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1

Caffeine Improves Physical and Cognitive Performance during Exhaustive Exercise  

Microsoft Academic Search

HOGERVORST, E., S. BANDELOW, J. SCHMITT, R. JENTJENS, M. OLIVEIRA, J. ALLGROVE, T. CARTER, and M. GLEESON. Caffeine Improves Physical and Cognitive Performance during Exhaustive Exercise. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 40, No. 10, pp. 1841-1851, 2008. Caffeine is thought to act as a central stimulant and to have effects on physical, cognitive, and psychomotor functioning. Purpose: To examine the

EEF HOGERVORST; STEPHAN BANDELOW; JEROEN SCHMITT; ROY JENTJENS; MARTA OLIVEIRA; JUDITH ALLGROVE; TOM CARTER; MICHAEL GLEESON

2008-01-01

2

UNDERSTANDING TEAM COGNITION IN PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT TEAMS: A META ANALYSIS OF CHANGE IN SHARED MENTAL MODELS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Team cognition is comprised of several factors including shared knowledge or shared mental models (SMM). As there is little agreement about best methods for measuring SMM, this study utilized data from four previous studies and the ACSMM methodology for analysis of data. Findings about SMM in Performance Improvement teams indicate that changes in SMM take place during team task performance

Debra L. O'Connor; Tristan E. Johnson

3

Cognitive remediation improves cognition and good cognitive performance increases time to relapse - results of a 5 year catamnestic study in schizophrenia patients  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive deficits are stable features of schizophrenia that are linked to functional outcome. Cognitive remediation approaches have been proven successful in ameliorating these deficits, although effect sizes vary considerably. Whether cognitive deficits are serious predictors of clinical outcome is less clear. Methods Sixty patients suffering from schizophrenia were included in our sample, thirty of them received computer-assisted cognitive training, and thirty received occupational therapy. For a subsample of 55 patients, who could be traced over a period of five years after the end of the cognitive remediation intervention, time until first relapse and time in psychosis were determined retrospectively from their medical records. Results Cognitive remediation significantly improved problem solving, memory and attention with high effect sizes. Employment status, a post test verbal memory performance measure and a measure of executive functioning outperformed all other measures in the prediction of time to relapse, while allocation to treatment group outperformed all other variables in the prediction of both cognitive measures. Conclusions Cognitive remediation of neurocognitive deficits thus makes sense in a twofold fashion: It enhances cognition directly and positively acts on clinical course indirectly via improved neurocognition. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00004880

2013-01-01

4

Altitude acclimatization improves submaximal cognitive performance in mice and involves an imbalance of the cholinergic system.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to reveal a hypothetical improvement of cognitive abilities in animals acclimatized to altitude and performing under ground level conditions, when looking at submaximal performance, once seen that it was not possible when looking at maximal scores. We modified contrasted cognitive tasks (object recognition, operant conditioning, eight-arm radial maze, and classical conditioning of the eyeblink reflex), increasing their complexity in an attempt to find performance differences in acclimatized animals vs. untrained controls. In addition, we studied, through immunohistochemical quantification, the expression of choline acetyltransferase and acetyl cholinesterase, enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of acetylcholine, in the septal area, piriform and visual cortexes, and the hippocampal CA1 area of animals submitted to acute hypobaric hypoxia, or acclimatized to this simulated altitude, to find a relationship between the cholinergic system and a cognitive improvement due to altitude acclimatization. Results showed subtle improvements of the cognitive capabilities of acclimatized animals in all of the tasks when performed under ground-level conditions (although not before 24 h), in the three tasks used to test explicit memory (object recognition, operant conditioning in the Skinner box, and eight-arm radial maze) and (from the first conditioning session) in the classical conditioning task used to evaluate implicit memory. An imbalance of choline acetyltransferase/acetyl cholinesterase expression was found in acclimatized animals, mainly 24 h after the acclimatization period. In conclusion, altitude acclimatization improves cognitive capabilities, in a process parallel to an imbalance of the cholinergic system. PMID:23599398

Guerra-Narbona, R; Delgado-García, J M; López-Ramos, J C

2013-04-18

5

Three weeks of running wheel exposure improves cognitive performance in the aged Tg2576 mouse  

PubMed Central

If begun early in life, exercise effectively reduces the development of cognitive deficits in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the effectiveness of exercise, once the cognitive impairments are established, is not as clear. In terms of translating research in animal models to treatments involving exercise in Alzheimer's disease patients, it is critical to evaluate exercise intervention at time points that address not only prevention, but also treatment of cognitive decline. We provided exercise wheels to Tg2576 (TG) (n=12) and C57BL6 (WT) (n=17) mice at 17-19 months of age for three weeks. At this age animals have significant cognitive impairment and neuropathology consistent with AD. Age matched sedentary TG (n=13) and WT (n=12) mice were also included, as well as groups provided access to an immobile wheel (TG n=9, WT n=12). After three weeks, animals were evaluated in a radial arm water maze. Significant impairments were observed in the sedentary TG mice compared to WT in reference/long-term and working/short-term memory, as well as in probe trials. Exercised TG mice demonstrated improvements in memory, which made them indistinguishable from WT mice on all tasks. In addition, animals provided with an immobile wheel exhibited improvement in some, but not all cognitive measures. Our findings demonstrate that exercise can improve cognitive performance in a mouse model of AD even if applied after the development of pathology.

Nichol, Kathryn E.; Parachikova, Anna I.; Cotman, Carl W.

2008-01-01

6

Cognitive Strategy Instruction that Really Improves Children's Academic Performance. Cognitive Strategy Training Series. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is the flagship volume in a series on cognitive strategy instruction. While strategies instruction is particularly appropriate for the learning disabled, it is also very useful for normal learners, especially inner city and minority children. The series focuses on conveying strategies instruction methods for use with these children.…

Pressley, Michael, Ed.; Woloshyn, Vera, Ed.

7

The combination of L-theanine and caffeine improves cognitive performance and increases subjective alertness.  

PubMed

The non-proteinic amino acid L-theanine and caffeine, a methylxanthine derivative, are naturally occurring ingredients in tea. The present study investigated the effect of a combination of 97 mg L-theanine and 40 mg caffeine as compared to placebo treatment on cognitive performance, alertness, blood pressure, and heart rate in a sample of young adults (n = 44). Cognitive performance, self-reported mood, blood pressure, and heart rate were measured before L-theanine and caffeine administration (i.e. at baseline) and 20 min and 70 min thereafter. The combination of moderate levels of L-theanine and caffeine significantly improved accuracy during task switching and self-reported alertness (both P < 0.01) and reduced self-reported tiredness (P < 0.05). There were no significant effects on other cognitive tasks, such as visual search, choice reaction times, or mental rotation. The present results suggest that 97 mg of L-theanine in combination with 40 mg of caffeine helps to focus attention during a demanding cognitive task. PMID:21040626

Giesbrecht, T; Rycroft, J A; Rowson, M J; De Bruin, E A

2010-12-01

8

Selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors improve performance on the ED\\/ID cognitive task in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors have been demonstrated to improve learning in several rodent models of cognition. Given that schizophrenia is associated with impairments in frontal lobe-dependent cognitive functions (e.g., working memory and cognitive flexibility), we examined whether PDE inhibitors would attenuate cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. Persistent suppression of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor function produces enduring structural changes

Joshua S. Rodefer; Samantha K. Saland; Samuel J. Eckrich

9

Cardiovascular and Coordination Training Differentially Improve Cognitive Performance and Neural Processing in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Recent studies revealed a positive influence of physical activity on cognitive functioning in older adults. Studies that investigate the behavioral and neurophysiological effects of type and long term duration of physical training, however, are missing. We performed a 12-month longitudinal study to investigate the effects of cardiovascular and coordination training (control group: relaxation and stretching) on cognitive functions (executive control and perceptual speed) in older adults. We analyzed data of 44 participants aged 62–79 years. Participants were trained three times a week for 12 months. Their physical and cognitive performance was tested prior to training, and after 6 and 12 months. Changes in brain activation patterns were investigated using functional MRI. On the behavioral level, both experimental groups improved in executive functioning and perceptual speed but with differential effects on speed and accuracy. In line with the behavioral findings, neurophysiological results for executive control also revealed changes (increases and reductions) in brain activity for both interventions in frontal, parietal, and sensorimotor cortical areas. In contrast to the behavioral findings, neurophysiological changes were linear without indication of a plateau. In both intervention groups, prefrontal areas showed decreased activation after 6 and 12 months when performing an executive control task, as compared to the control group, indicating more efficient information processing. Furthermore, cardiovascular training was associated with an increased activation of the sensorimotor network, whereas coordination training was associated with increased activation in the visual–spatial network. Our data suggest that besides cardiovascular training also other types of physical activity improve cognition of older adults. The mechanisms, however, that underlie the performance changes seem to differ depending on the intervention.

Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia; Godde, Ben; Staudinger, Ursula M.

2011-01-01

10

Predictors of performance improvements within a cognitive remediation program for schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment is regarded a core feature of schizophrenia and is associated with low psychosocial functioning. There is rich evidence that cognitive remediation can improve cognitive functions in patients with schizophrenia. However, little is known about what predicts individual remediation success. Some studies suggest that baseline cognitive impairment might be a limiting factor for training response. Aim of the current study was to further examine the role of cognitive and symptom variables as predictors of remediation success. We studied a total sample of 32 patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder who were engaged in a computer-based cognitive training program (CogPack). A pre-training test battery provided cognitive measures of selective attention, executive functioning, processing speed, verbal memory, and verbal intelligence along with measures for positive and negative symptoms. Training response was defined as improvement on training tasks. Correlation analyses revealed no significant relationship between any of the baseline cognitive or symptom measures and improvement rates. However, better baseline cognition was associated with a higher percentage of tasks with initial ceiling effects. We conclude that not carefully tailoring task difficulty to patients' cognitive abilities constitutes a much more severe threat to cognitive remediation success than cognitive impairment itself. PMID:23816518

Scheu, Florian; Aghotor, Julia; Pfueller, Ute; Moritz, Steffen; Bohn, Francesca; Weisbrod, Matthias; Roesch-Ely, Daniela

2013-06-28

11

Progesterone improves cognitive performance and attenuates smoking urges in abstinent smokers  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Progesterone, a steroid hormone, has been implicated in many CNS functions including reward, cognition, and neuroprotection. The goal of this study was to examine the dose-dependent effects of progesterone on cognitive performance, smoking urges, and smoking behavior in smokers. Methods Thirty female and thirty-four male smokers participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Female smokers were in the early follicular phase of their menstrual cycle during study participation. Smokers were randomly assigned to either 200 or 400 mg/day of progesterone or placebo, given in two separate doses, during clinic visit. The first 3 days of the treatment period, smokers abstained from smoking, which was verified with breath CO levels. Smokers attended an experimental session on day 4 where the number of cigarettes smoked were recorded starting two hours after the medication treatment. Results Progesterone treatment, 200 mg/day, significantly improved cognitive performance in the Stroop and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Progesterone at 400 mg/day was associated with reduced urges for smoking but did not change ad lib smoking behavior. Conclusions These findings suggest a potential therapeutic value of progesterone for smoking cessation.

Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Mouratidis, Maria; Mooney, Marc

2010-01-01

12

Antioxidant treatment with phenyl-?- tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) improves the cognitive performance and survival of aging rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulating evidence has implicated free radical production and resultant oxidative damage as a major contributing factor in brain aging and cognitive decline. In the present study, aging 24-month-old rats were chronically treated with the synthetic spin-trapping antioxidant phenyl-?-tert-butyl nitrone (PBN) for up to 9.5 months. Chronic PBN treatment (1) improved the cognitive performance of aged rats in several tasks, (2)

Candice A. Sack; Debra J. Socci; Blane M. Crandall; Gary W. Arendash

1996-01-01

13

Some strategies to improve performance in school chemistry, based on two cognitive factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The background to this study are the difficulties facing the majority of Greek pupils in understanding chemistry concepts and, therefore, performing well in the National Examinations. The aim was to explore the problems and to suggest ways in which the situation might be improved. Working with 105 Greek pupils aged 15 to 16, the first stage of the enquiry confirmed that both working memory space and extent of field dependency were two psychological factors affecting performance. This is at least part of the nature of the problem. In the second stage, an attempt was made to explore how the problems might be reduced. New teaching materials were constructed to minimize any limitations to learning caused by working memory space and problems associated with being field dependent. The use of the new materials was compared to the normal teaching process working with 210 Greek pupils aged 15 to16. It was found that there was a significant difference in the average improvement of the experimental group and the control group, in favour of the experimental group. This result was independent of the effect of the teacher, and of the interaction of teaching method and teacher. It is suggested that approaches to learning must take into account cognitive factors in the learners in the context of information processing understandings of learning. If this is done, learning is much more effective.

Danili, Eleni; Reid, Norman

2004-02-01

14

A vitamin/nutriceutical formulation improves memory and cognitive performance in community-dwelling adults without dementia.  

PubMed

Adults of both genders without dementia consumed a nutriceutical formulation ("NF," consisting of folic acid, B12, Vitamin E, S-adenosylmethionine, N-acetyl cysteine and Acetyl-L-carnitine), previously shown to improve cognitive performance in Alzheimer's disease, or placebo. Participants receiving NF but not placebo improved statistically and clinically in the California Verbal Learning Test II and the Trail-Making Test. Both groups improved further during a 3-month open-label extension. Additional individuals displayed identical improvement during a separate 6-month open-label trial. Performance declined to baseline following withdrawal of NF, and statistically improved when participants resumed taking NF. Additional participants receiving NF but not placebo demonstrated improvement within 2 weeks in Trail-making and Digit-Memory tests; both groups improved in a 2-week open-label extension. An increased percentage of participants > or = 74 years of age did not show improvement with NF, which may relate to age-related difficulties in adsorption and/or basal nutritional deficiencies, or age-related cognitive decline during the course of this study. These findings support the benefit of nutritional supplements for cognitive performance and suggest that additional supplementation may be required for the elderly. PMID:20191258

Chan, A; Remington, R; Kotyla, E; Lepore, A; Zemianek, J; Shea, T B

2010-03-01

15

Cognitive aspects of performance.  

PubMed Central

The study of cognitive structures and processes in the control of skilled performance is considered and reviewed with special reference to a proposed hierarchical system incorporating levels of motor integration. Cognitive styles and dispositions of general behaviour are suggested as factors which may determine performance levels. The relative importance of these personal factors and stronger personality traits in accounting for variance in performance is considered in the light of a critique of the current interactional controversy.

Kane, J. E.

1978-01-01

16

Consumption of cocoa flavanols results in acute improvements in mood and cognitive performance during sustained mental effort.  

PubMed

Cocoa flavanols (CF) positively influence physiological processes in ways that suggest their consumption may improve aspects of cognitive function. This study investigated the acute cognitive and subjective effects of CF consumption during sustained mental demand. In this randomized, controlled, double-blinded, balanced, three period crossover trial 30 healthy adults consumed drinks containing 520 mg, 994 mg CF and a matched control, with a three-day washout between drinks. Assessments included the state anxiety inventory and repeated 10-min cycles of a Cognitive Demand Battery comprising of two serial subtraction tasks (Serial Threes and Serial Sevens), a Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) task and a 'mental fatigue' scale, over the course of 1 h. Consumption of both 520 mg and 994 mg CF significantly improved Serial Threes performance. The 994 mg CF beverage significantly speeded RVIP responses but also resulted in more errors during Serial Sevens. Increases in self-reported 'mental fatigue' were significantly attenuated by the consumption of the 520 mg CF beverage only. This is the first report of acute cognitive improvements following CF consumption in healthy adults. While the mechanisms underlying the effects are unknown they may be related to known effects of CF on endothelial function and blood flow. PMID:19942640

Scholey, Andrew B; French, Stephen J; Morris, Penelope J; Kennedy, David O; Milne, Anthea L; Haskell, Crystal F

2009-11-26

17

Slowing down after a mild traumatic brain injury: a strategy to improve cognitive task performance?  

PubMed

Long-term persistent attention and memory difficulties following a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) often go undetected on standard neuropsychological tests, despite complaints by mild TBI individuals. We conducted a visual Repetition Detection working memory task to digits, in which we manipulated task difficulty by increasing cognitive load, to identify subtle deficits long after a mild TBI. Twenty-six undergraduate students with a self-report of one mild TBI, which occurred at least 6 months prior, and 31 non-head-injured controls took part in the study. Participants were not informed until study completion that the study's purpose was to examine cognitive changes following a mild TBI, to reduce the influence of "diagnosis threat" on performance. Neuropsychological tasks did not differentiate the groups, though mild TBI participants reported higher state anxiety levels. On our working memory task, the mild TBI group took significantly longer to accurately detect repeated targets on our task, suggesting that slowed information processing is a long-term consequence of mild TBI. Accuracy was comparable in the low-load condition and, unexpectedly, mild TBI performance surpassed that of controls in the high-load condition. Temporal analysis of target identification suggested a strategy difference between groups: mild TBI participants made a significantly greater number of accurate responses following the target's offset, and significantly fewer erroneous distracter responses prior to target onset, compared with controls. Results suggest that long after a mild TBI, high-functioning young adults invoke a strategy of delaying their identification of targets in order to maintain, and facilitate, accuracy on cognitively demanding tasks. PMID:22068441

Ozen, Lana J; Fernandes, Myra A

2011-11-07

18

Initial Cognitive Performance Predicts Longitudinal Aviator Performance  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The goal of the study was to improve prediction of longitudinal flight simulator performance by studying cognitive factors that may moderate the influence of chronological age. Method. We examined age-related change in aviation performance in aircraft pilots in relation to baseline cognitive ability measures and aviation expertise. Participants were aircraft pilots (N = 276) aged 40–77.9. Flight simulator performance and cognition were tested yearly; there were an average of 4.3 (± 2.7; range 1–13) data points per participant. Each participant was classified into one of the three levels of aviation expertise based on Federal Aviation Administration pilot proficiency ratings: least, moderate, or high expertise. Results. Addition of measures of cognitive processing speed and executive function to a model of age-related change in aviation performance significantly improved the model. Processing speed and executive function performance interacted such that the slowest rate of decline in flight simulator performance was found in aviators with the highest scores on tests of these abilities. Expertise was beneficial to pilots across the age range studied; however, expertise did not show evidence of reducing the effect of age. Discussion. These data suggest that longitudinal performance on an important real-world activity can be predicted by initial assessment of relevant cognitive abilities.

Jo, Booil; Adamson, Maheen M.; Kennedy, Quinn; Noda, Art; Hernandez, Beatriz; Zeitzer, Jamie M.; Friedman, Leah F.; Fairchild, Kaci; Scanlon, Blake K.; Murphy, Greer M.; Taylor, Joy L.

2011-01-01

19

Some Strategies to Improve Performance in School Chemistry, Based on Two Cognitive Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The background to this study are the difficulties facing the majority of Greek pupils in understanding chemistry concepts and, therefore, performing well in the National Examinations. The aim was to explore the problems and to suggest ways in which the situation might be improved. Working with 105 Greek pupils aged 15 to 16, the first stage of the…

Danili, Eleni; Reid, Norman

2004-01-01

20

Single doses of Panax ginseng (G115) reduce blood glucose levels and improve cognitive performance during sustained mental activity.  

PubMed

Single doses of the traditional herbal treatment Panax ginseng have recently been shown to elicit cognitive improvements in healthy young volunteers. The mechanisms by which ginseng improves cognitive performance are not known. However, they may be related to the glycaemic properties of some Panax species. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover design, 30 healthy young adults completed a 10 min test battery at baseline, and then six times in immediate succession commencing 60 min after the day's treatment (placebo, 200mg G115 or 400mg G115). The 10 min battery comprised a Serial Threes subtraction task (2 min); a Serial Sevens task (2 min); a Rapid Visual Information Processing task (5 min); then a 'mental fatigue' visual analogue scale. Blood glucose was measured prior to each day's treatment, and before, during and after the post-dose completions of the battery. Both the 200mg and 400mg treatments led to significant reductions in blood glucose levels at all three post-treatment measurements (p 0.005 in all cases). The most notable behavioural effects were associated with 200mg of ginseng and included significantly improved Serial Sevens subtraction task performance and significantly reduced subjective mental fatigue throughout all (with the exception of one time point in each case) of the post-dose completions of the 10 min battery (p 0.05). Overall these data suggest that Panax ginseng can improve performance and subjective feelings of mental fatigue during sustained mental activity. This effect may be related to the acute gluco-regulatory properties of the extract. PMID:15982990

Reay, Jonathon L; Kennedy, David O; Scholey, Andrew B

2005-07-01

21

Improved cognitive performance following supplementation with a mixed-grain diet in high school students: A randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveAdolescence is a stage of rapid growth, when rich nutritional supplementation is important. Maintaining optimal cognitive functioning is critical in high school students, who are under considerable academic pressure. The objectives of this study were to identify the effects of a 9-week randomly assigned diet of mixed grains vs. a regular diet on cognitive performance and on levels of plasma

Young-Chul Chung; Chul-Hyun Park; Hye-Kyung Kwon; Young Soo Kim; Jae-Kyun Doo; Dong-Hwa Shin; Eun-Soo Jung; Mi-Ra Oh; Soo Wan Chae

22

Effectiveness of Cognitive/Relaxation Therapy and Study-Skills Training in Reducing Self-Reported Anxiety and Improving the Academic Performance of Test-Anxious Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results indicated relaxation/cognitive therapy was effective in reducing anxiety but failed to improve classroom test scores; study-skills training had no significant effect. The combined therapy both reduced anxiety and improved performance relative to the no-treatment control condition and was significantly more effective than was either…

Dendato, Kenneth M.; Diener, Don

1986-01-01

23

Ketogenic Diet Improves Motor Performance but Not Cognition in Two Mouse Models of Alzheimer's Pathology  

PubMed Central

Dietary manipulations are increasingly viewed as possible approaches to treating neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies suggest that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients present an energy imbalance with brain hypometabolism and mitochondrial deficits. Ketogenic diets (KDs), widely investigated in the treatment and prevention of seizures, have been suggested to bypass metabolic deficits present in AD brain by providing ketone bodies as an alternative fuel to neurons. We investigated the effects of a ketogenic diet in two transgenic mouse lines. Five months old APP/PS1 (a model of amyloid deposition) and Tg4510 (a model of tau deposition) mice were offered either a ketogenic or a control (NIH-31) diet for 3 months. Body weight and food intake were monitored throughout the experiment, and blood was collected at 4 weeks and 4 months for ketone and glucose assessments. Both lines of transgenic mice weighed less than nontransgenic mice, yet, surprisingly, had elevated food intake. The ketogenic diet did not affect these differences in body weight or food consumption. Behavioral testing during the last two weeks of treatment found that mice offered KD performed significantly better on the rotarod compared to mice on the control diet independent of genotype. In the open field test, both transgenic mouse lines presented increased locomotor activity compared to nontransgenic, age-matched controls, and this effect was not influenced by KD. The radial arm water maze identified learning deficits in both transgenic lines with no significant differences between diets. Tissue measures of amyloid, tau, astroglial and microglial markers in transgenic lines showed no differences between animals fed the control or the ketogenic diet. These data suggest that ketogenic diets may play an important role in enhancing motor performance in mice, but have minimal impact on the phenotype of murine models of amyloid or tau deposition.

