outcomes. DESIGN Multisite randomized controlled double-blind trial with two treatment groups. SETTING Communities in northern and southern California and Minnesota. PARTICIPANTS Community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older (N = 487) without a diagnosis of clinically significant cognitive impairment. INTERVENTION Participants were randomized to receive a broadly-available brain plasticity–based computerized cognitive training program (intervention) or a novelty- and intensity-matched general cognitive stimulation program modeling treatment as usual (active control). Duration of training was 1 hour per day, 5 days per week, for 8 weeks, for a total of 40 hours. MEASUREMENTS The primary outcome was a composite score calculated from six subtests of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status that use the auditory modality (RBANS Auditory Memory/Attention). Secondary measures were derived from performance on the experimental program, standardized neuropsychological assessments of memory and attention, and participant-reported outcomes. RESULTS RBANS Auditory Memory/Attention improvement was significantly greater (P = .02) in the experimental group (3.9 points, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.7–5.1) than in the control group (1.8 points, 95% CI = 0.6–3.0). Multiple secondary measures of memory and attention showed significantly greater improvements in the experimental group (word list total score, word list delayed recall, digits backwards, letter–number sequencing; P < .05), as did the participant-reported outcome measure (P = .001). No advantage for the experimental group was seen in narrative memory. CONCLUSION The experimental program improved generalized measures of memory and attention more than an active control program. PMID:19220558

Smith, Glenn E.; Housen, Patricia; Yaffe, Kristine; Ruff, Ronald; Kennison, Robert F.; Mahncke, Henry W.; Zelinski, Elizabeth M.

2014-01-01

208

The neurobiology of modafinil as an enhancer of cognitive performance and a potential treatment for substance use disorders  

PubMed Central

Rationale and Objectives Modafinil (MOD) and its R-enantiomer (R-MOD) are approved medications for narcolepsy and other sleep disorders. They have also been used, off label, as cognitive enhancers in populations of patients with mental disorders, including substance abusers that demonstrate impaired cognitive function. A debated non-medical use of MOD in healthy individuals to improve intellectual performance is raising questions about its potential abuse liability in this population. Results and Conclusions MOD has low micromolar affinity for the dopamine transporter (DAT). Inhibition of dopamine (DA) reuptake via the DAT explains the enhancement of DA levels in several brain areas, an effect shared with psychostimulants like cocaine, methylphenidate and the amphetamines. However, its neurochemical effects and anatomical pattern of brain area activation differ from typical psychostimulants and are consistent with its beneficial effects on cognitive performance processes such as attention, learning, and memory. At variance with typical psychostimulants, MOD shows very low, if any, abuse liability, in spite of its use as a cognitive enhancer by otherwise healthy individuals. Finally, recent clinical studies have focused on the potential use of MOD as a medication for treatment of drug abuse, but have not shown consistent outcomes. However, positive trends in several result measures suggest that medications that improve cognitive function, like MOD or R-MOD, may be beneficial for treatment of substance use disorders in certain patient populations. PMID:23934211

Mereu, Maddalena; Bonci, Antonello; Newman, Amy Hauck; Tanda, Gianluigi

2013-01-01

209

Improving dementia care: The role of screening and detection of cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

The value of screening for cognitive impairment, including dementia and Alzheimer's disease, has been debated for decades. Recent research on causes of and treatments for cognitive impairment has converged to challenge previous thinking about screening for cognitive impairment. Consequently, changes have occurred in health care policies and priorities, including the establishment of the annual wellness visit, which requires detection of any cognitive impairment for Medicare enrollees. In response to these changes, the Alzheimer's Foundation of America and the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation convened a workgroup to review evidence for screening implementation and to evaluate the implications of routine dementia detection for health care redesign. The primary domains reviewed were consideration of the benefits, harms, and impact of cognitive screening on health care quality. In conference, the workgroup developed 10 recommendations for realizing the national policy goals of early detection as the first step in improving clinical care and ensuring proactive, patient-centered management of dementia. PMID:23375564

Borson, Soo; Frank, Lori; Bayley, Peter J.; Boustani, Malaz; Dean, Marge; Lin, Pei-Jung; McCarten, J. Riley; Morris, John C.; Salmon, David P.; Schmitt, Frederick A.; Stefanacci, Richard G.; Mendiondo, Marta S.; Peschin, Susan; Hall, Eric J.; Fillit, Howard; Ashford, J. Wesson

2014-01-01

210

Improving Processor Design by Exploiting Performance Variance  

E-print Network

variance and propose techniques to improve the processor design. We explore performance variance caused by microarchitectural structures and propose program interferometry, a technique that perturbs benchmark executables to yield a wide variety...

Wang, Zhe

2014-07-28

211

Performance Contracting for Public Sector Improvement Projects  

E-print Network

Johnson Controls Confidential9 Energy Performance Contracting In short, Performance Contracting is a procurement tool that allows you to leverage the savings you get from making building improvements in order to pay for the improvements. How does... Contracting Process Preliminary Engineering Audit Release RFQ Enter Into Contract & Execute ECM’s Select Qualified Provider Detailed Engineering Audit Measure & Verify 3rd Party Audit ESL-KT-13-12-41 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference...

Mallory, A. D.

2013-01-01

212

Dimensions of Manic Symptoms in Youth: Psychosocial Impairment and Cognitive Performance in the IMAGEN Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: It has been reported that mania may be associated with superior cognitive performance. In this study, we test the hypothesis that manic symptoms in youth separate along two correlated dimensions and that a symptom constellation of high energy and cheerfulness is associated with superior cognitive performance. Method: We studied 1755…

Stringaris, Argyris; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J.; Bokde, Arun L.; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Juergen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Itterman, Bernd; Lawrence, Claire; Nees, Frauke; Paillere-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N.; Schumann, Gunter; Goodman, Robert; Conrod, Patricia

2014-01-01

213

Schizotypy, cognitive performance, and genetic risk for schizophrenia in a non-clinical population  

E-print Network

for Neuroscience, University of Alberta, 116 St., 85 Avenue, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2R3 a r t i c l e i n f o on cognitive task performance, and aspects of personality including schizotypy, in nonclinical populations. We related to measures of schizo- typal personality and measures of two aspects of cognitive performance

Crespi, Bernard J.

214

A Comparative Study of Autistic Subjects' Performance at Two Levels of Visual and Cognitive Perspective Taking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study found that 13 autistic subjects performed less well on cognitive than on visual perspective-taking tasks at two levels of difficulty. Autistic subjects performed as well as 13 intellectually handicapped controls and 13 normal controls on visual perspective-taking tasks but more poorly than controls on cognitive perspective-taking tasks.…

Reed, Taffy; Peterson, Candida

1990-01-01

215

The kidney disease quality of life cognitive function subscale and cognitive performance maintenance hemodialysis patients  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Cognitive impairment is common but often undiagnosed in patients with end-stage renal disease, in part reflecting limited validated and easily administered tools to assess cognitive function in dialysis patients. Accordingly, we assessed the utility of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life ...

216

Chronic Treatment with Anesthetic Propofol Improves Cognitive Function and Attenuates Caspase Activation in Both Aged and Alzheimer's Disease Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

There is a need to seek new treatment(s) for Alzheimer's disease (AD). A recent study showed that AD patients may have decreased levels of functional GABA receptors. Propofol, a commonly used anesthetic, is a GABA receptor agonist. We therefore set out to perform a proof of concept study to determine whether chronic treatment with propofol (50 mg/kg/week) can improve cognitive function in both aged wild-type (WT) and AD transgenic (Tg) mice. Propofol was administrated to the WT and AD Tg mice once a week for 8 or 12 weeks, respectively. Morris water maze was used to assess the cognitive function of the mice following the propofol treatment. Activation of caspase-3, caspase-9, and caspase-8 was investigated using western blot analysis at the end of the propofol treatment. In the mechanistic studies, effects of propofol, amyloid-? protein (A?), and GABA receptor antagonist flumazenil on caspase-3 activation and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore were assessed in H4 human neuroglioma and mouse neuroblastoma cells by western blot analysis and flow cytometry. Here we showed that the propofol treatment improved cognitive function and attenuated brain caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation in both aged WT and AD Tg mice. Propofol attenuated A?-induced caspase-3 activation and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in the cells, and flumazenil inhibited the propofol's effects. These results suggested that propofol might improve cognitive function via attenuating the A?-induced mitochondria dysfunction and caspase activation, which explored the potential that anesthetic propofol could improve cognitive function in elderly and AD patients. PMID:24643139

Dong, Yuanlin; Yu, Buwei; Xia, Weiming; Xie, Zhongcong

2014-01-01

217

The impact of secondary task cognitive processing demand on driving performance.  

PubMed

Crash causation research has identified inattention as a major source of driver error leading to crashes. The series of experiments presented herein investigate the characteristics of an in-vehicle information system (IVIS) task that could hinder driving performance due to uncertainty buildup and cognitive capture. Three on-road studies were performed that used instrumented passenger and tractor-trailer vehicles to obtain real-world driving performance data. Participants included young, middle-aged, and older passenger vehicle drivers and middle-aged and older commercial vehicle operators. While driving, they were presented with IVIS tasks with various information densities, decision-making elements, presentation formats, and presentation modalities (visual or auditory). The experiments showed that, for both presentation modalities, the presence of multiple decision-making elements in a task had a substantial negative impact on driving performance of both automobile drivers and truck drivers when compared to conventional tasks or tasks with only one decision-making element. The results from these experiments can be used to improve IVIS designs, allowing for potential IVIS task phenomena such as uncertainty buildup and cognitive capture to be avoided. PMID:16584702

Blanco, Myra; Biever, Wayne J; Gallagher, John P; Dingus, Thomas A

2006-09-01

218

A Framework for Designing Scaffolds That Improve Motivation and Cognition  

PubMed Central

A problematic, yet common, assumption among educational researchers is that when teachers provide authentic, problem-based experiences, students will automatically be engaged. Evidence indicates that this is often not the case. In this article, we discuss (a) problems with ignoring motivation in the design of learning environments, (b) problem-based learning and scaffolding as one way to help, (c) how scaffolding has strayed from what was originally equal parts motivational and cognitive support, and (d) a conceptual framework for the design of scaffolds that can enhance motivation as well as cognitive outcomes. We propose guidelines for the design of computer-based scaffolds to promote motivation and engagement while students are solving authentic problems. Remaining questions and suggestions for future research are then discussed. PMID:24273351

Belland, Brian R.; Kim, ChanMin; Hannafin, Michael J.

2013-01-01

219

Assessment of cognitive performance using CNS vital signs after electroconvulsive treatment of schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Little is known how electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) affects cognitive functions in subjects with schizophrenia. Assessment of cognitive functions in subjects with schizophrenia treated with ECT was performed using CNS Vital Signs computerized battery of tests. Thirteen patients treated with ECT plus antipsychotics were assessed before and after 12 to 15 bilateral ECT sessions. We did not find any important changes between pre-ECT and post-ECT cognitive performance. We also found that CNS Vital Signs is a useful computerized battery test for assessing cognitive functions of subjects treated with ECT. PMID:24080543

Wysoki?ski, Adam; Dzienniak, Ma?gorzata; K?oszewska, Iwona

2014-03-01

220

The CF6 engine performance improvement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of the NASA-sponsored Engine Component Improvement (ECI) Program, a feasibility analysis of performance improvement and retention concepts for the CF6-6 and CF6-50 engines was conducted and seven concepts were identified for development and ground testing: new fan, new front mount, high pressure turbine aerodynamic performance improvement, high pressure turbine roundness, high pressure turbine active clearance control, low pressure turbine active clearance control, and short core exhaust nozzle. The development work and ground testing are summarized, and the major test results and an enomic analysis for each concept are presented.

Fasching, W. A.

1982-01-01

221

Reducing Dysfunctional Beliefs about Sleep Does Not Significantly Improve Insomnia in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy  

PubMed Central

The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals’ scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia. PMID:25025164

Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi

2014-01-01

222

Group Comparisons of Mathematics Performance from a Cognitive Diagnostic Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional comparisons of test score means identify group differences in broad academic areas, but fail to provide substantive description of how the groups differ on the specific cognitive attributes required for success in the academic area. The rule space method (RSM) allows for group comparisons at the cognitive attribute level, which…

Chen, Yi-Hsin; Ferron, John M.; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Gorin, Joanna S.; Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.

2010-01-01

223

Cognitive Correlates of Functional Performance in Older Adults: Comparison of Self-Report, Direct Observation, and Performance-Based Measures  

PubMed Central

Neuropsychologists are often asked to answer questions about the effects of cognitive deficits on everyday functioning. This study examined the relationship between and the cognitive correlates of self-report, performance-based, and direct observation measures commonly used as proxy measures for everyday functioning. Participants were 88 community-dwelling, cognitively healthy older adults (age 50–86 years). Participants completed standardized neuropsychological tests and questionnaires, and performed eight activities of daily living (e.g., water plants, fill a medication dispenser) while under direct observation in a campus apartment. All proxy measures of everyday function were sensitive to the effects of healthy cognitive aging. After controlling for age, cognitive predictors explained a unique amount of the variance for only the performance-based behavioral simulation measure (i.e., Revised Observed Tasks of Daily Living). The self-report instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and the performance-based everyday problem-solving test (i.e., EPT) did not correlate with each other; however, both were unique predictors of the direct observation measure. These findings suggest that neuropsychologists must be cautious in making predictions about the quality of everyday activity completion in cognitively healthy older adults from specific cognitive functions. The findings further suggest that a self-report of IADLs and the performance-based EPT may be useful measures for assessing everyday functional status in cognitively healthy older adults. PMID:21729400

Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Parsey, Carolyn; Cook, Diane J.

2013-01-01

224

Effectively Managing Nuclear Risk Through Human Performance Improvement  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. commercial nuclear industry has just completed an outstanding decade of plant performance. Safety levels and electric production are at unprecedented high levels and continue to exceed even high industry goals. Nuclear energy continues to keep the highest priority on performance improvement programs and highly trained and qualified people that maintain its record setting safety and reliability of operations. While the industry has maintained a high level of performance, the advent of deregulation and the consolidation of nuclear power plant ownership, as well as the current climate for concern about both rising energy costs and the availability of power, have raised the standard for nuclear energy's level of competitiveness in today's market place. The resulting challenge is how to more effectively manage risk and to improve performance even further in a generally high-performing industry. One of the most effective ways to develop this culture is to apply the principles of Hum an Performance Technology, or HPT. HPT is a relatively new field. Its principles are derived from the research and practice of behavioral and cognitive psychologists, instructional technologists, training designers, organizational developers, and various human resource specialists. Using the principles of HPT can help the nuclear industry successfully meet ever-changing environmental and business demands.

Coe, Richard [Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, Somers Point, NJ (US); Lake, Patricia [Louisiana Pacific Corporation, Portland, OR (US)

2003-09-01

225

Performance, Productivity and Continuous Improvement. Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers from a symposium on performance, productivity, and continuous improvement. "Investigating the Association between Productivity and Quality Performance in Two Manufacturing Settings" (Constantine Kontoghiorghes, Robert Gudgel) summarizes a study that identified the following quality management variables as the…

2002

226

Describing a Performance Improvement Specialist: The Heurist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the work of performance improvement specialists and presents a method for determining whether a particular person or position meets the job criteria. Discusses the attributes of being a heurist, or taking a holistic approach to problem solving. Lists 10 steps for a needs assessment and 30 characteristics of successful performance

Westgaard, Odin

1997-01-01

227

Cognitive Performances Are Selectively Enhanced during Chronic Caloric Restriction or Resveratrol Supplementation in a Primate  

PubMed Central

Effects of an 18-month treatment with a moderate, chronic caloric restriction (CR) or an oral supplementation with resveratrol (RSV), a potential CR mimetic, on cognitive and motor performances were studied in non-human primates, grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus). Thirty-three adult male mouse lemurs were assigned to three different groups: a control (CTL) group fed ad libitum, a CR group fed 70% of the CTL caloric intake, and an RSV group (RSV supplementation of 200 mg.kg?1.day?1) fed ad libitum. Three different cognitive tests, two motor tests, one emotional test and an analysis of cortisol level were performed in each group. Compared to CTL animals, CR or RSV animals did not show any change in motor performances evaluated by rotarod and jump tests, but an increase in spontaneous locomotor activity was observed in both groups. Working memory was improved by both treatments in the spontaneous alternation task. Despite a trend for CR group, only RSV supplementation increased spatial memory performances in the circular platform task. Finally, none of these treatments induced additional stress to the animals as reflected by similar results in the open field test and cortisol analyses compared to CTL animals. The present data provided the earliest evidence for a beneficial effect of CR or RSV supplementation on specific cognitive functions in a primate. Taken together, these results suggest that RSV could be a good candidate to mimic long-term CR effects and support the growing evidences that nutritional interventions can have beneficial effects on brain functions even in adults. PMID:21304942

Marchal, Julia; Picq, Jean-Luc; Aujard, Fabienne

2011-01-01

228

Improved Serum Leptin and Ghrelin Following Bariatric Surgery Predict Better Postoperative Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Bariatric surgery is associated with improved cognitive function, but the mechanisms underlying these gains remain poorly understood. Disturbed leptin and ghrelin systems are common in obese individuals and are associated with impaired cognitive function in other samples. Bariatric surgery has been shown to improve serum leptin and ghrelin levels, and these changes may underlie postoperative cognitive improvements. Methods Eighty-four patients completed a computerized cognitive test battery prior to bariatric surgery and at 12 months postoperatively. Participants also submitted to an 8-hour fasting blood draw to quantify serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations at these same time points. Results Baseline cognitive impairments and disturbed leptin and ghrelin levels improved at the 12-month follow-up compared to presurgery. Higher leptin levels were associated with worse attention/executive function at baseline; no such findings emerged for ghrelin. Regression analyses controlling for baseline factors and demographic characteristics showed that both decreased leptin and increased ghrelin following surgery was associated with better attention/executive function at the 12-month follow-up. These effects diminished after controlling for the postoperative change in body mass index (BMI); however, BMI change did not predict 12-month cognitive function. Conclusions Improvements in leptin and ghrelin levels following bariatric surgery appear to contribute to postoperative cognitive benefits. These gains may involve multiple mechanisms, such as reduced inflammation and improved glycemic control. Future studies that employ neuroimaging are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms and determine whether the effects of bariatric surgery on leptin and ghrelin levels can attenuate adverse brain changes and/or risk of dementia in severely obese individuals.

Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, James E.

2015-01-01

229

The Role of Social Cognitive Career Theory in The Role of Social Cognitive Career Theory in Information Technology based Academic Information Technology based Academic Performance Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive academic efficacy beliefs elevate educational expectations that lead to academic success (Bandura, 1997; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of the variables: past performance, computer self-efficacy, outcome expectations, academic grade goal, and academic performance within social cognitive career theory's model of performance (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The study focused

Sheila M. Smith

230

Classification of Cognitive Load from Task Performance & Multichannel Physiology during Affective Changes  

E-print Network

Classification of Cognitive Load from Task Performance & Multichannel Physiology during Affective and physiological changes are some of the indicators of CL. However, affective factors which occur naturally machine learning techniques for detecting CL levels from task performance and physiological channels

Calvo, Rafael A.

231

An Improved Motivation Model for People Behaviors Change in Virtual Communities Based on Social Cognitive Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

In virtual communities, people are easier to transform their potential behavioral tendencies into actual behavior. To explain this phenomeno, we analyze the self-efficacy of agents using social cognitive theory (SCT). Based on the analysis, we propose structural capital as a new construment and offer an improved motivation model for people behaviors change in virtual communities. The improved model can suit

Siwei Dong; Xiaoping Yang

2009-01-01

232

The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities III's Cognitive Performance Model: Empirical Support for Intermediate Factors within CHC Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability Third Edition is developed using the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) measurement-theory test design as the instrument's theoretical blueprint. The instrument provides users with cognitive scores based on the Cognitive Performance Model (CPM); however, the CPM is not a part of CHC theory. Within the…

Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.

2014-01-01

233

Performance improvement in telemedicine: the essential elements.  

PubMed

Performance improvement activities in telemedicine may be placed into five categories. (1) Licensing and credentialing. Telemedicine overcomes geographical boundaries, but its reach is constrained by state laws on licensing. Some states require a state license, whereas others grant "consultation exemptions" for out-of-state physicians. Simple renewable licenses do not guarantee quality. Potential solutions include a national telemedicine license or license reciprocity laws for telemedicine. (2) Data security and privacy. Telemedicine technology raises some security concerns. Differences in reporting requirements among states complicate the issue of privacy. Storage of telemedicine consultation records may help physicians document care decisions for risk management, but conventional long-term storage may not be feasible because of cost constraints and may not be required to document the encounter appropriately. (3) Informed consent. Potential failures in security and transmission are new, and should be communicated to the patient. (4) Peer review. Peer review findings encourage thorough, accurate, and legible documentation. Results should be recorded by provider and must be available during the recredentialing process. (5) Tailored performance improvement initiatives. By using established principles and techniques, performance improvement initiatives can gather, analyze, and communicate information about the cost-effectiveness of telemedicine. These performance improvement efforts are the heart of quality management and are critical to the justification of telemedicine. Walter Reed Telemedicine has put into effect a performance improvement plan in accordance with this outline. This article describes the plan and suggests it as a model for other telemedicine programs. PMID:9715616

Eliasson, A H; Poropatich, R K

1998-08-01

234

Cognitive performance-altering effects of electronic medical records: An application of the human factors paradigm for patient safety  

PubMed Central

According to the human factors paradigm for patient safety, health care work systems and innovations such as electronic medical records do not have direct effects on patient safety. Instead, their effects are contingent on how the clinical work system, whether computerized or not, shapes health care providers' performance of cognitive work processes. An application of the human factors paradigm to interview data from two hospitals in the Midwest United States yielded numerous examples of the performance-altering effects of electronic medical records, electronic clinical documentation, and computerized provider order entry. Findings describe both improvements and decrements in the ease and quality of cognitive performance, both for interviewed clinicians and for their colleagues and patients. Changes in cognitive performance appear to have desirable and undesirable implications for patient safety as well as for quality of care and other important outcomes. Cognitive performance can also be traced to interactions between work system elements, including new technology, allowing for the discovery of problems with “fit” to be addressed through design interventions. PMID:21479125

Holden, Richard J.

2010-01-01

235

Six months of dance intervention enhances postural, sensorimotor, and cognitive performance in elderly without affecting cardio-respiratory functions.  

