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1

Caffeine Improves Physical and Cognitive Performance during Exhaustive Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

HOGERVORST, E., S. BANDELOW, J. SCHMITT, R. JENTJENS, M. OLIVEIRA, J. ALLGROVE, T. CARTER, and M. GLEESON. Caffeine Improves Physical and Cognitive Performance during Exhaustive Exercise. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 40, No. 10, pp. 1841-1851, 2008. Caffeine is thought to act as a central stimulant and to have effects on physical, cognitive, and psychomotor functioning. Purpose: To examine the

EEF HOGERVORST; STEPHAN BANDELOW; JEROEN SCHMITT; ROY JENTJENS; MARTA OLIVEIRA; JUDITH ALLGROVE; TOM CARTER; MICHAEL GLEESON

2008-01-01

2

Social Housing Improves Dairy Calves' Performance in Two Cognitive Tests  

PubMed Central

Early social housing is known to benefit cognitive development in laboratory animals. Pre-weaned dairy calves are typically separated from their dam immediately after birth and housed alone, but no work to date has addressed the effect of individual housing on cognitive performance of these animals. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of individual versus social housing on two measures of cognitive performance: reversal learning and novel object recognition. Holstein calves were either housed individually in a standard calf pen (n?=?8) or kept in pairs using a double pen (n?=?10). Calves were tested twice daily in a Y-maze starting at 3 weeks of age. Calves were initially trained to discriminate two colours (black and white) until they reached a learning criterion of 80% correct over three consecutive sessions. Training stimuli were then reversed (i.e. the previously rewarded colour was now unrewarded, and vice-versa). Calves from the two treatments showed similar rates of learning in the initial discrimination task, but the individually housed calves showed poorer performance in the reversal task. At 7 weeks of age, calves were tested for their response to a novel object in eight tests over a two-day period. Pair-housed calves showed declining exploration with repeated testing but individually reared calves did not. The results of these experiments provide the first direct evidence that individual housing impairs cognitive performance in dairy calves. PMID:24587281

Gaillard, Charlotte; Meagher, Rebecca K.; von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.; Weary, Daniel M.

2014-01-01

3

Cognitive performance is improved while walking: Differences in cognitive–sensorimotor couplings between children and young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated how 9-year-olds and young adults performed a working memory task under different difficulty conditions while walking on a treadmill. Stride-length and stride-time variability tended to decrease with cognitive load in young adults, whereas children showed an increase in walking variability when cognitive load was very high. Participants in both age groups improved their cognitive performance when walking at

Sabine Schaefer; Martin Lövdén; Birgit Wieckhorst; Ulman Lindenberger

2010-01-01

4

Music lessons improve auditory perceptual and cognitive performance in deaf children.  

PubMed

Despite advanced technologies in auditory rehabilitation of profound deafness, deaf children often exhibit delayed cognitive and linguistic development and auditory training remains a crucial element of their education. In the present cross-sectional study, we assess whether music would be a relevant tool for deaf children rehabilitation. In normal-hearing children, music lessons have been shown to improve cognitive and linguistic-related abilities, such as phonetic discrimination and reading. We compared auditory perception, auditory cognition, and phonetic discrimination between 14 profoundly deaf children who completed weekly music lessons for a period of 1.5-4?years and 14 deaf children who did not receive musical instruction. Children were assessed on perceptual and cognitive auditory tasks using environmental sounds: discrimination, identification, auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory. Transfer to the linguistic domain was tested with a phonetic discrimination task. Musically trained children showed better performance in auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory and phonetic discrimination tasks, and multiple regressions showed that success on these tasks was at least partly driven by music lessons. We propose that musical education contributes to development of general processes such as auditory attention and perception, which, in turn, facilitate auditory-related cognitive and linguistic processes. PMID:25071518

Rochette, Françoise; Moussard, Aline; Bigand, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

5

Music Lessons Improve Auditory Perceptual and Cognitive Performance in Deaf Children  

PubMed Central

Despite advanced technologies in auditory rehabilitation of profound deafness, deaf children often exhibit delayed cognitive and linguistic development and auditory training remains a crucial element of their education. In the present cross-sectional study, we assess whether music would be a relevant tool for deaf children rehabilitation. In normal-hearing children, music lessons have been shown to improve cognitive and linguistic-related abilities, such as phonetic discrimination and reading. We compared auditory perception, auditory cognition, and phonetic discrimination between 14 profoundly deaf children who completed weekly music lessons for a period of 1.5–4?years and 14 deaf children who did not receive musical instruction. Children were assessed on perceptual and cognitive auditory tasks using environmental sounds: discrimination, identification, auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory. Transfer to the linguistic domain was tested with a phonetic discrimination task. Musically trained children showed better performance in auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory and phonetic discrimination tasks, and multiple regressions showed that success on these tasks was at least partly driven by music lessons. We propose that musical education contributes to development of general processes such as auditory attention and perception, which, in turn, facilitate auditory-related cognitive and linguistic processes. PMID:25071518

Rochette, Francoise; Moussard, Aline; Bigand, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

6

Nitric Oxide Synthase Mediates the Ability of Darbepoetin Alfa to Improve the Cognitive Performance of STOP Null Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

STOP (stable tubule only polypeptide) null mice display neurochemical and behavioral abnormalities that resemble several well-recognized features of schizophrenia. Recent evidence suggests that the hematopoietic growth factor erythropoietin improves the cognitive performance of schizophrenics. The mechanism, however, by which erythropoietin is able to improve the cognition of schizophrenics is unclear. To address this question, we first determined whether acute administration

Kosuke Kajitani; Michael Thorne; Michel Samson; George S Robertson

2010-01-01

7

Cognitive-Adaptation Training for Improving Performance and Stress Management of Air Force Pilots  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of cognitive-adaptation training on flight performance and stress management in a sample of pilot cadets who were undergoing a basic flying program (N?=?21). The aim of the training was to enhance the participants' awareness of the cognitive processes that they used in a given situation, and to strengthen reflective processes. Cadets were assigned to a

Marie-Pierre Fornette; Marie-Héloïse Bardel; Camille Lefrançois; Jacques Fradin; Farid El Massioui; René Amalberti

2012-01-01

8

Increasing Individual Upper Alpha Power by Neurofeedback Improves Cognitive Performance in Human Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis was tested of whether neurofeedback training (NFT)—applied in order to increase upper alpha but decrease theta power—is capable of increasing cognitive performance. A mental rotation task was performed before and after upper alpha and theta NFT. Only those subjects who were able to increase their upper alpha power (responders) performed better on mental rotations after NFT. Training success

Simon Hanslmayr; Paul Sauseng; Michael Doppelmayr; Manuel Schabus; Wolfgang Klimesch

2005-01-01

9

Some strategies to improve performance in school chemistry, based on two cognitive factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The background to this study are the difficulties facing the majority of Greek pupils in understanding chemistry concepts and, therefore, performing well in the National Examinations. The aim was to explore the problems and to suggest ways in which the situation might be improved. Working with 105 Greek pupils aged 15 to 16, the first stage of the enquiry confirmed that both working memory space and extent of field dependency were two psychological factors affecting performance. This is at least part of the nature of the problem. In the second stage, an attempt was made to explore how the problems might be reduced. New teaching materials were constructed to minimize any limitations to learning caused by working memory space and problems associated with being field dependent. The use of the new materials was compared to the normal teaching process working with 210 Greek pupils aged 15 to16. It was found that there was a significant difference in the average improvement of the experimental group and the control group, in favour of the experimental group. This result was independent of the effect of the teacher, and of the interaction of teaching method and teacher. It is suggested that approaches to learning must take into account cognitive factors in the learners in the context of information processing understandings of learning. If this is done, learning is much more effective.

Danili, Eleni; Reid, Norman

2004-02-01

10

?-alanine supplementation improves tactical performance but not cognitive function in combat soldiers  

PubMed Central

Background There are no known studies that have examined ?-alanine supplementation in military personnel. Considering the physiological and potential neurological effects that have been reported during sustained military operations, it appears that ?-alanine supplementation may have a potential benefit in maintaining physical and cognitive performance during high-intensity military activity under stressful conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 28 days of ?-alanine ingestion in military personnel while fatigued on physical and cognitive performance. Methods Twenty soldiers (20.1?±?0.9 years) from an elite combat unit were randomly assigned to either a ?-alanine (BA) or placebo (PL) group. Soldiers were involved in advanced military training, including combat skill development, navigational training, self-defense/hand-to-hand combat and conditioning. All participants performed a 4-km run, 5-countermovement jumps using a linear position transducer, 120-m sprint, a 10-shot shooting protocol with assault rifle, including overcoming a misfire, and a 2-min serial subtraction test to assess cognitive function before (Pre) and after (Post) 28 days of supplementation. Results The training routine resulted in significant increases in 4-km run time for both groups, but no between group differences were seen (p?=?0.597). Peak jump power at Post was greater for BA than PL (p?=?0.034), while mean jump power for BA at Post was 10.2% greater (p?=?0.139) than PL. BA had a significantly greater (p?=?0.012) number of shots on target at Post (8.2?±?1.0) than PL (6.5?±?2.1), and their target engagement speed at Post was also significantly faster (p?=?0.039). No difference in serial subtraction performance was seen between the groups (p?=?0.844). Conclusion Results of this study indicate that 4-weeks of ?-alanine ingestion in young, healthy soldiers did not impact cognitive performance, but did enhance power performance, marksmanship and target engagement speed from pre-ingestion levels. PMID:24716994

2014-01-01

11

Semi-Supervised Multimodal Relevance Vector Regression Improves Cognitive Performance Estimation from Imaging and Biological Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Accurate estimation of cognitive scores for patients can help track the progress of neurological diseases. In this paper, we present a novel semi-supervised multimodal relevance vector regression (SM-RVR) method for predicting clinical scores of neurological diseases from multimodal imaging and biological biomarker, to help evaluate pathological stage and predict progression of diseases, e.g., Alzheimer’s diseases (AD). Unlike most existing methods, we predict clinical scores from multimodal (imaging and biological) biomarkers, including MRI, FDG-PET, and CSF. Considering that the clinical scores of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects are often less stable compared to those of AD and normal control (NC) subjects due to the heterogeneity of MCI, we use only the multimodal data of MCI subjects, but no corresponding clinical scores, to train a semi-supervised model for enhancing the estimation of clinical scores for AD and NC subjects. We also develop a new strategy for selecting the most informative MCI subjects. We evaluate the performance of our approach on 202 subjects with all three modalities of data (MRI, FDG-PET and CSF) from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. The experimental results show that our SM-RVR method achieves a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 1.91 and a correlation coefficient (CORR) of 0.80 for estimating the MMSE scores, and also a RMSE of 4.45 and a CORR of 0.78 for estimating the ADAS-Cog scores, demonstrating very promising performances in AD studies. PMID:23504659

Cheng, Bo; Chen, Songcan; Kaufer, Daniel I.

2013-01-01

12

Semi-supervised multimodal relevance vector regression improves cognitive performance estimation from imaging and biological biomarkers.  

PubMed

Accurate estimation of cognitive scores for patients can help track the progress of neurological diseases. In this paper, we present a novel semi-supervised multimodal relevance vector regression (SM-RVR) method for predicting clinical scores of neurological diseases from multimodal imaging and biological biomarker, to help evaluate pathological stage and predict progression of diseases, e.g., Alzheimer's diseases (AD). Unlike most existing methods, we predict clinical scores from multimodal (imaging and biological) biomarkers, including MRI, FDG-PET, and CSF. Considering that the clinical scores of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects are often less stable compared to those of AD and normal control (NC) subjects due to the heterogeneity of MCI, we use only the multimodal data of MCI subjects, but no corresponding clinical scores, to train a semi-supervised model for enhancing the estimation of clinical scores for AD and NC subjects. We also develop a new strategy for selecting the most informative MCI subjects. We evaluate the performance of our approach on 202 subjects with all three modalities of data (MRI, FDG-PET and CSF) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. The experimental results show that our SM-RVR method achieves a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 1.91 and a correlation coefficient (CORR) of 0.80 for estimating the MMSE scores, and also a RMSE of 4.45 and a CORR of 0.78 for estimating the ADAS-Cog scores, demonstrating very promising performances in AD studies. PMID:23504659

Cheng, Bo; Zhang, Daoqiang; Chen, Songcan; Kaufer, Daniel I; Shen, Dinggang

2013-07-01

13

Initial Cognitive Performance Predicts Longitudinal Aviator Performance  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The goal of the study was to improve prediction of longitudinal flight simulator performance by studying cognitive factors that may moderate the influence of chronological age. Method. We examined age-related change in aviation performance in aircraft pilots in relation to baseline cognitive ability measures and aviation expertise. Participants were aircraft pilots (N = 276) aged 40–77.9. Flight simulator performance and cognition were tested yearly; there were an average of 4.3 (± 2.7; range 1–13) data points per participant. Each participant was classified into one of the three levels of aviation expertise based on Federal Aviation Administration pilot proficiency ratings: least, moderate, or high expertise. Results. Addition of measures of cognitive processing speed and executive function to a model of age-related change in aviation performance significantly improved the model. Processing speed and executive function performance interacted such that the slowest rate of decline in flight simulator performance was found in aviators with the highest scores on tests of these abilities. Expertise was beneficial to pilots across the age range studied; however, expertise did not show evidence of reducing the effect of age. Discussion. These data suggest that longitudinal performance on an important real-world activity can be predicted by initial assessment of relevant cognitive abilities. PMID:21586627

Jo, Booil; Adamson, Maheen M.; Kennedy, Quinn; Noda, Art; Hernandez, Beatriz; Zeitzer, Jamie M.; Friedman, Leah F.; Fairchild, Kaci; Scanlon, Blake K.; Murphy, Greer M.; Taylor, Joy L.

2011-01-01

14

Nitric oxide synthase mediates the ability of darbepoetin alpha to improve the cognitive performance of STOP null mice.  

PubMed

STOP (stable tubule only polypeptide) null mice display neurochemical and behavioral abnormalities that resemble several well-recognized features of schizophrenia. Recent evidence suggests that the hematopoietic growth factor erythropoietin improves the cognitive performance of schizophrenics. The mechanism, however, by which erythropoietin is able to improve the cognition of schizophrenics is unclear. To address this question, we first determined whether acute administration of the erythropoietin analog known as darbepoetin alpha (D. alpha) improved performance deficits of STOP null mice in the novel objective recognition task (NORT). NORT performance of STOP null mice, but not wild-type littermates, was enhanced 3 h after a single injection of D. alpha (25 microg/kg, i.p.). Improved NORT performance was accompanied by elevated NADPH diaphorase staining in the ventral hippocampus as well as medial and cortical aspects of the amygdala, indicative of increased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in these structures. NOS generates the intracellular messenger nitric oxide (NO) implicated in learning and memory. In keeping with this hypothesis, D. alpha significantly increased NO metabolite levels (nitrate and nitrite, NOx) in the hippocampus of both wild-type and STOP null mice. The NOS inhibitor, N (G)-nitro-L- arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 25 mg/kg, i.p.), completely reversed the increase in hippocampal NOx levels produced by D. alpha. Moreover, L-NAME also inhibited the ability of D. alpha to improve the NORT performance of STOP null mice. Taken together, these observations suggest D. alpha enhances the NORT performance of STOP null mice by increasing production of NO. PMID:20336057

Kajitani, Kosuke; Thorne, Michael; Samson, Michel; Robertson, George S

2010-07-01

15

Some Strategies to Improve Performance in School Chemistry, Based on Two Cognitive Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The background to this study are the difficulties facing the majority of Greek pupils in understanding chemistry concepts and, therefore, performing well in the National Examinations. The aim was to explore the problems and to suggest ways in which the situation might be improved. Working with 105 Greek pupils aged 15 to 16, the first stage of the…

Danili, Eleni; Reid, Norman

2004-01-01

16

Cognitive performance and dehydration.  

PubMed

No matter how mild, dehydration is not a desirable condition because there is an imbalance in the homeostatic function of the internal environment. This can adversely affect cognitive performance, not only in groups more vulnerable to dehydration, such as children and the elderly, but also in young adults. However, few studies have examined the impact of mild or moderate dehydration on cognitive performance. This paper reviews the principal findings from studies published to date examining cognitive skills. Being dehydrated by just 2% impairs performance in tasks that require attention, psychomotor, and immediate memory skills, as well as assessment of the subjective state. In contrast, the performance of long-term and working memory tasks and executive functions is more preserved, especially if the cause of dehydration is moderate physical exercise. The lack of consistency in the evidence published to date is largely due to the different methodology applied, and an attempt should be made to standardize methods for future studies. These differences relate to the assessment of cognitive performance, the method used to cause dehydration, and the characteristics of the participants. PMID:22855911

Adan, Ana

2012-04-01

17

Effectiveness of a Cognitive Task Analysis Informed Curriculum to Increase Self-Efficacy and Improve Performance for an Open Cricothyrotomy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study explored the effects of a cognitive task analysis (CTA)- informed curriculum to increase surgical skills performance and self-efficacy beliefs for medical students and postgraduate surgical residents learning how to perform an open cricothyroto...

J. Campbell, K. Inaba, K. Yates, L. Tirapelle, R. Clark

2011-01-01

18

Does Cognitively Focused Instruction Improve the Academic Performance of Low-Achieving Students?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stakeholders are debating the value of cognitively focused instruction for students who have not benefited from a skills-based approach. Much of the discussion, however, is occurring without recognition of research that has been conducted in the past 2 decades. In this article, we reviewed the research. Electronic databases and hard copies of…

Kearns, Devin M.; Fuchs, Douglas

2013-01-01

19

Multi-domain computerized cognitive training program improves performance of bookkeeping tasks: a matched-sampling active-controlled trial.  

PubMed

Cognitive skills are important predictors of job performance, but the extent to which computerized cognitive training (CCT) can improve job performance in healthy adults is unclear. We report, for the first time, that a CCT program aimed at attention, memory, reasoning and visuo-spatial abilities can enhance productivity in healthy younger adults on bookkeeping tasks with high relevance to real-world job performance. 44 business students (77.3% female, mean age 21.4 ± 2.6 years) were assigned to either (a) 20 h of CCT, or (b) 20 h of computerized arithmetic training (active control) by a matched sampling procedure. Both interventions were conducted over a period of 6 weeks, 3-4 1-h sessions per week. Transfer of skills to performance on a 60-min paper-based bookkeeping task was measured at three time points-baseline, after 10 h and after 20 h of training. Repeated measures ANOVA found a significant Group X Time effect on productivity (F = 7.033, df = 1.745; 73.273, p = 0.003) with a significant interaction at both the 10-h (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.38, p = 0.014) and 20-h time points (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.40, p = 0.003). No significant effects were found on accuracy or on Conners' Continuous Performance Test, a measure of sustained attention. The results are discussed in reference to previous findings on the relationship between brain plasticity and job performance. Generalization of results requires further study. PMID:25120510

Lampit, Amit; Ebster, Claus; Valenzuela, Michael

2014-01-01

20

Multi-domain computerized cognitive training program improves performance of bookkeeping tasks: a matched-sampling active-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Cognitive skills are important predictors of job performance, but the extent to which computerized cognitive training (CCT) can improve job performance in healthy adults is unclear. We report, for the first time, that a CCT program aimed at attention, memory, reasoning and visuo-spatial abilities can enhance productivity in healthy younger adults on bookkeeping tasks with high relevance to real-world job performance. 44 business students (77.3% female, mean age 21.4 ± 2.6 years) were assigned to either (a) 20 h of CCT, or (b) 20 h of computerized arithmetic training (active control) by a matched sampling procedure. Both interventions were conducted over a period of 6 weeks, 3–4 1-h sessions per week. Transfer of skills to performance on a 60-min paper-based bookkeeping task was measured at three time points—baseline, after 10 h and after 20 h of training. Repeated measures ANOVA found a significant Group X Time effect on productivity (F = 7.033, df = 1.745; 73.273, p = 0.003) with a significant interaction at both the 10-h (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.38, p = 0.014) and 20-h time points (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.40, p = 0.003). No significant effects were found on accuracy or on Conners' Continuous Performance Test, a measure of sustained attention. The results are discussed in reference to previous findings on the relationship between brain plasticity and job performance. Generalization of results requires further study. PMID:25120510

Lampit, Amit; Ebster, Claus; Valenzuela, Michael

2014-01-01

21

Performance Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers presented at a symposium on performance improvement moderated by Edward Schorer at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD) "The Organizational Ecology of Ethical Problems: International Case Studies in the Light of HPT [Human Performance Technology]" (Peter J. Dean, Laurence…

1996

22

Ketogenic diet improves motor performance but not cognition in two mouse models of Alzheimer's pathology.  

PubMed

Dietary manipulations are increasingly viewed as possible approaches to treating neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies suggest that Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients present an energy imbalance with brain hypometabolism and mitochondrial deficits. Ketogenic diets (KDs), widely investigated in the treatment and prevention of seizures, have been suggested to bypass metabolic deficits present in AD brain by providing ketone bodies as an alternative fuel to neurons. We investigated the effects of a ketogenic diet in two transgenic mouse lines. Five months old APP/PS1 (a model of amyloid deposition) and Tg4510 (a model of tau deposition) mice were offered either a ketogenic or a control (NIH-31) diet for 3 months. Body weight and food intake were monitored throughout the experiment, and blood was collected at 4 weeks and 4 months for ketone and glucose assessments. Both lines of transgenic mice weighed less than nontransgenic mice, yet, surprisingly, had elevated food intake. The ketogenic diet did not affect these differences in body weight or food consumption. Behavioral testing during the last two weeks of treatment found that mice offered KD performed significantly better on the rotarod compared to mice on the control diet independent of genotype. In the open field test, both transgenic mouse lines presented increased locomotor activity compared to nontransgenic, age-matched controls, and this effect was not influenced by KD. The radial arm water maze identified learning deficits in both transgenic lines with no significant differences between diets. Tissue measures of amyloid, tau, astroglial and microglial markers in transgenic lines showed no differences between animals fed the control or the ketogenic diet. These data suggest that ketogenic diets may play an important role in enhancing motor performance in mice, but have minimal impact on the phenotype of murine models of amyloid or tau deposition. PMID:24069439

Brownlow, Milene L; Benner, Leif; D'Agostino, Dominic; Gordon, Marcia N; Morgan, Dave

2013-01-01

23

Ketogenic Diet Improves Motor Performance but Not Cognition in Two Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Pathology  

PubMed Central

Dietary manipulations are increasingly viewed as possible approaches to treating neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies suggest that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients present an energy imbalance with brain hypometabolism and mitochondrial deficits. Ketogenic diets (KDs), widely investigated in the treatment and prevention of seizures, have been suggested to bypass metabolic deficits present in AD brain by providing ketone bodies as an alternative fuel to neurons. We investigated the effects of a ketogenic diet in two transgenic mouse lines. Five months old APP/PS1 (a model of amyloid deposition) and Tg4510 (a model of tau deposition) mice were offered either a ketogenic or a control (NIH-31) diet for 3 months. Body weight and food intake were monitored throughout the experiment, and blood was collected at 4 weeks and 4 months for ketone and glucose assessments. Both lines of transgenic mice weighed less than nontransgenic mice, yet, surprisingly, had elevated food intake. The ketogenic diet did not affect these differences in body weight or food consumption. Behavioral testing during the last two weeks of treatment found that mice offered KD performed significantly better on the rotarod compared to mice on the control diet independent of genotype. In the open field test, both transgenic mouse lines presented increased locomotor activity compared to nontransgenic, age-matched controls, and this effect was not influenced by KD. The radial arm water maze identified learning deficits in both transgenic lines with no significant differences between diets. Tissue measures of amyloid, tau, astroglial and microglial markers in transgenic lines showed no differences between animals fed the control or the ketogenic diet. These data suggest that ketogenic diets may play an important role in enhancing motor performance in mice, but have minimal impact on the phenotype of murine models of amyloid or tau deposition. PMID:24069439

Brownlow, Milene L.; Benner, Leif; D'Agostino, Dominic; Gordon, Marcia N.; Morgan, Dave

2013-01-01

24

Nutraceutical intervention improves older adults' cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Interventions to improve the cognitive health of older adults are of critical importance. In the current study, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using a pill-based nutraceutical (NT-020) that contained a proprietary formulation of blueberry, carnosine, green tea, vitamin D3, and Biovin to evaluate the impact on changes in multiple domains of cognitive functioning. One hundred and five cognitively intact adults aged 65-85 years of age (M=73.6 years) were randomized to receive NT-020 (n=52) or a placebo (n=53). Participants were tested with a battery of cognitive performance tests that were classified into six broad domains--episodic memory, processing speed, verbal ability, working memory, executive functioning, and complex speed at baseline and 2 months later. The results indicated that persons taking NT-020 improved significantly on two measures of processing speed across the 2-month test period in contrast to persons on the placebo whose performance did not change. None of the other cognitive ability measures were related to intervention group. The results also indicated that the NT-020 was well tolerated by older adults, and the presence of adverse events or symptoms did not differ between the NT-020 and placebo groups. Overall, the results of the current study were promising and suggest the potential for interventions like these to improve the cognitive health of older adults. PMID:24134194

Small, Brent J; Rawson, Kerri S; Martin, Christina; Eisel, Sarah L; Sanberg, Cyndy D; McEvoy, Cathy L; Sanberg, Paul R; Shytle, R Douglas; Tan, Jun; Bickford, Paula C

2014-02-01

25

Cognitive Readiness Assessment and Reporting: An Open Source Mobile Framework for Operational Decision Support and Performance Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive readiness (CR) and performance for operational time-critical environments are continuing points of focus for military and academic communities. In response to this need, we designed an open source interactive CR assessment application as a highly adaptive and efficient open source testing administration and analysis tool. It is capable…

Heric, Matthew; Carter, Jenn

2011-01-01

26

Anxiety, Cognitive Performance, and Cognitive Decline in Normal Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sample of 704 cognitively intact individuals ( M age 5 63.7 years) performed a battery of cognitive tests on as many as three occasions, at approximately 3-year intervals. The authors used random effects models to analyze cross-sectional relationships between cognitive performance and state anxiety and longitudinal relationships be- tween cognitive change and neuroticism, after controlling for gender, age, and

Julie Loebach Wetherell; Chandra A. Reynolds; Margaret Gatz; Nancy L. Pedersen

2002-01-01

27

Effect of a Kinect-Based Exercise Game on Improving Executive Cognitive Performance in Community-Dwelling Elderly: Case Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background Decrease of dual-task (DT) ability is known to be one of the risk factors for falls. We developed a new game concept, Dual-Task Tai Chi (DTTC), using Microsoft’s motion-capture device Kinect, and demonstrated that the DTTC test can quantitatively evaluate various functions that are known risk factors for falling in elderly adults. Moreover, DT training has been attracting attention as a way to improve balance and DT ability. However, only a few studies have reported that it improves cognitive performance. Objective The purpose of this study was to demonstrate whether or not a 12-week program of DTTC training would effectively improve cognitive functions. Methods This study examined cognitive functions in community-dwelling older adults before and after 12 weeks of DTTC training (training group [TG]) or standardized training (control group [CG]). Primary end points were based on the difference in cognitive functions between the TG and the CG. Cognitive functions were evaluated using the trail-making test (part A and part B) and verbal fluency test. Results A total of 41 elderly individuals (TG: n=26, CG: n=15) participated in this study and their cognitive functions were assessed before and after DTTC training. Significant differences were observed between the two groups with significant group × time interactions for the executive cognitive function measure, the delta-trail-making test (part B?part A; F 1,36=4.94, P=.03; TG: pre mean 48.8 [SD 43.9], post mean 42.2 [SD 29.0]; CG: pre mean 49.5 [SD 51.8], post mean 64.9 [SD 54.7]). Conclusions The results suggest that DTTC training is effective for improving executive cognitive functions. Trial Registration Japan Medical Association Clinical Trial Registration Number: JMA-IIA00092; https://dbcentre3.jmacct.med.or.jp/jmactr/App/JMACTRS06/JMACTRS06.aspx?seqno=2682 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6NRtOkZFh). PMID:24565806

Okamoto, Kazuya; Nishiguchi, Shu; Yamada, Minoru; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Aoyama, Tomoki

2014-01-01

28

Performance of Cognitive Radio-Based Wireless Mesh Networks  

E-print Network

Performance of Cognitive Radio-Based Wireless Mesh Networks Nizar Bouabdallah, Brent Ishibashi, and Raouf Boutaba Abstract--Cognitive radio presents a new approach to wireless spectrum utilization and management. In this work, the potential performance improvement gained by applying cognitive radio

Boutaba, Raouf

29

Disruption of the NF-?B/I?B? Autoinhibitory Loop Improves Cognitive Performance and Promotes Hyperexcitability of Hippocampal Neurons  

PubMed Central

Background Though originally discovered in the immune system as an important mediator of inflammation, NF-?B has recently been shown to play key roles in the central nervous system, such as synaptogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and cognition. NF-?B activity is normally tightly regulated by its primary inhibitor, I?B?, through a unique autoinhibitory loop. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the I?B? autoinhibitory loop ensures optimal levels of NF-?B activity to promote proper brain development and function. To do so, we utilized knock-in mice which possess mutations in the I?B? promoter to disrupt the autoinhibitory loop (I?B?M/M KI mice). Results Here, we show that these mutations delay I?B? resynthesis and enhance NF-?B activation in neurons following acute activating stimuli. This leads to improved cognitive ability on tests of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory but no change in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Instead, hippocampal neurons from I?B?M/M KI mice form more excitatory and less inhibitory synapses in dissociated cultures and are hyperexcitable. This leads to increased burst firing of action potentials and the development of abnormal hypersynchronous discharges in vivo. Conclusions These results demonstrate that the I?B? autoinhibitory loop is critical for titrating appropriate levels of endogenous NF-?B activity to maintain proper neuronal function. PMID:21663635

2011-01-01

30

Prolonged oral cannabinoid administration prevents neuroinflammation, lowers ?-amyloid levels and improves cognitive performance in Tg APP 2576 mice  

PubMed Central

Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain shows an ongoing inflammatory condition and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories diminish the risk of suffering the neurologic disease. Cannabinoids are neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory agents with therapeutic potential. Methods We have studied the effects of prolonged oral administration of transgenic amyloid precursor protein (APP) mice with two pharmacologically different cannabinoids (WIN 55,212-2 and JWH-133, 0.2 mg/kg/day in the drinking water during 4 months) on inflammatory and cognitive parameters, and on 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (18FDG) uptake by positron emission tomography (PET). Results Novel object recognition was significantly reduced in 11 month old Tg APP mice and 4 month administration of JWH was able to normalize this cognitive deficit, although WIN was ineffective. Wild type mice cognitive performance was unaltered by cannabinoid administration. Tg APP mice showed decreased 18FDG uptake in hippocampus and cortical regions, which was counteracted by oral JWH treatment. Hippocampal GFAP immunoreactivity and cortical protein expression was unaffected by genotype or treatment. In contrast, the density of Iba1 positive microglia was increased in Tg APP mice, and normalized following JWH chronic treatment. Both cannabinoids were effective at reducing the enhancement of COX-2 protein levels and TNF-? mRNA expression found in the AD model. Increased cortical ?-amyloid (A?) levels were significantly reduced in the mouse model by both cannabinoids. Noteworthy both cannabinoids enhanced A? transport across choroid plexus cells in vitro. Conclusions In summary we have shown that chronically administered cannabinoid showed marked beneficial effects concomitant with inflammation reduction and increased A? clearance. PMID:22248049

2012-01-01

31

Cognitive test performance and background music.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of background music on test performance. In a repeated-measures design 30 undergraduates completed two cognitive tests, one in silence and the other with background music. Analysis suggested that music facilitated cognitive performance compared with the control condition of no music: more questions were completed and more answers were correct. There was no difference in heart rate under the two conditions. The improved performance under the music condition might be directly related to the type of music used. PMID:9450304

Cockerton, T; Moore, S; Norman, D

1997-12-01

32

Antecedents and correlates of improved cognitive performance in children exposed in Utero to low levels of lead  

SciTech Connect

Up to 2 years of age, children with umbilical cord blood lead levels of 10 to 25 {mu}g/dL achieve significantly lower scores on tests of cognitive development than do children with lower prenatal exposures. By age 5 years, however, they appear to have recovered from, or at least compensated for, this early insult. Change in performance between 24 and 57 months of age was examined in relation to level of postnatal lead exposure and various sociodemographic factors. Among children with high prenatal lead exposure, greater recovery of function was associated with lower blood level at 57 months, higher socioeconomic status, higher Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scores, higher maternal IQ, and female gender. The difference between the scores at 57 months of children with optimal and less optimal values on these variables generally exceed 1/2 standard deviation. Higher prenatal lead exposure is associated with an increased risk of early cognitive deficit. Furthermore, the risk that a deficit will persist through the preschool years is increased among children with high prenatal exposure and either high postnatal exposure or less optimal sociodemographic characteristics.

Bellinger, D.; Leviton, A. (Children's Hospital, Boston, MA (USA) Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA)); Sloman, J. (Children's Hospital, Boston, MA (USA) Wheelock College, Boston, MA (USA))

1990-11-01

33

Background music and cognitive performance.  

PubMed

The present experiment employed standardized test batteries to assess the effects of fast-tempo music on cognitive performance among 56 male and female university students. A linguistic processing task and a spatial processing task were selected from the Criterion Task Set developed to assess verbal and nonverbal performance. Ten excerpts from Mozart's music matched for tempo were selected. Background music increased the speed of spatial processing and the accuracy of linguistic processing. The findings suggest that background music can have predictable effects on cognitive performance. PMID:20865993

Angel, Leslie A; Polzella, Donald J; Elvers, Greg C

2010-06-01

34

Cognitive Ability, Cognitive Aptitudes, Job Knowledge, and Job Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the hundreds of studies showing that general cognitive ability predicts job performance in all jobs. Shows that general cognitive ability predicts supervisor ratings and training success and that general cognitive ability predicts objective, rigorously content valid work sample performance with even higher validity. (Author/ABB)

Hunter, John E.

1986-01-01

35

Cognitive behavioral strategies in athletic performance enhancement.  

PubMed

While we might debate the role of sport in our culture, its influence is certainly pervasive. Each day millions of Americans engage in some form of competition, training, or physical exercise. Such popularity and the value our culture places on competition have made sport a valid area of psychological inquiry. Within the cognitive behavioral model, sport psychology and, specifically, athletic performance enhancement have experienced vigorous growth over the past two decades. Behavior change strategies familiar to most cognitive behaviorists form the core of virtually all athletic performance enhancement interventions. Goal setting, imagery or mental rehearsal, relaxation training, stress management, self-monitoring, self-instruction, cognitive restructuring, and modeling interventions dominate this literature. Our examination of these performance enhancement programs, both through a qualitative review and the Whelan et al. (1989) meta-analysis, supports the efficacy of cognitive behavioral interventions for the enhancement of sport performance. First, the average effect size across the empirical literature indicates that these interventions are reliably effective. Furthermore, this positive result is observed across variations in treatment conditions, control conditions, and across different types of dependent measures. Evidence on goal setting, imagery, arousal management, cognitive self-regulation, and packaged programs specifically support the behavior change efficacy of these interventions. These findings are encouraging, but much work needs to be done. Few investigators cited in this review attend to crucial internal and external validity issues. Attention to treatment integrity, including training of behavior change agents, verification of intervention implementation, and verification of reception of the treatment, is sorely lacking. Psychological skill development and its relationship to performance improvements are rarely checked. Now that cognitive behavioral interventions appear to be reliably effective at posttreatment, we must have meaningful evaluation of maintenance of psychological skill and performance changes. Six-month, 12-month, and longer follow-up evaluations are necessary. We must also begin more detailed evaluations of these effective interventions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7567674

Meyers, A W; Whelan, J P; Murphy, S M

1996-01-01

36

Do Action Video Games Improve Perception and Cognition?  

PubMed Central

Frequent action video game players often outperform non-gamers on measures of perception and cognition, and some studies find that video game practice enhances those abilities. The possibility that video game training transfers broadly to other aspects of cognition is exciting because training on one task rarely improves performance on others. At first glance, the cumulative evidence suggests a strong relationship between gaming experience and other cognitive abilities, but methodological shortcomings call that conclusion into question. We discuss these pitfalls, identify how existing studies succeed or fail in overcoming them, and provide guidelines for more definitive tests of the effects of gaming on cognition. PMID:21949513

Boot, Walter R.; Blakely, Daniel P.; Simons, Daniel J.

2011-01-01

37

Vocational rehabilitation improves cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Several studies in schizophrenia found a positive association between cognitive performance and work status, and it has been reported that good cognitive performance at the outset does predict the success of vocational interventions. However little has been done to investigate whether vocational interventions itself benefit cognitive performance. To test this hypothesis we performed a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to investigate in remitted schizophrenic patients the effect of a 6-months vocational rehabilitation program on cognitive performance. We recruited 112 remitted and clinically stable schizophrenic patients who aimed to enter a vocational rehabilitation program. From these, 57 immediately entered a 6-months vocational rehabilitation program, whereas the remaining 55 were allocated to a waiting-list; the latter formed our control group, which received during the 6 months out-clinic follow-up treatment. Before and after the 6-months period we assessed changes in cognitive performance through a neuropsychological test battery, as well as changes in the psychopathological status and in quality of life. We found that vocational rehabilitation significantly improved patients' performance in cognitive measures that assess executive functions (concept formation, shifting ability, flexibility, inhibitory control, and judgment and critics abilities). Moreover, after 6 months the vocational group improved significantly in the negative symptoms and in quality of life, as compared to controls. Together with results from the literature, our findings reinforce the notion that the inclusion of vocational interventions may enhance the effectiveness of therapeutic strategies for schizophrenia patients. PMID:20800453

Bio, Danielle Soares; Gattaz, Wagner Farid

2011-03-01

38

Using Relaxation, Cognitive Therapy, and Mental Imagery To Reduce Test Anxiety and Improve Performance among Firefighter Trainees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The significant number of firefighter trainees experiencing performance evaluation anxiety during fire training school was addressed by the implementation of anxiety reduction and performance enhancement strategies. Audiotape recordings were chosen as the primary intervention medium to facilitate program effectiveness within an established fire…

Mogen, David S.

39

Toward cognitive radio resource management based on multi-agent systems for improvement of  

E-print Network

Toward cognitive radio resource management based on multi-agent systems for improvement of real}@gmail.com, krief@labri.fr Abstract--Cognitive Radio (CR) is a promising technology that can alleviate the spectrum approach which uses CR for improving real-time application performance related to only one cognitive radio

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

40

The Effects of anxiety on cognitive performance  

E-print Network

1 The Effects of anxiety on cognitive performance Paula Miguel Submitted as part describes five studies that systematically examined the effects of anxiety on cognitive performance, based of anxiety on two central executive functions (inhibition and shifting) both jointly and separately. Task

Royal Holloway, University of London

41

Improved Visual Cognition through Stroboscopic Training  

PubMed Central

Humans have a remarkable capacity to learn and adapt, but surprisingly little research has demonstrated generalized learning in which new skills and strategies can be used flexibly across a range of tasks and contexts. In the present work we examined whether generalized learning could result from visual–motor training under stroboscopic visual conditions. Individuals were assigned to either an experimental condition that trained with stroboscopic eyewear or to a control condition that underwent identical training with non-stroboscopic eyewear. The training consisted of multiple sessions of athletic activities during which participants performed simple drills such as throwing and catching. To determine if training led to generalized benefits, we used computerized measures to assess perceptual and cognitive abilities on a variety of tasks before and after training. Computer-based assessments included measures of visual sensitivity (central and peripheral motion coherence thresholds), transient spatial attention (a useful field of view – dual task paradigm), and sustained attention (multiple-object tracking). Results revealed that stroboscopic training led to significantly greater re-test improvement in central visual field motion sensitivity and transient attention abilities. No training benefits were observed for peripheral motion sensitivity or peripheral transient attention abilities, nor were benefits seen for sustained attention during multiple-object tracking. These findings suggest that stroboscopic training can effectively improve some, but not all aspects of visual perception and attention. PMID:22059078

Appelbaum, L. Gregory; Schroeder, Julia E.; Cain, Matthew S.; Mitroff, Stephen R.

2011-01-01

42

Brain stimulation improves associative memory in an individual with amnestic mild cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In patients with cognitive deficits, brain stimulation has been shown to restore cognition (Miniussi et al., 2008, Brain Stimulation, 1, 326). The aim of this study was to assess whether repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) could improve memory performance in an individual with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Stimulation of the left parietal cortex increased accuracy in an association memory

Maria Cotelli; Marco Calabria; Rosa Manenti; Sandra Rosini; Claudio Maioli; Orazio Zanetti; Carlo Miniussi

2012-01-01

43

Brain stimulation improves associative memory in an individual with amnestic mild cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In patients with cognitive deficits, brain stimulation has been shown to restore cognition (Miniussi et al., 2008, Brain Stimulation, 1, 326). The aim of this study was to assess whether repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) could improve memory performance in an individual with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Stimulation of the left parietal cortex increased accuracy in an association memory

Maria Cotelli; Marco Calabria; Rosa Manenti; Sandra Rosini; Claudio Maioli; Orazio Zanetti; Carlo Miniussi

2011-01-01

44

Cognitive performance in patients with COPD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Hypoxemic patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have impaired cognitive performance. These neuropsychological impairments are related to the degree of hypoxemia. So far, cognitive performance has not been tested in non-hypoxemic patients with COPD.Methods: We recruited patients with stable COPD and PaO2>8.0kPa (60mmHg), as well as healthy subjects, who were matched for age, intelligence quotient (IQ), and level

Jeroen J. W Liesker; Dirkje S Postma; Rypko J Beukema; Nick H. T ten Hacken; Thys van der Molen; Roland A Riemersma; Ed H van Zomeren; Huib A. M Kerstjens

2004-01-01

45

Reduction of brain kynurenic acid improves cognitive function.  

PubMed

The elevation of kynurenic acid (KYNA) observed in schizophrenic patients may contribute to core symptoms arising from glutamate hypofunction, including cognitive impairments. Although increased KYNA levels reduce excitatory neurotransmission, KYNA has been proposed to act as an endogenous antagonist at the glycine site of the glutamate NMDA receptor (NMDAR) and as a negative allosteric modulator at the ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Levels of KYNA are elevated in CSF and the postmortem brain of schizophrenia patients, and these elevated levels of KYNA could contribute to NMDAR hypofunction and the cognitive deficits and negative symptoms associated with this disease. However, the impact of endogenously produced KYNA on brain function and behavior is less well understood due to a paucity of pharmacological tools. To address this issue, we identified PF-04859989, a brain-penetrable inhibitor of kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II), the enzyme responsible for most brain KYNA synthesis. In rats, systemic administration of PF-04859989 dose-dependently reduced brain KYNA to as little as 28% of basal levels, and prevented amphetamine- and ketamine-induced disruption of auditory gating and improved performance in a sustained attention task. It also prevented ketamine-induced disruption of performance in a working memory task and a spatial memory task in rodents and nonhuman primates, respectively. Together, these findings support the hypotheses that endogenous KYNA impacts cognitive function and that inhibition of KAT II, and consequent lowering of endogenous brain KYNA levels, improves cognitive performance under conditions considered relevant for schizophrenia. PMID:25100593

Kozak, Rouba; Campbell, Brian M; Strick, Christine A; Horner, Weldon; Hoffmann, William E; Kiss, Tamas; Chapin, Douglas S; McGinnis, Dina; Abbott, Amanda L; Roberts, Brooke M; Fonseca, Kari; Guanowsky, Victor; Young, Damon A; Seymour, Patricia A; Dounay, Amy; Hajos, Mihaly; Williams, Graham V; Castner, Stacy A

2014-08-01

46

COG1410, an Apolipoprotein E-based Peptide, Improves Cognitive Performance and Reduces Cortical Loss Following Moderate Fluid Percussion Injury in the Rat  

PubMed Central

COG1410, a small, novel ApoE-mimetic peptide derived from the receptor binding region of Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), has been classified as anti-inflammatory in nature and improves motor, sensorimotor, and cognitive dysfunction following cortical contusion injury (CCI). In order to further examine COG1410’s preclinical efficacy on cognitive recovery, the present study evaluated COG1410 following moderate fluid percussion injury (FPI). Animals were prepared with a moderate, unilateral FPI over the hippocampus. Following FPI, animals received a regimen of five doses of COG1410 or vehicle at 2 and 4 hrs (1.0 mg/kg, i.v.) followed by additional doses administered 24, 48, and 72 hrs (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.). Prior to injury, animals were trained for four days (4 trials/day) in the Morris water maze (MWM) and then tested for retrograde amnesia on post-FPI day 11 and then on a working memory task on day 18. Testing for motor dysfunction on the tapered balanced beam began on day 2 post-FPI. Administration of this regimen of COG1410 significantly improved retention of memory in the retrograde amnesia test compared to vehicle post-FPI. However, COG1410 did not significantly improve acquisition of working memory in the MWM. Motor dysfunction on the tapered beam post-FPI was improved in the COG1410-treated group compared to vehicle treatment. Cortical lesion analysis revealed that the COG1410-treated animals demonstrated significantly less tissue loss compared to vehicle-treated animals. The results of this study suggest that COG1410 significantly limited the behavioral dysfunction and tissue loss associated with FPI and demonstrated continued preclinical efficacy for TBI. PMID:20600347

Kaufman, Nicholas A.; Beare, Jason E.; Tan, Arlene A.; Vitek, Michael P.; McKenna, Suzanne E.; Hoane, Michael R.