Brownlow, Milene L.; Benner, Leif; D'Agostino, Dominic; Gordon, Marcia N.; Morgan, Dave

2013-01-01

24

Ketogenic diet improves motor performance but not cognition in two mouse models of Alzheimer's pathology.  

PubMed

Dietary manipulations are increasingly viewed as possible approaches to treating neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies suggest that Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients present an energy imbalance with brain hypometabolism and mitochondrial deficits. Ketogenic diets (KDs), widely investigated in the treatment and prevention of seizures, have been suggested to bypass metabolic deficits present in AD brain by providing ketone bodies as an alternative fuel to neurons. We investigated the effects of a ketogenic diet in two transgenic mouse lines. Five months old APP/PS1 (a model of amyloid deposition) and Tg4510 (a model of tau deposition) mice were offered either a ketogenic or a control (NIH-31) diet for 3 months. Body weight and food intake were monitored throughout the experiment, and blood was collected at 4 weeks and 4 months for ketone and glucose assessments. Both lines of transgenic mice weighed less than nontransgenic mice, yet, surprisingly, had elevated food intake. The ketogenic diet did not affect these differences in body weight or food consumption. Behavioral testing during the last two weeks of treatment found that mice offered KD performed significantly better on the rotarod compared to mice on the control diet independent of genotype. In the open field test, both transgenic mouse lines presented increased locomotor activity compared to nontransgenic, age-matched controls, and this effect was not influenced by KD. The radial arm water maze identified learning deficits in both transgenic lines with no significant differences between diets. Tissue measures of amyloid, tau, astroglial and microglial markers in transgenic lines showed no differences between animals fed the control or the ketogenic diet. These data suggest that ketogenic diets may play an important role in enhancing motor performance in mice, but have minimal impact on the phenotype of murine models of amyloid or tau deposition. PMID:24069439

Brownlow, Milene L; Benner, Leif; D'Agostino, Dominic; Gordon, Marcia N; Morgan, Dave

2013-09-12

25

Effects of modafinil on cognitive and meta-cognitive performance.  

PubMed

The stimulant modafinil has proved to be an effective treatment modality for narcolepsy and related sleep disorders and is also being studied for use during sustained military operations to ameliorate the effects of fatigue due to sleep loss. However, a previous study reported that a relatively large, single dose of modafinil (300 mg), administered to already sleep-deprived individuals, caused participants to overestimate their cognitive abilities (i.e. 'overconfidence'). Because the predominant application of modafinil is in otherwise healthy, non-sleep-deprived individuals, the present study investigated the generality of modafinil-induced overconfidence in a group of 18 healthy, non sleep-deprived adults. The design involved a double-blind, placebo controlled, fully within-subjects manipulation of placebo and modafinil (4 mg/kg: approximately 300 mg, on average) over three 50-min cognitive testing sessions (i.e. before drug ingestion, and at 90 and 180 min after drug ingestion). The cognitive task battery included subjective assessments of mood, fatigue, affect, vigor and motivation, and cognitive assessments of serial reaction time, logical reasoning, visual comparison, mental addition and vigilance. In addition, trial-by-trial confidence judgements were obtained for two of the cognitive tasks and more global, task level assessments of performance were obtained for four of the cognitive tasks. Relative to placebo, modafinil improved fatigue levels, motivation, reaction time and vigilance. In terms of self-assessments of cognitive performance, both the placebo and modafinil conditions were 'well calibrated' on trial-by-trial confidence judgements, showing neither marked over- nor under-confidence. Of note, the modafinil condition displayed a non-significant tendency towards 'overconfidence' for task-level assessments of performance. The present findings highlight the need for continued research on the many complex interactions involving fatigue states, occasional versus long-term stimulant use, and subjective assessments of fatigue and cognitive performance. PMID:15252824

Baranski, Joseph V; Pigeau, Ross; Dinich, Peter; Jacobs, Ira

2004-07-01

26

Exercise-induced improvement in cognitive performance after traumatic brain-injury in rats is dependent on BDNF Activation  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that voluntary exercise upregulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) within the hippocampus and is associated with an enhancement of cognitive recovery after a lateral fluid-percussion injury (FPI). In order to determine if BDNF is critical to this effect we used an immunoadhesin chimera (TrkB-IgG) that inactivates free BDNF. This BDNF inhibitor was administered to adult male rats two weeks after they had received a mild fluid percussion injury (FPI) or sham surgery. These animals were then housed with or without access to a running wheel (RW) from post-injury-day (PID) 14 to 20. On PID 21, rats were tested for spatial learning in a Morris Water Maze. Results showed that exercise counteracted the cognitive deficits associated with the injury. However this exercise-induced cognitive improvement was attenuated in the FPI-RW rats that were treated with TrkB-IgG. Molecules important for synaptic plasticity and learning were measured in a separate group of rats that were sacrificed immediately after exercise (PID 21). Western blot analyses showed that exercise increased the mature form of BDNF, synapsin I and cyclic-AMP response-element-binding protein (CREB) in the vehicle treated Sham-RW group. However, only the mature form of BDNF and CREB were increased in the vehicle treated FPI-RW group. Blocking BDNF (pre administration of TrkB-IgG) greatly reduced the molecular effects of exercise in that exercise-induced increases of BDNF, synapsin I and CREB were not observed. These studies provide evidence that BDNF has a major role in exercise's cognitive effects in traumatically injured brain.

Griesbach, Grace Sophia; Hovda, David Allen; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

2009-01-01

27

Disruption of the NF-?B/I?B? Autoinhibitory Loop Improves Cognitive Performance and Promotes Hyperexcitability of Hippocampal Neurons  

PubMed Central

Background Though originally discovered in the immune system as an important mediator of inflammation, NF-?B has recently been shown to play key roles in the central nervous system, such as synaptogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and cognition. NF-?B activity is normally tightly regulated by its primary inhibitor, I?B?, through a unique autoinhibitory loop. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the I?B? autoinhibitory loop ensures optimal levels of NF-?B activity to promote proper brain development and function. To do so, we utilized knock-in mice which possess mutations in the I?B? promoter to disrupt the autoinhibitory loop (I?B?M/M KI mice). Results Here, we show that these mutations delay I?B? resynthesis and enhance NF-?B activation in neurons following acute activating stimuli. This leads to improved cognitive ability on tests of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory but no change in hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Instead, hippocampal neurons from I?B?M/M KI mice form more excitatory and less inhibitory synapses in dissociated cultures and are hyperexcitable. This leads to increased burst firing of action potentials and the development of abnormal hypersynchronous discharges in vivo. Conclusions These results demonstrate that the I?B? autoinhibitory loop is critical for titrating appropriate levels of endogenous NF-?B activity to maintain proper neuronal function.

2011-01-01

28

Cognitive Training Improves Sleep Quality and Cognitive Function among Older Adults with Insomnia  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives To investigate the effect of an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program on sleep quality and cognitive performance among older adults with insomnia. Design Participants (n?=?51) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group (n?=?34) or to an active control group (n?=?17). The participants in the cognitive training group completed an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program, while the participants in the active control group completed an eight-week, home-based program involving computerized tasks that do not engage high-level cognitive functioning. Before and after training, all participants' sleep was monitored for one week by an actigraph and their cognitive performance was evaluated. Setting Community setting: residential sleep/performance testing facility. Participants Fifty-one older adults with insomnia (aged 65–85). Interventions Eight weeks of computerized cognitive training for older adults with insomnia. Results Mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed between-group improvements for the cognitive training group on both sleep quality (sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency) and cognitive performance (avoiding distractions, working memory, visual memory, general memory and naming). Hierarchical linear regressions analysis in the cognitive training group indicated that improved visual scanning is associated with earlier advent of sleep, while improved naming is associated with the reduction in wake after sleep onset and with the reduction in number of awakenings. Likewise the results indicate that improved “avoiding distractions” is associated with an increase in the duration of sleep. Moreover, the results indicate that in the active control group cognitive decline observed in working memory is associated with an increase in the time required to fall asleep. Conclusions New learning is instrumental in promoting initiation and maintenance of sleep in older adults with insomnia. Lasting and personalized cognitive training is particularly indicated to generate the type of learning necessary for combined cognitive and sleep enhancements in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00901641

Haimov, Iris; Shatil, Evelyn

2013-01-01

29

An Improved Security Mechanism in Cognitive Radio Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

As one type of the attacks happening in MAC layer of distributed cognitive radio networks, a selfish behavior can degrade network performance significantly. In this paper, we analyze the characteristics of selfish behavior and the methods how to expose it. In order to improve the self-giving cooperation between the nodes in cognitive radio networks and increase the fairness index of

Huayi Wu; Baohua Bai

2011-01-01

30

AC260584, an orally bioavailable M 1 muscarinic receptor allosteric agonist, improves cognitive performance in an animal model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent discovery of allosteric potentiators and agonists of the muscarinic M1 receptor represents a significant advance in the muscarinic receptor pharmacology. In the current study we describe the receptor pharmacology and pro-cognitive action of the allosteric agonist AC-260584. Using in vitro cell-based assays with cell proliferation, phosphatidylinositol hydrolysis or calcium mobilization as endpoints, AC-260584 was found to be a

Stefania Risso Bradley; Jelveh Lameh; Linda Ohrmund; Thomas Son; Abhishek Bajpai; Derek Nguyen; Mikael Friberg; Ethan S. Burstein; Tracy A. Spalding; Thomas R. Ott; Hans H. Schiffer; Ali Tabatabaei; Krista McFarland; Robert E. Davis; Douglas W. Bonhaus

2010-01-01

31

Do Action Video Games Improve Perception and Cognition?  

PubMed Central

Frequent action video game players often outperform non-gamers on measures of perception and cognition, and some studies find that video game practice enhances those abilities. The possibility that video game training transfers broadly to other aspects of cognition is exciting because training on one task rarely improves performance on others. At first glance, the cumulative evidence suggests a strong relationship between gaming experience and other cognitive abilities, but methodological shortcomings call that conclusion into question. We discuss these pitfalls, identify how existing studies succeed or fail in overcoming them, and provide guidelines for more definitive tests of the effects of gaming on cognition.

Boot, Walter R.; Blakely, Daniel P.; Simons, Daniel J.

2011-01-01

32

Using Relaxation, Cognitive Therapy, and Mental Imagery To Reduce Test Anxiety and Improve Performance among Firefighter Trainees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The significant number of firefighter trainees experiencing performance evaluation anxiety during fire training school was addressed by the implementation of anxiety reduction and performance enhancement strategies. Audiotape recordings were chosen as the primary intervention medium to facilitate program effectiveness within an established fire…

Mogen, David S.

33

Subliminal stimulation and cognitive and motor performance.  

PubMed

The present experiment investigated whether subliminally exposed messages affect cognitive and motor performance and whether personality factors can explain interindividual differences in this respect. According to Silverman (1983), people have a symbiotic fantasy, that is, a need for symbiotic oneness with the mother figure. This need can temporarily be satisfied by a tachistoscopic exposure of the message "Mommy and I are one." By relieving the unconscious conflict, psychological tension is reduced. Using these notions, it was hypothesized that different measures of performance should be improved. The results indicate that both cognitive performance, in terms of the ability to interpret incomplete and fragmented pictures, and motor performance, in terms of the ability to follow a printed line with a stylus, is improved by this procedure compared to that of a control group exposed to the neutral message "People are walking." However, it was not possible to relate these changes to individual differences in terms of the individual's structure of his psychological defense system as measured by the Defense Mechanism Test (DMT). Other possible explanations are discussed. PMID:2235280

Gustafson, R; Källmén, H

1990-08-01

34

The facial and vocal expression in singers: a cognitive feedback study for improving emotional expression in solo vocal music performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paradigm used in most of the studies exploring how singer's express emotional states has been, since Seashore's (1947) pioneer work and Kotlyar & Morozov's (1976) study, basically the same. Singers are asked to sing a melody or a number of short melodies expressing different emotions according to the researcher's instruction. The performed melodies are firstly recorded or videotaped and

António Salgado

2009-01-01

35

Subjective Cognitive Complaints, Affective Distress, and Objective Cognitive Performance in Persian Gulf War Veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined subjective cognitive complaints, affective distress, and cognitive performance in Persian Gulf veterans who reported illness and cognitive complaints. We predicted a stronger relationship between subjective cognitive complaints and affective distress than between subjective cognitive complaints and objective cognitive performance. This prediction was confirmed in a sample of 100 veterans. The results suggest that cognitive impairment should not be

Laurence M Binder; Daniel Storzbach; W. Kent Anger; Keith A Campbell; Diane S Rohlman

1999-01-01

36

Leptin Replacement Improves Cognitive Development  

PubMed Central

Background Leptin changes brain structure, neuron excitability and synaptic plasticity. It also regulates the development and function of feeding circuits. However, the effects of leptin on neurocognitive development are unknown. Objective To evaluate the effect of leptin on neurocognitive development. Methodology A 5-year-old boy with a nonconservative missense leptin gene mutation (Cys-to-Thr in codon 105) was treated with recombinant methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin) at physiologic replacement doses of 0.03 mg/kg/day. Cognitive development was assessed using the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), a measure of general verbal and nonverbal functioning; and selected subtests from the NEPSY, a measure of neuropsychological functioning in children. Principal Findings Prior to treatment, the patient was morbidly obese, hypertensive, dyslipidemic, and hyperinsulinemic. Baseline neurocognitive tests revealed slower than expected rates of development (developmental age lower than chronological age) in a majority of the areas assessed. After two years, substantial increases in the rates of development in most neurocognitive domains were apparent, with some skills at or exceeding expectations based on chronological age. We also observed marked weight loss and resolution of hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperinsulinemia. Conclusions We concluded that replacement with r-metHuLeptin is associated with weight loss and changes in rates of development in many neurocognitive domains, which lends support to the hypothesis that, in addition to its role in metabolism, leptin may have a cognitive enhancing role in the developing central nervous system. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00659828

Paz-Filho, Gilberto J.; Babikian, Talin; Asarnow, Robert; Esposito, Karin; Erol, Halil K.; Wong, Ma-Li; Licinio, Julio

2008-01-01

37

How Performance Improves  

SciTech Connect

Countless articles and books have been written about and numerous programs have been developed to improve performance. Despite this plethora of activity on how to improve performance, we have largely failed to address the more fundamental question of how performance actually improves. To begin exploring this more basic question, we have plotted some 1,200 performance records to date and found that irrespective of venue, industry, or business, there seems to be a fundamental and repeatable set of concepts regarding how performance improves over time. Such gained insights represent both opportunities and challenges to the performance technologist. Differences in performance outcomes may, for example, be as much a function of the life cycle stage of a performance system as the efficacy of the selected improvement method itself. Accordingly, it may be more difficult to compare differing performance improvement methods than previously thought.

Jerry L. Harbour; Julie L. Marble

2005-09-01

38

Individual variation in cognitive performance: developmental and evolutionary perspectives  

PubMed Central

Animal cognition experiments frequently reveal striking individual variation but rarely consider its causes and largely ignore its potential consequences. Studies often focus on a subset of high-performing subjects, sometimes viewing evidence from a single individual as sufficient to demonstrate the cognitive capacity of a species. We argue that the emphasis on demonstrating species-level cognitive capacities detracts from the value of individual variation in understanding cognitive development and evolution. We consider developmental and evolutionary interpretations of individual variation and use meta-analyses of data from published studies to examine predictors of individual performance. We show that reliance on small sample sizes precludes robust conclusions about individual abilities as well as inter- and intraspecific differences. We advocate standardization of experimental protocols and pooling of data between laboratories to improve statistical rigour. Our analyses show that cognitive performance is influenced by age, sex, rearing conditions and previous experience. These effects limit the validity of comparative analyses unless developmental histories are taken into account, and complicate attempts to understand how cognitive traits are expressed and selected under natural conditions. Further understanding of cognitive evolution requires efforts to elucidate the heritability of cognitive traits and establish whether elevated cognitive performance confers fitness advantages in nature.

Thornton, Alex; Lukas, Dieter

2012-01-01

39

Pain modulates cerebral activity during cognitive performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates how pain modulates brain activity during the performance of a semantic cognitive task. Based on previous observations, we hypothesized that a simultaneous painful stimulus will induce an activation increase in brain regions engaged in the cognitive task. High-field BOLD-fMRI experiments were conducted on 12 young healthy subjects, using a 2 × 2 factorial design. Painful stimuli

Florence Rémy; Uta N Frankenstein; Adina Mincic; Boguslaw Tomanek; Patrick W Stroman

2003-01-01

40

Improved Visual Cognition through Stroboscopic Training  

PubMed Central

Humans have a remarkable capacity to learn and adapt, but surprisingly little research has demonstrated generalized learning in which new skills and strategies can be used flexibly across a range of tasks and contexts. In the present work we examined whether generalized learning could result from visual–motor training under stroboscopic visual conditions. Individuals were assigned to either an experimental condition that trained with stroboscopic eyewear or to a control condition that underwent identical training with non-stroboscopic eyewear. The training consisted of multiple sessions of athletic activities during which participants performed simple drills such as throwing and catching. To determine if training led to generalized benefits, we used computerized measures to assess perceptual and cognitive abilities on a variety of tasks before and after training. Computer-based assessments included measures of visual sensitivity (central and peripheral motion coherence thresholds), transient spatial attention (a useful field of view – dual task paradigm), and sustained attention (multiple-object tracking). Results revealed that stroboscopic training led to significantly greater re-test improvement in central visual field motion sensitivity and transient attention abilities. No training benefits were observed for peripheral motion sensitivity or peripheral transient attention abilities, nor were benefits seen for sustained attention during multiple-object tracking. These findings suggest that stroboscopic training can effectively improve some, but not all aspects of visual perception and attention.

Appelbaum, L. Gregory; Schroeder, Julia E.; Cain, Matthew S.; Mitroff, Stephen R.

2011-01-01

41

Cognitive & Affective Predictors of Simulation Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following paper discusses a study that investigated how select cognitive and affective assessment surveys may be predictive of decision-making performance in a training simulation. In this study, Army Officers completed a simulation and answered cogni...

C. Hernandez D. Patton J. Grynovicki L. Fatkin M. Dixon

2006-01-01

42

Cognitive performance in patients with COPD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Hypoxemic patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) have impaired cognitive performance. These neuropsychological impairments are related to the degree of hypoxemia. So far, cognitive performance has not been tested in non-hypoxemic patients with COPD.Methods: We recruited patients with stable COPD and PaO2>8.0kPa (60mmHg), as well as healthy subjects, who were matched for age, intelligence quotient (IQ), and level

Jeroen J. W Liesker; Dirkje S Postma; Rypko J Beukema; Nick H. T ten Hacken; Thys van der Molen; Roland A Riemersma; Ed H van Zomeren; Huib A. M Kerstjens

2004-01-01

43

Performance Analysis in Cognitive Radio Systems with Multiple Antennas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this letter, the performance improvement by the deployment of multiple antennas in cognitive radio systems is studied from a system-level view. The term opportunistic spectrum efficiency(OSE) is defined as the performance metric to evaluate the spectrum opportunities that can actually be exploited by the secondary user (SU). By applying a simple energy combining detector, we show that deploying multiple

Peng Wang; Xiaofeng Zhong; Limin Xiao; Shidong Zhou; Jing Wang; Yong Bai

2010-01-01

44

Cognitive performance in pediatric liver transplant recipients.  

PubMed

To date, the course of cognitive development in children after liver transplantation (Ltx) is poorly understood. Cognitive performance, however, is crucial in all developmental stages and for educational achievement. This cross-sectional single-center study examined the prevalence of long-term cognitive impairment in a cohort of 64 pediatric patients after Ltx. Median age at Ltx was 12 months. The revised Wechsler Intelligence Scale IV was administered to assess cognitive performance. Patients were compared with an age- and gender-matched group of children without a chronic health condition. Liver transplanted children performed significantly worse in three of four cognitive domains as well as in the Total Intelligence Quotient (Total IQ) (p?=?0.017 to p?=?0.005). Liver transplant recipients showed substantially more "serious delays" (IQ?performed worse than the other groups in three of the four WISC Indices and in the Total IQ (p?=?0.05 to p?=?0.01). The strongest association was revealed between height at Ltx and Verbal Comprehension (R(2) ?=?0.21), Perceptual Reasoning (R(2) ?=?0.30), Working Memory (R(2) ?=?0.23) and Total IQ (R(2) ?=?0.25). Our results indicate a high impact of primary diagnosis and height percentile at Ltx even on children's long-term cognitive performance. PMID:24102763

Kaller, T; Langguth, N; Petermann, F; Ganschow, R; Nashan, B; Schulz, K-H

2013-09-18

45

Vocational rehabilitation improves cognition and negative symptoms in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies in schizophrenia found a positive association between cognitive performance and work status, and it has been reported that good cognitive performance at the outset does predict the success of vocational interventions. However little has been done to investigate whether vocational interventions itself benefit cognitive performance. To test this hypothesis we performed a randomized, placebo-controlled trial to investigate in

Danielle Soares Bio; Wagner Farid Gattaz

2011-01-01

46

Communicator Performance under Cognitive Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

What happens when a writer is given information which attacks his beliefs and thus puts him under stress? This research study shows it takes him longer to write his message, he makes more grammatical and spelling errors, he performs more editing, and the message is less readable.