PubMed

During aging, sensorimotor, cognitive and physical performance decline, but can improve by training and exercise indicating that age-related changes are treatable. Dancing is increasingly used as an intervention because it combines many diverse features making it a promising neuroplasticity-inducing tool. We here investigated the effects of a 6-month dance class (1 h/week) on a group of healthy elderly individuals compared to a matched control group (CG). We performed a broad assessment covering cognition, intelligence, attention, reaction time, motor, tactile, and postural performance, as well as subjective well-being and cardio-respiratory performance. After 6 months, in the CG no changes, or further degradation of performance was found. In the dance group, beneficial effects were found for dance-related parameters such as posture and reaction times, but also for cognitive, tactile, motor performance, and subjective well-being. These effects developed without alterations in the cardio-respiratory performance. Correlation of baseline performance with the improvement following intervention revealed that those individuals, who benefitted most from the intervention, were those who showed the lowest performance prior to the intervention. Our findings corroborate previous observations that dancing evokes widespread positive effects. The pre-post design used in the present study implies that the efficacy of dance is most likely not based on a selection bias of particularly gifted individuals. The lack of changes of cardio-respiratory fitness indicates that even moderate levels of physical activity can in combination with rich sensorimotor, cognitive, social, and emotional challenges act to ameliorate a wide spectrum of age-related decline. PMID:23447455

Kattenstroth, Jan-Christoph; Kalisch, Tobias; Holt, Stephan; Tegenthoff, Martin; Dinse, Hubert R

2013-01-01

236

Reaction time performance in ADHD: improvement under fast-incentive condition and familial effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Reaction time (RT) variability is one of the strongest findings to emerge in cognitive- experimental research of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We set out to confirm the association between ADHD and slow and variable RTs and investigate the degree to which RT performance improves under fast event rate and incentives. Using a group familial correlation approach, we tested

PENNY ANDREOU; BEN M. NEALE; WAI CHEN; HANNA CHRISTIANSEN; ISABEL GABRIELS; ALEXANDER HEISE; SHEERA MEIDAD; UELI C. MULLER; HENRIK UEBEL; TOBIAS BANASCHEWSKI; IRIS MANOR; ROBERT OADES; HERBERT ROEYERS; ARIBERT ROTHENBERGER; PAK SHAM; HANS-CHRISTOPH STEINHAUSEN; PHILIP ASHERSON; JONNA KUNTSI

2007-01-01

237

A Framework for Cognitive Interventions Targeting Everyday Memory Performance and Memory Self-efficacy  

PubMed Central

The human brain has the potential for self-renewal through adult neurogenesis, which is the birth of new neurons. Neural plasticity implies that the nervous system can change and grow. This understanding has created new possibilities for cognitive enhancement and rehabilitation. However, as individuals age, they have decreased confidence, or memory self-efficacy, which is directly related to their everyday memory performance. In this article, a developmental account of studies about memory self-efficacy and nonpharmacologic cognitive intervention models is presented and a cognitive intervention model, called the cognitive behavioral model of everyday memory, is proposed. PMID:19065089

McDougall, Graham J.

2009-01-01

238

Performance of Incomplete Channel Sensing for Frequency Hopping Cognitive Personal Area Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose the use of cognitive radio technology in a wireless personal area network environment. We investigate the performance of cooperative sensing of the activity of primary users by a number of secondary users equipped with single-channel cognitive radios, and show that even a small number of sensing nodes provides reasonably accurate sensing, subject to certain limitations.

Vojislav B. Misic; Jelena V. Misic

2008-01-01

239

Performance evaluation of distributed compressed wideband sensing for cognitive radio networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In emerging cognitive radio (CR) networks, the first cognitive task preceding any dynamic spectrum management is the sensing and identification of spectrum holes in wireless environments. This paper develops a distributed compressed spectrum sensing approach for (ultra-)wideband CR networks. First, compressive sampling is performed at local CRs to scan the very wide spectrum at practical signal-acquisition complexity. Then, measurements or

Zhiz Tian; Erik Blasch; Wenhua Li; Genshe Chen; Xiaokun Li

2008-01-01

240

Digital Game-Based Learning Supports Student Motivation, Cognitive Success, and Performance Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional multimedia learning is primarily based on the cognitive load concept of information processing theory. Recent digital game-based learning (DGBL) studies have focused on exploring content support for learning motivation and related game characteristics. Motivation, volition, and performance (MVP) theory indicates that cognitive load and…

Woo, Jeng-Chung

2014-01-01

241

Do Cognitive Distortions Mediate the Test Anxiety-Examination Performance Relationship?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to follow up exploratory research suggesting that the inverse relationship between test anxiety and examination performance was mediated by cognitive distortions such as catastrophising. Self-report data for measures of test anxiety and cognitive distortions were collected from students in their final year of compulsory…

Putwain, David William; Connors, Liz; Symes, Wendy

2010-01-01

242

Cognitive performance of detoxified alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome patients remains stable over two years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive alcohol consumption is assumed to promote cognitive decline, eventually increasing the risk of dementia. However, little is known about the time course of cognitive functions in patients with chronic alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome (KS). Therefore, we assessed neuropsychological performance in 20 detoxified chronic KS inpatients at time 1 (T1) with a follow-up after two years (T2). The neuropsychological tests assessed

Esther Fujiwara; Matthias Brand; Sabine Borsutzky; Hans-P. Steingass; Hans J. Markowitsch

2008-01-01

243

Performance on Middle School Geometry Problems with Geometry Clues Matched to Three Different Cognitive Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between 3 ability-based cognitive styles (verbal deductive, spatial imagery, and object imagery) and performance on geometry problems that provided different types of clues. The purpose was to determine whether students with a specific cognitive style outperformed other students, when the geometry problems…

Anderson, Karen L.; Casey, M. Beth; Thompson, William L.; Burrage, Marie S.; Pezaris, Elizabeth; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

2008-01-01

244

Clock Drawing Performance and Brain Morphology in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a widely used instrument in the neuropsychological assessment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As CDT performance necessitates several cognitive functions (e.g., visuospatial and constructional abilities, executive functioning), an interaction of multiple brain regions is likely. Fifty-one subjects with mild cognitive

Thomann, Philipp A.; Toro, Pablo; Santos, Vasco Dos; Essig, Marco; Schroder, Johannes

2008-01-01

245

Maternal milk DHA content predicts cognitive performance in a sample of 28 nations  

E-print Network

suggests that omega-3 fatty acids are a limiting resource for neural and cognitive development in Homo sapiens, and therefore that children from populations with higher omega-3 availability should display of cognitive performance, and country-specific breast milk levels of omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA

Cosmides, Leda

246

Frequency of and risk factors for poor cognitive performance in hemodialysis patients  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are few detailed data on cognition in patients undergoing dialysis. We evaluated the frequency of and risk factors for poor cognitive performance using detailed neurocognitive testing. In this cross-sectional cohort study, 314 hemodialysis patients from 6 Boston-area hemodialysis units underwe...

247

Relationship between Poor Sleep and Daytime Cognitive Performance in Young Adults with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poor sleep is a common feature in autism even though patients themselves do not necessarily complain. The impact of poor sleep on daytime cognitive functioning in autism is not well-known and we therefore investigated whether sleep in autism correlates with daytime cognitive performance. A battery of non-verbal tasks was administered, in the…

Limoges, Elyse; Bolduc, Christianne; Berthiaume, Claude; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

2013-01-01

248

Cognitive Performance in Rett Syndrome Girls: A Pilot Study Using Eyetracking Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Rett syndrome (RS) is a pervasive developmental disorder with cognitive and neuromotor impairments (including loss of handiness and loss of communicative skills). Objective: To verify whether girls with RS use their gaze intentionally, by observing their performance in three cognitive tasks: (1) verbal instruction condition (look at…

Baptista, P. M.; Mercadante, M. T.; Macedo, E. C.; Schwartzman, J. S.

2006-01-01

249

Improved Neurobehavioral Performance during the Wake Maintenance Zone  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Although impairment of daytime functioning is a symptom of many sleep disorders, there are limited data on their nature for some patient groups. The role of the circadian system on impaired functioning, specifically the wake maintenance zone (WMZ)—a ?3-h window of reduced sleep propensity that occurs shortly before the onset of melatonin synthesis—has received little attention. The study examined the influence of the WMZ on neurobehavioral performance under normal conditions and following sleep deprivation. Methods: Thirty-one adults (8 F; 18-29 y) completed an in-patient protocol including a baseline day (8-h sleep:16-h wake) and a ?50-h constant routine (CR), including regular assessment of plasma melatonin and neurobehavioral performance (i.e., auditory and visual psychomotor vigilance tests [aPVT, vPVT], Digit Symbol Substitution Test [DSST], and subjective sleepiness). Results: Performance in the 3 hours before the onset of melatonin secretion (i.e., the expected WMZ) was significantly improved compared to performance during a 3-hour block earlier in the biological day, despite a longer time awake. The improvement during WMZ was most prominent after extended wakefulness (i.e., day 2 of the CR). Conclusions: These results suggest that alignment of circa-dian phase with respect to sleep-wake timing may affect cognitive performance, particularly when homeostatic sleep pressure is high, and especially when performance is assessed in the evening, near the predicted WMZ. The potential contribution of the WMZ to sleep-onset insomnia complaints should be assessed further, using objective neurobehavioral testing and simultaneous circadian phase measurement. Citation: Shekleton JA; Rajaratnam SMW; Gooley JJ; Van Reen E; Czeisler CA; Lockley SW. Improved neurobehavioral performance during the wake maintenance zone. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(4):353-362. PMID:23585751

Shekleton, Julia A.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.; Gooley, Joshua J.; Van Reen, Eliza; Czeisler, Charles A.; Lockley, Steven W.

2013-01-01

250

Retrospective lifetime dietary patterns predict cognitive performance in community-dwelling older Australians.  

PubMed

Dietary intake is a modifiable exposure that may have an impact on cognitive outcomes in older age. The long-term aetiology of cognitive decline and dementia, however, suggests that the relevance of dietary intake extends across the lifetime. In the present study, we tested whether retrospective dietary patterns from the life periods of childhood, early adulthood, adulthood and middle age predicted cognitive performance in a cognitively healthy sample of 352 older Australian adults >65 years. Participants completed the Lifetime Diet Questionnaire and a battery of cognitive tests designed to comprehensively assess multiple cognitive domains. In separate regression models, lifetime dietary patterns were the predictors of cognitive factor scores representing ten constructs derived by confirmatory factor analysis of the cognitive test battery. All regression models were progressively adjusted for the potential confounders of current diet, age, sex, years of education, English as native language, smoking history, income level, apoE ?4 status, physical activity, other past dietary patterns and health-related variables. In the adjusted models, lifetime dietary patterns predicted cognitive performance in this sample of older adults. In models additionally adjusted for intake from the other life periods and mechanistic health-related variables, dietary patterns from the childhood period alone reached significance. Higher consumption of the 'coffee and high-sugar, high-fat extras' pattern predicted poorer performance on simple/choice reaction time, working memory, retrieval fluency, short-term memory and reasoning. The 'vegetable and non-processed' pattern negatively predicted simple/choice reaction time, and the 'traditional Australian' pattern positively predicted perceptual speed and retrieval fluency. Identifying early-life dietary antecedents of older-age cognitive performance contributes to formulating strategies for delaying or preventing cognitive decline. PMID:24709049

Hosking, Diane E; Nettelbeck, Ted; Wilson, Carlene; Danthiir, Vanessa

2014-07-01

251

Dynamic modulation of an orientation preference map by GABA responsible for age-related cognitive performance.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence suggests that cognitive declines in old (healthy) animals could arise from depression of intracortical inhibition, for which a decreased ability to produce GABA during senescence might be responsible. By simulating a neural network model of a primary visual cortical (V1) area, we investigated whether and how a lack of GABA affects cognitive performance of the network: detection of the orientation of a visual bar-stimulus. The network was composed of pyramidal (P) cells and GABAergic interneurons such as small (S) and large (L) basket cells. Intrasynaptic GABA-release from presynaptic S or L cells contributed to reducing ongoing-spontaneous (background) neuronal activity in a different manner. Namely, the former exerted feedback (S-to-P) inhibition and reduced the frequency (firing rate) of action potentials evoked in P cells. The latter reduced the number of saliently firing P cells through lateral (L-to-P) inhibition. Non-vesicular GABA-release, presumably from glia and/or neurons, into the extracellular space reduced the both, activating extrasynaptic GABAa receptors and providing P cells with tonic inhibitory currents. By this combinatorial, spatiotemporal inhibitory mechanism, the background activity as noise was significantly reduced, compared to the stimulus-evoked activity as signal, thereby improving signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Interestingly, GABA-spillover from the intrasynaptic cleft into the extracellular space was effective for improving orientation selectivity (orientation bias), especially when distractors interfered with detecting the bar-stimulus. These simulation results may provide some insight into how the depression of intracortical inhibition due to a reduction in GABA content in the brain leads to age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22990592

Miyamoto, Ai; Hasegawa, Jun; Hoshino, Osamu

2012-11-01

252

Subjective Memory Complaint Only Relates to Verbal Episodic Memory Performance in Mild Cognitive Impairment.  

PubMed

Background: A cognitive concern from the patient, informant, or clinician is required for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI); however, the cognitive and neuroanatomical correlates of complaint are poorly understood. Objective: We assessed how self-complaint relates to cognitive and neuroimaging measures in older adults with MCI. Method: MCI participants were drawn from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and dichotomized into two groups based on the presence of self-reported memory complaint (no complaint n = 191, 77 ± 7 years; complaint n = 206, 73 ± 8 years). Cognitive outcomes included episodic memory, executive functioning, information processing speed, and language. Imaging outcomes included regional lobar volumes (frontal, parietal, temporal, cingulate) and specific medial temporal lobe structures (hippocampal volume, entorhinal cortex thickness, parahippocampal gyrus thickness). Results: Linear regressions, adjusting for age, gender, race, education, Mini-Mental State Examination score, mood, and apolipoprotein E4 status, found that cognitive complaint related to immediate (? = -1.07, p < 0.001) and delayed episodic memory performances assessed on a serial list learning task (? = -1.06, p = 0.001) but no other cognitive measures or neuroimaging markers. Conclusions: Self-reported memory concern was unrelated to structural neuroimaging markers of atrophy and measures of information processing speed, executive functioning, or language. In contrast, memory self-complaint related to objective verbal episodic learning performance. Future research is warranted to better understand the relation between cognitive complaint and surrogate markers of abnormal brain aging, including Alzheimer's disease, across the cognitive aging spectrum. PMID:25281602

Gifford, Katherine A; Liu, Dandan; Damon, Stephen M; Chapman, William G; Romano, Raymond R; Samuels, Lauren R; Lu, Zengqi; Jefferson, Angela L

2014-10-01

253

Cultural Factors Affecting the Differential Performance of Israeli and Palestinian Children on the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive performance is essential for children's functioning and may also predict school readiness. The suitability of Western standardized assessments for cognitive performance among children from different cultures needs to be elaborated. This study referred to the existence of differences in cognitive performance between and within children…

Josman, Naomi; Abdallah, Taisir M.; Engel-Yeger, Batya

2010-01-01

254

Metabolic Agents that Enhance ATP can Improve Cognitive Functioning: A Review of the Evidence for Glucose, Oxygen, Pyruvate, Creatine, and L-Carnitine  

PubMed Central

Over the past four or five decades, there has been increasing interest in the neurochemical regulation of cognition. This field received considerable attention in the 1980s, with the identification of possible cognition enhancing agents or “smart drugs”. Even though many of the optimistic claims for some agents have proven premature, evidence suggests that several metabolic agents may prove to be effective in improving and preserving cognitive performance and may lead to better cognitive aging through the lifespan. Aging is characterized by a progressive deterioration in physiological functions and metabolic processes. There are a number of agents with the potential to improve metabolic activity. Research is now beginning to identify these various agents and delineate their potential usefulness for improving cognition in health and disease. This review provides a brief overview of the metabolic agents glucose, oxygen, pyruvate, creatine, and L-carnitine and their beneficial effects on cognitive function. These agents are directly responsible for generating ATP (adenosine triphosphate) the main cellular currency of energy. The brain is the most metabolically active organ in the body and as such is particularly vulnerable to disruption of energy resources. Therefore interventions that sustain adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels may have importance for improving neuronal dysfunction and loss. Moreover, recently, it has been observed that environmental conditions and diet can affect transgenerational gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms. Metabolic agents might play a role in regulation of nutritional epigenetic effects. In summary, the reviewed metabolic agents represent a promising strategy for improving cognitive function and possibly slowing or preventing cognitive decline. PMID:22254121

Owen, Lauren; Sunram-Lea, Sandra I.

2011-01-01

255

Effector memory CD4+ T cells are associated with cognitive performance in a senior population  

PubMed Central

Objective: Immunosenescence and cognitive decline are common markers of the aging process. Taking into consideration the heterogeneity observed in aging processes and the recently described link between lymphocytes and cognition, we herein explored the possibility of an association between alterations in lymphocytic populations and cognitive performance. Methods: In a cohort of cognitively healthy adults (n = 114), previously characterized by diverse neurocognitive/psychological performance patterns, detailed peripheral blood immunophenotyping of both the innate and adaptive immune systems was performed by flow cytometry. Results: Better cognitive performance was associated with lower numbers of effector memory CD4+ T cells and higher numbers of naive CD8+ T cells and B cells. Furthermore, effector memory CD4+ T cells were found to be predictors of general and executive function and memory, even when factors known to influence cognitive performance in older individuals (e.g., age, sex, education, and mood) were taken into account. Conclusions: This is the first study in humans associating specific phenotypes of the immune system with distinct cognitive performance in healthy aging.

Serre-Miranda, Cláudia; Roque, Susana; Santos, Nadine Correia; Portugal-Nunes, Carlos; Costa, Patrício; Palha, Joana Almeida; Sousa, Nuno

2014-01-01

256

Relation of cardiac ventricular repolarization and global cognitive performance in a community population.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis is a risk factor for dementia. However, little is known about the association between cognitive performance and a widely used indicator of coronary heart disease, at rest electrocardiography. We identified 839 older residents (mean age 81 years, 58% black) from a geographically defined biracial community in Chicago, Illinois, who had undergone extensive cognitive performance testing and met the electrocardiographic eligibility criteria, including a QRS duration of < 120 ms. We then examined multivariate regression coefficients that described the associations between global cognitive performance and 4 novel descriptors of ventricular repolarization waveforms. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, education, and race. The T wave nondipolar voltage had a significant association with global cognitive performance (p = 0.01), and this association largely remained after adjustment for cardiovascular disease risk factors (p = 0.03). In contrast, global cognitive performance was not significantly associated with the rate-adjusted QT interval, the voltage change from the beginning to end of the ST segment in lead V(5), or the spatial angle between the mean QRS and T wave vectors. In conclusion, the strengths of the associations varied between the novel electrocardiographic descriptors of ventricular repolarization and global cognitive performance. Nevertheless, the significant association observed with T wave nondipolar voltage suggests that the cardiac effects of heart disease are associated with cognitive declines. PMID:20920659

Lucas, Brian P; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F; Prineas, Ronald J; Bienias, Julia L; Evans, Denis A

2010-10-15

257

Relation of Cardiac Ventricular Repolarization and Global Cognitive Performance in a Community Population  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis is a risk factor for dementia. Yet little is known about the association between cognitive performance and a widely used indicator of coronary heart disease, the resting electrocardiogram (ECG). We identified 839 older residents (mean age 81; 58% black) from a geographically defined biracial community in Chicago, Illinois, who underwent extensive cognitive performance testing and met ECG eligibility criteria, including a QRS duration less than 120 msec. We then examined multivariable regression coefficients that describe associations between global cognitive performance and 4 novel descriptors of ventricular repolarization waveforms. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, education, and race. T wave non-dipolar voltage had a significant association with global cognitive performance (p = 0.01), and this association largely remained after adjustment for cardiovascular disease risk factors (p = 0.03). In contrast, global cognitive performance was not significantly associated with the rate-adjusted QT interval, the voltage change from beginning to end of the ST segment in lead V5, or the spatial angle between mean QRS and T wave vectors. In conclusion, strengths of associations varied between novel ECG descriptors of ventricular repolarization and global cognitive performance. Nevertheless, the significant association observed with T wave non-dipolar voltage suggests that the cardiac effects of heart disease are associated with cognitive decline. PMID:20920659

Lucas, Brian P; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F; Prineas, Ronald J; Bienias, Julia L; Evans, Denis A

2010-01-01

258

Characterizing and explaining differences in cognitive test performance between African American and European American older adults  

PubMed Central

The present study examined differences in cognitive performance of African American and European American older adults on cognitive and intellectual measures, and the extent to which literacy status or reading level was useful in explaining these group differences. African American elders performed more poorly than European American elders on twelve of thirteen cognitive tests administered, p < .05. After controlling for reading level achievement, differences in performance became non-significant for five of these twelve tests. Nonetheless, some differences persisted, suggesting that other potential mediators of race differences remain to be explored in future research. PMID:18189169

Morgan, Adrienne T. Aiken; Marsiske, Michael; Whitfield, Keith E.

2007-01-01

259

Six-month walking program changes cognitive and ADL performance in patients with Alzheimer.  

PubMed

Motor inactivity is typical in the later stages of Alzheimer's disease although there is evidence that physical exercise can reduce depression and enhance performance of daily activities. The aim of this study was to determine whether a walking program could reduce the functional and cognitive decline of elderly nursing home residents in the later stages of Alzheimer's disease. A total of 21 patients (84 ± 5 years) were randomly assigned to a walking program (WG) or to a control group (CG). A 6-minute walking test (6WT), the Barthel index of activities of daily living (ADLs), and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) tests were performed before and after 24 weeks of the program. The WG showed significant improvement in the 6WT (20%) and ADLs (23%), while the CG decreased in MMSE (-47%), the WG had a slower decline (-13%). This study indicates that it is possible to stabilize the progressive cognitive dysfunctions in nursing home residents with Alzheimer's disease through a specific walking program. PMID:21852281

Venturelli, Massimo; Scarsini, Renato; Schena, Federico

2011-08-01

260

Brain antioxidant markers, cognitive performance and acetylcholinesterase activity of rats: efficiency of Sonchus asper  

PubMed Central

Background Sonchus asper (SA) is traditionally used as a folk medicine to treat mental disorders in Pakistan. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of polyphenolic rich methanolic fraction of SA on cognitive performance, brain antioxidant activities and acetylcholinesterase activity in male rats. Methods 30 male Sprague–Dawley rats were equally divided into three groups in this study. Animals of group I (control) received saline (vehicle), group II received SA (50 mg/kg) body weight (b.w.), and group III treated with SA (100 mg/kg b.w.,) orally in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) for 7 days. The effect of SA was checked on rat cognitive performance, brain antioxidatant and acetylcholinesterase activities. Evaluation of learning and memory was assessed by a step-through a passive avoidance test on day 6 after two habituation trials and an initial acquisition trial on day 5. Antioxidant potential was determined by measuring activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in whole-brain homogenates. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was determined by the colorimetric method. Results Results showed that 100 mg/kg b.w., SA treated rats exhibited a significant improvement in learning and memory (step-through latency time). SA administration reduced lipid peroxidation products and elevated glutathione levels in the SA100-treated group. Furthermore, salt and detergent soluble AChE activity was significantly decreased in both SA-treated groups. Short-term orally supplementation of SA showed significant cognitive enhancement as well as elevated brain antioxidant enzymes and inhibited AChE activity. Conclusion These findings stress the critical impact of Sonchus asper bioactive components on brain function. PMID:22591917

2012-01-01

261

Improved perceptual-motor performance measurement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Battery of tests determines the primary dimensions of perceptual-motor performance. Eighteen basic measures range from simple tests to sophisticated electronic devices. Improved system has one unit for the subject containing test display and response elements, and one for the experimenter where test setups, programming, and scoring are accomplished.

Parker, J. F., Jr.; Reilly, R. E.

1969-01-01

262

Performance improvement of permanent magnet ac motors  

E-print Network

) (Member) Reza Langari Chanan Singh (Member) (Head of Department) May 2005 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering iii ABSTRACT Performance Improvement of Permanent Magnet AC... and willingness to spend his precious time with me are beyond my appreciation. I express my sincere gratitude to the members of my graduate study committee: Prof. Shankar Bhattacharyya, Prof. Mehrdad Ehsani, and Prof. Reza Langari for taking the time...