2010-01-01

47

Effects of Active Hyperthermia on Cognitive Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Active hyperthermia elicited by a heat stress trial (HST) was hypothesized to negatively impact higher-order cognitive ability. Design and Setting: A test-retest design with one within-subjects variable was utilized for this investigation. The independent variable was thermal condition (normothermic and hyperthermic) and the dependent variables were four factors of cognitive performance (working memory, attention, response speed, and processing speed)

Zevon M. Stubblefield; Michelle A. Cleary; Sean E. Garvey; Lindsey E. Eberman

48

FIELD ASSESSMENT OF COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE UNDER STRESS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance decrements have frequently been reported in combat but it has been difficult to demonstrate the specific causal source of cognitive degradation sutficient to disrupt performance during military operations. In the present study, seventeen inhtiymen were assessed during both a oneweek simulated combat exercise and a prawn assault. Significant change did not occur during the one week exercise, however simple

Wayne C. Harris; Peter A. Hancock

49

Enrichment and Training Improve Cognition in Rats with Cortical Malformations  

PubMed Central

Children with malformations of cortical development (MCD) frequently have associated cognitive impairments which reduce quality of life. We hypothesized that cognitive deficits associated with MCD can be improved with environmental manipulation or additional training. The E17 methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) exposure model bears many anatomical hallmarks seen in human MCDs as well as similar behavioral and cognitive deficits. We divided control and MAM exposed Sprague-Dawley rats into enriched and non-enriched groups and tested performance in the Morris water maze. Another group similarly divided underwent sociability testing and also underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans pre and post enrichment. A third group of control and MAM rats without enrichment were trained until they reached criterion on the place avoidance task. MAM rats had impaired performance on spatial tasks and enrichment improved performance of both control and MAM animals. Although MAM rats did not have a deficit in sociability they showed similar improvement with enrichment as controls. MRI revealed a whole brain volume decrease with MAM exposure, and an increase in both MAM and control enriched volumes in comparison to non-enriched animals. In the place avoidance task, MAM rats required approximately 3 times as long to reach criterion as control animals, but with additional training were able to reach control performance. Environmental manipulation and additional training can improve cognition in a rodent MCD model. We therefore suggest that patients with MCD may benefit from appropriate alterations in educational strategies, social interaction and environment. These factors should be considered in therapeutic strategies. PMID:24358362

Jenks, Kyle R.; Lucas, Marcella M.; Duffy, Ben A.; Robbins, Ashlee A.; Gimi, Barjor; Barry, Jeremy M.; Scott, Rod C.

2013-01-01

50

Improving CSF Biomarkers' Performance for Predicting Progression from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer's Disease by Considering Different Confounding Factors: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers’ performance for predicting conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is still suboptimal. Objective: By considering several confounding factors we aimed to identify in which situations these CSF biomarkers can be useful. Data Sources: A systematic review was conducted on MEDLINE, PreMedline, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane, and CRD (1990–2013). Eligibility Criteria: (1) Prospective studies of CSF biomarkers’ performance for predicting conversion from MCI to AD/dementia; (2) inclusion of A?42 and T-tau and/or p-tau. Several meta-analyses were performed. Results: A?42/p-tau ratio had high capacity to predict conversion to AD in MCI patients younger than 70?years. The p-tau had high capacity to identify MCI cases converting to AD in ?24?months. Conclusions: Explaining how different confounding factors influence CSF biomarkers’ predictive performance is mandatory to elaborate a definitive map of situations, where these CSF biomarkers are useful both in clinics and research.

Ferreira, Daniel; Rivero-Santana, Amado; Perestelo-Perez, Lilisbeth; Westman, Eric; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Sarria, Antonio; Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro

2014-01-01

51

The effect of cognitive behaviour therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome on self-reported cognitive impairments and neuropsychological test performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) often have concentration and memory problems. Neuropsychological test performance is impaired in at least a subgroup of patients with CFS. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for CFS leads to a reduction in fatigue and disabilities.Aim: To test the hypothesis that CBT results in a reduction of self-reported cognitive impairment and in an improved neuropsychological

Hans Knoop; Judith B Prins; Maja Stulemeijer; Jos W M van der Meer; Gijs Bleijenberg

2007-01-01

52

Cognitive intervention with elite performers: reversal theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noticeable in the literature associated with the application of psychology to the area of sport and sports performance in particular has been the increasing frequency of references to the use of cognitive intervention in the sports context. Currently utilised in clinical psychology and behavioural medicine, and receiving increasing attention in sports psychology, are a number of intervention techniques primarily oriented

J H Kerr

1987-01-01

53

Cognitive Performance Inconsistency: Intraindividual Change and Variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many studies have examined inconsistency of cognitive performance, few have examined how inconsistency changes over time. 91 older adults (age 52 to 79) were tested weekly for 36 consecutive weeks on a series of multitrial memory speed (i.e., letter recognition) tasks. A number of multivariate techniques were used to examine how individuals' level of inconsistency changed across weeks and

Nilam Ram; Patrick Rabbitt; Brian Stollery; John R. Nesselroade

2005-01-01

54

Cognitive Correlates of Performance in Advanced Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Much research has been devoted to understanding cognitive correlates of elementary mathematics performance, but little such research has been done for advanced mathematics (e.g., modern algebra, statistics, and mathematical logic).Aims: To promote mathematical knowledge among college students, it is necessary to understand what factors…

Wei, Wei; Yuan, Hongbo; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhou, Xinlin

2012-01-01

55

Novel Television-Based Cognitive Training Improves Working Memory and Executive Function  

PubMed Central

The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60–87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of “adequate” to “high” system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition. PMID:24992187

Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecka, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bures, Vladimir

2014-01-01

56

Confidence and Cognitive Test Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the nature of confidence in relation to abilities, personality, and metacognition. Confidence scores were collected during the administration of Reading and Listening sections of the Test of English as a Foreign Language Internet-Based Test (TOEFL iBT) to 824 native speakers of English. Those confidence scores were correlated with performance accuracy scores from the TOEFL iBT and SAT,

Lazar Stankov; Jihyun Lee

2008-01-01

57

Cognitive Adaptation Training: Establishing Environmental Supports to Bypass Cognitive Deficits and Improve Functional Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several approaches to the treatment of cognitive impairments and their functional consequences for persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder have been developed in recent years. This article focuses on the use of Cognitive adaptation training (CAT), a psychosocial intervention that seeks to bypass cognitive impairments in schizophrenia in an effort to improve functional outcomes. CAT relies on the use

NATALIE J. MAPLES; DAWN I. VELLIGAN

2008-01-01

58

Metformin may produce antidepressant effects through improvement of cognitive function among depressed patients with diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus and depressive disorders are both common chronic diseases that increase functional disability and social burden. Cognitive impairment is a potentially debilitating feature of depression. Previous evidence indicates that the antidiabetic drug metformin could be suitable for diabetic patients with cognitive impairment. However, there is no direct evidence from clinical studies that metformin treatment improves cognitive function in diabetic patients suffering from depression. In the present study, 58 participants diagnosed with depression and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were recruited and divided into two groups, one treated with metformin and the other treated with placebo for 24 weeks. Cognitive function, depressive behaviour and diabetes improvement were evaluated. Chronic treatment with metformin for 24 weeks improved cognitive performance, as assessed by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, in depressed patients with T2DM. In addition, metformin significantly improved depressive performance and changed the glucose metabolism in depressed patients with diabetes. Depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with cognitive performance in metformin-treated participants. Furthermore, associations were observed between the parameters of blood glucose metabolism and the depression phenotype. These findings suggest that chronic treatment with metformin has antidepressant behavioural effects and that improved cognitive function is involved in the therapeutic outcome of metformin. The results of the present study also raise the possibility that supplementary administration of antidiabetic medications may enhance the recovery of depression, comorbid with T2DM, through improvements in cognitive performance. PMID:24862430

Guo, Min; Mi, Jia; Jiang, Qiu-Ming; Xu, Jin-Mei; Tang, Ying-Ying; Tian, Geng; Wang, Bin

2014-09-01

59

Improving Construct Validity with Cognitive Psychology Principles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines testing practices in: (1) the past, in which the traditional paradigm left little room for cognitive psychology principles; (2) the present, in which testing research is enhanced by principles of cognitive psychology; and (3) the future, in which the potential of cognitive psychology should be fully realized through item design.…

Embretson, Susan; Gorin, Joanna

2001-01-01

60

Ultradian Cognitive Performance Rhythms During Sleep Deprivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultradian rhythms that modulate daytime human behavior and cognitive performance exist. However, their subtleness may make\\u000a them susceptible to masking effects from heightened arousal, attention, and motivation. Experimental designs using sleep attenuation\\u000a and total sleep-deprivation appear to unmask certain ultradian rhythms. This chapter reviews the few studies designed to evaluate\\u000a rhythms in waking EEG and task performances during sleep deprivation.

C. M. LaJambe; F. M. Brown

61

Pharmacologic strategies for augmenting cognitive performance in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

There is recognition that the cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia have the most substantial impact on illness outcome. Domains of cognition reported to be significantly affected include serial learning, executive function, vigilance, and distractibility, to name a few. Dopamine activity at D1 receptors mediates many cognitive processes subserved by the prefrontal cortex (PFC), particularly working memory. The number of D1 receptors in the PFC is decreased in schizophrenics and is unaffected by chronic administration of typical neuroleptics. Therefore, medications that increase dopamine in the PFC, such as atypical neuroleptics, or that directly activate the D1 receptor may prove useful in the remediation of prefrontal-dependent cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Decreased levels of cortical norepinephrine (NE) are associated with impaired learning and working memory in animal models, and can be reversed by drugs that restore NE activity. More specifically, alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists have been particularly effective in improving delayed response performance in young monkeys with localized 6-hydroxydopamine lesions in the PFC. Furthermore, human postmortem studies have demonstrated decreased NE in the frontal cortex of demented schizophrenic patients. Therefore, alpha-2 receptor agonists hold promise as drugs to improve cognitive performance on tasks dependent upon PFC function in schizophrenics. Finally, the finding that cortical choline acetyl transferase activity correlates with Clinical Dementia Rating scores in schizophrenic patients and that cholinomimetic drugs enhance cognition in healthy subjects suggests that cholinergic drugs may also treat cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia. Two potential types of cholinomimetics for use in schizophrenics are the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and M1/M4 muscarinic agonists, both of which increase cortical cholinergic activity. PMID:9894570

Friedman, J I; Temporini, H; Davis, K L

1999-01-01

62

Performance improvement through benchmarking  

SciTech Connect

Benchmarking has become very popular in the past few years, taking its place in the list of management tools alongside organizational restructuring, total quality management, process reengineering, and others as ways to make improvements to operational and financial performance. Yet much is misunderstood about the technique, and there is substantial room for improvement in its application across industry, and particularly within the utility industry. The purpose of this paper is to explain some of the details of benchmarking, including its capabilities and limitations, and demonstrate how different applications require different approaches to benchmarking. The intent is to provide a brief overview of the different potential uses, and then, through a case example, show how the different capabilities can be put to use.

Buckstaff, K. [Theodore Barry & Associates, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

1994-12-31

63

Whole Body Vibration Improves Cognition in Healthy Young Adults  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the acute effects of passive whole body vibration (WBV) on executive functions in healthy young adults. Participants (112 females, 21 males; age: 20.5±2.2 years) underwent six passive WBV sessions (frequency 30 Hz, amplitude approximately 0.5 mm) and six non-vibration control sessions of two minutes each while sitting on a chair mounted on a vibrating platform. A passive WBV session was alternated with a control session. Directly after each session, performance on the Stroop Color-Block Test (CBT), Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT), Stroop Difference Score (SDS) and Digit Span Backward task (DSBT) was measured. In half of the passive WBV and control sessions the test order was CBT-CWIT-DSBT, and DSBT-CBT-CWIT in the other half. Passive WBV improved CWIT (p?=?0.009; effect size r?=?0.20) and SDS (p?=?0.034; r?=?0.16) performance, but only when the CBT and CWIT preceded the DSBT. CBT and DSBT performance did not change. This study shows that two minutes passive WBV has positive acute effects on attention and inhibition in young adults, notwithstanding their high cognitive functioning which could have hampered improvement. This finding indicates the potential of passive WBV as a cognition-enhancing therapy worth further evaluation, especially in persons unable to perform active forms of exercise. PMID:24949870

Regterschot, G. Ruben H.; Van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; Zeinstra, Edzard B.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Oliver; Van Der Zee, Eddy A.

2014-01-01

64

The influence of agility training on physiological and cognitive performance.  

PubMed

Agility training (AT) has recently been instituted in several military communities in hopes of improving combat performance and general fitness. The purpose of this study was to determine how substituting AT for traditional military physical training (PT) influences physical and cognitive performance. Forty-one subjects undergoing military technical training were divided randomly into 2 groups for 6 weeks of training. One group participated in standard military PT consisting of calisthenics and running. A second group duplicated the amount of exercise of the first group but used AT as their primary mode of training. Before and after training, subjects completed a physical and cognitive battery of tests including V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, reaction time, Illinois Agility Test, body composition, visual vigilance, dichotic listening, and working memory tests. There were significant improvements within the AT group in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, Illinois Agility Test, visual vigilance, and continuous memory. There was a significant increase in time-to-exhaustion for the traditional group. We conclude that AT is as effective or more effective as PT in enhancing physical fitness. Further, it is potentially more effective than PT in enhancing specific measures of physical and cognitive performance, such as physical agility, memory, and vigilance. Consequently, we suggest that AT be incorporated into existing military PT programs as a way to improve war-fighter performance. Further, it seems likely that the benefits of AT observed here occur in various other populations. PMID:23442271

Lennemann, Lynette M; Sidrow, Kathryn M; Johnson, Erica M; Harrison, Catherine R; Vojta, Christopher N; Walker, Thomas B

2013-12-01

65

Effects of simultaneously performed cognitive and physical training in older adults  

PubMed Central

Background While many studies confirm the positive effect of cognitive and physical training on cognitive performance of older adults, only little is known about the effects of simultaneously performed cognitive and physical training. In the current study, older adults simultaneously performed a verbal working memory and a cardiovascular training to improve cognitive and motor-cognitive dual task performance. Twenty training sessions of 30 minutes each were conducted over a period of ten weeks, with a test session before, in the middle, and after the training. Training gains were tested in measures of selective attention, paired-associates learning, executive control, reasoning, memory span, information processing speed, and motor-cognitive dual task performance in the form of walking and simultaneously performing a working memory task. Results Sixty-three participants with a mean age of 71.8?±?4.9 years (range 65 to 84) either performed the simultaneous training (N?=?21), performed a single working memory training (N?=?16), or attended no training at all (N?=?26). The results indicate similar training progress and larger improvements in the executive control task for both training groups when compared to the passive control group. In addition, the simultaneous training resulted in larger improvements compared to the single cognitive training in the paired-associates task and was able to reduce the step-to-step variability during the motor-cognitive dual task when compared to the single cognitive training and the passive control group. Conclusions The simultaneous training of cognitive and physical abilities presents a promising training concept to improve cognitive and motor-cognitive dual task performance, offering greater potential on daily life functioning, which usually involves the recruitment of multiple abilities and resources rather than a single one. PMID:24053148

2013-01-01

66

Exercise therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy to improve fatigue, daily activity performance and quality of life in Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome: the protocol of the FACTS2PPS trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome (PPS) is a complex of late onset neuromuscular symptoms with new or increased muscle weakness and muscle fatigability as key symptoms. Main clinical complaints are severe fatigue, deterioration in functional abilities and health related quality of life. Rehabilitation management is the mainstay of treatment. Two different therapeutic interventions may be prescribed (1) exercise therapy or (2) cognitive

Fieke S Koopman; Anita Beelen; Karin H Gerrits; Gijs Bleijenberg; Tineke A Abma; Marianne de Visser; Frans Nollet

2010-01-01

67

Web-Based Cognitive Apprenticeship Model for Improving Pre-Service Teachers' Performances and Attitudes towards Instructional Planning: Design and Field Experiment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Instructional planning is an essential professional activity often used by teachers. However, some characteristics of existing university-based teacher education programs may hamper pre-service teachers' learning of instructional planning. Thus, this study adopts the cognitive apprenticeship as a theoretical foundation to construct a web-based…

Liu, Tzu-Chien

2005-01-01

68

Dietary supplementation with a combination of ?-lipoic acid, acetyl- l-carnitine, glycerophosphocoline, docosahexaenoic acid, and phosphatidylserine reduces oxidative damage to murine brain and improves cognitive performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer disease has a complex etiology composed of nutritional and genetic risk factors and predispositions. Moreover, genetic risk factors for cognitive decline may remain latent pending age-related decline in nutrition, suggesting the potential importance of early nutritional intervention, including preventative approaches. We hypothesized that a combination of multiple nutritional additives may be able to provide neuroprotection. We demonstrate herein that

James Suchy; Amy Chan; Thomas B. Shea

2009-01-01

69

High altitude cognitive performance and COPD interaction  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Thousands of people work and perform everyday in high altitude environment, either as pilots, or shift workers, or mountaineers. The problem is that most of the accidents in this environment have been attributed to human error. The objective of this study was to assess complex cognitive performance as it interacts with respiratory insufficiency at altitudes of 8000 feet and identify the potential effect of hypoxia on safe performance. Methods: Twenty subjects participated in the study, divided in two groups: Group I with mild asymptomatic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and Group II with normal respiratory function. Altitude was simulated at 8000 ft. using gas mixtures. Results: Individuals with mild COPD experienced notable hypoxemia with significant performance decrements and increased number of errors at cabin altitude, compared to normal subjects, whereas their blood pressure significantly increased. PMID:19048098

Kourtidou-Papadeli, C; Papadelis, C; Koutsonikolas, D; Boutzioukas, S; Styliadis, C; Guiba-Tziampiri, O

2008-01-01

70

Physical Performance Is Associated with Working Memory in Older People with Mild to Severe Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Background. Physical performances and cognition are positively related in cognitively healthy people. The aim of this study was to examine whether physical performances are related to specific cognitive functioning in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 134 people with a mild to severe cognitive impairment (mean age 82 years). Multiple linear regression was performed, after controlling for covariates and the level of global cognition, with the performances on mobility, strength, aerobic fitness, and balance as predictors and working memory and episodic memory as dependent variables. Results. The full models explain 49–57% of the variance in working memory and 40–43% of episodic memory. Strength, aerobic fitness, and balance are significantly associated with working memory, explaining 3–7% of its variance, irrespective of the severity of the cognitive impairment. Physical performance is not related to episodic memory in older people with mild to severe cognitive impairment. Conclusions. Physical performance is associated with working memory in older people with cognitive impairment. Future studies should investigate whether physical exercise for increased physical performance can improve cognitive functioning. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NTR1482. PMID:24757674

Volkers, K. M.; Scherder, E. J. A.

2014-01-01

71

Short-term effects of exercise and music on cognitive performance among participants in a cardiac rehabilitation program  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveExercise has been associated with improved cognitive performance among patients with coronary artery disease. Music listening has been associated with enhanced cognitive functioning among healthy adults. This study evaluated the combined influence of exercise and music listening on cognitive performance among patients in cardiac rehabilitation (CR).

Charles F Emery; Evana T Hsiao; Scott M Hill; David J Frid

2003-01-01

72

RC2S: A Cognitive Remediation Program to Improve Social Cognition in Schizophrenia and Related Disorders  

PubMed Central

In people with psychiatric disorders, particularly those suffering from schizophrenia and related illnesses, pronounced difficulties in social interactions are a key manifestation. These difficulties can be partly explained by impairments in social cognition, defined as the ability to understand oneself and others in the social world, which includes abilities such as emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), attributional style, and social perception and knowledge. The impact of several kinds of interventions on social cognition has been studied recently. The best outcomes in the area of social cognition in schizophrenia are those obtained by way of cognitive remediation programs. New strategies and programs in this line are currently being developed, such as RC2S (cognitive remediation of social cognition) in Lyon, France. Considering that the social cognitive deficits experienced by patients with schizophrenia are very diverse, and that the main objective of social cognitive remediation programs is to improve patients’ functioning in their daily social life, RC2S was developed as an individualized and flexible program that allows patients to practice social interaction in a realistic environment through the use of virtual reality techniques. In the RC2S program, the patient’s goal is to assist a character named Tom in various social situations. The underlying idea for the patient is to acquire cognitive strategies for analyzing social context and emotional information in order to understand other characters’ mental states and to help Tom manage his social interactions. In this paper, we begin by presenting some data regarding the social cognitive impairments found in schizophrenia and related disorders, and we describe how these deficits are targeted by social cognitive remediation. Then we present the RC2S program and discuss the advantages of computer-based simulation to improve social cognition and social functioning in people with psychiatric disorders. PMID:24982627

Peyroux, Elodie; Franck, Nicolas

2014-01-01

73

EFFECTS OF BUPROPION ON COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE DURING INITIAL TOBACCO ABSTINENCE  

PubMed Central

Background Bupropion may aid tobacco abstinence by quickly relieving symptoms of nicotine withdrawal, perhaps including impaired cognitive performance. We examined whether bupropion would attenuate abstinence-induced cognitive deficits on the first day of a brief quit attempt, when smokers are most likely to relapse. Methods Smokers (N=24) with high quit interest were recruited for a within-subjects cross-over test of bupropion vs placebo on ability to abstain during separate short-term practice quit smoking attempts. After introduction to working memory (N-back) and sustained attention (continuous performance task; CPT) tasks during the pre-quit smoking baseline, performance on these tasks was assessed after abstaining overnight (CO<10 ppm) on the first day of each quit attempt, while on bupropion and on placebo. Results Compared to placebo, bupropion after abstinence improved correct response times for working memory (p=.01 for medication by memory load interaction) and for one measure of sustained attention (numbers, but not letters; p<.05). Discussion Bupropion may attenuate some features of impaired cognitive performance due to withdrawal on the first day of a quit attempt. Future studies could examine whether this effect of bupropion contributes to its efficacy for longer-term smoking cessation. PMID:23726977

Perkins, Kenneth A.; Karelitz, Joshua L.; Jao, Nancy C.; Gur, Ruben C.; Lerman, Caryn

2013-01-01

74

Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone Differentially Improve Cognition in Aged Female Mice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared with age-matched male mice, female mice experience a more severe age-related cognitive decline (ACD). Since androgens are less abundant in aged female mice compared with aged male mice, androgen supplementation may enhance cognition in aged female mice. To test this, we assessed behavioral performance on a variety of tasks in 22- to…

Benice, Ted S.; Raber, Jacob

2009-01-01

75

On the Performance of Calibration Techniques for Cognitive Radio Systems  

E-print Network

On the Performance of Calibration Techniques for Cognitive Radio Systems Boris Kouassi1, Irfan.ghauri@intel.com, bassem.zayen@eurecom.fr, deneire@i3s.unice.fr Abstract--In Cognitive Radio (CR) systems, primary licensed. Index Terms--Cognitive Radio, reciprocity calibration, MIMO/TDD, beamforming, signal processing, channel

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

76

Multi-hop Performance Analysis of Whisper Cognitive Radio Networks  

E-print Network

1 Multi-hop Performance Analysis of Whisper Cognitive Radio Networks Quanjun Chen, Chun Tung Chou that wireless communications face. Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs) allow secondary users to opportunistically that the interference at the primary receiver meets a certain threshold. We refer the Cognitive Radio Networks

New South Wales, University of

77

Separation of cognitive domains to improve prediction of progression from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Addressing causes of heterogeneity in cognitive outcomes is becoming more critical as Alzheimer's disease (AD) research focuses on earlier disease. One of the causes of this heterogeneity may be that individuals with deficiencies in different cognitive domains may perform similarly on a neuropsychological (NP) test for very different reasons. Tatsuoka and colleagues have applied a Bayesian model in order to integrate knowledge about cognitive domains relevant to each NP test with the observed outcomes from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) mild cognitive impairment data. This approach resulted in better prediction of AD diagnosis than more traditional approaches. PMID:23680123

2013-01-01

78

Improving Accuracy for Identifying Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Deficit measurement is the sine qua non of neuropsychology. The risk, of course, is that we can be so focused on deficit measurement\\u000a – and so focused on describing the nature and severity of a person’s cognitive impairment – that we can underappreciate human\\u000a diversity and overattribute low or unexpected test scores to brain injury or disease. The North American

Grant L. Iverson; Brian L. Brooks

79

Performance of Improved Ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquefaction-induced foundation displacement during earthquakes continues to be a major cause of damage to all types of structures, including buildings, bridges, dikes, levees, and seawalls. However, historical evidence from events as far back as the 1964 Niigata earthquake and most recently the devastating 1995 Hyogoken Nanbu (Kobe), Japan, and 1999 Kocaeli, Turkey, earthquakes indicates improved sites suffer less ground deformation

Elizabeth A. Hausler; Nicholas Sitar

80

QUASAR's QStates cognitive gauge performance in the cognitive state assessment competition 2011.  

PubMed

The Cognitive State Assessment Competition 2011 was organized by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to compare the performance of real-time cognitive state classification software. This paper presents results for QUASAR's data classification module, QStates, which is a software package for real-time (and off-line) analysis of physiologic data collected during cognitive-specific tasks. The classifier's methodology can be generalized to any particular cognitive state; QStates identifies the most salient features extracted from EEG signals recorded during different cognitive states or loads. PMID:22255838

McDonald, Neil J; Soussou, Walid

2011-01-01

81

Improved cognition after control of risk factors for multi-infarct dementia  

SciTech Connect

A cohort of 52 patients (30 men and 22 women) with multi-infarct dementia (MID) has been followed up prospectively for a mean interval of 22.2 months. Clinical course has been documented by serial history taking and interviews and neurological, medical, and psychological examinations, and correlated with measurements of cerebral blood flow. The clinical course and cognitive performance have been compared with those of age-matched normal volunteers and patients with Alzheimer's disease. Patients with MID were subdivided into hypertensive and normotensive groups, and also into those displaying stabilized or improved cognition and those whose condition deteriorated. Among hypertensive patients with MID, improved cognition and clinical course correlated with control of systolic blood pressure within upper limits of normalf (135 to 150 mm Hg), but if systolic blood pressure was reduced below this level, patients with MID deteriorated. Among normotensive patients with MID, improved cognition was associated with cessation of smoking cigarettes.

Meyer, J.S.; Judd, B.W.; Tawaklna, T.; Rogers, R.L.; Mortel, K.F.

1986-10-24

82

Cognitive performance of individuals with schizophrenia across seven decades: A study using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objectives of this study are to determine the effect of aging, schizophrenia, and their interaction on cognitive function. Design Cross-sectional controlled study. Setting Community-living. Participants 235 subjects with schizophrenia aged 19-79 and 333 comparison subjects aged 20-81. Measurements The Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). Results Older age was associated with poorer performance on 9 of 10 MCCB tests in both subjects with schizophrenia and comparison subjects. Subjects with schizophrenia were impaired relative to comparison subjects on each of the 10 tests. However, there was no interaction between aging and schizophrenia on any test. Essentially the same results were observed when analyzing performance on the seven MCCB cognitive domains and MCCB global composite score. Conclusions Consistent with other reports, schizophrenia appears to be a disorder marked by generalized cognitive dysfunction. However, the rate of cognitive decline appears to be similar to that observed in healthy comparison subjects. They do not experience acceleration in cognitive aging which supports the hypothesis that schizophrenia is a syndrome of premature aging. Longitudinal studies including very old patients are needed to confirm and extend these findings. PMID:23343484

Rajji, Tarek K.; Voineskos, Aristotle N.; Butters, Meryl A.; Miranda, Dielle; Arenovich, Tamara; Menon, Mahesh; Ismail, Zahinoor; Kern, Robert S.; Mulsant, Benoit H.

2012-01-01

83

Deconstructing and Reconstructing Cognitive Performance in Sleep Deprivation  

PubMed Central

Summary Mitigation of cognitive impairment due to sleep deprivation in operational settings is critical for safety and productivity. Achievements in this area are hampered by limited knowledge about the effects of sleep loss on actual job tasks. Sleep deprivation has different effects on different cognitive performance tasks, but the mechanisms behind this task-specificity are poorly understood. In this context it is important to recognize that cognitive performance is not a unitary process, but involves a number of component processes. There is emerging evidence that these component processes are differentially affected by sleep loss. Experiments have been conducted to decompose sleep-deprived performance into underlying cognitive processes using cognitive-behavioral, neuroimaging and cognitive modeling techniques. Furthermore, computational modeling in cognitive architectures has been employed to simulate sleep-deprived cognitive performance on the basis of the constituent cognitive processes. These efforts are beginning to enable quantitative prediction of the effects of sleep deprivation across different task contexts. This paper reviews a rapidly evolving area of research, and outlines a theoretical framework in which the effects of sleep loss on cognition may be understood from the deficits in the underlying neurobiology to the applied consequences in real-world job tasks. PMID:22884948

Jackson, Melinda L.; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M.; Belenky, Gregory; Rabat, Arnaud; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.

2012-01-01

84

Cognitive functioning and school performance in children with renal failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although previous studies have documented neuropsychological deficits in children with end-stage renal disease, few have evaluated and compared the cognitive functioning and the school performance of children with renal failure. The current study evaluated the influence of chronic renal failure on cognitive functioning and school performance in children and adolescents with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis and after renal transplantation.

Kathleen W. Lawryl; Ben H. Brouhardl; Robert J. Cunningham

1994-01-01

85

Improved local spectrum sensing for cognitive radio networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The successful deployment of dynamic spectrum access requires cognitive radio (CR) to more accurately find the unoccupied portion of the spectrum. An accurate spectrum sensing technique can reduce the probability of false alarms and misdetection. Cooperative spectrum sensing is usually employed to achieve accuracy and improve reliability, but at the cost of cooperation overhead among CR users. This overhead can be reduced by improving local spectrum sensing accuracy. Several signal processing techniques for transmitter detection have been proposed in the literature but more sophisticated approaches are needed to enhance sensing efficiency. This article proposes a two-stage local spectrum sensing approach. In the first stage, each CR performs existing spectrum sensing techniques, i.e., energy detection, matched filter detection, and cyclostationary detection. In the second stage, the output from each technique is combined using fuzzy logic in order to deduce the presence or absence of a primary transmitter. Simulation results verify that our proposed technique outperforms existing local spectrum sensing techniques. The proposed approach shows significant improvement in sensing accuracy by exhibiting a higher probability of detection and low false alarms. The mean detection time of the proposed scheme is equivalent to that of cyclostationary detection.

Ejaz, Waleed; ul Hasan, Najam; Azam, Muhammad Awais; Kim, Hyung Seok

2012-12-01

86

The nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 activator, tert-butylhydroquinone, improves cognitive performance in mice after mild traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Traumatic Brain injury affects at least 1.7 million people in the United States alone each year. The majority of injuries are categorized as mild but these still produce lasting symptoms that plague the patient and the medical field. Currently treatments are aimed at reducing a patient's symptoms, but there is no effective method to combat the source of the problem, neuronal loss. We tested a mild, closed head traumatic brain injury model for the effects of modulation of the antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2 by the chemical activator, tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ). We found that post-injury visual memory was improved by a 7 day course of treatment and that the level of activated caspase-3 in the hippocampus was reduced. The injury-induced memory loss was also reversed by a single injection at 30 min after injury. Since the protective stress response molecule, HSP70, can be upregulated by Nrf2, we examined protein levels in the hippocampus, and found that HSP70 was elevated by the injury and then further increased by the treatment. To test the possible role of HSP70, model neurons in culture exposed to a mild injury and treated with the Nrf2 activator displayed improved survival that was blocked by the HSP70 inhibitor, VER155008. Following mild traumatic brain injury, there may be a partial protective response and patients could benefit from directed enhancement of regulatory pathways such as Nrf2 for neuroprotection. PMID:22890082

Saykally, J N; Rachmany, L; Hatic, H; Shaer, A; Rubovitch, V; Pick, C G; Citron, B A

2012-10-25

87

The Hydration Equation: Update on Water Balance and Cognitive Performance  

PubMed Central

LEARNING OBJECTIVES To become aware of the most practical measures of hydration status.To describe sources of water input and output and the basics of water balance.To understand how hydration status may impact daily cognitive performance. CONDENSED VERSION AND BOTTOM LINE Water is a crucial nutrient and euhydration is necessary for optimal daily functioning. Water balance is precisely regulated within the body and many methods exist for assessing hydration status. Cognitive performance measures an individual’s attentiveness, critical thinking skills, and memory. Traditionally a 2% or more body water deficit was thought to produce cognitive performance decrements; however, recent literature suggests that even mild dehydration – a body water loss of 1–2% – can impair cognitive performance. Counseling clients about their health and wellbeing should include conveying the importance of water for normal body functioning, as well as its effects on physical and cognitive performance. PMID:25346594

Riebl, Shaun K; Davy, Brenda M.

2013-01-01

88

A cognitive mediation theory of task goals and human performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theory is proposed to explain the linkages between individual task goals and performance. Two cognitive constructs are postulated to mediate between task goals and performance:performance expectancy and performance valence. It is asserted that an individual's task goal has a positive influence on performance expectancy and a negative influence on performance valence. Performance expectancy is proposed to have a positive

Howard Garland

1985-01-01

89

Avoiding the performance improvement trap.  

PubMed

Hospitals today can all too easily fall into a performance improvement trap if they do not adequately consider how best to approach efforts to improve performance. To ensure that such efforts will be effective, hospital leaders should first understand the reasons why an organization can stumble into this trap. Reasons that improvement initiatives can fall short include the absence of coherent strategy, an inability to distinguish between action and results, and a disjointed use of performance improvement tools in isolation rather than as part of a coordinated effort. PMID:22734325

Betka, Robert D

2012-06-01

90

Cognitive Architecture for Human Performance Process Model Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Technical Paper proposes a new cognitive architecture for human performance process (HPP) model research. HPP models are engineering models of human performance. They represent the human information-processing system as a series of subsystems consist...

M. J. Young

1992-01-01

91

Using Multidisciplinary Expert Evaluations to Test and Improve Cognitive Model Interfaces  

E-print Network

has been the TacAir-Soar system [24] which employs cognitive models developed with the Soar cognitiveUsing Multidisciplinary Expert Evaluations to Test and Improve Cognitive Model Interfaces Marios N, situation awareness, cognitive models ABSTRACT: Typically, the design of cognitive models has not emphasized

Ritter, Frank

92

Augmenting team cognition in human-automation teams performing in complex operational environments.  

PubMed

There is a growing reliance on automation (e.g., intelligent agents, semi-autonomous robotic systems) to effectively execute increasingly cognitively complex tasks. Successful team performance for such tasks has become even more dependent on team cognition, addressing both human-human and human-automation teams. Team cognition can be viewed as the binding mechanism that produces coordinated behavior within experienced teams, emerging from the interplay between each team member's individual cognition and team process behaviors (e.g., coordination, communication). In order to better understand team cognition in human-automation teams, team performance models need to address issues surrounding the effect of human-agent and human-robot interaction on critical team processes such as coordination and communication. Toward this end, we present a preliminary theoretical framework illustrating how the design and implementation of automation technology may influence team cognition and team coordination in complex operational environments. Integrating constructs from organizational and cognitive science, our proposed framework outlines how information exchange and updating between humans and automation technology may affect lower-level (e.g., working memory) and higher-level (e.g., sense making) cognitive processes as well as teams' higher-order "metacognitive" processes (e.g., performance monitoring). Issues surrounding human-automation interaction are discussed and implications are presented within the context of designing automation technology to improve task performance in human-automation teams. PMID:17547306

Cuevas, Haydee M; Fiore, Stephen M; Caldwell, Barrett S; Strater, Laura

2007-05-01

93

Psychological Biases Affecting Human Cognitive Performance in Dynamic Operational Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to identify cognitive error mechanisms observed in the dynamic operational environment, the following materials were analyzed giving special attention to psychological biases, together with possible cognitive tasks and these location, and internal and external performance shaping factors: (a) 13 human factors analyses of US nuclear power plant accidents, (b) 14 cases of Japanese nuclear power plant incidents, and

Kenichi TAKANO; James REASON

1999-01-01

94

Cognitive performance as a zeitgeber: cognitive oscillators and cholinergic modulation of the SCN entrain circadian rhythms.  

PubMed

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the primary circadian pacemaker in mammals that can synchronize or entrain to environmental cues. Although light exerts powerful influences on SCN output, other non-photic stimuli can modulate the SCN as well. We recently demonstrated that daily performance of a cognitive task requiring sustained periods of attentional effort that relies upon basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic activity dramatically alters circadian rhythms in rats. In particular, normally nocturnal rats adopt a robust diurnal activity pattern that persists for several days in the absence of cognitive training. Although anatomical and pharmacological data from non-performing animals support a relationship between cholinergic signaling and circadian rhythms, little is known about how endogenous cholinergic signaling influences SCN function in behaving animals. Here we report that BF cholinergic projections to the SCN provide the principal signal allowing for the expression of cognitive entrainment in light-phase trained animals. We also reveal that oscillator(s) outside of the SCN drive cognitive entrainment as daily timed cognitive training robustly entrains SCN-lesioned arrhythmic animals. Ablation of the SCN, however, resulted in significant impairments in task acquisition, indicating that SCN-mediated timekeeping benefits new learning and cognitive performance. Taken together, we conclude that cognition entrains non-photic oscillators, and cholinergic signaling to the SCN serves as a temporal timestamp attenuating SCN photic-driven rhythms, thereby permitting cognitive demands to modulate behavior. PMID:23441168

Gritton, Howard J; Stasiak, Ashley M; Sarter, Martin; Lee, Theresa M

2013-01-01

95

Cognitive Performance as a Zeitgeber: Cognitive Oscillators and Cholinergic Modulation of the SCN Entrain Circadian Rhythms  

PubMed Central

The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the primary circadian pacemaker in mammals that can synchronize or entrain to environmental cues. Although light exerts powerful influences on SCN output, other non-photic stimuli can modulate the SCN as well. We recently demonstrated that daily performance of a cognitive task requiring sustained periods of attentional effort that relies upon basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic activity dramatically alters circadian rhythms in rats. In particular, normally nocturnal rats adopt a robust diurnal activity pattern that persists for several days in the absence of cognitive training. Although anatomical and pharmacological data from non-performing animals support a relationship between cholinergic signaling and circadian rhythms, little is known about how endogenous cholinergic signaling influences SCN function in behaving animals. Here we report that BF cholinergic projections to the SCN provide the principal signal allowing for the expression of cognitive entrainment in light-phase trained animals. We also reveal that oscillator(s) outside of the SCN drive cognitive entrainment as daily timed cognitive training robustly entrains SCN-lesioned arrhythmic animals. Ablation of the SCN, however, resulted in significant impairments in task acquisition, indicating that SCN-mediated timekeeping benefits new learning and cognitive performance. Taken together, we conclude that cognition entrains non-photic oscillators, and cholinergic signaling to the SCN serves as a temporal timestamp attenuating SCN photic-driven rhythms, thereby permitting cognitive demands to modulate behavior. PMID:23441168

Gritton, Howard J.; Stasiak, Ashley M.; Sarter, Martin; Lee, Theresa M.

2013-01-01

96

Practical guide for improving performance.  

PubMed

Research has established that health care is not error free. The question facing perioperative units, as well as all health care services, is how to minimize the human factors that impact quality and safety. This two-part series on performance improvement in perioperative services was intended to help answer this question. Achieving performance excellence starts with a supportive work culture. The human issues of teamwork, communication, and leadership are crucial to achieving performance excellence. Next, perioperative caregivers must accept that all people make mistakes so systems and processes can be designed to be more "forgiving" of errors. Last, a planned and systematic approach must be used to measure, analyze, and improve performance. Successful implementation of performance improvement calls for strong partnerships between physicians, managers, and staff members. Performance excellence requires that everyone work together to ensure that perioperative care is safe, effective, appropriate, customer focused, and efficient. PMID:15116523

Spath, Patrice L

2004-04-01

97

Assessing Cognitive Load Theory to Improve Student Learning for Mechanical Engineers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer programming class for students of mechanical engineering was redesigned and assessed: Cognitive Load Theory was used to redesign the content; online technologies were used to redesign the delivery. Student learning improved and the dropout rate was reduced. This article reports on both attitudinal and objective assessment: comparing student performance on identical final exams and student reviews. Note is

Thomas J. Impelluso

2009-01-01

98

Priming Ability-Relevant Social Categories Improves Intellectual Test Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that priming affects behavioral tasks; fewer studies, however, have been conducted on how social category primes affect cognitive tasks. The present study aimed to examine the effects of social category primes on math performance and word recall. It was hypothesized that Asian prime words would improve math performance and word…

Lin, Phoebe S.; Kennette, Lynne N.; Van Havermaet, Lisa R.; Frank, Nichole M.; McIntyre, Rusty B.

2012-01-01

99

Cognitive Performance in Healthy Women During Induced Hypogonadism and Ovarian Steroid Addback  

PubMed Central

Background Gynecology clinic-based studies have consistently demonstrated that induced hypogonadism is accompanied by a decline in cognitive test performance. However, a recent study in healthy asymptomatic controls observed that neither induced hypogonadism nor estradiol replacement influenced cognitive performance. Thus the effects of induced hypogonadism on cognition might not be uniformly experienced across individual women. Moreover, discrepancies in the effects of hypogonadism on cognition also could suggest the existence of specific risk phenotypes that predict a woman’s symptomatic experience during the menopause. In this study, we examined the effects of induced hypogonadism and ovarian steroid replacement on cognitive performance in healthy premenopausal women. Methods Ovarian suppression was induced with a GnRH agonist (Lupron) and then physiologic levels of estradiol and progesterone were re-introduced in 23 women. Cognitive tests were administered during each hormone condition. To evaluate possible practice effects arising during repeated testing, an identical battery of tests was administered at the same time intervals in 11 untreated women. Results With the exception of an improved performance on mental rotation during estradiol, we observed no significant effects of estradiol or progesterone on measures of attention, concentration, or memory compared with hypogonadism. Conclusions In contrast to studies in which a decline in cognitive performance was observed in women receiving ovarian suppression therapy for an underlying gynecologic condition, we confirm a prior report demonstrating that short term changes in gonadal steroids have a limited effect on cognition in young, healthy, women. Differences in the clinical characteristics of the women receiving GnRH agonists could predict a risk for ovarian steroid-related changes in cognitive performance during induced, and possibly, natural menopause. Key Words: estradiol, hypogonadism, progesterone, cognition. PMID:23188540

Schmidt, Peter J.; Keenan, PA; Schenkel, Linda A; Berlin, Kate; Gibson, Carolyn; Rubinow, David R.

2012-01-01

100

Stop of loss of cognitive performance during rehabilitation after total hip arthroplasty-prospective controlled study.  