Bradley S. Greenberg; Percy H. Tannenbaum

1962-01-01

47

Neuroergonomics: Brain, Cognition, and Performance at Work  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuroergonomics is the study of the human brain in relation to performance at work and other everyday settings. Research using two classes of methods—neuroimaging and molecular genetics—is described in four areas: (a) multitasking and mental workload, (b) human error, (c) neuroadaptive interfaces, and (d) individual differences in cognition. The findings show that theoretical and practical understanding of how humans interact

Raja Parasuraman

2011-01-01

48

Virtual Reality Cognitive Performance Assessment Test  

Microsoft Academic Search

Virtual Reality Cognitive Performance Assessment Test (VRCPAT) is a virtual environment- based measure of learning and memory. We examined convergent and discriminant validity and hypothesized that the VRCPAT's Total Learning and Memory scores would correlate with other neuropsychological measures involving learning and memory, but not with measures involving potential confounds (i.e., Executive Functions; Attention; and Processing Speed). Using a sequential

Thomas D. Parsons; Albert A. Rizzo; Jacob Bamattre; John Brennan

49

Cognitive Correlates of Performance in Advanced Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Much research has been devoted to understanding cognitive correlates of elementary mathematics performance, but little such research has been done for advanced mathematics (e.g., modern algebra, statistics, and mathematical logic).Aims: To promote mathematical knowledge among college students, it is necessary to understand what…

Wei, Wei; Yuan, Hongbo; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhou, Xinlin

2012-01-01

50

Sleep deprivation: Impact on cognitive performance  

PubMed Central

Today, prolonged wakefulness is a widespread phenomenon. Nevertheless, in the field of sleep and wakefulness, several unanswered questions remain. Prolonged wakefulness can be due to acute total sleep deprivation (SD) or to chronic partial sleep restriction. Although the latter is more common in everyday life, the effects of total SD have been examined more thoroughly. Both total and partial SD induce adverse changes in cognitive performance. First and foremost, total SD impairs attention and working memory, but it also affects other functions, such as long-term memory and decision-making. Partial SD is found to influence attention, especially vigilance. Studies on its effects on more demanding cognitive functions are lacking. Coping with SD depends on several factors, especially aging and gender. Also interindividual differences in responses are substantial. In addition to coping with SD, recovering from it also deserves attention. Cognitive recovery processes, although insufficiently studied, seem to be more demanding in partial sleep restriction than in total SD.

Alhola, Paula; Polo-Kantola, Paivi

2007-01-01

51

Ginkgo biloba does not improve cognitive function in MS  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine whether Ginkgo biloba extract (ginkgo) improves cognitive function in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Persons with MS from the Seattle and Portland VA clinics and adjacent communities who scored 1 SD or more below the mean on one of 4 neuropsychological tests (Stroop Test, California Verbal Learning Test II [CVLT-II], Controlled Oral Word Association Test [COWAT], and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task [PASAT]) were randomly assigned to receive either one 120-mg tablet of ginkgo (EGb-761; Willmar Schwabe GmbH & Co, Germany) or one placebo tablet twice a day for 12 weeks. As the primary outcome, we compared the performance of the 2 groups on the 4 tests at exit after adjusting for baseline performance. Results: Fifty-nine subjects received placebo and 61 received ginkgo; 1 participant receiving placebo and 3 receiving ginkgo were lost to follow-up. Two serious adverse events (AEs) (myocardial infarction and severe depression) believed to be unrelated to the treatment occurred in the ginkgo group; otherwise, there were no significant differences in AEs. The differences (ginkgo ? placebo) at exit in the z scores for the cognitive tests were as follows: PASAT ?0.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] ?0.5 to 0.1); Stroop Test ?0.5 (95% CI ?0.9 to ?0.1); COWAT 0.0 (95% CI ?0.2 to 0.3); and CVLT-II 0.0 (95% CI ?0.3 to 0.3); none was statistically significant. Conclusions: Treatment with ginkgo 120 mg twice a day did not improve cognitive performance in persons with MS. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that treatment with ginkgo 120 mg twice a day for 12 weeks does not improve cognitive performance in people with MS.

Kim, Edward; Heriza, Elizabeth; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Hunziker, James; Turner, Aaron P.; Adams, Joshua; Stover, Thomas; Sangeorzan, Adam; Sloan, Alicia; Howieson, Diane; Wild, Katherine; Haselkorn, Jodie; Bourdette, Dennis

2012-01-01

52

Reading Comprehension Improvement with Individualized Cognitive Profiles and Metacognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study models improving classroom reading instruction through valid assessment and individualized metacomprehension. Individualized cognitive profiles of Woodcock-Johnson III cognitive abilities correlated with reading comprehension were used during classroom independent reading for judgments of learning, feedback, self-reflection, and comprehension questions. This systematic metacognitive inquiry treatment was based on findings in cognition, metacomprehension, and effective reading instruction. The research was conducted

Kathleen D. Allen; Thomas E. Hancock

2008-01-01

53

Does caffeine intake enhance absolute levels of cognitive performance?  

PubMed

The relationship between habitual coffee and tea consumption and cognitive performance was examined using data from a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 9003 British adults (the Health and Lifestyle Survey). Subjects completed tests of simple reaction time, choice reaction time, incidental verbal memory, and visuo-spatial reasoning, in addition to providing self-reports of usual coffee and tea intake. After controlling extensively for potential confounding variables, a dose-response trend to improved performance with higher levels of coffee consumption was observed for all four tests (P < 0.001 in each case). Similar but weaker associations were found for tea consumption, which were significant for simple reaction time (P = 0.02) and visuo-spatial reasoning (P = 0.013). Estimated overall caffeine consumption showed a dose-response relationship to improved cognitive performance (P < 0.001 for each cognitive test, after controlling for confounders). Older people appeared to be more susceptible to the performance-improving effects of caffeine than were younger. The results suggest that tolerance to the performance-enhancing effects of caffeine, if it occurs at all, is incomplete. PMID:7870897

Jarvis, M J

1993-01-01

54

Cognitive intervention with elite performers: reversal theory.  

PubMed Central

Noticeable in the literature associated with the application of psychology to the area of sport and sports performance in particular has been the increasing frequency of references to the use of cognitive intervention in the sports context. Currently utilised in clinical psychology and behavioural medicine, and receiving increasing attention in sports psychology, are a number of intervention techniques primarily oriented towards altering the individual's level of arousal. These techniques, which have been advocated for use by sports performers as an aid to adapting and coping during competition, have been largely concerned with arousal reduction. This paper presents an alternative approach, the case of reversal theory, a new general theory of psychology concerned with motivation, and emphasises the conceptual implications of this new approach for the use of cognitive intervention techniques in sport.

Kerr, J H

1987-01-01

55

Cognitive Adaptation Training: Establishing Environmental Supports to Bypass Cognitive Deficits and Improve Functional Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several approaches to the treatment of cognitive impairments and their functional consequences for persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder have been developed in recent years. This article focuses on the use of Cognitive adaptation training (CAT), a psychosocial intervention that seeks to bypass cognitive impairments in schizophrenia in an effort to improve functional outcomes. CAT relies on the use

NATALIE J. MAPLES; DAWN I. VELLIGAN

2008-01-01

56

The Influence of Agility Training on Physiological and Cognitive Performance.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT: Agility training (AT) has recently been instituted in several military communities in hopes of improving combat performance as well as general fitness. The purpose of this study was to determine how substituting AT for traditional military physical training (PT) influences physical and cognitive performance. 41 subjects undergoing military technical training were divided randomly into two groups for 6 weeks of training. One group participated in standard military PT consisting of calisthenics and running. A second group duplicated the amount of exercise of the first group, but used AT as their primary mode of training. Prior to and following training, subjects completed a physical and cognitive battery of tests including VO2max, reaction time, Illinois Agility Test, body composition, visual vigilance, dichotic listening, and working memory tests. There were significant improvements within the AT group in VO2max, Illinois Agility Test, visual vigilance, and continuous memory. There was a significant increase in time-to-exhaustion for the traditional group. We conclude that AT is as effective or more effective as PT in enhancing physical fitness. Further, it is potentially more effective than PT in enhancing specific measures of physical and cognitive performance, such as physical agility, memory, and vigilance. Consequently, we suggest that AT be incorporated into existing military physical training programs as a way to improve warfighter performance. Further, it seems likely that the benefits of AT observed here occur in various other populations. PMID:23442271

Lennemann, Lynette; Sidrow, Kathryn; Johnson, Erica; Harrison, Catherine; Vojta, Christopher; Walker, Thomas

2013-02-25

57

Method and system for predicting human cognitive performance  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An apparatus and a method for predicting cognitive performance of an individual based on factors including preferably sleep history and the time of day. The method facilitates the creation of predicted cognitive performance curves that allow an individual to set his/her sleep times to produce higher levels of cognitive performance. The method also facilitates the reconstruction of past cognitive performance levels based on sleep history.

2010-08-03

58

The effects of piracetam on cognitive performance in a mouse model of Down's syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Piracetam is a nootropic agent that has been shown to improve cognitive performance in a number of animal model systems. Piracetam is reported to be used widely as a means of improving cognitive function in children with Down's syndrome (DS). In order to provide a preclinical assessment of the potential efficacy of piracetam, we examined the effects of a dose

Timothy H. Moran; George T. Capone; Susan Knipp; Muriel T. Davisson; Roger H. Reeves; John D. Gearhart

2002-01-01

59

Cognitive-behavioral training for college basketball free-throw performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cognitive-behavioral training program was implemented to improve the free-throw performance of three male Division-II college basketball players. A multiple-baseline design across subjects was used, finding percent improvements of 88%, 78.6%, and 50% for subjects 1, 2, and 3. Cognitive changes were measured via a videotape feedback reconstruction process. Significant changes from negative to positive cognitions were found.

Sharon A. Hamilton; William J. Fremouw

1985-01-01

60

Hormone replacement therapy and cognitive performance in postmenopausal women--a review by cognitive domain.  

PubMed

Laboratory, animal and neuroimaging evidences suggest that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may be beneficial to human cognition. This systematic review includes 26 studies on the association between HRT and cognition and 17 studies on HRT and risk of dementia. It was hypothesised that HRT would have a positive association with cognitive speed and verbal memory and possibly visual memory but not with executive functioning, and would be associated with a decreased risk of dementia. Evidence for HRT's neuroenhancing and neuroprotective properties was also evaluated. There was significant statistical and clinical heterogeneity among studies precluding meta-analysis. Results showed no consistent relationship between HRT and performance in any cognitive domain. Cross-sectional studies tended to report more positive results than longitudinal studies and randomised-controlled trials, particularly in the areas of verbal memory and executive functioning. HRT was associated with decreased risk of dementia in observational studies, but with increased risk in one randomised-controlled trial. Cognitive improvement or maintenance are not secondary benefits of HRT. PMID:16122800

Low, Lee-Fay; Anstey, Kaarin J

2005-08-24

61

Dietary boron, brain function, and cognitive performance.  

PubMed Central

Although the trace element boron has yet to be recognized as an essential nutrient for humans, recent data from animal and human studies suggest that boron may be important for mineral metabolism and membrane function. To investigate further the functional role of boron, brain electrophysiology and cognitive performance were assessed in response to dietary manipulation of boron (approximately 0.25 versus approximately 3.25 mg boron/2000 kcal/day) in three studies with healthy older men and women. Within-subject designs were used to assess functional responses in all studies. Spectral analysis of electroencephalographic data showed effects of dietary boron in two of the three studies. When the low boron intake was compared to the high intake, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the proportion of low-frequency activity, and a decrease in the proportion of higher-frequency activity, an effect often observed in response to general malnutrition and heavy metal toxicity. Performance (e.g., response time) on various cognitive and psychomotor tasks also showed an effect of dietary boron. When contrasted with the high boron intake, low dietary boron resulted in significantly poorer performance (p < 0.05) on tasks emphasizing manual dexterity (studies II and III); eye-hand coordination (study II); attention (all studies); perception (study III); encoding and short-term memory (all studies); and long-term memory (study I). Collectively, the data from these three studies indicate that boron may play a role in human brain function and cognitive performance, and provide additional evidence that boron is an essential nutrient for humans.

Penland, J G

1994-01-01

62

Is Over Practice Necessary? - Improving Learning Efficiency with the Cognitive Tutor through Educational Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effectiveness of an educational data mining method - Learning Factors Analysis (LFA) - on improving the learning efficiency in the Cognitive Tutor curriculum. LFA uses a statistical model to predict how students perform in each practice of a knowledge component (KC), and identifies over-practiced or under-practiced KCs. By using the LFA findings on the Cognitive Tutor

Hao Cen; Kenneth R. Koedinger; Brian Junker

2007-01-01

63

Modafinil Improves Cognition and Attentional Set Shifting in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modafinil, a novel cognitive enhancer, selectively improves neuropsychological task performance in healthy volunteers and adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It has been argued that persistent cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia are responsible for the failure of many patients to rehabilitate socially even when psychotic symptoms are in remission. The present study examined the potential of modafinil

Danielle C Turner; Luke Clark; Edith Pomarol-Clotet; Peter McKenna; Trevor W Robbins; Barbara J Sahakian

2004-01-01

64

Exercise therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy to improve fatigue, daily activity performance and quality of life in Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome: the protocol of the FACTS2PPS trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome (PPS) is a complex of late onset neuromuscular symptoms with new or increased muscle weakness and muscle fatigability as key symptoms. Main clinical complaints are severe fatigue, deterioration in functional abilities and health related quality of life. Rehabilitation management is the mainstay of treatment. Two different therapeutic interventions may be prescribed (1) exercise therapy or (2) cognitive

Fieke S Koopman; Anita Beelen; Karin H Gerrits; Gijs Bleijenberg; Tineke A Abma; Marianne de Visser; Frans Nollet

2010-01-01

65

Disentangling the Relationship between Hemispheric Asymmetry and Cognitive Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It is widely believed that advantages of hemispheric asymmetries originated in better cognitive processing, hence it is often implied that the relationship between hemispheric asymmetry and cognitive performance is linearly positive: the higher the degree of lateralization in a specific cognitive domain, the better the performance in a…

Hirnstein, Marco; Leask, Stuart; Rose, Jonas; Hausmann, Markus

2010-01-01

66

Evaluating the Relationship Between Neuropsychological Function and Cognitive Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The last 2 decades have produced a vast literature describing relationships between cognitive performance and neuropsychological data. This literature has provided the foundation for countless theories about the neural correlates of cognitive processing a...

G. Gunzelmann J. L. Moore

2012-01-01

67

Reciprocal Modulation of Cognitive and Emotional Aspects in Pianistic Performances  

PubMed Central

Background High level piano performance requires complex integration of perceptual, motor, cognitive and emotive skills. Observations in psychology and neuroscience studies have suggested reciprocal inhibitory modulation of the cognition by emotion and emotion by cognition. However, it is still unclear how cognitive states may influence the pianistic performance. The aim of the present study is to verify the influence of cognitive and affective attention in the piano performances. Methods and Findings Nine pianists were instructed to play the same piece of music, firstly focusing only on cognitive aspects of musical structure (cognitive performances), and secondly, paying attention solely on affective aspects (affective performances). Audio files from pianistic performances were examined using a computational model that retrieves nine specific musical features (descriptors) – loudness, articulation, brightness, harmonic complexity, event detection, key clarity, mode detection, pulse clarity and repetition. In addition, the number of volunteers' errors in the recording sessions was counted. Comments from pianists about their thoughts during performances were also evaluated. The analyses of audio files throughout musical descriptors indicated that the affective performances have more: agogics, legatos, pianos phrasing, and less perception of event density when compared to the cognitive ones. Error analysis demonstrated that volunteers misplayed more left hand notes in the cognitive performances than in the affective ones. Volunteers also played more wrong notes in affective than in cognitive performances. These results correspond to the volunteers' comments that in the affective performances, the cognitive aspects of piano execution are inhibited, whereas in the cognitive performances, the expressiveness is inhibited. Conclusions Therefore, the present results indicate that attention to the emotional aspects of performance enhances expressiveness, but constrains cognitive and motor skills in the piano execution. In contrast, attention to the cognitive aspects may constrain the expressivity and automatism of piano performances.

Higuchi, Marcia K. Kodama; Fornari, Jose; Del Ben, Cristina M.; Graeff, Frederico G.; Leite, Joao Pereira

2011-01-01

68

Improving Cognitive and Adaptive Abilities of Aged.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Four types of activity programs which may be helpful to aged individuals in achieving increased effectiveness in their cognitive and personal-social functioning were developed. The four programs are: (1) General Educational and Cultural Activities; (2) Le...

S. Granick

1983-01-01

69

Reading Comprehension Improvement with Individualized Cognitive Profiles and Metacognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study models improving classroom reading instruction through valid assessment and individualized metacomprehension. Individualized cognitive profiles of Woodcock-Johnson III cognitive abilities correlated with reading comprehension were used during classroom independent reading for judgments of learning, feedback, self-reflection, and…

Allen, Kathleen D.; Hancock, Thomas E.

2008-01-01

70

Cognitive Test Anxiety and Academic Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new measure that focused explicitly on the cognitive dimension of test anxiety was introduced and examined for psychometric quality as compared to existing measures of test anxiety. The new scale was found to be a reliable and valid measure of cognitive test anxiety. The impact of cognitive test anxiety as well as emotionality and test procrastination were subsequently evaluated

Jerrell C. Cassady; Ronald E. Johnson

2002-01-01

71

Impaired cognitive performance in patients with chronic burnout syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic burnout refers to a syndrome caused by chronic stress. Clinical observations indicate that chronic burnout is associated with impaired cognitive functioning. However, there have been no systematic studies of the cognitive performance in chronic burnout patients. We have evaluated general cognitive ability, memory, and attention in 67 female patients treated for chronic burnout. The patients and 15 healthy control

Agneta Sandström; Ingalill Nyström Rhodin; Mattias Lundberg; Tommy Olsson; Lars Nyberg

2005-01-01

72

Performance Improvement [in HRD].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These four papers are from a symposium that was facilitated by Richard J. Torraco at the 1995 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (HRD). "Performance Technology--Isn't It Time We Found Some New Models?" (William J. Rothwell) reviews briefly two classic models, describes criteria for the high performance workplace (HPW), and…

1995

73

Cognitive function affects trainability for physical performance in exercise intervention among older adults with mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Background Although much evidence supports the hypothesis that cognitive function and physical function are interrelated, it is unclear whether cognitive decline with mild cognitive impairment influences trainability of physical performance in exercise intervention. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between cognitive function at baseline and change in physical performance after exercise intervention in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Methods Forty-four older adults diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment based on the Peterson criteria (mean age 74.8 years) consented to and completed a 6-month twice weekly exercise intervention. The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test was used as a measure of physical performance. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Trail Making Test Part B, Geriatric Depression Scale, baseline muscle strength of knee extension, and attendance rate of intervention, were measured as factors for predicting trainability. Results In the correlation analysis, the change in TUG showed modest correlations with attendance rate in the exercise program (r = ?0.354, P = 0.027) and MMSE at baseline (r = ?0.321, P = 0.034). A multiple regression analysis revealed that change in TUG was independently associated with attendance rate (? = ?0.322, P = 0.026) and MMSE score (? = ?0.295, P = 0.041), controlling for age and gender. Conclusion General cognitive function was associated with improvements in physical performance after exercise intervention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Further research is needed to examine the effects of exercise programs designed to address cognitive obstacles in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

Uemura, Kazuki; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Yoshida, Daisuke; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Anan, Yuya; Suzuki, Takao

2013-01-01

74

Aging and Cognitive Performance: Challenges and Implications for Physicians Practicing in the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The demands of physician practice are growing. Some specialties face critical shortages and a significant percentage of physicians are aging. To improve health care it is paramount to understand and address challenges, including cognitive issues, facing aging physicians. In this article, we outline several issues related to cognitive performance

Durning, Steven J.; Artino, Anthony R.; Holmboe, Eric; Beckman, Thomas J.; van der Vleuten, Cees; Schuwirth, Lambert

2010-01-01

75

How Does Exercise Benefit Performance on Cognitive Tests in Primary-School Pupils?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aim: We have previously demonstrated improved cognitive performance after a classroom-based exercise regime. In this study, we examined the reproducibility of this effect in a more socio-economically diverse sample and also investigated whether cognitive benefits of exercise were moderated by body mass index (BMI) or symptoms of…

Hill, Liam J. B.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Aucott, Lorna; Thomson, Jenny; Mon-Williams, Mark

2011-01-01

76

Mediterranean diet improves cognition: the PREDIMED-NAVARRA randomised trial.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: Previous observational studies reported beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) on cognitive function, but results were inconsistent. We assessed the effect on cognition of a nutritional intervention using MedDiets in comparison with a low-fat control diet. METHODS: We assessed 522 participants at high vascular risk (44.6% men, age 74.6 ± 5.7 years at cognitive evaluation) enrolled in a multicentre, randomised, primary prevention trial (PREDIMED), after a nutritional intervention comparing two MedDiets (supplemented with either extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) or mixed nuts) versus a low-fat control diet. Global cognitive performance was examined by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clock Drawing Test (CDT) after 6.5 years of nutritional intervention. Researchers who assessed the outcome were blinded to group assignment. We used general linear models to control for potential confounding. RESULTS: After adjustment for sex, age, education, Apolipoprotein E genotype, family history of cognitive impairment/dementia, smoking, physical activity, body mass index, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes, alcohol and total energy intake, participants allocated to the MedDiet+EVOO showed higher mean MMSE and CDT scores with significant differences versus control (adjusted differences: +0.62 95% CI +0.18 to +1.05, p=0.005 for MMSE, and +0.51 95% CI +0.20 to +0.82, p=0.001 for CDT). The adjusted means of MMSE and CDT scores were also higher for participants allocated to the MedDiet+Nuts versus control (adjusted differences: +0.57 (95% CI +0.11 to +1.03), p=0.015 for MMSE and +0.33 (95% CI +0.003 to +0.67), p=0.048 for CDT). These results did not differ after controlling for incident depression. CONCLUSIONS: An intervention with MedDiets enhanced with either EVOO or nuts appears to improve cognition compared with a low-fat diet.ISRCTN:35739639. PMID:23670794

Martínez-Lapiscina, Elena H; Clavero, Pedro; Toledo, Estefania; Estruch, Ramon; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; San Julián, Beatriz; Sanchez-Tainta, Ana; Ros, Emilio; Valls-Pedret, Cinta; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Á

2013-05-13

77

Practice of Contemporary Dance Improves Cognitive Flexibility in Aging  

PubMed Central

As society ages and frequency of dementia increases exponentially, counteracting cognitive aging decline is a challenging issue for countries of the developed world. Previous studies have suggested that physical fitness based on cardiovascular and strength training helps to improve attentional control in normal aging. However, how motor activity based on motor-skill learning can also benefit attentional control with age has been hitherto a neglected issue. This study examined the impact of contemporary dance (CD) improvisation on attentional control of older adults, as compared to two other motor training programs, fall prevention and Tai Chi Chuan. Participants performed setting, suppressing, and switching attention tasks before and after 5.7-month training in either CD or fall prevention or Tai Chi Chuan. Results indicated that CD improved switching but not setting or suppressing attention. In contrast, neither fall prevention nor Tai Chi Chuan showed any effect. We suggest that CD improvisation works as a training for change, inducing plasticity in flexible attention.