Parsa, Leila

2005-08-29

263

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN IMPROVED STREET SWEEPER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an extensive evaluation of the Improved Street Sweeper (ISS) in Bellevue, WA, and in San Diego, CA. The cleaning performance of the ISS was compared with that of broom sweepers and a vacuum sweeper. The ISS cleaned streets better than the other sweeper...

264

Crafting firm competencies to improve innovative performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Recent interdisciplinary research suggests that customer and technological competencies have a direct, unconditional effect on firms' innovative performance. This study extends this stream of literature by considering the effect of organizational competencies. Results from a survey-research executed in the fast moving consumer goods industry suggest that firms that craft organizational competencies - such as improving team cohesiveness and providing

Boris Lokshin; Anita Van Gils; Eva Bauer

2009-01-01

265

Electrolysis Performance Improvement and Validation Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on electrolysis performance improvement and validation experiment are presented. Topics covered include: water electrolysis: an ever increasing need/role for space missions; static feed electrolysis (SFE) technology: a concept developed for space applications; experiment objectives: why test in microgravity environment; and experiment description: approach, hardware description, test sequence and schedule.

Schubert, Franz H.

1992-01-01

266

Investigation of microwave antennas with improved performances  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation presents the investigation of antennas with improved performances at microwave frequencies. It covers the following three topics: the study of the metamaterial with near-zero index of refraction and its application in directive antenna design, the design technique of a wideband circularly polarized patch antenna for 60GHz wireless application and the investigation of a novel direction of arrival (DOA)

Rongguo Zhou

2010-01-01

267

Integrated logistics: achieving logistics performance improvements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents the results of a recent survey of logistics executives concerning their perceptions regarding integrated logistics. Focuses discussion on an assessment of the current level of implementation of the integrated logistics concept among US firms and provides support for a relationship between integration and logistical performance improvements. Reveals that the results have significant managerial implications as more organizations place emphasis

Patricia J. Daugherty; Alexander E. Ellinger; Craig M. Gustin

1996-01-01

268

Fractionally Spaced Blind Equalizer Performance Improvement  

E-print Network

Fractionally Spaced Blind Equalizer Performance Improvement by Pulakesh Roy Dr. A. A. (Louis) Beex, Chairman The Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (ABSTRACT) Blind equalization equalization schemes can also increase the throughput of the overall system. A general problem with blind

Beex, A. A. "Louis"

269

Associations between oxytocin receptor genotypes and social cognitive performance in individuals with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Individuals with schizophrenia often show substantial deficits in social cognitive abilities, which are strongly associated with social functioning. To advance our understanding of the genetic variation that is associated with social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, we genotyped 74 schizophrenia outpatients who completed social cognitive performance measures assessing mentalizing, social perception, and emotional intelligence, as well as clinical symptoms. We assessed seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) previously found to show replicable associations with socio-emotional processes. For one of the seven SNPs, rs2268493, the 'T' allele was significantly associated with poorer performance on a composite social cognition index, as well as specific tests of mentalizing and social perception. None of the SNPs were associated with clinical symptoms. Though the sample size is small, these findings provide initial support for the involvement of genetic variants of the OXTR in social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. PMID:25244972

Davis, Michael C; Horan, William P; Nurmi, Erika L; Rizzo, Shemra; Li, Wendy; Sugar, Catherine A; Green, Michael F

2014-11-01

270

Improvement in social-interpersonal functioning after cognitive therapy for recurrent depression  

PubMed Central

Background. Cognitive therapy reduces depressive symptoms of major depressive disorder, but little is known about concomitant reduction in social-interpersonal dysfunction. Method. We evaluated social-interpersonal functioning (self-reported social adjustment, interpersonal problems and dyadic adjustment) and depressive symptoms (two self-report and two clinician scales) in adult outpatients (n=156) with recurrent major depressive disorder at several points during a 20-session course of acute phase cognitive therapy. Consenting acute phase responders (n=84) entered a 2-year follow-up phase, which included an 8-month experimental trial comparing continuation phase cognitive therapy to assessment-only control. Results. Social-interpersonal functioning improved after acute phase cognitive therapy (dyadic adjustment d=0.47; interpersonal problems d=0.91; social adjustment d=1.19), but less so than depressive symptoms (d=1.55). Improvement in depressive symptoms and social-interpersonal functioning were moderately to highly correlated (r=0.39–0.72). Improvement in depressive symptoms was partly independent of social-interpersonal functioning (r=0.55–0.81), but improvement in social-interpersonal functioning independent of change in depressive symptoms was not significant (r=0.01–0.06). In acute phase responders, continuation phase therapy did not further enhance social-interpersonal functioning, but improvements in social-interpersonal functioning were maintained through the follow-up. Conclusions. Social-interpersonal functioning is improved after acute phase cognitive therapy and maintained in responders over 2 years. Improvement in social-interpersonal functioning is largely accounted for by decreases in depressive symptoms. PMID:15099419

VITTENGL, J. R.; CLARK, L. A.; JARRETT, R. B.

2005-01-01

271

Using the Virtual Reality-Cognitive Rehabilitation Approach to Improve Contextual Processing in Children with Autism  

PubMed Central

Background. This pilot study investigated the efficacy of a novel virtual reality-cognitive rehabilitation (VR-CR) intervention to improve contextual processing of objects in children with autism. Previous research supports that children with autism show deficits in contextual processing, as well as deficits in its elementary components: abstraction and cognitive flexibility. Methods. Four children with autism participated in a multiple-baseline, single-subject study. The children were taught how to see objects in context by reinforcing attention to pivotal contextual information. Results. All children demonstrated statistically significant improvements in contextual processing and cognitive flexibility. Mixed results were found on the control test and changes in context-related behaviours. Conclusions. Larger-scale studies are warranted to determine the effectiveness and usability in comprehensive educational programs. PMID:24324379

Reid, Denise

2013-01-01

272

Physical and Cognitive Performance of Patients with Acute Lung Injury 1 Year after Initial Trophic versus Full Enteral Feeding. EDEN Trial Follow-up  

PubMed Central

Rationale: We hypothesized that providing patients with acute lung injury two different protein/calorie nutritional strategies in the intensive care unit may affect longer-term physical and cognitive performance. Objectives: To assess physical and cognitive performance 6 and 12 months after acute lung injury, and to evaluate the effect of trophic versus full enteral feeding, provided for the first 6 days of mechanical ventilation, on 6-minute-walk distance, cognitive impairment, and secondary outcomes. Methods: A prospective, longitudinal ancillary study of the ARDS Network EDEN trial evaluating 174 consecutive survivors from 5 of 12 centers. Blinded assessments of patients’ arm anthropometrics, strength, pulmonary function, 6-minute-walk distance, and cognitive status (executive function, language, memory, verbal reasoning/concept formation, and attention) were performed. Measurements and Main Results: At 6 and 12 months, respectively, the mean (SD) percent predicted for 6-minute-walk distance was 64% (22%) and 66% (25%) (P = 0.011 for difference between assessments), and 36 and 25% of survivors had cognitive impairment (P = 0.001). Patients performed below predicted values for secondary physical tests with small improvement from 6 to 12 months. There was no significant effect of initial trophic versus full feeding for the first 6 days after randomization on survivors’ percent predicted for 6-minute-walk distance, cognitive impairment status, and all secondary outcomes. Conclusions: EDEN trial survivors performed below predicted values for physical and cognitive performance at 6 and 12 months, with some improvement over time. Initial trophic versus full enteral feeding for the first 6 days after randomization did not affect physical and cognitive performance. PMID:23805899

Dinglas, Victor D.; Morris, Peter E.; Jackson, James C.; Hough, Catherine L.; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Wozniak, Amy W.; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Ely, E. Wesley; Rice, Todd W.; Hopkins, Ramona O.

2013-01-01

273

Edentulism associates with worse cognitive performance in community-dwelling elders in rural Ecuador: results of the Atahualpa project.  

PubMed

Studies in industrialized nations suggest that severe edentulism correlates with cognitive impairment, but there is little information on this association in underserved populations. We conducted a community-based study to assess whether edentulism associates with cognitive impairment in elders living in rural Ecuador. Atahualpa residents aged ?60 years were identified during a door-to-door census and evaluated using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Persons were classified into two groups according to whether they have severe edentulism (<10 remaining teeth) or not. In addition, a questionnaire allowed self-rating of oral health. A total of 274 persons (mean age 69.6 ± 7.7 years; 59% women) were included. Persons with <10 remaining teeth (n = 116) have significantly lower MoCA scores than those with ?10 teeth (n =158), after adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, depression and dementia (? = -1.06, p = 0.03). Self-rated poor oral health was more prevalent among persons with <10 teeth (p < 0.0001), but did not correlate with MoCA scores (good vs. poor, ? = -0.89, p = 0.89). Severe edentulism is associated with poor cognitive performance in elders living in rural Ecuador. Public health campaigns directed to improve oral health may facilitate early recognition of persons with cognitive impairment in underserved populations. PMID:24627152

Del Brutto, Oscar H; Gardener, Hannah; Del Brutto, Victor J; Maestre, Gladys E; Zambrano, Mauricio; Montenegro, Jipson E; Wright, Clinton B

2014-12-01

274

Performance in multiple domains of social cognition in parents of patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Social cognition refers to a set of cognitive abilities that allow us to perceive and interpret social stimuli. Social cognition is affected in schizophrenia and impairments have also been documented in unaffected relatives, suggesting that social cognition may be related to a genetic vulnerability to the disease. This study aims to investigate potential impairments in four domains of social cognition (mentalizing, emotion recognition, social knowledge and empathy) in the same group of relatives in order to gather a more complete picture of social cognition difficulties in this population. The Batterie Intégrée de Cognition Sociale (BICS) (mentalizing, emotion recognition, and social knowledge) and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) (empathy) were administered to 31 parents of patients with a psychotic disorder and 38 healthy controls. Parents of patients performed significantly worse than controls on the mentalizing test but significantly better on the social knowledge test. No significant between-group differences were observed for emotion recognition and empathy. This study is the first to evaluate four social cognition domains in this population. The results precise which social cognition processes may be impaired or preserved in unaffected relatives of patients and lead us to propose an hypothesis about a mechanism that could underlie the mentalizing difficulties observed in this population. PMID:25216560

Lavoie, Marie-Audrey; Plana, India; Jackson, Philip L; Godmaire-Duhaime, Florence; Bédard Lacroix, Jacinthe; Achim, Amélie M

2014-12-15

275

Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to improve cognitive dysfunction and functional ability in clinical depression--a systematic review.  

PubMed

Cognitive dysfunction is of clinical significance and exerts longstanding implication on patients? function. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments of cognitive dysfunction are emerging. This review evaluates pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments of cognitive impairment primarily in the domains of memory, attention, processing speed and executive function in clinical depression. A total of 35 studies were retrieved from Pubmed, PsycInfo and Scopus after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results show that various classes of antidepressants exert improving effects on cognitive function across several cognitive domains. Specifically, studies suggest that SSRIs, the SSRE tianeptine, the SNRI duloxetine, vortioxetine and other antidepressants such as bupropion and moclobemide may exert certain improving effects on cognitive function in depression, such as in learning and memory and executive function. Class-specific cognitive domains or specific dose-response relationships were not identified yet. The few non-pharmacological studies conducted employing cognitive orientated treatments and cognitive remediation therapy show promising results for the improvement of cognitive impairment in depression. However, several methodological constraints of studies limit generalizability of the results and caution the interpretation. Future direction should consider the development of a neuropsychological consensus cognitive battery to support the discovery, clinical assessment, comparison of studies and registration of new agents in clinical depression. PMID:24863864

Baune, Bernhard T; Renger, Lisa

2014-09-30

276

Cognitive ability, personality, and experience: evidence for differential impact on job performance factors  

E-print Network

Using a sample of 443 participants employed in a variety of jobs, the interactions between cognitive ability, conscientiousness, agreeableness, task experience, and task and contextual performance were explored. Results suggest that task experience...

Slaughter, Andrew Joseph

2005-08-29

277

The cognitive performance of patients with multiple sclerosis during periods of high and low fatigue.  

E-print Network

The objective of this study was to examine whether multiple sclerosis (MS)-related fatigue affects patients' cognitive performance. Thirty patients who had substantial fatigue in conjunction with MS and who reported marked diurnal variability...

Parmenter, Brett A.; Denney, Douglas R.; Lynch, Sharon G.

2003-03-01

278

Marital Conflict, Allostatic Load, and the Development of Children's Fluid Cognitive Performance  

PubMed Central

Relations between marital conflict, children’s respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and fluid cognitive performance were examined over three years to assess allostatic processes. Participants were 251 children reporting on marital conflict, baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to a lab challenge were recorded, and fluid cognitive performance was measured using the Woodcock-Johnson III. A cross-lagged model showed that higher levels of marital conflict at age 8 predicted weaker RSA-R at age 9 for children with lower baseline RSA. A growth model showed that lower baseline RSA in conjunction with weaker RSA-R predicted the slowest development of fluid cognitive performance. Findings suggest that stress may affect development of physiological systems regulating attention, which are tied to the development of fluid cognitive performance. PMID:23534537

Hinnant, J. Benjamin; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Buckhalt, Joseph A.

2013-01-01

279

Improving Wordspotting Performance with Limited Training Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis addresses the problem of limited training data in pattern detection problems where a small number of target classes must be detected in a varied background. There is typically limited training data and limited knowledge about class distributions in this type of spotting problem and in this case a statistical pattern classifier can not accurately model class distributions. The domain of wordspotting is used to explore new approaches that improve spotting system performance with limited training data. First, a high performance, state-of-the-art whole-word based wordspotter is developed. Two complementary approaches are then introduced to help compensate for the lack of data. Figure of Merit training, a new type of discriminative training algorithm, modifies the spotting system parameters according to the metric used to evaluate wordspotting systems. The effectiveness of discriminative training approaches may be limited due to overtraining a classifier on insufficient training data. While the classifier's performance on the training data improves, the classifier's performance on unseen test data degrades. To alleviate this problem, voice transformation techniques are used to generate more training examples that improve the robustness of the spotting system. The wordspotter is trained and tested on the Switchboard credit-card database, a database of spontaneous conversations recorded over the telephone. The baseline wordspotter achieves a Figure of Merit of 62.5% on a testing set. With Figure of Merit training, the Figure of Merit improves to 65.8%. When Figure of Merit training and voice transformations are used together, the Figure of Merit improves to 71.9%. The final wordspotter system achieves a Figure of Merit of 64.2% on the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) September 1992 official benchmark, surpassing the 1992 results from other whole-word based wordspotting systems. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253 -1690.).

Chang, Eric I.-Chao

1995-01-01

280

Sleep Duration and Age-Related Changes in Brain Structure and Cognitive Performance  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate the contribution of sleep duration and quality to age-related changes in brain structure and cognitive performance in relatively healthy older adults. Design: Community-based longitudinal brain and cognitive aging study using a convenience sample. Setting: Participants were studied in a research laboratory. Participants: Relatively healthy adults aged 55 y and older at study commencement. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological assessment every 2 y. Subjective assessments of sleep duration and quality and blood samples were obtained. Each hour of reduced sleep duration at baseline augmented the annual expansion rate of the ventricles by 0.59% (P = 0.007) and the annual decline rate in global cognitive performance by 0.67% (P = 0.050) in the subsequent 2 y after controlling for the effects of age, sex, education, and body mass index. In contrast, global sleep quality at baseline did not modulate either brain or cognitive aging. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, a marker of systemic inflammation, showed no correlation with baseline sleep duration, brain structure, or cognitive performance. Conclusions: In healthy older adults, short sleep duration is associated with greater age-related brain atrophy and cognitive decline. These associations are not associated with elevated inflammatory responses among short sleepers. Citation: Lo JC, Loh KK, Zheng H, Sim SK, Chee MW. Sleep duration and age-related changes in brain structure and cognitive performance. SLEEP 2014;37(7):1171-1178. PMID:25061245

Lo, June C.; Loh, Kep Kee; Zheng, Hui; Sim, Sam K.Y.; Chee, Michael W.L.

2014-01-01

281

Training creative cognition: adolescence as a flexible period for improving creativity  

PubMed Central

Creativity commonly refers to the ability to generate ideas, solutions, or insights that are novel yet feasible. The ability to generate creative ideas appears to develop and change from childhood to adulthood. Prior research, although inconsistent, generally indicates that adults perform better than adolescents on the alternative uses task (AUT), a commonly used index of creative ideation. The focus of this study was whether performance could be improved by practicing alternative uses generation. We examined the effectiveness of creative ideation training in adolescents (13–16 years, N = 71) and adults (23–30 years, N = 61). Participants followed one of three types of training, each comprising eight 20-min practice sessions within 2 week time: (1) alternative uses generation (experimental condition: creative ideation); (2) object characteristic generation (control condition: general ideation); (3) rule-switching (control condition: rule-switching). Progression in fluency, flexibility, originality of creative ideation was compared between age-groups and training conditions. Participants improved in creative ideation and cognitive flexibility, but not in general ideation. Participants in all three training conditions became better in fluency and originality on the AUT. With regard to originality, adolescents benefitted more from training than adults, although this was not specific for the creative ideation training condition. These results are interpreted in relation to (a) the different underlying processes targeted in the three conditions and (b) developmental differences in brain plasticity with increased sensitivity to training in adolescents. In sum, the results show that improvement can be made in creative ideation and supports the hypothesis that adolescence is a developmental stage of increased flexibility optimized for learning and explorative behavior. PMID:25400565

Stevenson, Claire E.; Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; de Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Crone, Eveline A.

2014-01-01

282

Hypnotherapy and Test Anxiety: Two Cognitive-Behavioral Constructs. The Effects of Hypnosis in Reducing Test Anxiety and Improving Academic Achievement in College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-group randomized multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the effects of cognitive-behavioral hypnosis in reducing test anxiety and improving academic performance in comparison to a Hawthorne control group. Subjects were enrolled in a rigorous introductory psychology course which covered an entire text in one…

Sapp, Marty

283

Assessing Cognitive Load Theory to Improve Student Learning for Mechanical Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer programming class for students of mechanical engineering was redesigned and assessed: Cognitive Load Theory was used to redesign the content; online technologies were used to redesign the delivery. Student learning improved and the dropout rate was reduced. This article reports on both attitudinal and objective assessment: comparing…

Impelluso, Thomas J.

2009-01-01

284

Nonspecific Improvement Effects in Depression Using Interpersonal Skills Training, Pleasant Activity Schedules, or Cognitive Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Depressed outpatients received treatment focusing on interpersonal skills, cognitions, or pleasant events. Patients received immediate treatment or delayed treatment. All treatment modalities significantly alleviated depression. All patients improved on most dependent variables, regardless of whether variables were directly addressed in treatment.…

Zeiss, Antonette M.; And Others

1979-01-01

285

Combined Fluency and Cognitive Strategies Instruction Improves Mathematics Achievement in Early Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One hundred and seventy-eight second grade students from two states (Georgia and Massachusetts) participated in an experiment in which they were randomly assigned to either (1) a computer program designed to increase fluency in addition and subtraction, (2) a program designed to improve cognitive strategy use for addition and subtraction, (3) a…

Carr, Martha; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Stroud, Rena; Royer, James M.

2011-01-01

286

Semantic fluency: cognitive basis and diagnostic performance in focal dementias and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Semantic fluency is widely used both as a clinical test and as a basic tool for understanding how humans extract information from the semantic store. Recently, major efforts have been made to devise fine-grained scoring procedures to measure the multiple cognitive processes underlying fluency performance. Nevertheless, it is still unclear how many and which independent components are necessary to thoroughly describe performance on the fluency task. Furthermore, whether a combination of multiple indices can improve the diagnostic performance of the test should be assessed. In this study, we extracted multiple indices of performance on the semantic fluency test from a large sample of healthy controls (n = 307) and patients (n = 145) suffering from three types of focal dementia or Alzheimer's Disease (AD). We found that five independent components underlie semantic fluency performance. We argue that these components functionally map onto the generation and application of a search strategy (component 2), to the monitoring of the overall sequence to avoid repetitions (component 3) and out-of-category items (component 4), and to the full integrity of the semantic store (component 5). The integrated and effective work of all these components would relate to a "general effectiveness" component (component 1). Importantly, while all the focal dementia groups were equally impaired on general effectiveness measures, they showed differential patterns of failure in the other components. This finding suggests that the cognitive deficit that impairs fluency differs among the three focal dementia groups: a semantic store deficit in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (sv-PPA), a strategy deficit in the non-fluent variant of primary progressive aphasia (nfv-PPA), and an initiation deficit in the behavioural variant of fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD). Finally, we showed that the concurrent use of multiple fluency indices improves the diagnostic accuracy of semantic fluency both for focal dementias and for AD. More generally, our study suggests that a formal evaluation of fine-grained patterns of performance would improve the diagnostic accuracy of neuropsychological tests. PMID:24681692

Reverberi, Carlo; Cherubini, Paolo; Baldinelli, Sara; Luzzi, Simona

2014-05-01

287

Accuracy in performance appraisals: a comparison of two rater cognitive process models  

E-print Network

ACCURACY IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS: A COMPARISON OF TWO RATER COGNITIVE PROCESS MODELS A Thesis by SUSAN LEE FRANK MAJOR Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1985 Major Subject: Psychology ACCURACY IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISALS: A COMPARISON OF TWO RATER COGNITIVE PROCESS MODELS A Thesis by SUSAN LEE FRANK MAJOR Approved as to style and content by: Rosean J. Foti (Chai r...