PubMed

Prolonged hospitalization is known to be associated with a loss of cognitive performance. Does playing video games (VGs) developed to improve cognitive properties delay this loss or even lead to an increase in cognitive performance? We performed a 10-day longitudinal study of patients who received total hip arthroplasty. We compared 16 patients (6 male) aged 66 ± 9 years (mean ± standard deviation) who played Dr. Kawashima's Brain Training: How Old Is Your Brain? (Nintendo; Redmond, Washington) on a Nintendo DS handheld console with 16 control patients (6 male) aged 69 ± 14 years. We measured cognitive performance 1 day preoperation, as well as on days 2 and 9 postoperation. With the daily exercise of a specific VG by the play group, the patients' fluid intelligence (median intelligence quotient 99-106), working memory capacity, and rate of information processing significantly improved over the course of 7 postoperative days. The cognitive performance of the control group did not increase. However, the memory spans of both groups did not systematically change. Exercise with VGs can prevent the loss of cognitive performance during prolonged hospitalization. PMID:21174253

Brem, Matthias H; Lehrl, Siegfried; Rein, Anna K; Massute, Sylvia; Schulz-Drost, Stefan; Gelse, Kolja; Schlechtweg, Phillip M; Hennig, Friedrich F; Olk, Alexander; Jacob, Harald J; Gusinde, Johannes

2010-01-01

101

Individualized Management of Fatigue and Cognitive Performance Impairment Through Biomathematical Modeling  

E-print Network

Individualized Management of Fatigue and Cognitive Performance Impairment Through Biomathematical Modeling HFM-MP-181 28 - 1 Individualized Management of Fatigue and Cognitive Performance Impairment customizable to an individual's cognitive performance variabilities. This #12;Individualized Management

102

Nutrition, brain function and cognitive performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military interest in the effects of nutritional factors on cognitive function has stimulated considerable research on a variety of food constituents. This paper will review the research on the amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine, caffeine and carbohydrate. It will focus on research that addresses the potential utility of these compounds in military applications, particularly the acute, as opposed to chronic,

Harris R Lieberman

2003-01-01

103

Improving Reading Performance through Hypnosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study investigating the effects of group hypnosis on the reading performance of university students in a reading and writing center. Discusses study procedures and presents data on pretest scores and gains in vocabulary and comprehension scores. Concludes that regular use of self-hypnosis significantly improved performance. (DMM)

Fillmer, H. Thompson; And Others

1981-01-01

104

Nefiracetam improves Morris water maze performance following traumatic brain injury in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nefiracetam, a pyrrolidone derivative, is a nootropic agent that has facilitated cognitive function in a wide variety of animal models of cognitive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the chronic postinjury administration of nefiracetam (DM-9384) in improving cognitive performance following central fluid percussion brain injury in rats. Twenty-four hours following surgical preparation, a sham

S. Michelle DeFord; Margaret S Wilson; Cynthia J Gibson; Anya Baranova; Robert J Hamm

2001-01-01

105

Effects of acute smoked marijuana on complex cognitive performance.  

PubMed

Although the ability to perform complex cognitive operations is assumed to be impaired following acute marijuana smoking, complex cognitive performance after acute marijuana use has not been adequately assessed under experimental conditions. In the present study, we used a within-participant double-blind design to evaluate the effects acute marijuana smoking on complex cognitive performance in experienced marijuana smokers. Eighteen healthy research volunteers (8 females, 10 males), averaging 24 marijuana cigarettes per week, completed this three-session outpatient study; sessions were separated by at least 72-hrs. During sessions, participants completed baseline computerized cognitive tasks, smoked a single marijuana cigarette (0%, 1.8%, or 3.9% Delta(9)-THC w/w), and completed additional cognitive tasks. Blood pressure, heart rate, and subjective effects were also assessed throughout sessions. Marijuana cigarettes were administered in a double-blind fashion and the sequence of Delta(9)-THC concentration order was balanced across participants. Although marijuana significantly increased the number of premature responses and the time participants required to complete several tasks, it had no effect on accuracy on measures of cognitive flexibility, mental calculation, and reasoning. Additionally, heart rate and several subjective-effect ratings (e.g., "Good Drug Effect," "High," "Mellow") were significantly increased in a Delta(9)-THC concentration-dependent manner. These data demonstrate that acute marijuana smoking produced minimal effects on complex cognitive task performance in experienced marijuana users. PMID:11682259

Hart, C L; van Gorp, W; Haney, M; Foltin, R W; Fischman, M W

2001-11-01

106

Arctic cognition: a study of cognitive performance in summer and winter at 69 degrees N  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evidence has accumulated over the past 15 years that affect in humans is cyclical. In winter there is a tendency to depression, with remission in summer, and this effect is stronger at higher latitudes. In order to determine whether human cognition is similarly rhythmical, this study investigated the cognitive processes of 100 participants living at 69 degrees N. Participants were tested in summer and winter on a range of cognitive tasks, including verbal memory, attention and simple reaction time tasks. The seasonally counterbalanced design and the very northerly latitude of this study provide optimal conditions for detecting impaired cognitive performance in winter, and the conclusion is negative: of five tasks with seasonal effects, four had disadvantages in summer. Like the menstrual cycle, the circannual cycle appears to influence mood but not cognition.

Brennen, T.; Martinussen, M.; Hansen, B. O.; Hjemdal, O.

1999-01-01

107

Improved Behavior, Motor, and Cognition Assessments in Neonatal Piglets  

PubMed Central

Abstract The alterations of animal behavior after traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be subtle, and their quantitative characterization can present significant methodological challenges. Meeting these challenges is a critical need, because quantitative measures are required in studies that compare the efficacy of different clinical interventions. We developed a battery of assessments to quantify behavioral, motor, and cognitive changes in neonatal piglets with good sensitivity and specificity to the detection of persistent deficits that correlate with axonal injury severity after a rapid non-impact head rotation with a diffuse pattern of axonal injury. The battery of measures developed included open field behaviors of sniffing and moving a toy, locomotion measures of Lempel-Ziv complexity and the probability of remaining in the current location, and a novel metric for evaluating motor performance. Our composite porcine disability score was able to detect brain injury with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 85.7% at day +4 post-injury for n=8 injured and n=7 sham piglets and significantly correlated with the percent axonal injury in these animals (day +4: ?=0.76, p=0.0011). A significant improvement over our previous assessments, this new porcine disability score has potential use in a wide variety of porcine disease and injury models. PMID:23758416

Sullivan, Sarah; Friess, Stuart H.; Ralston, Jill; Smith, Colin; Propert, Kathleen J.; Rapp, Paul E.

2013-01-01

108

Robot motivator: Increasing user enjoyment and performance on a physical\\/cognitive task  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the design and implementation of a socially assistive robot that is able to monitor the performance of a user during a combined cognitive and physical task, with the purpose of providing motivation to the user to complete the task and to improve task performance. The work presented aims to study the effects of verbal praise, encouragement, and motivation

Juan Fasola; Maja J. Matari?

2010-01-01

109

Surviving Performance Improvement "Solutions": Aligning Performance Improvement Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can organizations avoid the negative, sometimes chaotic, effects of multiple, poorly coordinated performance improvement interventions? How can we avoid punishing our external clients or staff with the side effects of solutions that might benefit our bottom line or internal efficiency at the expense of the value received or perceived by…

Bernardez, Mariano L.

2009-01-01

110

Cognitive performance in healthy women during induced hypogonadism and ovarian steroid addback.  

PubMed

Gynecology clinic-based studies have consistently demonstrated that induced hypogonadism is accompanied by a decline in cognitive test performance. However, a recent study in healthy asymptomatic controls observed that neither induced hypogonadism nor estradiol replacement influenced cognitive performance. Thus, the effects of induced hypogonadism on cognition might not be uniformly experienced across individual women. Moreover, discrepancies in the effects of hypogonadism on cognition also could suggest the existence of specific risk phenotypes that predict a woman's symptomatic experience during menopause. In this study, we examined the effects of induced hypogonadism and ovarian steroid replacement on cognitive performance in healthy premenopausal women. Ovarian suppression was induced with a GnRH agonist (Lupron) and then physiologic levels of estradiol and progesterone were reintroduced in 23 women. Cognitive tests were administered during each hormone condition. To evaluate possible practice effects arising during repeated testing, an identical battery of tests was administered at the same time intervals in 11 untreated women. With the exception of an improved performance on mental rotation during estradiol, we observed no significant effects of estradiol or progesterone on measures of attention, concentration, or memory compared with hypogonadism. In contrast to studies in which a decline in cognitive performance was observed in women receiving ovarian suppression therapy for an underlying gynecologic condition, we confirm a prior report demonstrating that short-term changes in gonadal steroids have a limited effect on cognition in young, healthy women. Differences in the clinical characteristics of the women receiving GnRH agonists could predict a risk for ovarian steroid-related changes in cognitive performance during induced, and possibly, natural menopause. PMID:23188540

Schmidt, Peter J; Keenan, P A; Schenkel, Linda A; Berlin, Kate; Gibson, Carolyn; Rubinow, David R

2013-02-01

111

Using cognitive general imagery to improve soccer strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletes use imagery for both cognitive and motivational functions (Paivio 1985) The cognitive function involves the rehearsal of skills (cognitive specific) and strategies of play (cognitive general). To date most of the imagery research has been concerned with skill rehearsal (cognitive specific), and there have been no controlled studies investigating the effects of cognitive general imagery on the learning and

Krista J. Munroe-Chandler; Craig R. Hall; Graham J. Fishburne; Vanessa Shannon

2005-01-01

112

Similar effects on cognitive performance during high- and low-carbohydrate obesity treatment  

PubMed Central

Objective: Low-carbohydrate (L-CHO) diets are often used for weight loss but their effects on cognitive function are not well understood. The present study compared the effects of a L-CHO and high-carbohydrate (H-CHO) weight-loss diet on cognitive function adults. Design: Participants were randomized to either a L-CHO (n=22) or H-CHO (n=25) weight-loss diet. Cognitive function was evaluated by four computerized cognitive tasks (Stroop Task, Continuous Performance Task, Word Recall and Wisconsin Card Sorting Task) presented in random order before and at 1, 4, 12 and 24 weeks after the initiation of the L-CHO or H-CHO diet. Participants: Forty-seven adults (25 males) with a mean±s.d. age of 47.4±8.7 years and body mass index of 35.3±3.4?kg?m?2. Results: There were no significant differences in weight loss between groups at any time point. There were significant improvements on color Stroop task accuracy over time in both diet groups (P<0.05), but there were no differences in performance between groups on this or any other cognitive task at any time period. Conclusion: These findings suggest that weight loss has neither a positive nor a negative effect on cognitive function and that L-CHO and H-CHO weight-loss diets have similar effects on cognitive performance. PMID:24061557

Makris, A; Darcey, V L; Rosenbaum, D L; Komaroff, E; Vander Veur, S S; Collins, B N; Klein, S; Wyatt, H R; Foster, G D

2013-01-01

113

Laterality influences cognitive performance in rainbowfish Melanotaenia duboulayi.  

PubMed

Cerebral lateralization has been suggested to convey a selective advantage to individuals by enhancing their cognitive abilities. Few, however, have explicitly compared the cognitive ability of animals with strongly contrasting laterality. Here, we examined the influence of laterality on learning performance in the crimson spotted rainbowfish, Melanotaenia duboulayi, using a classical conditioning paradigm. We also compared the learning ability of wild caught and captive-reared fish to examine the influence of rearing environment on cognitive performance. Laterality was established by observing which eye fish preferred to use while viewing their mirror image. Subjects were then conditioned to associate the appearance of a red light with a food reward over 7 days. Our results revealed that left-lateralized fish learned the conditioning task faster than right-lateralized. These results provide further evidence that cerebral lateralization can play important roles in cognitive function which likely have diverse fitness consequences for animals in their natural environments. PMID:24531906

Bibost, Anne-Laurence; Brown, Culum

2014-09-01

114

Techniques for Improving Spelling Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improving spelling performance of college students is a question of insuring that the correct information is in long-term memory and readily retrievable. Any system of spelling instruction should recognize the capacity limits of the sensory register and short-term memory; provide for identification of and concentration on the distinctive features…

Saylor, Paul

115

Infant feeding practice and childhood cognitive performance in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimSeveral studies have suggested a beneficial effect of infant breastfeeding on childhood cognitive function. The main objective was to examine whether duration of breastfeeding and age at introduction of complementary foods are related to cognitive performance in 9- to 10-year-old school-aged children in South India.MethodsThe authors examined 514 children from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort for whom breastfeeding duration (six

Sargoor R Veena; Ghattu V Krishnaveni; Krishnamachari Srinivasan; Andrew K Wills; Jacqueline C Hill; Anura V Kurpad; Sumithra Muthayya; Samuel C Karat; Mahadevu Nalinakshi; Caroline H D Fall

2010-01-01

116

Human cognitive performance in spaceflight and analogue environments.  

PubMed

Maintaining intact cognitive performance is a high priority for space exploration. This review seeks to summarize the cumulative results of existing studies of cognitive performance in spaceflight and analogue environments. We focused on long-duration (>21 d) studies for which no review has previously been conducted. There were 11 published studies identified for long-duration spaceflight (N = 42 subjects) as well as 21 shorter spaceflight studies (N = 70 subjects). Overall, spaceflight cognitive studies ranged from 6-438 d in duration. Some 55 spaceflight analogue studies were also identified, ranging from 6 to 520 d. The diverse nature of experimental procedures and protocols precluded formal meta-analysis. In general, the available evidence fails to strongly support or refute the existence of specific cognitive deficits in low Earth orbit during long-duration spaceflight, which may be due in large part to small numbers of subjects. The studies consistently suggest that novel environments (spaceflight or other) induce variable alterations in cognitive performance across individuals, consistent with known astronaut experiences. This highlights the need to better quantify the magnitude and scope of this interindividual variability, and understand its underlying factors, when predicting in-flight cognitive functioning for extended periods. PMID:25245904

Strangman, Gary E; Sipes, Walter; Beven, Gary

2014-10-01

117

Cognitive intervention results in web-based videophone treatment adherence and improved cognitive scores  

PubMed Central

Background We report findings from an intervention study using telehealth modalities to determine whether provision of telehealth services can improve access to care and increase adherence to cognitive therapy in veterans with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) while matching traditional care in terms of outcomes. Material/Methods Veterans who were initially non-adherent to clinic-based cognitive therapy were offered a newly developed treatment. The control participants were selected from patient records of veterans who had completed cognitive treatment and matched to MOPS-VI participants on the basis of age, marital or relationship status, and composite memory index score. Baseline and post-treatment cognitive functioning as assessed by the Test of Memory and Learning 2nd Edition (TOMAL-2) was obtained for all participants. The MOPS-VI modules were designed to increase understanding of TBI and elicit problem-solving skills for attention and memory impairment. Results Sixty-seven percent of veterans (who were assigned to the MOPS-VI treatment group because they were initially non-adherent with the clinic-based treatment) completed the MOPS-VI telemedicine treatment. Results of a two-way analysis of Variance (ANOVA) comparing baseline and follow-up scores on the TOMAL-2 in the MOPS-VI and control groups revealed there was a significant pre-post assessment effect, indicating that participant’s memory and learning improved after treatment for both MOPS-VI and standard treatment groups. There was no significant difference between clinic-based treatment and MOPS-VI therapy. Conclusions Preliminary evidence supports the efficacy of the treatment, defined as increased compliance in completing the treatment program, and improvements in standardized memory and learning test results comparable to those following clinic-based treatment. PMID:23584165

Riegler, Lindsay James; Neils-Strunjas, Jean; Boyce, Suzanne; Wade, Shari L.; Scheifele, Peter M.

2013-01-01

118

Intracranial arachnoid cysts: impairment of higher cognitive functions and postoperative improvement  

PubMed Central

Background Intracranial arachnoid cysts have been shown to yield cognitive impairment over a range of basic mental functions, and these functions normalize after surgical cyst decompression. We wanted to investigate whether such cysts may also impair executive cognitive functions, and whether surgical cyst decompression leads to an improvement. Methods This study included 22 patients with arachnoid cysts and 13 control patients scheduled for low back surgery. All subjects were tested with Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) tests, assessing executive function 1 day before surgery and a minimum of 3 months after surgery. The data were analyzed according to scaled score computations based on raw scores provided by D-KEFS, adjusted for age, gender, and educational norms. Results Preoperatively, the patients with cysts group performed worse than the control group in verbal knowledge, mental flexibility, inhibitory capacity, problem solving, and planning skills. Postoperatively, the patients with cysts group significantly improved performance and were no longer different from the control group in the following subtests: inhibition, inhibition/switching, letter fluency, category switching, and total switching accuracy. The patients with cysts group also significantly improved performance in color naming, category fluency, and in the Tower test, but nevertheless remained impaired at follow-up compared with the control group. The control group did not show a similar improvement, except for the Tower test. Cyst size or postoperative volume reduction did not correlate with cognitive performance or postoperative improvement. Patients with left-sided temporal cysts performed poorer than patients with right-sided cysts on a complex verbal task demanding mental flexibility. Conclusions Arachnoid cysts seem to impair not only basic cognition, but also executive functions. Most of this impairment appears to be reversible after surgical cyst decompression. These results may have implications for future preoperative considerations for patients with intracranial arachnoid cysts. PMID:23985219

2013-01-01

119

Aging and Concurrent Task Performance: Cognitive Demand and Motor Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A motor task that requires fine control of upper limb movements and a cognitive task that requires executive processing--first performing them separately and then concurrently--was performed by 18 young and 18 older adults. The motor task required participants to tap alternatively on two targets, the sizes of which varied systematically. The…

Albinet, Cedric; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Beasman, Kathryn

2006-01-01

120

Anaemia and cognitive performances in the elderly: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Anaemia defined as a haemoglobin level <13 g/dl in men and <12 g/dl in women is common in older people and associated with numerous health consequences. The aim of this study was to systematically review all published data from the past 30 years that studied the association between anaemia and cognitive performance in people aged 65 years and over. An English and French Medline and Cochrane Library search ranging from 1979 to 2011 indexed under the Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) terms 'haemoglobin' or 'anaemia' combined with the terms 'dementia' or 'cognition disorders' or 'memory disorders' or 'orientation' or 'executive functions' or 'attention' or 'brain' or 'neuropsychological tests' was performed. Ninety-eight studies were selected. The following specific conditions were excluded: cancer, chronic kidney diseases, chronic heart disease and post-operative cognitive dysfunction. Five observational studies and six prospective cohort studies were included in the final analysis. According to the studies, the number of participants ranged from 302 to 2250 community-dwelling older people aged 55 years or over. Four studies considered the association between haemoglobin concentration and global cognitive functions, another three examined the association between haemoglobin concentration and the incidence of dementia, and four studies evaluated some specific aspects of cognition. A significant positive association was shown between anaemia and global cognitive decline as well as the incidence of dementia. A significant association was also shown between anaemia and executive functions. This systematic review shows a probable association between anaemia and cognitive performances, particularly with executive functions. PMID:23647493

Andro, M; Le Squere, P; Estivin, S; Gentric, A

2013-09-01

121

A Cognitive Framework for Understanding and Improving Interference Resolution in the Brain  

PubMed Central

All of us are familiar with the negative impact of interference on achieving our task goals. We are referring to interference by information, which either impinges on our senses from an external environmental source or is internally generated by our thoughts. Informed by more than a decade of research on the cognitive and neural processing of interference, we have developed a framework for understanding how interference impacts our neural systems and especially how it is regulated and suppressed during efficient on-task performance. Importantly, externally and internally generated interferences have distinct neural signatures, and further, distinct neural processing emerges depending on whether individuals must ignore and suppress the interference, as for distractions, or engage with them in a secondary task, as during multitasking. Here, we elaborate on this cognitive framework and how it changes throughout the human lifespan, focusing mostly on research evidence from younger adults and comparing these findings to data from older adults, children, and cognitively impaired populations. With insights gleaned from our growing understanding, we then describe three novel translational efforts in our lab directed at improving distinct aspects of interference resolution using cognitive training. Critically, these training approaches were specifically developed to target improved interference resolution based on neuroplasticity principles and have shown much success in randomized controlled first version evaluations in healthy aging. Our results show not only on-task training improvements but also robust generalization of benefit to other cognitive control abilities. This research showcases how an in-depth understanding of neural mechanisms can then inform the development of effective deficit-targeted interventions, which can in turn benefit both healthy and cognitively impaired populations. PMID:24309262

Mishra, Jyoti; Anguera, Joaquin A.; Ziegler, David A.; Gazzaley, Adam

2014-01-01

122

Behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of training-induced cognitive control improvements?, ??  

PubMed Central

Cognitive control – the ability to exert control over thoughts, attention and behavior in order to achieve a goal – is essential to adaptive functioning and its disruption characterizes various neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. In recent years, increased attention has been devoted to investigating the effects of training on performance and brain function, but little is known about whether cognitive control can be improved through training. To fill this gap, we designed a brief training targeting various components of cognitive control, including conflict monitoring and interference resolution. Twenty participants performed a 3-day training protocol, preceded and followed by identical pre- and post-training sessions, respectively, which included event-related potential (ERP) recordings. To detect transfer effects, the training and pre-/post-training sessions employed different tasks hypothesized to rely on similar interference resolution mechanisms. We hypothesized that training would selectively improve performance for high-interference (i.e., incongruent) trials and be associated with reduced amplitudes in the N2 component, a waveform known to index interference. Trial-to-trial behavioral adjustments were also analyzed to assess potential mechanisms of training-induced improvements. Relative to pre-training, participants showed reduced reaction time (RT) and N2 amplitude for incongruent, but not congruent, trials, suggesting improved interference resolution. Critically, participants showing the greatest reductions in interference effects during the course of the training displayed the largest pre- to post-training reductions in N2 amplitudes in a separate task, highlighting transfer effects. Overall, results suggest that a brief training can improve cognitive control, specifically the ability to inhibit task-irrelevant information. PMID:22836178

Millner, Alexander J.; Jaroszewski, Adam C.; Chamarthi, Harish; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

2012-01-01

123

Influence of energy drink ingredients on mood and cognitive performance.  

PubMed

Sales of energy products have grown enormously in recent years. Manufacturers claim that the products, in the form of drinks, shots, supplements, and gels, enhance physical and cognitive performance, while users believe the products promote concentration, alertness, and fun. Most of these products contain caffeine, a mild psychostimulant, as their foremost active ingredient. However, they also contain additional ingredients, e.g., carbohydrates, amino acids, herbal extracts, vitamins, and minerals, often in unspecified amounts and labeled as an "energy blend." It is not clear whether these additional ingredients provide any physical or cognitive enhancement beyond that provided by caffeine alone. This article reviews the available empirical data on the interactive effects of these ingredients and caffeine on sleep and cognitive performance and suggests objectives for future study. PMID:25293543

Childs, Emma

2014-10-01

124

Cognitive approach to improving participation after stroke: two case studies.  

PubMed

Despite the need for occupational therapy to emphasize client-specific occupational performance, primary emphasis in stroke rehabilitation continues to be on the remediation of client factors and self-care. Such practice leaves many survivors of stroke with continuing performance deficits. Two case studies demonstrate a novel, alternative approach. The Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) treatment is a performance-based, problem-solving approach to developing functional skills that are client centered. CO-OP was used to guide treatment with 2 older women. The findings suggest that the approach has the potential to successfully help clients with stroke achieve their everyday occupational goals and support continued research in this area. This work will lead to a pilot randomized controlled trial. PMID:21309372

Henshaw, Erin; Polatajko, Helen; McEwen, Sara; Ryan, Jennifer D; Baum, Carolyn M

2011-01-01

125

Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Predictors of College Readiness and Performance: Role of Academic Discipline  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifying the best predictors of academic performance is crucial for postsecondary institutions seeking students with the greatest promise. We investigated the relative strength of standardized test scores (ACT), high school GPA, and non-cognitive, college readiness skills in predicting college GPA. College freshmen (505) completed the 108-item…

Komarraju, Meera; Ramsey, Alex; Rinella, Virginia

2013-01-01

126

Rapid cognitive improvement in Alzheimer's disease following perispinal etanercept administration  

PubMed Central

Substantial basic science and clinical evidence suggests that excess tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is centrally involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In addition to its pro-inflammatory functions, TNF-alpha has recently been recognized to be a gliotransmitter that regulates synaptic function in neural networks. TNF-alpha has also recently been shown to mediate the disruption in synaptic memory mechanisms, which is caused by beta-amyloid and beta-amyloid oligomers. The efficacy of etanercept, a biologic antagonist of TNF-alpha, delivered by perispinal administration, for treatment of Alzheimer's disease over a period of six months has been previously reported in a pilot study. This report details rapid cognitive improvement, beginning within minutes, using this same anti-TNF treatment modality, in a patient with late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Rapid cognitive improvement following perispinal etanercept may be related to amelioration of the effects of excess TNF-alpha on synaptic mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease and provides a promising area for additional investigation and therapeutic intervention. PMID:18184433

Tobinick, Edward L; Gross, Hyman

2008-01-01

127

The effect of breakfast cereal consumption on adolescents' cognitive performance and mood  

PubMed Central

The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of breakfast consumption on cognitive performance and mood in adolescents, and any interaction that breakfast consumption might have with cognitive load. The rationale for this approach was that the beneficial effects of any intervention with regard to cognitive function may be more readily apparent when more demands are placed on the system. Furthermore, as skipping breakfast is particularly prevalent within this age group, thus, we focused on adolescents who habitually skip breakfast. Cognitive load was modulated by varying the level of difficulty of a series of cognitive tasks tapping memory, attention, and executive functions. Mood measured with Bond–Lader scales (1974) as well as measures of thirst, hunger, and satiety were recorded at each test session both at baseline and after the completion of each test battery. Forty adolescents (mean age = 14:2) participated in this within-subjects design study. According to treatment, all participants were tested before and after the intake of a low Glycaemic index breakfast (i.e., a 35 g portion of AllBran and 125 ml semi-skimmed milk) and before and after no breakfast consumption. Assessment time had two levels: 8.00 am (baseline) and 10.45 am. The orders of cognitive load tasks were counterbalanced. Overall it appeared that following breakfast participants felt more alert, satiated, and content. Following breakfast consumption, there was evidence for improved cognitive performance across the school morning compared to breakfast omission in some tasks (e.g., Hard Word Recall, Serial 3's and Serial 7's). However, whilst participants performance on the hard version of each cognitive task was significantly poorer compared to the corresponding easy version, there was limited evidence to support the hypothesis that the effect of breakfast was greater in the more demanding versions of the tasks. PMID:24312043

Defeyter, Margaret A.; Russo, Riccardo

2013-01-01

128

Prospective Associations between Dietary Patterns and Cognitive Performance during Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The aim of the study was to investigate prospective associations between dietary patterns and cognitive performance during adolescence. Methods: Participants were sourced from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study that includes 2868 children born between 1989 and 1992 in Perth, Western Australia. When the children were…

Nyaradi, Anett; Foster, Jonathan K.; Hickling, Siobhan; Li, Jianghong; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Jacques, Angela; Oddy, Wendy H.

2014-01-01

129

Creatine Supplementation and Cognitive Performance in Elderly Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of creatine supplementation on the cognitive performance of elderly people. Participants were divided into two groups, which were tested on random number generation, forward and backward number and spatial recall, and long-term memory tasks to establish a baseline level. Group 1 (n?=?15) were given 5 g four times a day

Terry McMorris; Gregorsz Mielcarz; Roger C. Harris; Jonathan P. Swain; Alan Howard

2007-01-01

130

Composition Instruction and Cognitive Performance: Results of a Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a composition program, Composers in Public Schools (CiPS), on cognitive skills essential for academic success. The underlying hypothesis is that composition instruction will promote creative expression and increase performance on music-specific skills such as music reading, as well as foster…

Bugos, Jennifer; Jacobs, Edward

2012-01-01

131

Performance Analysis of Dispersed Spectrum Cognitive Radio Systems  

E-print Network

of modulation type and order by considering M-PSK and M-QAM modulation schemes. We then study the impacts of topology on the effective transport capacity performance of ad hoc dispersed spectrum cognitive radio systems where the nodes assume 3- dimensional (3D...

Mohammad, Muneer

2011-02-22

132

Distributed Cognition in Sports Teams: Explaining Successful and Expert Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we use a hybrid methodology to better understand the skilful performance of sports teams as an exemplar of distributed cognition. We highlight key differences between a team of individual experts (an aggregate system) and an expert team (an emergent system), and outline the kinds of shared characteristics likely to be found in an…

Williamson, Kellie; Cox, Rochelle

2014-01-01

133

ORIGINAL PAPER Rapid cognitive flexibility of rhesus macaques performing  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Rapid cognitive flexibility of rhesus macaques performing psychophysical task-switching. These rapid and unpredictable changes constitute a task-switching paradigm, in which subjects must encode task demands and shift to whichever task-set is presently activated. In con- trast to the widely reported task-switching

Terrace, Herbert S.

134

Cognitive performance in depressed patients after chronic use of antidepressants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Depressive disorders are conditions that often require continuous treatment, and it is therefore important to evaluate the\\u000a consequences of prolonged administration. There are few studies assessing cognitive functions of depressed patients after\\u000a long-term use of antidepressants.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  This study evaluated the cognitive performance of depressed patients treated with antidepressants for at least 6 months.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Patients with major depression (DSM-IV) using imipramine for

Clarice Gorenstein; Stefania Caldeira de Carvalho; Rinaldo Artes; Ricardo Alberto Moreno; Tania Marcourakis

2006-01-01

135

Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Relations between Performance on the Social Attribution Task and Cognitive and Behavioral Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder of genetic origin, with characteristic cognitive and personality profiles. Studies of WS point to an outgoing and gregarious personality style, often contrasted with autism spectrum disorders; however, recent research has uncovered underlying social reciprocity difficulties in people with WS. Social information processing difficulties that underlie these social reciprocity difficulties have been sparsely examined. Participants in the current study included 24 children with WS ages 8 through 15. A lab-based measure of social perception and social cognition was administered (Social Attribution Test), as well as an intellectual functioning measure (KBIT-II) and parent reports of communication and reciprocal social skills (Social Communication Questionnaire, Social Responsiveness Scale). Relations between social cognition, cognitive abilities, and social-communication were examined. Results demonstrated relations between parent-reported social reciprocity and the typicality of the responses provided in the lab-based measure, even once variability in intellectual functioning was taken into account. Specifically, those individuals who produced narratives in response to the social attribution task (SAT) that were more similar to those described in previous studies of typically developing individuals were also reported to have fewer social reciprocity difficulties in the real world setting as reported by parents. In addition, a significant improvement in performance on the SAT was seen with added scaffolding, particularly for participants with stronger intellectual functioning. These findings indicate that difficulties interpreting the social dynamics between others in ambiguous situations may contribute to the social relationship difficulties observed in people with WS, above and beyond the role of intellectual functioning. Exploratory analyses indicated that performance by individuals with stronger intellectual functioning is improved with additional structure to a greater degree than for those with weaker intellectual functioning. Interventions that specifically target these social information processing of individuals with WS would likely be beneficial. PMID:22737137

van der Fluit, Faye; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Klein-Tasman, Bonita P.

2012-01-01

136

Improve Relationships to Improve Student Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to raise student performance have focused primarily on either relationships between adults in the system or formal curriculum. Relatively ignored has been a focus on what sociologists believe is the primary relationship of consequence for student outcomes--authority relationships between students and educators. Successful school reform is…

Arum, Richard

2011-01-01

137

Neuropsychological criteria for mild cognitive impairment improves diagnostic precision, biomarker associations, and progression rates.  

PubMed

We compared two methods of diagnosing mild cognitive impairment (MCI): conventional Petersen/Winblad criteria as operationalized by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and an actuarial neuropsychological method put forward by Jak and Bondi designed to balance sensitivity and reliability. 1,150 ADNI participants were diagnosed at baseline as cognitively normal (CN) or MCI via ADNI criteria (MCI: n = 846; CN: n = 304) or Jak/Bondi criteria (MCI: n = 401; CN: n = 749), and the two MCI samples were submitted to cluster and discriminant function analyses. Resulting cluster groups were then compared and further examined for APOE allelic frequencies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker levels, and clinical outcomes. Results revealed that both criteria produced a mildly impaired Amnestic subtype and a more severely impaired Dysexecutive/Mixed subtype. The neuropsychological Jak/Bondi criteria uniquely yielded a third Impaired Language subtype, whereas conventional Petersen/Winblad ADNI criteria produced a third subtype comprising nearly one-third of the sample that performed within normal limits across the cognitive measures, suggesting this method's susceptibility to false positive diagnoses. MCI participants diagnosed via neuropsychological criteria yielded dissociable cognitive phenotypes, significant CSF AD biomarker associations, more stable diagnoses, and identified greater percentages of participants who progressed to dementia than conventional MCI diagnostic criteria. Importantly, the actuarial neuropsychological method did not produce a subtype that performed within normal limits on the cognitive testing, unlike the conventional diagnostic method. Findings support the need for refinement of MCI diagnoses to incorporate more comprehensive neuropsychological methods, with resulting gains in empirical characterization of specific cognitive phenotypes, biomarker associations, stability of diagnoses, and prediction of progression. Refinement of MCI diagnostic methods may also yield gains in biomarker and clinical trial study findings because of improvements in sample compositions of 'true positive' cases and removal of 'false positive' cases. PMID:24844687

Bondi, Mark W; Edmonds, Emily C; Jak, Amy J; Clark, Lindsay R; Delano-Wood, Lisa; McDonald, Carrie R; Nation, Daniel A; Libon, David J; Au, Rhoda; Galasko, Douglas; Salmon, David P

2014-01-01

138

Physical exercise in MCI elderly promotes reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and improvements on cognition and BDNF peripheral levels.  

PubMed

The benefits of physical exercise to reduce low-grade inflammation and improve Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels and cognitive function became a growing field of interest. Low-grade inflammation is common during aging and seems to be linked to neurodegenerative process. Regular physical exercises can help to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines levels and to improve BDNF peripheral concentrations. The main goal of this research was to analyze the effects of a 16-week multimodal physical exercise program on peripheral BDNF levels and on Tumor Necrosis-? (TNF-?) and Interleukin- 6 (IL-6) as pro-inflammatory markers in cognitive healthy elderly individuals and in elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Cognitive functions were assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) prior to and after the intervention. Thirty cognitively healthy participants and thirty-seven MCI participants were assigned to the control (CG) and trained (TG) groups. The TG participated in a multimodal physical training program for a 16-week period. The results showed a significant between-subjects interaction, which indicates the beneficial contribution of training on the reduction of TNF-? (p=0.001) and IL-6 (p<0.001) and on the improvement of BDNF (p<0.001) peripheral concentrations. Cognitive functions also presented significant improvements for MCI trained group (p=0.03). In conclusion, physical exercise was effective to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines and to improve BDNF peripheral levels, with positive reflexes on cognition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluated longitudinally the effects of a multimodal physical exercises protocol on peripheral concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cognition performance in elderly MCI individuals. PMID:25212919

Nascimento, Carla Manuela Crispim; Pereira, Jessica Rodrigues; de Andrade, Larissa Pires; Garuffi, Marcelo; Talib, Leda Leme; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente; Cancela, Jose Maria; Cominetti, Marcia Regina; Stella, Florindo

2014-01-01

139

Effects of Dextroamphetamine on Cognitive Performance and Cortical Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monoaminergic neurotransmitters are known to have modulatory effects on cognition and on neurophysiological function in the cortex. The current study was performed with BOLD fMRI to examine physiological correlates of the effects of dextroamphetamine on working-memory performance in healthy controls. In a group analysis dextroamphetamine increased BOLD signal in the right prefrontal cortex during a task with increasing working-memory load

Venkata S. Mattay; Joseph H. Callicott; Alessandro Bertolino; Ian Heaton; Joseph A. Frank; Richard Coppola; Karen F. Berman; Terry E. Goldberg; Daniel R. Weinberger

2000-01-01

140

Chronic transdermal nicotine patch treatment effects on cognitive performance in age-associated memory impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives Chronic transdermal nicotine has been found to improve attentional performance in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but little is known about chronic nicotine effects in age-associated memory impairment (AAMI), a milder form of cognitive dysfunction. The current study was performed to determine the clinical and neuropsychological effects of chronic transdermal nicotine in AAMI subjects over a 4-week period. Design

Heidi K. White; Edward D. Levin

2004-01-01

141

Improved Processing Speed: Online Computer-Based Cognitive Training in Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an increasingly aging population, a number of adults are concerned about declines in their cognitive abilities. Online computer-based cognitive training programs have been proposed as an accessible means by which the elderly may improve their cognitive abilities; yet, more research is needed in order to assess the efficacy of these programs. In…

Simpson, Tamara; Camfield, David; Pipingas, Andrew; Macpherson, Helen; Stough, Con

2012-01-01

142

Improving Video Conferencing Application Quality for a Mobile Terminal through Cognitive Radio  

E-print Network

Improving Video Conferencing Application Quality for a Mobile Terminal through Cognitive Radio Asma {amraoui.asma, wassila.bag, badr.benmammar}@gmail.com Abstract--Cognitive radio (CR) is a form of wireless for a cognitive radio mobile terminal (CRMT). We also show through experimentation the interest of our approach

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

143

Cognitive Mapping as a Means of Improving Social Studies Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that cognitive mapping is an instructional strategy that encourages active participation, helps young children see relationships, promotes the organization of information, and allows the teacher flexibility. Outlines a five-step process using cognitive mapping in lesson development. (BSR)

Christen, William; Gomez, Reynaldo

1988-01-01

144

Cognitive and language skills in young children improved by play intervention.  

PubMed

A programme in Colombia that provided psychosocial stimulation to young children in poor families appears to have improved the children's cognitive and language development significantly. PMID:25335603

2014-10-22

145

Improving Cognition and Function Through Exercise Intervention in Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To analyze the effects of cognition on function and to explore the potential of aerobic exercise for promoting cognitive and functional capacities. Design: Integrative review of literature. Methods: Studies were selected based on an extensive search of electronic databases and man- ual cross-referencing for 1980 to 2006, using the combination of key words: Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia, or cognitive

Fang Yu; Ann M. Kolanowski; Neville E. Strumpf; Paul J. Eslinger

2006-01-01

146

Agility improvement through cooperative diversity in cognitive radio  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we illustrate the benefits of cooperation in cognitive radio. Cognitive (unlicensed) users need to continuously monitor spectrum for the presence of primary (licensed) users. We show that by allowing the cognitive radios operating in the same band to cooperate we can reduce the detection time and thus increase the overall agility. We first consider the case of

Ghurumuruhan Ganesan; Ye Li

2005-01-01

147

Shorter term aerobic exercise improves brain, cognition, and cardiovascular fitness in aging  

PubMed Central

Physical exercise, particularly aerobic exercise, is documented as providing a low cost regimen to counter well-documented cognitive declines including memory, executive function, visuospatial skills, and processing speed in normally aging adults. Prior aging studies focused largely on the effects of medium to long term (>6 months) exercise training; however, the shorter term effects have not been studied. In the present study, we examined changes in brain blood flow, cognition, and fitness in 37 cognitively healthy sedentary adults (57–75 years of age) who were randomized into physical training or a wait-list control group. The physical training group received supervised aerobic exercise for 3 sessions per week 1 h each for 12 weeks. Participants' cognitive, cardiovascular fitness and resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) were assessed at baseline (T1), mid (T2), and post-training (T3). We found higher resting CBF in the anterior cingulate region in the physical training group as compared to the control group from T1 to T3. Cognitive gains were manifested in the exercise group's improved immediate and delayed memory performance from T1 to T3 which also showed a significant positive association with increases in both left and right hippocampal CBF identified earlier in the time course at T2. Additionally, the two cardiovascular parameters, VO2 max and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) showed gains, compared to the control group. These data suggest that even shorter term aerobic exercise can facilitate neuroplasticity to reduce both the biological and cognitive consequences of aging to benefit brain health in sedentary adults. PMID:24282403

Chapman, Sandra B.; Aslan, Sina; Spence, Jeffrey S.; DeFina, Laura F.; Keebler, Molly W.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Lu, Hanzhang

2013-01-01

148

Selective GABAA ?5 Positive Allosteric Modulators Improve Cognitive Function in Aged Rats with Memory Impairment  

PubMed Central

A condition of excess activity in the hippocampal formation is observed in the aging brain and in conditions that confer additional risk during aging for Alzheimer’s disease. Compounds that act as positive allosteric modulators at GABAA ?5 receptors might be useful in targeting this condition because GABAA ?5 receptors mediate tonic inhibition of principal neurons in the affected network. While agents to improve cognitive function in the past focused on inverse agonists, which are negative allosteric modulators at GABAA ?5 receptors, research supporting that approach used only young animals and predated current evidence for excessive hippocampal activity in age-related conditions of cognitive impairment. Here, we used two compounds, Compound 44 [6,6-dimethyl-3-(3-hydroxypropyl)thio-1-(thiazol-2-yl)-6,7-dihydro-2-benzothiophen-4(5H)-one] and Compound 6 [methyl 3,5-diphenylpyridazine-4-carboxylate], with functional activity as potentiators of ?-aminobutyric acid at GABAA ?5 receptors, to test their ability to improve hippocampal-dependent memory in aged rats with identified cognitive impairment. Improvement was obtained in aged rats across protocols differing in motivational and performance demands and across varying retention intervals. Significant memory improvement occurred after either intracereboventricular infusion with Compound 44 (100 ?g) in a water maze task or systemic administration with Compound 6 (3 mg/kg) in a radial arm maze task. Furthermore, systemic administration improved behavioral performance at dosing shown to provide drug exposure in the brain and in vivo receptor occupancy in the hippocampus. These data suggest a novel approach to improve neural network function in clinical conditions of excess hippocampal activity. PMID:22732440

Koh, Ming Teng; Rosenzweig-Lipson, Sharon; Gallagher, Michela

2012-01-01

149

Flipperons for Improved Aerodynamic Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lightweight, piezoelectrically actuated bending flight-control surfaces have shown promise as means of actively controlling airflows to improve the performances of transport airplanes. These bending flight-control surfaces are called flipperons because they look somewhat like small ailerons, but, unlike ailerons, are operated in an oscillatory mode reminiscent of the actions of biological flippers. The underlying concept of using flipperons and other flipperlike actuators to impart desired characteristics to flows is not new. Moreover, elements of flipperon-based active flow-control (AFC) systems for aircraft had been developed previously, but it was not until the development reported here that the elements have been integrated into a complete, controllable prototype AFC system for wind-tunnel testing to enable evaluation of the benefits of AFC for aircraft. The piezoelectric actuator materials chosen for use in the flipperons are single- crystal solid solutions of lead zinc niobate and lead titanate, denoted generically by the empirical formula (1-x)[Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3]:x[PbTiO3] (where x<1) and popularly denoted by the abbreviation PZN-PT. These are relatively newly recognized piezoelectric materials that are capable of strain levels exceeding 1 percent and strain-energy densities 5 times greater than those of previously commercially available piezoelectric materials. Despite their high performance levels, (1-x)[Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3]:x[PbTiO3] materials have found limited use until now because, relative to previously commercially available piezoelectric materials, they tend to be much more fragile.

Mabe, James H.

2008-01-01

150

Improved cognitive-cerebral function in older adults with chromium supplementation.  