Coubard, Olivier A.; Duretz, Stephanie; Lefebvre, Virginie; Lapalus, Pauline; Ferrufino, Lena

2011-01-01

78

Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids improve cognitive development.  

PubMed

Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, an Omega-3 fatty acid) and arachindonic acid (AA, an Omega-6 fatty acid) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPs) that are important for cognitive development. Research has shown that LCPs are associated with improved visual and cognitive development: breast-fed children had higher IQ scores compared with children who received an infant formula that did not contain LCPs. Because breast milk contains LCPs and the formulae in these studies did not, it is possible that LCPs may contribute to improved cognitive development. PMID:12630150

Willatts, Peter

2002-01-01

79

Using Simulations To Improve Cognitive Reasoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated changes in students' cognitive reasoning as they analyzed the dynamics of a rainforest ecosystem (El Yunque) in the aftermath of a hurricane in Puerto Rico. Students explore the virtual rainforest to study what happened to a type of frog after the hurricane. The culminating event is a simulation in which students…

McGee, Steven; Corriss, Darlene; Shia, Regina

80

Using Simulations To Improve Cognitive Reasoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated changes in students' cognitive reasoning as they analyzed the dynamics of a rainforest ecosystem (El Yunque) in the aftermath of a hurricane in Puerto Rico. Students explore the virtual rainforest to study what happened to a type of frog after the hurricane. The culminating event is a simulation in which students manipulate…

McGee, Steven; Corriss, Darlene; Shia, Regina

81

Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone Differentially Improve Cognition in Aged Female Mice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compared with age-matched male mice, female mice experience a more severe age-related cognitive decline (ACD). Since androgens are less abundant in aged female mice compared with aged male mice, androgen supplementation may enhance cognition in aged female mice. To test this, we assessed behavioral performance on a variety of tasks in 22- to…

Benice, Ted S.; Raber, Jacob

2009-01-01

82

Motivational Influences on Cognitive Performance in Children: Focus Over Fit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive psychologists have begun to address how motivational factors influence adults' performance on cognitive tasks. However, little research has examined how different motivational factors interact with one another to affect behavior across the life span. In the current study, the authors examined how children perform on a classification task when placed in a regulatory fit or mismatch. Nine-year-old children performed

Darrell A. Worthy; Caitlin C. Brez; Arthur B. Markman; W. Todd Maddox

2011-01-01

83

Cognitive Ability and Variation in Selection Task Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in performance on a variety of selection tasks were examined in three studies employing over 800 participants. Nondeontic tasks were solved disproportionately by individuals of higher cognitive ability. In contrast, responses on two deontic tasks that have shown robust performance facilitation— the Drinking-age Problem and the Sears Problem—were unrelated to cognitive ability. Performance on deontic and nondeontic tasks

Keith E. Stanovich Richard F. West; Richard F. West

1998-01-01

84

Improving the CSIP performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel highly sensitive detector for long wavelength infrared radiation, called charge sensitive infrared phototransistor (CSIP), is described, with a stress put on the report of recent improvements in the quantum efficiency. Metallic antenna structure placed on the surface to convert incident radiation has to be optimized. In case of the CSIP, where the absorbing quantum well is very close (˜100 nm) to the antenna, near field effects have to be taken into consideration. We consider several patterns based either on a double capacitive (dot) or inductive (hole) grating. We present results of a study comparing four different geometries showing that cross shape hole arrays are most promising candidates reaching efficiencies of almost 8%. Further strategies to optimize essential parameters of antennas by using finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations are considered.

Nickels, Patrick; Ueda, Takeji; An, Zhenghua; Komiyama, Susumu

2009-11-01

85

Deliberation's blindsight: how cognitive load can improve judgments.  

PubMed

Multitasking poses a major challenge in modern work environments by putting the worker under cognitive load. Performance decrements often occur when people are under high cognitive load because they switch to less demanding--and often less accurate--cognitive strategies. Although cognitive load disturbs performance over a wide range of tasks, it may also carry benefits. In the experiments reported here, we showed that judgment performance can increase under cognitive load. Participants solved a multiple-cue judgment task in which high performance could be achieved by using a similarity-based judgment strategy but not by using a more demanding rule-based judgment strategy. Accordingly, cognitive load induced a shift to a similarity-based judgment strategy, which consequently led to more accurate judgments. By contrast, shifting to a similarity-based strategy harmed judgments in a task best solved by using a rule-based strategy. These results show how important it is to consider the cognitive strategies people rely on to understand how people perform in demanding work environments. PMID:23575598

Hoffmann, Janina A; von Helversen, Bettina; Rieskamp, Jörg

2013-04-10

86

Reduction of hippocampal hyperactivity improves cognition in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Elevated hippocampal activation is observed in conditions that confer risk for Alzheimer's disease, including amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Studies in relevant animal models have indicated that overactivity in selective hippocampal circuits contributes to cognitive impairment. Here, we tested the effect of reducing hippocampal activation in aMCI. Under placebo treatment, hippocampal activation in the dentate gyrus/CA3 was elevated in aMCI patients compared to a healthy control group. By using a low dose of the antiepileptic levetiracetam hippocampal activation in aMCI was reduced to a level that did not differ from the control group. Compared to aMCI memory performance under placebo, performance in the scanning task was significantly improved under drug treatment. Contrary to the view that greater hippocampal activation might serve a beneficial function, these results support the view that increased hippocampal activation in aMCI is a dysfunctional condition and that targeting excess hippocampal activity has therapeutic potential. PMID:22578498

Bakker, Arnold; Krauss, Gregory L; Albert, Marilyn S; Speck, Caroline L; Jones, Lauren R; Stark, Craig E; Yassa, Michael A; Bassett, Susan S; Shelton, Amy L; Gallagher, Michela

2012-05-10

87

Reduction of hippocampal hyperactivity improves cognition in amnestic mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Summary Elevated hippocampal activation is observed in conditions that confer risk for Alzheimer's disease, including amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Studies in relevant animal models have indicated that over-activity in selective hippocampal circuits contributes to cognitive impairment. Here we tested the effect of reducing hippocampal activation in aMCI. Under placebo treatment, hippocampal activation in the dentate gyrus/CA3 was elevated in aMCI patients compared to a healthy control group. By using a low dose of the antiepileptic levetiracetam hippocampal activation in aMCI was reduced to a level that did not differ from the control group. Compared to aMCI memory performance under placebo, performance in the scanning task was significantly improved under drug treatment. Contrary to the view that greater hippocampal activation might serve a beneficial function, these results support the view that increased hippocampal activation in aMCI is a dysfunctional condition and that targeting excess hippocampal activity has therapeutic potential.

Bakker, Arnold; Krauss, Gregory L.; Albert, Marilyn S.; Speck, Caroline L.; Jones, Lauren R.; Stark, Craig E.; Yassa, Michael A.; Bassett, Susan S.; Shelton, Amy L.; Gallagher, Michela

2012-01-01

88

Deconstructing and reconstructing cognitive performance in sleep deprivation.  

PubMed

Mitigation of cognitive impairment due to sleep deprivation in operational settings is critical for safety and productivity. Achievements in this area are hampered by limited knowledge about the effects of sleep loss on actual job tasks. Sleep deprivation has different effects on different cognitive performance tasks, but the mechanisms behind this task-specificity are poorly understood. In this context it is important to recognize that cognitive performance is not a unitary process, but involves a number of component processes. There is emerging evidence that these component processes are differentially affected by sleep loss. Experiments have been conducted to decompose sleep-deprived performance into underlying cognitive processes using cognitive-behavioral, neuroimaging and cognitive modeling techniques. Furthermore, computational modeling in cognitive architectures has been employed to simulate sleep-deprived cognitive performance on the basis of the constituent cognitive processes. These efforts are beginning to enable quantitative prediction of the effects of sleep deprivation across different task contexts. This paper reviews a rapidly evolving area of research, and outlines a theoretical framework in which the effects of sleep loss on cognition may be understood from the deficits in the underlying neurobiology to the applied consequences in real-world job tasks. PMID:22884948

Jackson, Melinda L; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M; Belenky, Gregory; Rabat, Arnaud; Van Dongen, Hans P A

2012-08-09

89

Control improves fractionator performance  

SciTech Connect

Computer control of a coker fractionator head temperature increases production of valuable coker gasoline. Under normal operation the coker head temperature must be held below the desired point to avoid producing too high an end point gasoline for feed to the reformer with attendant reduction in cycle length of reformer catalyst. Immediately after feed has been switched out of a coke drum, steam is added to strip off any light fractions remaining in the coke drum. This steam causes the coker fractionator gasoline endpoint to increase approximately 25/sup 0/F for about 1 hour. Most refinery operations are continuous, but not operation of the delayed coker, which is actually semi-batch. Coke drums work in pairs, one drum in coking and one being steamed, cooled, drilled and prepared for its next coking cycle. Since the coker operation is not continuous, coke drum products fed to the coker fractionator vary during a coker cycle. Before any control was started, a benefits estimate was determined. This estimate showed that an increase of 5/sup 0/F in the coker fractionator endpoint is worth approximately $300,000 per year in increased gasoline product. Fig. 3 shows that the Coker gasoline endpoint excursion during steaming is minimized to less than 5/sup 0/F as a result of computer control. Performance has been good with an onstream factor of over 90% since commissioning.

Ayral, T.E.

1985-04-01

90

The effect of preferred music on mood and performance in a high-cognitive demand occupation.  

PubMed

Mild positive affect has been shown in the psychological literature to improve cognitive skills of creative problem-solving and systematic thinking. Individual preferred music listening offers opportunity for improved positive affect. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of preferred music listening on state-mood and cognitive performance in a high-cognitive demand occupation. Twenty-four professional computer information systems developers (CISD) from a North American IT company participated in a 3-week study with a music/no music/music weekly design. During the music weeks, participants listened to their preferred music "when they wanted, as they wanted." Self-reports of State Positive Affect, State Negative Affect, and Cognitive Performance were measured throughout the 3 weeks. Results indicate a statistically significant improvement in both state-mood and cognitive performance scores. "High-cognitive demand" is a relative term given that challenges presented to individuals may occur on a cognitive continuum from need for focus and selective attention to systematic analysis and creative problem-solving. The findings and recommendations have important implications for music therapists in their knowledge of the effect of music on emotion and cognition, and, as well, have important implications for music therapy consultation to organizations. PMID:21141770

Lesiuk, Teresa

2010-01-01

91

Empirical Research on Performance Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a study that examined the empirical research on performance improvement by conducting a content analysis of articles published in "Performance Improvement Quarterly" from 1997 through 2000. Provides a detailed analysis of the empirical research studies and includes an appendix listing the 49 articles studied. (Author/LRW)|

Klein, James D.

2002-01-01

92

Motivational Influences on Cognitive Performance in Children: Focus over Fit  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Cognitive psychologists have begun to address how motivational factors influence adults' performance on cognitive tasks. However, little research has examined how different motivational factors interact with one another to affect behavior across the life span. In the current study, the authors examined how children perform on a classification…

Worthy, Darrell A.; Brez, Caitlin C.; Markman, Arthur B.; Maddox, W. Todd

2011-01-01

93

Cognitive functioning and school performance in children with renal failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although previous studies have documented neuropsychological deficits in children with end-stage renal disease, few have evaluated and compared the cognitive functioning and the school performance of children with renal failure. The current study evaluated the influence of chronic renal failure on cognitive functioning and school performance in children and adolescents with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis and after renal transplantation.

Kathleen W. Lawryl; Ben H. Brouhardl; Robert J. Cunningham

1994-01-01

94

Musical Distracters, Personality Type and Cognitive Performance in School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to ascertain the nature of the interaction between the affective value of musical distraction, personality type and performance on the cognitive tasks of reading comprehension, free recall, mental arithmetic and verbal reasoning in children aged 11-12 years. It was hypothesized that the cognitive performance of extraverts…

Furnham, Adrian; Stephenson, Rebecca

2007-01-01

95

Nutrition, Brain Function and Cognitive Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Military interest in the effects of nutritional factors on cognitive function has stimulated considerable research on a variety of food constituents. This paper will review the research on the amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine, caffeine and carbohydrate...

H. R. Lieberman

2003-01-01

96

Cognitive Architecture for Human Performance Process Model Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Technical Paper proposes a new cognitive architecture for human performance process (HPP) model research. HPP models are engineering models of human performance. They represent the human information-processing system as a series of subsystems consist...

M. J. Young

1992-01-01

97

Modeling the Unified Tri-Services Cognitive Performance Assessment Battery.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes three models of performance assessment tests drawn from the Unified Tri-services Cognitive Performance Assessment Battery. Discussed are Four-Choice Visual Reaction Time, Grammatical Reasoning, and the Manikin Spatial Perception test...

R. Stanny S. Shamma R. Laughery C. Platt R. Crisman

1989-01-01

98

Circadian Rhythms: Importance for Models of Cognitive Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this paper is to provide information about circadian rhythms and their relevance to the development of models of human cognitive performance. Circadian rhythms are well-established characteristics of human performance. However, to date, m...

T. L. Kelly

1996-01-01

99

Cognitive performance and MR markers of cerebral injury in cognitively impaired MS patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To relate neuropsychological performance to measures of cerebral injury in persons with MS selected for cognitive impairment. Methods: Participants were 37 individuals with relapsing-remitting (59.5%) and secondary progressive (40.5%) MS. They were tested at baseline as part of a clinical trial to enhance cognition with an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Eligibility criteria included at least mild cognitive impairment on a verbal

C. Christodoulou; L. B. Krupp; Z. Liang; W. Huang; P. Melville; C. Roque; W. F. Scherl; T. Morgan; W. S. MacAllister; L. Li; L. A. Tudorica; X. Li; P. Roche; R. Peyster

100

Performance improvement: the organization's quest.  

PubMed

In today's health care marketplace, quality has become an expectation. Stakeholders are demanding quality clinical outcomes, and accrediting bodies are requiring clinical performance data. The Roosevelt Institute's quest was to define and quantify quality outcomes, develop an organizational culture of performance improvement, and ensure customer satisfaction. Several of the organization's leaders volunteered to work as a team to develop a specific performance improvement approach tailored to the organization. To date, over 200 employees have received an orientation to the model and its philosophy and nine problem action and process improvement teams have been formed. PMID:10346462

McKinley, C O; Parmer, D E; Saint-Amand, R A; Harbin, C B; Roulston, J C; Ellis, R A; Buchanan, J R; Leonard, R B

1999-01-01

101

Using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps to Model and Analyse Business Performance Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, proposes a framework for developing business metrics and discusses the suitability of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) to model and analyse the business performance indicators. Business metrics provide the basis for assessing business performance, identifying areas for improvement as well as benchmarking with the competition. Researchers and practitioners have stressed on the importance of assessing business performance particularly with

Dimitris Kardaras; Gregory Mentzas

102

Methods to improve the detection of mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

We examined whether the performance of the National Institute of Aging's Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease's 10-word list (CWL), part of the consortium's neuropsychological battery, can be improved for detecting Alzheimer's disease and related disorders early. We focused on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia because these stages often go undetected, and their detection is important for treatment. Using standardized diagnostic criteria combined with history, physical examination, and cognitive, laboratory, and neuroimaging studies, we staged 471 community-dwelling subjects for dementia severity by using the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale. We then used correspondence analysis (CA) to derive a weighted score for each subject from their item responses over the three immediate- and one delayed-recall trials of the CWL. These CA-weighted scores were used with logistic regression to predict each subject's probability of impairment, and receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to measure accuracy. For MCI vs. normal, accuracy was 97% [confidence interval (C.I.) 97-98%], sensitivity was 94% (C.I. 93-95%), and specificity was 89% (C.I. 88-91%). For MCI/mild dementia vs. normal, accuracy was 98% (C.I. 98-99%), sensitivity was 96% (C.I. 95-97%), and specificity was 91% (C.I. 89-93%). MCI sensitivity was 12% higher (without lowering specificity) than that obtained with the delayed-recall total score (the standard method for CWL interpretation). Optimal positive and negative predictive values were 100% and at least 96.6%. These results show that CA-weighted scores can significantly improve early detection of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders.

Shankle, William R.; Romney, A. Kimball; Hara, Junko; Fortier, Dennis; Dick, Malcolm B.; Chen, James M.; Chan, Timothy; Sun, Xijiang

2005-01-01

103

CF6 Engine Performance Improvement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the NASA-sponsored Engine Component Improvement (ECI) Program, a feasibility analysis of performance improvement and retention concepts for the CF6-6 and CF6-50 engines was conducted and seven concepts were identified for development and ground...

W. A. Fasching

1982-01-01

104

Disentangling the relationship between hemispheric asymmetry and cognitive performance.  

PubMed

It is widely believed that advantages of hemispheric asymmetries originated in better cognitive processing, hence it is often implied that the relationship between hemispheric asymmetry and cognitive performance is linearly positive: the higher the degree of lateralization in a specific cognitive domain, the better the performance in a corresponding task. Yet, the empirical evidence for this notion is mixed and the statistical methods to analyze this relationship have been criticized. The present study therefore investigated the relationship between hemispheric asymmetries and cognitive performance in two behavioral tasks (a left-lateralized word-matching task and a right-lateralized face-decision task) in 230 participants (140 women, 90 men) by using two different approaches. Both methods correspondingly revealed that a relationship between hemispheric asymmetries and cognitive performance does exist. Contrary to a positive (linear) relationship however, the data could be best described by an inverted U-shaped curve. Although the optimal degree of lateralization seemed to be task-specific, a slight or moderate degree of hemispheric asymmetry achieved best cognitive performance in all tasks. Moreover, performances deteriorated towards extreme ends of lateralization (i.e., participants with either extreme left or right hemispheric biases). Taken together, the present study provides evidence against the notion that higher lateralization is related to enhanced cognitive performance. PMID:20472334

Hirnstein, Marco; Leask, Stuart; Rose, Jonas; Hausmann, Markus

2010-05-15

105

Cognitive Performance and the Role of Control Beliefs in Midlife  

Microsoft Academic Search

Midlife has been touted as being a time of peak performance in many different areas of functioning. In the present study, we investigated whether this was true for cognitive functioning on tasks assessing speed, reasoning, short-term memory, and vocabulary. We also explored the extent to which levels of cognitive functioning could be attributed to individual differences in general control beliefs.

Lisa M. Soederberg Miller; Margie E. Lachman

2000-01-01

106

Do cognitive styles affect learning performance in different computer media?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of three treatments Text, CD-ROM, Internet site and student Cognitive Styles on learning performance was investigated. Prior to the commencement of the course the students completed the following psychometric tests: the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) [1], Kirton's Adaptive-Innovator Inventory (KAI) [2] and Cognitive Styles Analysis (CSA) [3]. The subject matter was an Introductory Course in Artificial Intelligence.

Adrian Parkinson; James A. Redmond

2002-01-01

107

Effects of acute resistance exercise on cognition in late middle-aged adults: General or specific cognitive improvement?  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of acute resistance exercise on multiple cognitive measures in late middle-aged adults and to address the question of whether general or selective cognitive improvements occur. DESIGN: A counterbalanced repeated-measures experimental design. METHODS: Thirty adults (mean age=58.1±3.0 years) were administered five different Stroop test conditions before and after a single bout of resistance exercise and after a no-treatment control. The resistance exercise protocol involved two sets of seven exercises performed at 70% of a 10-repetition maximum, with 30 and 60s between each set and each exercise, respectively. RESULTS: The exercise treatment resulted in significantly enhanced performance across all Stroop conditions when compared with the control (p<.001). Furthermore, the effect of the exercise treatment on Stroop incongruent performance corresponded to the largest positive influence compared to the performance observed under the other four Stroop test conditions. CONCLUSIONS: These findings extend the current knowledge base by demonstrating that acute resistance exercise facilitates general cognition but has a more beneficial effect on cognition that involves executive control. PMID:23491140

Chang, Yu-Kai; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Huang, Chi-Chang; Wang, Chun-Chih; Chu, I-Hua

2013-03-12

108

Improving Reading Performance through Hypnosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study investigating the effects of group hypnosis on the reading performance of university students in a reading and writing center. Discusses study procedures and presents data on pretest scores and gains in vocabulary and comprehension scores. Concludes that regular use of self-hypnosis significantly improved performance. (DMM)

Fillmer, H. Thompson; And Others

1981-01-01

109

Priming Ability-Relevant Social Categories Improves Intellectual Test Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research shows that priming affects behavioral tasks; fewer studies, however, have been conducted on how social category primes affect cognitive tasks. The present study aimed to examine the effects of social category primes on math performance and word recall. It was hypothesized that Asian prime words would improve math performance and word…

Lin, Phoebe S.; Kennette, Lynne N.; Van Havermaet, Lisa R.; Frank, Nichole M.; McIntyre, Rusty B.