Major, Susan Lee Frank

2012-06-07

288

Does Consumption of LC Omega-3 PUFA Enhance Cognitive Performance in Healthy School-Aged Children and throughout Adulthood? Evidence from Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Long-chain (LC) omega-3 PUFA derived from marine sources may play an important role in cognitive performance throughout all life stages. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the dominant omega-3 in the brain, is a major component of neuronal cell membranes and affects various neurological pathways and processess. Despite its critical role in brain function, human’s capacity to synthesize DHA de novo is limited and its consumption through the diet is important. However, many individuals do not or rarely consume seafood. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the current evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) in healthy school-aged children, younger and older adults to determine whether consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA improves cognitive performance and to make recommendations for future research. Current evidence suggests that consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA, particularly DHA, may enhance cognitive performance relating to learning, cognitive development, memory and speed of performing cognitive tasks. Those who habitually consume diets low in DHA, children with low literacy ability and malnourished and older adults with age-related cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment seem to benefit most. However, study design limitations in many RCTs hamper firm conclusions. The measurement of a uniform biomarker, e.g., % DHA in red blood cells, is essential to establish baseline DHA-status, to determine targets for cognitive performance and to facilitate dosage recommendations. It is recommended that future studies be at least 16 weeks in duration, account for potential interaction effects of gender, age and apolipoprotein E genotype, include vegan/vegetarian populations, include measures of speed of cognitive performance and include brain imaging technologies as supportive information on working mechanisms of LC omega-3 PUFA. PMID:25054550

Stonehouse, Welma

2014-01-01

289

Downlink Performance Analysis of Cognitive Radio based Cellular Relay Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose two operating scenarios of employing cognitive radio to downlink of relay networks. The first scenario uses ISM band while the second scenario exploits opportunity of channel use at UHF spectrum. The capacity gain over conventional relay is investigated in terms of the normalized system capacity. We first statistically model the spectrum usage pattern in those

Seungmo Kim; Wan Choi; Yonghoon Choi; Jongmin Lee; Youngnam Han; Insun Lee

2008-01-01

290

Nicotine–Haloperidol Interactions and Cognitive Performance in Schizophrenics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly 90% of schizophrenics smoke cigarettes, considerably higher than the general population's rate of 25%. There is some indication that schizophrenics may smoke as a form of self-medication. Nicotine has a variety of pharmacologic effects that may both counteract some of the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia and counteract some of the adverse side effects of antipsychotic drugs. In the current

Edward D Levin; William Wilson; Jed E Rose; Joseph McEvoy

1996-01-01

291

Declining Cognition and Falls: Role of Risky Performance of Everyday Mobility Activities  

PubMed Central

Background Declining cognition is a risk factor for falls among older adults. The extent to which impaired judgment in performance of daily activities increases fall risk is unclear. Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether engagement in mobility activities in a risky manner explains the association between declining cognition and rate of falls. Design This study was a secondary analysis of baseline and prospective data from older adults enrolled in the intervention arm of a randomized clinical trial. Methods Two hundred forty-five community-dwelling older adults (79% female; mean age=79 years, SD=8.0) who were at risk for falls received physical, cognitive, and functional evaluations. Cognition was assessed with the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). Using interview and in-home assessment data, physical therapists determined whether participants were at risk for falls when performing mobility-related activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL). Falls were measured prospectively for 1 year using monthly falls diaries. Results Declining cognition was associated with increased number of mobility activities designated as risky (1.5% of mobility activities performed in a risky manner per SPMSQ point) and with increased rate of falls (rate ratio=1.16 for each unit change in SPMSQ score). Risky performance of mobility activities mediated the relationship between cognition and rate of falls. Limitations Risk assessment was based on the clinical judgment of experienced physical therapists. Cognition was measured with a relatively insensitive instrument, and only selected mobility activities were evaluated. Conclusions Engagement in mobility ADL and IADL tasks in a risky manner emerged as a link between declining cognition and increased number of falls, suggesting a mechanism through which the rate of falls may increase. Specifically, declining cognition is associated with performance of mobility activities in an unsafe manner, thereby increasing the risk for falls. PMID:24231226

Gleason, Carey E.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Janczewski, Jodi; Shea, Terry; Mahoney, Jane E.

2014-01-01

292

Improving performance via mini-applications.  

SciTech Connect

Application performance is determined by a combination of many choices: hardware platform, runtime environment, languages and compilers used, algorithm choice and implementation, and more. In this complicated environment, we find that the use of mini-applications - small self-contained proxies for real applications - is an excellent approach for rapidly exploring the parameter space of all these choices. Furthermore, use of mini-applications enriches the interaction between application, library and computer system developers by providing explicit functioning software and concrete performance results that lead to detailed, focused discussions of design trade-offs, algorithm choices and runtime performance issues. In this paper we discuss a collection of mini-applications and demonstrate how we use them to analyze and improve application performance on new and future computer platforms.

Crozier, Paul Stewart; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Numrich, Robert W. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Williams, Alan B.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Keiter, Eric Richard; Rajan, Mahesh; Willenbring, James M.; Doerfler, Douglas W.; Heroux, Michael Allen

2009-09-01

293

Improved Building Performance Through Effective Communication & Training  

E-print Network

IMPROVED BUILDING PERFORMANCE THROUGH EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION & TRAINING Rick Bates Project Manager Environmental Education Foundation Gilbert, AZ ABSTRACT This paper describes the procedures involved in the development of a... new, multi-level indoor air quality management program that utilizes human behavior science, economics, and conceptual learning techniques. This unique approach has allowed for a clear, concise, and consistent message to be delivered to a broad...

Bates, R.

2005-01-01

294

Residual Negative Symptoms Differentiate Cognitive Performance in Clinically Stable Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits in various domains have been shown in patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The purpose of the present study was to examine if residual psychopathology explained the difference in cognitive function between clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We compared the performance on tests of attention, visual and verbal memory, and executive function of 25 patients with schizophrenia in remission and 25 euthymic bipolar disorder patients with that of 25 healthy controls. Mediation analysis was used to see if residual psychopathology could explain the difference in cognitive function between the patient groups. Both patient groups performed significantly worse than healthy controls on most cognitive tests. Patients with bipolar disorder displayed cognitive deficits that were milder but qualitatively similar to those of patients with schizophrenia. Residual negative symptoms mediated the difference in performance on cognitive tests between the two groups. Neither residual general psychotic symptoms nor greater antipsychotic doses explained this relationship. The shared variance explained by the residual negative and cognitive deficits that the difference between patient groups may be explained by greater frontal cortical neurophysiological deficits in patients with schizophrenia, compared to bipolar disorder. Further longitudinal work may provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie these deficits. PMID:25024847

Ramanathan, Seethalakshmi; Wong, Eugene; Nayak, Ajita; Moore, Brian

2014-01-01

295

Randomized controlled trial of cognitive behavioral social skills training for older consumers with schizophrenia: Defeatist performance attitudes and functional outcome  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether cognitive behavioral social skills training (CBSST) is an effective psychosocial intervention to improve functioning in older consumers with schizophrenia, and whether defeatist performance attitudes are associated with change in functioning in CBSST. Design An 18-month, single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Setting Outpatient clinic at a university-affiliated Veterans Affairs hospital. Participants Veteran and non-veteran consumers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N=79) age 45–78. Interventions CBSST was a 36-session, weekly group therapy that combined cognitive behavior therapy with social skills training and problem solving training to improve functioning. The comparison intervention, goal-focused supportive contact (GFSC), was supportive group therapy focused on achieving functioning goals. Measurements Blind raters assessed functioning (primary outcome: Independent Living Skills Survey) CBSST skill mastery, positive and negative symptoms, depression, anxiety, defeatist attitudes, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Results Functioning trajectories over time were significantly more positive in CBSST than in GFSC, especially for participants with more severe defeatist performance attitudes. Greater improvement in defeatist attitudes was also associated with better functioning in CBSST, but not GFSC. Both treatments showed comparable significant improvements in amotivation, depression, anxiety, positive self-esteem and life satisfaction. Conclusions CBSST is an effective treatment to improve functioning in older consumers with schizophrenia, and both CBSST and other supportive goal-focused interventions can reduce symptom distress, increase motivation and self esteem, and improve life satisfaction. Participants with more severe defeatist performance attitudes may benefit most from cognitive behavioral interventions that target functioning. PMID:23395192

Granholm, Eric; Holden, Jason; Link, Peter C.; McQuaid, John R.; Jeste, Dilip V.

2012-01-01

296

Using analogies to improve the teaching performance of preservice teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Prior research in both education and cognitive science has identified analogy making as a powerful tool for explanation as well as a fundamental mechanism for facilitating an individual's construction of knowledge. While a considerable body of research exists focusing on the role analogy plays in learning science concepts, relatively little is known about how instruction in the use of analogies might influence the teaching performance of preservice teachers. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between pedagogical analogy use and pedagogical reasoning ability in a sample of preservice elementary teachers (PTs), a group that has been identified for their particular difficulties in teaching science. The study utilized a treatment/contrast group design in which the treatment group was provided instruction that guided them in the generation of analogies to aid in the explanation phase of learning cycle lessons. A relationship between analogy use and positive indicants of teaching performance was observed and a case study of a low performing preservice teacher who drastically improved teaching performance using analogy-based pedagogy is presented. A notable effect on conceptual understanding of Newton's Third Law as a result of two brief analogy-based demonstration lessons was also observed.

James, Mark C.; Scharmann, Lawrence C.

2012-01-20

297

Relationship of cognitive strategy use to prospective memory performance in a diverse sample of nondemented older adults with varying degrees of cognitive complaints and impairment.  

PubMed

Although older adults typically have better performance on prospective memory (PM) tasks carried out in naturalistic settings, a paucity of research directly assesses older adults' use of compensatory strategies on such tasks. The current study investigates external memory strategy use during performance of a clinical PM test that features both short-term (in laboratory) and long-term (out of laboratory) subtasks (i.e., the Royal Prince Alfred Prospective Memory Test - RPA-ProMem. Nondemented, community-dwelling older adults (n = 214; mean age = 80.5; 68.2% female; 39.7% non-white) with mild cognitive impairment, subjective cognitive decline, and healthy controls completed the RPA-ProMem while external strategy use was permitted and recorded. Overall, participants utilized external strategies 41% of the time on the RPA-ProMem. Increased utilization of external memory strategies was significantly associated with better PM performance. Additionally, better performance on executive functioning tasks was associated with increased use of external memory strategies. Results are discussed in relation to how memory strategy use can be enhanced to improve everyday memory ability in older adults at risk for dementia. PMID:25471537

Aronov, Avner; Rabin, Laura A; Fogel, Joshua; Chi, Susan Y; Kann, Sarah J; Abdelhak, Nachama; Zimmerman, Molly E

2014-12-01

298

Acute effects of dietary constituents on motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes.  

PubMed

Performance in many sports is at least partially dependent on motor control, coordination, decision-making, and other cognitive tasks. This review summarizes available evidence about the ingestion of selected nutrients or isolated compounds (dietary constituents) and potential acute effects on motor skill and/or cognitive performance in athletes. Dietary constituents discussed include branched-chain amino acids, caffeine, carbohydrate, cocoa flavanols, Gingko biloba, ginseng, guarana, Rhodiola rosea, sage, L-theanine, theobromine, and tyrosine. Although this is not an exhaustive list, these are perhaps the most researched dietary constituents. Caffeine and carbohydrate have the greatest number of published reports supporting their ability to enhance acute motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes. At this time, there is insufficient published evidence to substantiate the use of any other dietary constituents to benefit sports-related motor skill or cognitive performance. The optimal dose and timing of caffeine and carbohydrate intake promoting enhanced motor skill and cognitive performance remain to be identified. Valid, reliable, and sensitive batteries of motor skills and cognitive tests should be developed for use in future efficacy studies. PMID:25400063

Baker, Lindsay B; Nuccio, Ryan P; Jeukendrup, Asker E

2014-12-01

299

Occupational therapy interventions to improve driving performance in older adults: a systematic review.  

PubMed

This systematic review synthesizes the research on interventions used by occupational therapy practitioners to address cognitive and visual function, motor function, driving skills, self-regulation and self-awareness, and the role of passengers and family involvement in the driving ability, performance, and safety of older adults. After a comprehensive search of the research literature, 29 studies were reviewed and synthesized into five themes: (1) educational interventions including family education, (2) cognitive-perceptual training, (3) interventions addressing physical fitness, (4) simulator training, and (5) behind-the-wheel training. Outcome measures used in the studies included changes in knowledge through speed of processing, physical and cognitive skills predicted to reduce crash risk, simulated driving, and real-world driving. The studies demonstrated low to moderate positive effects for interventions used by occupational therapy practitioners to improve older driver performance. PMID:25397761

Golisz, Kathleen

2014-01-01

300

Houttuynia cordata Improves Cognitive Deficits in Cholinergic Dysfunction Alzheimer’s Disease-Like Models  

PubMed Central

Cognitive impairment is a result of dementia of diverse causes, such as cholinergic dysfunction and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (Saururaceae) has long been used as a traditional herbal medicine. It has biological activities including protective effects against amyloid beta (A?) toxicity, via regulation of calcium homeostasis, in rat hippocampal cells. To extend previous reports, we investigated the effects of water extracts of H. cordata herb (HCW) on tauopathies, also involving calcium influx. We then confirmed the effects of HCW in improving memory impairment and neuronal damage in mice with A?-induced neurotoxicity. We also investigated the effects of HCW against scopolamine-induced cholinergic dysfunction in mice. In primary neuronal cells, HCW inhibited the phosphorylation of tau by regulating p25/p35 expression in A?-induced neurotoxicity. In mice with A?-induced neurotoxicity, HCW improved cognitive impairment, as assessed with behavioral tasks, such as novel object recognition, Y-maze, and passive avoidance tasks. HCW also inhibited the degeneration of neurons in the CA3 region of the hippocampus in A?-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, HCW, which had an IC50 value of 79.7 ?g/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibition, ameliorated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment significantly in Y-maze and passive avoidance tasks. These results indicate that HCW improved cognitive impairment, due to cholinergic dysfunction, with inhibitory effects against tauopathies and cholinergic antagonists, suggesting that HCW may be an interesting candidate to investigate for the treatment of AD. PMID:25009697

Huh, Eugene; Kim, Hyo Geun; Park, Hanbyeol; Kang, Min Seo; Lee, Bongyong; Oh, Myung Sook

2014-01-01

301

Improved language performance in Alzheimer disease following brain stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesRepetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been proposed as a possible treatment for the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effects, on cognitive performance, of rTMS applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in AD patients.MethodsTen AD patients were randomly assigned to one of two study groups. Multiple-baseline

Maria Cotelli; Marco Calabria; Rosa Manenti; Sandra Rosini; Orazio Zanetti; Stefano F Cappa; Carlo Miniussi

2010-01-01

302

System analysis improves downhole motor performance  

SciTech Connect

A system analysis of the bit, positive-displacement motor, and hydraulics helps improve the efficiency of downhole-motor guidance systems, even for routine drilling applications. The bit and motor system must operate with ideal hydraulics for efficient drilling. The poor state of the drilling industry has forced drillers to examine drilling performance more critically, not only in terms of cost per foot, but also with the costs amortized over the life of the well. Thus, drilling contractors and operators should place more emphasis on optimizing downhole-motor performance as part of ordinary drilling plans. For many years, the drilling industry has used a trial-and-error method to determine which type of bit drills best with which particular downhole motor. To increase penetration rates and improve drilling efficiency, however, drillers must understand how the mechanical and hydraulic design variables of a bit affect downhole-motor performance. The paper discusses bit design, hydraulic lift, total flow area, motor performance, hydraulics, and downhole pressure.

De Lucia, F.V. (Security Downhole Motor Services, Houston, TX (United States))

1993-05-17

303

Improving Contract Performance by Corrective Actions Plans  

SciTech Connect

Corrective Action Plans (CAPs) are required to be developed, submitted, and reported upon by the prime contractors for the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Management and Operations (M and O) contracts. The best known CAP ''type,'' and there are many, is for Price-Anderson Amendments Act (PAAA) ''potential noncompliances.'' The M and O contractor fines for PAAA problems have increased from approximately $100,000 in 1996 to almost $2,000,000 in 2000. In order to improve CAP performance at the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) site at Y-12 in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the contractor chose to centralize the company-wide processes of problem identification and reporting with the PAAA (and other) CAP processes. This directly integrates these functional reports to the contractor General Manager. The functions contained in the M and O contractor central organization, called ''Performance Assurance,'' are: PAAA; Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Liaison; Contract Requirements Management; Issues Management (including the CAP processes); Lessons Learned; Independent and Management Assessments; Internal Audits; and Ethics. By centrally locating and managing these problem identification and problem correction functions, the contractor, BWXT Y-12, L.L.C., has improved PAAA (and other) CAP performance more than 200 percent in the first year of the contract. Much of this improvement (see Table 1 for examples) has been achieved by increasing the knowledge and experience of management and workers in the specific contract and company requirements for CAPs. The remainder of this paper will describe some of the many CAP processes at Y-12 to show the reader the non-trivial scope of the CAP process. Improvements in CAP management will be discussed. In addition, a specific recommendation for CAP management, in a major capital construction project, will be presented.

Dowd, A.S., jr.

2002-06-23

304

Improving Access to Foundational Energy Performance Data  

SciTech Connect

Access to foundational energy performance data is key to improving the efficiency of the built environment. However, stakeholders often lack access to what they perceive as credible energy performance data. Therefore, even if a stakeholder determines that a product would increase efficiency, they often have difficulty convincing their management to move forward. Even when credible data do exist, such data are not always sufficient to support detailed energy performance analyses, or the development of robust business cases. One reason for this is that the data parameters that are provided are generally based on the respective industry norms. Thus, for mature industries with extensive testing standards, the data made available are often quite detailed. But for emerging technologies, or for industries with less well-developed testing standards, available data are generally insufficient to support robust analysis. However, even for mature technologies, there is no guarantee that the data being supplied are the same data needed to accurately evaluate a product?s energy performance. To address these challenges, the U.S. Department of Energy funded development of a free, publically accessible Web-based portal, the Technology Performance Exchange(TM), to facilitate the transparent identification, storage, and sharing of foundational energy performance data. The Technology Performance Exchange identifies the intrinsic, technology-specific parameters necessary for a user to perform a credible energy analysis and includes a robust database to store these data. End users can leverage stored data to evaluate the site-specific performance of various technologies, support financial analyses with greater confidence, and make better informed procurement decisions.

Studer, D.; Livingood, W.; Torcellini, P.

2014-08-01

305

Genetic deletion of MT?/MT? melatonin receptors enhances murine cognitive and motor performance.  

PubMed

Melatonin, an indoleamine hormone secreted into circulation at night primarily by the brain's pineal gland, has been shown to have a wide variety of actions on the development and physiology of neurons in the CNS. Acting via two G-protein-coupled membrane receptors (MT1 and MT2), melatonin modulates neurogenesis, synaptic functions, neuronal cytoskeleton and gene expression. In the present studies, we sought to characterize the behavior and neuronal biology of transgenic mice lacking both of these melatonin receptors as a way to understand the hormone's receptor versus non-receptor-mediated actions in CNS-dependent activities, such as learning and memory, anxiety, general motor performance and circadian rhythmicity. Assessment of these behaviors was complemented by molecular analyses of gene expression in the brain. Our results demonstrate mild behavioral hyperactivity and a lengthened circadian period of free-running motor activity in melatonin receptor-deficient mice as compared to receptor-intact control mice beginning at an early age. Significant improvement in cognitive performance was found using the Barnes Maze and the Y-Maze. No behavioral changes in anxiety levels were found. Electrophysiological measures in hippocampal slices revealed a clear enhancement of long-term potentiation in mice lacking melatonin receptors with no significant differences in paired-pulse facilitation. Quantitative analysis of brain protein expression levels of phosphoCREB and phosphoERK1/2 and key markers of synaptic activity (synapsin, glutamate receptor 1, spinophilin, and glutamic acid decarboxylase 1) revealed significant differences between the double-knockout and wild-type animals, consistent with the behavioral findings. Thus, genetic deletion of melatonin receptors produces mice with enhanced cognitive and motor performance, supporting the view that these receptors play an important role in neurobehavioral development. PMID:25046530

O'Neal-Moffitt, G; Pilli, J; Kumar, S S; Olcese, J

2014-09-26

306

Neurocognitive monitors: toward the prevention of cognitive performance decrements and catastrophic failures in the operational environment.  

PubMed

Network-centric doctrine and the proposed C41SR (command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance) distributions to the individual warfighter require that the cognitive performance, judgment, and decision making of warfighters must be sustained and effectively managed in the forward operating environment, where various physiological and psychological stressors abound, in order to reduce human errors and catastrophic failures. The U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC) established the Cognitive Performance, Judgment, and Decision-Making Research Program (CPJDRP) in 2004 to direct research to this issue. A Neurophysiological Measures and Cognition Focus Team (NMFCT) was formed to work with augmented cognition investigators and to specifically address the development of neurophysiological measures as potential monitors of alertness-cognitive state in warfighters. The USAM-RMC approach complemented the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Augmented Cognition approach, which focused on the detection of workload-related impaired cognitive state, and subsequent modification of information flow through automation. In this preface, the premise for neurophysiological measures as neurocognitive monitors is explained using an example of a neurophysiological index: the oculomotor measure, saccadic velocity. The progress of the NMFCT on the development of a neurocognitive monitor is described, as well as the recommendations of a 2005 USAMRMC/Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC)-sponsored workshop. Awareness of neurocognitive monitoring is discussed, as are future endeavors related to operational testing and fieldability. Four papers are summarized in this Neurophysiological Monitoring and Augmented Cognition section involving technologies to enhance cognitive performance in the operational environment: one on dynamic cortical electroencephalography, two on oculometrics, and one on a spatial orientation enhancement system. PMID:17547315

Thomas, Maria L; Russo, Michael B

2007-05-01

307

Monitoring and predicting cognitive state and performance via physiological correlates of neuronal signals.  

PubMed

Judgment, decision making, and situational awareness are higher-order mental abilities critically important to operational cognitive performance. Higher-order mental abilities rely on intact functioning of multiple brain regions, including the prefrontal, thalamus, and parietal areas. Real-time monitoring of individuals for cognitive performance capacity via an approach based on sampling multiple neurophysiologic signals and integrating those signals with performance prediction models potentially provides a method of supporting warfighters' and commanders' decision making and other operationally relevant mental processes and is consistent with the goals of augmented cognition. Cognitive neurophysiological assessments that directly measure brain function and subsequent cognition include positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, mass spectroscopy, near-infrared spectroscopy, magnetoencephalography, and electroencephalography (EEG); however, most direct measures are not practical to use in operational environments. More practical, albeit indirect measures that are generated by, but removed from the actual neural sources, are movement activity, oculometrics, heart rate, and voice stress signals. The goal of the papers in this section is to describe advances in selected direct and indirect cognitive neurophysiologic monitoring techniques as applied for the ultimate purpose of preventing operational performance failures. These papers present data acquired in a wide variety of environments, including laboratory, simulator, and clinical arenas. The papers discuss cognitive neurophysiologic measures such as digital signal processing wrist-mounted actigraphy; oculometrics including blinks, saccadic eye movements, pupillary movements, the pupil light reflex; and high-frequency EEG. These neurophysiological indices are related to cognitive performance as measured through standard test batteries and simulators with conditions including sleep loss, time on task, and aviation flight-induced fatigue. PMID:16018331

Russo, Michael B; Stetz, Melba C; Thomas, Maria L

2005-07-01

308

Ingestion of Lactobacillus strain reduces anxiety and improves cognitive function in the hyperammonemia rat.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that the hyperammonemia (HA)-induced neuroinflammation and alterations in the serotonin (5-HT) system may contribute to cognitive decline and anxiety disorder during hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Probiotics that maintain immune system homeostasis and regulate the 5-HT system may be potential treatment for HA-mediated neurological disorders in HE. In this study, we tested the efficacy of probiotic Lactobacillus helveticus strain NS8 in preventing cognitive decline and anxiety-like behavior in HA rats. Chronic HA was induced by intraperitoneal injection of ammonium acetate for four weeks in male Sprague-Dawley rats. HA rats were then given Lactobacillus helveticus strain NS8 (10(9) CFU mL(-1)) in drinking water as a daily supplementation. The Morris water maze task assessed cognitive function, and the elevated plus maze test evaluated anxiety-like behavior. Neuroinflammation was assessed by measuring the inflammatory markers: inducible nitric oxide synthase, prostaglandin E2, and interleukin-1 ? in the brain. 5-HT system activity was evaluated by measuring 5-HT and its metabolite, 5-HIAA, and the 5-HT precursor, tryptophan. Probiotic treatment of HA rats significantly reduced the level of inflammatory markers, decreased 5-HT metabolism, restored cognitive function and improved anxiety-like behavior. These results indicate that probiotic L. helveticus strain NS8 is beneficial for the treatment of cognitive decline and anxiety-like behavior in HA rats. PMID:24554471

Luo, Jia; Wang, Tao; Liang, Shan; Hu, Xu; Li, Wei; Jin, Feng

2014-03-01

309

Ginger improves cognitive function via NGF-induced ERK/CREB activation in the hippocampus of the mouse.  