PubMed

Insulin resistance is implicated in the pathophysiological changes associated with Alzheimer's disease, and pharmaceutical treatments that overcome insulin resistance improve memory function in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease. Chromium (Cr) supplementation improves glucose disposal in patients with insulin resistance and diabetes. We sought to assess whether supplementation with Cr might improve memory and neural function in older adults with cognitive decline. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 26 older adults to receive either chromium picolinate (CrPic) or placebo for 12 weeks. Memory and depression were assessed prior to treatment initiation and during the final week of treatment. We also performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans on a subset of subjects. Although learning rate and retention were not enhanced by CrPic supplementation, we observed reduced semantic interference on learning, recall, and recognition memory tasks. In addition, fMRI indicated comparatively increased activation for the CrPic subjects in right thalamic, right temporal, right posterior parietal, and bifrontal regions. These findings suggest that supplementation with CrPic can enhance cognitive inhibitory control and cerebral function in older adults at risk for neurodegeneration. PMID:20423560

Krikorian, Robert; Eliassen, James C; Boespflug, Erin L; Nash, Tiffany A; Shidler, Marcelle D

2010-06-01

151

Differential effect of motivational features on training improvements in school-based cognitive training  

PubMed Central

Cognitive training often utilizes game-like motivational features to keep participants engaged. It is unclear how these elements, such as feedback, reward, and theming impact player performance during training. Recent research suggests that motivation and engagement are closely related to improvements following cognitive training. We hypothesized that training paradigms featuring game-like motivational elements would be more effective than a version with no motivational elements. Five distinct motivational features were chosen for examination: a real-time scoring system, theme changes, prizes, end-of-session certificates, and scaffolding to explain the lives and leveling system included in the game. One version of the game was created with all these motivational elements included, and one was created with all of them removed. Other versions removed a single element at a time. Seven versions of a game-like n-back working memory task were then created and administered to 128 students in second through eight grade at school-based summer camps in southeastern Michigan. The inclusion of real-time scoring during play, a popular motivational component in both entertainment games and cognitive training, was found to negatively impact training improvements over the three day period. Surprisingly, scaffolding to explain lives and levels also negatively impacted training gains. The other game adjustments did not significantly impact training improvement compared to the original version of the game with all features included. These findings are preliminary and are limited by both the small sample size and the brevity of the intervention. Nonetheless, these findings suggest that certain motivational elements may distract from the core cognitive training task, reducing task improvement, especially at the initial stage of learning. PMID:24795603

Katz, Benjamin; Jaeggi, Susanne; Buschkuehl, Martin; Stegman, Alyse; Shah, Priti

2014-01-01

152

Subjective cognitive failures in patients with hypertension are related to cognitive performance and cerebral microbleeds.  

PubMed

Previous studies on the relationship between subjective cognitive failures (SCF) and objective cognitive function have shown inconsistent results. In addition, research on the association between SCF and imaging markers of cerebral small vessel disease is limited. We investigated whether SCF in patients with essential hypertension, who are at high risk of cerebral small vessel disease, are associated with objective cognitive function and magnetic resonance imaging manifestations of cerebral small vessel disease. We included 109 patients with hypertension who underwent extensive neuropsychological assessment, including questionnaires measuring SCF and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed to rate the presence of lacunes, cerebral microbleeds, and perivascular spaces, as well as white matter hyperintensities volume. Results showed significant associations between SCF and objectively measured overall cognition (B=-0.02; 95% confidence interval=-0.03 to -0.005), memory (B=0.02; 95% confidence interval=-0.03 to -0.004), and information processing speed (B=-0.02; 95% confidence interval=-0.03 to -0.001) after adjustment for patient characteristics and vascular risk factors. In addition, SCF were associated with the presence of cerebral microbleeds (odds ratio=1.12; 95% confidence interval=1.02-1.23) after adjustment for patient characteristics and vascular risk factors but not with other imaging markers of cerebral small vessel disease. Our study demonstrates that attention for SCF in patients with hypertension is needed because these may point to lower objective cognitive function, which might be as a result of the presence of cerebral microbleeds. Accordingly, this study emphasizes that neuropsychological assessment and brain imaging need to be considered when patients with hypertension report SCF. PMID:24914204

Uiterwijk, Renske; Huijts, Marjolein; Staals, Julie; Duits, Annelien; Gronenschild, Ed; Kroon, Abraham A; de Leeuw, Peter W; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J

2014-09-01

153

Test–retest discourse performance of individuals with mild cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an evolving, intermediate diagnostic category between normal cognitive ageing and dementia in which individuals demonstrate cognitive performance that is impaired beyond that expected in normal cognitive ageing or among those with similar educational backgrounds. MCI may convert to dementia; however, the time?course to conversion is unknown.Aims: The purpose of the current research was to

Valarie B. Fleming; Joyce L. Harris

2009-01-01

154

Imaging of neuro-cognitive performance in extreme Environments—A (p)review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living in extreme environments is accompanied by a number of stressors, which can be classified either as physiological stressors (e.g. microgravity, missing sunlight) or psychological stressors (e.g. confinement). From earth bound studies a negative impact of stress on mental health and cognitive performance is well known and both factors might impair mission success and mission safety during longer inhabitation of space. Accordingly there is the need to identify adequate countermeasures. Nevertheless causal research of neuro-cognitive impairments in space remains speculative due to missing possibilities of brain imaging. Furthermore the reliability of current psychological tests used to assess and monitor cognitive performance in extreme environments seems to be vulnerable due to a lack of compliance. With on-going plans of international space agencies to send people to moon and/or mars, this manuscript aims to summarize and review research attempts of the past two decades and to identify methodological shortcomings. Finally, following the guideline that research has no legacy for its own but must serve the self-concept and well-being of man, this manuscript presents a number of recommendations to enhance future neuro-cognitive research in extreme environments. A deeper insight into neuro-cognitive coherence is not only desirable to understand the effects of stress on mental health, which seems to be a major issue for our current society, and to develop adequate countermeasures but will also help to maintain and improve mission success and mission safety in manned space flight.

Schneider, Stefan; Bubeev, Juri A.; Choukèr, Alexander; Morukov, Boris; Johannes, Bernd; Strüder, Heiko K.

2012-12-01

155

Does caffeine intake enhance absolute levels of cognitive performance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between habitual coffee and tea consumption and cognitive performance was examined using data from a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 9003 British adults (the Health and Lifestyle Survey). Subjects completed tests of simple reaction time, choice reaction time, incidental verbal memory, and visuo-spatial reasoning, in addition to providing self-reports of usual coffee and tea intake. After

Martin J. Jarvis

1993-01-01

156

Cognitive Environment Simulation as a Tool for Modeling Human Performance and Reliability. Main Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a program to develop improved methods to model cognitive behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel. A tool called Cognitive Environment Simulation (CES) was developed for simulating how people for...

D. D. Woods, H. E. Pople, E. M. Roth

1990-01-01

157

Cognitive Performance Measures in Bioelectromagnetic Research - Critical Evaluation and Recommendations  

PubMed Central

Background The steady increase of mobile phone usage has led to a rising concern about possible adverse health effects of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure at intensities even below the existing safety limits. Accumulating evidence suggests that pulse-modulated RF EMF may alter brain physiology. Yet, whereas effects on the human electroencephalogram in waking and sleep have repeatedly been shown in recent years, results on cognitive performance are inconsistent. Methods This review compares 41 provocation studies regarding the effects of RF EMF exposure similar to mobile telephones on cognitive performance measures in humans. The studies were identified via systematic searches of the databases Pub Med and ISI Web of Science and were published in peer-reviewed journals between 1998 and the end of 2009. Results Based on a critical discussion within the scope of methodological standards it is concluded that state-of-the-art-methods in bio-electromagnetic research on RF EMF effects and cognition have neither been specified nor fully implemented over the last 10-11 years. The lack of a validated tool, which reliably assesses changes in cognitive performance caused by RF EMF exposure, may contribute to the current inconsistencies in outcomes. The high variety of findings may also be due to methodological issues such as differences in sample size and the composition of study groups, experimental design, exposure setup as well as the exposure conditions, and emphasizes the need for a standardized protocol in bioelectromagnetic research. Conclusions At present, no underlying biological mechanism has been identified which mediates the effects on brain functioning as observed in electroencephalographic (EEG) studies. A future aim must be to identify this mechanism as well as a reliable exposure protocol in order to gain more insights into possible behavioral and related health consequences of high-frequency EMF exposure. PMID:21266038

2011-01-01

158

Gender differences in premorbid cognitive performance in a national cohort of schizophrenic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite significant research, there are still inconsistent findings regarding gender differences in cognitive performance in individuals already diagnosed with schizophrenia; studies have found that males suffering from schizophrenia are more, less or equally impaired compared with females. Gender differences in cognitive performance in individuals suffering from schizophrenia may be influenced by gender differences in premorbid cognitive performance; the very few

Mark Weiser; Abraham Reichenberg; Jonathan Rabinowitz; Zeev Kaplan; Mordechai Mark; Daniella Nahon; Michael Davidson

2000-01-01

159

The Effect of S-Adenosylmethionine on Cognitive Performance in Mice: An Animal Model Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequently diagnosed form of dementia resulting in cognitive impairment. Many AD mouse studies, using the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), report improved cognitive ability, but conflicting results between and within studies currently exist. To address this, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of SAM on cognitive ability as measured by Y maze performance. As supporting evidence, we include further discussion of improvements in cognitive ability, by SAM, as measured by the Morris water maze (MWM). Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature review up to April 2014 based on searches querying MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and Proquest Theses and Dissertation databases. We identified three studies containing a total of 12 experiments that met our inclusion criteria and one study for qualitative review. The data from these studies were used to evaluate the effect of SAM on cognitive performance according to two scenarios: 1. SAM supplemented folate deficient (SFD) diet compared to a folate deficient (FD) diet and 2. SFD diet compared to a nutrient complete (NC) diet. Hedge's g was used to calculate effect sizes and mixed effects model meta-regression was used to evaluate moderating factors. Results Our findings showed that the SFD diet was associated with improvements in cognitive performance. SFD diet mice also had superior cognitive performance compared to mice on an NC diet. Further to this, meta-regression analyses indicated a significant positive effect of study quality score and treatment duration on the effect size estimate for both the FD vs SFD analysis and the SFD vs NC analysis. Conclusion The findings of this meta-analysis demonstrate efficacy of SAM in acting as a cognitive performance-enhancing agent. As a corollary, SAM may be useful in improving spatial memory in patients suffering from many dementia forms including AD. PMID:25347725

Montgomery, Sarah E.; Sepehry, Amir A.; Wangsgaard, John D.; Koenig, Jeremy E.

2014-01-01

160

Relationship between physical performance and cognitive performance measures among community-dwelling older adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose Cognitive impairment is correlated with physical function. However, the results in the literature are inconsistent with cognitive and physical performance measures. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the association between cognitive performance and physical function among older adults. Methods A total of 164 older adults aged ?60 years and residing in low-cost housing areas in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia participated in this study. Cognitive performance was measured using the Mini Mental State Examination, clock drawing test, Rey auditory verbal learning test, digit symbol test, digit span test, matrix reasoning test, and block design test. Physical performance measures were assessed using the ten step test for agility, short physical performance battery test for an overall physical function, static balance test using a Pro.Balance board, and dynamic balance using the functional reach test. Results There was a negative and significant correlation between agility and the digit symbol test (r=?0.355), clock drawing test (r=?0.441), matrix reasoning test (r=?0.315), and block design test (r=?0.045). A significant positive correlation was found between dynamic balance, digit symbol test (r=0.301), and matrix reasoning test (r=0.251). The agility test appeared as a significant (R2=0.183, R2=0.407, R2=0.299, P<0.05) predictor of some cognitive performance measures, including the digit span test, clock drawing test, and Mini Mental State Examination. Conclusion These results suggest that a decline in most cognitive performance measures can be predicted by poor execution of a more demanding physical performance measure such as the ten step test for agility. It is imperative to use a more complex and cognitively demanding physical performance measure to identify the presence of an overall cognitive impairment among community-dwelling older adults. It may also be beneficial to promote more complex and cognitively challenging exercises and activities among older adults for optimal physical and cognitive function. PMID:25328418

Won, Huiloo; Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit; Din, Normah Che; Badrasawi, Manal; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Tan, Sin Thien; Tai, Chu Chiau; Shahar, Suzana

2014-01-01

161

Improving Adult Literacy Outcomes: Lessons from Cognitive Research for Developing Countries. Directions in Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adult literacy program outcomes have been disappointing. A number of principals and methods from cognitive and neuropsychological research can be used to make literacy instruction more effective, including the following: improving cognitive function; fast reading; reading practice; literacy as a motivator; and improving use of class time.…

Abadzi, Helen

162

A Hybrid Cognitive Engine for Improving Coverage in 3G Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Third generation (3G) wireless networks have been well studied and optimized with traditional radio resource management techniques, but still there is room for improvement. Cognitive radio (CR) technology can bring significant network improvements by providing awareness to the surrounding radio environment, exploiting previous network knowledge and optimizing the use of radio resources using machine learning and artificial intelligence techniques. Cognitive

Lizdabel Morales-Tirado; J. E. Suris-Pietri; J. H. Reed

2009-01-01

163

Motivational Influences on Cognitive Performance in Children: Focus Over Fita  

PubMed Central

Cognitive psychologists have begun to address how motivational factors influence adults’ performance on cognitive tasks. However, little research has examined how different motivational factors interact with one another to affect behavior across the lifespan. The current study examined how children perform on a classification task when placed in a regulatory fit or mismatch. Nine-year-old children performed a classification task in which they either gained or lost points for each response. Additionally, children were given either a global promotion focus (trying to earn a gift card) or a prevention focus (trying to avoid losing a gift card). Previous work indicates that adults in this task tend to perform better when there is a match (or fit) between the overall incentive to earn or avoid losing the incentive and the task reward structure to maximize points gained or minimize points lost. Unlike adults, nine-year-olds perform better in the promotion condition than in the prevention condition regardless of task reward structure. Possible explanations for the differences between adults’ and children’s performance are discussed as well as possible applications for academic settings. PMID:21552510

Worthy, Darrell A.; Brez, Caitlin C.; Markman, Arthur B.; Maddox, W. Todd

2010-01-01

164

Mildronate improves cognition and reduces amyloid-? pathology in transgenic Alzheimer's disease mice.  

PubMed

Mildronate, a carnitine congener drug, previously has been shown to provide neuroprotection in an azidothymidine-induced mouse model of neurotoxicity and in a Parkinson's disease rat model. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mildronate treatment on cognition and pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD) model mice (APP(SweDI)). Mildronate was administered i.p. daily at 50 or 100 mg/kg for 28 days. At the end of treatment, the animals were behaviorally and cognitively tested, and brains were assessed for AD-related pathology, inflammation, synaptic markers, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The data show that mildronate treatment significantly improved animal performance in water maze and social recognition tests, lowered amyloid-? deposition in the hippocampus, increased expression of the microglia marker Iba-1, and decreased AChE staining, although it did not alter expression of proteins involved in synaptic plasticity (GAP-43, synaptophysin, and GAD67). Taken together, these findings indicate mildronate's ability to improve cognition and reduce amyloid-? pathology in a mouse model of AD and its possible therapeutic utility as a disease-modifying drug in AD patients. PMID:24273007

Beitnere, Ulrika; van Groen, Thomas; Kumar, Ashish; Jansone, Baiba; Klusa, Vija; Kadish, Inga

2014-03-01

165

Cognitive Training for Improving Executive Function in Chemotherapy-Treated Breast Cancer Survivors  

PubMed Central

Difficulties with thinking and problem solving are very common among breast cancer survivors. We tested a computerized cognitive training program for 41 breast cancer survivors. The training program was associated with significant improvements in thinking and problem-solving skills. Our findings demonstrate potential for our online, home-based cognitive training program to improve cognitive difficulties among breast cancer survivors. Background A majority of breast cancer (BC) survivors, particularly those treated with chemotherapy, experience long-term cognitive deficits that significantly reduce quality of life. Among the cognitive domains most commonly affected include executive functions (EF), such as working memory, cognitive flexibility, multitasking, planning, and attention. Previous studies in other populations have shown that cognitive training, a behavioral method for treating cognitive deficits, can result in significant improvements in a number of cognitive skills, including EF. Materials and Methods In this study, we conducted a randomized controlled trial to investigate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a novel, online EF training program in long-term BC survivors. A total of 41 BC survivors (21 active, 20 wait list) completed the 48 session training program over 12 weeks. The participants were, on average, 6 years after therapy. Results Cognitive training led to significant improvements in cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency and processing speed, with marginally significant downstream improvements in verbal memory as assessed via standardized measures. Self-ratings of EF skills, including planning, organizing, and task monitoring, also were improved in the active group compared with the wait list group. Conclusions Our findings suggest that EF skills may be improved even in long-term survivors by using a computerized, home-based intervention program. These improvements may potentially include subjective EF skills, which suggest a transfer of the training program to real-world behaviors. PMID:23647804

Kesler, Shelli; Hosseini, S. M. Hadi; Heckler, Charles; Janelsins, Michelle; Palesh, Oxana; Mustian, Karen; Morrow, Gary

2013-01-01

166

Aerobic exercise improves cognition for older adults with glucose intolerance, a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Impaired glucose regulation is a defining characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathology and has been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Although the benefits of aerobic exercise for physical health are well-documented, exercise effects on cognition have not been examined for older adults with poor glucose regulation associated with prediabetes and early T2DM. Using a randomized controlled design, twenty-eight adults (57-83 y old) meeting 2-h tolerance test criteria for glucose intolerance completed 6 months of aerobic exercise or stretching, which served as the control. The primary cognitive outcomes included measures of executive function (Trails B, Task Switching, Stroop, Self-ordered Pointing Test, and Verbal Fluency). Other outcomes included memory performance (Story Recall, List Learning), measures of cardiorespiratory fitness obtained via maximal-graded exercise treadmill test, glucose disposal during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, body fat, and fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, amyloid-? (A?40 and A?42). Six months of aerobic exercise improved executive function (MANCOVA, p=0.04), cardiorespiratory fitness (MANOVA, p=0.03), and insulin sensitivity (p=0.05). Across all subjects, 6-month changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and insulin sensitivity were positively correlated (p=0.01). For A?42, plasma levels tended to decrease for the aerobic group relative to controls (p=0.07). The results of our study using rigorous controlled methodology suggest a cognition-enhancing effect of aerobic exercise for older glucose intolerant adults. Although replication in a larger sample is needed, our findings potentially have important therapeutic implications for a growing number of adults at increased risk of cognitive decline. PMID:20847403

Baker, Laura D; Frank, Laura L; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Green, Pattie S; Wilkinson, Charles W; McTiernan, Anne; Cholerton, Brenna A; Plymate, Stephen R; Fishel, Mark A; Watson, G Stennis; Duncan, Glen E; Mehta, Pankaj D; Craft, Suzanne

2010-01-01

167

A systematic review of the effect of breakfast on the cognitive performance of children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Breakfast is recommended as part of a healthy diet because it is associated with healthier macro- and micronutrient intakes, BMI and lifestyle. Breakfast is also widely promoted to improve cognitive function and academic performance, leading to the provision of breakfast initiatives by public health bodies. Despite this positive and intuitive perception of cognitive benefits, there has been no systematic review of the evidence. Systematic review methodology was employed to evaluate the effects of breakfast on cognitive performance in well-nourished children and nutritionally at-risk or stunted children. Acute experimental studies, school feeding programmes and studies of habitual breakfast intake are reviewed. Comparisons of breakfast v. no breakfast and breakfasts differing in energy and macronutrient composition are discussed. Included are forty-five studies described in forty-one papers published between 1950 and 2008. The evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is more beneficial than skipping breakfast, but this effect is more apparent in children whose nutritional status is compromised. There is a lack of research comparing breakfast type, precluding recommendations for the size and composition of an optimal breakfast for children's cognitive function. Few studies examined adolescents. Studies of school breakfast programmes suggest that such interventions can have positive effects on academic performance, but this may be in part explained by the increased school attendance that programmes encourage. The present systematic review considers methodological issues in this field and makes recommendations for future research design and policy priorities. PMID:19930787

Hoyland, Alexa; Dye, Louise; Lawton, Clare L

2009-12-01

168

Long-chain omega-3 Fatty acids and optimization of cognitive performance.  

PubMed

Low consumption of the omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenonic acids, is linked to delayed brain development and, in late life, increased risk for Alzheimer's disease. The current review focuses on cognitive functioning during midlife and summarizes available scientific evidence relevant to the hypothesis that adequate dietary consumption of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids is necessary for optimal cognitive performance. Taken together, the findings suggest that raising the currently low consumption among healthy adults may improve some aspects of cognitive performance. Nonetheless, evidence from randomized clinical trials is comparatively sparse and leaves unclear: (a) whether such effects are clinically significant, (b) whether effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and DHA differ, (c) which dimensions of cognitive function are affected, (d) the dose-response relationships, or (e) the time course of the response. Clarification of these issues through both laboratory and clinical investigations is a priority given the broad implications for public health, as well as for military personnel and other positions of high performance demand and responsibility. PMID:25373092

Muldoon, Matthew F; Ryan, Christopher M; Yao, Jeffrey K; Conklin, Sarah M; Manuck, Stephen B

2014-11-01

169

n-3 LCPUFA improves cognition: the young, the old and the sick.  

PubMed

Due to the implication of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, neurite outgrowth and to its high incorporation into the brain, this n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) is considered as crucial in the development and maintenance of the learning memory performance throughout life. In the present chapter we aimed at reviewing data investigating the relation between DHA and cognition during the perinatal period, young adult- and adulthood and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD). In Humans, dietary DHA supplementation from the perinatal period to adulthood does not reveal a clear and consistent memory improvement whereas it is the case in animal studies. The positive effects observed in animal models may have been enhanced by using n-3 PUFA deficient animal models as controls. In animal models of AD, a general consensus on the beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA in attenuating cognitive impairment was established. These studies make DHA a potential suitable micronutrient for the maintenance of cognitive performance at all periods of life. PMID:24908517

Joffre, C; Nadjar, A; Lebbadi, M; Calon, F; Laye, S

2014-01-01

170

A Narrative Review of Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Obesity to Cognition and Scholastic Performance across the Human Lifespan123  

PubMed Central

We reviewed studies that examine the relationship of energy consumption, storage, and expenditure to cognition and scholastic performance. Specifically, the literature base on nutrient intake, body mass, and physical activity is described relative to cognitive development and academic achievement. The review of literature regarding the overconsumption of energy and excess body mass suggests poorer academic achievement during development and greater decay of brain structure and function accompanied by increased cognitive aging during older adulthood. The review of literature regarding energy expenditure through the adoption of increased physical activity participation suggests increased cognitive health and function. Although this area of study is in its infancy, the preliminary data are promising and matched with the declining physical health of industrialized nations; this area of science could provide insight aimed at improving brain health and cognitive function across the human lifespan. PMID:22332052

Burkhalter, Toni M.; Hillman, Charles H.

2011-01-01

171

Incentive Salience and Improved Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from 441 call center employees at a large North American financial services firm, we studied how the frequency of thinking about an incentive available for performance led to increased output on an important performance metric. We find that people think more frequently about noncash tangible incentives (merchandise and travel) than cash incentives and that as the frequency of

Scott A. Jeffrey; Gordon K. Adomdza

2010-01-01

172

Long-term concentrative meditation and cognitive performance among older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The general consensus that cognitive abilities decline with advancing age is supported by several studies that have reported that older adults perform more poorly on multiple tests of cognitive performance as compared to younger adults. To date, preventive measures against this cognitive decline have been mainly focused on dietary, physical, and lifestyle behaviors which could allow older adults to

Ravi Prakash; Priyanka Rastogi; Indu Dubey; Priyadarshee Abhishek; Suprakash Chaudhury; Brent J. Small

2011-01-01

173

Long-term concentrative meditation and cognitive performance among older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The general consensus that cognitive abilities decline with advancing age is supported by several studies that have reported that older adults perform more poorly on multiple tests of cognitive performance as compared to younger adults. To date, preventive measures against this cognitive decline have been mainly focused on dietary, physical, and lifestyle behaviors which could allow older adults to

Ravi Prakash; Priyanka Rastogi; Indu Dubey; Priyadarshee Abhishek; Suprakash Chaudhury; Brent J. Small

2012-01-01

174

Imipramine Treatment Improves Cognitive Outcome Associated with Enhanced Hippocampal Neurogenesis after Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice  

PubMed Central

Abstract Previous animal and human studies have demonstrated that chronic treatment with several different antidepressants can stimulate neurogenesis, neural remodeling, and synaptic plasticity in the normal hippocampus. Imipramine is a commonly used tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). We employed a controlled cortical impact (CCI) mouse model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) to assess the effect of imipramine on neurogenesis and cognitive and motor function recovery after TBI. Mice were given daily imipramine injections for either 2 or 4 weeks after injury. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered 3–7 days post-brain injury to label the cells that proliferated as a result of the injury. We assessed the effects of imipramine on post-traumatic motor function using a beam-walk test and an assessment of cognitive function: the novel object recognition test (NOR). Histological analyses were performed at 2 and 4 weeks after CCI. Brain-injured mice treated with imipramine showed significantly improved cognitive function compared to a saline-treated group (p<0.001). However, there was no significant difference in motor function recovery between imipramine-treated and saline-treated mice. Histological examination revealed increased preservation of proliferation of Ki-67- and BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) at 2 and 4 weeks after TBI. Immunofluorescence double-labeling with BrdU and neuron-specific markers at 4 weeks after injury showed that most progenitors became neurons in the DG and astrocytes in the hilus. Notably, treatment with imipramine increased preservation of the total number of newly-generated neurons. Our findings provide direct evidence that imipramine treatment contributes to cognitive improvement after TBI, perhaps by enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis. PMID:21463148

Han, Xiaodi; Tong, Jing; Zhang, Jun; Farahvar, Arash; Wang, Ernest; Yang, Jiankai; Samadani, Uzma; Smith, Douglas H.

2011-01-01

175

Improving Silicon Carbide Transistor Performance  

E-print Network

the electron mobility at the SiO2 /SiC interfaces. R E F E R E N C E Relationship between 4H-SiC/SiO2 (Auburn University) G O A L To improve electron mobility at the SiO2 /SiC interfaces in high power, high temperature SiC-based metal­oxide­semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) devices by decreasing

176

Improved performance in NASTRAN (R)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three areas of improvement in COSMIC/NASTRAN, 1989 release, were incorporated recently that make the analysis program run faster on large problems. Actual log files and actual timings on a few test samples that were run on IBM, CDC, VAX, and CRAY computers were compiled. The speed improvement is proportional to the problem size and number of continuation cards. Vectorizing certain operations in BANDIT, makes BANDIT run twice as fast in some large problems using structural elements with many node points. BANDIT is a built-in NASTRAN processor that optimizes the structural matrix bandwidth. The VAX matrix packing routine BLDPK was modified so that it is now packing a column of a matrix 3 to 9 times faster. The denser and bigger the matrix, the greater is the speed improvement. This improvement makes a host of routines and modules that involve matrix operation run significantly faster, and saves disc space for dense matrices. A UNIX version, converted from 1988 COSMIC/NASTRAN, was tested successfully on a Silicon Graphics computer using the UNIX V Operating System, with Berkeley 4.3 Extensions. The Utility Modules INPUTT5 and OUTPUT5 were expanded to handle table data, as well as matrices. Both INPUTT5 and OUTPUT5 are general input/output modules that read and write FORTRAN files with or without format. More user informative messages are echoed from PARAMR, PARAMD, and SCALAR modules to ensure proper data values and data types being handled. Two new Utility Modules, GINOFILE and DATABASE, were written for the 1989 release. Seven rigid elements are added to COSMIC/NASTRAN. They are: CRROD, CRBAR, CRTRPLT, CRBE1, CRBE2, CRBE3, and CRSPLINE.

Chan, Gordon C.

1989-01-01

177

Large-Scale Organizational Performance Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the steps involved in a performance improvement program in the context of a large multinational corporation. Highlights include a training program for managers that explained performance improvement; performance matrices; divisionwide implementation, including strategic planning; organizationwide training of all personnel; and the…

Pilotto, Rudy; Young, Jonathan O'Donnell

1999-01-01

178

ENHANCING PERFORMANCE THROUGH IMPROVED COORDINATION (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhancing Performance through Improved Coordination (EPIC) is an approach to improving team performance that emphasizes identifying potential threats to coordination such as heavy workload, accelerated op tempo, or off- nominal states. Our long-term interest is in creating a coordination-aware system to promote better team performance by modeling situational properties and their relationship to crew coordination. Our current investigations focus on

Benjamin Bell; Jennifer Fowlkes; John Deaton

2003-01-01

179

Can performance of daily activities discriminate between older adults with normal cognitive function and those with Mild Cognitive Impairment?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Our primary aim was to examine whether preclinical disability in performance of cognitively-focused instrumental activities of daily living (C-IADL) tasks can discriminate between older adults with normal cognitive function and those with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The secondary purpose was to determine the two tasks with the strongest psychometric properties and assess their discriminative ability. Our goal was to generate diagnosis-relevant information about cognitive changes associated with MCI and DSM-5 Mild Neurocognitive Disorder. DESIGN Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from a cohort of individuals diagnosed with normal cognitive function or MCI. SETTING Private home locations in Pittsburgh, PA. PARTICIPANTS Older adults with remitted major depression (N=157). MEASUREMENTS Diagnosis of cognitive status was made by the Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center at the University of Pittsburgh. Performance of 8 C-IADL was measured using the criterion-referenced, observation-based Performance Assessment of Self-Care Skills (PASS). RESULTS A total of 96 older adults with normal cognitive function (mean age=72.5, SD=5.9) and 61 older adults with MCI (mean age=75.5, SD=6.3) participated. The 8 C-IADL demonstrated 81% accuracy in discriminating cognitive status (area under curve 0.81, p<0.001). Two tasks (shopping and checkbook balancing) were the most discriminating (area under curve 0.80, p<0.001); they demonstrated similar ability, as the 8 C-IADL, to discriminate cognitive status. Assessing performance on these two C-IADL takes 10–15 minutes. CONCLUSION This is the first demonstration of the discriminative ability of preclinical disability in distinguishing MCI from cognitively normal older adults. These findings highlight potential tasks, when measured with the observation-based PASS, which demonstrate increased effort for individuals with MCI. These tasks may be considered when attempting to diagnose MCI or Mild Neurocognitive Disorder in clinical practice and research. PMID:24890517

Rodakowski, Juleen; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Butters, Meryl A.; Holm, Margo B.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Rogers, Joan C.

2014-01-01

180

Prospective memory performance of patients with Parkinson's disease depends on shifting aptitude: evidence from cognitive rehabilitation.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of cognitive training aimed at improving shifting ability on Parkinson's disease (PD) patients' performance of prospective memory (PM) tasks. Using a double-blind protocol, 17 PD patients were randomly assigned to two experimental arms. In the first arm (n=9) shifting training was administered, and in the second (placebo) arm (n=8), language and respiratory exercises. Both treatments consisted of 12 sessions executed over 4 weeks. PM and shifting measures (i.e., Trail Making Test and Alternate Fluency Test) were administered at T0 (before treatment) and T1 (immediately after treatment). A mixed analysis of variance was applied to the data. To evaluate the effects of treatment, the key effect was the interaction between Group (experimental vs. placebo) and Time of Assessment (T0 vs. T1). This interaction was significant for the accuracy indices of the PM procedure (p<.05) and for the performance parameters of the shifting tasks (p ?.05). Tukey's HSD tests showed that in all cases passing from T0 to T1 performance significantly improved in the experimental group (in all cases p ?.02) but remained unchanged in the placebo group (all p consistently>.10). The performance change passing from T0 to T1 on the Alternate Fluency test and the PM procedure was significantly correlated (p<.05). Results show that the cognitive training significantly improved PD patients' event-based PM performance and suggest that their poor PM functioning might be related to reduced shifting abilities. PMID:24967725

Costa, Alberto; Peppe, Antonella; Serafini, Francesca; Zabberoni, Silvia; Barban, Francesco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

2014-08-01

181

From IC to I see: amusing interactive platform to improve kids' cognition process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kids' observation is a psychological behavior. It takes long to change their cognitive habit and get used to new ones. Our project aims to build an amusing interactive platform with electronic technology, which is easy for kids to control and can quickly improve their cognition process.

Tao Ma; Rong Yong; Yue Meng

2007-01-01

182

Cognitive Performance in Suicidal Depressed Elderly: Preliminary Report  

PubMed Central

Objective Deficits in executive functions may play an important role in late-life suicide; however the association is understudied. This study examined cognitive function in general and executive functioning specifically in depressed elderly with and without suicidal ideation and attempts. Design Case-control study. Setting University-affiliated psychiatric hospital. Participants We compared 32 suicidal depressed participants aged 60 and older with 32 non-suicidal depressed participants equated for age, education, and gender. Measurements We assessed global cognitive function and executive function with the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS) and the Executive Interview (EXIT25), respectively. Results Suicidal and non-suicidal depressed groups were comparable in terms of severity of depression and burden of physical illness. Suicidal participants performed worse on the EXIT25, and on the DRS total scale, as well as on Memory and Attention subscales. The differences were not explained by the presence of dementia, substance use, medication exposure, or brain injury from suicide attempts. Conclusions Poor performance on tests of executive function, attention, and memory is associated with suicidal behavior in late-life depression. PMID:18239196

Dombrovski, Alexandre Y.; Butters, Meryl A.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Houck, Patricia R.; Clark, Luke; Mazumdar, Sati; Szanto, Katalin

2009-01-01

183

Functional relationship between cognitive representations of movement directions and visuomotor adaptation performance.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to explore whether or not different types of learners in a sensorimotor task possess characteristically different cognitive representations. Participants' sensorimotor adaptation performance was measured with a pointing paradigm which used a distortion of the visual feedback in terms of a left-right reversal. The structure of cognitive representations was assessed using a newly established experimental method, the Cognitive Measurement of Represented Directions. A post hoc analysis revealed inter-individual differences in participants' adaptation performance, and three different skill levels (skilled, average, and poor adapters) have been defined. These differences in performance were correlated with the structure of participants' cognitive representations of movement directions. Analysis of these cognitive representations revealed performance advantages for participants possessing a global cognitive representation of movement directions (aligned to cardinal movement axes), rather than a local representation (aligned to each neighboring direction). Our findings are evidence that cognitive representation structures play a functional role in adaptation performance. PMID:23007723

Lex, Heiko; Weigelt, Matthias; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

2012-12-01

184

Improvements in Iron Status and Cognitive Function in Young Women Consuming Beef or Non-Beef Lunches  

PubMed Central

Iron status is associated with cognitive performance and intervention trials show that iron supplementation improves mental function in iron-deficient adults. However, no studies have tested the efficacy of naturally iron-rich food in this context. This investigation measured the hematologic and cognitive responses to moderate beef consumption in young women. Participants (n = 43; age 21.1 ± 0.4 years) were randomly assigned to a beef or non-beef protein lunch group [3-oz (85 g), 3 times weekly] for 16 weeks. Blood was sampled at baseline, and weeks 8 and 16, and cognitive performance was measured at baseline and week 16. Body iron increased in both lunch groups (p < 0.0001), with greater improvement demonstrated in women with lower baseline body iron (p < 0.0001). Body iron had significant beneficial effects on spatial working memory and planning speed (p < 0.05), and ferritin responders (n = 17) vs. non-responders (n = 26) showed significantly greater improvements in planning speed, spatial working memory strategy, and attention (p < 0.05). Lunch group had neither significant interactions with iron status nor consistent main effects on test performance. These findings support a relationship between iron status and cognition, but do not show a particular benefit of beef over non-beef protein consumption on either measure in young women. PMID:24379009

Blanton, Cynthia

2013-01-01

185

Sustaining Performance Improvements in Energy Intensive Industries  

E-print Network

assumes the overall efficiency of the system is simply a function of the individual units. However, many more factors contribute to overall performance improvement. These external factors contribute greater weight to poor performance than do equipment...

Moore, D. A.

2005-01-01

186

Human performance cognitive-behavioral modeling: a benefit for occupational safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human Performance Modeling (HPM) is a computer-aided job analysis software methodology used to generate predictions of complex human-automation integration and system flow patterns with the goal of improving operator and system safety. The use of HPM tools has recently been increasing due to reductions in computational cost, augmentations in the tools' fidelity, and usefulness in the generated output. An examination of an Air Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (Air MIDAS) model evaluating complex human-automation integration currently underway at NASA Ames Research Center will highlight the importance to occupational safety of considering both cognitive and physical aspects of performance when researching human error.

Gore, Brian F.

2002-01-01

187

Hormone replacement therapy and cognitive performance in postmenopausal women—a review by cognitive domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory, animal and neuroimaging evidences suggest that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may be beneficial to human cognition. This systematic review includes 26 studies on the association between HRT and cognition and 17 studies on HRT and risk of dementia. It was hypothesised that HRT would have a positive association with cognitive speed and verbal memory and possibly visual memory but

Lee-Fay Low; Kaarin J. Anstey

2006-01-01

188

Beyond the Purely Cognitive: Metacognition and Social Cognition as Driving Forces in Intellectual Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dimensions of the broad social-cognitive and metacognitive matrix within which pure cognitions reside are examined. Tangible cognitive actions are the cross products of beliefs held about a task, the social environment within which the task takes place, and the problem solvers' perceptions of self and their relation to the task and…

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

189

Mathematics Anxiety Origins, Impact, and Cognitive Mechanisms Driving Poor Performance  

E-print Network

Mathematics Anxiety Origins, Impact, and Cognitive Mechanisms Driving of doing mathematics--termed math anxiety. In this talk, I will present research describing the impact of math anxiety early in schooling and the cognitive mechanism

Loudon, Catherine

190

Cognitive Performance by Humans During a Smoked Cocaine Binge-Abstinence Cycle  

E-print Network

Cognitive Performance by Humans During a Smoked Cocaine Binge-Abstinence Cycle Edward F. Pace York, USA 3 Cognitive Drug Research, Ltd., Oxon, United Kingdom Abstract: Five cocaine in the afternoon. Data suggest that abstinence can unmask cognitive deficits induced by chronic cocaine use

Walker, Matthew P.

191

Effects of Cognitive Styles on 2D Drafting and Design Performance in Digital Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the interactions between design students' cognitive styles, as measured by Riding's Cognitive Styles Analysis, and performance in 2D drafting and design tasks in digital media. An empirical research revealed that Imager students outperformed Verbalisers in both drafting and creativity scores. Wholist-Analytic cognitive

Pektas, Sule Tasli

2010-01-01

192

A bivariate genetic analysis of cerebral white matter hyperintensities and cognitive performance in elderly male twins  

E-print Network

. The phenotypic association between WMHs and cognitive function in this sample of twins was modest of the phenotypic association between WMHs and cognitive function found that 70% to 100% of the phenotypicA bivariate genetic analysis of cerebral white matter hyperintensities and cognitive performance

California at Davis, University of

193

The Influence of Individual Cognitive Style on Performance in Management Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the outcomes of an empirical study undertaken to explore the possibility that cognitive style may be an important factor influencing performance on certain types of task in management education. A total of 412 final year undergraduate degree students studying Management and Business Administration were tested using the Allinson- Hayes Cognitive Style Index. Their cognitive styles were then

Steven J. Armstrong

2000-01-01

194

Cognitive Performance and Neural Correlates of Detecting Driving Hazards in Healthy Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: In spite of the growing number of seniors who drive and their relatively frequent involvement in accidents, little is known about the cognitive substrates of road hazard recognition and their relationship with general cognitive performance in this population. We aimed to investigate, using a combination of functional MRI (fMRI) and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, the anatomical and cognitive components

Victor A. Hirth; Ben Davis; Julius Fridriksson; Chris Rorden; Leonardo Bonilha

2007-01-01

195

Cognitive performance in recreational users of MDMA or 'ecstasy': evidence for memory deficits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive task performance was assessed in three groups of young people: 10 regular users of 3,4- methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) who had taken 'ecstasy' 10 times or more; 10 novice MDMA users who had taken 'ecstasy' one to nine times; and 10 control subjects who had never taken MDMA. A computerized battery of cognitive tasks (Cognitive Drug Research system) was undertaken on

A. C. Parrott; A. Lees; N. J. Garnham; M. Jones; K. Wesnes

1998-01-01

196

Developing models of how cognitive improvements change functioning: Mediation, moderation and moderated mediation  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive remediation (CRT) affects functioning but the extent and type of cognitive improvements necessary are unknown. Aim To develop and test models of how cognitive improvement transfers to work behaviour using the data from a current service. Method Participants (N49) with a support worker and a paid or voluntary job were offered CRT in a Phase 2 single group design with three assessments: baseline, post therapy and follow-up. Working memory, cognitive flexibility, planning and work outcomes were assessed. Results Three models were tested (mediation — cognitive improvements drive functioning improvement; moderation — post treatment cognitive level affects the impact of CRT on functioning; moderated mediation — cognition drives functioning improvements only after a certain level is achieved). There was evidence of mediation (planning improvement associated with improved work quality). There was no evidence that cognitive flexibility (total Wisconsin Card Sorting Test errors) and working memory (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III digit span) mediated work functioning despite significant effects. There was some evidence of moderated mediation for planning improvement if participants had poorer memory and/or made fewer WCST errors. The total CRT effect on work quality was d = 0.55, but the indirect (planning-mediated CRT effect) was d = 0.082 Conclusion Planning improvements led to better work quality but only accounted for a small proportion of the total effect on work outcome. Other specific and non-specific effects of CRT and the work programme are likely to account for some of the remaining effect. This is the first time complex models have been tested and future Phase 3 studies need to further test mediation and moderated mediation models. PMID:22503640

Wykes, Til; Reeder, Clare; Huddy, Vyv; Taylor, Rumina; Wood, Helen; Ghirasim, Natalia; Kontis, Dimitrios; Landau, Sabine

2012-01-01

197

The influence of personality on three aspects of cognitive performance: processing speed, intelligence and school performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the mental speed approach, measures of speed of information processing represent cognitive ability in a comparatively ‘pure’ form, i.e. less influenced by cultural and learning factors than psychometric intelligence tests. In contrast school performance is assumed to be strongly influenced by cultural and personality factors like motivation, diligence, relationship to teachers etc. Former research has shown, that the

Heiner Rindermann; Aljoscha C. Neubauer

2001-01-01

198

Social cognitive career theory, conscientiousness, and work performance: A meta-analytic path analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We performed a meta-analytic path analysis of an abbreviated version of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) model of work performance (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The model we tested included the central cognitive predictors of performance (ability, self-efficacy, performance goals), with the exception of outcome expectations. Results suggested that a slightly modified version of the model, incorporating a path between

Steven D. Brown; Robert W. Lent; Kyle Telander; Selena Tramayne

2011-01-01

199

Gear Performance Improved by Coating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gears, bearings, and other mechanical elements transmit loads through contacting surfaces. Even if properly designed, manufactured, installed, and maintained, gears and bearings will eventually fail because of the fatigue of the working surfaces. Economical means for extending the fatigue lives of gears and bearings are highly desired, and coatings offer the opportunity to engineer surfaces to extend the fatigue lives of mechanical components. A tungsten-containing diamondlike-carbon coating exhibiting high hardness, low friction, and good toughness was evaluated for application to spur gears. Fatigue testing was done at the NASA Glenn Research Center on both uncoated and coated spur gears. The results showed that the coating extended the surface fatigue lives of the gears by a factor of about 5 relative to the uncoated gears. For the experiments, a lot of spur test gears made from AISI 9310 gear steel were case-carburized and ground to aerospace specifications. The geometries of the 28-tooth, 8-pitch gears were verified as meeting American Gear Manufacturing Association (AGMA) quality class 12. One-half of the gears were randomly selected for coating. The method of coating was selected to achieve desired adherence, toughness, hardness, and low-friction characteristics. First the gears to be coated were prepared by blasting (vapor honing) with Al2O3 particles and cleaning. Then, the gears were provided with a thin adhesion layer of elemental chromium followed by magnetron sputtering of the outer coating consisting of carbon (70 at.%), hydrogen (15 at.%), tungsten (12 at.%), and nickel (3 at.%) (atomic percent at the surface). In total, the coating thickness was about 2.5 to 3 microns. As compared with the steel substrate, the coated surface was harder by a factor of about 2 and had a smaller elastic modulus. All gears were tested using a 5-centistoke synthetic oil, a 10,000-rpm rotation speed, and a hertzian contact stress of at least 1.7 GPa (250 ksi). Tests were run until either surface fatigue occurred or 300 million stress cycles were completed. Tests were run using either a pair of uncoated gears or a pair of coated gears (coated gears mated with uncoated gears were not evaluated). The fatigue test results, shown on Weibull coordinates in the graph, demonstrate that the coating provided substantially longer fatigue lives even though some of the coated gears endured larger stresses. The increase in fatigue life was a factor of about 5 and the statistical confidence for the improvement is high (greater than 99 percent). Examination of the tested gears revealed substantial reductions of total wear for coated gears in comparison to uncoated gears. The coated gear surface topography changed with running, with localized areas of the tooth surface becoming smoother with running. Theories explaining how coatings can extend gear fatigue lives are research topics for coating, tribology, and fatigue specialists. This work was done as a partnership between NASA, the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, United Technologies Research Corporation, and Sikorsky Aircraft.