2012-01-01

110

LEARNING AND COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN ADULTS. BIBLIOGRAPHY.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS RETROSPECTIVE BIBLIOGRAPHY OF OVER 1,500 ITEMS IS LARGELY DEVOTED TO VARIOUS TYPES OF ADULT LEARNING AND COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR (CONDITIONING, SKILL LEARNING, DISCRIMINATION, VERBAL LEARNING, PROBLEM SOLVING AND COMPLEX BEHAVIOR, MEMORY, VERBAL BEHAVIOR, AND SET), TO STUDIES ON INTELLIGENCE AND TEST BEHAVIOR (AGE CHANGES, CORRELATIONAL AND…

KUHLEN, RAYMOND G.; AND OTHERS

111

Cognitive competence and performance in everyday environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 20 years, the study of children's thinking has more and more been influenced by Piagetian research and ideas directed towards a theory of the growth of children's intellectual competence. Perhaps 30-40 percent of current published research on children's cognition is in some way connected with Piaget's work. His influence spreads beyond Psychology. More than a dozen books

Sheldon H. White

1980-01-01

112

Design and performance of cognitive packet networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss a packet network architecture called a cognitive packet network (CPN), in which intelligent capabilities for routing and flow control are moved towards the packets, rather than being concentrated in the nodes and protocols. Our architecture contains “smart” and “dumb” packets, as well as acknowledgement packets. Smart CPN packets route themselves, and learn to avoid congestion and losses from

Erol Gelenbe; Ricardo Lent; Zhiguang Xu

2001-01-01

113

Surviving Performance Improvement "Solutions": Aligning Performance Improvement Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|How can organizations avoid the negative, sometimes chaotic, effects of multiple, poorly coordinated performance improvement interventions? How can we avoid punishing our external clients or staff with the side effects of solutions that might benefit our bottom line or internal efficiency at the expense of the value received or perceived by…

Bernardez, Mariano L.

2009-01-01

114

Improving Cognitive Function in Older Adults: Nontraditional Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers two nontraditional approaches for developing interventions to improve cognition in older adults. Neither of these approaches relies on traditional explicit training of specific abilities in the laboratory. The first technique involves the activation of automatic processes through the formation of implementation intentions that enhance the probability that a desired action will be completed, such as remembering to

Denise C. Park; Angela H. Gutchess; Michelle L. Meade; Elizabeth A. L. Stine-Morrow

2007-01-01

115

Cognitive aging and flight performances in general aviation pilots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Unlike professional pilots who are limited by the FAA's age rule, no age limit is defined in general aviation. Our overall goal was to examine how age-related cognitive decline impacts piloting performance and weather-related decision-making. This study relied on three components: cognitive assessment (in particular executive functioning), pilot characteristics (age and flight experience), and flight performance. The results suggest that

Mickaël Causse; Frédéric Dehais; Mahé Arexis; Josette Pastor

2011-01-01

116

Study Abroad Field Trip Improves Test Performance through Engagement and New Social Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although study abroad trips provide an opportunity for affective and cognitive learning, it is largely assumed that they improve learning outcomes. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a study abroad field trip improved cognitive learning by comparing test performance between the study abroad participants (n = 20) and their peers who did not participate (n = 365). Test performance was statistically

Chris Houser; Christian Brannstrom; Steven M. Quiring; Kelly K. Lemmons

2011-01-01

117

Loss-Aversion or Loss-Attention: The Impact of Losses on Cognitive Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Losses were found to improve cognitive performance, and this has been commonly explained by increased weighting of losses compared to gains (i.e., loss aversion). We examine whether effects of losses on performance could be modulated by two alternative processes: an attentional effect leading to increased sensitivity to task incentives; and a…

Yechiam, Eldad; Hochman, Guy

2013-01-01

118

Mood is a key determinant of cognitive performance in community-dwelling older adults: a cross-sectional analysis.  

PubMed

Identification of predictors of cognitive trajectories through the establishment of composite or single-parameter dimensional categories of cognition and mood may facilitate development of strategies to improve quality of life in the elderly. Participants (n?=?487, aged 50+ years) were representative of the Portuguese population in terms of age, gender, and educational status. Cognitive and mood profiles were established using a battery of neurocognitive and psychological tests. Data were subjected to principal component analysis to identify core dimensions of cognition and mood, encompassing multiple test variables. Dimensions were correlated with age and with respect to gender, education, and occupational status. Cluster analysis was applied to isolate distinct patterns of cognitive performance and binary logistic regression models to explore interrelationships between aging, cognition, mood, and socio-demographic characteristics. Four main dimensions were identified: memory, executive function, global cognitive status, and mood. Based on these, strong and weak cognitive performers were distinguishable. Cluster analysis revealed further distinction within these two main categories into very good, good, poor, and very poor performers. Mood was the principal factor contributing to the separation between very good and good, as well as poor and very poor, performers. Clustering was also influenced by gender and education, albeit to a lesser extent; notably, however, female gender × lower educational background predicted significantly poorer cognitive performance with increasing age. Mood has a significant impact on the rate of cognitive decline in the elderly. Gender and educational level are early determinants of cognitive performance in later life. PMID:23054829

Santos, Nadine Correia; Costa, Patrício Soares; Cunha, Pedro; Cotter, Jorge; Sampaio, Adriana; Zihl, Joseph; Almeida, Osborne F X; Cerqueira, João J; Palha, Joana Almeida; Sousa, Nuno

2012-10-06

119

Short-Term Effects of Improved Glycemic Control on Cognitive Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: According to numerous studies, type 2 diabetes is associated with mild cognitive dysfunction, and there is some evidence suggesting favorable effects of improved metabolic control on the mental capability of elderly diabetic patients. Objective: To compare patients with type 2 diabetes to normal controls with respect to cognitive performance and to investigate the consequences of glycemic adjustment. Methods: 53

W. Hewer; M. Mussell; F. Rist; B. Kulzer; K. Bergis

2003-01-01

120

Voluntary dehydration and cognitive performance in trained college athletes.  

PubMed

Cognitive and mood decrements resulting from mild dehydration and glucose consumption were studied. Men and women (total N = 54; M age = 19.8 yr., SD = 1.2) were recruited from college athletic teams. Euhydration or dehydration was achieved by athletes completing team practices with or without water replacement. Dehydration was associated with higher thirst and negative mood ratings as well as better Digit Span performance. Participants showed better Vigilance Attention with euhydration. Hydration status and athlete's sex interacted with performance on Choice Reaction Time and Vigilance Attention. In a second study, half of the athletes received glucose prior to cognitive testing. Results for negative mood and thirst ratings were similar, but for cognitive performance the results were mixed. Effects of glucose on cognition were independent of dehydration. PMID:19831106

D'anci, Kristen E; Vibhakar, Arjun; Kanter, Jordan H; Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A

2009-08-01

121

Techniques for Improving Spelling Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Improving spelling performance of college students is a question of insuring that the correct information is in long-term memory and readily retrievable. Any system of spelling instruction should recognize the capacity limits of the sensory register and short-term memory; provide for identification of and concentration on the distinctive features…

Saylor, Paul

122

Performance improvement CME: adult ADHD.  

PubMed

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders and is now understood to be a lifelong condition for most individuals. Unfortunately, many adults with ADHD are not being diagnosed, possibly due to insufficient diagnostic criteria, the complex presentation of the disorder, and a reluctance by physicians to diagnose the disorder in adults. Additionally, many of those who have been diagnosed with ADHD do not receive adequate treatment despite the availability of established and effective agents. Performance Improvement CME (PI CME) is an educational activity in which clinicians retrospectively assess their current clinical practice, choose areas for improvement and implement interventions based on treatment guidelines and health care standards, and then re-evaluate their clinical practice to assess the improvements made. This PI CME activity focuses on improving the diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD. PMID:21527121

Adler, Lenard A; Barkley, Russell A; Newcorn, Jeffrey H

2011-04-01

123

Acai fruit improves motor and cognitive function in aged rats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aged rats show impaired performance on motor and cognitive tasks that require the use of spatial learning and memory. In previous studies, we have shown the beneficial effects of various berry fruits (blueberries, strawberries, and blackberries) in reversing age-related deficits in behavioral and ne...

124

Cognitive Performance in Treatment-Na?ve Active Alcoholics  

PubMed Central

Background Most studies reporting cognitive deficits in chronic alcoholics have relied on treatment samples (predominantly men) from inpatient or outpatient treatment facilities. However, the majority of chronic alcoholics have never been in treatment, and there is increasing evidence that treated and non-treatment seeking alcoholic samples come from different populations with regard to alcohol use and other factors related to the severity of disease. Accordingly, in the present study, we assessed a broad range of cognitive functions in 55 treatment-naïve alcohol dependent (TNAD) individuals and 55 non-alcoholic controls (NAC) matched for age and education. In addition, a goal of the present study was to assess potential differential effects of alcohol dependence on cognitive performance in TNAD men and women. Methods Comprehensive neuropsychological assessment was conducted on TNAD and NAC. The following nine performance domains, each consisting of multiple measures, were examined: attention, auditory working memory, verbal processing, abstraction/cognitive flexibility, psychomotor function, immediate memory, delayed memory, reaction time, and spatial processing. Results Analysis revealed no cognitive deficits in TNAD, relative to NAC, in any of the nine cognitive domains. TNAD performed better than NAC in the attention domain. In addition, while men performed better than women in the spatial domain, there were no TNAD vs. NAC group by gender interactions for any domain. Conclusions Our results extend findings that TNAD show minimal behavioral effects of chronic heavy alcohol use, and are consistent with the contention that TNAD are relatively cognitively intact. Differences between our findings and those often reported for alcoholics recruited from treatment settings may be understood in terms of differences in alcohol use, along with genetic, psychiatric, and nutritional factors. In addition, the lack of differential effects of alcohol dependence on male and female cognitive performance in our study suggests that TNAD men and women do not differ in the severity of cerebral consequences of alcohol dependence.

Smith, Stan; Fein, George

2011-01-01

125

Childhood aerobic fitness predicts cognitive performance one year later.  

PubMed

Aerobically fit children outperform less fit peers on cognitive control challenges that involve inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory. The aim of this study was to determine whether, compared with less fit children, more fit 9- and 10-year-old pre-adolescents exhibit superior performance on a modified compatible and incompatible flanker task of cognitive control at the initial time of fitness testing and approximately one year later. We found that more fit children demonstrated increased flanker accuracy at both test sessions, coupled with a superior ability to flexibly allocate strategies during task conditions that required different amounts of cognitive control, relative to less fit children. More fit children also gained a speed benefit at follow-up testing. Structural MRI data were also collected to investigate the relationship between basal ganglia volume and task performance. Bilateral putamen volumes of the dorsal striatum and globus pallidus volumes predicted flanker performance at initial and follow-up testing one year later. The present findings suggest that childhood aerobic fitness and basal ganglia volumes relate to cognitive control at the time of fitness testing and may play a role in cognitive performance in the future. We hope that this research will encourage public health and educational changes that will promote a physically active lifestyle in children. PMID:22260155

Chaddock, Laura; Hillman, Charles H; Pontifex, Matthew B; Johnson, Christopher R; Raine, Lauren B; Kramer, Arthur F

2012-01-19

126

The effects of an appraisal manipulation: Affect, intrusive cognitions, and performance for two cognitive tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relationship between trait measures of general appraisal and test anxiety, state measures of stress appraisals,\\u000a affect, and intrusive cognition, and performance measures on two cognitive tests (mental math and Raven matrices). Participants\\u000a were randomly assigned to threat, challenge, or control conditions that were created by manipulating both primary and secondary\\u000a appraisals. We predicted that the threat condition

S. H. Hemenover; Richard A. Dienstbier

1996-01-01

127

Similar effects on cognitive performance during high- and low-carbohydrate obesity treatment.  

PubMed

Objective:Low-carbohydrate (L-CHO) diets are often used for weight loss but their effects on cognitive function are not well understood. The present study compared the effects of a L-CHO and high-carbohydrate (H-CHO) weight-loss diet on cognitive function adults.Design:Participants were randomized to either a L-CHO (n=22) or H-CHO (n=25) weight-loss diet. Cognitive function was evaluated by four computerized cognitive tasks (Stroop Task, Continuous Performance Task, Word Recall and Wisconsin Card Sorting Task) presented in random order before and at 1, 4, 12 and 24 weeks after the initiation of the L-CHO or H-CHO diet.Participants:Forty-seven adults (25 males) with a mean±s.d. age of 47.4±8.7 years and body mass index of 35.3±3.4?kg?m(-2).Results:There were no significant differences in weight loss between groups at any time point. There were significant improvements on color Stroop task accuracy over time in both diet groups (P<0.05), but there were no differences in performance between groups on this or any other cognitive task at any time period.Conclusion:These findings suggest that weight loss has neither a positive nor a negative effect on cognitive function and that L-CHO and H-CHO weight-loss diets have similar effects on cognitive performance. PMID:24061557

Makris, A; Darcey, V L; Rosenbaum, D L; Komaroff, E; Vander Veur, S S; Collins, B N; Klein, S; Wyatt, H R; Foster, G D

2013-09-23

128

Similar effects on cognitive performance during high- and low-carbohydrate obesity treatment  

PubMed Central

Objective: Low-carbohydrate (L-CHO) diets are often used for weight loss but their effects on cognitive function are not well understood. The present study compared the effects of a L-CHO and high-carbohydrate (H-CHO) weight-loss diet on cognitive function adults. Design: Participants were randomized to either a L-CHO (n=22) or H-CHO (n=25) weight-loss diet. Cognitive function was evaluated by four computerized cognitive tasks (Stroop Task, Continuous Performance Task, Word Recall and Wisconsin Card Sorting Task) presented in random order before and at 1, 4, 12 and 24 weeks after the initiation of the L-CHO or H-CHO diet. Participants: Forty-seven adults (25 males) with a mean±s.d. age of 47.4±8.7 years and body mass index of 35.3±3.4?kg?m?2. Results: There were no significant differences in weight loss between groups at any time point. There were significant improvements on color Stroop task accuracy over time in both diet groups (P<0.05), but there were no differences in performance between groups on this or any other cognitive task at any time period. Conclusion: These findings suggest that weight loss has neither a positive nor a negative effect on cognitive function and that L-CHO and H-CHO weight-loss diets have similar effects on cognitive performance.

Makris, A; Darcey, V L; Rosenbaum, D L; Komaroff, E; Vander Veur, S S; Collins, B N; Klein, S; Wyatt, H R; Foster, G D

2013-01-01

129

Testosterone increases analgesia, anxiolysis, and cognitive performance of male rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preliminary evidence suggests that testosterone (T) may have anxiety-reducing and cognitive-enhancing properties in animals\\u000a and people. Performance in a number of affective and cognitive behavioral tasks was examined in intact, T-depleted, and T-depleted\\u000a and T-replaced male rats. Rats that were gonadally intact (n = 33), gonadectomized (GDX; n = 30), or GDX with silastic capsules of T implanted (n =

Cheryl A. Frye; Angela M. Seliga

2001-01-01

130

Infant feeding practice and childhood cognitive performance in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimSeveral studies have suggested a beneficial effect of infant breastfeeding on childhood cognitive function. The main objective was to examine whether duration of breastfeeding and age at introduction of complementary foods are related to cognitive performance in 9- to 10-year-old school-aged children in South India.MethodsThe authors examined 514 children from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort for whom breastfeeding duration (six

Sargoor R Veena; Ghattu V Krishnaveni; Krishnamachari Srinivasan; Andrew K Wills; Jacqueline C Hill; Anura V Kurpad; Sumithra Muthayya; Samuel C Karat; Mahadevu Nalinakshi; Caroline H D Fall

2010-01-01

131

Insight in cognition: self-awareness of performance across cognitive domains.  

PubMed

Loss of cognitive functions, as apparent through self-awareness, is considered an important indicator of cognitive deficits and is therefore commonly used in clinical practice. However, little is known about self-awareness of cognitive performance, including its accuracy, its basis, and whether people can distinguish their performance across different cognitive domains. In the present study, 20 university students (M (age) = 21.7 ± 2.2 years, 9 males) and 20 middle-aged participants (M (age) = 52.8 ± 3.9 years, 10 males) gave estimations of their performances on executive functioning, memory, attention, and visuoperception before and after confrontation with their capacities. A repeated-measures analysis of variance with age group as a between-subjects factor was performed on the calculated estimation errors, before and after neuropsychological testing. Overall, the estimation errors were significantly higher before than after experience with test performance, ps < .01, partial ?²s = .17. An overall effect of domain (four levels), ps < .001, partial ?²s = .22 was found. These results suggest that self-awareness is domain-specific, and although it is adaptive to the experience of mental effort, it is most dependent on preexisting beliefs about one's own cognitive abilities. PMID:23397995

Schoo, Linda A; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Biessels, G J; Kappelle, L Jaap; Postma, Albert

2012-12-05

132

The relationship between cognitive performance and electrophysiological indices of performance monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of electrophysiological indices of performance monitoring, such as the error-related negativity (ERN), posterror positivity\\u000a (Pe), and N2 components of the event-related potential (ERP), suggest that increased ERN and Pe amplitudes and decreased N2\\u000a amplitudes are associated with better cognitive flexibility and cognitive control abilities; however, few studies have directly\\u000a examined the relationship between cognitive performance and ERP indices of

Michael J. Larson; Peter E. Clayson

2011-01-01

133

Object-Oriented Performance Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a framework to sup- port an object-oriented approach to performance analysis is described. The framework includes the use of collabo- ration, automation, visual modeling, and reusable repositories of analysis knowledge. The need for a new frame- work is related to the increasing concern with the cost effectiveness of student and employee development. Efforts to improve the return-on-investment

Ian Douglas

2002-01-01

134

Prevention of Intellectual Disabilities: Early Interventions to Improve Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a conceptual framework that has guided three randomized, controlled early intervention trials designed to improve cognitive development and social competence in high-risk young children from birth to 3 years of age. Two of the projects (Abecedarian and CARE) enrolled infants from economically and socially low-resource families and the other project (IHDP) was an eight-site randomized controlled trial

Craig T. Ramey; Sharon Landesman Ramey

1998-01-01

135

Design of a Cognitive Tool to Enhance Problemsolving Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The design of a cognitive tool to support problem-solving performance for external representation of knowledge is described. The limitations of conventional knowledge maps are analyzed in proposing the tool. The design principles and specifications are described. This tool is expected to enhance learners problem-solving performance by allowing…

Lee, Youngmin; Nelson, David

2005-01-01

136

Aging and Concurrent Task Performance: Cognitive Demand and Motor Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A motor task that requires fine control of upper limb movements and a cognitive task that requires executive processing--first performing them separately and then concurrently--was performed by 18 young and 18 older adults. The motor task required participants to tap alternatively on two targets, the sizes of which varied systematically. The…

Albinet, Cedric; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Beasman, Kathryn

2006-01-01

137

Cognitive correlates of hemispheric performance on dichotic tasks.  

PubMed

Older (age 50+) adults were tested twice on three measures of dichotic memory and once on three measures of cognition. Internal consistencies of all three measures generally were adequate. However, test-retest reliabilities, by ear of presentation, were comparatively low for the three dichotic measures. A measure of vocabulary (a left hemisphere dominant cognitive ability) was related to performance on most dichotic tasks. Years of education (an index of left hemisphere mediated crystallized intelligence) was related to performance on left but not right hemisphere function on two of three dichotic tasks. Performance on tests of spatial ability was related to performance on left ear/right hemisphere but not right ear/left hemisphere function on two of three dichotic memory tasks. Individual differences in accuracy of recall and recognition of stimuli presented via dichotic tasks to the right ear/left hemisphere and the left ear/right hemisphere appear to have different cognitive correlates. Right hemisphere performance on dichotic tasks generally shows a significant negative association with age, as did performance on right hemisphere dominant cognitive tasks. On the other hand, most measures of left hemisphere performance showed no decline associated with age. PMID:6671835

Johnson, R C; Green, P; Ahern, F M; Cole, R E

138

Chronic nicotine improves working and reference memory performance and reduces hippocampal NGF in aged female rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cholinergic system is involved in cognition and several forms of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease, and nicotine administration has been shown to improve cognitive performance in both humans and rodents. While experiments with humans have shown that nicotine improves the ability to handle an increasing working memory load, little work has been done in animal models evaluating nicotine effects on

Kristen L. French; Ann-Charlotte E. Granholm; Alfred B. Moore; Matthew E. Nelson; Heather A. Bimonte-Nelson

2006-01-01

139

Study Abroad Field Trip Improves Test Performance through Engagement and New Social Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although study abroad trips provide an opportunity for affective and cognitive learning, it is largely assumed that they improve learning outcomes. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a study abroad field trip improved cognitive learning by comparing test performance between the study abroad participants (n = 20) and their peers who…

Houser, Chris; Brannstrom, Christian; Quiring, Steven M.; Lemmons, Kelly K.

2011-01-01

140

Heat acclimation improves exercise performance.  