PubMed

Ginger (the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) has been used worldwide for many centuries in cooking and for treatment of several diseases. The main pharmacological properties of ginger include anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antiarthritic, antiemetic and neuroprotective actions. Recent studies demonstrated that ginger significantly enhances cognitive function in various cognitive disorders as well as in healthy brain. However, the biochemical mechanisms underlying the ginger-mediated enhancement of cognition have not yet been studied in normal or diseased brain. In the present study, we assessed the memory-enhancing effects of dried ginger extract (GE) in a model of scopolamine-induced memory deficits and in normal animals by performing a novel object recognition test. We found that GE administration significantly improved the ability of mice to recognize novel objects, indicating improvements in learning and memory. Furthermore, to elucidate the mechanisms of GE-mediated cognitive enhancement, we focused on nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced signaling pathways. NGF enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis revealed that GE administration led to elevated NGF levels in both the mouse hippocampus and rat glioma C6 cells. GE administration also resulted in phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), as revealed by Western blotting analysis. Neutralization of NGF with a specific NGF antibody inhibited GE-triggered activation of ERK and CREB in the hippocampus. Also, GE treatment significantly increased pre- and postsynaptic markers, synaptophysin and PSD-95, which are related to synapse formation in the brain. These data suggest that GE has a synaptogenic effect via NGF-induced ERK/CREB activation, resulting in memory enhancement. PMID:25049196

Lim, Soonmin; Moon, Minho; Oh, Hyein; Kim, Hyo Geun; Kim, Sun Yeou; Oh, Myung Sook

2014-10-01

310

The "Rod and Fran Test": relationship priming influences cognitive-perceptual performance.  

PubMed

We theorized that interpersonal relationships can provide structures for experience. In particular, we tested whether primes of same-sex versus mixed-sex relationships could foster cognitive-perceptual processing styles known to be associated with independence versus interdependence respectively. Seventy-two participants visualized either a same-sex or other-sex relationship partner and then performed two measures of cognitive-perceptual style. On a computerized Rod and Frame Test, individuals were more field-dependent after visualizing a mixed-sex versus same-sex relationship partner. On a measure involving perceptions of group behavior, participants demonstrated more holistic/contextually based perception after being primed with a female versus male relationship partner. These findings support the hypothesis that activated cognitive structures representing interpersonal relationships can shape individuals' cognitive-perceptual performance. PMID:25175992

Baldwin, Mark W; Bagust, Jeff; Docherty, Sharon; Browman, Alexander S; Jackson, Joshua C

2014-01-01

311

Acute effects of a dietary non-starch polysaccharide supplement on cognitive performance in healthy middle-aged adults.  

PubMed

Objective Certain plant polysaccharides may provide psychological health benefits. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether they can acutely improve mood and cognitive function. Method In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, between subjects design trial, 73 middle-aged adults consumed 4 g of a proprietary mixture of non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) (Ambrotose(®) complex), a rice flour placebo, or a sucrose control. Participants completed testing at baseline and 30 minutes post-consumption. Acute effects of consumption on mood, cognition, and blood glucose were evaluated during mental tests designed to induce mental fatigue. Results Significant improvement in recognition and working memory performance was observed in the group that consumed NSP compared with placebo or sucrose. Improvements in memory performance following NSP intake were independent of changes in blood glucose. Discussion This is the first report of acute behavioural improvement following plant polysaccharide intake in healthy middle-aged adults under conditions of mental fatigue. The findings suggest that certain NSP may enhance memory performance through mechanisms other than elevated blood glucose. PMID:24621069

Best, Talitha; Howe, Peter; Bryan, Janet; Buckley, Jonathan; Scholey, Andrew

2015-02-01

312

Security-reliability performance of cognitive AF relay-based wireless communication system with channel estimation error  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, both the security and the reliability performance of the cognitive amplify-and-forward (AF) relay system are analyzed in the presence of the channel estimation error. The security and the reliability performance are represented by the outage probability and the intercept probability, respectively. Instead of perfect channel state information (CSI) predominantly assumed in the literature, a certain channel estimation algorithm and the influence of the corresponding channel estimation error are considered in this study. Specifically, linear minimum mean square error estimation (LMMSE) is utilized by the destination node and the eavesdropper node to obtain the CSI, and the closed form for the outage probability and that for the intercept probability are derived with the channel estimation error. It is shown that the transmission security (reliability) can be improved by loosening the reliability (security) requirement. Moreover, we compare the security and reliability performance of this relay-based cognitive radio system with those of the direct communication system without relay. Interestingly, it is found that the AF relay-based system has less reliability performance than the direct cognitive radio system; however, it can lower the sum of the outage probability and the intercept probability than the direct communication system. It is also found that there exists an optimal training number to minimize the sum of the outage probability and the intercept probability.

Gu, Qi; Wang, Gongpu; Gao, Li; Peng, Mugen

2014-12-01

313

Activities, Self-Referent Memory Beliefs, and Cognitive Performance: Evidence for Direct and Mediated Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the authors investigated the role of activities and self-referent memory beliefs for cognitive performance in a life-span sample. A factor analysis identified 8 activity factors, including Developmental Activities, Experiential Activities, Social Activities, Physical Activities, Technology Use, Watching Television, Games, and Crafts. A second-order general activity factor was significantly related to a general factor of cognitive function as

Daniela Jopp; Christopher Hertzog

2007-01-01

314

Academic goals, goal process cognition, and exam performance among college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the nature of and linkages between student-generated academic goals, individual differences in self-regulatory thinking (goal process cognition), and exam performance among college students. In Study 1 (N=365) and in Study 2 (N=325), we elicited students' self-ascribed most important academic goals for introductory psychology and their goal process cognition toward their most important goal. In addition, in Study 2,

Morris A. Okun; Chris Fairholme; Paul Karoly; Linda S. Ruehlman; Craig Newton

2006-01-01

315

Improving Learning Performance Through Rational Resource Allocation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article shows how rational analysis can be used to minimize learning cost for a general class of statistical learning problems. We discuss the factors that influence learning cost and show that the problem of efficient learning can be cast as a resource optimization problem. Solutions found in this way can be significantly more efficient than the best solutions that do not account for these factors. We introduce a heuristic learning algorithm that approximately solves this optimization problem and document its performance improvements on synthetic and real-world problems.

Gratch, J.; Chien, S.; DeJong, G.

1994-01-01

316

Tofu intake is associated with poor cognitive performance among community-dwelling elderly in China.  

PubMed

Tofu is a soy product which is commonly consumed in Asian countries, such as China and Indonesia. Several studies found negative associations of high tofu consumption with cognitive function in older Asian populations. However, the effect of tofu on cognitive function remains disputed as it was not found in Western populations. In the present study, the effect of weekly tofu intake on cognitive performance was investigated in an observational cross sectional study of 517 Chinese elderly from Shanghai. Similar to earlier studies, results showed that a higher weekly intake of tofu was associated with worse memory performance using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (? = -0.10, p = 0.01) after controlling for age, gender, education, being vegetarian, and weekly intake of fruit/juice, green vegetables, and orange/red vegetables. Furthermore, among older elderly (?68 years of age), high tofu intake increased the risk of cognitive impairment indicative of dementia (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 0.99-1.64, p = 0.04), after adjusting for all covariates. Consumption of meat and green vegetables independently also reduced risk of dementia. To conclude, high intake of tofu was negatively related to cognitive performance among community-dwelling elderly in China. Similar findings were reported in Indonesia and in Japanese Americans in the US. These findings suggest that the effect of tofu on cognition in elderly should be further investigated. PMID:25114086

Xu, Xin; Xiao, Shifu; Rahardjo, Tri Budi; Hogervorst, Eef

2015-01-01

317

Carbohydrate supplementation improves stroke performance in tennis.  

PubMed

The effect of carbohydrate supplementation on stroke quality during prolonged simulated tennis match-play was investigated. Well-trained tennis palyers reported to the test center three times. At each occasion they performed a pretest, consisting of the leuven Tennis Performance Test (LTPT) and a shuttle run (SHR), which they repeated (posttest) after a 2-h strenuous training session. Throughout the test session, they received in a double blind random order either a placebo drink (P), a carbohydrate solution (0.7 gxkg(-1) BWxh(-1); CHO), or CHO plus a dose of caffeine (5 mg per kg BW). Stroke quality was evaluated during the LTPT by means of measurements of error rate, ball velocity, precision of ball placement, and a velocity-precision (VP) and a velocity-precision-error (VPE) index. Pretest scores were similar during P and CHO. During P, compared with the pretest, stroke quality during the posttest deteriorated (P < 0.05) both for the first service and strokes during defensive rallies and for SHR performance. However, compared with P, the increase in error rate and number of nonreached balls indefensive rallies was smaller (P < 0.05) during CHO. Similarily, CHO attenuated (P < 0.05) the increase in error rate and the decrease in both the VP (P < 0.1) and VPE (P < 0.05) indices for the first service upon fatigue. Furthermore, CHO improved posttest SHR performance. Stroke quality and SHR time were similar during CHO alone and during combined CHO plus caffeine administration, both for the pretest and for the pretest and for the posttest. It is concluded that CHO supplementation improves stroke quality during the final stages of prolonged tennis play. The data prove that CHO intake may facilitate the maintenance of physical quality during long-lasting intermittent exercise to fatigue. PMID:9710871

Vergauwen, L; Brouns, F; Hespel, P

1998-08-01

318

Testing the Self-Efficacy—Performance Linkage of Social—Cognitive Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past empirical research examining the relationship of self-efficacy perceptions and performance has had several limitations. Most studies were performed in the laboratory with tasks not directly related to individual work performance. As a consequence, many findings are not generalizable to individual work performance. This study tested the self-efficacy-performance model found in Bandura's social-cognitive theory in a work setting, with a

Allison W. Harrison; R. Kelly Rainer Jr; Wayne A. Hochwarter; Kenneth R. Thompson

1997-01-01

319

Artificial Astrocytes Improve Neural Network Performance  

PubMed Central

Compelling evidence indicates the existence of bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons. Astrocytes, a type of glial cells classically considered to be passive supportive cells, have been recently demonstrated to be actively involved in the processing and regulation of synaptic information, suggesting that brain function arises from the activity of neuron-glia networks. However, the actual impact of astrocytes in neural network function is largely unknown and its application in artificial intelligence remains untested. We have investigated the consequences of including artificial astrocytes, which present the biologically defined properties involved in astrocyte-neuron communication, on artificial neural network performance. Using connectionist systems and evolutionary algorithms, we have compared the performance of artificial neural networks (NN) and artificial neuron-glia networks (NGN) to solve classification problems. We show that the degree of success of NGN is superior to NN. Analysis of performances of NN with different number of neurons or different architectures indicate that the effects of NGN cannot be accounted for an increased number of network elements, but rather they are specifically due to astrocytes. Furthermore, the relative efficacy of NGN vs. NN increases as the complexity of the network increases. These results indicate that artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance, and established the concept of Artificial Neuron-Glia Networks, which represents a novel concept in Artificial Intelligence with implications in computational science as well as in the understanding of brain function. PMID:21526157

Porto-Pazos, Ana B.; Veiguela, Noha; Mesejo, Pablo; Navarrete, Marta; Alvarellos, Alberto; Ibáñez, Oscar; Pazos, Alejandro; Araque, Alfonso

2011-01-01

320

Cost and performance: complements for improvement.  

PubMed

Activity-based costing (ABC) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) share similar views of resource consumption in the production of outputs. While DEA has a high level focus typically using aggregated data in the form of inputs and outputs, ABC is more detailed and oriented around very disaggregated data. We use a case study of immunisation activities in 24 New Zealand primary care practices to illustrate how DEA and ABC can be used in conjunction to improve performance analysis and benchmarking. Results show that practice size, socio-economic environment, parts of the service delivery process as well as regular administrative tasks are major cost and performance drivers for general practices in immunisation activities. It is worth noting that initial analyses of the ABC results, using contextual information and conventional methods of analysis such as regression and correlations, did not result in any patterns of significance. Reorganising this information using the DEA efficiency scores has revealed trends that make sense to practitioners and provide insights into where to place efforts for improvement. PMID:20703677

Rouse, Paul; Harrison, Julie; Turner, Nikki

2011-10-01

321

B Vitamins and Cognitive Performance in Older Adults: Review  

PubMed Central

A copious amount of scientific scrutiny has been dedicated to documenting typical and atypical human ageing, with a substantial body of work focusing upon the impact of lifestyle choices. One such lifestyle choice is that of diet and, in particular, micronutrient ingestion. Epidemiological studies have reported positive associations between B vitamin status and cognitive function, including negative associations between biological markers (i.e., homocysteine) of dysregulated one-carbon metabolism and cognitive function. This has led to a surge of randomised control trials (RCTs) investigations into B vitamin therapy. However, results have continuingly failed to show beneficial behavioural effects. Despite this, results reliably show treatment-related increases in B vitamin level and decreases in homocysteine level—both of which have been identified as risk factors for atypical ageing. In this paper we argue that it would be premature to conclude that B vitamin therapy has no potential and that more research is needed to systematically investigate the optimal dose, the therapeutic “window,” and individual differences in therapy responders and nonresponders. We start with a brief look at one-carbon metabolism and then consider the evidence from epidemiological studies and RCTs in relation to three specific B vitamins: folic acid (B9), pyridoxine (B6), and cobamides (B12). PMID:24959550

Reay, J. L.; Smith, M. A.; Riby, L. M.

2013-01-01

322

Implications for studying team cognition and team performance in network-centric warfare paradigms.  

PubMed

Network-centric warfare's (NCW) information-rich systems involving sophisticated sensors, tracking systems, smart weapons, and enhanced digital communications threaten to overload combatants with voluminous amounts of data. It is unclear whether warfighters will perceive such extensive data as actionable information to which they will respond accurately in a timely enough manner. Members of small teams in command and control centers, operating in crew-served vehicles, or simply "grunting it out" as ground-pounding infantrymen, may be disparately separated by space, but will communicate and be connected by electronic linkages, e.g., radio, text messages, situation displays, or global positioning data. However, team members will also have to remember shared mental models of tasks at hand, pay attention to and share common situation awareness in complex operational environments, perform team cognition and team coordination, and integrate both lower and higher cognitive processes with those of team behaviors. Such exceptional capabilities are required more now than ever before; such capabilities today are far from assured. After two workshops to establish performance metrics for assessing cognitive performance of military personnel in NCW, this preface introduces five manuscripts addressing team cognition and team performance from both a theoretical and a practical perspective. The authors of this preface question if NCW, and perhaps the politico-social ramifications of modern warfare, have already outstripped behavioral scientists' approach to researching team cognition and team performance-expertise that is so crucially needed for combatants on the rapidly changing 21st-century battlegrounds. PMID:17547305

Krueger, Gerald P; Banderet, Louis E

2007-05-01

323

Invited Plenary Speech, Second International Conference on Cognitive Science. July 2730, 1999. Japan. 1 Artificial Intelligence for Improving Children's Thinking  

E-print Network

. Japan. 1 Artificial Intelligence for Improving Children's Thinking Charles X. Ling Department intelligence tests. 2 Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science Cognitive science studies how the human@csd.uwo.ca Extended Abstract 1 Human Intelligence There is no universally accepted definition for intelli­ gence among

Ling, Charles X.

324

Improving the learning of clinical reasoning through computer-based cognitive representation  

PubMed Central

Objective Clinical reasoning is usually taught using a problem-solving approach, which is widely adopted in medical education. However, learning through problem solving is difficult as a result of the contextualization and dynamic aspects of actual problems. Moreover, knowledge acquired from problem-solving practice tends to be inert and fragmented. This study proposed a computer-based cognitive representation approach that externalizes and facilitates the complex processes in learning clinical reasoning. The approach is operationalized in a computer-based cognitive representation tool that involves argument mapping to externalize the problem-solving process and concept mapping to reveal the knowledge constructed from the problems. Methods Twenty-nine Year 3 or higher students from a medical school in east China participated in the study. Participants used the proposed approach implemented in an e-learning system to complete four learning cases in 4 weeks on an individual basis. For each case, students interacted with the problem to capture critical data, generate and justify hypotheses, make a diagnosis, recall relevant knowledge, and update their conceptual understanding of the problem domain. Meanwhile, students used the computer-based cognitive representation tool to articulate and represent the key elements and their interactions in the learning process. Results A significant improvement was found in students’ learning products from the beginning to the end of the study, consistent with students’ report of close-to-moderate progress in developing problem-solving and knowledge-construction abilities. No significant differences were found between the pretest and posttest scores with the 4-week period. The cognitive representation approach was found to provide more formative assessment. Conclusions The computer-based cognitive representation approach improved the learning of clinical reasoning in both problem solving and knowledge construction. PMID:25518871

Wu, Bian; Wang, Minhong; Johnson, Janice M.; Grotzer, Tina A.

2014-01-01

325

Optimizing treatments for nicotine dependence by increasing cognitive performance during withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Introduction Current FDA-approved smoking cessation pharmacotherapies have limited efficacy and are associated with high rates of relapse. Therefore, there is a clear need to develop novel antismoking medications. Nicotine withdrawal is associated with cognitive impairments that predict smoking relapse. It has been proposed that these cognitive deficits are a hallmark of nicotine withdrawal that could be targeted in order to prevent smoking relapse. Thus, pharmacotherapies that increase cognitive performance during nicotine withdrawal may represent potential smoking cessation agents. Areas covered The authors review the clinical literature demonstrating that nicotine withdrawal is associated with deficits in working memory, attention and response inhibition. They then briefly summarize different classes of compounds and strategies to increase cognitive performance during nicotine withdrawal. Particular emphasis has been placed on translational research in order to highlight areas for which there is strong rationale for pilot clinical trials of potential smoking cessation medications. Expert opinion There is emerging evidence that supports deficits in cognitive function as a plausible nicotine withdrawal phenotype. The authors furthermore believe that the translational paradigms presented here may represent efficient and valid means for the evaluation of cognitive-enhancing medications as possible treatments for nicotine dependence. PMID:24707983

Ashare, Rebecca L; Schmidt, Heath D

2014-01-01

326

Exposure to Music and Cognitive Performance: Tests of Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on two experiments of exposure to music and cognitive performance. In Experiment 1, Canadian undergraduates performed better on an IQ subtest (Symbol Search) after listening to an up-tempo piece of music composed by Mozart in comparison to a slow piece by Albinoni. The effect was evident, however, only when the two pieces also…

Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Nakata, Takayuki; Hunter, Patrick G.; Tamoto, Sachiko

2007-01-01

327

A biomathematical model of the restoring effects of caffeine on cognitive performance during sleep deprivation  

E-print Network

A biomathematical model of the restoring effects of caffeine on cognitive performance during sleep Spring, MD 20910, USA H I G H L I G H T S c We model the restoring effects of caffeine on sleep-deprived individuals. c Caffeine effects were modeled as a multiplying factor on caffeine-free performance. c

328

Psychol Med . Author manuscript The association of cognitive performance with mental health and physical  

E-print Network

performance has been associated with mental and physical health, but it is unknown whether the strength whether cognitive performance predicted mental and physical health from midlife to early old age. Methods and 2006. The age range included over the follow-up was from 40 to 75 years. Mental health and physical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

329

Mechanism of Isoflavone Aglycone's Effect on Cognitive Performance of Senescence-Accelerated Mice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of isoflavone aglycone (IA) on the learning and memory performance of senescence-accelerated mice, and explored its neural protective mechanism. Results showed that SAM-P/8 senescence-accelerated mice treated with IA performed significantly better in the Y-maze cognitive test than the no treatment control (P less…

Yang, Hong; Jin, Guifang; Ren, Dongdong; Luo, Sijing; Zhou, Tianhong

2011-01-01

330

The Relationship of Cognitive Style to Academic Performance among Dental Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies have suggested that field independent (FI) dental dents perform better in pre-clinical laboratory courses than field dependent (FD) students. A study was conducted to determine the relationship of cognitive learning style to academic performance with 66 second year dental students at Virginia Commonwealth University (Richmond). A brief…

Linder, Frederic; And Others

331

Social Class, Sex Differences and Performance on Cognitive Tasks Among Two-Year-Old Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the present study was to investigate the relation between sex, social class as indexed by parental education level, and performance on three different types of cognitive tasks among two year old children. It was expected that social class would be related positively to superior performance on all the tasks for girls but unrelated for…

Reppucci, N. Dickon

332

Effects of heat stress on cognitive performance: the current state of knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the current state of knowledge on the effects of heat stress on cognitive performance. Although substantial research has been performed, it has proven difficult to describe the literature findings in a systematic manner. This is due to the large number of factors that come into play, such as task type, exposure duration, skill and acclimatization level of

P. A. HANCOCK; I. VASMATZIDIS

2003-01-01

333

Social Cognitive Predictors of Pre-Service Teachers' Technology Integration Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of the study was to examine interrelationships among social cognitive variables (self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and performance goals) and their role in predicting pre-service teachers' technology integration performance. Although researchers have examined the role of these variables in the teacher-education context, the…

Perkmen, Serkan; Pamuk, Sonmez

2011-01-01

334

A versus F: The Effects of Implicit Letter Priming on Cognitive Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: It has been proposed that motivational responses outside people's conscious awareness can be primed to affect academic performance. The current research focused on the relationship between primed evaluative letters (A and F), explicit and implicit achievement motivation, and cognitive performance. Aim: Given the evaluative connotation…

Ciani, Keith D.; Sheldon, Kennon M.

2010-01-01

335

Oestrogen receptor ? agonist improved long-term ovariectomy-induced spatial cognition deficit in young rats.  

PubMed

Ovariectomy is known as 'surgical menopause' with decreased levels of oestrogen in female rodents and its reported risks and adverse effects include cognitive impairment. In the brain, oestrogen exerts effects through its receptors, oestrogen receptor ? (ER?) and ? (ER?). However, the role of ER? or ER? in ovariectomy-induced cognitive impairment needs further investigation. Here, we observed that bilaterally ovariectomized 3-month-old rats showed obvious spatial learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze with significant loss of neurons and synapses in the hippocampus. In addition to the rapid decline in serum oestradiol levels, the expression of ER?, but not ER?, was decreased in the hippocampus starting 1 wk after ovariectomy. Prompt 4,4',4?-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl) trisphenol (PPT) treatment (1 mg/kg.d), an agonist of ER?, improved the spatial learning and memory ability of ovariectomized rats and rescued ovariectomy-induced neuron loss by up-regulating the level of BCLxl, an important anti-apoptosis protein. Furthermore, PPT treatment also improved ovariectomy-induced hippocampal synapse loss and up-regulated the levels of synaptic proteins (synapsin I, NR2A and GluR1) and the activates of CaMK ??, ERK and Akt. Thus, these results demonstrated that ER? plays an important role in neuroprotection and that prompt ER? rescue is effective to improve hippocampal-dependent cognition deficit after long-term ovariectomy. PMID:22999489

Qu, Na; Wang, Lei; Liu, Zan-Chao; Tian, Qing; Zhang, Qi

2013-06-01

336

Scaling in cognitive performance reflects multiplicative multifractal cascade dynamics  

PubMed Central

Self-organized criticality purports to build multi-scaled structures out of local interactions. Evidence of scaling in various domains of biology may be more generally understood to reflect multiplicative interactions weaving together many disparate scales. The self-similarity of power-law scaling entails homogeneity: fluctuations distribute themselves similarly across many spatial and temporal scales. However, this apparent homogeneity can be misleading, especially as it spans more scales. Reducing biological processes to one power-law relationship neglects rich cascade dynamics. We review recent research into multifractality in executive-function cognitive tasks and propose that scaling reflects not criticality but instead interactions across multiple scales and among fluctuations of multiple sizes. PMID:22529819

Stephen, Damian G.; Anastas, Jason R.; Dixon, James A.