Krantz, Timothy L.

2004-01-01

200

Exercise Improves Cognitive Responses to Psychological Stress through Enhancement of Epigenetic Mechanisms  

E-print Network

shown previously that exercise benefits stress resistance and stress coping capabilities. FurthermoreExercise Improves Cognitive Responses to Psychological Stress through Enhancement of Epigenetic formation of stressful events. In view of the enhanced coping capabilities in exercised subjects we

Kalueff, Allan V.

201

Alcohol Consumption and Cognitive Performance in the Framingham Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have indicated that moderate alcohol intake may be beneficial to cognitive functioning in women, although not necessarily in men. Data from the Framingham Heart Study, a large, prospective study of cardiovascular disease in Framingham, Massachusetts, were used to examine the relation between alcohol consumption and cognitive ability. The major research question was whether a different alcohol-cognition relation would

Penelope K. Elias; Merrill F. Elias; Ralph B. D'Agostino; Halit Silbershatz; Philip A. Wolf

202

Cumulative Lead Exposure and Cognitive Performance Among Elderly Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Recent evidence suggests that cumulative lead expo- sure among adults in nonoccupational settings can adversely affect cognitive function. Which cognitive domains are affected has not been explored in detail. Methods: We used nonlinear spline regressions and linear repeated- measures analysis to assess the association between scores on a battery of cognitive tests over time and both blood and bone

Marc G. Weisskopf; Susan P. Proctor; Robert O. Wright; Joel Schwartz; Avron Spiro III; David Sparrow; Huiling Nie; Howard Hu

2007-01-01

203

Balance, Sensorimotor, and Cognitive Performance in Long-Year Expert Senior Ballroom Dancers  

PubMed Central

Physical fitness is considered a major factor contributing to the maintenance of independent living and everyday competence. In line with this notion, it has been shown that several years of amateur dancing experience can exert beneficial effects not only on balance and posture but also on tactile, motor, and cognitive functions in older people. This raises the question of whether an even more extensive schedule of dancing, including competitive tournaments, would further enhance these positive effects. We therefore assessed posture, balance, and reaction times, as well as motor, tactile, and cognitive performance in older expert ballroom dancers with several years of competitive experience. We found substantially better performance in the expert group than in the controls in terms of expertise-related domains like posture, balance, and reaction times. However, there was no generalization of positive effects to those domains that were found to be improved in amateur dancers, such as tactile and cognitive performance, suggesting that there might be an optimal range of intervention intensity to maintain health and independence throughout the human lifespan. PMID:21961064

Kattenstroth, Jan-Christoph; Kalisch, Tobias; Kolankowska, Izabela; Dinse, Hubert R.

2011-01-01

204

Evaluation of Title I ESEA Projects, 1971-1972. Volume III, Instructional Practices and Student Cognitive Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this volume, ESEA Title I projects related to instructional practices and student cognitive performance, carried out in Philadelphia during 1971-1972, are evaluated. The six projects in this cluster are: Class for Mentally Retarded/Emotionally Distrubed Children; English as a Second Language; Improvement of Reading Skills (Reading Skills…

Prusso, Kenneth W.; And Others

205

Effect of standardized aqueous extract of Withania somnifera on tests of cognitive and psychomotor performance in healthy human participants  

PubMed Central

Background: Withania somnifera is an herbal medicine that has been known to possess memory-enhancing properties. The current study involved an assessment of cognitive and psychomotor effects of Withania somnifera extract in healthy human participants. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, double-blind, multi-dose, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 20 healthy male participants were randomized to receive 250 mg two capsules twice daily of an encapsulated dried aqueous extract of roots and leaves of Withania somnifera or a matching placebo for a period of 14 days. Cognitive and psychomotor performance was assessed pre-dose (day 1) and at 3 hrs post-dose on day 15 using a battery of computerized psychometric tests. After a washout period of 14 days, the subjects crossed-over to receive the other treatment for a further period of 14 days as per prior randomization schedule. Same battery of test procedures were performed to assess cognitive and psychomotor performance. Results: Significant improvements were observed in reaction times with simple reaction, choice discrimination, digit symbol substitution, digit vigilance, and card sorting tests with Withania somnifera extract compared to placebo. However, no effect can be seen with the finger tapping test. Conclusion: These results suggest that Withania somnifera extract can improve cognitive and psychomotor performance and may, therefore, be a valuable adjunct in the treatment of diseases associated with cognitive impairment. PMID:24497737

Pingali, Usharani; Pilli, Raveendranadh; Fatima, Nishat

2014-01-01

206

Mind Over Matter: Reappraising Arousal Improves Cardiovascular and Cognitive Responses to Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have theorized that changing the way we think about our bodily responses can improve our physiological and cognitive reactions to stressful events. However, the underlying processes through which mental states improve downstream outcomes are not well understood. To this end, we examined whether reappraising stress-induced arousal could improve cardiovascular outcomes and decrease attentional bias for emotionally negative information. Participants

Jeremy P. Jamieson; Matthew K. Nock; Wendy Berry Mendes

2012-01-01

207

Effect of sodium chloride supplementation on serum sodium concentration, cardiovascular function, and physical and cognitive performance.  

E-print Network

??These studies determined the effects of sodium chloride supplementation on serum and sweat sodium concentration, cardiovascular function, and physical and cognitive performance. Sweat sodium losses,… (more)

Pahnke, Matthew Daleon

2010-01-01

208

Listen to the noise: noise is beneficial for cognitive performance in ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Noise is typically conceived of as being detrimental to cognitive performance. However, given the mechanism of stochastic resonance, a certain amount of noise can benefit performance. We investigate cognitive performance in noisy environments in relation to a neurocomputational model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and dopamine. The Moderate Brain Arousal model (MBA; Sikstrom&S oderlund, 2007) suggests that dopamine

Göran Söderlund; Sverker Sikström; Andrew Smart

2007-01-01

209

Listen to the Noise: Noise Is Beneficial for Cognitive Performance in ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Noise is typically conceived of as being detrimental to cognitive performance. However, given the mechanism of stochastic resonance, a certain amount of noise can benefit performance. We investigate cognitive performance in noisy environments in relation to a neurocomputational model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

Soderlund, Goran; Sikstrom, Sverker; Smart, Andrew

2007-01-01

210

A Framework for Designing Scaffolds That Improve Motivation and Cognition  

PubMed Central

A problematic, yet common, assumption among educational researchers is that when teachers provide authentic, problem-based experiences, students will automatically be engaged. Evidence indicates that this is often not the case. In this article, we discuss (a) problems with ignoring motivation in the design of learning environments, (b) problem-based learning and scaffolding as one way to help, (c) how scaffolding has strayed from what was originally equal parts motivational and cognitive support, and (d) a conceptual framework for the design of scaffolds that can enhance motivation as well as cognitive outcomes. We propose guidelines for the design of computer-based scaffolds to promote motivation and engagement while students are solving authentic problems. Remaining questions and suggestions for future research are then discussed. PMID:24273351

Belland, Brian R.; Kim, ChanMin; Hannafin, Michael J.

2013-01-01

211

Measurement-to-Measurement Blood Pressure Variability Is Related to Cognitive Performance: The Maine Syracuse Study.  

PubMed

The objective was to investigate the association between variability in blood pressure (BP) and cognitive function for sitting, standing, and reclining BP values and variability derived from all 15 measures. In previous studies, only sitting BP values have been examined, and only a few cognitive measures have been used. A secondary objective was to examine associations between BP variability and cognitive performance in hypertensive individuals stratified by treatment success. Cross-sectional analyses were performed on 972 participants of the Maine Syracuse Study for whom 15 serial BP clinic measures (5 sitting, 5 recumbent, and 5 standing) were obtained before testing of cognitive performance. Using all 15 measures, higher variability in systolic and diastolic BP was associated with poorer performance on multiple measures of cognitive performance, independent of demographic factors, cardiovascular risk factors, and pulse pressure. When sitting, reclining, and standing systolic BP values were compared, only variability in standing BP was related to measures of cognitive performance. However, for diastolic BP, variability in all 3 positions was related to cognitive performance. Mean BP values were weaker predictors of cognition. Furthermore, higher overall variability in both systolic and diastolic BP was associated with poorer cognitive performance in unsuccessfully treated hypertensive individuals (with BP ?140/90 mm Hg), but these associations were not evident in those with controlled hypertension. PMID:25156168

Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Dore, Gregory A; Torres, Rachael V; Robbins, Michael A

2014-11-01

212

A Cognitive Framework for Improving Coexistence Among Heterogeneous Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—The proliferation of wireless systems requires that the coexistence between heterogeneous technologies be addressed. This paper presents a cognitive framework in which sensing- based resource management of an infrastructure system ef- fectively suppresses interference to close-by ad-hoc or peer-to- peer links. By utilizing its superior communication resources the infrastructure system estimates interference conditions and judiciously allocates transmission power such as

Stefan Geirhofer; Lang Tong; Brian M. Sadler

2008-01-01

213

Linkages of biomarkers of zinc with cognitive performance and taste acuity in adolescent girls.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study (n?=?403) was conducted to examine the relationship of plasma zinc (PZ) and erythrocyte zinc (EZ) levels with cognitive performance and taste acuity for salt in Indian adolescent girls. PZ, EZ and hemoglobin were estimated in schoolgirls (10-16 years). Cognitive performance was assessed by simple-reaction-time (SRT), recognition-reaction-time (RRT), visual-memory, Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test. Taste acuity was determined by recognition-thresholds-for-salt (RTS) using 10 different salt concentrations. Low PZ (<0.7?mg/l) and EZ (<8?µg/g of packed cells) were observed in 72% and 23.6% of girls, respectively. PZ and EZ were negatively associated with SRT (r?=?-0.41, -0.34), RRT (r?=?-0.49, -0.4), and positively with Memory (r?=?0.43, 0.34) and RPM (r?=?0.39, 0.31; p?cognition and taste function implying need for improving their dietary zinc intakes. PMID:24490852

Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Kawade, Rama

2014-06-01

214

The effects of the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor vardenafil on cognitive performance in healthy adults: a behavioral-electroencephalography study.  

PubMed

Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5-Is) improve cognitive performance of rodents, but the few human studies investigating their effects did not systematically investigate cognitive effects and the results have been quite contradictory. Therefore, we examined whether the PDE5-I vardenafil improves memory and executive functioning and affect electroencephalography (EEG) in healthy young adults. Participants were selected out of a group of volunteers, based on their performance on a memory screening and they were orally treated with vardenafil (10-20 mg or placebo). Memory and executive functioning were tested while EEG activity was recorded. Additionally, a simple reaction time task and questionnaires addressing various complaints were presented. No prominent effects of vardenafil on cognition were found: participants only made more mistakes on a reaction time task after 20 mg vardenafil. During encoding of words, the P300 was generally smaller after vardenafil treatment. Furthermore, the N400 was larger after vardenafil 10 mg than placebo treatment in a spatial memory task at Fz. Finally, headache and feeling weak were reported more after vardenafil treatment. Vardenafil did not affect cognitive performance of healthy adults and showed only some incidental effects on ERPs. These findings in humans do not corroborate the cognition-enhancing effects of PDE5-Is in healthy animals. PMID:23427190

Reneerkens, O A H; Sambeth, A; Ramaekers, J G; Steinbusch, H W M; Blokland, A; Prickaerts, J

2013-07-01

215

Improving Management Performance in Rapidly Changing Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Managers in service and manufacturing organizations (n=433) identified top practices for improving their performance as focus, feedback, and learning from experience. There was a disparity between the management development they want and what organizations provide. (SK)

Longenecker, Clinton O.; Fink, Laurence S.

2001-01-01

216

Carbohydrates, Muscle Glycogen, and Improved Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One way to improve athletic performance without harming the athlete's health is diet manipulation. This article explores the relationship between muscular endurance and muscle glycogen and discusses a diet and training approach to competition. (Author/MT)

Sherman, W. Mike

1987-01-01

217

Improving Internet Performance through Traffic Managers  

E-print Network

Improving Internet Performance through Traffic Managers Computer Science Ibrahim Matta Computer (Transmission Control Protocol) #12;The Internet Traffic Managers (ITM) Architecture Traffic Manager (Edge Traffic characterization Edge-to-edge control The TM framework Active Queue Management (AQM): queue length

Matta, Abraham "Ibrahim"

218

Improving network routing performance in dynamic environments  

E-print Network

In this dissertation, we study methods for improving the routing performance of computer communication networks in dynamic environments. The dynamic environments we considered in this work include both network topology changes and traffic demand...

Liu, Yong

2007-04-25

219

SUSTAINABLE PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT Good managers want to improve their performance, as evidenced by their insatiable interest in  

E-print Network

SUSTAINABLE PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT Good managers want to improve their performance, as evidenced, and improve the performance of enterprises. Many models of managed performance improvement surfaced over claim a causal relationship between normative management behaviors and desired enterprise performance

Rose, Michael R.

220

Improving Student Attitudes and Performance in Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a program for improving attitudes towards mathematics and problem solving in order to improve performance in these areas. The targeted population consists of two high school geometry classes. The school is located in a western suburb of a major mid-western city. The problems of negative attitudes towards mathematics and…

Olson, Kirsten Ann

221

Effects of cognitive styles on 2D drafting and design performance in digital media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the interactions between design students’ cognitive styles, as measured by Riding’s Cognitive Styles\\u000a Analysis, and performance in 2D drafting and design tasks in digital media. An empirical research revealed that Imager students\\u000a outperformed Verbalisers in both drafting and creativity scores. Wholist–Analytic cognitive style dimension was found to be\\u000a independent from drafting and design performance. The study suggests

Sule Tasli Pektas

2010-01-01

222

How assessing relationships between emotions and cognition can improve farm animal welfare.  

PubMed

The assessment of farm animal welfare requires a good understanding of the animals' affective experiences, including their emotions. Emotions are transient reactions to short-term triggering events and can accumulate to cause longer-lasting affective states, which represent good or bad welfare. Cognition refers to the mechanisms by which animals acquire, process, store and act on information from the environment. The objective of this paper is to highlight the two-way relationships between emotions and cognition that were originally identified in human psychology, and to describe in what ways these can be used to better access affective experiences in farm animals. The first section describes a recent experimental approach based on the cognitive processes that the animal uses to evaluate its environment. This approach offers an integrative and functional framework to assess the animal's emotions more effectively. The second section focuses on the influence of emotions on cognitive processes and describes recently developed methodologies based on that relationship, which may enable an assessment of long-term affective states in animals. The last section discusses the relevance of behavioural strategies to improve welfare in animals by taking their cognitive skills into account. Specific cognitive processes eliciting positive emotions will be emphasised. Research into affective states of animals is progressing rapidly and the ability to scientifically access animal feelings should contribute to the development of innovative farming practices based on the animals' sentience and their cognitive skills in order to truly improve their welfare. PMID:25000782

Boissy, A; Lee, C

2014-04-01

223

Aerobic exercise as an adjunct therapy for improving cognitive function in heart failure.  

PubMed

Persons with heart failure (HF) are typically older and are at a much higher risk for developing cognitive impairment (CI) than persons without HF. Increasingly, CI is recognized as a significant, independent predictor of worse clinical outcomes, more frequent hospital readmissions, and higher mortality rates in persons with HF. CI can have devastating effects on ability to carry out HF effective self-care behaviors. If CI occurs, however, there are currently no evidence based guidelines on how to manage or improve cognitive function in this population. Improvement in cognition has been reported following some therapies in HF and is thought to be the consequence of enhanced cerebral perfusion and oxygenation, suggesting that CI may be amenable to intervention. Because there is substantial neuronal loss with dementia and no effective restorative therapies, interventions that slow, reverse, or prevent cognitive decline are essential. Aerobic exercise is documented to increase cerebral perfusion and oxygenation by promoting neuroplasticity and neurogenesis and, in turn, cognitive functioning. Few studies have examined exercise as a potential adjunct therapy for attenuating or alleviating cognitive decline in HF. In this review, the potential benefit of aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning in HF is presented along with future research directions. PMID:25105053

Gary, Rebecca A; Brunn, Kathryn

2014-01-01

224

Aerobic Exercise as an Adjunct Therapy for Improving Cognitive Function in Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Persons with heart failure (HF) are typically older and are at a much higher risk for developing cognitive impairment (CI) than persons without HF. Increasingly, CI is recognized as a significant, independent predictor of worse clinical outcomes, more frequent hospital readmissions, and higher mortality rates in persons with HF. CI can have devastating effects on ability to carry out HF effective self-care behaviors. If CI occurs, however, there are currently no evidence based guidelines on how to manage or improve cognitive function in this population. Improvement in cognition has been reported following some therapies in HF and is thought to be the consequence of enhanced cerebral perfusion and oxygenation, suggesting that CI may be amenable to intervention. Because there is substantial neuronal loss with dementia and no effective restorative therapies, interventions that slow, reverse, or prevent cognitive decline are essential. Aerobic exercise is documented to increase cerebral perfusion and oxygenation by promoting neuroplasticity and neurogenesis and, in turn, cognitive functioning. Few studies have examined exercise as a potential adjunct therapy for attenuating or alleviating cognitive decline in HF. In this review, the potential benefit of aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning in HF is presented along with future research directions. PMID:25105053

Gary, Rebecca A.; Brunn, Kathryn

2014-01-01

225

Reducing Dysfunctional Beliefs about Sleep Does Not Significantly Improve Insomnia in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy  

PubMed Central

The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals’ scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia. PMID:25025164

Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi

2014-01-01

226

Which psychosocial factors best predict cognitive performance in older adults?  

PubMed

Negative affect (e.g., depression) is associated with accelerated age-related cognitive decline and heightened dementia risk. Fewer studies examine positive psychosocial factors (e.g., emotional support, self-efficacy) in cognitive aging. Preliminary reports suggest that these variables predict slower cognitive decline independent of negative affect. No reports have examined these factors in a single model to determine which best relate to cognition. Data from 482 individuals 55 and older came from the normative sample for the NIH Toolbox for the Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function. Negative and positive psychosocial factors, executive functioning, working memory, processing speed, and episodic memory were measured with the NIH Toolbox Emotion and Cognition modules. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling characterized independent relations between psychosocial factors and cognition. Psychosocial variables loaded onto negative and positive factors. Independent of education, negative affect and health status, greater emotional support was associated with better task-switching and processing speed. Greater self-efficacy was associated with better working memory. Negative affect was not independently associated with any cognitive variables. Findings support the conceptual distinctness of negative and positive psychosocial factors in older adults. Emotional support and self-efficacy may be more closely tied to cognition than other psychosocial variables. PMID:24685143

Zahodne, Laura B; Nowinski, Cindy J; Gershon, Richard C; Manly, Jennifer J

2014-05-01

227

What Cognitive Abilities Are Involved in Trail-Making Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cognitive abilities involved in the Connections (Salthouse, et al., 2000) version of the trail making test were investigated by administering the test, along with a battery of cognitive tests and tests of complex span and updating conceptualizations of working memory, to a sample of over 3600 adults. The results indicate that this variant of…

Salthouse, Timothy A.

2011-01-01

228

THE IMPACT OF "HOT COGNITION" IN PROFESSIONAL PERFORMANCE  

E-print Network

. KEYWORDS Hot cognition, User Psychological Profile, Personality Traits, Emotional Intelligence, Soft Skills, no importance to the development of subtle2 "knowledge" like personality traits3 , emotional intelligence4 and soft skills5 . They do not stimulate 1 cognition colored by affect - emotional intelligence

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

229

Group Comparisons of Mathematics Performance from a Cognitive Diagnostic Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional comparisons of test score means identify group differences in broad academic areas, but fail to provide substantive description of how the groups differ on the specific cognitive attributes required for success in the academic area. The rule space method (RSM) allows for group comparisons at the cognitive attribute level, which…

Chen, Yi-Hsin; Ferron, John M.; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Gorin, Joanna S.; Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.

2010-01-01

230

Performance, Productivity and Continuous Improvement. Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers from a symposium on performance, productivity, and continuous improvement. "Investigating the Association between Productivity and Quality Performance in Two Manufacturing Settings" (Constantine Kontoghiorghes, Robert Gudgel) summarizes a study that identified the following quality management variables as the…

2002

231

Does ISO 9000 certification improve business performance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the issue of ISO 9000 certification and its perceived benefits for Singapore based companies. Using an empirical approach, the paper seeks to ascertain if certification has indeed improved the performance for listed and non-listed companies. The results from a survey of 146 firms suggest that while certification leads to better overall financial performance, non-listed certified firms experience

Clare Chow-Chua; Mark Goh; Tan Boon Wan

2003-01-01

232

Computational vision approach to improve fusion performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulated annealing based coefficient optimization approach to improve the image fusion performance is proposed in this article. This article tries to answer two questions. Firstly, reference images used in most previous literature to measure the performance of fusion process are often real scene image or the equivalence, which hardly exists in practice. To avoid using the nonexistent real scene

Xiaohui Yuan; Zhaoshan Yuan; Bill Buckles

2002-01-01

233

The Effect of Compliance-Improving Interventions on the Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment of Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study investigated the effect of interventions designed to improve compliance and reduce dropout rates during the outpatient treatment of pathological gambling at a University-based gambling treatment clinic. Forty subjects (29 males, 11 females, mean age = 37.6) meeting DSM-IV criteria (APA, 1994) for pathological gambling were randomly assigned to either a cognitive-behavioural treatment or a cognitive-behavioural treatment combined

Simon Milton; Rocco Crino; Caroline Hunt; Emma Prosser

2002-01-01

234

Potential role of the combination of galantamine and memantine to improve cognition in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) and Treatment Units for Research on Neurocognition and Schizophrenia projects were designed to facilitate the development of new drugs for the treatment of cognitive impairments in people with schizophrenia. The MATRICS project identified three drug mechanisms of particular interest: dopaminergic, cholinergic, and glutamatergic. As a group, while people with schizophrenia have moderate cognitive impairment, it is the best predictor of long-term outcome. Unfortunately, there are no approved medications for cognitive impairment in this population. Hence, the development of new pharmacological approaches is critical for reducing illness-related disability. The combination of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) and memantine is more effective than either medication alone to improve cognition in Alzheimer's dementia. Galantamine is not only an AChEI, but also a positive allosteric modulator of the ?4?2 and ?7 nicotinic receptors. Hypofunction of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been implicated in the pathophysiology of cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia and hence memantine may positively impact cognition. Memantine decreases the tonic NMDA current and galantamine enhances the action potential mediated by a postsynaptic NMDA current. This results in an increased signal transmission; therefore, a greater signal-to-noise ratio occurs with the combination than memantine alone. Galantamine improves the ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazol-propionate (AMPA)-mediated signaling which could be neuroprotective and may improve memory coding. The combination of galantamine and memantine may be particularly effective in schizophrenia in order to increase the selective cognition enhancement produced by either medication alone. In the future, multitarget-directed ligands may play a role in the treatment of complex diseases like schizophrenia. PMID:24878431

Koola, Maju Mathew; Buchanan, Robert W; Pillai, Anilkumar; Aitchison, Katherine J; Weinberger, Daniel R; Aaronson, Scott T; Dickerson, Faith B

2014-08-01

235

The neurobiology of modafinil as an enhancer of cognitive performance and a potential treatment for substance use disorders  

PubMed Central

Rationale and Objectives Modafinil (MOD) and its R-enantiomer (R-MOD) are approved medications for narcolepsy and other sleep disorders. They have also been used, off label, as cognitive enhancers in populations of patients with mental disorders, including substance abusers that demonstrate impaired cognitive function. A debated non-medical use of MOD in healthy individuals to improve intellectual performance is raising questions about its potential abuse liability in this population. Results and Conclusions MOD has low micromolar affinity for the dopamine transporter (DAT). Inhibition of dopamine (DA) reuptake via the DAT explains the enhancement of DA levels in several brain areas, an effect shared with psychostimulants like cocaine, methylphenidate and the amphetamines. However, its neurochemical effects and anatomical pattern of brain area activation differ from typical psychostimulants and are consistent with its beneficial effects on cognitive performance processes such as attention, learning, and memory. At variance with typical psychostimulants, MOD shows very low, if any, abuse liability, in spite of its use as a cognitive enhancer by otherwise healthy individuals. Finally, recent clinical studies have focused on the potential use of MOD as a medication for treatment of drug abuse, but have not shown consistent outcomes. However, positive trends in several result measures suggest that medications that improve cognitive function, like MOD or R-MOD, may be beneficial for treatment of substance use disorders in certain patient populations. PMID:23934211

Mereu, Maddalena; Bonci, Antonello; Newman, Amy Hauck; Tanda, Gianluigi

2013-01-01

236

Effects of Transdermal Nicotine and Concurrent Smoking on Cognitive Performance in Tobacco-Abstinent Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smokers experience cognitive decrements during tobacco abstinence and boosts in performance on resumption of smoking. Few studies have examined whether smoking cessation treatments such as transdermal nicotine (TN) ameliorate these decrements or attenuate the cognitive effects of smoking. Identifying the effects of nicotine on these tobacco-related changes in performance could guide the development of more efficacious treatments. The purpose of

Bethea A. Kleykamp; Janine M. Jennings; Thomas Eissenberg

2011-01-01

237

Marital Conflict, Allostatic Load, and the Development of Children's Fluid Cognitive Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relations between marital conflict, children's respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and fluid cognitive performance were examined over 3 years to assess allostatic processes. Participants were 251 children reporting on marital conflict, baseline RSA, and RSA reactivity (RSA-R) to a lab challenge were recorded, and fluid cognitive performance

Hinnant, J. Benjamin; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Buckhalt, Joseph A.

2013-01-01

238

A Comparative Study of Autistic Subjects' Performance at Two Levels of Visual and Cognitive Perspective Taking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study found that 13 autistic subjects performed less well on cognitive than on visual perspective-taking tasks at two levels of difficulty. Autistic subjects performed as well as 13 intellectually handicapped controls and 13 normal controls on visual perspective-taking tasks but more poorly than controls on cognitive perspective-taking tasks.…

Reed, Taffy; Peterson, Candida

1990-01-01

239

Effects of Handling Real Objects and Avatar Fidelity On Cognitive Task Performance in Virtual Environments  

E-print Network

Effects of Handling Real Objects and Avatar Fidelity On Cognitive Task Performance in Virtual objects and how self-avatar visual fidelity affects performance on a spatial cognitive task representations of real objects (real-object avatars) are approximations and not necessarily visually faithful

Whitton, Mary C.

240

Cognition Improvement in Taekwondo Novices Over 40. Results from the SEKWONDO Study  

PubMed Central

Age-related cognitive decline is associated with increased risk of disability, dementia, and death. Recent studies suggest improvement in cognitive speed, attention, and executive functioning with physical activity. However, whether such improvements are activity specific is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to study the effect of 1?year age-adapted Taekwondo training on several cognitive functions, including reaction/motor time, information processing speed, and working and executive memory, in 24 healthy volunteers over 40. Reaction and motor time decreased with 41.2 and 18.4?s (p?=?0.004, p?=?0.015), respectively. Digit symbol coding task improved with a mean of 3.7 digits (p?=?0.017). Digit span, letter fluency, and trail making test task-completion-time all improved, but not statistically significant. The questionnaire reported “better” reaction time in 10 and “unchanged” in 9 of the 19 study compliers. In conclusion, our data suggest that age-adapted Taekwondo training improves various aspects of cognitive function in people over 40, which may, therefore, offer a cheap, safe, and enjoyable way to mitigate age-related cognitive decline. PMID:24273512

Pons van Dijk, Gaby; Huijts, Marjolein; Lodder, Jan

2013-01-01

241

Engine component improvement program: Performance improvement. [fuel consumption  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fuel consumption of commercial aircraft is considered. Fuel saving and retention components for new production and retrofit of JT9D, JT8D, and CF6 engines are reviewed. The manner in which the performance improvement concepts were selected for development and a summary of the current status of each of the 16 selected concepts are discussed.

Mcaulay, J. E.

1979-01-01

242

Assessment of cognitive performance using CNS vital signs after electroconvulsive treatment of schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Little is known how electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) affects cognitive functions in subjects with schizophrenia. Assessment of cognitive functions in subjects with schizophrenia treated with ECT was performed using CNS Vital Signs computerized battery of tests. Thirteen patients treated with ECT plus antipsychotics were assessed before and after 12 to 15 bilateral ECT sessions. We did not find any important changes between pre-ECT and post-ECT cognitive performance. We also found that CNS Vital Signs is a useful computerized battery test for assessing cognitive functions of subjects treated with ECT. PMID:24080543

Wysoki?ski, Adam; Dzienniak, Ma?gorzata; K?oszewska, Iwona

2014-03-01

243

When does anxiety help or hinder cognitive test performance? The role of working memory capacity.  

PubMed

Cognitive interference theories (e.g. attentional control theory, processing efficiency theory) suggest that high levels of trait anxiety predict adverse effects on the performance of cognitive tasks, particularly those that make high demands on cognitive resources. We tested an interaction hypothesis to determine whether a combination of high anxiety and low working memory capacity (WMC) would predict variance in demanding cognitive test scores. Ninety six adolescents (12- to 14-years-old) participated in the study, which measured self-report levels of trait anxiety, working memory, and cognitive test performance. As hypothesized, we found that the anxiety-WMC interaction explained a significant amount of variance in cognitive test performance (?R(2) .07, p < .01). Trait anxiety was unrelated to cognitive test performance for those adolescents with average WMC scores (? = .13, p > .10). In contrast, trait anxiety was negatively related to test performance in adolescents with low WMC (? = -.35, p < .05) and positively related to test performance in those with high WMC (? = .49, p < .01). The results of this study suggest that WMC moderates the relationship between anxiety and cognitive test performance and may be a determinant factor in explaining some discrepancies found in the literature. Further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms involved. PMID:24387098

Owens, Matthew; Stevenson, Jim; Hadwin, Julie A; Norgate, Roger

2014-02-01

244

Cognitive Correlates of Functional Performance in Older Adults: Comparison of Self-Report, Direct Observation, and Performance-Based Measures  

PubMed Central

Neuropsychologists are often asked to answer questions about the effects of cognitive deficits on everyday functioning. This study examined the relationship between and the cognitive correlates of self-report, performance-based, and direct observation measures commonly used as proxy measures for everyday functioning. Participants were 88 community-dwelling, cognitively healthy older adults (age 50–86 years). Participants completed standardized neuropsychological tests and questionnaires, and performed eight activities of daily living (e.g., water plants, fill a medication dispenser) while under direct observation in a campus apartment. All proxy measures of everyday function were sensitive to the effects of healthy cognitive aging. After controlling for age, cognitive predictors explained a unique amount of the variance for only the performance-based behavioral simulation measure (i.e., Revised Observed Tasks of Daily Living). The self-report instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and the performance-based everyday problem-solving test (i.e., EPT) did not correlate with each other; however, both were unique predictors of the direct observation measure. These findings suggest that neuropsychologists must be cautious in making predictions about the quality of everyday activity completion in cognitively healthy older adults from specific cognitive functions. The findings further suggest that a self-report of IADLs and the performance-based EPT may be useful measures for assessing everyday functional status in cognitively healthy older adults. PMID:21729400

Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Parsey, Carolyn; Cook, Diane J.

2013-01-01

245

Caffeine and cognitive performance: persistent methodological challenges in caffeine research.  

PubMed

Human cognitive performance is widely perceived to be enhanced by caffeine at usual dietary doses. However, the evidence for and against this belief continues to be vigorously contested. Controversy has centred on caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal as potential sources of experimental confounding. In response, some researchers have enlisted "caffeine-naïve" experimental participants (persons alleged to consume little or no caffeine) assuming that they are not subject to withdrawal. This mini-review examines relevant research to illustrate general methodological challenges that have been the cause of enduring confusion in caffeine research. At issue are the processes of caffeine withdrawal and withdrawal reversal, the definition of caffeine-naïve, the population representativeness of participants deemed to be caffeine-naïve, and confounding due to caffeine tolerance. Attention to these processes is necessary if premature conclusions are to be avoided, and if caffeine's complex effects and the mechanisms responsible for those effects are to be illuminated. Strategies are described for future caffeine research aimed at minimising confounding from withdrawal and withdrawal reversal. PMID:24892519

James, Jack E

2014-09-01

246

Hunger in the absence of caloric restriction improves cognition and attenuates Alzheimer's disease pathology in a mouse model.  

PubMed

It has been shown that caloric restriction (CR) delays aging and possibly delays the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We conjecture that the mechanism may involve interoceptive cues, rather than reduced energy intake per se. We determined that hunger alone, induced by a ghrelin agonist, reduces AD pathology and improves cognition in the APP-SwDI mouse model of AD. Long-term treatment with a ghrelin agonist was sufficient to improve the performance in the water maze. The treatment also reduced levels of amyloid beta (A?) and inflammation (microglial activation) at 6 months of age compared to the control group, similar to the effect of CR. Thus, a hunger-inducing drug attenuates AD pathology, in the absence of CR, and the neuroendocrine aspects of hunger also prevent age-related cognitive decline. PMID:23565247

Dhurandhar, Emily J; Allison, David B; van Groen, Thomas; Kadish, Inga

2013-01-01

247

Hunger in the Absence of Caloric Restriction Improves Cognition and Attenuates Alzheimer's Disease Pathology in a Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that caloric restriction (CR) delays aging and possibly delays the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We conjecture that the mechanism may involve interoceptive cues, rather than reduced energy intake per se. We determined that hunger alone, induced by a ghrelin agonist, reduces AD pathology and improves cognition in the APP-SwDI mouse model of AD. Long-term treatment with a ghrelin agonist was sufficient to improve the performance in the water maze. The treatment also reduced levels of amyloid beta (A?) and inflammation (microglial activation) at 6 months of age compared to the control group, similar to the effect of CR. Thus, a hunger-inducing drug attenuates AD pathology, in the absence of CR, and the neuroendocrine aspects of hunger also prevent age-related cognitive decline. PMID:23565247

Dhurandhar, Emily J.; Allison, David B.; van Groen, Thomas; Kadish, Inga

2013-01-01

248

Performance improvement with patient service partners.  

PubMed

Once the decision is made to use a patient-focused care delivery system, a variety of methods can be used to successfully design the model. The author describes the process used by a multilevel, multidisciplinary team at a community hospital to design and implement a Service Partner role that would meet and exceed customer expectations. Demonstrated performance improvements included increased patient satisfaction, productive labor dollar savings, and improvements in the work environment for staff members. PMID:9451381

Burns, J P

1998-01-01

249

Performance-Based Cognitive Processing in Clinically Anxious Youths  

E-print Network

No primary anxiety disorder (n=18) • Reading ability belowReading standard score Psychopathology Primary Generalized Anxiety Disorder (Disorder, substance dependence) (n=18), (c) had current cognitive or reading

Rozenman, Michelle Sherry

250

Performance of a Cognitive Radio Network with Tolerable Service Degradation  

E-print Network

of a cognitive radio wireless network, where secondary users opportunistically share the radio spectrum. INTRODUCTION Spectrum measurement studies have indicated that large portions of the currently allocated networks, the spectrum availability for the secondary users depends on the spectrum occupancy

Shihada, Basem

251

Children's Sleep, Sleepiness, and Performance on Cognitive Tasks  

PubMed Central

While causal connections between sleep deprivation and attention, learning, and memory have been well established in adults, much less research has been done with children. Relations between the amount and quality of sleep and daytime sleepiness have been found for a number of cognitive and academic tasks in several groups of children. These relations have been found for children who have sleep disorders, for children with disorders involving cognitive impairment, and for typically developing children with no known disorders. The research is reviewed here with a focus on the types of cognitive and academic tasks that have been related to insufficient sleep. A series of studies is described that relates sleep parameters to the Woodcock-Johnson® III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and other, similar measures. Implications for educators and psychologists who work with children are discussed. PMID:25279390

Buckhalt, Joseph A.

2012-01-01

252

Augmented Cognition can increase human performance in the control room  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many approaches have attempted to address a truly symbiotic relationship between human and machine but, thus far, a critical shortcoming has been the computer’s inability to account for human information processing (HIP) limitations. The field of Augmented Cognition (AugCog) capitalizes on recent advances in the areas of neuroscience, cognitive science and human-computer interaction to create closed-loop systems that can measure

Sven Fuchs; Kelly S. Hale; Par Axelsson

2007-01-01

253

Performance evaluation of an improved street sweeper  

SciTech Connect

The paper gives results of an evaluation of the performance of an improved street sweeper (ISS) and conventional sweepers. Dust emissions from paved roads are a major source of urban airborne particles. These emissions can be controlled by street cleaning, but commonly used sweepers were not designed for fine particle collection. A sweeper was modified to improve its ability to remove fine particles from streets and to contain its dust dispersions. Performance was measured by sampling street solids with a vacuum system before and after sweeping. Sieve analyses were made on these samples. During sampling, cascade impactor subsamples were collected to measure the finer particles. Also, dust dispersions were measured.

Duncan, M.W.; Jain, R.C.; Yung, S.C.; Patterson, R.G.

1985-10-01

254

Improving satisfaction performance through faster turnaround times.  

PubMed

In order to increase satisfaction and improve department performance, Florida Hospital Memorial Medical Center focused on decreasing report turnaround time with a goal of two hours from completion of the examination by the technologist to a final signed report by the radiologist. Through the introduction of voice recognition software, not only were efficiencies gained, but there was a dramatic reduction in transcription costs--from $30,000 per month to less than $300. Turnaround times were ultimately reduced, thus improving performance and increasing satisfaction. This was made evident by the tracking over time of physician satisfaction scores and HCAHPS scores rating patient satisfaction. PMID:22043733

Kelley, Lisa

2011-01-01

255

The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities III's Cognitive Performance Model: Empirical Support for Intermediate Factors within CHC Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability Third Edition is developed using the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) measurement-theory test design as the instrument's theoretical blueprint. The instrument provides users with cognitive scores based on the Cognitive Performance Model (CPM); however, the CPM is not a part of CHC theory. Within the…

Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.

2014-01-01

256

Virulent bacterial infection improves aversive learning performance in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Virulent infections are expected to impair learning ability, either as a direct consequence of stressed physiological state or as an adaptive response that minimizes diversion of energy from immune defense. This prediction has been well supported for mammals and bees. Here, we report an opposite result in Drosophila melanogaster. Using an odor-mechanical shock conditioning paradigm, we found that intestinal infection with bacterial pathogens Pseudomonas entomophila or Erwinia c. carotovora improved flies' learning performance after a 1h retention interval. Infection with P. entomophila (but not E. c. carotovora) also improved learning performance after 5min retention. No effect on learning performance was detected for intestinal infections with an avirulent GacA mutant of P. entomophila or for virulent systemic (hemocoel) infection with E. c. carotovora. Assays of unconditioned responses to odorants and shock do not support a major role for changes in general responsiveness to stimuli in explaining the changes in learning performance, although differences in their specific salience for learning cannot be excluded. Our results demonstrate that the effects of pathogens on learning performance in insects are less predictable than suggested by previous studies, and support the notion that immune stress can sometimes boost cognitive abilities. PMID:24863366

Babin, Aurélie; Kolly, Sylvain; Kawecki, Tadeusz J

2014-10-01

257

Cognitive performance in patients with burnout, in relation to diurnal salivary cortisol.  

PubMed

This study investigated cognitive performance in patients with burnout, in relation to the flexibility of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Clinical cases with work stress-induced burnout (n = 65), and demographically matched, healthy reference subjects (n = 65), were given six neuropsychological tests and a self-rating scale for cognitive problems. Diurnal salivary cortisol was measured among burnout cases and an external reference group (n = 174), including a dexamethasone suppression test (DST) among burnout cases. Compared with referents, the burnout group under-performed in a cognitive speed test (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) Digit Symbol), but not in any other test of sustained attention, episodic memory, or vocabulary. Burnout cases had considerably more subjective cognitive problems, but ratings were unrelated to test performance. Compared with referents, burnout cases had similar morning salivary cortisol levels and similar awakening response, but lower evening cortisol. Among burnout cases, lower diurnal cortisol variability was related to slower performance in several tests. The DST response showed no consistent relationship with any cognitive parameter. Hence, despite considerable subjective cognitive problems, the burnout group showed only a partial, mild deviation in cognitive performance. A flatter diurnal cortisol profile was related to lower cognitive processing speed, but diurnal cortisol pattern and DST response were normal, suggesting a maintained HPA axis flexibility. PMID:18951245

Osterberg, K; Karlson, B; Hansen, A M

2009-01-01

258

Cognitive Expertise, Emotional Development and Reflective Capacity: Clinical Skills for Improved Pain Care  

PubMed Central

The overarching goal of medical training is to nurture the growth of knowledgeable, caring and insightful clinicians guided by the ideals of medical professionalism. Recent definitions of professional competence identify essential clinical skills, including cognitive expertise, emotional competence, and reflective capacity. This modern framework reflects the increasingly complex nature of the patient-clinician interaction, in which the clinician must exchange diagnostic information while supportively engaging the patient on a deeper, affective level. The affective dimension can be particularly potent when pain is the primary symptom, as it is for the majority of medical visits. Unfortunately, however, current models of professionalism, used as an early guide for medical trainees to develop an understanding of the clinical exchange, largely focus on interactions in the cognitive domain. To emphasize the importance of emotions in professional development, we propose the Cognitive and Emotional Preparedness Model (CEPM), which describes the clinical encounter occurring on two channels, one cognitive and the other emotional, and stresses the importance of multidimensional development in preparing the clinician to 1) communicate clinical information, 2) provide emotional support, and 3) actively reflect on experiences for continued improvement. Together, acquisition of knowledge, emotional development, and reflective skill will improve the clinical interaction. Perspective The proficiency of medical trainees in developing clinical skills profoundly shapes patient satisfaction and treatment outcomes. This article reviews the cognitive, emotional and reflective development of medical trainees and presents a model illustrating how clinical development impacts pain care. For improved efficacy, pain education should be calibrated to students' developmental needs. PMID:18984501

Murinson, Beth B.; Agarwal, Aakash K.; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.

2008-01-01

259

Rules for Leadership. Improving Unit Performance,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This book presents an original set of leadership rules to improve unit performance at all organizational levels. The work is designed to fill the considerable gap between the very position-specific, recipe-type lists of things you should do or not do in t...

J. W. Blades

1986-01-01

260

On Improving Thread Migration: Safety and Performance  

E-print Network

On Improving Thread Migration: Safety and Performance Hai Jiang1 and Vipin Chaudhary2 1 Institute. Application-level migration schemes have been paid more at- tention recently because of their great potential for heterogeneous migra- tion. But they are facing an obstacle that few migration-unsafe features in certain

Chaudhary, Vipin

261

A Paradigm Shift to Improve Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A shift to computer skills for improving academic performances was investigated. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 increased the amount of high school dropouts after the Act was enacted. At-risk students were included in this research study. Several models described using teachers for core subjects and mentors to built citizenship skills, along…

Rulloda, Rudolfo B.

2009-01-01

262

Reflective Practice for Performance Improvement Background Paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

translation of research findings into practice, for continuing education in the health and human services professions, and for performance improvement. A growing number of systematic studies and evaluations of the effectiveness of different forms of continuing education have consistently found that the 'academic model' of continuing education - based on lectures, texts, and didactic teaching - is ineffective in helping

Henry G. Heffernan SJ

263

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN IMPROVED STREET SWEEPER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an extensive evaluation of the Improved Street Sweeper (ISS) in Bellevue, WA, and in San Diego, CA. The cleaning performance of the ISS was compared with that of broom sweepers and a vacuum sweeper. The ISS cleaned streets better than the other sweeper...