PubMed

This study examined the impact of heat acclimation on improving exercise performance in cool and hot environments. Twelve trained cyclists performed tests of maximal aerobic power (VO2max), time-trial performance, and lactate threshold, in both cool [13°C, 30% relative humidity (RH)] and hot (38°C, 30% RH) environments before and after a 10-day heat acclimation (?50% VO2max in 40°C) program. The hot and cool condition VO2max and lactate threshold tests were both preceded by either warm (41°C) water or thermoneutral (34°C) water immersion to induce hyperthermia (0.8-1.0°C) or sustain normothermia, respectively. Eight matched control subjects completed the same exercise tests in the same environments before and after 10 days of identical exercise in a cool (13°C) environment. Heat acclimation increased VO2max by 5% in cool (66.8 ± 2.1 vs. 70.2 ± 2.3 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.004) and by 8% in hot (55.1 ± 2.5 vs. 59.6 ± 2.0 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.007) conditions. Heat acclimation improved time-trial performance by 6% in cool (879.8 ± 48.5 vs. 934.7 ± 50.9 kJ, P = 0.005) and by 8% in hot (718.7 ± 42.3 vs. 776.2 ± 50.9 kJ, P = 0.014) conditions. Heat acclimation increased power output at lactate threshold by 5% in cool (3.88 ± 0.82 vs. 4.09 ± 0.76 W/kg, P = 0.002) and by 5% in hot (3.45 ± 0.80 vs. 3.60 ± 0.79 W/kg, P < 0.001) conditions. Heat acclimation increased plasma volume (6.5 ± 1.5%) and maximal cardiac output in cool and hot conditions (9.1 ± 3.4% and 4.5 ± 4.6%, respectively). The control group had no changes in VO2max, time-trial performance, lactate threshold, or any physiological parameters. These data demonstrate that heat acclimation improves aerobic exercise performance in temperate-cool conditions and provide the scientific basis for employing heat acclimation to augment physical training programs. PMID:20724560

Lorenzo, Santiago; Halliwill, John R; Sawka, Michael N; Minson, Christopher T

2010-08-19

141

Estrogen Treatment Impairs Cognitive Performance following Psychosocial Stress and Monoamine Depletion in Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Objective Recent studies have shown women experience an acceleration of cognitive problems after menopause, and that estrogen treatment can improve or at least maintain current levels of cognitive functioning in postmenopausal women. However, we have previously shown that the negative emotional effects of psychosocial stress are magnified in normal postmenopausal women after estrogen treatment. This study examined whether estradiol administration can modify cognitive performance after exposure to psychological stress and monoamine depletion. Methods Participants consisted of 22 postmenopausal women placed on either oral placebo or 17?-estradiol (E2) (1 mg/day for 1 month, then 2 mg/day for 2 months). At the end of the 3 month treatment phase, participants underwent three depletion challenges in which they ingested one of three amino acid mixtures: deficient in tryptophan, deficient in phenylalanine/tyrosine, or balanced. Five hours later, participants performed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), followed by mood and anxiety ratings and cognitive testing. Cognitive measures included tests of attention, psychomotor function, and verbal episodic memory. Results E2-treated compared to placebo-treated participants exhibited significant worsening of cognitive performance on tasks measuring attentional performance and psychomotor speed. Similar trends for impairment were seen in measures of long-term episodic memory compared to placebo-treated postmenopausal women. E2-treated participants also showed a significant increase in negative mood and anxiety compared to placebo-treated women after but not before the TSST, though the worsening of both cognitive and behavioral functioning were not correlated. These effects were independent of tryptophan or tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion and were not manifest before the TSST or at baseline. Conclusions These data suggest that the relationship between estrogen administration and cognitive/behavioral performance in postmenopausal women may be more complex than initially appreciated and that effects of psychosocial stress may influence whether hormone effects are beneficial.

Newhouse, Paul A.; Dumas, Julie; Wilkins, Heather; Coderre, Emily; Sites, Cynthia K.; Naylor, Magdalena; Benkelfat, Chawki; Young, Simon N.

2010-01-01

142

Cognitive feedback and metaphors in emotional communication instruction of musical performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of metaphorical language is a common strategy in music teaching. Nevertheless, there is a lack of scientific knowledge about this subject. Inspired by earlier studies on cognitive feedback, emotion, and performance, an experiment was designed in order to test the metaphorical impact in the improvement of musical emotional communication. Two kinds of language were set: (1) technical, used

Nuno Arrais; Helena Rodrigues

2007-01-01

143

The Role of NREM Sleep Instability in Child Cognitive Performance  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Based on recent reports of the involvement of cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in cognitive functioning in adults, we investigated the association between CAP parameters and cognitive performance in healthy children. Design: Polysomnographic assessment and standardized neurocognitive testing in healthy children. Settings: Sleep laboratory. Participants: Forty-two children aged 7.6 ± 2.7 years, with an even distribution of body mass percentile (58.5 ± 25.5) and SES reflective of national norms. Measurements: Analysis of sleep macrostructure following the R&K criteria and of cyclic alternating pattern (CAP). The neurocognitive tests were the Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale (5th edition) and a Neuropsychological Developmental Assessment (NEPSY) Results: Fluid reasoning ability was positively associated with CAP rate, particularly during SWS and with A1 total index and A1 index in SWS. Regression analysis, controlling for age and SES, showed that CAP rate in SWS and A1 index in SWS were significant predictors of nonverbal fluid reasoning, explaining 24% and 22% of the variance in test scores, respectively. Conclusion: This study shows that CAP analysis provides important insights on the role of EEG slow oscillations (CAP A1) in cognitive performance. Children with higher cognitive efficiency showed an increase of phase A1 in total sleep and in SWS Citation: Bruni O; Kohler M; Novelli L; Kennedy D; Lushington K; Martin J; Ferri R. The role of NREM sleep instability in child cognitive performance. SLEEP 2012;35(5):649-656.

Bruni, Oliviero; Kohler, Mark; Novelli, Luana; Kennedy, Declan; Lushington, Kurt; Martin, James; Ferri, Raffaele

2012-01-01

144

Intracranial arachnoid cysts: impairment of higher cognitive functions and postoperative improvement  

PubMed Central

Background Intracranial arachnoid cysts have been shown to yield cognitive impairment over a range of basic mental functions, and these functions normalize after surgical cyst decompression. We wanted to investigate whether such cysts may also impair executive cognitive functions, and whether surgical cyst decompression leads to an improvement. Methods This study included 22 patients with arachnoid cysts and 13 control patients scheduled for low back surgery. All subjects were tested with Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) tests, assessing executive function 1 day before surgery and a minimum of 3 months after surgery. The data were analyzed according to scaled score computations based on raw scores provided by D-KEFS, adjusted for age, gender, and educational norms. Results Preoperatively, the patients with cysts group performed worse than the control group in verbal knowledge, mental flexibility, inhibitory capacity, problem solving, and planning skills. Postoperatively, the patients with cysts group significantly improved performance and were no longer different from the control group in the following subtests: inhibition, inhibition/switching, letter fluency, category switching, and total switching accuracy. The patients with cysts group also significantly improved performance in color naming, category fluency, and in the Tower test, but nevertheless remained impaired at follow-up compared with the control group. The control group did not show a similar improvement, except for the Tower test. Cyst size or postoperative volume reduction did not correlate with cognitive performance or postoperative improvement. Patients with left-sided temporal cysts performed poorer than patients with right-sided cysts on a complex verbal task demanding mental flexibility. Conclusions Arachnoid cysts seem to impair not only basic cognition, but also executive functions. Most of this impairment appears to be reversible after surgical cyst decompression. These results may have implications for future preoperative considerations for patients with intracranial arachnoid cysts.

2013-01-01

145

Aging and cognitive performance: challenges and implications for physicians practicing in the 21st century.  

PubMed

The demands of physician practice are growing. Some specialties face critical shortages and a significant percentage of physicians are aging. To improve health care it is paramount to understand and address challenges, including cognitive issues, facing aging physicians. In this article, we outline several issues related to cognitive performance and potential implications associated with aging. We discuss important findings from other fields and draw parallels to the practice of medicine. In particular, we discuss the possible effects of aging through the lens of situated cognition theory, and we outline the potential impact of aging on expertise, information processing, neurobiology, intelligence, and self-regulated learning. We believe that work done in related fields can provide a better understanding of physician aging and cognition, and thus can inform more effective approaches to continuous professional development and lifelong learning in medicine. We conclude with implications for the health care system and areas of future research. PMID:20872769

Durning, Steven J; Artino, Anthony R; Holmboe, Eric; Beckman, Thomas J; van der Vleuten, Cees; Schuwirth, Lambert

2010-01-01

146

Comparison of cognitive performances during a placebo period and an atypical antipsychotic treatment period in schizophrenia: critical examination of confounds.  

PubMed

Although previous studies report cognitive improvement following atypical antipsychotic administration in schizophrenia (SC), few placebo-controlled within-subject studies with examination of confounds (symptom reduction, cooperation, learning, and outliers) have been reported. The present study examines the effects of atypicals and confounds upon cognition in SC. The hypothesis tested was that relative to placebo, atypicals as a general class of medication would elicit cognitive improvement in SC. In all, 19 patients with SC (15 males) completed the double-blind, counterbalanced, randomized within-subject study of the effects of atypical antipsychotics (risperidone, clozapine, olanzapine, or quetiapine) vs placebo administration upon cognitive performance in the domains of executive function, attention, memory, language, visual perception, and general intellect. Significant cognitive improvement during atypical antipsychotic administration relative to placebo withdrawal occurred in most cognitive domains with robust improvements in intelligence (p=0.001), memory (p=0.0009), and fluency (p <0.002) even after outliers and unmotivated performances were excluded. These findings suggest that relative to placebo withdrawal, atypicals improve cognitive performance in SC. However, this finding may not be specific to atypicals, since analogous studies of typicals have not been performed. PMID:12799617

Weickert, Thomas W; Goldberg, Terry E; Marenco, Stefano; Bigelow, Llewellyn B; Egan, Michael F; Weinberger, Daniel R

2003-06-11

147

Consumption of cocoa flavanols results in an acute improvement in visual and cognitive functions.  

PubMed

Cocoa flavanols (CF) influence physiological processes in ways that suggest their consumption may improve aspects of neural function, and previous studies have found positive influences of CF on cognitive performance. In this preliminary study we investigated whether visual, as well as cognitive, function is influenced by an acute dose of CF in young adults. We employed a randomized, single-blinded, order counterbalanced, crossover design in which 30 healthy adults consumed both dark chocolate containing 720mg CF and a matched quantity of white chocolate, with a one week interval between testing sessions. Visual contrast sensitivity was assessed by reading numbers that became progressively more similar in luminance to their background. Motion sensitivity was assessed firstly by measuring the threshold proportion of coherently moving signal dots that could be detected against a background of random motion, and secondly by determining the minimum time required to detect motion direction in a display containing a high proportion of coherent motion. Cognitive performance was assessed using a visual spatial working memory for location task and a choice reaction time task designed to engage processes of sustained attention and inhibition. Relative to the control condition, CF improved visual contrast sensitivity and reduced the time required to detect motion direction, but had no statistically reliable effect on the minimum proportion of coherent motion that could be detected. In terms of cognitive performance, CF improved spatial memory and performance on some aspects of the choice reaction time task. As well as extending the range of cognitive tasks that are known to be influenced by CF consumption, this is the first report of acute effects of CF on the efficiency of visual function. These acute effects can be explained by increased cerebral blood flow caused by CF, although in the case of contrast sensitivity there may be an additional contribution from CF induced retinal blood flow changes. PMID:21324330

Field, David T; Williams, Claire M; Butler, Laurie T

2011-02-12

148

Physical Education Performance Outcomes and Cognitive Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article intends to inform physical education teachers about the current research describing the relationship between physical education performance outcomes as identified by the national physical education standards (i.e., regular participation in physical activity, physical fitness, motor competence; National Association of Physical…

Castelli, Darla M.; Hillman, Charles H.

2007-01-01

149

Influence of Cognitive Abilities and Age on Word Recall Performance Across Trials and List Segments  

PubMed Central

The influence of cognitive abilities and age on multitrial word recall performance was examined for different list segments (i.e., first, middle, and last) and across trials by having 2,497 participants ages 18–98 complete a multitrial word list test along with reference cognitive ability tests. As expected, higher episodic memory ability was associated with better recall on all list segments but with a smaller influence for the last items on the early trials. Performance improved across trials, but there were no relations of the fluid intelligence construct that might be postulated to be associated with effective strategy implementation with any of the recall measures. Advanced age was associated with lower levels of performance, but very few of the age relations were significant after the variation in the reference cognitive abilities was controlled for.

Krueger, Lacy E.; Salthouse, Timothy A.

2013-01-01

150

Daytime sleepiness, cognitive performance and mood after continuous positive airway pressure for the sleep apnoea\\/hypopnoea syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND--Patients with the sleep apnoea\\/hypopnoea syndrome often receive continuous positive airway pressure to improve their symptoms and daytime performance, yet objective evidence of the effect of this treatment on cognitive performance is lacking. METHODS--A prospective parallel group study was performed comparing the change in objective daytime sleepiness as assessed by multiple sleep latency, cognitive function, and mood in 21 patients

H M Engleman; K E Cheshire; I J Deary; N J Douglas

1993-01-01

151

Multitaper Based Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radio: Design and Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the multitaper spectrum (MTS) for spectrum sensing in cognitive radio has been investigated by a number of researchers. An MTS detector can be applied to various operational environments with the knowledge of perfect or inaccurate noise variance. So far, however, no systematic procedure is available for the determination of theoretical thresholds and their corresponding detection performance. In this paper,

Q. T. Zhang

2011-01-01

152

Composition Instruction and Cognitive Performance: Results of a Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a composition program, Composers in Public Schools (CiPS), on cognitive skills essential for academic success. The underlying hypothesis is that composition instruction will promote creative expression and increase performance on music-specific skills such as music reading, as well as…

Bugos, Jennifer; Jacobs, Edward

2012-01-01

153

Ginseng: potential for the enhancement of cognitive performance and mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ginseng has been used medicinally in the Far East for several millennia and is currently one of the most widely taken herbal products throughout the world. It has been attributed with a plethora of physiological effects that could potentially benefit cognitive performance or mood. Studies involving animals show that ginseng and its constituent ginsenosides can modulate indices of stress, fatigue,

David O Kennedy; Andrew B Scholey

2003-01-01

154

Effects of indoor color on mood and cognitive performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the impact of indoor color use, gender and age on mood and cognitive performance was examined. It was hypothesized that indoor color for decoration in stores is an effective source that may convey emotional meanings differentiated by gender, age, or both. In order to study this, a two-stage work was carried out in a café\\/restaurant, in which

K. Yildirim; A. Akalin-Baskaya; M. L. Hidayetoglu

2007-01-01

155

Modeling Cognitive Strategies during Complex Task Performing Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study is to examine individuals' computer based complex task performing processes and strategies in order to determine the reasons of failure by cognitive task analysis method and cued retrospective think aloud with eye movement data. Study group was five senior students from Computer Education and Instructional Technologies…

Mazman, Sacide Guzin; Altun, Arif

2012-01-01

156

Early Environmental Factors, Ethnicity, and Adult Cognitive Test Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to better understand cross-cultural variation in neuropsychological test performance by exploring the relationship between early environmental factors and adult neuropsychological functioning in African Americans (AA) and Caucasians (CA). Cognitive testing data and detailed retrospective early environmental histories were obtained from 100 neurologically healthy adults (75 AA, 25 CA). Results indicate that: (a) consistent with previous research,

Desiree A. Byrd; S. Walden Miller; Judy Reilly; Shirley Weber; Tamara L. Wall; Robert K. Heaton

2006-01-01

157

Team Cognitive Ability as a Predictor of Team Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This manuscript presents two studies of the relationship between team cognitive ability (average Scholastic Aptitude Test score of team members) and team performance (a subjective coach's evaluation and an objective measure using Sagarin's Power Rankings) among NCAA Division 1 Men's Basketball teams. Study 1 was conducted following the 1991-92 season whereas Study 2 was conducted during the 1993-94 season. Both

Patrick M. Wright; Gary C. McMahan; Dennis Smart; Blaine McCormick

1997-01-01

158

Performance and Cognitive Assessment in 3-D Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to investigate identifiable differences between performance and cognitive assessment scores in a 3-D modeling unit of an engineering drafting course curriculum. The study aimed to provide further investigation of the need of skill-based assessments in engineering/technical graphics courses to potentially increase…

Fahrer, Nolan E.; Ernst, Jeremy V.; Branoff, Theodore J.; Clark, Aaron C.

2011-01-01

159

Cognitive Somatic Behavioral Interventions for Maximizing Gymnastic Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychological training programs developed and implemented for gymnasts of a wide range of age and varying ability levels are examined. The programs utilized strategies based on cognitive-behavioral intervention. The approach contends that mental training plays a crucial role in maximizing performance for most gymnasts. The object of the training…

Ravizza, Kenneth; Rotella, Robert

160

Sparking Creativity: Improving Electronic Brainstorming with Individual Cognitive Priming  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been growing interest in the study of individual cognition in teams. Meanwhile, we learned that much of human behavior involves nonconscious cognition. Recent research has shown that it is possible to manipulate nonconscious cognition through \\

Alan R. Dennis; Randall K. Minas; Akshay Bhagwatwar

2012-01-01

161

Recent performance improvements on FXR  

SciTech Connect

The FXR machine is a nominal 4-kA, 20-MeV, linear-induction, electron accelerator for flash radiography at LLNL. The machine met its baseline requirements in March 1982. Since then, the performance has been greatly improved. We have achieved stable and repeatable beam acceleration and transport, with over 80% transmission to the tungsten bremsstrahlung target located some 35 m downstream. For best stability, external-beam steering has been eliminated almost entirely. We regularly produce over 500 Roentgen at 1 m from the target (TLD measurement), with a radiographic spot size of 3 to 5 mm. Present efforts are directed towards the development of a 4-kA tune, working interactively with particle-field and beam transport code models. A remaining uncertainty is the possible onset of RF instabilities at the higher current levels.

Kulke, B.; Kihara, R.

1983-01-01

162

Effects of Caffeine Ingestion on Cognitive Performance after Maximal Anaerobic Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeine may serve as a stimulus to improve psychomotor ability following high intensity exercise. The study was designed to determine whether a 5mg\\/kg caffeine supplement would provide any improvement in cognitive ability following the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WaNT) and any increase in peak and mean power during the WaNT. Hope College students (n=15), ages 18-22 performed two randomized, double-blind WaNT

Ryan Holmes; Ryan Richter; Cory Gowman; Garrett Stier

2012-01-01

163

Improve Relationships to Improve Student Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attempts to raise student performance have focused primarily on either relationships between adults in the system or formal curriculum. Relatively ignored has been a focus on what sociologists believe is the primary relationship of consequence for student outcomes--authority relationships between students and educators. Successful school reform…

Arum, Richard

2011-01-01

164

Cognitive performance in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: A longitudinal study in daily practice using a brief computerized cognitive battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  There is need for a cognitive test battery that can be easily used in clinical practice to detect or monitor cognitive performance\\u000a in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In order to conduct, in this patient group, a preliminary investigation of the validity\\u000a and utility of a brief computerized battery, the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) battery, we longitudinally assessed cognition\\u000a in

Chris Edgar; Peter J Jongen; Evert Sanders; Christian Sindic; Sophie Goffette; Michel Dupuis; Philippe Jacquerye; Daniel Guillaume; Regine Reznik; Keith Wesnes

2011-01-01

165

Compositions for improving mental performance  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention provides formulas for producing compositions for the structural/functional nutritional support for those who struggle with poor focus, concentration and/or memory. In addition, the present invention provides compositions comprising nutritional/botanical factors helpful to those who subjectively experience transient mental fatigue or poor cognitive function. The compositions of this invention consist primarily of the following ingredients B-complex vitamins, antioxidants, minerals, phosphatidyl serine (PS), choline, dimenthyl-aminoethanol (DMAE), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), L-pyroglutamic acid, as well as herbal extracts from Bacopa monniera, Vinca minor, and Huperzia serrata. The present invention also relates to the administration of these compounds to alleviate mental fatigue or poor cognitive function.

2012-12-11

166

Influence of Agility Training on Physiological and Cognitive Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Agility training (AT) has recently been instituted in several combat athlete communities in hopes of improving combat performance as well as general fitness. AT has been demonstrated to improve performance in agility tests while traditional linear exercis...

E. Doczy K. Sidrow L. Lennemann R. Klein T. B. Walker

2010-01-01

167

Common genetic variation and performance on standardized cognitive tests  

PubMed Central

One surprising feature of the recently completed waves of genome-wide association studies is the limited impact of common genetic variation in individually detectable polymorphisms on many human traits. This has been particularly pronounced for studies on psychiatric conditions, which have failed to produce clear, replicable associations for common variants. One popular explanation for these negative findings is that many of these traits may be genetically heterogeneous, leading to the idea that relevant endophenotypes may be more genetically tractable. Aspects of cognition may be the most important endophenotypes for psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, leading many researchers to pursue large-scale studies on the genetic contributors of cognitive performance in the normal population as a surrogate for aspects of liability to disease. Here, we perform a genome-wide association study with two tests of executive function, Digit Symbol and Stroop Color-Word, in 1086 healthy volunteers and with an expanded cognitive battery in 514 of these volunteers. We show that, consistent with published studies of the psychiatric conditions themselves, no single common variant has a large effect (explaining >4–8% of the population variation) on the performance of healthy individuals on standardized cognitive tests. Given that these are important endophenotypes, our work is consistent with the idea that identifying rare genetic causes of psychiatric conditions may be more important for future research than identifying genetically homogenous endophenotypes.

Cirulli, Elizabeth T; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Attix, Deborah K; Need, Anna C; Ge, Dongliang; Gibson, Greg; Goldstein, David B

2010-01-01

168

Effects of acetazolamide on cognitive performance during high-altitude exposure.  