2012-01-01

337

Quantitative Diffusion Tensor Imaging Tractography Metrics are Associated with Cognitive Performance Among HIV-Infected Patients  

PubMed Central

There have been many studies examining HIV-infection-related alterations of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diffusion metrics. However, examining scalar diffusion metrics ignores the orientation aspect of diffusion imaging, which can be captured with tractography. We examined five different tractography metrics obtained from global tractography maps (global tractography FA, average tube length, normalized number of streamtubes, normalized weighted streamtube length, and normalized total number of tubes generated) for differences between HIV positive and negative patients and the association between the metrics and clinical variables of disease severity. We also examined the relationship between these metrics and cognitive performance across a wide range of cognitive domains for the HIV positive and negative patient groups separately. The results demonstrated a significant difference between the groups for global tractography FA (t=2.13, p= 0.04), but not for any of the other tractography metrics examined (p-value range=0.39 to 0.95). There were also several significant associations between the tractography metrics and cognitive performance (i.e., tapping rates, switching 1 and 2, verbal interference, mazes; r?0.42) for HIV infected patients. In particular, associations were noted between tractography metrics, speed of processing, fine motor control/speed, and executive function for the HIV-infected patients. These findings suggest that tractography metrics capture clinically relevant information regarding cognitive performance among HIV infected patients and suggests the importance of subtle white matter changes in examining cognitive performance. PMID:20503115

Conley, Jared; Paul, Robert H.; Coop, Kathryn; Zhang, Song; Zhou, Wenjin; Laidlaw, David H.; Taylor, Lynn E.; Flanigan, Timothy; Navia, Bradford; Cohen, Ronald; Tashima, Karen

2010-01-01

338

Quantitative diffusion tensor imaging tractography metrics are associated with cognitive performance among HIV-infected patients.  

PubMed

There have been many studies examining HIV-infection-related alterations of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diffusion metrics. However, examining scalar diffusion metrics ignores the orientation aspect of diffusion imaging, which can be captured with tractography. We examined five different tractography metrics obtained from global tractography maps (global tractography FA, average tube length, normalized number of streamtubes, normalized weighted streamtube length, and normalized total number of tubes generated) for differences between HIV positive and negative patients and the association between the metrics and clinical variables of disease severity. We also examined the relationship between these metrics and cognitive performance across a wide range of cognitive domains for the HIV positive and negative patient groups separately. The results demonstrated a significant difference between the groups for global tractography FA (t = 2.13, p = 0.04), but not for any of the other tractography metrics examined (p-value range = 0.39 to 0.95). There were also several significant associations between the tractography metrics and cognitive performance (i.e., tapping rates, switching 1 and 2, verbal interference, mazes; r > or = 0.42) for HIV infected patients. In particular, associations were noted between tractography metrics, speed of processing, fine motor control/speed, and executive function for the HIV-infected patients. These findings suggest that tractography metrics capture clinically relevant information regarding cognitive performance among HIV infected patients and suggests the importance of subtle white matter changes in examining cognitive performance. PMID:20503115

Tate, David F; Conley, Jared; Paul, Robert H; Coop, Kathryn; Zhang, Song; Zhou, Wenjin; Laidlaw, David H; Taylor, Lynn E; Flanigan, Timothy; Navia, Bradford; Cohen, Ronald; Tashima, Karen

2010-03-01

339

CF6 Jet Engine Performance Improvement Program: High Pressure Turbine Aerodynamic Performance Improvement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The improved single shank high pressure turbine design was evaluated in component tests consisting of performance, heat transfer and mechanical tests, and in core engine tests. The instrumented core engine test verified the thermal, mechanical, and aeromechanical characteristics of the improved turbine design. An endurance test subjected the improved single shank turbine to 1000 simulated flight cycles, the equivalent of approximately 3000 hours of typical airline service. Initial back-to-back engine tests demonstrated an improvement in cruise sfc of 1.3% and a reduction in exhaust gas temperature of 10 C. An additional improvement of 0.3% in cruise sfc and 6 C in EGT is projected for long service engines.

Fasching, W. A.

1980-01-01

340

The impact of physical activity and fitness on academic achievement and cognitive performance in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential for physical activity and fitness to improve cognitive function, learning and academic achievement in children has received attention by researchers and policy makers. This paper reports a systematic approach to identification, analysis and review of published studies up to early 2009. A three-step search method was adopted to identify studies that used measures of physical activity or fitness

Thomas J. H. Keeley; Kenneth R. Fox

2009-01-01

341

Can Gender-Adapted Instruction Improve Mathematics Performance and Attitudes?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper presents the results of a study investigating whether adapting instruction to gender preferences can improve the attitudes of students and their performance in mathematics. The study found that there was no effect on performance based on gender preferences. However, there was improved student performance across all conditions which suggests that "dynamic worked-example mathematics instruction" improves students' performance.

Derry, Sharon J.; Leonard, Mary J.

2012-02-14

342

Spatial Cognitive Performance During Adaptation to Conflicting Tilt-Translation Stimuli as a Sensorimotor Spaceflight Analog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need to resolve new patterns of sensory feedback in altered gravitoinertial environments requires cognitive processes to develop appropriate reference frames for spatial orientation awareness. The purpose of this study was to examine deficits in spatial cognitive performance during adaptation to conflicting tilt-translation stimuli. Fourteen subjects were tilted within a lighted enclosure that simultaneously translated at one of 3 frequencies. Tilt and translation motion was synchronized to maintain the resultant gravitoinertial force aligned with the longitudinal body axis, resulting in a mismatch analogous to spaceflight in which the canals and vision signal tilt while the otoliths do not. Changes in performance on different spatial cognitive tasks were compared 1) without motion, 2) with tilt motion alone (pitch at 0.15, 0.3 and 0.6 Hz or roll at 0.3 Hz), and 3) with conflicting tilt-translation motion. The adaptation paradigm was continued for up to 30 min or until the onset of nausea. The order of the adaptation conditions were counter-balanced across 4 different test sessions. There was a significant effect of stimulus frequency on both motion sickness and spatial cognitive performance. Only 3 of 14 were able to complete the full 30 min protocol at 0.15 Hz, while 7 of 14 completed 0.3 Hz and 13 of 14 completed 0.6 Hz. There were no changes in simple visual-spatial cognitive tests, e.g., mental rotation or match-to-sample. There were significant deficits during 0.15 Hz adaptation in both accuracy and reaction time during a spatial reference task in which subjects are asked to identify a match of a 3D reoriented cube assemblage. Our results are consistent with antidotal reports of cognitive impairment that are common during sensorimotor adaptation with G-transitions. We conclude that these cognitive deficits stem from the ambiguity of spatial reference frames for central processing of inertial motion cues.

Kayanickupuram, A. J.; Ramos, K. A.; Cordova, M. L.; Wood, S. J.

2009-01-01

343

Improved Cognitive Function After Transcranial, Light-Emitting Diode Treatments in Chronic, Traumatic Brain Injury: Two Case Reports  

E-print Network

Objective: Two chronic, traumatic brain injury (TBI) cases, where cognition improved following treatment with red and near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs), applied transcranially to forehead and scalp areas, are ...

Naeser, Margaret A.

344

Cognitive performance deficits in a simulated climb of Mount Everest - Operation Everest II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cognitive function at simulated altitude was investigated in a repeated-measures within-subject study of performance by seven volunteers in a hypobaric chamber, in which atmospheric pressure was systematically lowered over a period of 40 d to finally reach a pressure equivalent to 8845 m, the approximate height of Mount Everest. The automated performance test system employed compact computer design; automated test administrations, data storage, and retrieval; psychometric properties of stability and reliability; and factorial richness. Significant impairments of cognitive function were seen for three of the five tests in the battery; on two tests, grammatical reasoning and pattern comparison, every subject showed a substantial decrement.

Kennedy, R. S.; Dunlap, W. P.; Banderet, L. E.; Smith, M. G.; Houston, C. S.

1989-01-01

345

Improving effects of the mushroom Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceus) on mild cognitive impairment: a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.  

PubMed

A double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 50- to 80-year-old Japanese men and women diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment in order to examine the efficacy of oral administration of Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceus), an edible mushroom, for improving cognitive impairment, using a cognitive function scale based on the Revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS-R). After 2 weeks of preliminary examination, 30 subjects were randomized into two 15-person groups, one of which was given Yamabushitake and the other given a placebo. The subjects of the Yamabushitake group took four 250 mg tablets containing 96% of Yamabushitake dry powder three times a day for 16 weeks. After termination of the intake, the subjects were observed for the next 4 weeks. At weeks 8, 12 and 16 of the trial, the Yamabushitake group showed significantly increased scores on the cognitive function scale compared with the placebo group. The Yamabushitake group's scores increased with the duration of intake, but at week 4 after the termination of the 16 weeks intake, the scores decreased significantly. Laboratory tests showed no adverse effect of Yamabushitake. The results obtained in this study suggest that Yamabushitake is effective in improving mild cognitive impairment. PMID:18844328

Mori, Koichiro; Inatomi, Satoshi; Ouchi, Kenzi; Azumi, Yoshihito; Tuchida, Takashi

2009-03-01

346

Selective PDE inhibitors rolipram and sildenafil improve object retrieval performance in adult cynomolgus macaques  

PubMed Central

Rationale Selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors improve the formation of hippocampus-dependent memories in several rodent models of cognition. However, studies evaluating the effects of PDE inhibition on prefrontal cortex-dependent cognition and in monkeys are rare. Objectives The present study investigates the effect of the PDE4 inhibitor rolipram and the PDE5 inhibitor sildenafil on object retrieval performance. Object retrieval is a prefrontal cortical-mediated task, which is likely to capture attention and response inhibition. Materials and methods The ability to retrieve a food reward from a clear box with an open side positioned in various orientations was assessed in adult male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). Results Rolipram (0.003–0.03 mg/kg, intramuscular [i.m.]) and sildenafil (0.3–3 mg/kg, i.m.) dose-dependently increased correct first reaches during difficult trials, reaching significance at 0.01 and 1 mg/kg, respectively. For both drugs, correct reaches were increased approximately 20%; that is, performance was improved from ~50 to ~70% correct. Conclusions Both rolipram and sildenafil improved object retrieval performance, thus demonstrating the cognition-enhancing effects of PDE inhibition on a prefrontal task of executive function in monkeys. PMID:18034336

Basile, J. L.; Prickaerts, J.; Blokland, A.; Vivian, J. A.

2007-01-01

347

The mere anticipation of an interaction with a woman can impair men's cognitive performance.  

PubMed

Recent research suggests that heterosexual men's (but not heterosexual women's) cognitive performance is impaired after an interaction with someone of the opposite sex (Karremans et al., 2009). These findings have been interpreted in terms of the cognitive costs of trying to make a good impression during the interaction. In everyday life, people frequently engage in pseudo-interactions with women (e.g., through the phone or the internet) or anticipate interacting with a woman later on. The goal of the present research was to investigate if men's cognitive performance decreased in these types of situations, in which men have little to no opportunity to impress her and, moreover, have little to no information about the mate value of their interaction partner. Two studies demonstrated that men's (but not women's) cognitive performance declined if they were led to believe that they interacted with a woman via a computer (Study 1) or even if they merely anticipated an interaction with a woman (Study 2). Together, these results suggest that an actual interaction is not a necessary prerequisite for the cognitive impairment effect to occur. Moreover, these effects occur even if men do not get information about the woman's attractiveness. This latter finding is discussed in terms of error management theory. PMID:22042159

Nauts, Sanne; Metzmacher, Martin; Verwijmeren, Thijs; Rommeswinkel, Vera; Karremans, Johan C

2012-08-01

348

Alcohol and tobacco use and cognitive-motivational variables in school settings: effects on academic performance in Spanish adolescents.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to analyze: (a) the relationship between alcohol and tobacco use and academic performance, and (b) the predictive role of psycho-educational factors and alcohol and tobacco abuse on academic performance in a sample of 352 Spanish adolescents from grades 8 to 10 of Compulsory Secondary Education. The Self-Description Questionnaire-II, the Sydney Attribution Scale, and the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire were administered in order to analyze cognitive-motivational variables. Alcohol and tobacco abuse, sex, and grade retention were also measured using self-reported questions. Academic performance was measured by school records. Frequency analyses and logistic regression analyses were used. Frequency analyses revealed that students who abuse of tobacco and alcohol show a higher rate of poor academic performance. Logistic regression analyses showed that health behaviours, and educational and cognitive-motivational variables exert a different effect on academic performance depending on the academic area analyzed. These results point out that not only academic, but also health variables should be address to improve academic performance in adolescence. PMID:23487281

Inglés, Cándido J; Torregrosa, María S; Rodríguez-Marín, Jesús; García del Castillo, José A; Gázquez, José J; García-Fernández, José M; Delgado, Beatriz

2013-01-01

349

Investigation of microwave antennas with improved performances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation presents the investigation of antennas with improved performances at microwave frequencies. It covers the following three topics: the study of the metamaterial with near-zero index of refraction and its application in directive antenna design, the design technique of a wideband circularly polarized patch antenna for 60GHz wireless application and the investigation of a novel direction of arrival (DOA) estimation technique inspired by human auditory system. First, the metamaterial composed of two-dimensional (2-D) metallic wire arrays is investigated as an effective medium with an effective index of refraction less than unity (neff < 1). The effective medium parameters (permittivity epsilon eff, permeability mueff and neff ) of a wire array are extracted from the finite-element simulated scattering parameters and verified through a 2-D electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structure case study. A simple design methodology for directive monopole antennas is introduced by embedding a monopole within a metallic wire array with neff < 1 at the antenna operating frequencies. The narrow beam effect of the monopole antenna is demonstrated in both simulation and experiment at X-band (8 -- 12 GHz). The measured antenna properties including return loss and radiation patterns are in good agreement with simulation results. Parametric studies of the antenna system are performed. The physical principles and interpretations of the directive monopole antenna embedded in the wire array medium are also discussed. Second, a fully packaged wideband circularly polarized patch antenna is designed for 60GHz wireless communication. The patch antenna incorporates a diagonal slot at the center and features a superstrate and an air cavity backing to achieve desired performances including wide bandwidth, high efficiency and low axial ratio. The detailed design procedure of the circularly polarized antenna, including the design of the microstrip-fed patch antenna and the comparison of the performances of the antenna with different feeding interfaces, is described. The experimental results of the final packaged antenna agree reasonably with the simulation results. Third, an improved two-antenna direction of arrival (DOA) estimation technique is explored, which is inspired by the human auditory system. The idea of this work is to utilize a lossy scatter, which emulates the low-pass filtering function of the human head at high frequency, to achieve more accurate DOA estimation. A simple 2-monopole example is studied and the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm is applied to calculate the DOA. The improved estimation accuracy is demonstrated in both simulation and experiment. Furthermore, inspired by the sound localization capability of human using just a single ear, a novel direction of arrival estimation technique using a single UWB antenna is proposed and studied. The DOA estimation accuracies of the single UWB antenna are studied in the x-y, x-z and y-z planes with different Signal to Noise Ratios (SNR). The proposed single antenna DOA technique is demonstrated in both simulation and experiment, although with reduced accuracy comparing with the case of two antennas with a scatter in between. At the end, the conclusions of this dissertation are drawn and possible future works are discussed.

Zhou, Rongguo

350

APOE Moderates the Association between Lifestyle Activities and Cognitive Performance: Evidence of Genetic Plasticity in Aging  

PubMed Central

The current study examined independent and interactive effects between Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and two types of cognitively-stimulating lifestyle activities (CSLA)—integrated information processing (CSLA-II) and novel information processing (CSLA-NI)—on concurrent and longitudinal changes in cognition. Three-wave data across six years of follow-up from the Victoria Longitudinal Study (n = 278; ages 55–94) and linear mixed model analyses were used to characterize the effects of APOE genotype and participation in CSLA-II and CSLA-NI in four cognitive domains. Significant CSLA effects on cognition were observed. More frequent participation in challenging activities (i.e., CSLA-NI) was associated with higher baseline scores on word recall, fact recall, vocabulary and verbal fluency. Conversely, higher participation in less cognitively-challenging activities (i.e., CSLA-II) was associated with lower scores on fact recall and verbal fluency. No longitudinal CSLA-cognition effects were found. Two significant genetic effects were observed. First, APOE moderated CSLA-II and CSLA-NI associations with baseline verbal fluency and fact recall scores. Second, APOE ?4 non-carriers’ baseline performance were more likely to be moderated by CSLA participation, compared to APOE ?4 carriers. Our findings suggest APOE may be a “plasticity” gene that makes individuals more or less amenable to the influence of protective factors such as CSLA. PMID:24867440

Runge, Shannon K.; Small, Brent J.; McFall, G. Peggy; Dixon, Roger A.

2014-01-01

351

Cognitive rehabilitation therapies for Alzheimer's disease: A review of methods to improve treatment engagement and self-efficacy  

PubMed Central

Cognitive rehabilitation therapies for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are becoming more readily available to the geriatric population in an attempt to curb the insidious decline in cognitive and functional performance. However, people with AD may have difficulty adhering to these cognitive treatments due to denial of memory deficits, compromised brain systems, cognitive incapacity for self-awareness, general difficulty following through on daily tasks, lack of motivation, hopelessness, and apathy, all of which may be either due to the illness or be secondary to depression. Cognitive rehabilitation training exercises are also labor intensive and, unfortunately, serve as a repeated reminder about the memory impairments and attendant functional consequences. In order for cognitive rehabilitation methods to be effective, patients must be adequately engaged and motivated to not only begin a rehabilitation program but also to remain involved in the intervention until a therapeutic dosage can be attained. We review approaches to cognitive rehabilitation in AD, neuropsychological as well as psychological obstacles to effective treatment in this population, and methods that target adherence to treatment and may therefore be applicable to cognitive rehabilitation therapies for AD. The goal is to stimulate discussion among researchers and clinicians alike on how treatment effects may be mediated by engagement in treatment, and what can be done to enhance patient adherence for cognitive rehabilitation therapies in order to obtain greater cognitive and functional benefits from the treatment itself. PMID:23400790

Choi, Jimmy; Twamley, Elizabeth W.

2013-01-01

352

A synthesis of mathematical and cognitive performances of students with mathematics learning disabilities.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to synthesize the findings from 23 articles that compared the mathematical and cognitive performances of students with mathematics learning disabilities (LD) to (a) students with LD in mathematics and reading, (b) age- or grade-matched students with no LD, and (c) mathematical-ability-matched younger students with no LD. Overall results revealed that students with mathematics LD exhibited higher word problem-solving abilities and no significant group differences on working memory, long-term memory, and metacognition measures compared to students with LD in mathematics and reading. Findings also revealed students with mathematics LD demonstrated significantly lower performance compared to age- or grade-matched students with no LD on both mathematical and cognitive measures. Comparison between students with mathematics LD and younger students with no LD revealed mixed outcomes on mathematical measures and generally no significant group differences on cognitive measures. PMID:24153404

Shin, Mikyung; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty

2015-01-01

353

Improving the neural mechanisms of cognition through the pursuit of happiness  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews evidence on the neural basis of how positive mood states can modulate cognition, particularly during creative problem-solving. Studies performed over the past few decades demonstrate that individuals in a positive mood engage in a broader scope of attention, enhancing their access to distant and unusual semantic associations, and increasing task-shifting and problem-solving capacities. In this review, we summarize these behavioral studies; we then present recent findings on the changes in brain activation patterns that are induced by a positive mood when participants engage in problem-solving tasks and show how these relate to task performance. Additionally, we integrate findings on the neuromodulatory influence of positive mood on cognition as mediated by dopaminergic signaling in the prefrontal cortex and we describe how this system can go awry during pathological states of elevated mood as in mania. Finally, we describe current and future research directions using psychotherapeutic and real-time fMRI neurofeedback approaches to up-regulate positive mood and facilitate optimal creative cognitive performance. We conclude with some speculations on the clinical implications of this emerging area of research. PMID:23966924

Subramaniam, Karuna; Vinogradov, Sophia

2013-01-01

354

Cognitive performance decrement in US Army aircrews. Technical report, 21 May 1984-31 August 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the use of subjective estimates to assess the cognitive effects of intermediate doses of radiation on helicopter crew performance. A mission analysis performed across several aircraft with scenarios developed for the CH-47 and AH-1 followed the detailed task analysis and classifications. Thirty-four CH-47 crews performed 9 tasks on a CH-47 simulator and their task times were measured.

J. I. Peters; M. A. Archer; M. J. Moyer

1985-01-01

355

Spatial Modulation Improves Performance in CTIS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Suitably formulated spatial modulation of a scene imaged by a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer (CTIS) has been found to be useful as a means of improving the imaging performance of the CTIS. As used here, "spatial modulation" signifies the imposition of additional, artificial structure on a scene from within the CTIS optics. The basic principles of a CTIS were described in "Improvements in Computed- Tomography Imaging Spectrometry" (NPO-20561) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 24, No. 12 (December 2000), page 38 and "All-Reflective Computed-Tomography Imaging Spectrometers" (NPO-20836), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 11 (November 2002), page 7a. To recapitulate: A CTIS offers capabilities for imaging a scene with spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution. The spectral disperser in a CTIS is a two-dimensional diffraction grating. It is positioned between two relay lenses (or on one of two relay mirrors) in a video imaging system. If the disperser were removed, the system would produce ordinary images of the scene in its field of view. In the presence of the grating, the image on the focal plane of the system contains both spectral and spatial information because the multiple diffraction orders of the grating give rise to multiple, spectrally dispersed images of the scene. By use of algorithms adapted from computed tomography, the image on the focal plane can be processed into an image cube a three-dimensional collection of data on the image intensity as a function of the two spatial dimensions (x and y) in the scene and of wavelength (lambda). Thus, both spectrally and spatially resolved information on the scene at a given instant of time can be obtained, without scanning, from a single snapshot; this is what makes the CTIS such a potentially powerful tool for spatially, spectrally, and temporally resolved imaging. A CTIS performs poorly in imaging some types of scenes in particular, scenes that contain little spatial or spectral variation. The computed spectra of such scenes tend to approximate correct values to within acceptably small errors near the edges of the field of view but to be poor approximations away from the edges. The additional structure imposed on a scene according to the present method enables the CTIS algorithms to reconstruct acceptable approximations of the spectral data throughout the scene.

Bearman, Gregory H.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Johnson, William R.