264

Eliciting Self-Explanations Improves Children's Performance  

E-print Network

master this "translation" skill (Liben, 2006). In a review of the research literature on childrenEliciting Self-Explanations Improves Children's Performance on a Field-Based Map Skills Task Kim A To investigate children's ability to translate between the environment and an abstract representation, fourth

Kastens, Kim Anne

265

JSP Splitting for Improving Execution Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Splitting a JSP (JavaServer Pages) page into fragments can improve the execution performance of JSP pages when the Web application server can separately cache the Web page fragments obtained by executing the JSP fragments. If a JSP page is split into fragments according to the update frequency of each portion of the Web page obtained by executing the JSP page,

Takuya Nakaike; Goh Kondoh; Hiroaki Nakamura; Fumihiko Kitayama; Shin'ichi Hirose

2004-01-01

266

Improved Neurobehavioral Performance during the Wake Maintenance Zone  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Although impairment of daytime functioning is a symptom of many sleep disorders, there are limited data on their nature for some patient groups. The role of the circadian system on impaired functioning, specifically the wake maintenance zone (WMZ)—a ?3-h window of reduced sleep propensity that occurs shortly before the onset of melatonin synthesis—has received little attention. The study examined the influence of the WMZ on neurobehavioral performance under normal conditions and following sleep deprivation. Methods: Thirty-one adults (8 F; 18-29 y) completed an in-patient protocol including a baseline day (8-h sleep:16-h wake) and a ?50-h constant routine (CR), including regular assessment of plasma melatonin and neurobehavioral performance (i.e., auditory and visual psychomotor vigilance tests [aPVT, vPVT], Digit Symbol Substitution Test [DSST], and subjective sleepiness). Results: Performance in the 3 hours before the onset of melatonin secretion (i.e., the expected WMZ) was significantly improved compared to performance during a 3-hour block earlier in the biological day, despite a longer time awake. The improvement during WMZ was most prominent after extended wakefulness (i.e., day 2 of the CR). Conclusions: These results suggest that alignment of circa-dian phase with respect to sleep-wake timing may affect cognitive performance, particularly when homeostatic sleep pressure is high, and especially when performance is assessed in the evening, near the predicted WMZ. The potential contribution of the WMZ to sleep-onset insomnia complaints should be assessed further, using objective neurobehavioral testing and simultaneous circadian phase measurement. Citation: Shekleton JA; Rajaratnam SMW; Gooley JJ; Van Reen E; Czeisler CA; Lockley SW. Improved neurobehavioral performance during the wake maintenance zone. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(4):353-362. PMID:23585751

Shekleton, Julia A.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.; Gooley, Joshua J.; Van Reen, Eliza; Czeisler, Charles A.; Lockley, Steven W.

2013-01-01

267

Cognitive performance in schizophrenia patients assessed before and following the first psychotic episode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of this historical prospective study was to follow the cognitive impairment in schizophrenia from the premorbid period until shortly after the onset of the first psychotic episode within the same subjects. Methods: Forty-four first episode schizophrenia patients were enrolled in the study. Their cognitive performance was assessed as part of the Israeli Draft Board aptitude assessments at

Asaf Caspi; Abraham Reichenberg; Mark Weiser; Jonathan Rabinowitz; Ze'ev Kaplan; Haim Knobler; Noa Davidson-Sagi; Michael Davidson

2003-01-01

268

Performance on Middle School Geometry Problems with Geometry Clues Matched to Three Different Cognitive Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between 3 ability-based cognitive styles (verbal deductive, spatial imagery, and object imagery) and performance on geometry problems that provided different types of clues. The purpose was to determine whether students with a specific cognitive style outperformed other students, when the geometry problems…

Anderson, Karen L.; Casey, M. Beth; Thompson, William L.; Burrage, Marie S.; Pezaris, Elizabeth; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

2008-01-01

269

A Comparison of Sideline Versus Clinical Cognitive Test Performance in Collegiate Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To test whether performance on 5 cognitive tests administered in a controlled clinical environment differed com- pared with administration in an uncontrolled sideline environ- ment. Additionally, we investigated the effect of testing envi- ronment order on the learning effect for each cognitive test. Design and Setting: Athletes were assessed on 2 test occasions (8 6 2 days apart), once

James A. Onate; Kevin M. Guskiewicz; Bryan L. Riemann; William E. Prentice

270

Digital Game-Based Learning Supports Student Motivation, Cognitive Success, and Performance Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional multimedia learning is primarily based on the cognitive load concept of information processing theory. Recent digital game-based learning (DGBL) studies have focused on exploring content support for learning motivation and related game characteristics. Motivation, volition, and performance (MVP) theory indicates that cognitive load and…

Woo, Jeng-Chung

2014-01-01

271

Clock Drawing Performance and Brain Morphology in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a widely used instrument in the neuropsychological assessment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As CDT performance necessitates several cognitive functions (e.g., visuospatial and constructional abilities, executive functioning), an interaction of multiple brain regions is likely. Fifty-one subjects with mild cognitive

Thomann, Philipp A.; Toro, Pablo; Santos, Vasco Dos; Essig, Marco; Schroder, Johannes

2008-01-01

272

Effects of Bilingualism on Cognitive and Linguistic Performance across the Lifespan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present chapter reports the results of experiments examining the consequences of lifelong bilingualism on cognitive and linguistic performance. Typically, research has shown that bilingualism leads to disadvantages in linguistic ability but advantages in executive control, a crucial cognitive ability. These apparently contradictory results are summarized and examined in terms of a model in which both positive and negative outcomes

Ellen Bialystok

273

The Dynamic Nature of the Emotion-Cognition Link in Trapshooting Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emotion constitutes a fundamental dimension of human lives, determining the quality of life experiences, and organizing and guiding perceptions, thoughts and actions. Emotion is thought to interact with cognition to influence behavior in a variety of settings. Researchers in sport psychology are currently paying increased attention to the role of emotion in sport performance. The emotion-cognition link is a promising

Luis Manuel Santos Calmeiro

2006-01-01

274

The gender difference in distraction of background music and noise on the cognitive task performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the effect of background music and noise on the cognitive task performance and tested the gender difference. Ninety-one participants completed (53 female, 38 male) two kinds of cognitive tasks: one was simple task (perception task), the other was complex task (spatial reasoning task, which had two levels: easy & difficult). Participants were randomly assigned to one

Yang Jing; Shi Jing; Cai Huajian; Shen Chuangang; Lin Yan

2012-01-01

275

Association of Pulmonary Function with Cognitive Performance in Early, Middle and Late Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Pulmonary function has been associated with some measures of cognitive performance, mostly in late adulthood. This study investigated whether this association is present for a range of cognitive measures, at three stages of adulthood, and whether it remains after controlling for demographic, health and lifestyle factors. Method: The relationship between forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1), a measure

Kaarin J. Anstey; Timothy D. Windsor; Anthony F. Jorm; Helen Christensen; Bryan Rodgers

2004-01-01

276

Preclinical Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease Neuropsychological Test Performance 5 Years Before Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—Neuropsychological changes that precede a diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and the differences between preclinical VCI and Alzheimer disease (AD) are not well understood. We compared the neuropsychological performances of people with incident VCI, incident AD, and no cognitive impairment (NCI) 5 years before their clinical diagnoses. Methods—The Canadian Study of Health and Aging is a prospective,

Janet L. Ingles; Denise C. Boulton; John D. Fisk; Kenneth Rockwood

2010-01-01

277

Eur Heart J. Author manuscript History of coronary heart disease and cognitive performance in midlife: the  

E-print Network

Eur Heart J. Author manuscript Page /1 9 History of coronary heart disease and cognitive for this association. Coronary heart disease is a global problem, with the risk of disease shown to increase as12 heart disease (CHD) and cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. The evidence for this association

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

278

Anxiety, Processing Efficiency, and Cognitive Performance: New Developments from Attentional Control Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have been many attempts to account theoretically for the effects of anxiety on cognitive performance. This article focuses on two theories based on insights from cognitive psychology. The more recent is the attentional control theory (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, 2007), which developed from the earlier processing efficiency theory (Eysenck & Calvo, 1992). Both theories assume there is a

Nazanin Derakshan; Michael W. Eysenck

2009-01-01

279

Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on clinical, social, and cognitive performance in postpartum depression  

PubMed Central

Background: This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot study evaluated the impact of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on clinical, cognitive, and social performance in women suffering with postpartum depression. Methods: Fourteen patients were randomized to receive 20 sessions of sham rTMS or active 5 Hz rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Psychiatric clinical scales and a neuropsychological battery were applied at baseline (pretreatment), week 4 (end of treatment), and week 6 (follow-up, posttreatment week 2). Results: The active rTMS group showed significant improvement 2 weeks after the end of rTMS treatment (week 6) in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (P = 0.020), Global Assessment Scale (P = 0.037), Clinical Global Impression (P = 0.047), and Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report-Work at Home (P = 0.020). Conclusion: This study suggests that rTMS has the potential to improve the clinical condition in postpartum depression, while producing marginal gains in social and cognitive function. PMID:23118543

Myczkowski, Martin Luiz; Dias, Alvaro Machado; Luvisotto, Tatiana; Arnaut, Debora; Bellini, Bianca Boura; Mansur, Carlos Gustavo; Renno, Joel; Tortella, Gabriel; Ribeiro, Philip Leite; Marcolin, Marco Antonio

2012-01-01

280

Retrospective lifetime dietary patterns predict cognitive performance in community-dwelling older Australians.  

PubMed

Dietary intake is a modifiable exposure that may have an impact on cognitive outcomes in older age. The long-term aetiology of cognitive decline and dementia, however, suggests that the relevance of dietary intake extends across the lifetime. In the present study, we tested whether retrospective dietary patterns from the life periods of childhood, early adulthood, adulthood and middle age predicted cognitive performance in a cognitively healthy sample of 352 older Australian adults >65 years. Participants completed the Lifetime Diet Questionnaire and a battery of cognitive tests designed to comprehensively assess multiple cognitive domains. In separate regression models, lifetime dietary patterns were the predictors of cognitive factor scores representing ten constructs derived by confirmatory factor analysis of the cognitive test battery. All regression models were progressively adjusted for the potential confounders of current diet, age, sex, years of education, English as native language, smoking history, income level, apoE ?4 status, physical activity, other past dietary patterns and health-related variables. In the adjusted models, lifetime dietary patterns predicted cognitive performance in this sample of older adults. In models additionally adjusted for intake from the other life periods and mechanistic health-related variables, dietary patterns from the childhood period alone reached significance. Higher consumption of the 'coffee and high-sugar, high-fat extras' pattern predicted poorer performance on simple/choice reaction time, working memory, retrieval fluency, short-term memory and reasoning. The 'vegetable and non-processed' pattern negatively predicted simple/choice reaction time, and the 'traditional Australian' pattern positively predicted perceptual speed and retrieval fluency. Identifying early-life dietary antecedents of older-age cognitive performance contributes to formulating strategies for delaying or preventing cognitive decline. PMID:24709049

Hosking, Diane E; Nettelbeck, Ted; Wilson, Carlene; Danthiir, Vanessa

2014-07-01

281

Cognitively automated assembly processes: a simulation based evaluation of performance.  

PubMed

The numerical control of an experimental assembly cell with two robots--termed a cognitive control unit (CCU)--is able to simulate human information processing at a rule-based level of cognitive control. To enable the CCU to work on a large range of assembly tasks expected of a human operator, the cognitive architecture SOAR is used. The CCU can plan assembly processes autonomously and react to ad-hoc changes in assembly sequences effectively. Extensive simulation studies have shown that cognitive automation based on SOAR is especially suitable for random parts supply, which reduces planning effort in logistics. Conversely, a disproportional increase in processing time was observed for deterministic parts supply, especially for assemblies containing large numbers of identical parts. In this contribution, the effect of phase-shifts in deterministic part supply is investigated for assemblies containing maximal different parts. It can be shown that the concept of cognitive automation is as well suitable for these planning problems. PMID:22317246

Mayer, Marcel Ph; Odenthal, Barbara; Faber, Marco; Schlick, Christopher M

2012-01-01

282

Goal Setting: A Cognitive Model of Productivity Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses five ways to make goal setting effective: set difficult and specific goals, monitor results, reward performance, participate in goal setting, and challenge individual self-confidence and goal dissatisfaction. A model showing internal and environmental factors related to performance and a list of management strategies for enhancing…

Clark, Ruth Colvin

1985-01-01

283

Dynamic modulation of an orientation preference map by GABA responsible for age-related cognitive performance.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence suggests that cognitive declines in old (healthy) animals could arise from depression of intracortical inhibition, for which a decreased ability to produce GABA during senescence might be responsible. By simulating a neural network model of a primary visual cortical (V1) area, we investigated whether and how a lack of GABA affects cognitive performance of the network: detection of the orientation of a visual bar-stimulus. The network was composed of pyramidal (P) cells and GABAergic interneurons such as small (S) and large (L) basket cells. Intrasynaptic GABA-release from presynaptic S or L cells contributed to reducing ongoing-spontaneous (background) neuronal activity in a different manner. Namely, the former exerted feedback (S-to-P) inhibition and reduced the frequency (firing rate) of action potentials evoked in P cells. The latter reduced the number of saliently firing P cells through lateral (L-to-P) inhibition. Non-vesicular GABA-release, presumably from glia and/or neurons, into the extracellular space reduced the both, activating extrasynaptic GABAa receptors and providing P cells with tonic inhibitory currents. By this combinatorial, spatiotemporal inhibitory mechanism, the background activity as noise was significantly reduced, compared to the stimulus-evoked activity as signal, thereby improving signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Interestingly, GABA-spillover from the intrasynaptic cleft into the extracellular space was effective for improving orientation selectivity (orientation bias), especially when distractors interfered with detecting the bar-stimulus. These simulation results may provide some insight into how the depression of intracortical inhibition due to a reduction in GABA content in the brain leads to age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22990592

Miyamoto, Ai; Hasegawa, Jun; Hoshino, Osamu

2012-11-01

284

Using the Virtual Reality-Cognitive Rehabilitation Approach to Improve Contextual Processing in Children with Autism  

PubMed Central

Background. This pilot study investigated the efficacy of a novel virtual reality-cognitive rehabilitation (VR-CR) intervention to improve contextual processing of objects in children with autism. Previous research supports that children with autism show deficits in contextual processing, as well as deficits in its elementary components: abstraction and cognitive flexibility. Methods. Four children with autism participated in a multiple-baseline, single-subject study. The children were taught how to see objects in context by reinforcing attention to pivotal contextual information. Results. All children demonstrated statistically significant improvements in contextual processing and cognitive flexibility. Mixed results were found on the control test and changes in context-related behaviours. Conclusions. Larger-scale studies are warranted to determine the effectiveness and usability in comprehensive educational programs. PMID:24324379

Reid, Denise

2013-01-01

285

Metabolic Agents that Enhance ATP can Improve Cognitive Functioning: A Review of the Evidence for Glucose, Oxygen, Pyruvate, Creatine, and L-Carnitine  

PubMed Central

Over the past four or five decades, there has been increasing interest in the neurochemical regulation of cognition. This field received considerable attention in the 1980s, with the identification of possible cognition enhancing agents or “smart drugs”. Even though many of the optimistic claims for some agents have proven premature, evidence suggests that several metabolic agents may prove to be effective in improving and preserving cognitive performance and may lead to better cognitive aging through the lifespan. Aging is characterized by a progressive deterioration in physiological functions and metabolic processes. There are a number of agents with the potential to improve metabolic activity. Research is now beginning to identify these various agents and delineate their potential usefulness for improving cognition in health and disease. This review provides a brief overview of the metabolic agents glucose, oxygen, pyruvate, creatine, and L-carnitine and their beneficial effects on cognitive function. These agents are directly responsible for generating ATP (adenosine triphosphate) the main cellular currency of energy. The brain is the most metabolically active organ in the body and as such is particularly vulnerable to disruption of energy resources. Therefore interventions that sustain adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels may have importance for improving neuronal dysfunction and loss. Moreover, recently, it has been observed that environmental conditions and diet can affect transgenerational gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms. Metabolic agents might play a role in regulation of nutritional epigenetic effects. In summary, the reviewed metabolic agents represent a promising strategy for improving cognitive function and possibly slowing or preventing cognitive decline. PMID:22254121

Owen, Lauren; Sunram-Lea, Sandra I.

2011-01-01

286

Low pressure steam turbine thermal performance improvements  

SciTech Connect

The turbine thermal performance improvement program represents a pioneering effort by the Electric Power Research Institute to find practical, cost effective means to improve the heat rate of nuclear and fossil units by optimizing the blading elements and exhaust region of the turbine flowpath. Utilities who operate with worn or eroded flowpath components can now seek to offset a portion of the capital expense of purchasing new blade rows or diaphragms by replacing them with designs of improved efficiency. The approach developed as part of the EPRI-sponsored program is to analyze in detail the internal flow in stages and exhaust hoods with advanced 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) programs, and use this analysis as a basis for redesign of these components. These computational tools were not available to the turbine manufacturers when these units were originally designed. This paper outlines the approach currently being applied in EPRI Program RP3648-1 titled {open_quotes}Technology Development for Reducing Exhaust Hood Losses and Improving the Performance of Turbine Blades.{open_quotes} The approach is based on the combined application of full-scale field traverse tests with state-of-art computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The program goal is to develop the means for selecting practical strategies to improve blading efficiency and recover a portion of the exhaust energy within several commonly used exhaust hood designs. In each application, the CFD analysis is used to assess the potential payback versus cost of specific hood and/or blading modifications.

McCloskey, T. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Dewey, R.; Hesler, S. [Stress Technology Inc., Rochester, NY (United States)] [and others

1996-05-01

287

Brain antioxidant markers, cognitive performance and acetylcholinesterase activity of rats: efficiency of Sonchus asper  

PubMed Central

Background Sonchus asper (SA) is traditionally used as a folk medicine to treat mental disorders in Pakistan. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of polyphenolic rich methanolic fraction of SA on cognitive performance, brain antioxidant activities and acetylcholinesterase activity in male rats. Methods 30 male Sprague–Dawley rats were equally divided into three groups in this study. Animals of group I (control) received saline (vehicle), group II received SA (50 mg/kg) body weight (b.w.), and group III treated with SA (100 mg/kg b.w.,) orally in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) for 7 days. The effect of SA was checked on rat cognitive performance, brain antioxidatant and acetylcholinesterase activities. Evaluation of learning and memory was assessed by a step-through a passive avoidance test on day 6 after two habituation trials and an initial acquisition trial on day 5. Antioxidant potential was determined by measuring activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in whole-brain homogenates. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was determined by the colorimetric method. Results Results showed that 100 mg/kg b.w., SA treated rats exhibited a significant improvement in learning and memory (step-through latency time). SA administration reduced lipid peroxidation products and elevated glutathione levels in the SA100-treated group. Furthermore, salt and detergent soluble AChE activity was significantly decreased in both SA-treated groups. Short-term orally supplementation of SA showed significant cognitive enhancement as well as elevated brain antioxidant enzymes and inhibited AChE activity. Conclusion These findings stress the critical impact of Sonchus asper bioactive components on brain function. PMID:22591917

2012-01-01

288

Improving Wordspotting Performance with Limited Training Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis addresses the problem of limited training data in pattern detection problems where a small number of target classes must be detected in a varied background. There is typically limited training data and limited knowledge about class distributions in this type of spotting problem and in this case a statistical pattern classifier can not accurately model class distributions. The domain of wordspotting is used to explore new approaches that improve spotting system performance with limited training data. First, a high performance, state-of-the-art whole-word based wordspotter is developed. Two complementary approaches are then introduced to help compensate for the lack of data. Figure of Merit training, a new type of discriminative training algorithm, modifies the spotting system parameters according to the metric used to evaluate wordspotting systems. The effectiveness of discriminative training approaches may be limited due to overtraining a classifier on insufficient training data. While the classifier's performance on the training data improves, the classifier's performance on unseen test data degrades. To alleviate this problem, voice transformation techniques are used to generate more training examples that improve the robustness of the spotting system. The wordspotter is trained and tested on the Switchboard credit-card database, a database of spontaneous conversations recorded over the telephone. The baseline wordspotter achieves a Figure of Merit of 62.5% on a testing set. With Figure of Merit training, the Figure of Merit improves to 65.8%. When Figure of Merit training and voice transformations are used together, the Figure of Merit improves to 71.9%. The final wordspotter system achieves a Figure of Merit of 64.2% on the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) September 1992 official benchmark, surpassing the 1992 results from other whole-word based wordspotting systems. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253 -1690.).

Chang, Eric I.-Chao

1995-01-01

289

Cultural Factors Affecting the Differential Performance of Israeli and Palestinian Children on the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive performance is essential for children's functioning and may also predict school readiness. The suitability of Western standardized assessments for cognitive performance among children from different cultures needs to be elaborated. This study referred to the existence of differences in cognitive performance between and within children…

Josman, Naomi; Abdallah, Taisir M.; Engel-Yeger, Batya

2010-01-01

290

Improved plant performance through evaporative steam condensing  

SciTech Connect

Combining an open cooling tower and a steam condenser into one common unit is a proven technology with many advantages in power generation application, including reduced first cost of equipment, reduced parasitic energy consumption, simplified design, reduced maintenance, and simplified water treatment, Performance of the steam turbine benefits from the direct approach to wet bulb temperature, and operating flexibility and reliability improve compared to a system with a cooling tower and surface condenser. System comparisons and case histories will be presented to substantiate improved systems economies.

Hutton, D.

1998-07-01

291

Novel TRH analog improves motor and cognitive recovery after traumatic brain injury in rodents.  

PubMed

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and certain TRH analogs show substantial neuroprotective effects in experimental brain or spinal cord trauma but also have other physiological actions (autonomic, analeptic, and endocrine) that may be undesirable for the treatment of neurotrauma in humans. We developed a novel TRH analog (2-ARA-53a), with substitutions at the NH(2)-terminus and imidazole ring, that preserves the neuroprotective action of TRH-like compounds while decreasing or eliminating their autonomic, analeptic, and endocrine effects. Rats administered 2-ARA-53a (1.0 mg/kg, n = 17) intravenously 30 min after lateral fluid percussion brain injury showed marked improvement in motor recovery compared with vehicle-treated controls (n = 14). Treatment of mice subjected to moderate controlled cortical impact brain injury, at the same dose and time after trauma (n = 8), improved both motor recovery and cognitive performance in a water maze place learning task compared with vehicle-treated controls (n = 8). In injured rats, no autonomic or analeptic effects were observed with this compound, and endocrine effects were significantly reduced with 2-ARA-53a, in contrast to those found with a typical NH(2)-terminal-substituted TRH analog (YM-14673). These findings demonstrate that the neuroprotective effects of TRH-related compounds can be dissociated from their other major physiological actions and suggest a potential role for dual-substituted TRH analogs in the treatment of clinical neurotrauma. PMID:10516262

Faden, A I; Fox, G B; Fan, L; Araldi, G L; Qiao, L; Wang, S; Kozikowski, A P

1999-10-01

292

Cognitive correlates of cross-sectional differences and longitudinal changes in trail making performance  

PubMed Central

A total of 1,576 adults between 18 and 95 years of age performed a battery of cognitive tests and the Connections version of the trail making test twice, with an average interval between assessments of 2.5 years. Consistent with previous results, speed ability and fluid cognitive ability were strongly correlated with trail making performance. Neither speed nor fluid cognitive ability at the first occasion predicted longitudinal changes in trail making performance, but there were significant correlations between the changes in these abilities and the changes in trail making performance. These results indicate that individual differences in speed and fluid cognitive abilities are associated with individual differences in trail making performance both at a single point in time (cross-sectional differences), and in the changes over time (longitudinal changes). PMID:20865618

Salthouse, Timothy A.

2010-01-01

293

COGNITIVE MODELING AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING RUNWAY SAFETY Michael J. Schoelles  

E-print Network

COGNITIVE MODELING AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING RUNWAY SAFETY Michael J. Schoelles Wayne D. Gray Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, New York Runway incursions are low probability events resulting from, the development and evaluation of tools to reduce runway incursions are, ironically, hampered by the low incidence

Gray, Wayne

294

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels Improve Contrast  

E-print Network

(SNR) decreased ( p 0.05) at all tested contrasts (2­100%). Likewise, bath application of tetrodotoxinBehavioral/Systems/Cognitive Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels Improve Contrast Sensitivity potential and spike train of the ganglion cell, which may degrade its contrast sensitivity, and they may

Pennsylvania, University of

295

Training creative cognition: adolescence as a flexible period for improving creativity  

PubMed Central

Creativity commonly refers to the ability to generate ideas, solutions, or insights that are novel yet feasible. The ability to generate creative ideas appears to develop and change from childhood to adulthood. Prior research, although inconsistent, generally indicates that adults perform better than adolescents on the alternative uses task (AUT), a commonly used index of creative ideation. The focus of this study was whether performance could be improved by practicing alternative uses generation. We examined the effectiveness of creative ideation training in adolescents (13–16 years, N = 71) and adults (23–30 years, N = 61). Participants followed one of three types of training, each comprising eight 20-min practice sessions within 2 week time: (1) alternative uses generation (experimental condition: creative ideation); (2) object characteristic generation (control condition: general ideation); (3) rule-switching (control condition: rule-switching). Progression in fluency, flexibility, originality of creative ideation was compared between age-groups and training conditions. Participants improved in creative ideation and cognitive flexibility, but not in general ideation. Participants in all three training conditions became better in fluency and originality on the AUT. With regard to originality, adolescents benefitted more from training than adults, although this was not specific for the creative ideation training condition. These results are interpreted in relation to (a) the different underlying processes targeted in the three conditions and (b) developmental differences in brain plasticity with increased sensitivity to training in adolescents. In sum, the results show that improvement can be made in creative ideation and supports the hypothesis that adolescence is a developmental stage of increased flexibility optimized for learning and explorative behavior.

Stevenson, Claire E.; Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; de Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Crone, Eveline A.

2014-01-01

296

Clinical Significance of Cognitive Performance by Hypertensive Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Fifty-four subjects with uncomplicated essential hypertension and 54 normotensive subjects were compared with regard to a widely employed clinical index of cognitive dysfunction (the Average Impairment Rating) calculated from neuropsychologkal tests that discriminate between brain-damaged and neurologically normal persons. Hypertensive subjects exhibited lower mean scores on this index when education was ignored, but results were not the same for

MERRILL F. ELIAS; MICHAEL A. ROBBINS; NORMAN R. SCHULTZ; DAVID H. P. STREETEN; PENELOPE K. ELIAS

2010-01-01

297

Experimental Investigation of High Performance Cognitive and Interactive Text Filtering  

E-print Network

investigation of cognitive and inter- active text selection based on a history of user evalu- ations these rep- resentations to intelligently match messages to re- ceivers," while social ltering is based") relies on indi- rect evidence gathered by observing other users' re- actions to the texts they read

Oard, Doug

298

[Do practices of learning activities improve the cognitive functioning of healthy elderly adults? From the viewpoint of a transfer effect].  

PubMed

The present study examined influences of reading aloud and performing simple calculation on the cognitive functioning of healthy elderly adults, based on the findings that these tasks activated the prefrontal lobe. The elderly adults' memory and inhibitory functions were assesed by Short-Term memory, CST, Stroop, and SRC tasks, before and after intervention for 18 months. The study found that the learning group had significant improvement from the pre- to the post-test for the short-term memory, STM, CST, and Stroop tasks. On the other hand, there was significant decline over the 18 months in the control group which was given only the assessment tasks. These results are discussed in terms of the effectiveness of cognitive training. PMID:25016833

Yoshida, Hajime; Sun, Qin; Tsuchida, Noriaki; Ohkawa, Ichiro

2014-06-01

299

Social Cognitive Factors and Perceived Social Influences That Improve Adolescent eHealth Literacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

While adolescents are increasingly using the Internet for health information, little research has been done to assess and improve their “eHealth literacy”—the abilities to find, evaluate, and apply online health information. This study examines the extent to which adolescents' levels of eHealth literacy can be improved by known determinants such as social cognitive factors and perceived social influences, either independently

Hye-Jin Paek; Thomas Hove

2012-01-01

300

The cognitive performance of patients with multiple sclerosis during periods of high and low fatigue.  

E-print Network

The objective of this study was to examine whether multiple sclerosis (MS)-related fatigue affects patients' cognitive performance. Thirty patients who had substantial fatigue in conjunction with MS and who reported marked ...

Parmenter, Brett A.; Denney, Douglas R.; Lynch, Sharon G.

2003-03-01

301

Need for cognition, task difficulty, and the formation of performance expectancies.  

PubMed

In the present article, the authors analyze how performance expectancies are generated and how they affect actual performance. The authors predicted that task difficulty would affect performance expectancies only when cognitive motivation (i.e., need for cognition [NFC]) and cognitive capacity are high. This should be the case because analyzing task difficulty is a process requiring cognitive capacity as well as cognitive motivation. The findings supported the expected NFC x Difficulty interaction for the formation of performance expectancies (Study 1, Study 2), but only when cognitive capacity was high (Study 2). The authors also predicted that expectancies would affect actual performance only if the task is difficult and if task difficulty is taken into account when the expectancy is generated. This hypothesis was supported: Significant relations between performance expectancies and actual performance were found only for difficult tasks and for participants higher in NFC. Studies 5 and 6 showed clear evidence that the NFC x Difficulty interaction could not be explained by differences in the use of task-specific self-concepts. The findings were robust across academic, social, and physical tasks. PMID:19379036

Reinhard, Marc-André; Dickhäuser, Oliver

2009-05-01

302

TeLPI performance in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease: a validation study.  

PubMed

APA guidelines for the evaluation of age-related cognitive decline and dementia emphasize the need for baseline (premorbid) data against which current performance can be compared. As this information rarely exists, clinicians must rely on instruments especially designed for estimation of premorbid abilities. No such instrument was available in Portugal until the development of the TeLPI, an irregular words oral reading test. This study aims to examine TeLPI's validity as a measure of premorbid ability in the spectrum of aging cognitive decline, from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD), by the analysis of its stability in normal versus impaired samples. A total of 104 patients, classified into 2 clinical groups, MCI (n=53) and probable mild to moderate AD (n=51), were compared with a group of cognitively healthy controls (C_MCI: n=53; C_AD: n=51) and matched for sex, age, education, and residence. As expected, the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment results were significantly different between the groups (ADcognitive impairment. TeLPI median scores of controls, MCI, and probable AD patients were comparable after correcting for years of education, revealing no significant effect of cognitive impairment on TeLPI performance, and suggesting its validity for estimating premorbid intelligence in subjects with cognitive decline and dementia. PMID:23314065

Alves, Lara; Simões, Mário R; Martins, Cristina; Freitas, Sandra; Santana, Isabel

2013-01-01

303

Cognitive Performance in Rhesus Monkeys Varies by Sex and Prenatal Androgen Exposure  

PubMed Central

Men and women differ on performance and strategy on several spatial tasks. Rodents display similar sex differences, and manipulations of early hormone exposure alter the direction of these differences. However, most cognitive testing of nonhuman primates has utilized sample sizes too small to investigate sexually-differentiated behaviors. This study presents an investigation of sex differences and the effects of prenatal androgen on spatial memory and strategy use in rhesus monkeys. Monkeys prenatally exposed to vehicle, testosterone, or the androgen receptor blocker flutamide performed a search task in which 5 of 12 goal boxes contained food rewards. Spatial consistency and the presence of local landmarks were varied. Performance when both spatial and marker cues were available did not differ by sex or prenatal treatment. Contrary to predictions, females easily solved the task when local markers were removed, and their performance outscored males. Although eliminating spatial consistency and requiring subjects to use local markers impaired performance by all monkeys, females continued to locate correct goal boxes at higher than chance levels and scored better than males. Blocking prenatal androgen exposure in males improved use of local markers. These findings suggest that the tendency to attend to landmarks and to use them in solving spatial problems is typical of females across many species, including rodents, humans, and rhesus monkeys. In rhesus monkeys and rodents, developmental androgen eliminates this specialization. However, these results are the only known example of better performance of females than males when salient markers are removed. PMID:17335823

Herman, Rebecca A.; Wallen, Kim

2007-01-01

304

Relationship between fitness and cognitive performance in younger and older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive ageing. An extreme groups comparison design compared the performance of 24 young low-fitness adults, 24 young high-fitness adults, 24 older low-fitness adults and 24 older high-fitness adults on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. A series of ANCOVAs demonstrated that younger adults performed better than older adults on most cognitive tasks.

Rachel S. Newson; Eva B. Kemps

2008-01-01

305

A longitudinal study of cognitive performance during pregnancy and new motherhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a This longitudinal study examined the popular belief that cognitive performance is impaired during pregnancy. Both self-report\\u000a and objective test data on cognitive performance were collected on six occasions from three groups of women at three monthly\\u000a intervals. Ten women who initially planned a pregnancy, 18 women initially in the first trimester of pregnancy, and 24 non\\u000a pregnant controls completed

P. Casey

2000-01-01

306

Effect of 30% Oxygen Administration on Verbal Cognitive Performance, Blood Oxygen Saturation and Heart Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of 30% oxygen administration on verbal cognitive performance, blood oxygen saturation, and heart rate. Five male (24.6(±0.9) years) and five female (22.2(±1.9) years) college students were selected as the subjects for this study. Two psychological tests were developed to measure the performance level of verbal cognition. The experiment consisted of two runs: one was a

Soon-Cheol Chung; Sunao Iwaki; Gye-Rae Tack; Jeong-Han Yi; Ji-Hye You; Ji-Hun Kwon

2006-01-01

307

Declining Cognition and Falls: Role of Risky Performance of Everyday Mobility Activities  

PubMed Central

Background Declining cognition is a risk factor for falls among older adults. The extent to which impaired judgment in performance of daily activities increases fall risk is unclear. Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether engagement in mobility activities in a risky manner explains the association between declining cognition and rate of falls. Design This study was a secondary analysis of baseline and prospective data from older adults enrolled in the intervention arm of a randomized clinical trial. Methods Two hundred forty-five community-dwelling older adults (79% female; mean age=79 years, SD=8.0) who were at risk for falls received physical, cognitive, and functional evaluations. Cognition was assessed with the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). Using interview and in-home assessment data, physical therapists determined whether participants were at risk for falls when performing mobility-related activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL). Falls were measured prospectively for 1 year using monthly falls diaries. Results Declining cognition was associated with increased number of mobility activities designated as risky (1.5% of mobility activities performed in a risky manner per SPMSQ point) and with increased rate of falls (rate ratio=1.16 for each unit change in SPMSQ score). Risky performance of mobility activities mediated the relationship between cognition and rate of falls. Limitations Risk assessment was based on the clinical judgment of experienced physical therapists. Cognition was measured with a relatively insensitive instrument, and only selected mobility activities were evaluated. Conclusions Engagement in mobility ADL and IADL tasks in a risky manner emerged as a link between declining cognition and increased number of falls, suggesting a mechanism through which the rate of falls may increase. Specifically, declining cognition is associated with performance of mobility activities in an unsafe manner, thereby increasing the risk for falls. PMID:24231226

Gleason, Carey E.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Janczewski, Jodi; Shea, Terry; Mahoney, Jane E.

2014-01-01

308

Hypnotherapy and Test Anxiety: Two Cognitive-Behavioral Constructs. The Effects of Hypnosis in Reducing Test Anxiety and Improving Academic Achievement in College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-group randomized multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the effects of cognitive-behavioral hypnosis in reducing test anxiety and improving academic performance in comparison to a Hawthorne control group. Subjects were enrolled in a rigorous introductory psychology course which covered an entire text in one…

Sapp, Marty

309

Supported Employment Improves Cognitive Performance in Adults with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a supported employment programme on measures of executive functions for 44 adults with autism, assessed at the beginning and the end of the programme period. The average length of time of the community employment was 30 months. Methods: Based on their predominant work activity…

Garca-Villamisar, D.; Hughes, C.

2007-01-01

310

Fuzzy Cognitive Maps in Banking Business Process Performance Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper addresses the problem of designing an “intelligent” decision support methodology tool to act as a back end to financial\\u000a planning. The methodology tool proposes a novel approach to supplementing typical financial strategy formulation projects\\u000a by utilizing the fuzzy causal characteristics of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) to generate a hierarchical and dynamic network\\u000a of interconnected profit and loss (P&L)

George Xirogiannis; Michael Glykas; Christos Staikouras

311

Mind over Matter: Reappraising Arousal Improves Cardiovascular and Cognitive Responses to Stress  

PubMed Central

Researchers have theorized that changing the way we think about our bodily responses can improve our physiological and cognitive reactions to stressful events. However, the underlying processes through which mental states improve downstream outcomes are not well-understood. To this end, we examined whether reappraising stress-induced arousal could improve cardiovascular outcomes and decrease attentional bias for emotionally-negative information. Participants were randomly assigned to either a reappraisal condition in which they were instructed to think about their physiological arousal during a stressful task as functional and adaptive, or to one of two control conditions: attention reorientation and no instructions. Relative to controls, participants instructed to reappraise their arousal exhibited more adaptive cardiovascular stress responses – increased cardiac efficiency and lower vascular resistance – and decreased attentional bias. Thus, reappraising arousal shows physiological and cognitive benefits. Implications for health and potential clinical applications are discussed. PMID:21942377

Jamieson, Jeremy P.; Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

2012-01-01

312

Mind over matter: reappraising arousal improves cardiovascular and cognitive responses to stress.  

PubMed

Researchers have theorized that changing the way we think about our bodily responses can improve our physiological and cognitive reactions to stressful events. However, the underlying processes through which mental states improve downstream outcomes are not well understood. To this end, we examined whether reappraising stress-induced arousal could improve cardiovascular outcomes and decrease attentional bias for emotionally negative information. Participants were randomly assigned to either a reappraisal condition in which they were instructed to think about their physiological arousal during a stressful task as functional and adaptive, or to 1 of 2 control conditions: attention reorientation and no instructions. Relative to controls, participants instructed to reappraise their arousal exhibited more adaptive cardiovascular stress responses-increased cardiac efficiency and lower vascular resistance-and decreased attentional bias. Thus, reappraising arousal shows physiological and cognitive benefits. Implications for health and potential clinical applications are discussed. PMID:21942377

Jamieson, Jeremy P; Nock, Matthew K; Mendes, Wendy Berry

2012-08-01

313

Cognitive skills and literacy performance of Chinese adolescents with and without dyslexia.  

PubMed

The present study sought to identify cognitive abilities that might distinguish Hong Kong Chinese adolescents with dyslexia and to assess how these abilities were associated with Chinese word reading, word dictation, and reading comprehension. The cognitive skills of interest were morphological awareness, visual-orthographic knowledge, rapid naming, and verbal working memory. A total of 90 junior secondary school students, 30 dyslexic, 30 chronological age controls, and 30 reading level controls was tested on a range of cognitive and literacy tasks. Dyslexic students were less competent than the control students in all cognitive and literacy measures. The regression analyses also showed that verbal working memory, rapid naming, morphological awareness, and visual-orthographic knowledge were significantly associated with literacy performance. Findings underscore the importance of these cognitive skills for Chinese literacy acquisition. Overall, this study highlights the persistent difficulties of Chinese dyslexic adolescents who seem to have multiple causes for reading and spelling difficulties. PMID:21841896

Chung, Kevin K H; Ho, Connie S-H; Chan, David W; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han

2011-08-01

314

Residual Negative Symptoms Differentiate Cognitive Performance in Clinically Stable Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits in various domains have been shown in patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The purpose of the present study was to examine if residual psychopathology explained the difference in cognitive function between clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We compared the performance on tests of attention, visual and verbal memory, and executive function of 25 patients with schizophrenia in remission and 25 euthymic bipolar disorder patients with that of 25 healthy controls. Mediation analysis was used to see if residual psychopathology could explain the difference in cognitive function between the patient groups. Both patient groups performed significantly worse than healthy controls on most cognitive tests. Patients with bipolar disorder displayed cognitive deficits that were milder but qualitatively similar to those of patients with schizophrenia. Residual negative symptoms mediated the difference in performance on cognitive tests between the two groups. Neither residual general psychotic symptoms nor greater antipsychotic doses explained this relationship. The shared variance explained by the residual negative and cognitive deficits that the difference between patient groups may be explained by greater frontal cortical neurophysiological deficits in patients with schizophrenia, compared to bipolar disorder. Further longitudinal work may provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie these deficits. PMID:25024847

Ramanathan, Seethalakshmi; Wong, Eugene; Nayak, Ajita; Moore, Brian

2014-01-01

315

Comment: Performance improvement with computer training in Parkinson disease.  

PubMed

Computer-based memory and attention training methods improve episodic recall in older adults who have amnestic mild cognitive impairment.(1,2) Memory and attention are highly interactive and interdependent processes due to their shared circuitry. The cognitive benefits of computer-based memory training appear to persist for at least 6 months.(1) Traditional cognitive training programs are administered by professionals and may cost as much as $15 to $100 an hour, depending on the educational level of the staff member who delivers the training.(2) More cost-effective methods of computer-based memory training are needed. In the study by Zimmermann et al.(3) on patients with Parkinson disease (PD), 2 types of computer training were compared: a specific cognitive training method (CogniPlus) and a nonspecific method, Nintendo Wii, a game console. PMID:24623844

Hershey, Linda A

2014-04-01

316

Integrated treatment approach improves cognitive function in demented and clinically depressed patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an integrative treatment approach on cognitive performance. The study sample comprised 35 medically ill patients (20 male, 15 female) with an average age of 71.05, who were diagnosed with mild dementia and depression. These patients were evaluated at baseline and at six, 12, and 24 months of treatment, which

Valentin Bragin; Marina Chemodanova; Narmina Dzhafarova; Ilya Bragin; Jennifer L. Czerniawski; Gjumrakch Aliev

2005-01-01

317

Does Methylphenidate Improve Inhibition and Other Cognitive Abilities in Adults with Childhood-Onset ADHD?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of methylphenidate (Mph) on inhibition and several other cognitive abilities in 43 adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by use of Conners’ Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and the Change Task (ChT), an extension of the Stop Signal Test (SST). In a double blind, cross-over, placebo controlled study with Mph, tests were administered during the third

A. Marije Boonstra; J. J. Sandra Kooij; Jaap Oosterlaan; Joseph A. Sergeant; Jan K. Buitelaar

2005-01-01

318

Frequency of and risk factors for poor cognitive performance in hemodialysis patients  

PubMed Central

Objective: There are few detailed data on cognition in patients undergoing dialysis. We evaluated the frequency of and risk factors for poor cognitive performance using detailed neurocognitive testing. Methods: In this cross-sectional cohort study, 314 hemodialysis patients from 6 Boston-area hemodialysis units underwent detailed cognitive assessment. The neuropsychological battery assessed a broad range of functions, with established age-, sex-, and education-matched normative scores. Principal component analysis was used to derive composite scores for memory and executive function domains. Risk factors for each domain were evaluated using linear regression adjusting for age, sex, race, and education status. Analyses were repeated in those with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score ?24. Results: Compared with population norms, patients on dialysis had significantly poorer executive function but not memory performance, a finding that persisted in the subgroup with MMSE score ?24. In adjusted analyses, vascular risk factors and vascular disease were associated with lower executive function (p < 0.01). Conclusions: There is a high frequency of poor cognitive performance in hemodialysis patients, primarily affecting executive function. Risk factors for worse executive function include vascular risk factors as well as vascular disease. Normal performance on the MMSE does not preclude impaired cognitive function, because individuals with MMSE score ?24 also have a high frequency of poor cognitive performance. PMID:23303848

Sarnak, Mark J.; Tighiouart, Hocine; Scott, Tammy M.; Lou, Kristina V.; Sorensen, Eric P.; Giang, Lena M.; Drew, David A.; Shaffi, Kamran; Strom, James A.; Singh, Ajay K.; Weiner, Daniel E.

2013-01-01

319

Longitudinal change in neuropsychological performance using latent growth models: a study of mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

The goal of the current study was to examine cognitive change in both healthy controls (n?=?229) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n?=?397) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). We applied latent growth modeling to examine baseline and longitudinal change over 36 months in five cognitive factors derived from the ADNI neuropsychological test battery (memory, executive function/processing speed, language, attention and visuospatial). At baseline, MCI patients demonstrated lower performance on all of the five cognitive factors when compared to controls. Both controls and MCI patients declined on memory over 36 months; however, the MCI patients declined at a significantly faster rate than controls. The MCI patients also declined over 36 months on the remaining four cognitive factors. In contrast, the controls did not exhibit significant change over 36 months on the non-memory cognitive factors. Within the MCI group, executive function declined faster than memory, while the other factor scores changed slower than memory over time. These findings suggest different patterns of cognitive change in healthy older adults and MCI patients. The findings also suggest that, when compared with memory, executive function declines faster than other cognitive factors in patients with MCI. Thus, decline in non-memory domains may be an important feature for distinguishing healthy older adults and persons with MCI. PMID:22562439

Johnson, Julene K; Gross, Alden L; Pa, Judy; McLaren, Donald G; Park, Lovingly Quitania; Manly, Jennifer J

2012-12-01

320

Motor and cognitive performance differences between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD).  