PubMed

High-altitude hypoxia impedes cognitive performance. It is not well known whether the prophylactic use of acetazolamide for altitude sickness can influence cognitive performance at high altitude. When ascending to high altitude locations, one may face medical risks, including cognitive impairment, which may significantly hinder climbing abilities or exploratory behavior. Effective prophylactic drugs have rarely been reported. Because acetazolamide is commonly used to treat acute mountain sickness (AMS), we assessed the potential effects of acetazolamide on cognitive performance during high-altitude exposure. Twenty-one volunteers aged 22-26 years were randomized to receive a 4-day treatment of acetazolamide (125 mg Bid, n=11) or placebo (n=10) before and after air travel from Xianyang (402 m) to Lhasa (3561 m). Neuropsychological performance was assessed using the digit symbol substitution test (DSST), paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT), operation span task, and free recall test at 6, 30, and 54 h after arrival at Lhasa. The Lake Louise Score (LLS) was used to diagnose AMS. At high altitude, acetazolamide impaired rather than improved neuropsychological measures of concentration, cognitive processing speed, reaction time, short-term memory, and working memory, which were assessed by DSST, PASAT, and operation span task at 6 and 30 h after arrival (p<0.05). However, the prophylactic use of acetazolamide was found to reduce the incidence of AMS compared to the placebo (p<0.05). In conclusion, acetazolamide impairs neuropsychological function, at least in part, shortly after the ascent to high altitude. PMID:23280141

Wang, Jiye; Ke, Tao; Zhang, Xiangnan; Chen, Yaoming; Liu, Mingchao; Chen, Jingyuan; Luo, Wenjing

2012-12-30

169

Behavioral and electrophysiological correlates of training-induced cognitive control improvements?, ??  

PubMed Central

Cognitive control – the ability to exert control over thoughts, attention and behavior in order to achieve a goal – is essential to adaptive functioning and its disruption characterizes various neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. In recent years, increased attention has been devoted to investigating the effects of training on performance and brain function, but little is known about whether cognitive control can be improved through training. To fill this gap, we designed a brief training targeting various components of cognitive control, including conflict monitoring and interference resolution. Twenty participants performed a 3-day training protocol, preceded and followed by identical pre- and post-training sessions, respectively, which included event-related potential (ERP) recordings. To detect transfer effects, the training and pre-/post-training sessions employed different tasks hypothesized to rely on similar interference resolution mechanisms. We hypothesized that training would selectively improve performance for high-interference (i.e., incongruent) trials and be associated with reduced amplitudes in the N2 component, a waveform known to index interference. Trial-to-trial behavioral adjustments were also analyzed to assess potential mechanisms of training-induced improvements. Relative to pre-training, participants showed reduced reaction time (RT) and N2 amplitude for incongruent, but not congruent, trials, suggesting improved interference resolution. Critically, participants showing the greatest reductions in interference effects during the course of the training displayed the largest pre- to post-training reductions in N2 amplitudes in a separate task, highlighting transfer effects. Overall, results suggest that a brief training can improve cognitive control, specifically the ability to inhibit task-irrelevant information.

Millner, Alexander J.; Jaroszewski, Adam C.; Chamarthi, Harish; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

2012-01-01

170

The Effects of Instructions on Dual-Task Walking and Cognitive Task Performance in People with Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Gait impairments are prevalent among people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Instructions to focus on walking can improve walking in PD, but the use of such a cognitive strategy may be limited under dual-task walking conditions, when walking is performed simultaneously with concurrent cognitive or motor tasks. This study examined how dual-task performance of walking and a concurrent cognitive task was affected by instructions in people with PD compared to healthy young and older individuals. Dual-task walking and cognitive task performance was characterized under two sets of instructions as follows: (1) focus on walking and (2) focus on the cognitive task. People with PD and healthy adults walked faster when instructed to focus on walking. However, when focused on walking, people with PD and young adults demonstrated declines in the cognitive task. This suggests that dual-task performance is flexible and can be modified by instructions in people with PD, but walking improvements may come at a cost to cognitive task performance. The ability to modify dual-task performance in response to instructions or other task and environmental factors is critical to mobility in daily life. Future research should continue to examine factors that influence dual-task performance among people with PD.

Kelly, Valerie E.; Eusterbrock, Alexis J.; Shumway-Cook, Anne

2012-01-01

171

Cognitive performance during successive sustained physical work episodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of physical work (30% of$$\\\\dot VO_2 $$ max), sleep loss (3-h nap during a 48-h operation), continuous work (CW), and time of day on cognitive performance were assessed\\u000a (by ANOVA) in this repeated-measures study comparing two groups (exercise\\/nonexercise) of healthy young men (N=22). Treadmill\\u000a walking did not accentuate or attenuate sleep loss effects on performance; however, sleep loss

Carl E. Englund; David H. Ryman; Paul Naitoh; James A. Hodgdon

1985-01-01

172

Selective Attention Improves Under Stress: Implications for Theories of Social Cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three influential perspectives of social cognition entail conflicting predictions regarding the selectivity of performance under stress. According to the attention view, selectivity to the task-relevant attribute improves under stress because of reduced utilization of task-irrelevant attributes. According to the capacity-resource approach, stress depletes attentional resources wherefore selectivity fails for all but chronically accessible information. A third perspective, ironic process theory,

Eran Chajut; Daniel Algom

2003-01-01

173

Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Relations between Performance on the Social Attribution Task and Cognitive and Behavioral Characteristics.  

PubMed

Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder of genetic origin, with characteristic cognitive and personality profiles. Studies of WS point to an outgoing and gregarious personality style, often contrasted with autism spectrum disorders; however, recent research has uncovered underlying social reciprocity difficulties in people with WS. Social information processing difficulties that underlie these social reciprocity difficulties have been sparsely examined. Participants in the current study included 24 children with WS ages 8 through 15. A lab-based measure of social perception and social cognition was administered (Social Attribution Test), as well as an intellectual functioning measure (KBIT-II) and parent reports of communication and reciprocal social skills (Social Communication Questionnaire, Social Responsiveness Scale). Relations between social cognition, cognitive abilities, and social-communication were examined. Results demonstrated relations between parent-reported social reciprocity and the typicality of the responses provided in the lab-based measure, even once variability in intellectual functioning was taken into account. Specifically, those individuals who produced narratives in response to the social attribution task (SAT) that were more similar to those described in previous studies of typically developing individuals were also reported to have fewer social reciprocity difficulties in the real world setting as reported by parents. In addition, a significant improvement in performance on the SAT was seen with added scaffolding, particularly for participants with stronger intellectual functioning. These findings indicate that difficulties interpreting the social dynamics between others in ambiguous situations may contribute to the social relationship difficulties observed in people with WS, above and beyond the role of intellectual functioning. Exploratory analyses indicated that performance by individuals with stronger intellectual functioning is improved with additional structure to a greater degree than for those with weaker intellectual functioning. Interventions that specifically target these social information processing of individuals with WS would likely be beneficial. PMID:22737137

van der Fluit, Faye; Gaffrey, Michael S; Klein-Tasman, Bonita P

2012-06-25

174

Cognitive approach to improving participation after stroke: two case studies.  

PubMed

Despite the need for occupational therapy to emphasize client-specific occupational performance, primary emphasis in stroke rehabilitation continues to be on the remediation of client factors and self-care. Such practice leaves many survivors of stroke with continuing performance deficits. Two case studies demonstrate a novel, alternative approach. The Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) treatment is a performance-based, problem-solving approach to developing functional skills that are client centered. CO-OP was used to guide treatment with 2 older women. The findings suggest that the approach has the potential to successfully help clients with stroke achieve their everyday occupational goals and support continued research in this area. This work will lead to a pilot randomized controlled trial. PMID:21309372

Henshaw, Erin; Polatajko, Helen; McEwen, Sara; Ryan, Jennifer D; Baum, Carolyn M

175

Rapid cognitive improvement in Alzheimer's disease following perispinal etanercept administration  

PubMed Central

Substantial basic science and clinical evidence suggests that excess tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is centrally involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In addition to its pro-inflammatory functions, TNF-alpha has recently been recognized to be a gliotransmitter that regulates synaptic function in neural networks. TNF-alpha has also recently been shown to mediate the disruption in synaptic memory mechanisms, which is caused by beta-amyloid and beta-amyloid oligomers. The efficacy of etanercept, a biologic antagonist of TNF-alpha, delivered by perispinal administration, for treatment of Alzheimer's disease over a period of six months has been previously reported in a pilot study. This report details rapid cognitive improvement, beginning within minutes, using this same anti-TNF treatment modality, in a patient with late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Rapid cognitive improvement following perispinal etanercept may be related to amelioration of the effects of excess TNF-alpha on synaptic mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease and provides a promising area for additional investigation and therapeutic intervention.

Tobinick, Edward L; Gross, Hyman

2008-01-01

176

Behavioural effects of a 10-day Mediterranean diet. Results from a pilot study evaluating mood and cognitive performance.  

PubMed

There are surprisingly few randomised, controlled trials into the effects of dietary change on mood and cognition in healthy individuals. Here we examined the effects of 10 days of changing to a nutrient-rich diet on mood and cognitive performance. Young female adults (N=25) were randomised to a diet change (DC), or a no change (NC) control group. Those in the DC condition adhered to the nutrient-dense Mediterranean diet. Mood and cognitive performance were assessed at baseline and on day 10. Compared with the NC group, the DC group showed significant improvements in self-rated vigour, alertness and contentment. Changes in cognitive tasks were somewhat inconsistent. These preliminary findings require verification in larger trials but suggest that appropriate dietary change may benefit mood and some aspects of cognitive performance in healthy adults. PMID:21115083

McMillan, Laura; Owen, Lauren; Kras, Marni; Scholey, Andrew

2010-11-27

177

Improving pulverized coal plant performance  

SciTech Connect

A major deliverable of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project ``Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emissions Boiler Systems`` (LEBS) is the design of a large, in this case 400 MWe, commercial generating unit (CGU) which will meet the Project objectives. The overall objective of the LEBS Project is to dramatically improve environmental performance of future pulverized coal fired power plants without adversely impacting efficiency or the cost of electricity. The DOE specified the use of near-term technologies, i.e., advanced technologies that partially developed, to reduce NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions to be substantially less than current NSPS limits. In addition, air toxics must be in compliance and waste must be reduced and made more disposable. The design being developed by the ABB Team is projected to meet all the contract objectives and to reduce emission of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particulates to one-fifth to one-tenth NSPS limits while increasing net station efficiency significantly and reducing the cost of electricity. This design and future work are described in the paper.

Regan, J.W.; Borio, R.W.; Palkes, M.; Mirolli, M. [ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Wesnor, J.D. [ABB Environmental Systems, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bender, D.J. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc., New York, NY (United States)

1995-12-31

178

Hydration effects on cognitive performance during military tasks in temperate and cold environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body water deficits or hypohydration (HYP) may degrade cognitive performance during heat exposure and perhaps temperate conditions. Cold exposure often induces HYP, but the combined effects of cold and HYP on cognitive performance are unknown. This study investigated whether HYP degrades cognitive performance during cold exposure and if physical exercise could mitigate any cold-induced performance decline. On four occasions, eight

Gina E. Adam; Robert Carter; Samuel N. Cheuvront; Donna J. Merullo; John W. Castellani; Harris R. Lieberman; Michael N. Sawka

2008-01-01

179

Progesterone treatment improves cognitive outcome following experimental traumatic brain injury in rats.  

PubMed

Progesterone (PROG) has recently been shown to have a neuroprotective effect and improve cognitive outcome in animal models of traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, the precise mechanisms remain unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of PROG on inflammation and apoptosis in the hippocampus after TBI and its influence on the cognitive outcome. In this study, the model of TBI was established by modified Feeney's weight-dropping method. The PROG was given in a dose of 16mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection 1h post injury and subsequent injections subcutaneously at 6h and 12h after TBI. Brain samples were extracted at 24h after trauma. The expression of COX-2 and caspase-3 was measured by immunohistochemistry and western blot technique. The cognitive outcome was assessed by Morris water maze test (MWM). The results revealed that the expression of COX-2 and caspase-3 in TBI-PROG group was distinctly less than those of the TBI group (p<0.05). In addition, the performance of Morris water maze showed that progesterone treatment exhibited shorter latencies, more platform crossings and more time swimming in the quadrant area in the TBI+PROG rats compared to the TBI rats. In conclusion, post-TBI PROG administration may attenuate inflammation and apoptosis in the hippocampus, and this may be one of the mechanisms by which PROG improves cognitive outcome following TBI. PMID:23954829

Si, Daowen; Wang, Haitao; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Chengyun; Sun, Jingyu; Wang, Zhigang; Zhang, Zuofeng; Zhang, Yuxin

2013-08-14

180

Longitudinal Change in Cognitive Performance Among Individuals With Mild Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors used mixed-effects growth models to examine longitudinal change in neuropsychological performance over a 4-year period among 197 individuals who were either normal or had mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at baseline. At follow-up, the participants were divided into 4 groups: (a) controls: participants who were normal at both baseline and follow-up (n = 33), (b) stables: participants with MCI

Marilyn Albert; Deborah Blacker; Mark B. Moss; Rudolph Tanzi; John J. McArdle

2007-01-01

181

Thermoelectric Air Conditioner Performance Improvement Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program is to conduct the analytical and experimental studies necessary to permit the design and fabrication of thermoelectric air conditioners with improved performance for military use. This improved performance will be evaluated i...

B. Shelpuk J. F. Panas

1967-01-01

182

Impact of sugar replacers on cognitive performance and function in rats.  

PubMed

Glycaemic responses to the dextrin NUTRIOSE 6 (Dex) and the MALTISORB maltitol (Mal) have been studied previously but their effects on vigilance and cognitive performances are still not known. The present study assesses dose-related glycaemic responses following Dex administration and the hypothesis that Dex and Mal could modulate the glycaemic response, improve vigilance under stress conditions and improve cognitive performances in rats. The glycaemic responses following Dex and corn syrup GLUCIDEX IT 21 (CoS) solutions at 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg body weight administered by oral administration (experiment 1) and glycaemic responses to three cereal bars (standard (CoS), Dex or Dex/Mal bar) (experiment 2) were evaluated. Rats having eaten cereal bars were submitted to vigilance and aversive light stimulus avoidance conditioning tests to assess their vigilance and cognitive performances. The first experiment showed that the glycaemic response to both products is dose-related and that CoS induced a glycaemic response three times higher than the Dex response. The second experiment showed the same glycaemic response for the three cereal bar-treated rats. Yet, an increase in the vigilance of Dex/Mal-treated rats as well as a better discrimination between two levers in the cognitive test for Dex- and Dex/Mal-treated rats were noticed. These results suggest that the glycaemic response is not the only factor to be considered in predicting the efficiency of a food ingredient on vigilance and cognitive performances: these behaviours are improved after Dex- and Mal-prepared cereal bar ingestion whereas the glycaemic response does not differ from the CoS-prepared bar. PMID:18377689

Rozan, Pascale; Deremaux, Laetitia; Wils, Daniel; Nejdi, Amine; Messaoudi, Michaël; Saniez, Marie-Hélène

2008-04-01

183

Vascular risk and FDDNP-PET influence cognitive performance.  

PubMed

The relationship of cerebrovascular risk and Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology to cognition in pre-dementia has been extensively investigated and is well-established. Cerebrovascular risk can be measured using a Framingham Stroke Risk Profile (FSRP) score, while positron emission tomography (PET) scans with 2-(1-{6-[(2-[F-18]fluoroethyl)(methyl)amino]-2-naphthyl}ethylidene)malononitrile (FDDNP) measure AD neuropathology (i.e., amyloid-? plaques and tau tangles). Here we report results of 75 healthy non-demented subjects (mean age, 63 years) who underwent neuropsychological testing, physical assessments, and FDDNP-PET scans. Controlling for AD family history, education, and APOE4 status in a general linear model, higher FSRP risk and global FDDNP-PET binding were each associated with poorer cognitive functioning. The interaction of FSRP and global FDDNP-PET binding was not significant in the model, indicating that stroke risk and plaque and tangle burden each contributed to worse cognitive performance. Within our healthy volunteers, age, blood pressure, and antihypertensive medication use were vascular risks that contributed significantly to the above findings. These findings suggest that even mild cerebrovascular risk may influence the extent of cognitive dysfunction in pre-dementia, along with amyloid-? and tau burden. PMID:23380994

Merrill, David A; Siddarth, Prabha; Kepe, Vladimir; Raja, Pushpa V; Saito, Nathan; Ercoli, Linda M; Miller, Karen J; Lavretsky, Helen; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Barrio, Jorge R; Small, Gary W

2013-01-01

184

A Comparison of Sideline Versus Clinical Cognitive Test Performance in Collegiate Athletes  

PubMed Central

Objective: To test whether performance on 5 cognitive tests administered in a controlled clinical environment differed compared with administration in an uncontrolled sideline environment. Additionally, we investigated the effect of testing environment order on the learning effect for each cognitive test. Design and Setting: Athletes were assessed on 2 test occasions (8 ± 2 days apart), once in a sports medicine research laboratory and once on a lacrosse practice field site. Subjects: A total of 59 Division I collegiate student-athletes participated in this study. Measurements: Normative data were collected on 5 cognitive tests (Stroop Test, Trail-Making Test part A, Trail-Making Test part B, Wechsler Digit-Span Forward Test, and Digit-Span Backward Test). Results: An independent-samples t test for environment difference on test day 1 revealed no significant differences between tests performed in the controlled environment and those performed in the uncontrolled environment. A repeated- measures analysis of variance test revealed a significant learning effect for all 5 tests, as subjects tended to improve approximately 11 points on the Stroop Test, 3 seconds on the Trail-Making A Test, 7 seconds on the Trail-Making B Test, and 1 point each on the Wechsler Digit Span Forward and Backward Tests. A paired-samples t test using delta scores (first test minus second test), sorted by order of testing environment, revealed a significant difference for the Stroop Test, but not for the remaining cognitive tests. Conclusions: There appears to be no difference in cognitive testing performance completed in a controlled clinical environment versus that performed in an uncontrolled sideline environment. This finding suggests that clinicians can administer cognitive tests to athletes with mild head injuries in uncontrolled sideline environments and expect valid results. Thus, clinicians can more thoroughly evaluate mildly head-injured athletes during the most crucial period after injury so that a safe return-to-play decision can be based on quantifiable, objective data.

Onate, James A.; Guskiewicz, Kevin M.; Riemann, Bryan L.; Prentice, William E.

2000-01-01

185

Cognitive performance after sleep deprivation: does personality make a difference?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relations between personality and cognitive performance under sleep deprivation were examined in a college age (17–25 years) sample (n=28) using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck, H.J., & Eysenck, S.B.G., 1975), and a computerized battery of eight neuropsychological tests from the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, version 3.11 (Kane, R.L., & Reeves, D.L., 1997, Perez, W.A., Masline, P.J., Ramsey, E.G., &

Daniel J. Taylor; Robert M. McFatter

2003-01-01

186

Cognitive performance during simulated deep-sea diving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports psychological observations on men during a number of simulated (pressure chamber) dives. The first investigated cognitive performance during a dive to 540?m of sea water (MSW) in oxyhelium (HeO2( and allowed a direct comparison with earlier results in trimix (HeN202). Impairments were detected at depths exceeding 300 MSW and these increased with depth. However, the decrements were

ROBERT H. LOGIE; ALAN D. BADDELEY

1985-01-01

187

Plasma 1,8-cineole correlates with cognitive performance following exposure to rosemary essential oil aroma  

PubMed Central

Objective The mode of influence of the aromas of plant essential oils on human behaviour is largely unclear. This study was designed to assess the potential pharmacological relationships between absorbed 1,8-cineole following exposure to rosemary aroma, cognitive performance and mood. Methods Twenty healthy volunteers performed serial subtraction and visual information processing tasks in a cubicle diffused with the aroma of rosemary. Mood assessments were made pre and post testing, and venous blood was sampled at the end of the session. Pearson correlations were carried out between serum levels of 1,8-cineole, cognitive performance measures and change in mood scores. Results Here we show for the first time that performance on cognitive tasks is significantly related to concentration of absorbed 1,8-cineole following exposure to rosemary aroma, with improved performance at higher concentrations. Furthermore, these effects were found for speed and accuracy outcomes, indicating that the relationship is not describing a speed–accuracy trade off. The relationships between 1,8-cineole levels and mood were less pronounced, but did reveal a significant negative correlation between change in contentment and plasma 1,8-cineole levels. Conclusion These findings suggest that compounds absorbed from rosemary aroma affect cognition and subjective state independently through different neurochemical pathways.

Oliver, Lorraine

2012-01-01

188

Cyclocreatine treatment improves cognition in mice with creatine transporter deficiency.  