2009-01-01

356

Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate improves processing speed and memory in cognitively impaired MS patients: a phase II study.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes cognitive impairment including slowed processing speed and problems with learning and memory. Stimulants are attractive candidates for improving mental speed but carry risk of addiction and other adverse behavioral effects. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a D-amphetamine prodrug currently approved for attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder with the potential to be better tolerated due to its prolonged clinical effect. This phase II placebo-controlled, double-blind study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of LDX in cognitively impaired MS patients. Subjects were patients with clinically definite MS, aged 18-56 years, and impaired on either of two primary outcomes: the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) or the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). Both SDMT and PASAT are measures of cognitive processing speed. Of 174 MS patients screened, 63 were randomized to 30 mg of LDX or placebo in a 2:1 fashion; the dose was increased as tolerated to 70 mg over 4 weeks and then maintained for another 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes were the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test Revised (BVMTR), the California Verbal Learning Test 2nd edition (CVLT2), both measures of episodic memory, and the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function for adults (BRIEF-A), a self-report measure of executive function. Fatigue and depression were also evaluated. There was significant improvement in the SDMT score (+4.6 vs. +1.3) and CVLT2 score (+4.7 vs. -0.9) in the LDX group compared with the placebo group among the 49 completers. There was no change on the other outcomes. A high proportion of both LDX-treated and placebo-treated subjects reported adverse events (73.5 % vs. 68.4 %). However, there were no serious adverse events noted in the study. These preliminary data indicate that LDX has the potential to be an efficacious treatment for MS patients with cognitive impairment. PMID:23001556

Morrow, Sarah A; Smerbeck, Audrey; Patrick, Kara; Cookfair, Diane; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Benedict, Ralph H B

2013-02-01

357

Interaction of age, cognitive function, and gait performance in 50-80-year-olds.  

PubMed

The variability of walking gait timing increases with age and is strongly related to fall risk. The purpose of the study was to examine the interaction of age, cognitive function, and gait performance during dual-task walking. Forty-two, healthy men and women, 50-80 years old, completed the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) and Trail Making Test (TMT) to assess cognitive performance and were separated into groups by decade of life. They then performed dual-task walking, at a self-selected pace, on an instrumented treadmill during three cognitive loading conditions: (1) no cognitive load, (2) subtraction from 100 by 1s, and (3) subtraction from 100 by 3s. The treadmill recorded spatiotemporal gait parameters that were used to calculate the mean and coefficient of variation for each variable over ten strides. Time to complete the TMT was positively correlated with age, stride time, double-limb support time, and mediolateral instability and was inversely correlated with single-limb support time. Subjects in their 70s increased their stride time and double-limb support time during the most challenging dual-task condition (subtraction by 3s), whereas subjects in their 50s and 60s did not. Across conditions, the variability of stride length, stride time, and single-limb support time was greatest in the 70s. Mediolateral instability increased only for subjects in their 70s in the subtraction by 3s condition. Reduced cognitive function with age makes it difficult for older adults to maintain a normal, rhythmical gait pattern while performing a cognitive task, which may place them at greater risk for falling. PMID:25073454

LaRoche, Dain P; Greenleaf, Brittnee L; Croce, Ronald V; McGaughy, Jill A

2014-01-01

358

Nutritional status and cognitive performance of mother-child pairs in Sidama, Southern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional status and cognitive performance of women and their 5-year-old children using a cross-sectional design. Cognitive performance of mothers and children was assessed with Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-II (KABC-II). Demographic characteristics, food consumption patterns and anthropometry were also measured. Four rural districts in Sidama, southern Ethiopia served as the setting for this study. Subjects were one hundred women and their 5-year-old children. Mean?±?standard deviation age of the mothers was 29?±?6 years and family size was 7.0?±?2.6. Maternal body mass index (BMI) ranged from 15.3 to 29.0 with 14% of the mothers having BMI?cognitive test scores. There were significant differences in mean cognitive test scores between stunted and non-stunted, and between underweight and normal-weight children. Height-for-age z-scores were correlated with scores for short-term memory (r?=?0.42, P?cognitive performance of the subjects. Performance on memory and visual processing tasks was significantly lower in children with growth deficits suggesting that efficient and cost effective methods to alleviate malnutrition and food insecurity would impact not only child health but also cognitive function. PMID:21806779

Bogale, Alemtsehay; Stoecker, Barbara J; Kennedy, Tay; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Thomas, David; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hambidge, K Michael

2013-04-01

359

A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Objective This study evaluated the effects of cognitive remediation for improving cognitive performance, symptoms, and psychosocial functioning in schizophrenia. Method A meta-analysis was conducted of 26 randomized, controlled trials of cognitive remediation in schizophrenia including 1,151 patients. Results Cognitive remediation was associated with significant improvements across all three outcomes, with a medium effect size for cognitive performance (0.41), a slightly lower effect size for psychosocial functioning (0.36), and a small effect size for symptoms (0.28). The effects of cognitive remediation on psychosocial functioning were significantly stronger in studies that provided adjunctive psychiatric rehabilitation than in those that provided cognitive remediation alone. Conclusions Cognitive remediation produces moderate improvements in cognitive performance and, when combined with psychiatric rehabilitation, also improves functional outcomes. PMID:18056233

McGurk, Susan R.; Twamley, Elizabeth W.; Sitzer, David I.; McHugo, Gregory J.; Mueser, Kim T.

2013-01-01

360

Cognitive Linguistic Performances of Multilingual University Students Suspected of Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High-performing adults with compensated dyslexia pose particular challenges to dyslexia diagnostics. We compared the performance of 20 multilingual Finnish university students with suspected dyslexia with 20 age-matched and education-matched controls on an extensive test battery. The battery tapped various aspects of reading, writing, word…

Lindgren, Signe-Anita; Laine, Matti

2011-01-01

361

Mind-wandering, cognition, and performance: a theory-driven meta-analysis of attention regulation.  

PubMed

The current meta-analysis accumulates empirical findings on the phenomenon of mind-wandering, integrating and interpreting findings in light of psychological theories of cognitive resource allocation. Cognitive resource theory emphasizes both individual differences in attentional resources and task demands together to predict variance in task performance. This theory motivated our conceptual and meta-analysis framework by introducing moderators indicative of task-demand to predict who is more likely to mind-wander under what conditions, and to predict when mind-wandering and task-related thought are more (or less) predictive of task performance. Predictions were tested via a random-effects meta-analysis of correlations obtained from normal adult samples (k = 88) based on measurement of specified episodes of off-task and/or on-task thought frequency and task performance. Results demonstrated that people with fewer cognitive resources tend to engage in more mind-wandering, whereas those with more cognitive resources are more likely to engage in task-related thought. Addressing predictions of resource theory, we found that greater time-on-task-although not greater task complexity-tended to strengthen the negative relation between cognitive resources and mind-wandering. Additionally, increases in mind-wandering were generally associated with decreases in task performance, whereas increases in task-related thought were associated with increased performance. Further supporting resource theory, the negative relation between mind-wandering and performance was more pronounced for more complex tasks, though not longer tasks. Complementarily, the positive association between task-related thought and performance was stronger for more complex tasks and for longer tasks. We conclude by discussing implications and future research directions for mind-wandering as a construct of interest in psychological research. PMID:25089941

Randall, Jason G; Oswald, Frederick L; Beier, Margaret E

2014-11-01

362

Goal setting for improvement in product development performance of organizations  

E-print Network

Companies have been constantly trying for ways and means to improve R&D performance as it is one of the most important competitive advantage tools of an organization. Literature review on R&D performance improvement suggests ...

Kashyap, Pankaj Kumar

2013-01-01

363

Learning to improve path planning performance  

SciTech Connect

In robotics, path planning refers to finding a short. collision-free path from an initial robot configuration to a desired configuratioin. It has to be fast to support real-time task-level robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To remedy this situation, we present and analyze a learning algorithm that uses past experience to increase future performance. The algorithm relies on an existing path planner to provide solutions to difficult tasks. From these solutions, an evolving sparse network of useful robot configurations is learned to support faster planning. More generally, the algorithm provides a speedup-learning framework in which a slow but capable planner may be improved both cost-wise and capability-wise by a faster but less capable planner coupled with experience. The basic algorithm is suitable for stationary environments, and can be extended to accommodate changing environments with on-demand experience repair and object-attached experience abstraction. To analyze the algorithm, we characterize the situations in which the adaptive planner is useful, provide quantitative bounds to predict its behavior, and confirm our theoretical results with experiments in path planning of manipulators. Our algorithm and analysis are sufficiently, general that they may also be applied to other planning domains in which experience is useful.

Chen, Pang C.

1995-04-01

364

Children's Sleep and Cognitive Performance: A Cross-Domain Analysis of Change over Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relations between changes in children's cognitive performance and changes in sleep problems were examined over a 3-year period, and family socioeconomic status, child race/ethnicity, and gender were assessed as moderators of these associations. Participants were 250 second- and third-grade (8-9 years old at Time 1) boys and girls. At each…

Bub, Kristen L.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona

2011-01-01

365

MPH enhances cognitive performance in adults with poor baseline capacities regardless of ADHD diagnosis  

E-print Network

1 MPH enhances cognitive performance in adults with poor baseline capacities regardless of ADHD Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with an alternative approach suggesting that its effect is more prominent administered sustained attention, working memory, and decision making tasks to 20 ADHD adults and 19 healthy

Yechiam, Eldad

366

Performance of a computer-based assessment of cognitive function measures in two cohorts of seniors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Computer-administered assessment of cognitive function is being increasingly incorporated in clinical trials, however its performance in these settings has not been systematically evaluated. The Seniors Health and Activity Research Program (SHARP) pilot trial (N=73) developed a computer-based tool f...

367

Changes in Cognitive Performance in Children with Spastic Diplegic Cerebral Palsy following Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with cerebral palsy who receive selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) for treatment of spasticity may show suprasegmental changes in upper limb function and control of speech musculature. Anecdotal reports suggest that suprasegmental effects may extend to cognitive functions such as attention and language. This study examined the performance of 16 children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy on tests of visual

Suzanne Crafts; T. S. Park; Desiree A. White; Jeffrey Schatz; Michael Noetzel; Susan Arnold

1995-01-01

368

Continuous Performance Test (CPT) of College Students with ADHD, Psychiatric Disorders, Cognitive Deficits, or No Diagnosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective/Method: The Conner's Continuous Performance Test (CPT) was administered to four groups of adult college students who self-referred for comprehensive psychoeducational evaluation and received either no diagnosis (n = 30) or a diagnosis of ADHD (n = 26), a psychiatric disorder (n = 17), or various cognitive deficits (n = 22). Results: The…

Advokat, Claire; Martino, Leslie; Hill, B. D.; Gouvier, William

2007-01-01

369

The Relationship of Cognitive, Personality, and Academic Measures to Anesthesiology Resident Clinical Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive skills (including vigilance), personality fac- tors, and standardized academic test performance may be associated with clinical competence in anesthesiol- ogy to varying degrees. Sixty-seven anesthesiology res- idents in training at one center between 1993 and 1995 were administered the modified Vigil (For Thought, Ltd., Nashua, NH), the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test, the California Personality Inventory, the State- Trait

David L. Reich; Suzan Uysal; Carol A. Bodian; Suzanne Gabriele; Mary Hibbard; Wayne Gordon; Martin Sliwinki; Richard D. Kayne

1999-01-01

370

Speaking, writing, and memory span in children: Output modality affects cognitive performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low?level processes of children's written language production are cognitively more costly than those involved in speaking. This has been shown by French authors who compared oral and written memory span performance. The observed difficulties of children's, but not of adults' low?level processes in writing may stem from graphomotoric as well as from orthographic inadequacies. We report on five experiments designed

Joachim Grabowski

2010-01-01

371

Secular Trends in Cognitive Test Performance: Swedish Conscript Data 1970-1993  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated time-related patterns in levels of cognitive performance during the period from 1970 to 1993 based on data from Swedish draft boards. The conscripts, including more than a million 18-19-year old men, had taken one of two versions of the Swedish enlistment battery (SEB67; 1970-1979 or SEB80; 1980-1993), each composed of four…

Ronnlund, Michael; Carlstedt, Berit; Blomstedt, Yulia; Nilsson, Lars-Goran; Weinehall, Lars

2013-01-01

372

PFIESTERIA PISCICIDA-INDUCED COGNITIVE EFFECTS: VISUAL SIGNAL DETECTION PERFORMANCE AND REVERSAL.  

EPA Science Inventory

Humans exposed to Pfiesteria piscicida report cognitive impairment. In a rat model, we showed that exposure to Pfiesteria impaired learning a new task, but not performance of previously-learned behavior. In this study, we characterized the behavioral effects of Pfiesteria in rats...

373

Autistic Traits and Cognitive Performance in Young People with Mild Intellectual Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive performance and the relationship between theory of mind (TOM), weak central coherence and executive function were investigated in a cohort of young people with additional learning needs. Participants were categorized by social communication questionnaire score into groups of 10 individuals within the autistic spectrum disorder (ASD)…

Harris, Jonathan M.; Best, Catherine S.; Moffat, Vivien J.; Spencer, Michael D.; Philip, Ruth C. M.; Power, Michael J.; Johnstone, Eve C.

2008-01-01

374

SAT Performance: Understanding the Contributions of Cognitive/Learning and Social/Personality Factors  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY This study identifies a number of sources of individual differences in SAT performance by examining the simultaneous contributions of factors from two otherwise disparate research areas, namely cognition/learning and social/personality. Preliminary analysis revealed that just the cognitive/learning measures accounted for 37.8, 41.4 and 21.9% of the variance in SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT performance, respectively while just the social/personality measures accounted for 21.4, 18.2 and 17.3% of the variance. When combined, cognitive/learning and social/personality factors accounted for even larger amounts of variance in performance; specifically 43.4, 44.6 and 28% for the SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT, respectively. Finally, the results revealed that three measures consistently predicted performance on the SAT, V-SAT and Q-SAT; two measures were the learning/cognitive factors of working memory and integration of new text-based information with information from long-term memory and one measure was the social/personality factor, test anxiety. PMID:21804694

HANNON, BRENDA; MCNAUGHTON-CASSILL, MARY

2011-01-01

375

A Synthesis of Mathematical and Cognitive Performances of Students with Mathematics Learning Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to synthesize the findings from 23 articles that compared the mathematical and cognitive performances of students with mathematics learning disabilities (LD) to (a) students with LD in mathematics and reading, (b) age- or grade-matched students with no LD, and (c) mathematical-ability-matched younger students with no…

Shin, Mikyung; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty

2015-01-01

376

Relation of Home Chaos to Cognitive Performance and Behavioral Adjustment of Pakistani Primary School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent findings from Western developed countries have linked home chaos to children's cognitive performance and behavioral problems. In the present paper we test whether the same pattern of associations can be replicated in a non-Western developing country. Our sample was 203 Pakistani primary school children. To assess home chaos the Confusion,…

Shamama-tus-Sabah, Syeda; Gilani, Nighat; Wachs, Theodore D.

2011-01-01

377

Arithmetic Performance of Children with Cerebral Palsy: The Influence of Cognitive and Motor Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP) often show difficulties in arithmetic compared to their typically developing peers. The present study explores whether cognitive and motor variables are related to arithmetic performance of a large group of primary school children with CP. More specifically, the relative influence of non-verbal…

van Rooijen, Maaike; Verhoeven, Ludo; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Becher, Jules G.; Steenbergen, Bert

2012-01-01

378

Use of landmarks in cognitive mapping: Gender differences in self report versus performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences were examined among 160 college students in the self report of spatial abilities as well as performance on two spatial tasks, the mental rotations test and a cognitive mapping task. Subjects were asked to view a brief videotape of the interior of a three bedroom, one level home and to draw a sketch map of the floor plan

Elizabeth M. O'Laughlin; Bradley S. Brubaker

1998-01-01

379

Residual Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Cognitive Performance in Normal Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the residual effects of smoking status on cognitive function in 76 nondemented older adults. Current smokers, ex-smokers, and nonsmokers who were screened for health and intellectual impairments were administered a battery of standardized neuropsychological tests to measure problem solving, psychomotor speed, memory, attention span, perception, and language production. Performance decrements were found for smokers on measures

Robert D. Hill

1989-01-01

380

Social Comparison and Cognitive Performance: A Descriptive Approach in an Academic Context.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents study results determining how individuals' performances in a subject relate to the value that society places on that subject. Explains that the study examined the relationship between each discipline and the cognitive capabilities of each subject. Concludes that failing students use an original conception, whereas successful students use…

Huguet, Pascal; Monteil, Jean-Marc

1992-01-01

381

Primary User Enters the Game: Performance of Dynamic Spectrum Leasing in Cognitive Radio  

E-print Network

1 Primary User Enters the Game: Performance of Dynamic Spectrum Leasing in Cognitive Radio Networks, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--Dynamic spectrum leasing (DSL) is one of the schemes proposed for dynamic spectrum shar- ing, dynamic spectrum leasing, game theory, multiuser decoding. I. INTRODUCTION Recent

Jayaweera, Sudharman K.

382

HOMOCYSTEINE & COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN THE FRAMINGHAM OFFSPRING STUDY: AGE IS IMPORTANT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations are associated with deficits in cognitive performance in persons free from dementia. The extent to which age modifies these associations is in need of further investigation in large, community-based, prospective studies combining the following elements...

383

Academic Goals, Goal Process Cognition, and Exam Performance among College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the nature of and linkages between student-generated academic goals, individual differences in self-regulatory thinking (goal process cognition), and exam performance among college students. In Study 1 (N = 365) and in Study 2 (N = 325), we elicited students' self-ascribed most important academic goals for introductory psychology…

Okun, Morris A.; Fairholme, Chris; Karoly, Paul; Ruehlman, Linda S.; Newton, Craig

2006-01-01

384

Effect of piracetam on the cognitive performance of patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery: A meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Cognitive impairments are observed in numerous patients following coronary bypass surgery, and piracetam are nootropic compounds that modulate cerebral functions by directly enhancing cognitive processes. The present meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the protective effect of piracetam on the cognitive performance of patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. The relevant studies were identified by searching Medline, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library up to June 2013 and the pertinent bibliographies from the retrieved studies were reviewed. Data were selected from the studies according to predefined criteria. The meta-analysis included two randomized control trials involving 184 patients and including the Syndrom-Kurz test (SKT). Findings of the meta-analysis showed that following treatment the change from baseline observed in five SKT subtest scores, conducted with piracetam patients, indicated a significant advantage over those patients that were in the placebo group. The subtests included immediate pictured object recall, weighted mean difference (WMD)=0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51–1.31, P<0.00001; delayed pictured object recall, WMD=0.74, 95% CI 0.19–1.28, P=0.008; delayed picture recognition, WMD=0.82, 95% CI 0.31–1.31, P=0.001; immediate word recall, WMD=0.87, 95% CI 0.47–1.28, P<0.0001; and letter interference, WMD=3.46, 95% CI ?5.69 to ?1.23, P=0.002. These results indicated that piracetam may have been effective in improving the short-term cognitive performance of patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. High quality, well-controlled and longer randomized trials are required to corroborate this result. PMID:24396419

FANG, YU; QIU, ZHANDONG; HU, WENTAO; YANG, JIA; YI, XIYAN; HUANG, LIANGJIANG; ZHANG, SUMING

2014-01-01

385

The Effect of Two-Dimensional and Stereoscopic Presentation on Middle School Students' Performance of Spatial Cognition Tasks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated whether and how student performance on three types of spatial cognition tasks differs when worked with two-dimensional or stereoscopic representations. We recruited nineteen middle school students visiting a planetarium in a large Midwestern American city and analyzed their performance on a series of spatial cognition tasks in…

Price, Aaron; Lee, Hee-Sun

2010-01-01

386

Cortical localization of cognitive function by regression of performance on event-related potentials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper demonstrates a new method of mapping cortical localization of cognitive function, using electroencephalographic data. Cross-subject regression analyses are used to identify cortical sites and post-stimulus latencies where there is a high correlation between subjects' performance and their cognitive event-related potential amplitude. The procedure was tested using a mental arithmetic task and was found to identify essentially the same cortical regions that have been associated with such tasks on the basis of research with patients suffering localized cortical lesions. Thus, it appears to offer an inexpensive, noninvasive tool for exploring the dynamics of localization in neurologically normal subjects.

Montgomery, R. W.; Montgomery, L. D.; Guisado, R.

1992-01-01

387

Characterization of cognitive and motor performance during dual-tasking in healthy older adults and patients with Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dual-tasking on cognitive performance and gait parameters in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) without dementia. The impact of cognitive task complexity on cognition and walking was also examined. Eighteen patients with PD (ages 53-88, 10 women; Hoehn and Yahr stage I-II) and 18 older adults (ages 61-84; 10 women) completed two neuropsychological measures of executive function/attention (the Stroop Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Cognitive performance and gait parameters related to functional mobility of stride were measured under single (cognitive task only) and dual-task (cognitive task during walking) conditions with different levels of difficulty and different types of stimuli. In addition, dual-task cognitive costs were calculated. Although cognitive performance showed no significant difference between controls and PD patients during single or dual-tasking conditions, only the patients had a decrease in cognitive performance during walking. Gait parameters of patients differed significantly from controls at single and dual-task conditions, indicating that patients gave priority to gait while cognitive performance suffered. Dual-task cognitive costs of patients increased with task complexity, reaching significantly higher values then controls in the arithmetic task, which was correlated with scores on executive function/attention (Stroop Color-Word Page). Baseline motor functioning and task executive/attentional load affect the performance of cognitive tasks of PD patients while walking. These findings provide insight into the functional strategies used by PD patients in the initial phases of the disease to manage dual-task interference. PMID:23052601

Wild, Lucia Bartmann; de Lima, Daiane Borba; Balardin, Joana Bisol; Rizzi, Luana; Giacobbo, Bruno Lima; Oliveira, Henrique Bianchi; de Lima Argimon, Irani Iracema; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre; Rieder, Carlos R M; Bromberg, Elke

2013-02-01

388

Acupuncture improves cognitive deficits and regulates the brain cell proliferation of SAMP8 mice.  

PubMed

Senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) is an autogenic senile strain characterized by early cognitive impairment and age-related deterioration of learning and memory. To investigate the effect of acupuncture on behavioral changes and brain cell events, male 4-month-old SAMP8 and age-matched homologous normal aging SAMR1 mice were divided into four groups: SAMP8 acupuncture group (Pa), SAMP8 non-acupoint control group (Pn), SAMP8 control group (Pc) and SAMR1 normal control group (Rc). By Morris water maze test, the cognitive deficit of SAMP8 was revealed and significantly improved by "Yiqitiaoxue and Fubenpeiyuan" acupuncture. Meanwhile, by 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) specific immunodetection, the decreased cell proliferation in dentate gyrus (DG) of SAMP8 was greatly enhanced by the therapeutic acupuncture, suggesting acupoint-related specificity. Even though no significant differences were found in ventricular/subventricular zones (VZ/SVZ) of the third ventricle (V3) and lateral ventricle (LV) between groups, we obtained interesting results: a stream-like distribution of newly proliferated cells presented along the dorsum of alveus hippocampi (Alv), extending from LV to corpus callosum (CC), and the therapeutic acupuncture showed a marked effect on this region. Our research suggests that acupuncture can induce different cell proliferation in different brain regions of SAMP8, which brings forth the need to explore further for the mechanism of cognitive deficits and acupuncture intervention in this field. PMID:18215464

Cheng, Haiyan; Yu, Jianchun; Jiang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Xuezhu; Liu, Cunzhi; Peng, Yingmei; Chen, Fuyan; Qu, You; Jia, Yujie; Tian, Qingfei; Xiao, Chuan; Chu, Qin; Nie, Kun; Kan, Bohong; Hu, Xiaolin; Han, Jingxian

2008-02-20

389

Nobiletin treatment improves motor and cognitive deficits seen in MPTP-induced Parkinson model mice.  