PubMed

The current study adopts the PASS theory of information processing to investigate the probable differences in specific motor and cognitive abilities between children with and without developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Participants were 108 5- and 6-year-old preschoolers (54 children with DCD and 54 children without DCD). The Movement Assessment Battery for Children assessed motor function. Running speed and agility were measured using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency. Finally, the Planning, Attention and Simultaneous Scales from the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System evaluated cognitive ability. Children with DCD differed significantly from those without DCD performing at a lower level on all motor and cognitive tasks. A correlation analysis revealed significant relationships between cognitive processes and motor skills. Simultaneous cognitive processing and manual dexterity were significantly correlated for both groups. Furthermore, a significant relationship was revealed between planning cognitive processing and balance for the non-DCD group. Thus, early assessment might identify specific cognitive-motor difficulties. Furthermore, early intervention might prevent some of the developmental comorbidities in the academic and everyday lives of children with movement difficulties. PMID:22502823

Asonitou, Katerina; Koutsouki, Dimitra; Kourtessis, Thomas; Charitou, Sofia

2012-01-01

321

Improving Learning Performance Through Rational Resource Allocation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article shows how rational analysis can be used to minimize learning cost for a general class of statistical learning problems. We discuss the factors that influence learning cost and show that the problem of efficient learning can be cast as a resource optimization problem. Solutions found in this way can be significantly more efficient than the best solutions that do not account for these factors. We introduce a heuristic learning algorithm that approximately solves this optimization problem and document its performance improvements on synthetic and real-world problems.

Gratch, J.; Chien, S.; DeJong, G.

1994-01-01

322

Methods and apparatus for improving sensor performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods and apparatus for improving performance of a sensor having a sensor proof mass elastically suspended at an initial equilibrium position by a suspension force, provide a tunable force opposing that suspension force and preset the proof mass with that tunable force to a second equilibrium position less stable than the initial equilibrium position. The sensor is then operated from that preset second equilibrium position of the proof mass short of instability. The spring constant of the elastic suspension may be continually monitored, and such continually monitored spring constant may be continually adjusted to maintain the sensor at a substantially constant sensitivity during its operation.

Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor); Reynolds, Joseph K. (Inventor); Van Zandt, Thomas R. (Inventor); Waltman, Steven B. (Inventor)

1993-01-01

323

Improved multimodal biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment diagnosis: data from ADNI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) confers many clinical research and patient care benefits. Studies have shown that multimodal biomarkers provide better diagnosis accuracy of AD and MCI than unimodal biomarkers, but their construction has been based on traditional statistical approaches. The objective of this work was the creation of accurate AD and MCI diagnostic multimodal biomarkers using advanced bioinformatics tools. The biomarkers were created by exploring multimodal combinations of features using machine learning techniques. Data was obtained from the ADNI database. The baseline information (e.g. MRI analyses, PET analyses and laboratory essays) from AD, MCI and healthy control (HC) subjects with available diagnosis up to June 2012 was mined for case/controls candidates. The data mining yielded 47 HC, 83 MCI and 43 AD subjects for biomarker creation. Each subject was characterized by at least 980 ADNI features. A genetic algorithm feature selection strategy was used to obtain compact and accurate cross-validated nearest centroid biomarkers. The biomarkers achieved training classification accuracies of 0.983, 0.871 and 0.917 for HC vs. AD, HC vs. MCI and MCI vs. AD respectively. The constructed biomarkers were relatively compact: from 5 to 11 features. Those multimodal biomarkers included several widely accepted univariate biomarkers and novel image and biochemical features. Multimodal biomarkers constructed from previously and non-previously AD associated features showed improved diagnostic performance when compared to those based solely on previously AD associated features.

Martinez-Torteya, Antonio; Treviño-Alvarado, Víctor; Tamez-Peña, José

2013-02-01

324

Less is (sometimes) more in cognitive engineering: the role of automation technology in improving patient safety  

PubMed Central

?? There is a tendency to assume that medical error can be stamped out by automation. Technology may improve patient safety, but cognitive engineering research findings in several complex safety critical systems, including both aviation and health care, show that more is not always better. Less sophisticated technological systems can sometimes lead to better performance than more sophisticated systems. This "less is more" effect arises because safety critical systems are open systems where unanticipated events are bound to occur. In these contexts, decision support provided by a technological aid will be less than perfect because there will always be situations that the technology cannot accommodate. Designing sophisticated automation that suggests an uncertain course of action seems to encourage people to accept the imperfect advice, even though information to decide independently on a better course of action is available. It may be preferable to create more modest designs that merely provide feedback about the current state of affairs or that critique human generated solutions than to rush to automate by creating sophisticated technological systems that recommend (fallible) courses of action. PMID:12897363

Vicente, K

2003-01-01

325

Neurocognitive monitors: toward the prevention of cognitive performance decrements and catastrophic failures in the operational environment.  

PubMed

Network-centric doctrine and the proposed C41SR (command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance) distributions to the individual warfighter require that the cognitive performance, judgment, and decision making of warfighters must be sustained and effectively managed in the forward operating environment, where various physiological and psychological stressors abound, in order to reduce human errors and catastrophic failures. The U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC) established the Cognitive Performance, Judgment, and Decision-Making Research Program (CPJDRP) in 2004 to direct research to this issue. A Neurophysiological Measures and Cognition Focus Team (NMFCT) was formed to work with augmented cognition investigators and to specifically address the development of neurophysiological measures as potential monitors of alertness-cognitive state in warfighters. The USAM-RMC approach complemented the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Augmented Cognition approach, which focused on the detection of workload-related impaired cognitive state, and subsequent modification of information flow through automation. In this preface, the premise for neurophysiological measures as neurocognitive monitors is explained using an example of a neurophysiological index: the oculomotor measure, saccadic velocity. The progress of the NMFCT on the development of a neurocognitive monitor is described, as well as the recommendations of a 2005 USAMRMC/Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC)-sponsored workshop. Awareness of neurocognitive monitoring is discussed, as are future endeavors related to operational testing and fieldability. Four papers are summarized in this Neurophysiological Monitoring and Augmented Cognition section involving technologies to enhance cognitive performance in the operational environment: one on dynamic cortical electroencephalography, two on oculometrics, and one on a spatial orientation enhancement system. PMID:17547315

Thomas, Maria L; Russo, Michael B

2007-05-01

326

Methylphenidate improves the behavioral and cognitive deficits of neurogranin knockout mice.  

PubMed

Neurogranin (Ng), a brain-specific calmodulin-binding protein, is expressed highly in hippocampus, and is important for cognitive function. Deletion of the Ng gene from mice caused attenuation of signal reaction cascade in hippocampus, impairments in learning and memory and high frequency stimulation-induced long-term potentiation (LTP). Environmental enrichment alone failed to improve cognitive function. In this study, behavioral testing revealed that Ng knockout (NgKO) mice were both hyperactive and socially withdrawn. Methylphenidate (MPH) was given to mice while they were also kept under an enrichment condition. MPH treatment reduced the hyperactivity of NgKO mice tested in both the open field and forced swim chamber. MPH improved their social abilities such that mice recognized and interacted better with novel subjects. The cognitive memories of MPH-treated mutants were improved in both water maze and contextual fear conditioning tests. High frequency stimulation-induced LTP of NgKO mice was also improved by MPH. The present treatment regimen, however, did not fully reverse the deficits of the mutant mice. In contrast, MPH exerted only a minimal effect on the wild type mice. At the cellular level, MPH increased the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells in hippocampus, particularly within the dentate gyrus of NgKO mice. Therefore it will be of interest to determine the nature of MPH-mediated astrocyte activation and how it may modulate behavior in future studies. Taken together these NgKO mice may be useful for the development of better drug treatment to improve cognitive and behavioral impairments. PMID:22809330

Huang, F L; Huang, K-P

2012-10-01

327

Social cognitive factors and perceived social influences that improve adolescent eHealth literacy.  

PubMed

While adolescents are increasingly using the Internet for health information, little research has been done to assess and improve their "eHealth literacy"-the abilities to find, evaluate, and apply online health information. This study examines the extent to which adolescents' levels of eHealth literacy can be improved by known determinants such as social cognitive factors and perceived social influences, either independently or jointly. Among 182 middle-schoolers, an eHealth literacy intervention was carried out. It involved qualitative and quantitative baseline research, three online training sessions, and a postintervention survey. According to hierarchical regression model results, social cognitive factors of outcome expectations and involvement, but not health motivation, significantly improved eHealth literacy, and all the perceived social influence variables significantly improved eHealth literacy. However, no joint effect of social cognitive factors and perceived social influences was found. In light of these findings, educators need to make eHealth literacy programs personally relevant to adolescents and reinforce local social norms about the importance of seeking health information online. PMID:22452551

Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas

2012-01-01

328

Cost and performance: complements for improvement.  

PubMed

Activity-based costing (ABC) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) share similar views of resource consumption in the production of outputs. While DEA has a high level focus typically using aggregated data in the form of inputs and outputs, ABC is more detailed and oriented around very disaggregated data. We use a case study of immunisation activities in 24 New Zealand primary care practices to illustrate how DEA and ABC can be used in conjunction to improve performance analysis and benchmarking. Results show that practice size, socio-economic environment, parts of the service delivery process as well as regular administrative tasks are major cost and performance drivers for general practices in immunisation activities. It is worth noting that initial analyses of the ABC results, using contextual information and conventional methods of analysis such as regression and correlations, did not result in any patterns of significance. Reorganising this information using the DEA efficiency scores has revealed trends that make sense to practitioners and provide insights into where to place efforts for improvement. PMID:20703677

Rouse, Paul; Harrison, Julie; Turner, Nikki

2011-10-01

329

Expectancy effect: impact of pill administration on cognitive performance in healthy seniors.  

PubMed

Expectancy or placebo effects on cognitive function have not been well studied. To determine the effect of taking pills on cognitive function, 40 participants were randomly assigned to a pill or no-pill condition. Healthy seniors who took a 2-week supply of methylcellulose pills, which they were told was an experimental cognitive enhancer, were compared to seniors not taking any pills. There were 2 primary outcome measures defined prior to the study-Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) Word List delayed recall and Stroop color word task time-as well as 7 other cognitive outcome measures. There was a significant effect of pill taking on the 2 primary outcome measures. There was also an effect of pill taking on choice reaction time and Word List immediate recall but not on the other 5 secondary cognitive outcome measures. In an exploratory analysis of potential predictors of the expectancy effect, perceived stress and self-efficacy but not personality traits interacted with the pill-taking effect on cognitive function. Further characterizing and understanding this observed expectancy effect is important to maximize cognitive health and improve clinical trial design. PMID:18165936

Oken, Barry S; Flegal, Kristin; Zajdel, Daniel; Kishiyama, Shirley; Haas, Mitchell; Peters, Dawn

2008-01-01

330

Cognitive complaints in closed-head injury: Relationship to memory test performance and emotional disturbance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-appraisal of cognitive difficulties by a sample of 63 male patients with closed-head injury (CHI) was examined in relation to their performance on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R; Wechsler, 1987), WA1S-R Digit Span (Wechsler, 1981), and to their scores on MMP1–2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) measures of anxiety and depression. In an initial step, the Cognitive Difficulties

Carlton S. Gass; Christine Apple

1997-01-01

331

The Association between Depressive Mood and Cognitive Performance in an Elderly General Population – The MEMO Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of the severity of depressive symptoms on different domains of cognitive function in the elderly. In a population-based cross-sectional study, 385 participants aged 65–83 years were interviewed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and performed a standardized neuropsychological test assessing attention, memory, cognitive speed and motor function.

Bernhard T. Baune; Thomas Suslow; Almut Engelien; Volker Arolt; Klaus Berger

2006-01-01

332

PIMM: A Performance Improvement Measurement Methodology  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a Performance Improvement Measurement Methodology (PIMM) for measuring and reporting the mission performance for organizational elements of the U.S. Department of Energy to comply with the Chief Financial Officer`s Act (CFOA) of 1990 and the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) of 1993. The PIMM is illustrated by application to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), a Research, Development and Demonstration (RD&D) field center of the Office of Fossil Energy, along with limited applications to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Office and the Office of Fossil Energy. METC is now implementing the first year of a pilot project under GPRA using the PIMM. The PIMM process is applicable to all elements of the Department; organizations may customize measurements to their specific missions. The PIMM has four aspects: (1) an achievement measurement that applies to any organizational element, (2) key indicators that apply to institutional elements, (3) a risk reduction measurement that applies to all RD&D elements and to elements with long-term activities leading to risk-associated outcomes, and (4) a cost performance evaluation. Key Indicators show how close the institution is to attaining long range goals. Risk reduction analysis is especially relevant to RD&D. Product risk is defined as the chance that the product of new technology will not meet the requirements of the customer. RD&D is conducted to reduce technology risks to acceptable levels. The PIMM provides a profile to track risk reduction as RD&D proceeds. Cost performance evaluations provide a measurement of the expected costs of outcomes relative to their actual costs.

Not Available

1994-05-15

333

Temporal patterns of improvement in client-centred therapy and cognitive-behaviour therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychotherapy's equivalence paradox refers to clients achieving similar degrees of overall improvement in different treatment approaches, despite the non-equivalent processes. The current intensive qualitative study described and compared how different processes brought about their respective outcomes in one case of client-centred therapy (CCT) and one of cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT). The assimilation model of psychotherapeutic change was used to compare processes

Katerine Osatuke; Meredith J. Glick; William B. Stiles; Leslie S. Greenberg; David A. Shapiro; Michael Barkham

2005-01-01

334

Impact of an integrated mindfulness and cognitive behavioural treatment for provoked vestibulodynia (IMPROVED): a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provoked Vestibulodynia (PVD) is a chronic pain condition involving sharp pain to the vulvar vestibule. Because of compelling outcomes using mindfulness-based approaches in the treatment of chronic pain, we developed and tested a four-session mindfulness and cognitive behavioural therapy tailored to women with PVD (called “IMPROVED”). Here we report on the experiences of 14 women (mean age 39.6 years) following

Lori A. Brotto; Rosemary Basson; Marie Carlson; Cici Zhu

2012-01-01

335

Sleep and cognitive performance: The role of income and respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity.  

PubMed

A health disparities view suggests that low family income status acts as a risk factor for poor cognitive functioning. A biosystems view suggests that poor sleep and poor stress response system functioning are also risk factors. These views are rarely integrated to test multiplicative risk or protective effects from social-cultural and biological variables. We investigated interactions among familial income, children's sleep and respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity (RSA reactivity, indexing parasympathetic nervous system reactivity) in the prediction of cognitive performance of school-aged children. Participants were 282 children (146 boys; 35% African American and 65% European American; M age?=?9.42 years, SD?=?.71). Mothers reported on family income. Children's sleep quality (efficiency) and duration (minutes) were assessed via a week of actigraphy. Children's RSA reactivity to an attention demanding and frustrating star tracing challenge was assessed in the lab. Children completed standardized cognitive assessments examining attention, processing speed, and crystallized cognitive functioning. Findings show that more optimal sleep efficiency and RSA reactivity interact to confer protection against poor cognitive performance, particularly for children from lower income homes. Results build on the literature and suggest that interactions between biological systems and socioeconomic variables are key for understanding children's cognitive performance. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 56: 1528-1540, 2014. PMID:25130163

Staton, Lori; Hinnant, J Benjamin; Buckhalt, Joseph; El-Sheikh, Mona

2014-11-01

336

Dejian Mind-Body Intervention Improves the Cognitive Functions of a Child with Autism  

PubMed Central

There has been increasing empirical evidence for the enhancing effects of Dejian Mind-Body Intervention (DMBI), a traditional Chinese Shaolin healing approach, on human frontal brain activity/functions, including patients with autism who are well documented to have frontal lobe problems. This study aims to compare the effects of DMBI with a conventional behavioural/cognitive intervention (CI) on enhancing the executive functions and memory of a nine-year-old boy with low-functioning autism (KY) and to explore possible underlying neural mechanism using EEG theta cordance. At post-one-month DMBI, KY's inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and memory functioning have significantly improved from “severely-to-moderately impaired” to “within-normal” range. This improvement was not observed from previous 12-month CI. Furthermore, KY showed increased cordance gradually extending from the anterior to the posterior brain region, suggesting possible neural mechanism underlying his cognitive improvement. These findings have implicated potential applicability of DMBI as a rehabilitation program for patients with severe frontal lobe and/or memory disorders. PMID:21584249

Chan, Agnes S.; Sze, Sophia L.; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Han, Yvonne M. Y.; Leung, Winnie W. M.; Shi, Dejian

2011-01-01

337

Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks: Performance Evaluation and Optimization  

E-print Network

This paper studies cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks where secondary users collect local energy statistics and report their findings to a secondary base station, i.e., a fusion center. First, the average error probability is quantitively analyzed to capture the dynamic nature of both observation and fusion channels, assuming fixed amplifier gains for relaying local statistics to the fusion center. Second, the system level overhead of cooperative spectrum sensing is addressed by considering both the local processing cost and the transmission cost. Local processing cost incorporates the overhead of sample collection and energy calculation that must be conducted by each secondary user; the transmission cost accounts for the overhead of forwarding the energy statistic computed at each secondary user to the fusion center. Results show that when jointly designing the number of collected energy samples and transmission amplifier gains, only one secondary user needs to be actively engaged in sp...

Xiong, Gang; Yener, Aylin

2012-01-01

338

MEMS Actuators for Improved Performance and Durability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) devices take advantage of force-scaling at length scales smaller than a millimeter to sense and interact with directly with phenomena and targets at the microscale. MEMS sensors found in everyday devices like cell-phones and cars include accelerometers, gyros, pressure sensors, and magnetic sensors. MEMS actuators generally serve more application specific roles including micro- and nano-tweezers used for single cell manipulation, optical switching and alignment components, and micro combustion engines for high energy density power generation. MEMS rotary motors are actuators that translate an electric drive signal into rotational motion and can serve as rate calibration inputs for gyros, stages for optical components, mixing devices for micro-fluidics, etc. Existing rotary micromotors suffer from friction and wear issues that affect lifetime and performance. Attempts to alleviate friction effects include surface treatment, magnetic and electrostatic levitation, pressurized gas bearings, and micro-ball bearings. The present work demonstrates a droplet based liquid bearing supporting a rotary micromotor that improves the operating characteristics of MEMS rotary motors. The liquid bearing provides wear-free, low-friction, passive alignment between the rotor and stator. Droplets are positioned relative to the rotor and stator through patterned superhydrophobic and hydrophilic surface coatings. The liquid bearing consists of a central droplet that acts as the motor shaft, providing axial alignment between rotor and stator, and satellite droplets, analogous to ball-bearings, that provide tip and tilt stable operation. The liquid bearing friction performance is characterized through measurement of the rotational drag coefficient and minimum starting torque due to stiction and geometric effects. Bearing operational performance is further characterized by modeling and measuring stiffness, environmental survivability, and high-speed alignment capability. The superhydrophobic coatings developed for droplet containment are also discussed and measurements of contact angle are shown to affect device performance through correlation to models of bearing friction and stiffness.

Yearsley, James M.

339

A High-Performance Approach to Model Calibration and Validation Keywords: model validation, cognitive models, behavior moderators, genetic algorithms  

E-print Network

), a set of alternative knowledge-based cognitive architectures (ACT-R, Soar/Epic, DCOG, and iGEN) were, cognitive models, behavior moderators, genetic algorithms ABSTRACT: A new model validation approach algorithms to fit cognitive models to human performance data. The efficiency, accuracy, and non

Ritter, Frank

340

CF6 Jet Engine Performance Improvement Program: High Pressure Turbine Aerodynamic Performance Improvement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The improved single shank high pressure turbine design was evaluated in component tests consisting of performance, heat transfer and mechanical tests, and in core engine tests. The instrumented core engine test verified the thermal, mechanical, and aeromechanical characteristics of the improved turbine design. An endurance test subjected the improved single shank turbine to 1000 simulated flight cycles, the equivalent of approximately 3000 hours of typical airline service. Initial back-to-back engine tests demonstrated an improvement in cruise sfc of 1.3% and a reduction in exhaust gas temperature of 10 C. An additional improvement of 0.3% in cruise sfc and 6 C in EGT is projected for long service engines.

Fasching, W. A.

1980-01-01

341

Exploring Positive and Negative Affect as Key Indicators of Life Satisfaction among Centenarians: Does Cognitive Performance Matter?  

PubMed Central

The aim of this investigation was to determine how cognitive performance was associated with positive and negative affect and life satisfaction over time. This study involved a secondary longitudinal analysis of cross-section data collected at Phase I (1988–1992) and during an 18-month longitudinal followup at Phase II (1992–1998) of the Georgia Centenarian Study. Participants included N = 137 centenarians at Time 1 and N = 68 survivors at Time 2. Significant stability in cognitive impairment existed at Time 1 and Time 2 for positive (? = .55, P < .01) and negative affect (? = .54, P < .01) models. Negative affect at Time 1 was associated with lower life satisfaction at Time 1 (? = ?.42, P < .01 ). In addition, cognitive impairment at Time 2 was associated with decreased positive emotionality at Time 2 (? = ?.39, P > .01). Furthermore, greater positive affect at Time 2 was associated with greater satisfaction with life at Time 2 (? = .35, P < .01). It appears that positive emotionality contemporaneously influences the association between cognitive impairment and life satisfaction among centenarians. Implications relative to improving life satisfaction among centenarians are discussed. PMID:21876811

Bishop, Alex J.; Martin, Peter; Poon, Leonard; Johnson, Mary Ann

2011-01-01

342

The influence of internal time, time awake, and sleep duration on cognitive performance in shiftworkers.  

PubMed

To date, studies investigating the consequences of shiftwork have predominantly focused on external (local) time. Here, we report the daily variation in cognitive performance in rotating shiftworkers under real-life conditions using the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) and show that this function depends both on external and internal (biological) time. In addition to this high sensitivity of PVT performance to time-of-day, it has also been extensively applied in sleep deprivation protocols. We, therefore, also investigated the impact of shift-specific sleep duration and time awake on performance. In two separate field studies, 44 young workers (17 females, 27 males; age range 20-36 yrs) performed a PVT test every 2 h during each shift. We assessed chronotype by the MCTQ(Shift) (Munich ChronoType Questionnaire for shiftworkers). Daily sleep logs over the 4-wk study period allowed for the extraction of shift-specific sleep duration and time awake in a given shift, as well as average sleep duration ("sleep need"). Median reaction times (RTs) significantly varied across shifts, depending on both Local Time and Internal Time. Variability of reaction times around the 24 h mean (? ±5%) was best explained by a regression model comprising both factors, Local Time and Internal Time (p ?improved to levels above average with increasing time awake (p < .05), whereas RT(85%) became worse (p < .05). Hierarchical mixed models confirmed the importance of chronotype and sleep duration on cognitive performance in shiftworkers, whereas the effect of time awake requires further research. Our finding that both Local Time and Internal Time, in conjunction with shift-specific sleep behavior, strongly influence performance extends predictions derived from laboratory studies. PMID:22888791

Vetter, Céline; Juda, Myriam; Roenneberg, Till

2012-10-01

343

Cognitive skills, student achievement tests, and schools.  

PubMed

Cognitive skills predict academic performance, so schools that improve academic performance might also improve cognitive skills. To investigate the impact schools have on both academic performance and cognitive skills, we related standardized achievement-test scores to measures of cognitive skills in a large sample (N = 1,367) of eighth-grade students attending traditional, exam, and charter public schools. Test scores and gains in test scores over time correlated with measures of cognitive skills. Despite wide variation in test scores across schools, differences in cognitive skills across schools were negligible after we controlled for fourth-grade test scores. Random offers of enrollment to oversubscribed charter schools resulted in positive impacts of such school attendance on math achievement but had no impact on cognitive skills. These findings suggest that schools that improve standardized achievement-test scores do so primarily through channels other than improving cognitive skills. PMID:24434238

Finn, Amy S; Kraft, Matthew A; West, Martin R; Leonard, Julia A; Bish, Crystal E; Martin, Rebecca E; Sheridan, Margaret A; Gabrieli, Christopher F O; Gabrieli, John D E

2014-03-01

344

Performance Assessment in CTE: Focusing on the Cognitive, Psychomotor ...and Affective Domains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When a student is performing in the psychomotor domain, the authors believe the student is also performing in the cognitive domain (sequencing steps, evaluating the situation) and in the affective domain (appreciating a job well done, quality control, safety). As Dabney Doty, former instructor at the University of Central Missouri, stated, "There…

Washer, Bart; Cochran, Lori

2012-01-01

345

EEG alpha and theta oscillations reflect cognitive and memory performance: a review and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is presented that EEG oscillations in the alpha and theta band reflect cognitive and memory performance in particular. Good performance is related to two types of EEG phenomena (i) a tonic increase in alpha but a decrease in theta power, and (ii) a large phasic (event-related) decrease in alpha but increase in theta, depending on the type of memory

Wolfgang Klimesch

1999-01-01

346

Effects of the menopause transition and hormone use on cognitive performance in midlife women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is almost no longitudinal information about measured cognitive performance during the menopause transition (MT). Methods: We studied 2,362 participants from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation for 4 years. Major exposures were time spent in MT stages, hormone use prior to the final menstrual period, and postmenopausal current hormone use. Outcomes were longitudinal performance in three

G. A. Greendale; M.-H. Huang; R. G. Wight; T. Seeman; C. Luetters; N. E. Avis; J. Johnston; A. S. Karlamangla

2009-01-01

347

Application of Cognitive Apprenticeship Model to a Graduate Course in Performance Systems Analysis: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports a case study describing how the principles of a cognitive apprenticeship (CA) model developed by Collins, Brown, and Holum (1991) were applied to a graduate course on performance systems analysis (PSA), and the differences this application made in student performance and evaluation of the course compared to the previous…

Darabi, A. Aubteen

2005-01-01

348

The Effects of Cognitive and Noncognitive Theories of Motivation on Morale and Performance of Correctional Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study assessed the perceived effectiveness of cognitive theories of motivation on correctional educators in Tennessee in facilitating teacher attitude and performance as compared to noncognitive models. The Performance Motivation Questionnaire obtained demographic information and responses to items on motivational concepts and practices.…

Gilbert, Eben N., Jr.

349

Social Cognitive Predictors of Pre-Service Teachers' Technology Integration Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main objective of the study was to examine interrelationships among social cognitive variables (self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and performance goals) and their role in predicting pre-service teachers' technology integration performance. Although researchers have examined the role of these variables in the teacher-education context, the…

Perkmen, Serkan; Pamuk, Sonmez

2011-01-01

350

The Influence of Distracting Familiar Vocal Music on Cognitive Performance of Introverts and Extraverts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effect of familiar musical distractors on the cognitive performance of introverts and extraverts. Participants completed a verbal, numerical and logic test in three music conditions: vocal music, instrumental music and silence. It was predicted that introverts would perform worse with vocal music, better with…

Avila, Christina; Furnham, Adrian; McClelland, Alastair

2012-01-01

351

Examination of Cognitive and Instrumental Functional Performance as Indicators for Driving Cessation Risk across 3 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine the role of cognitive and instrumental functional performance in driving cessation while simultaneously accounting for any contributions of demographics, vision, physical performance, and health among a sample of older adults without dementia. Design and Methods: Included in the…

Ackerman, Michelle L.; Edwards, Jerri D.; Ross, Lesley A.; Ball, Karlene K.; Lunsman, Melissa

2008-01-01

352

Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated With Low Mood and Worse Cognitive Performance in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is common in older adults and has been impli- cated in psychiatric and neurologic disorders. This study examined the relationship among vitamin D status, cognitive performance, mood, and physical performance in older adults. Methods: A cross-sectional group of 80 participants, 40 with mild Alzheimer disease (AD) and 40 nondemented persons, were selected from a longitu- dinal

Consuelo H. Wilkins; Yvette I. Sheline; Catherine M. Roe; Stanley J. Birge; John C. Morris

2006-01-01

353

Psychol Med . Author manuscript The association of cognitive performance with mental health and physical  

E-print Network

performance has been associated with mental and physical health, but it is unknown whether the strength whether cognitive performance predicted mental and physical health from midlife to early old age. Methods and 2006. The age range included over the follow-up was from 40 to 75 years. Mental health and physical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

354

Mechanism of Isoflavone Aglycone's Effect on Cognitive Performance of Senescence-Accelerated Mice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effect of isoflavone aglycone (IA) on the learning and memory performance of senescence-accelerated mice, and explored its neural protective mechanism. Results showed that SAM-P/8 senescence-accelerated mice treated with IA performed significantly better in the Y-maze cognitive test than the no treatment control (P less…

Yang, Hong; Jin, Guifang; Ren, Dongdong; Luo, Sijing; Zhou, Tianhong

2011-01-01

355

Exposure to Music and Cognitive Performance: Tests of Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on two experiments of exposure to music and cognitive performance. In Experiment 1, Canadian undergraduates performed better on an IQ subtest (Symbol Search) after listening to an up-tempo piece of music composed by Mozart in comparison to a slow piece by Albinoni. The effect was evident, however, only when the two pieces also…

Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Nakata, Takayuki; Hunter, Patrick G.; Tamoto, Sachiko

2007-01-01

356

Effects of working permanent night shifts and two shifts on cognitive and psychomotor performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The study aimed to clarify whether cognitive and psychomotor performance, which are important for occupational and traffic safety, are impaired by working permanent night shifts (NSs) compared with early–late two shifts (TSs) and whether age and chronobiological type influences the relationship between shift and performance. Methods: The study included 44 male automobile workers, 20 working TSs and 24 working

Raluca Petru; Marc Wittmann; Dennis Nowak; Bodo Birkholz; Peter Angerer

2005-01-01

357

Effects of Concurrent Performance Monitoring on Cognitive Load as a Function of Task Complexity  

Microsoft Academic Search

For self-regulated learning to be effective, students need to be able to accurately monitor their performance while they are working on a task, use this as input for self-assessment of that performance after the task, and select an appropriate new learning task in response to that assessment. From a cognitive load perspective, monitoring can be seen as a secondary task

Tamara van Gog

358

Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations of Different Sedentary Behaviors with Cognitive Performance in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Background The deleterious health effects of sedentary behaviors, independent of physical activity, are increasingly being recognized. However, associations with cognitive performance are not known. Purpose To estimate the associations between different sedentary behaviors and cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Methods Computer use, time spent watching television (TV), time spent reading and habitual physical activity levels were self-reported twice (in 2001 and 2007) by participants in the SUpplémentation en Vitamines et MinérauX (SU.VI.MAX and SU.VI.MAX2) study. Cognitive performance was assessed at follow-up (in 2007–2009) via a battery of 6 neuropsychological tests used to derive verbal memory and executive functioning scores. Analyses (ANCOVA) were performed among 1425 men and 1154 women aged 65.6±4.5 at the time of the neuropsychological evaluation. We estimated mean differences with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) in cognitive performance across categories of each type of sedentary behavior. Results In multivariable cross-sectional models, compared to non-users, participants using the computer for >1 h/day displayed better verbal memory (mean difference?=?1.86; 95%CI: 0.95, 2.77) and executive functioning (mean difference?=?2.15; 95%CI: 1.22, 3.08). A negative association was also observed between TV viewing and executive functioning. Additionally, participants who increased their computer use by more than 30 min between 2001 and 2007 showed better performance on both verbal memory (mean difference?=?1.41; 95%CI: 0.55, 2.27) and executive functioning (mean difference?=?1.41; 95%CI: 0.53, 2.28) compared to those who decreased their computer use during that period. Conclusion Specific sedentary behaviors are differentially associated with cognitive performance. In contrast to TV viewing, regular computer use may help maintain cognitive function during the aging process. Clinical Trial Registration clinicaltrial.gov (number NCT00272428). PMID:23082222

Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Charreire, Helene; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Oppert, Jean-Michel

2012-01-01

359

Teacher Cognitive Style, Expectations, and Attributions for Student Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that race, social class, and gender influence teacher expectations of student performance. To investigate teacher expectations for the academic performance and future occupational status of white and Asian elementary school children, and the teacher attributions for their performance, 25 white elementary school teachers (23…

Tom, David Y. H.

360

Effects of Cognitive Interventions on Sports Anxiety and Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Oxendine (1970) hypothesized that the arousal-performance relationship varies across tasks, such that gross motor activities will require high arousal for optimal performance while fine motor activities will be facilitated by low arousal, but adversely affected by high arousal. Although the effects of preparatory arousal on strength performance

Murphy, Shane M.; Woolfolk, Robert L.

361

Short-term treatment with tolfenamic acid improves cognitive functions in Alzheimer's disease mice.  

PubMed

Tolfenamic acid lowers the levels of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid beta (A?) when administered to C57BL/6 mice by lowering their transcriptional regulator specificity protein 1 (SP1). To determine whether changes upstream in the amyloidogenic pathway that forms A? plaques would improve cognitive outcomes, we administered tolfenamic acid for 34 days to hemizygous R1.40 transgenic mice. After the characterization of cognitive deficits in these mice, assessment of spatial learning and memory functions revealed that treatment with tolfenamic acid attenuated long-term memory and working memory deficits, determined using Morris water maze and the Y-maze. These improvements occurred within a shorter period of exposure than that seen with clinically approved drugs. Cognitive enhancement was accompanied by reduction in the levels of the SP1 protein (but not messenger RNA [mRNA]), followed by lowering both the mRNA and the protein levels of APP and subsequent A? levels. These findings provide evidence that tolfenamic acid can disrupt the pathologic processes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and are relevant to its scheduled biomarker study in AD patients. PMID:23639209

Subaiea, Gehad M; Adwan, Lina I; Ahmed, Aseef H; Stevens, Karen E; Zawia, Nasser H

2013-10-01

362

Improving cognition by adherence to physical or mental exercise: A moderated mediation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The role of adherence to an intervention is examined to further understand the relationship between performing new challenging activities (either mental or physical ones) and their putative cognitive benefits.Method: Healthy older women (N?=?229, age range: 70–93 years) took part in a six-month randomised controlled trial, covering either a physical or mental activity (three?×?weekly). They completed five tests, measuring episodic

Andrea Evers; Verena Klusmann; Ralf Schwarzer; Isabella Heuser

2011-01-01

363

Improved Cognitive Function After Transcranial, Light-Emitting Diode Treatments in Chronic, Traumatic Brain Injury: Two Case Reports  

E-print Network

Objective: Two chronic, traumatic brain injury (TBI) cases, where cognition improved following treatment with red and near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs), applied transcranially to forehead and scalp areas, are ...

Naeser, Margaret A.

364

Cognitive and performance-based treatments for panic attacks in people with varying degrees of agoraphobic disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared the effectiveness of cognitive therapy and performance-based exposure as treatments for panic attacks. Subjects were 48 panicky individuals selected without regard to agoraphobic disability, and who varied widely in that respect. Subjects were assigned randomly to either cognitive treatment, performance-based exposure treatment, a combined cognitive\\/performance treatment, or a no-treatment control condition. All three treatments led to marked and enduring

S. Lloyd Williams; John Falbo

1996-01-01

365

Application of the Rasch model to measuring the performance of cognitive radios.  

PubMed

Cognitive radios (CRs) are recent technological developments that rely on artificial intelligence to adapt a radio's performance to suit environmental demands, such as sharing radio frequencies with other radios. Measuring the performance of the cognitive engines (CEs) that underlie a CR's performance is a challenge for those developing CR technology. This simulation study illustrates how the Rasch model can be applied to the evaluation of CRs. We simulated the responses of 50 CEs to 35 performance tasks and applied the Random Coefficients Multidimensional Multinomial Logit Model (MRCMLM) to those data. Our results indicate that CEs based on different algorithms may exhibit differential performance across manipulated performance task parameters. We found that a multidimensional mixture model may provide the best fit to the simulated data and that the two algorithms simulated may respond to tasks that emphasize achieving high levels of data throughput coupled with lower emphasis on power conservation differently than they do to other combinations of performance task characteristics. PMID:24064575

Wolfe, Edward W; Dietrich, Carl B; Vanhoy, Garrett

2013-01-01

366

Cognitive rehabilitation therapies for Alzheimer's disease: A review of methods to improve treatment engagement and self-efficacy  

PubMed Central

Cognitive rehabilitation therapies for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are becoming more readily available to the geriatric population in an attempt to curb the insidious decline in cognitive and functional performance. However, people with AD may have difficulty adhering to these cognitive treatments due to denial of memory deficits, compromised brain systems, cognitive incapacity for self-awareness, general difficulty following through on daily tasks, lack of motivation, hopelessness, and apathy, all of which may be either due to the illness or be secondary to depression. Cognitive rehabilitation training exercises are also labor intensive and, unfortunately, serve as a repeated reminder about the memory impairments and attendant functional consequences. In order for cognitive rehabilitation methods to be effective, patients must be adequately engaged and motivated to not only begin a rehabilitation program but also to remain involved in the intervention until a therapeutic dosage can be attained. We review approaches to cognitive rehabilitation in AD, neuropsychological as well as psychological obstacles to effective treatment in this population, and methods that target adherence to treatment and may therefore be applicable to cognitive rehabilitation therapies for AD. The goal is to stimulate discussion among researchers and clinicians alike on how treatment effects may be mediated by engagement in treatment, and what can be done to enhance patient adherence for cognitive rehabilitation therapies in order to obtain greater cognitive and functional benefits from the treatment itself. PMID:23400790

Choi, Jimmy; Twamley, Elizabeth W.

2013-01-01

367

Correlations between motor performance and cognitive functions in children born < 1250 g at school age.  

PubMed

Very low birth weight born children manifest a higher prevalence of motor and cognitive impairments than term children. Seventy-four prospectively enrolled children born < 1250 g underwent testing of motor (Zurich neuromotor assessment ZNA: timed motor performances and associated movements) and cognitive functions (Kaufman-ABC) at age six years. Children with cerebral palsy or mental retardation were excluded. Adaptive motor tasks (pegboard and dynamic balance) and visuomotor cognitive functions were specifically impaired, and a distinct correlation pattern between motor and cognitive abilities was detected. The adaptive fine motor task (pegboard) correlated with visuomotor functions of the Kaufman-ABC ("triangles", r = 0.35; "matrix analogies", r = 0.39), while pure motor tasks of the ZNA (repetitive, alternating, and sequential movements) did not in spite of impaired motor performance. Timed motor performance below the 10th percentile correlated strongly with cognitive delay (IQ < 85: adaptive fine motor: OR 6.0 [95% CI] 4.7-7.3; adaptive gross motor: OR 7.0 [CI 5.6-8.4]; static balance: OR 9.6 [CI 8.2-11.0]). In conclusion, motor deficits in children born < 1250 g without severe disabilities correlate with specific cognitive impairments, in particular of the visuomotor domain. The correlation pattern may indicate specific dysfunction in visuomotor transformation, the intermediate process between visual-perceptual input and motor output. Early assessment of both motor and cognitive functions using standardized assessment tools is important to determine the extent and combination of specific developmental disturbances and to tailor therapeutic intervention. PMID:16541362

Seitz, J; Jenni, O G; Molinari, L; Caflisch, J; Largo, R H; Latal Hajnal, B

2006-02-01

368

Spatial Cognitive Performance During Adaptation to Conflicting Tilt-Translation Stimuli as a Sensorimotor Spaceflight Analog  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need to resolve new patterns of sensory feedback in altered gravitoinertial environments requires cognitive processes to develop appropriate reference frames for spatial orientation awareness. The purpose of this study was to examine deficits in spatial cognitive performance during adaptation to conflicting tilt-translation stimuli. Fourteen subjects were tilted within a lighted enclosure that simultaneously translated at one of 3 frequencies. Tilt and translation motion was synchronized to maintain the resultant gravitoinertial force aligned with the longitudinal body axis, resulting in a mismatch analogous to spaceflight in which the canals and vision signal tilt while the otoliths do not. Changes in performance on different spatial cognitive tasks were compared 1) without motion, 2) with tilt motion alone (pitch at 0.15, 0.3 and 0.6 Hz or roll at 0.3 Hz), and 3) with conflicting tilt-translation motion. The adaptation paradigm was continued for up to 30 min or until the onset of nausea. The order of the adaptation conditions were counter-balanced across 4 different test sessions. There was a significant effect of stimulus frequency on both motion sickness and spatial cognitive performance. Only 3 of 14 were able to complete the full 30 min protocol at 0.15 Hz, while 7 of 14 completed 0.3 Hz and 13 of 14 completed 0.6 Hz. There were no changes in simple visual-spatial cognitive tests, e.g., mental rotation or match-to-sample. There were significant deficits during 0.15 Hz adaptation in both accuracy and reaction time during a spatial reference task in which subjects are asked to identify a match of a 3D reoriented cube assemblage. Our results are consistent with antidotal reports of cognitive impairment that are common during sensorimotor adaptation with G-transitions. We conclude that these cognitive deficits stem from the ambiguity of spatial reference frames for central processing of inertial motion cues.

Kayanickupuram, A. J.; Ramos, K. A.; Cordova, M. L.; Wood, S. J.

2009-01-01

369

Cognitive performance deficits in a simulated climb of Mount Everest - Operation Everest II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cognitive function at simulated altitude was investigated in a repeated-measures within-subject study of performance by seven volunteers in a hypobaric chamber, in which atmospheric pressure was systematically lowered over a period of 40 d to finally reach a pressure equivalent to 8845 m, the approximate height of Mount Everest. The automated performance test system employed compact computer design; automated test administrations, data storage, and retrieval; psychometric properties of stability and reliability; and factorial richness. Significant impairments of cognitive function were seen for three of the five tests in the battery; on two tests, grammatical reasoning and pattern comparison, every subject showed a substantial decrement.

Kennedy, R. S.; Dunlap, W. P.; Banderet, L. E.; Smith, M. G.; Houston, C. S.

1989-01-01

370

Cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance (CO-OP): part III--the protocol in brief.  

PubMed

Parts I and II of this series introduced the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP), a new approach to intervention that is based on the premise that cognition plays an important role in the acquisition of occupational skills and the development of occupational competency. Developed for use with children who have occupational performance deficits, CO-OP is an individualized, client-centred approach focused on strategy-based skill acquisition. This third paper in this series presents a brief description of the actual CO-OP protocol including its objectives, prerequisites and key features. PMID:11345506

Polatajko, H J; Mandich, A D; Missiuna, C; Miller, L T; Macnab, J J; Malloy-Miller, T; Kinsella, E A

2001-01-01

371

Predictors of performance monitoring abilities following traumatic brain injury: the influence of negative affect and cognitive sequelae.  