PubMed

Nobiletin, a polymethoxylated flavonoid found in citrus fruit peel, reportedly improves memory impairment in rodent models. Here we report its effect on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced motor and cognitive deficits. Nobiletin administration (50mg/kg i.p.) for 2 consecutive weeks improved motor deficits seen in MPTP-induced Parkinson model mice by 2weeks, an effect that continued until 2weeks after drug withdrawal. Drug treatment promoted similar rescue of MPTP-induced cognitive impairment at equivalent time points. Nonetheless, nobiletin treatment did not block loss of dopaminergic neurons seen in the MPTP-treated mouse midbrain, nor did it rescue decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein levels seen in the striatum or hippocampal CA1 region of these mice. Interestingly, nobiletin administration (50mg/kg i.p.) rescued reduced levels of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) autophosphorylation and phosphorylation at Thr-34 of dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein-32 (DARPP-32) in striatum and hippocampal CA1 to levels seen in sham-operated mice. Likewise, CaMKII- and cAMP kinase-dependent TH phosphorylation was significantly restored by nobiletin treatment. MPTP-induced reduction of dopamine contents in the striatum and hippocampal CA1 region was improved by nobiletin administration (50mg/kg i.p.). Acute intraperitoneal administration of nobiletin also enhanced dopamine release in striatum and hippocampal CA1, an effect partially inhibited by treatment with nifedipine (a L-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitor) or NNC 55-0396 (a T-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitor) and completely abolished by combined treatment with both. Overall, our study describes a novel nobiletin activity in brain and suggests that nobiletin rescues motor and cognitive dysfunction in MPTP-induced Parkinson model mice, in part by enhancing dopamine release. PMID:24316474

Yabuki, Y; Ohizumi, Y; Yokosuka, A; Mimaki, Y; Fukunaga, K

2014-02-14

390

Cognitive strategy training and intellectual performance in the elderly.  

PubMed

Reduced intellectual performance in the elderly was conceptualized as an experientail deficit than can be reversed by training relevant component skills. Sixty female elderly subjects (ages 63 to 95) participated in three phases of the experiment: Training, Immediate Posttest, and Delayed Posttest. Training was geared at strengthening covert self-monitoring strategies in complex reasoning problems, and training effects were evaluated both on the training and a transfer task. Results showed raised performance in the training conditions, transfer effects, and maintenance of training and transfer effects over 2 weeks. Implications for theories of adult intelligence are discussed. PMID:1270769

Labouvie-Vief, G; Gonda, J N

1976-05-01

391

Improvement of gross motor and cognitive abilities by an exercise training program: three case reports  

PubMed Central

Background This work examined the efficacy of an integrated exercise training program (coach and family) in three children with Down syndrome to improve their motor and cognitive abilities, in particular reaction time and working memory. Methods The integrated exercise training program was used in three children with Down syndrome, comprising two boys (M1, with a chronological age of 10.3 years and a mental age of 4.7 years; M2, with a chronological age of 14.6 years and a mental age of less than 4 years) and one girl (F1, chronological age 14.0 years and a mental age of less than 4 years). Results Improvements in gross motor ability scores were seen after the training period. Greater improvements in task reaction time were noted for both evaluation parameters, ie, time and omissions. Conclusion There is a close interrelationship between motor and cognitive domains in individuals with atypical development. There is a need to plan intervention programs based on the simultaneous involvement of child and parents and aimed at promoting an active lifestyle in individuals with Down syndrome. PMID:24672238

Alesi, Marianna; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Roccella, Michele; Testa, Davide; Palma, Antonio; Pepi, Annamaria

2014-01-01

392

Combined effects of acoustic and visual distraction on cognitive performance and well-being.  

PubMed

Information work is usually performed in offices and influenced by the combined effects of acoustics, room climate, lighting and air quality. However, the principal part of literature solely focuses on the individual effects of physical parameters. This study (n = 32) investigates the combined effects of acoustic and visual distraction with regard to cognitive performance and well-being. Therefore low level background speech (40 dB(A)) of good or poor intelligibility was combined with either static or dynamic lighting. Experimental testing lasted for approx. 7 h for each participant and was conducted in mock-up offices. No interaction effects of background speech and lighting conditions with regard to cognitive performance were found. However, the results prove that even low level background speech of high intelligibility significantly impairs short-term memory, reasoning ability and well-being. But no effect of background speech on text comprehension and sustained attention was found. Visual distraction due to dynamic lighting caused significant complaints but did not impair performance. An interaction effect of background speech and lighting conditions was found with regard to perceived performance during task processing. Test persons only felt to perform better, if background speech of low intelligibility was combined with static lighting. It is shown that the effects on cognitive performance and well-being must be considered separately since these effects are rarely consistent. PMID:21802069

Liebl, Andreas; Haller, Jörg; Jödicke, Bernd; Baumgartner, Herwig; Schlittmeier, Sabine; Hellbrück, Jürgen

2012-03-01

393

Lower cognitive performance in healthy G2019S LRRK2 mutation carriers  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess cognitive abilities of healthy first-degree relatives of Ashkenazi patients with Parkinson disease (PD), carriers of the G2019S mutation in the LRRK2 gene. Methods: In this observational study, 60 consecutive healthy first-degree relatives (aged 50.9 ± 6.2 years; 48% male; 30 G2019S carriers) were assessed using a computerized cognitive program, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment questionnaire, the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III, and the Geriatric Depression Scale. Results: G2019S carriers scored significantly lower on the computerized executive function index (p = 0.04) and on specific executive function tasks (Stroop test, p = 0.007). Conclusion: Carrying the LRRK2 G2019S mutation was associated with lower executive performance in a population at risk for PD. PMID:22914834

Thaler, Avner; Mirelman, Anat; Gurevich, Tanya; Simon, Ely; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Marder, Karen; Bressman, Susan; Bressman, Susan; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Raymond, Deborah; Ozelius, Laurie; Shanker, Vicki; Groves, Mark; Palmese, Christina; Iyer, Akhila; Soto-Valencia, Jeannie; Stanley, Kaili Maloy; Luciano, Marta San; Deik, Andres; Barrett, Matthew James; Cabassa, Jose; Severt, Lawrence; Hunt, Ann; Lubarr, Naomi; Sachdev, Rivka; Miravite, Joan; Lewis, Sara; Clark, Lorraine N.; Alcalay, Roy; Fahn, Stanley; Cote, Lucien; Greene, Paul; Waters, Cheryl; Mazzoni, Pietro; Ford, Blair; Louis, Elan; Levy, Oren; Tang, Ming Xin; Rakitin, Brian C.; Mejia, Helen; Roos, Ernest; Riley, Martha Orbe; Rosado, Llency; Moskowitz, Carol; Dorovski, Tsvyatko; Clark, Lorraine; Liu, Xinmin; Kisselev, Sergey; Peer, Itsik; Vacic, Vladimir; Balash, Yaacov; Hertzel, Shabtai; Gan Or, Ziv; Shira, Anat Bar; Weiss, Mali Gana; Kobo, Hila; Bregman, Noa; Kestenbaum, Meir; Hendler, Talma; Lehrman, Hedva; Sapir, Einat Even; Levy, Shiran; Yasinovsky, Kira; Shkedy, Anat; Zelis, Maayan

2012-01-01

394

Cognitive Strategy Training and Intellectual Performance in the Elderly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reduced intellectual performance in the elderly was conceptualized as an experiential dificit that can be reversed by training relevant component skills. Female elderly subjects (N=60) participated in three phases of the experiment: Training, Immediate Posttest, and Delayed Posttest. Training was geared at strengthening covert self-monitoring…

Labouvie-Vief, Gisela; Gonda, Judith N.

1976-01-01

395

Personality Stability Is Associated With Better Cognitive Performance in Adulthood: Are the Stable More Able?  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Although personality is relatively stable over time, there are individual differences in the patterns and magnitude of change. There is some evidence that personality change in adulthood is related to physical health and longevity. The present study expanded this work to consider whether personality stability or change would be associated with better cognitive functioning, especially in later adulthood. Method. A total of 4,974 individuals participated in two waves of The Midlife in the United States Study (MIDUS) in 1994–1995 and 2004–2005. Participants completed the MIDUS personality inventory at both times and the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone cognitive battery at Time 2. Results. Multiple regression and analysis of covariance analyses showed that, consistent with predictions, individuals remaining stable in openness to experience and neuroticism had faster reaction times and better inductive reasoning than those who changed. Among older adults, those who remained stable or decreased in neuroticism had significantly faster reaction times than those who increased. Conclusions. As predicted, personality stability on some traits was associated with more adaptive cognitive performance on reasoning and reaction time. Personality is discussed as a possible resource for protecting against or minimizing age-related declines in cognition. PMID:22357641

Lachman, Margie E.

2012-01-01

396

Leukocyte telomere length is associated with cognitive performance in healthy women  

PubMed Central

Background Age-related cognitive decline begins in mid-life and continues with advancing age. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortens with age, and inflammation and oxidative stress enhance this process. Shorter LTL is associated with dementia. Methods The relationship between cognitive function and LTL was investigated in a cross-sectional study of 382 women (mean age 50.6 years, range 19–78), not diagnosed with any form of dementia or cognitive impairment, from the TwinsUK cohort using 6 tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Results After adjusting for age and estimated prior intellectual ability, we observed significant correlations of LTL with episodic memory and associated learning (PAL, p=0.032), recognition memory for non-verbal patterns (DMS, p=0.007), and working memory capacity (SSP, p=0.003). In pairs of twins discordant for LTL the twin with longer telomeres also had significantly better DMS (p<0.05) and SSP (p<0.013) scores than their co-twin with shorter telomeres. The correlations between these two scores and LTLwas significant both in women over the median mean age and in those below the median age, and remained significant after statistical adjustment for potential confounders. Conclusions Leukocyte telomere length correlates with a subset of measures of cognitive performance, suggesting that it might be a biomarker of cognitive aging in women before the onset of dementia. PMID:18718693

Valdes, AM; Deary, IJ; Gardner, J; Kimura, M; Lu, X; Spector, TD; Aviv, A; Cherkas, LF

2010-01-01

397

Child feeding practices, food habits, anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance among preschoolers in Peninsular Malaysia.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the relationship between child feeding practices, food habits, and anthropometric indicators with cognitive performance of preschoolers aged 4-6 years in Peninsular Malaysia (n=1933). Parents were interviewed on socio-demographic background, nutrition knowledge, child feeding practices and food habits. Height and weight of the preschoolers were measured; BMI-for-age, weight-for-age and height-for-age were determined. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices. The mean monthly household income was RM3610 and 59.6% of parents attained secondary education. Thirty-three percent of parents had good knowledge on nutrition, 39% satisfactory and 28% poor. For child feeding practices, perceived responsibility had the highest mean score (M=3.99, SD=0.72), while perceived child weight had the lowest (M=2.94, SD=0.38). The prevalence of possible risk of overweight, being overweight, and obesity were 3.9%, 7.9% and 8.1%, respectively, whereas the prevalence of underweight and stunting were 8.0% and 8.4%, respectively. Breakfast was the second most frequently skipped meal (16.8%) after dinner (18.1%). The mean cognitive score was 103.5 (SD=14.4). Height-for-age and consumption of dinner were found to contribute significantly towards cognitive performance after controlling for socio-demographic background and parent's nutrition knowledge. PMID:22265752

Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Norimah, Abdul Karim; Hazizi, Abu Saad; Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Loh, Siow Hon; Suraya, Ibrahim

2012-04-01

398

Context-sensitive adjustment of cognitive control in dual-task performance.  

PubMed

Performing 2 highly similar tasks at the same time requires an adaptive regulation of cognitive control to shield prioritized primary task processing from between-task (cross-talk) interference caused by secondary task processing. In the present study, the authors investigated how implicitly and explicitly delivered information promotes the flexible online adjustment of task shielding in dual-task performance. Context-specific implicit activation of cognitive control was implemented by location-dependent manipulations of the likelihood of between-task interference (i.e., locations containing high vs. low proportions of between-task interference trials). Following practice, between-task interference was reduced in a subsequent test session for locations associated with high (compared to locations with low) task-shielding demands, indicating that the cognitive system can register and utilize implicit context features (Experiments 1 and 2). In Experiment 3, cues were used that provided additional explicit information. Whereas cues validly indicating the interference level in the next trial failed to further optimize context-specific task shielding, cues indicating the location of subsequent stimulus presentation resulted in an instant adjustment of task shielding already in the first part of the experiment. Results highlight the role of implicit and explicit information for context-sensitive adjustments of cognitive control in dual-task performance. PMID:24059857

Fischer, Rico; Gottschalk, Caroline; Dreisbach, Gesine

2014-03-01

399

Partnering through Training and Practice to Achieve Performance Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a partnership effort among managers, trainers, and employees to spring to life performance improvement using the performance templates (P-T) approach. P-T represents a process model as well as a method of training leading to performance improvement. Not only does it add to our repertoire of training and performance management…

Lyons, Paul R.

2010-01-01

400

An analysis of learned helplessness: Continuous changes in performance, strategy, and achievement cognitions following failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Helpless children show marked performance decrements under failure, whereas mastery-oriented children often show enhanced performance. Current theories emphasize differences in the nature of the attributions following failure as determinants of response to failure. Two studies with 130 5th-grade children explored helpless vs mastery-oriented differences in the nature, timing, and relative frequency of a variety of achievement-related cognitions by continuously monitoring

Carol I. Diener; Carol S. Dweck

1978-01-01

401

The impact of secondary task cognitive processing demand on driving performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crash causation research has identified inattention as a major source of driver error leading to crashes. The series of experiments presented herein investigate the characteristics of an in-vehicle information system (IVIS) task that could hinder driving performance due to uncertainty buildup and cognitive capture. Three on-road studies were performed that used instrumented passenger and tractor-trailer vehicles to obtain real-world driving

Myra Blanco; Wayne J. Biever; John P. Gallagher; Thomas A. Dingus

2006-01-01

402

Improving Arterial Performance Measurement Using Traffic Signal System Data  

E-print Network

Improving Arterial Performance Measurement Using Traffic Signal System Data Michael Wolfe to characterize arterial performance has been more elusive. Currently numerous applications of traffic management arterials. This paper describes methods for quantifying arterial performance using data from signal system

Bertini, Robert L.

403

Amphetamine effects on MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery performance in healthy adults  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive deficits contribute strongly to functional disability in schizophrenia. The cost of identifying and testing candidate procognitive agents is substantial. Conceivably, candidate drugs might be first identified by positive effects on cognitive domains in sensitive subgroups of healthy subjects. Here, we examined whether the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) detected procognitive drug effects in subgroups of healthy individuals. Methods The effects of 20 mg amphetamine (AMPH) on MCCB performance were tested in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of 60 healthy adults. AMPH effects were compared in subgroups of subjects characterized by low vs. high placebo MCCB scores, and by extreme values on personality subscales associated with schizophrenia-relevant biomarkers. Results AMPH produced autonomic and subjective effects, but did not significantly change MCCB composite scores or individual domain scores across the inclusive sample of 60 subjects. AMPH-induced MCCB changes were significantly (inversely) related to placebo MCCB performance: among individuals with lower placebo scores, AMPH enhanced performance, while among individuals with higher placebo scores, it impaired performance. A potential impact of regression to the mean was assessed, and could not be ruled out. Both placebo MCCB performance and AMPH effects on MCCB scores were significantly related to personality domains associated with schizophrenia-linked genetic- and/or neurophysiological substrates. Conclusions Among healthy adults, AMPH effects on MCCB performance were detected only among specific subgroups, and in specific cognitive domains. Strategies that utilize drug-induced changes in MCCB performance in healthy subjects to screen for candidate procognitive drugs should consider the use of “enriched” subgroups with specific neurocognitive or personality characteristics. PMID:23314393

Chou, Hsun-Hua; Talledo, Jo A.; Lamb, Sarah N.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Swerdlow, Neal R.

2013-01-01

404

Nuclear utility's approach to improving human performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to statistics from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), â¼50% of all events at a nuclear utility are related to human performance. The three most prevalent problem areas in human performance are inappropriate actions, procedure deficiencies, and management deficiencies. To address these issues, Duke Power Company formed a Human Performance Excellence Team

J. F. Grigg; M. L. Jr. Arey

1991-01-01

405

Improving Indoor Air Quality Improves the Performance of Office Work and School Work  

E-print Network

Recent studies show that improving indoor air quality (IAQ) from the mediocre level prevalent in many buildings worldwide improves the performance of office work by adults and the performance of schoolwork by children. These results constitute a...

Wargocki, P.

406

Effects of walnut consumption on cognitive performance in young adults.  

PubMed

Walnuts contain a number of potentially neuroprotective compounds like vitamin E, folate, melatonin, several antioxidative polyphenols and significant amounts of n-3 ?-linolenic fatty acid. The present study sought to determine the effect of walnuts on verbal and non-verbal reasoning, memory and mood. A total of sixty-four college students were randomly assigned to two treatment sequences in a crossover fashion: walnuts-placebo or placebo-walnuts. Baseline data were collected for non-verbal reasoning, verbal reasoning, memory and mood states. Data were collected again after 8 weeks of intervention. After 6 weeks of washout, the intervention groups followed the diets in reverse order. Data were collected once more at the end of the 8-week intervention period. No significant increases were detected for mood, non-verbal reasoning or memory on the walnut-supplemented diet. However, inferential verbal reasoning increased significantly by 11.2 %, indicating a medium effect size (P = 0.009; d = 0.567). In young, healthy, normal adults, walnuts do not appear to improve memory, mood or non-verbal reasoning abilities. However, walnuts may have the ability to increase inferential reasoning. PMID:21923981

Pribis, Peter; Bailey, Rudolph N; Russell, Andrew A; Kilsby, Marcia A; Hernandez, Magaly; Craig, Winston J; Grajales, Tevni; Shavlik, David J; Sabatè, Joan

2012-05-01

407

Associations between White Matter Microstructure and Cognitive Performance in Old and Very Old Age  

PubMed Central

Increasing age is associated with deficits in a wide range of cognitive domains as well as with structural brain changes. Recent studies using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have shown that microstructural integrity of white matter is associated with cognitive performance in elderly persons, especially on tests that rely on perceptual speed. We used structural equation modeling to investigate associations between white matter microstructure and cognitive functions in a population-based sample of elderly persons (age ? 60 years), free of dementia, stroke, and neurological disorders (n = 253). Participants underwent a magnetic resonance imaging scan, from which mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) of seven white matter tracts were quantified. Cognitive functioning was analyzed according to performance in five task domains (perceptual speed, episodic memory, semantic memory, letter fluency, and category fluency). After controlling for age, FA and MD were exclusively related to perceptual speed. When further stratifying the sample into two age groups, the associations were reliable in the old-old (?78 years) only. This relationship between white matter microstructure and perceptual speed remained significant after excluding persons in a preclinical dementia phase. The observed pattern of results suggests that microstructural white matter integrity may be especially important to perceptual speed among very old adults. PMID:24282593

Laukka, Erika J.; Lövdén, Martin; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Li, Tie-Qiang; Jonsson, Tomas; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Fratiglioni, Laura; Bäckman, Lars

2013-01-01

408

Improved cognitive information complexity measure: a metric that establishes program comprehension effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the software system is known as program comprehension and is a cognitive process. This cognitive process is the driving force behind creation of software that is easier to understand i.e. has lower cognitive complexity, because essentially it is the natural intelligence of human brain that describes the comprehensibility of software. The research area carrying out this study is cognitive

Dharmender Singh Kushwaha; Arun Kumar Misra

2006-01-01

409

An empirical investigation of operator performance in cognitively demanding simulated emergencies  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the results of an empirical study of nuclear power plant operator performance in cognitively demanding simulated emergencies. During emergencies operators follow highly prescriptive written procedures. The objectives of the study were to understand and document what role higher-level cognitive activities such as diagnosis, or more generally `situation assessment`, play in guiding operator performance, given that operators utilize procedures in responding to the events. The study examined crew performance in variants of two emergencies: (1) an Interfacing System Loss of Coolant Accident and (2) a Loss of Heat Sink scenario. Data on operator performance were collected using training simulators at two plant sites. Up to 11 crews from each plant participated in each of two simulated emergencies for a total of 38 cases. Crew performance was videotaped and partial transcripts were produced and analyzed. The results revealed a number of instances where higher-level cognitive activities such as situation assessment and response planning enabled crews to handle aspects of the situation that were not fully addressed by the procedures. This report documents these cases and discusses their implications for the development and evaluation of training and control room aids, as well as for human reliability analyses.

Roth, E.M.; Mumaw, R.J. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Science and Technology Center; Lewis, P.M. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Research

1994-07-01

410

Cognitive task performance and symptoms contribute to personality abnormalities in first hospitalized schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Chronic schizophrenia patients have personality abnormalities and cognitive deficits that are associated with poor clinical, social, and vocational outcomes. Very few studies have examined relationships between personality and cognitive function, and chronic illness effects may have confounded those studies. In this study personality traits in clinically stable first episode schizophrenia patients (21M, 9F) and psychiatrically healthy controls (38M, 24F) were measured with the NEO-FFI, a self-report measure of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. All subjects completed the Information, Digit Span, Vocabulary, and Digit Symbol subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale; and Trails A and B. Standard statistical techniques were used to quantify relationships between personality and symptom levels and/or task performance, and relative contributions of diagnosis and task performance to personality variance. Patients showed elevated mean neuroticism and openness, and reduced mean extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness. Task performance and negative symptoms contributed significantly and uniquely to most personality dimensions in patients. Task performance accounted for significant amounts of personality variance even after accounting for diagnosis, and it also contributed to personality variance in controls. These results suggest that cognitive deficits and negative symptoms contribute to consistently observed personality abnormalities in this disorder, and that the contribution of neuropsychological performance to personality variance may be independent of diagnostic classification. Personality abnormalities in schizophrenia may stem from the neurocognitive deficits associated with this disorder, and add to their adverse effects on social and vocational functioning. PMID:24750960

Gurrera, Ronald J; McCarley, Robert W; Salisbury, Dean

2014-08-01

411

Visual and Cognitive Predictors of Performance on Brake Reaction Test: Salisbury Eye Evaluation Driving Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Concern for driving safety has prompted research into understanding factors related to performance. Brake reaction speed (BRS), the speed with which persons react to a sudden change in driving conditions, is a measure of performance. Our aim is to determine the visual, cognitive, and physical factors predicting BRS in a population sample of 1425 older drivers. Methods The Maryland Department of Motor Vehicles roster of persons aged 67–87 and residing in Salisbury, MD, was used for recruitment of the study population. Procedures included the following: habitual, binocular visual acuity using ETDRS charts, contrast sensitivity using a Pelli-Robson chart, visual fields assessed with a 81-point screening Humphrey field at a single intensity threshold, and a questionnaire to ascertain medical conditions. Cognitive status was assessed using a standard battery of tests for attention, memory, visuo-spatial, and scanning. BRS was assessed using a computer-driven device that measured separately the initial reaction speed (IRS) (from light change to red until removing foot from accelerator) and physical response speed (PRS) (removing foot from accelerator to full brake depression). Five trial times were averaged, and time was converted to speed. Results The median brake reaction time varied from 384 to 5688 milliseconds. Ag