PubMed

Performance monitoring is a cognitive control process modulated by both cognitive and affective variables. This study examined the relative contributions of negative affect (NA) and cognitive sequelae to performance monitoring dysfunction following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). We used the error-related negativity (ERN) and post-error positivity (Pe) components of the event-related potential (ERP) to test the hypothesis that NA and cognitive sequelae would predict performance monitoring dysfunction beyond time since injury, and injury severity. Nineteen survivors of severe TBI completed neuropsychological tests, measures of NA, and a computerized Stroop task. Scores on NA and neuropsychological measures were standardized to form magnitude of cognitive sequelae and negative affect composite scores. Separate hierarchical regression analyses with ERN and Pe amplitudes as dependent variables and injury severity, time since injury, magnitude of cognitive sequelae, and NA as independent variables indicated that NA and cognitive sequelae significantly predicted ERN amplitude, with a larger relative contribution of NA than cognitive sequelae. Increased levels of NA were associated with decreased amplitude ERN. Cognitive sequelae, but not NA, predicted Pe amplitude. Injury severity and time since injury were not significant predictors. Results suggest that both NA and cognitive sequelae play critical roles in performance monitoring decrements following TBI and indicate a possible dissociation between the ERN and Pe, with the ERN more related to affective processes and the Pe to cognitive processes. PMID:21315777

Larson, Michael J; Fair, Joseph E; Farrer, Thomas J; Perlstein, William M

2011-10-01

372

Lower Ankle-Brachial Index Is Related to Worse Cognitive Performance in Old Age  

PubMed Central

Objective: We aimed to study the associations between peripheral artery disease (PAD) and ankle-brachial index (ABI) and performance in a range of cognitive domains in nondemented elderly persons. Methods: Data were collected within the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 and 1936 studies. These are two narrow-age cohorts at age 87 (n = 170) and 73 (n = 748) years. ABI was analyzed as a dichotomous (PAD vs. no PAD) and a continuous measure. PAD was defined as having an ABI less than 0.90. Measures of nonverbal reasoning, verbal declarative memory, verbal fluency, working memory, and processing speed were administered. Both samples were screened for dementia. Results: We observed no significant differences in cognitive performance between persons with or without PAD. However, higher ABI was associated with better general cognition (? = .23, p = .02, R2 change = .05) and processing speed (? = .29, p < .01, R2 change = .08) in the older cohort and better processing speed (? = .12, p < .01, R2 change = .01) in the younger cohort. This was after controlling for age, sex, and childhood mental ability and excluding persons with abnormally high ABI (>1.40) and a history of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease. Conclusion: Lower ABI is associated with worse cognitive performance in old age, especially in the oldest old (>85 years), possibly because of long-term exposure to atherosclerotic disease. Interventions targeting PAD in persons free of manifest cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease may reduce the incidence of cognitive impairment and dementia. PMID:24295206

2013-01-01

373

When unconscious rewards boost cognitive task performance inefficiently: the role of consciousness in integrating value and attainability information  

PubMed Central

Research has shown that high vs. low value rewards improve cognitive task performance independent of whether they are perceived consciously or unconsciously. However, efficient performance in response to high value rewards also depends on whether or not rewards are attainable. This raises the question of whether unconscious reward processing enables people to take into account such attainability information. Building on a theoretical framework according to which conscious reward processing is required to enable higher level cognitive processing, the present research tested the hypothesis that conscious but not unconscious reward processing enables integration of reward value with attainability information. In two behavioral experiments, participants were exposed to mask high and low value coins serving as rewards on a working memory (WM) task. The likelihood for conscious processing was manipulated by presenting the coins relatively briefly (17 ms) or long and clearly visible (300 ms). Crucially, rewards were expected to be attainable or unattainable. Requirements to integrate reward value with attainability information varied across experiments. Results showed that when integration of value and attainability was required (Experiment 1), long reward presentation led to efficient performance, i.e., selectively improved performance for high value attainable rewards. In contrast, in the short presentation condition, performance was increased for high value rewards even when these were unattainable. This difference between the effects of long and short presentation time disappeared when integration of value and attainability information was not required (Experiment 2). Together these findings suggest that unconsciously processed reward information is not integrated with attainability expectancies, causing inefficient effort investment. These findings are discussed in terms of a unique role of consciousness in efficient allocation of effort to cognitive control processes. PMID:22848198

Zedelius, Claire M.; Veling, Harm; Aarts, Henk

2012-01-01

374

A Strategically Timed Verbal Task Improves Performance and Neurophysiological Alertness During Fatiguing Drives  

E-print Network

of countermeasures include visual search and auditory memory tasks (Engström, Johansson, & Östlund, 2005), mental orienting puzzles (Liang & Lee, 2009), foreign language learning (Takayama & Nass, 2008), or games (Oron-Gilad, Ronen, & Shinar, 2008; Verwey, & Zaidel..., 1999). These tasks are cognitively complex, requiring memory, spatial, or linguistic Fatigued driving 5 operations to perform. Though they have been shown to be effective at improving driver alertness, the question remains what the minimum...

Atchley, Paul; Chan, Mark; Gregersen, Sabrina

2013-08-06

375

Impaired hippocampal plasticity and errors in cognitive performance in mice with maladaptive AChE splice site  

E-print Network

, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel 91904 Keywords: acetylcholinesterase, cognition errors, LTP performance. Under stress, alternative splicing changes priority from synaptic acetylcholinesterase (ACh

Hochner, Binyamin

376

Cognitive Performance and Functional Competence as Predictors of Community Independence in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Measures of functional competence have been introduced to supplement standard cognitive and neuropsychological evaluations in schizophrenia research and practice. Functional competence comprises skills and abilities that are more relevant to daily life and community adjustment. However, it is unclear whether relevance translates into significantly enhanced prediction of real-world outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the specific contribution of functional competence in predicting a key aspect of real-world outcome in schizophrenia: community independence. Demographic, clinical, cognitive, and functional competence data were obtained from 127 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and used to predict community independence concurrently and longitudinally after 10 months. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that demographic, clinical, and cognitive predictors accounted jointly for 35%–38% of the variance in community independence across assessment points. Functional competence data failed to add significantly to this validity. Considered separately from demographic and clinical predictors, cognitive and functional competence data accounted for significant amounts of outcome variance. However, the addition of functional competence to standard cognitive test data yielded a significant increase in validity only for concurrent and not for longitudinal prediction of community independence. The specific real-world validity of functional competence is modest, yielding information that is largely redundant with standard cognitive performance. PMID:18667392

Heinrichs, R. Walter; Ammari, Narmeen; Miles, Ashley A.; McDermid Vaz, Stephanie

2010-01-01

377

APOE Moderates the Association between Lifestyle Activities and Cognitive Performance: Evidence of Genetic Plasticity in Aging  

PubMed Central

The current study examined independent and interactive effects between Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and two types of cognitively-stimulating lifestyle activities (CSLA)—integrated information processing (CSLA-II) and novel information processing (CSLA-NI)—on concurrent and longitudinal changes in cognition. Three-wave data across six years of follow-up from the Victoria Longitudinal Study (n = 278; ages 55–94) and linear mixed model analyses were used to characterize the effects of APOE genotype and participation in CSLA-II and CSLA-NI in four cognitive domains. Significant CSLA effects on cognition were observed. More frequent participation in challenging activities (i.e., CSLA-NI) was associated with higher baseline scores on word recall, fact recall, vocabulary and verbal fluency. Conversely, higher participation in less cognitively-challenging activities (i.e., CSLA-II) was associated with lower scores on fact recall and verbal fluency. No longitudinal CSLA-cognition effects were found. Two significant genetic effects were observed. First, APOE moderated CSLA-II and CSLA-NI associations with baseline verbal fluency and fact recall scores. Second, APOE ?4 non-carriers’ baseline performance were more likely to be moderated by CSLA participation, compared to APOE ?4 carriers. Our findings suggest APOE may be a “plasticity” gene that makes individuals more or less amenable to the influence of protective factors such as CSLA. PMID:24867440

Runge, Shannon K.; Small, Brent J.; McFall, G. Peggy; Dixon, Roger A.

2014-01-01

378

Learning to improve path planning performance  

SciTech Connect

In robotics, path planning refers to finding a short. collision-free path from an initial robot configuration to a desired configuratioin. It has to be fast to support real-time task-level robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To remedy this situation, we present and analyze a learning algorithm that uses past experience to increase future performance. The algorithm relies on an existing path planner to provide solutions to difficult tasks. From these solutions, an evolving sparse network of useful robot configurations is learned to support faster planning. More generally, the algorithm provides a speedup-learning framework in which a slow but capable planner may be improved both cost-wise and capability-wise by a faster but less capable planner coupled with experience. The basic algorithm is suitable for stationary environments, and can be extended to accommodate changing environments with on-demand experience repair and object-attached experience abstraction. To analyze the algorithm, we characterize the situations in which the adaptive planner is useful, provide quantitative bounds to predict its behavior, and confirm our theoretical results with experiments in path planning of manipulators. Our algorithm and analysis are sufficiently, general that they may also be applied to other planning domains in which experience is useful.

Chen, Pang C.

1995-04-01

379

Evaluation of improvements to Brayton cycle performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study addresses the problem of finding an energy conversion method to take advantage of the high maximum cycle temperatures achieved with solar central receivers. Most current practice is to use steam-based heat engines with solar receivers but these Rankine cycles cannot operate at the higher possible temperatures. Derivatives of gas-based Brayton cycles are considered to take advantage of the expected increased cycle performance of higher temperatures. Computer modeling was done to examine the effect of maximum temperature on efficiency of two Brayton cycle derivatives and a simple Brayton cycle (GT). The modified Brayton cycles include a combination of intercooling, regeneration, and reheat (IGT) and a Brayton cycle with steam injection (STIG). The turbine inlet temperature, the steam-to-air injection mass ratio (for the STIG), and the compression pressure ratios were treated as parameters in the analysis. Both First Law and Second Law efficiencies were examined. Efficiencies were highest for the IGT followed by the STIG and GT, respectively. Considerable improvements in specific work output were demonstrated by the STIG over both the IGT and GT systems. First and Second law analyses show a gradual increase of efficiency with turbine inlet temperature with diminishing returns at higher temperatures.

Spasyk, M. A.

1986-05-01

380

Comparison of motor and cognitive performance of children attending public and private day care centers  

PubMed Central

Background Given that environmental factors, such as the school environment, can influence child development, more attention should be paid to the development of children attending day care centers. Objective Todetermine whether there are differences in the gross motor, fine motor, or cognitive performances of children between 1 and3 years-old of similar socioeconomic status attending public and private day care centers full time. Method Participants were divided into 2 groups, 1 of children attending public day care centers (69 children) and another of children attending private day care centers (47 children). All children were healthy and regularly attended day care full time for over 4 months. To assess cognitive, gross and fine motor performance, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III was used. The Mann-Whitney test was used for comparative analyses between groups of children between 13 and 24 months, 25 and 41 months, and 13 and 41 months. Results Children in public day care centers exhibited lower scores on the cognitive development scale beginning at 13 months old. The fine and gross motor performance scores were lower in children over the age of 25 months attending public centers. Maternal education was not related to the performance of children in either group. Conclusion The scores of cognitive performance as well as fine and gross motor performance of children of similar socioeconomic status who attend public day care centers are lower than children attending private daycare centers. PMID:24346293

Santos, Mariana M.; Corsi, Carolina; Marques, Luisa A. P.; Rocha, Nelci A. C. F.

2013-01-01

381

Cognitive Linguistic Performances of Multilingual University Students Suspected of Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

High-performing adults with compensated dyslexia pose particular challenges to dyslexia diagnostics. We compared the performance of 20 multilingual Finnish university students with suspected dyslexia with 20 age-matched and education-matched controls on an extensive test battery. The battery tapped various aspects of reading, writing, word…

Lindgren, Signe-Anita; Laine, Matti

2011-01-01

382

Students' Classroom Emotions: Socio-Cognitive Antecedents and School Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: This study examined (a) students' experienced emotions in classes of Mathematics and Language, (b) the role of students' emotions in perceiving their school performance in the same school subjects as successful or unsuccessful, and (c) the effects of students' self-beliefs (performance expectations, value beliefs, ability…

Stephanou, Georgia

2011-01-01

383

Improved effectiveness of performance monitoring in amateur instrumental musicians?  

PubMed Central

Here we report a cross-sectional study investigating the influence of instrumental music practice on the ability to monitor for and respond to processing conflicts and performance errors. Behavioural and electrophysiological indicators of response monitoring in amateur musicians with various skill levels were collected using simple conflict tasks. The results show that instrumental musicians are better able than non-musicians to detect conflicts and errors as indicated by systematic increases in the amplitude of the error-related negativity and the N200 with increasing levels of instrumental practice. Also, high levels of musical training were associated with more efficient and less reactive responses after experience of conflicts and errors as indicated by reduced post-error interference and post-conflict processing adjustments. Together, the present findings suggest that playing a musical instrument might improve the ability to monitor our behavior and adjust our responses effectively when needed. As these processes are amongst the first to be affected by cognitive aging, our evidence could promote musical activity as a realistic intervention to slow or even prevent age-related decline in frontal cortex mediated executive functioning. PMID:24056298

Jentzsch, Ines; Mkrtchian, Anahit; Kansal, Nayantara

2014-01-01

384

Improved effectiveness of performance monitoring in amateur instrumental musicians.  

PubMed

Here we report a cross-sectional study investigating the influence of instrumental music practice on the ability to monitor for and respond to processing conflicts and performance errors. Behavioural and electrophysiological indicators of response monitoring in amateur musicians with various skill levels were collected using simple conflict tasks. The results show that instrumental musicians are better able than non-musicians to detect conflicts and errors as indicated by systematic increases in the amplitude of the error-related negativity and the N200 with increasing levels of instrumental practice. Also, high levels of musical training were associated with more efficient and less reactive responses after experience of conflicts and errors as indicated by reduced post-error interference and post-conflict processing adjustments. Together, the present findings suggest that playing a musical instrument might improve the ability to monitor our behavior and adjust our responses effectively when needed. As these processes are amongst the first to be affected by cognitive aging, our evidence could promote musical activity as a realistic intervention to slow or even prevent age-related decline in frontal cortex mediated executive functioning. PMID:24056298

Jentzsch, Ines; Mkrtchian, Anahit; Kansal, Nayantara

2014-01-01

385

Mild Cognitive Impairment and Everyday Function: An Investigation of Driving Performance  

PubMed Central

Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) involves subtle functional losses that may include decrements in driving skills. We compared 46 participants with MCI to 59 cognitively normal controls on a driving evaluation conducted by a driving rehabilitation specialist who was blinded to participants’ MCI classification. Participants with MCI demonstrated significantly lower performance than controls on ratings of global and discrete driving maneuvers, but these differences were not at the level of frank impairments. Rather, performance was simply less than optimal, which to a lesser degree was also characteristic of a subset of the cognitively normal control group. The finding of significantly lower global driving ratings, coupled with the increased incidence of dementia among people with MCI and the known impact of dementia on driving safety, suggests the need for increased vigilance among clinicians, family members, and individuals with MCI for initially benign changes in driving that may become increasingly problematic over time. PMID:19196629

Wadley, Virginia G.; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Crowe, Michael; Vance, David E.; Elgin, Jennifer M.; Ball, Karlene K.; Owsley, Cynthia

2010-01-01

386

Alcohol and tobacco use and cognitive-motivational variables in school settings: effects on academic performance in Spanish adolescents.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to analyze: (a) the relationship between alcohol and tobacco use and academic performance, and (b) the predictive role of psycho-educational factors and alcohol and tobacco abuse on academic performance in a sample of 352 Spanish adolescents from grades 8 to 10 of Compulsory Secondary Education. The Self-Description Questionnaire-II, the Sydney Attribution Scale, and the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire were administered in order to analyze cognitive-motivational variables. Alcohol and tobacco abuse, sex, and grade retention were also measured using self-reported questions. Academic performance was measured by school records. Frequency analyses and logistic regression analyses were used. Frequency analyses revealed that students who abuse of tobacco and alcohol show a higher rate of poor academic performance. Logistic regression analyses showed that health behaviours, and educational and cognitive-motivational variables exert a different effect on academic performance depending on the academic area analyzed. These results point out that not only academic, but also health variables should be address to improve academic performance in adolescence. PMID:23487281

Inglés, Cándido J; Torregrosa, María S; Rodríguez-Marín, Jesús; García del Castillo, José A; Gázquez, José J; García-Fernández, José M; Delgado, Beatriz

2013-01-01

387

The Influence of Genetic and Environmental Factors among MDMA Users in Cognitive Performance  

PubMed Central

This study is aimed to clarify the association between MDMA cumulative use and cognitive dysfunction, and the potential role of candidate genetic polymorphisms in explaining individual differences in the cognitive effects of MDMA. Gene polymorphisms related to reduced serotonin function, poor competency of executive control and memory consolidation systems, and high enzymatic activity linked to bioactivation of MDMA to neurotoxic metabolites may contribute to explain variations in the cognitive impact of MDMA across regular users of this drug. Sixty ecstasy polydrug users, 110 cannabis users and 93 non-drug users were assessed using cognitive measures of Verbal Memory (California Verbal Learning Test, CVLT), Visual Memory (Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, ROCFT), Semantic Fluency, and Perceptual Attention (Symbol Digit Modalities Test, SDMT). Participants were also genotyped for polymorphisms within the 5HTT, 5HTR2A, COMT, CYP2D6, BDNF, and GRIN2B genes using polymerase chain reaction and TaqMan polymerase assays. Lifetime cumulative MDMA use was significantly associated with poorer performance on visuospatial memory and perceptual attention. Heavy MDMA users (>100 tablets lifetime use) interacted with candidate gene polymorphisms in explaining individual differences in cognitive performance between MDMA users and controls. MDMA users carrying COMT val/val and SERT s/s had poorer performance than paired controls on visuospatial attention and memory, and MDMA users with CYP2D6 ultra-rapid metabolizers performed worse than controls on semantic fluency. Both MDMA lifetime use and gene-related individual differences influence cognitive dysfunction in ecstasy users. PMID:22110616

Cuyas, Elisabet; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio; Fagundo, Ana Beatriz; Khymenets, Olha; Rodriguez, Joan; Cuenca, Aida; de Sola Llopis, Susana; Langohr, Klaus; Pena-Casanova, Jordi; Torrens, Marta; Martin-Santos, Rocio; Farre, Magi; de la Torre, Rafael

2011-01-01

388

Enhancing dentate gyrus function with dietary flavanols improves cognition in older adults.  

PubMed

The dentate gyrus (DG) is a region in the hippocampal formation whose function declines in association with human aging and is therefore considered to be a possible source of age-related memory decline. Causal evidence is needed, however, to show that DG-associated memory decline in otherwise healthy elders can be improved by interventions that enhance DG function. We addressed this issue by first using a high-resolution variant of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map the precise site of age-related DG dysfunction and to develop a cognitive task whose function localized to this anatomical site. Then, in a controlled randomized trial, we applied these tools to study healthy 50-69-year-old subjects who consumed either a high or low cocoa flavanol-containing diet for 3 months. A high-flavanol intervention was found to enhance DG function, as measured by fMRI and by cognitive testing. Our findings establish that DG dysfunction is a driver of age-related cognitive decline and suggest non-pharmacological means for its amelioration. PMID:25344629

Brickman, Adam M; Khan, Usman A; Provenzano, Frank A; Yeung, Lok-Kin; Suzuki, Wendy; Schroeter, Hagen; Wall, Melanie; Sloan, Richard P; Small, Scott A

2014-12-01

389

Goal setting for improvement in product development performance of organizations  

E-print Network

Companies have been constantly trying for ways and means to improve R&D performance as it is one of the most important competitive advantage tools of an organization. Literature review on R&D performance improvement suggests ...

Kashyap, Pankaj Kumar

2013-01-01

390

Agmatine Improves Cognitive Dysfunction and Prevents Cell Death in a Streptozotocin-Induced Alzheimer Rat Model  

PubMed Central

Purpose Alzheimer's disease (AD) results in memory impairment and neuronal cell death in the brain. Previous studies demonstrated that intracerebroventricular administration of streptozotocin (STZ) induces pathological and behavioral alterations similar to those observed in AD. Agmatine (Agm) has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in central nervous system disorders. In this study, we investigated whether Agm treatment could attenuate apoptosis and improve cognitive decline in a STZ-induced Alzheimer rat model. Materials and Methods We studied the effect of Agm on AD pathology using a STZ-induced Alzheimer rat model. For each experiment, rats were given anesthesia (chloral hydrate 300 mg/kg, ip), followed by a single injection of STZ (1.5 mg/kg) bilaterally into each lateral ventricle (5 µL/ventricle). Rats were injected with Agm (100 mg/kg) daily up to two weeks from the surgery day. Results Agm suppressed the accumulation of amyloid beta and enhanced insulin signal transduction in STZ-induced Alzheimer rats [experimetal control (EC) group]. Upon evaluation of cognitive function by Morris water maze testing, significant improvement of learning and memory dysfunction in the STZ-Agm group was observed compared with the EC group. Western blot results revealed significant attenuation of the protein expressions of cleaved caspase-3 and Bax, as well as increases in the protein expressions of Bcl2, PI3K, Nrf2, and ?-glutamyl cysteine synthetase, in the STZ-Agm group. Conclusion Our results showed that Agm is involved in the activation of antioxidant signaling pathways and activation of insulin signal transduction. Accordingly, Agm may be a promising therapeutic agent for improving cognitive decline and attenuating apoptosis in AD. PMID:24719136

Song, Juhyun; Hur, Bo Eun; Bokara, Kiran Kumar; Yang, Wonsuk; Cho, Hyun Jin; Park, Kyung Ah; Lee, Won Taek; Lee, Kyoung Min

2014-01-01

391

PBT2 rapidly improves cognition in Alzheimer's Disease: additional phase II analyses.  

PubMed

PBT2 is a copper/zinc ionophore that rapidly restores cognition in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A recent Phase IIa double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial found that the 250 mg dose of PBT2 was well-tolerated, significantly lowered cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid-beta42, and significantly improved executive function on a Neuro-psychological Test Battery (NTB) within 12 weeks of treatment in patients with AD. In the post-hoc analysis reported here, the cognitive, blood marker, and CSF neurochemistry outcomes from the trial were subjected to further analysis. Ranking the responses to treatment after 12 weeks with placebo, PBT2 50 mg, and PBT2 250 mg revealed that the proportions of patients showing improvement on NTB Composite or Executive Factor z-scores were significantly greater in the PBT2 250 mg group than in the placebo group. Receiver-operator characteristic analyses revealed that the probability of an improver at any level coming from the PBT2 250 mg group was significantly greater, compared to placebo, for Composite z-scores (Area Under the Curve [AUC] =0.76, p=0.0007), Executive Factor z-scores (AUC =0.93, p=1.3 x 10(-9)), and near-significant for the ADAS-cog (AUC =0.72, p=0.056). There were no correlations between changes in CSF amyloid-beta or tau species and cognitive changes. These findings further encourage larger-scale testing of PBT2 for AD. PMID:20164561

Faux, Noel G; Ritchie, Craig W; Gunn, Adam; Rembach, Alan; Tsatsanis, Andrew; Bedo, Justin; Harrison, John; Lannfelt, Lars; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Ingelsson, Martin; Masters, Colin L; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Cummings, Jeffrey L; Herd, Caroline M; Bush, Ashley I

2010-01-01

392

Mind-wandering, cognition, and performance: A theory-driven meta-analysis of attention regulation.  

PubMed

The current meta-analysis accumulates empirical findings on the phenomenon of mind-wandering, integrating and interpreting findings in light of psychological theories of cognitive resource allocation. Cognitive resource theory emphasizes both individual differences in attentional resources and task demands together to predict variance in task performance. This theory motivated our conceptual and meta-analysis framework by introducing moderators indicative of task-demand to predict who is more likely to mind-wander under what conditions, and to predict when mind-wandering and task-related thought are more (or less) predictive of task performance. Predictions were tested via a random-effects meta-analysis of correlations obtained from normal adult samples (k = 88) based on measurement of specified episodes of off-task and/or on-task thought frequency and task performance. Results demonstrated that people with fewer cognitive resources tend to engage in more mind-wandering, whereas those with more cognitive resources are more likely to engage in task-related thought. Addressing predictions of resource theory, we found that greater time-on-task-although not greater task complexity-tended to strengthen the negative relation between cognitive resources and mind-wandering. Additionally, increases in mind-wandering were generally associated with decreases in task performance, whereas increases in task-related thought were associated with increased performance. Further supporting resource theory, the negative relation between mind-wandering and performance was more pronounced for more complex tasks, though not longer tasks. Complementarily, the positive association between task-related thought and performance was stronger for more complex tasks and for longer tasks. We conclude by discussing implications and future research directions for mind-wandering as a construct of interest in psychological research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25089941

Randall, Jason G; Oswald, Frederick L; Beier, Margaret E

2014-11-01

393

Prospective Associations Between Leisure-Time Physical Activity and Cognitive Performance Among Older Adults Across an 11-Year Period  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have explored the relations between naturally occurring changes in physical activity and cognitive performance in later life. This study examined prospective associations between changes in physical activity and cognitive performance in a population-based sample of Taiwanese older adults during an 11-year period. Methods Analyses were based on nationally representative data from the Taiwan Health and Living Status of the Elderly Survey collected in 1996, 1999, 2003, and 2007. Data from a fixed cohort of 1160 participants who were aged 67 years or older in 1996 and followed for 11 years were included. Cognitive performance (outcome) was assessed using 5 questions from the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire. Physical activity (exposure) was self-reported as number of sessions per week. The latent growth model was used to examine associations between changes in physical activity and cognitive performance after controlling for sociodemographic variables, lifestyle behaviors, and health status. Results With multivariate adjustment, higher initial levels of physical activity were significantly associated with better initial cognitive performance (standardized coefficient ? = 0.17). A higher level of physical activity at baseline (1996) was significantly related to slower decline in cognitive performance, as compared with a lower level of activity (? = 0.22). The association between changes in physical activity and changes in cognitive performance was stronger (? = 0.36) than the previous 2 associations. The effect remained after excluding participants with cognitive decline before baseline. Conclusions Physical activity in later life is associated with slower age-related cognitive decline. PMID:22343329

Ku, Po-Wen; Stevinson, Clare; Chen, Li-Jung

2012-01-01

394

Improving a newly developed patient-reported outcome for thyroid patients, using cognitive interviewing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To improve a newly developed patient-reported outcome measure for thyroid patients using cognitive interviewing.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods Thirty-one interviews using immediate retrospective and expansive probing were conducted among patients with non-toxic goiter\\u000a (n = 4), nodular toxic goiter (n = 5) Graves’ disease (n = 6), thyroid eye-disease (n = 6), and primary hypothyroidism (n = 10). The questionnaire was revised successively. Six iterative rounds of interviews were conducted. Identified problems

Torquil Watt; Åse Krogh Rasmussen; Mogens Groenvold; Jakob Bue Bjorner; Sara Hope Watt; Steen Joop Bonnema; Laszlo Hegedüs; Ulla Feldt-Rasmussen

2008-01-01

395

Optimizing the assessment of pain in children who are cognitively impaired through the quality improvement process.  

PubMed

Pain assessment in children with cognitive impairment (CI) is challenging. A quality improvement (QI) project involving evidence-based review of pain assessment tools, feedback from the Family Advisory Council, trialing of selected tools within clinical settings including obtaining feedback from nurses, and parents caring for nonverbal children with developmental delay was reported. Synthesized evidence supported the adoption of revised Faces, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability pain assessment tool into clinical practice. Results of postimplementation audit and challenges of staff nurse involvement in the QI process were also discussed. The 24-month-long QI process and its impact on changing practice were described in detail. PMID:22497741

Chen-Lim, Mei Lin; Zarnowsky, Colleen; Green, Renee; Shaffer, Susan; Holtzer, Brenda; Ely, Elizabeth

2012-12-01

396

Cognitive performance in relation to vitamin status in healthy elderly German women—the effect of 6-month multivitamin supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPrior investigations have reported a link between poor status of antioxidants, folate, and cobalamin resulting in elevated total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) and methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations with an increased risk for reduced cognitive performance. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of a 6-month multivitamin supplementation on the cognitive performance of female seniors and to assess cognitive

Maike Wolters; Mirja Hickstein; Anke Flintermann; Uwe Tewes; Andreas Hahn

2005-01-01

397

Intakes of (n-3) Fatty Acids and Fatty Fish Are Not Associated with Cognitive Performance and 6Year Cognitive Change in Men Participating in the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

High intake of fish and (n-3) PUFA may protect against age-related cognitive decline. However, results are inconsistent and limited data exist regarding changes in multiple cognitive functions over a longer period of time. In this study, we assessed the association between fatty fish intake as well as (n-3) PUFA intake with cognitive performance and cognitive change over 6 y in

O. van de Rest; A. Spiro; E. Krall-Kaye; J. M. Geleijnse; Groot de C. P. G. M; K. L. Tucker

2009-01-01

398

Blue or red? Exploring the effect of color on cognitive task performances.  

PubMed

Existing research reports inconsistent findings with regard to the effect of color on cognitive task performances. Some research suggests that blue or green leads to better performances than red; other studies record the opposite. Current work reconciles this discrepancy. We demonstrate that red (versus blue) color induces primarily an avoidance (versus approach) motivation (study 1, n = 69) and that red enhances performance on a detail-oriented task, whereas blue enhances performance on a creative task (studies 2 and 3, n = 208 and 118). Further, we replicate these results in the domains of product design (study 4, n = 42) and persuasive message evaluation (study 5, n = 161) and show that these effects occur outside of individuals' consciousness (study 6, n = 68). We also provide process evidence suggesting that the activation of alternative motivations mediates the effect of color on cognitive task performances. PMID:19197022

Mehta, Ravi; Zhu, Rui Juliet

2009-02-27

399

Performance vs. Paper-And-Pencil Estimates of Cognitive Abilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arima's Discrimination Learning Test (DLT) was reconfigured, made into a self-paced mode, and administered to potential recruits in order to determine if: (1) a previous study indicating a lack of difference in learning performance between white and nonwhites would hold up; and (2) the correlations between scores attained on the DLT and scores…

Arima, James K.

400

Cognitive Development and Performance on Verbal Addition and Subtraction Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationships between Piagetian logical reasoning abilities with an information processing capacity, and first-grade children's performance on verbal addition and subtraction problems. An analysis of simple arithmetic problems indicated that several reasoning abilities identified by Piaget are needed to achieve…

Hiebert, James; And Others

401

Social Cognitive Predictors of College Students' Academic Performance and Persistence: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested Social Cognitive Career Theory's (SCCT) academic performance model using a two-stage approach that combined meta-analytic and structural equation modeling methodologies. Unbiased correlations obtained from a previously published meta-analysis [Robbins, S. B., Lauver, K., Le, H., Davis, D., & Langley, R. (2004). Do psychosocial…

Brown, Steven D.; Tramayne, Selena; Hoxha, Denada; Telander, Kyle; Fan, Xiaoyan; Lent, Robert W.

2008-01-01

402

Sleep Deprivation and Sustained Attention Performance: Integrating Mathematical and Cognitive Modeling  

E-print Network

. Introduction Sleep is a necessary part of human functioning. There is an extensive literature docu- mentingSleep Deprivation and Sustained Attention Performance: Integrating Mathematical and Cognitive and concomitant behavioral impacts of sleep deprivation, sleep restriction, and circadian rhythms. Little research

Pennsylvania, University of

403

Schizotypy, cognitive performance, and genetic risk for schizophrenia in a non-clinical population  

E-print Network

Available online 6 April 2013 Keywords: Schizotypy Genetic risk score Mental rotation Vocabulary investigated how 32 of the best-vali- dated schizophrenia risk alleles, singly and as summed genetic risk, wereSchizotypy, cognitive performance, and genetic risk for schizophrenia in a non-clinical population

Crespi, Bernard J.

404

Primary Dysmenorrhea, Educational Performance, and Cognitive and Affective Variables in Adolescent Schoolgirls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research among adolescent English schoolgirls indicated that although girls with primary dysmenorrhea appeared to be more neurotic than those who did not experience menstrual distress, there was no apparent difference between the two groups on cognitive and academic performance measures or in school attendance. (Author/MJL)

Fontana, D.; Rees, Valerie

1982-01-01

405

PERFORMANCE OF FADING MULTI-USER DIVERSITY FOR UNDERLAY COGNITIVE NETWORKS  

E-print Network

PERFORMANCE OF FADING MULTI-USER DIVERSITY FOR UNDERLAY COGNITIVE NETWORKS Fahd Ahmed Khan , M- terference power while giving good throughput. For an in- dependent but not identically distributed Nakagami by exploiting the best channels which become avail- able when there are more users or mobility [3]. By select

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

406

Expert systems for guidance of cognitively impaired people performing daily living activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for developing computerized activity guidance for people with cognitive impairments has been successfully used to guide users independently through tasks that they could not otherwise perform without human assistance. A major shortcoming of this technology has been its inability to adjust and adapt automatically to the capabilities of a range of users or a single user over time.

Simon P. Levine; John E. Laird; Ned L. Kirsch

1989-01-01

407

A biomathematical model of the restoring effects of caffeine on cognitive performance during sleep deprivation  

E-print Network

s t r a c t Rationale: While caffeine is widely used as a countermeasure to sleep loss, mathematical, caffeine is the most widely used stimulant drug in both occupational and non-occupational set- tings. OverA biomathematical model of the restoring effects of caffeine on cognitive performance during sleep

408

Identification of cognitive factors related to remote work performance using closed circuit TV displays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operator perceptual cognitive styles as predictors of remote task performance were identified. Remote tasks which require the use of servo controlled master/slave manipulators and closed circuit television for teleoperator repair and maintenance of nuclear fuel recycling systems are examined. A useful procedure for identifying such perceptual styles is described.

Clarke, M. M.; Garin, J.

1981-01-01

409

Relation of Home Chaos to Cognitive Performance and Behavioral Adjustment of Pakistani Primary School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent findings from Western developed countries have linked home chaos to children's cognitive performance and behavioral problems. In the present paper we test whether the same pattern of associations can be replicated in a non-Western developing country. Our sample was 203 Pakistani primary school children. To assess home chaos the Confusion,…

Shamama-tus-Sabah, Syeda; Gilani, Nighat; Wachs, Theodore D.

2011-01-01

410

Neural Mechanisms of Cognitive Control: An Integrative Model of Stroop Task Performance  

E-print Network

of automatic processes: A parallel distributed processing model of the Stroop effect. Psychological Review, 97Neural Mechanisms of Cognitive Control: An Integrative Model of Stroop Task Performance and f representations for categories, such as the concept of color relevant to the Stroop task we model here

O'Reilly, Randall C.

411

Separating Multiple Processes in Implicit Social Cognition: The Quad Model of Implicit Task Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors argue that implicit measures of social cognition do not reflect only automatic processes but rather the joint contributions of multiple, qualitatively different processes. The quadruple process model proposed and tested in the present article quantitatively disentangles the influences of 4 distinct processes on implicit task performance: the likelihood that automatic bias is activated by a stimulus; that a

Frederica R. Conrey; Jeffrey W. Sherman; Bertram Gawronski; Kurt Hugenberg; Carla J. Groom

2005-01-01

412

Arithmetic Performance of Children with Cerebral Palsy: The Influence of Cognitive and Motor Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP) often show difficulties in arithmetic compared to their typically developing peers. The present study explores whether cognitive and motor variables are related to arithmetic performance of a large group of primary school children with CP. More specifically, the relative influence of non-verbal…

van Rooijen, Maaike; Verhoeven, Ludo; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Becher, Jules G.; Steenbergen, Bert

2012-01-01

413

Preschool experience in 10 countries: Cognitive and language performance at age 7  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IEA Preprimary Project is a longitudinal, cross-national study of preprimary care and education designed to identify how process and structural characteristics of the settings children attended at age 4 are related to their age-7 cognitive and language performance. Investigators collaborated to develop common instruments to measure family background, teachers’ characteristics, setting structural characteristics, experiences of children in settings, and

Jeanne E. Montie; Zongping Xiang; Lawrence J. Schweinhart

2006-01-01

414

The Effect of Postinjury Kindled Seizures on Cognitive Performance of Traumatically Brain-Injured Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this experiment was to examine the consequences of postinjury seizures on cognitive performance after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). Rats either were injured at a moderate (2.1 atm) level of central fluid percussion TBI (n = 16) or were surgically prepared but did not receive a fluid pulse (sham-injured control, n = 16). Beginning 24 h after

Robert J. Hamm; Brian R. Pike; Meredith D. Temple; Dianne M. O'Dell; Bruce G. Lyeth

1995-01-01

415

Sleep and cognitive performance of flight nurses after 12-hour evening versus 18-hour shifts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundInadequate rest can result in disastrous medical and aviation errors. Using a prospective within-subjects design, this study compared the amount of daily sleep and the cognitive performance in flight nurses working 12-hour evening versus 18-hour shifts during a 72-hour duty schedule.

Frank Thomas; Ramona O. Hopkins; Diana L. Handrahan; James Walker; Judi Carpenter

2006-01-01

416

Cognitive functioning and driving simulator performance in middle-aged and older adults with HIV.  

PubMed

Nearly half of people living with HIV experience cognitive deficits that may impact instrumental activities of daily living. As the number of people aging with HIV increases, concerns mount that disease-related cognitive deficits may be compounded by age-related deficits, which may further compromise everyday functions such as driving. In this cross-sectional pilot study, during a 2.5-hour visit, 26 middle-aged and older adults (40 + years) were administered demographic, health, psychosocial, and driving habits questionnaires; cognitive assessments; and driving simulator tests. Although CD4+ T lymphocyte count and viral load were unrelated to driving performance, older age was related to poorer driving. Furthermore, poorer visual speed of processing performance (i.e., useful field of view) was related to poorer driving performance (e.g., average gross reaction time). Mixed findings were observed between driving performance and cognitive function on self-reported driving habits of participants. Implications for these findings on nursing practice and research are posited. PMID:24513104

Vance, David E; Fazeli, Pariya L; Ball, David A; Slater, Larry Z; Ross, Lesley A

2014-01-01

417

Relationships between Continuous Performance Task Scores and Other Cognitive Measures: Causality or Commonality?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships among continuous performance test (CPT), IQ, achievement, and memory/learning scores were explored for 1,280 children about 9 years old. Associations among the CPT measures and various cognitive/academic tasks suggest that all require attention and inhibition. The importance of assessing attention and disinhibition in psychological…

Aylward, Glen P.; Gordon, Michael; Verhulst, Steven J.

1997-01-01

418

Continuous Performance Test (CPT) of College Students with ADHD, Psychiatric Disorders, Cognitive Deficits, or No Diagnosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective/Method: The Conner's Continuous Performance Test (CPT) was administered to four groups of adult college students who self-referred for comprehensive psychoeducational evaluation and received either no diagnosis (n = 30) or a diagnosis of ADHD (n = 26), a psychiatric disorder (n = 17), or various cognitive deficits (n = 22). Results: The…

Advokat, Claire; Martino, Leslie; Hill, B. D.; Gouvier, William

2007-01-01

419

Continuous Performance Test (CPT) of College Students With ADHD, Psychiatric Disorders, Cognitive Deficits, or No Diagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective\\/Method: The Conner’s Continuous Performance Test (CPT) was administered to four groups of adult college students who self-referred for comprehensive psychoeducational evaluation and received either no diagnosis (n = 30) or a diagnosis of ADHD (n = 26), a psychiatric disorder (n = 17), or various cognitive deficits (n = 22).Results: The groups did not differ with respect to age,

Claire Advokat; Leslie Martino; B D Hill; William Gouvier

2007-01-01

420

Children's Sleep and Cognitive Performance: A Cross-Domain Analysis of Change over Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relations between changes in children's cognitive performance and changes in sleep problems were examined over a 3-year period, and family socioeconomic status, child race/ethnicity, and gender were assessed as moderators of these associations. Participants were 250 second- and third-grade (8-9 years old at Time 1) boys and girls. At each…

Bub, Kristen L.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona

2011-01-01

421

Caffeine's Effect on Appraisal and Mental Arithmetic Performance: A Cognitive Modeling Approach Tells Us More  

E-print Network

Caffeine's Effect on Appraisal and Mental Arithmetic Performance: A Cognitive Modeling Approach Abstract A human subject experiment was conducted to investigate caffeine's effect on appraisal treatment groups: placebo, 200 mg caffeine, and 400 mg caffeine. Data were analyzed by average across

Ritter, Frank

422

Impact of Natalizumab on Cognitive Performances and Fatigue in Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis: A Prospective, Open-Label, Two Years Observational Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Natalizumab reduces the relapse rate and magnetic resonance imaging activity in patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS). So far the influence of natalizumab on cognitive functions and fatigue in MS remains uncertain. The aim of this prospective, open-label, observational study was to evaluate the possible effects of natalizumab on cognition and fatigue measures in RRMS patients treated for up to two years. Methods Cognitive performances were examined by the Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery (BRB), the Stroop test (ST) and the Cognitive Impairment Index (CII), every 12 months. Patients who failed in at least 3 tests of the BRB and the ST were classified as cognitively impaired (CI). Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) was administered every 12 months to assess patient's self-reported fatigue. One hundred and 53 patients completed 1 and 2 year-natalizumab treatment, respectively. Results After 1 year of treatment the percentage of CI patients decreased from 29% (29/100) at baseline to 19% (19/100) (p?=?0.031) and the mean baseline values of CII (13.52±6.85) and FSS (4.01±1.63) scores were significantly reduced (10.48±7.12, p<0.0001 and 3.61±1.56, p?=?0.008). These significant effects were confirmed in the subgroup of patients treated up to two years. Conclusions These results demonstrate that a short-term NTZ treatment may significantly improve cognitive performances and fatigue in RRMS patients. PMID:22558238

Iaffaldano, Pietro; Viterbo, Rosa Gemma; Paolicelli, Damiano; Lucchese, Guglielmo; Portaccio, Emilio; Goretti, Benedetta; Direnzo, Vita; D'Onghia, Mariangela; Zoccolella, Stefano; Amato, Maria Pia; Trojano, Maria

2012-01-01

423

Improvement in aircraft performance reduces operating costs  

SciTech Connect

The escalation of jet transport fuel prices has altered traditional economic formulas for commercial airplane operators. This economic change has provided the impetus to develop improvements for existing production run transports such as the Boeing 727, 737, and 747 airplanes. Improvements have been made in drag reduction, propulsion system, weight reduction, and operation.

Not Available

1982-04-01

424

Relationship between adiposity and cognitive performance in 9-10 year old children in south India  

PubMed Central

Background Studies in high-income countries have shown inverse associations between adiposity and cognitive performance in children. We aimed to examine the relationship between adiposity and cognitive function in Indian children. Methods At a mean age of 9.7 years, height, weight, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses and waist circumference were recorded for 540 children born in Mysore, India. Body fat percentage was estimated using bio-impedance. Cognitive function was assessed using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children-II edition and additional tests measuring learning, short-term memory, reasoning, verbal and visuo-spatial abilities, attention and concentration. Data on the parents’ socio-economic status, education, occupation and income were collected. Results According to WHO definitions, 3.5% of the children were overweight/obese (BMI>+1SD) and 27% underweight (BMIcognitive test scores increased with increase in BMI and skinfold thickness, (unadjusted ?=0.10 to 0.20 SD; p<0.05 for all). The effects, though attenuated, remained mainly significant after adjustment for age, sex and socio-economic factors. Similar associations were found for waist circumference and percentage body fat. Conclusions In this Indian population, in which obesity was uncommon, greater adiposity predicted higher cognitive ability. These associations were only partly explained by socio-economic factors. Our findings suggest that better nutrition is associated with better cognitive function, and that inverse associations between adiposity and cognitive function in high-income countries reflect confounding by socio-economic factors. PMID:24146284

Veena, Sargoor R; Hegde, Bhavya G; Ramachandraiah, Somashekara; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Fall, Caroline HD; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

2014-01-01

425

Apple Juice Improved Behavioral But Not Cognitive Symptoms in Moderate-to-Late Stage Alzheimer’s Disease in an Open-Label Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preclinical studies demonstrate that apple juice exerts multiple beneficial effects including reduction of central nervous system oxidative damage, suppression of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) hallmarks, improved cognitive performance, and organized synaptic signaling. Herein, we initiated an open-label clinical trial in which 21 institutionalized individuals with moderate-to-severe AD consumed 2 4-oz glasses of apple juice daily for 1 month. Participants demonstrated no

Ruth Remington; Amy Chan; Alicia Lepore; Elizabeth Kotlya; Thomas B. Shea

2010-01-01

426

Cognitive orientation to daily occupational performance (CO-OP): part I--theoretical foundations.  

PubMed

This paper is the first in a series of three papers that present the systematic development and evaluation of Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP). CO-OP is a cognitively based, child-centred intervention that enables children to achieve their functional goals. In Part I, the breadth of literature that provides the theoretical underpinnings for the approach is reviewed. Parts II and III provide a description of the approach and present the evidence to support its use with children with developmental coordination disorder. PMID:11345513

Missiuna, C; Mandich, A D; Polatajko, H J; Malloy-Miller, T

2001-01-01