PubMed

The second-largest cause of X-linked mental retardation is a deficiency in creatine transporter (CRT; encoded by SLC6A8), which leads to speech and language disorders with severe cognitive impairment. This syndrome, caused by the absence of creatine in the brain, is currently untreatable because CRT is required for creatine entry into brain cells. Here, we developed a brain-specific Slc6a8 knockout mouse (Slc6a8-/y) as an animal model of human CRT deficiency in order to explore potential therapies for this syndrome. The phenotype of the Slc6a8-/y mouse was comparable to that of human patients. We successfully treated the Slc6a8-/y mice with the creatine analog cyclocreatine. Brain cyclocreatine and cyclocreatine phosphate were detected after 9 weeks of cyclocreatine treatment in Slc6a8-/y mice, in contrast to the same mice treated with creatine or placebo. Cyclocreatine-treated Slc6a8-/y mice also exhibited a profound improvement in cognitive abilities, as seen with novel object recognition as well as spatial learning and memory tests. Thus, cyclocreatine appears promising as a potential therapy for CRT deficiency. PMID:22751104

Kurosawa, Yuko; Degrauw, Ton J; Lindquist, Diana M; Blanco, Victor M; Pyne-Geithman, Gail J; Daikoku, Takiko; Chambers, James B; Benoit, Stephen C; Clark, Joseph F

2012-07-02

189

Improved Processing Speed: Online Computer-Based Cognitive Training in Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In an increasingly aging population, a number of adults are concerned about declines in their cognitive abilities. Online computer-based cognitive training programs have been proposed as an accessible means by which the elderly may improve their cognitive abilities; yet, more research is needed in order to assess the efficacy of these programs.…

Simpson, Tamara; Camfield, David; Pipingas, Andrew; Macpherson, Helen; Stough, Con

2012-01-01

190

Learning Factors Analysis - A General Method for Cognitive Model Evaluation and Improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cognitive model is a set of production rules or skills encoded in intelligent tutors to model how students solve problems. It is usually generated by brainstorming and iterative refinement between subject experts, cognitive scientists and programmers. In this paper we propose a semi-automated method for improving a cognitive model called Learning Factors Analysis that combines a statistical model, human

Hao Cen; Kenneth R. Koedinger; Brian Junker

2006-01-01

191

Sleep problems, fatigue, and cognitive performance in Chinese kindergarten children  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine sleep problems and fatigue and their associations with cognitive performance in Chinese kindergarten children. Study design A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from Jintan Child Cohort Study was conducted, which includes a cohort of 1,656 kindergarten children in Jintan City, Jiangsu Province, China. The sample used in the current study consisted of 1,385 children (44.8% girls, mean age 5.72 (SD=0.42) years) for whom data on sleep problems or cognitive performance were available. Child Behavior Checklist was used to measure child sleep problems and fatigue, and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence – Revised was used to assess child intelligence quotient (IQ). Results Sleep problems were prevalent, ranging from 8.9% for difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS) to 70.5% for unwilling to sleep alone. Other reported sleep problems were difficulty initiating sleep (39.4%), nightmares (31.6%), sleep talking (28%), sleeping less (24.7%), and sleep resistance (23.4%). Fatigue was also prevalent, with 29.6% of children reported to be overtired and 12.6% lack of energy. Children with DMS, sleep talking, sleep resistance, or nightmares scored 2-3 points lower in full IQ than children without sleep problems. Children reported to have fatigue scored 3-6 points lower in full IQ than those children without fatigue. Conclusions Sleep problems and fatigue are prevalent in Chinese kindergarten children. Furthermore, sleep problems and fatigue are associated with poor cognitive performance.

Liu, Jianghong; Zhou, Guoping; Wang, Yingjie; Ai, Yuexian; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Liu, Xianchen

2012-01-01

192

Improving Performance in a Nuclear Cardiology Department  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Improving performance in the medical industry is an area that is ideally suited for the tools advocated by the International Society of Performance Improvement (ISPI). This paper describes an application of the tools that have been developed by Dale Brethower and Geary Rummler, two pillars of the performance improvement industry. It allows the…

LaFleur, Doug; Smalley, Karolyn; Austin, John

2005-01-01

193

PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS AND LEAN CONSTRUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper examines the relationship between Lean Construction and Performance Improvement programs in construction organizations. The authors argue that the structure and focus of existing performance improvement programs are a barrier to Lean Construction's entry into the organization. The paper first analyzes the characteristics of successful performance improvement programs, and develops a model that identifies three critical elements: 1) Time

Gregory Howell

194

Cognitive Performance Measures in Bioelectromagnetic Research - Critical Evaluation and Recommendations  

PubMed Central

Background The steady increase of mobile phone usage has led to a rising concern about possible adverse health effects of radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) exposure at intensities even below the existing safety limits. Accumulating evidence suggests that pulse-modulated RF EMF may alter brain physiology. Yet, whereas effects on the human electroencephalogram in waking and sleep have repeatedly been shown in recent years, results on cognitive performance are inconsistent. Methods This review compares 41 provocation studies regarding the effects of RF EMF exposure similar to mobile telephones on cognitive performance measures in humans. The studies were identified via systematic searches of the databases Pub Med and ISI Web of Science and were published in peer-reviewed journals between 1998 and the end of 2009. Results Based on a critical discussion within the scope of methodological standards it is concluded that state-of-the-art-methods in bio-electromagnetic research on RF EMF effects and cognition have neither been specified nor fully implemented over the last 10-11 years. The lack of a validated tool, which reliably assesses changes in cognitive performance caused by RF EMF exposure, may contribute to the current inconsistencies in outcomes. The high variety of findings may also be due to methodological issues such as differences in sample size and the composition of study groups, experimental design, exposure setup as well as the exposure conditions, and emphasizes the need for a standardized protocol in bioelectromagnetic research. Conclusions At present, no underlying biological mechanism has been identified which mediates the effects on brain functioning as observed in electroencephalographic (EEG) studies. A future aim must be to identify this mechanism as well as a reliable exposure protocol in order to gain more insights into possible behavioral and related health consequences of high-frequency EMF exposure.

2011-01-01

195

Cognitive functioning and school performance in children with renal failure.  

PubMed

Although previous studies have documented neuropsychological deficits in children with end-stage renal disease, few have evaluated and compared the cognitive functioning and the school performance of children with renal failure. The current study evaluated the influence of chronic renal failure on cognitive functioning and school performance in children and adolescents with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis and after renal transplantation. Participants were given standardized IQ and achievement tests to assess cognitive functioning and ability. Academic performance was determined by evaluating grades for the semester in which the testing was performed; a grade point average (GPA) was calculated based on a 4.0-point scale. The 11 dialysis patients and 13 transplant patients were comparable in age, race, sex, and socioeconomic status. Overall IQ and subtest scores demonstrated no differences between the two groups. Performance on the Woodcock-Johnson achievement tests showed that the transplant patients did better on achievement tests of written language (P = 0.04) and in school performance in English compared with dialysis patients (P < 0.05). Furthermore the dialysis patients tended to be below age and grade level in all areas, whereas the transplant patients were achieving at or above these levels. There were significant differences in the age equivalent scores between the dialysis and transplant patients in the areas of mathematics and written language (P < 0.05). However, when grades were evaluated there were no differences in overall GPA or in the mathematics GPA. Days absent were not different between the two groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7917859

Lawry, K W; Brouhard, B H; Cunningham, R J

1994-06-01

196

Gender differences in premorbid cognitive performance in a national cohort of schizophrenic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite significant research, there are still inconsistent findings regarding gender differences in cognitive performance in individuals already diagnosed with schizophrenia; studies have found that males suffering from schizophrenia are more, less or equally impaired compared with females. Gender differences in cognitive performance in individuals suffering from schizophrenia may be influenced by gender differences in premorbid cognitive performance; the very few

Mark Weiser; Abraham Reichenberg; Jonathan Rabinowitz; Zeev Kaplan; Mordechai Mark; Daniella Nahon; Michael Davidson

2000-01-01

197

Cognitive Environment Simulation as a Tool for Modeling Human Performance and Reliability. Main Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a program to develop improved methods to model cognitive behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel. A tool called Cognitive Environment Simulation (CES) was developed for simulating how people for...

D. D. Woods H. E. Pople E. M. Roth

1990-01-01

198

Comparing cognitive performance in illiterate and literate children  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While it is known that the process of becoming literate begins in early childhood and usually involves several years of schooling, research related to cognitive characteristics has been done mostly on illiterate adults, and information concerning illiterate children is therefore limited. The aim of the present study, involving 21 illiterate and 22 literate Mexican children aged 6 to 13, was to investigate the effects of literacy on neuropsychological characteristics during childhood. The children's performance on 16 cognitive domains of the Evaluación Neuropsicológica Infantil (ENI, Child Neuropsychological Assessment) was examined in three mixed within- and between-groups profile analyses. The results suggest that the effect of literacy observed in adults is already evident in children in almost every task analysed. Moreover, the fact that an age effect was detected for the calculation abilities suggests that maths learning is school- and environment-dependent.

Matute, Esmeralda; Montiel, Teresita; Pinto, Noemí; Rosselli, Monica; Ardila, Alfredo; Zarabozo, Daniel

2012-02-01

199

A taurine and caffeine-containing drink stimulates cognitive performance and well-being  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   Caffeine- and taurine-containing drinks have been on the European market for about a decade, and research on the individual\\u000a constituents of these drinks indicates an improvement in cognitive performance resulting from consumption of such drinks.\\u000a \\u000a In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study using 10 graduate students, we obtained the P300 components of event-related\\u000a potential (ERP) waveforms following an auditory oddball paradigm,

R. Seidl; A. Peyrl; R. Nicham; E. Hauser

2000-01-01

200

Glucose administration, heart rate and cognitive performance: effects of increasing mental effort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: It is known that glucose administration is capable of improving performance on tests of declarative verbal memory and non-mnemonic\\u000a tasks requiring high ”mental effort”. At the same time, cognitively demanding tasks are associated with elevated heart rate,\\u000a a response that could feasibly be part of a physiological mechanism serving to increase the delivery of glucose to active\\u000a brain substrates.

David O. Kennedy; Andrew B. Scholey

2000-01-01

201

A pilot study to evaluate the effects of Cerebrolysin on cognition and qEEG in vascular dementia: cognitive improvement correlates with qEEG acceleration.  

PubMed

The effects of the neurotrophic compound Cerebrolysin (Cere) on cognitive performance, evaluated with the ADAS-cog, and on qEEG activity were investigated in forty one patients with mild to moderate severe probable vascular dementia (VaD) according to NINDS-AIREN criteria, included in a placebo-controlled pilot study. Patients received i.v. infusions of Cere (10 or 30 ml) or placebo (normal saline) 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Mean score of change from baseline in the ADAS-cog and percent change from baseline in slow to fast EEG power ratio (PR) scores were the two primary endpoints. Correlations between cognition and qEEG were also evaluated for both baseline scores and for scores of change from baseline in ADAS-cog and in qEEG parameters, including EEG power ratio (PR) as an index of EEG slowing. Baseline ADAS-cog scores showed significant positive correlations with delta power, theta power and PR scores, and correlated negatively with alpha activity. These correlations indicating that an increased EEG slowing is associated with a worst cognitive performance in VaD patients. Cere treatment improved cognitive performance significantly at the 10 ml dose and reduced EEG slowing with both 10 and 30 ml dosages. A significant positive correlation between PR and ADAS-cog scores of change from baseline was observed in Cere-treated patients. According to results of this pilot study, it is concluded that Cere improves cognitive performance and reduces EEG slowing in patients with VaD, and that there is a positive relationship between changes in cognition and qEEG activity induced by Cere. The conduction of further regular clinical trials is required to confirm the potential utility of Cere in the treatment of VaD suggested by the present results. PMID:18048059

Muresanu, Dafin F; Alvarez, X Anton; Moessler, Herbert; Buia, Manuel; Stan, Adina; Pintea, Daniela; Moldovan, Florina; Popescu, Bogdan O

2007-11-28

202

Mindfulness based cognitive therapy improves frontal control in bipolar disorder: a pilot EEG study  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive processing in Bipolar Disorder is characterized by a number of attentional abnormalities. Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy combines mindfulness meditation, a form of attentional training, along with aspects of cognitive therapy, and may improve attentional dysfunction in bipolar disorder patients. Methods 12 euthymic BD patients and 9 control participants underwent record of electroencephalography (EEG, band frequency analysis) during resting states (eyes open, eyes closed) and during the completion of a continuous performance task (A-X version, EEG event-related potential (ERP) wave component analysis). The individuals with BD completed an 8-week MBCT intervention and record of EEG was repeated. Results (1) Brain activity, individuals with BD showed significantly decreased theta band power, increased beta band power, and decreased theta/beta ratios during the resting state, eyes closed, for frontal and cingulate cortices. Post MBCT intervention improvement over the right frontal cortex was seen in the individuals with BD, as beta band power decreased. (2) Brain activation, individuals with BD showed a significant P300-like wave form over the frontal cortex during the cue. Post MBCT intervention the P300-like waveform was significantly attenuated over the frontal cortex. Conclusions Individuals with BD show decreased attentional readiness and activation of non-relevant information processing during attentional processes. These data are the first that show, MBCT in BD improved attentional readiness, and attenuated activation of non-relevant information processing during attentional processes.

2012-01-01

203

Cognitive performance and cardiovascular markers of hyperarousal in primary insomnia.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to assess differences in cardiovascular activity and cognitive performance between insomniacs and good sleepers. Sixteen undergraduates participated in the study, eight insomniacs (age 22.9 ± 2.4) enrolled in accord with DSM-IV criteria for primary insomnia, and eight good sleepers (24.8 ± 2.7) were controls. The task employed, Stop Signal Task, assesses motor inhibition processes and was administered in two sessions, before and after a night of polysomnographic recording. During task performance, cardiovascular measures such as heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), pre-ejection period (PEP) and left ventricular ejection time (LVET) were continuously recorded by means of impedance cardiography. Performance results showed prolonged Stop Signal Delay (SSD) in the morning in both groups and slower Stop Signal Reaction Time (SSRT) in insomniacs compared with good sleepers, while no effects were observed for performance accuracy. Analyses performed on cardiovascular parameters revealed higher HR and lower LVET values in the insomnia group as compared to healthy controls in the evening. PEP, an index inversely related to sympathetic beta-adrenergic activity, was continuously reduced in insomniacs, indicating constantly enhanced sympathetic activation. These findings suggest a deficit of motor inhibition control in insomnia, matched with high levels of cardiovascular arousal. Overall, our results support the notion that insomniacs suffer from both cognitive deficits and a hyperarousal disorder affecting somatic activity, that contribute to diurnal complaints often referred in addition to sleep disruption. PMID:21333698

Covassin, Naima; de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Sarlo, Michela; De Min Tona, Giuliano; Sarasso, Simone; Stegagno, Luciano

2011-02-17

204

Performance improvement: a challenge for water utilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance improvement is the systematic evaluation of processes to ensure that customers' expectations are met in the most cost-effective manner. When customers' priorities regarding cost, quality, and timeliness are understood, improvement can begin on processes that deliver products and services. Changes can be strategic or tactical and fast or structured. Methods include focused improvement, continuous improvement, restructuring, and process innovation

Ellen Duke Erhardt; Gregory L. Kramer

1994-01-01

205

Improving performance of cryogenic power electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cryogenic Power Electronics (CPE) provides promising benefits for power conditioning system compared to their room-temperature counterparts in terms of reduced size and weight (increased power density), improved efficiency, improved switching speed, and improved reliability. Active devices such as semiconductor switches can exhibit performance improvements such as reduced conduction losses, higher switching speed, reduced diode reverse recovery, greater device gain, higher

Pradeep Haldar; Hua Ye; Harry Efstathiadis; James Raynolds; Mike J. Hennessy; Otward M. Mueller; Eduard K. Mueller

2005-01-01

206

Identifying Cognitive Mechanisms Targeted for Treatment Development in Schizophrenia: An Overview of the First Meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) Initiative  

PubMed Central

This overview describes the generation and development of the ideas that led to the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative. It also describes the organization, process and products of the first meeting. The CNTRICS initiative involves a series of three conferences that will systematically address barriers to translating paradigms developed in the basic animal and human cognitive neuroscience fields for use in translational research aimed at developing novel treatments for cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. The articles in this special section report on the results of the first conference, which used a criterion based consensus-building process to develop a set of cognitive constructs to be targeted for translation efforts.

Carter, Cameron S.; Barch, Deanna M.; Buchanan, Robert W.; Bullmore, Ed; Krystal, John H.; Cohen, Jonathan; Geyer, Mark; Green, Michael; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Robbins, Trevor; Silverstein, Steven; Smith, Edward E.; Strauss, Milton; Wykes, Til; Heinssen, Robert

2008-01-01

207

Arachnoid cysts of the left temporal fossa: impaired preoperative cognition and postoperative improvement.  

PubMed Central

Thirteen adult patients were operated on for symptomatic arachnoid cysts in the left temporal fossa; seven with an internal shunt procedure during local anaesthesia, and five with a craniotomy with fenestration of the cyst to the basal cisterns. In one patient, an initial internal shunt was transformed to a cystoperitoneal shunt. After surgery, all patients experienced relief of symptoms. Reduction of cyst volume occurred in 11 patients. The patients were tested for brain asymmetries related to language and verbal memory before and after operation, with a dichotic listening technique with simultaneous presentation of different auditory stimuli to the two ears. In the preoperative memory test, the patients showed impaired total recall compared with healthy control subjects, and recall from the right ear was significantly impaired. The patients also performed poorly in a forced attention task consisting of dichotic presentations of consonant-vowel syllables. In addition to clinical improvement, the surgical procedures led to improvements in both dichotic perception and memory. Overall memory performance was enhanced, mainly because of improved recall from the right ear. This normalisation of memory function was found as early as four hours after the operation. The results indicate that arachnoid cysts in the left temporal fossa may impair cognitive function, that neuropsychological tests are necessary to disclose these impairments, and that cognitive improvement occurs after surgery.

Wester, K; Hugdahl, K

1995-01-01

208

Object-Oriented Performance Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a framework to support an object-oriented approach to performance analysis and instructional design that includes collaboration, automation, visual modeling, and reusable Web-based repositories of analysis knowledge. Relates the need for a new framework to the increasing concern with the cost effectiveness of student and employee…

Douglas, Ian; Schaffer, Scott P.

2002-01-01

209

ENHANCING PERFORMANCE THROUGH IMPROVED COORDINATION (EPIC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhancing Performance through Improved Coordination (EPIC) is an approach to improving team performance that emphasizes identifying potential threats to coordination such as heavy workload, accelerated op tempo, or off- nominal states. Our long-term interest is in creating a coordination-aware system to promote better team performance by modeling situational properties and their relationship to crew coordination. Our current investigations focus on

Benjamin Bell; Jennifer Fowlkes; John Deaton

2003-01-01

210

A Narrative Review of Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Obesity to Cognition and Scholastic Performance across the Human Lifespan123  

PubMed Central

We reviewed studies that examine the relationship of energy consumption, storage, and expenditure to cognition and scholastic performance. Specifically, the literature base on nutrient intake, body mass, and physical activity is described relative to cognitive development and academic achievement. The review of literature regarding the overconsumption of energy and excess body mass suggests poorer academic achievement during development and greater decay of brain structure and function accompanied by increased cognitive aging during older adulthood. The review of literature regarding energy expenditure through the adoption of increased physical activity participation suggests increased cognitive health and function. Although this area of study is in its infancy, the preliminary data are promising and matched with the declining physical health of industrialized nations; this area of science could provide insight aimed at improving brain health and cognitive function across the human lifespan.

Burkhalter, Toni M.; Hillman, Charles H.

2011-01-01

211

Cognitive Load Theory: An Empirical Study of Anxiety and Task Performance in Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: This study explores the relationship among three variables--cognitive load, foreign language anxiety, and task performance. Cognitive load refers to the load imposed on working memory while performing a particular task. The authors hypothesized that anxiety consumes the resources of working memory, leaving less capacity for cognitive

Chen, I-Jung; Chang, Chi-Cheng

2009-01-01

212

Performance of older Japanese American adults on selected cognitive instruments.  

PubMed

This study examined cognitive test performance of second- and third-generation Japanese American (JA) adults, a relatively homogeneous Asian American subgroup. Sixty-five JA and 65 non-Hispanic White (NHW) adults, ages between 45 and 91, were administered the Boston Naming Test-2 (BNT), Letter Fluency Test, Semantic Fluency Test, California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R), and Trail Making Test. Levels of acculturation, quality of educational attainment, and generation status in the United States, were also collected. There were no significant differences in the scores between the two groups on the tests administered. JA and NHW groups, however, differed in the patterns of the associations between some of the test performance and demographic variables. JA adults showed a stronger age-score relationship on BNT, CVLT, and the BVMT-R. Furthermore, second-generation JA adults performed lower than the third-generation adults even after controlling for basic demographic variables on CVLT and Trail Making Test. Acculturation on the other hand did not explain score differences once demographic variables were considered. Our results suggest the importance of considering unique history and characteristics of ethnic groups, and interactions of the aging process and culture on tasks with different cognitive demands. PMID:23702381

Kemmotsu, Nobuko; Enobi, Yurika; Murphy, Claire

2013-05-23

213

Mild dehydration impairs cognitive performance and mood of men.  

PubMed

The present study assessed the effects of mild dehydration on cognitive performance and mood of young males. A total of twenty-six men (age 20·0 (sd 0·3) years) participated in three randomised, single-blind, repeated-measures trials: exercise-induced dehydration plus a diuretic (DD; 40 mg furosemide); exercise-induced dehydration plus placebo containing no diuretic (DN); exercise while maintaining euhydration plus placebo (EU; control condition). Each trial included three 40 min treadmill walks at 5·6 km/h, 5 % grade in a 27·7°C environment. A comprehensive computerised six-task cognitive test battery, the profile of mood states questionnaire and the symptom questionnaire (headache, concentration and task difficulty) were administered during each trial. Paired t tests compared the DD and DN trials resulting in >1 % body mass loss (mean 1·59 (sd 0·42) %) with the volunteer's EU trial (0·01 (sd 0·03) %). Dehydration degraded specific aspects of cognitive performance: errors increased on visual vigilance (P = 0·048) and visual working memory response latency slowed (P = 0·021). Fatigue and tension/anxiety increased due to dehydration at rest (P = 0·040 and 0·029) and fatigue during exercise (P = 0·026). Plasma osmolality increased due to dehydration (P < 0·001) but resting gastrointestinal temperature was not altered (P = 0·238). In conclusion, mild dehydration without hyperthermia in men induced adverse changes in vigilance and working memory, and increased tension/anxiety and fatigue. PMID:21736786

Ganio, Matthew S; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Casa, Douglas J; McDermott, Brendon P; Lee, Elaine C; Yamamoto, Linda M; Marzano, Stefania; Lopez, Rebecca M; Jimenez, Liliana; Le Bellego, Laurent; Chevillotte, Emmanuel; Lieberman, Harris R

2011-06-07

214

Effects of the adenosine A2A antagonist istradefylline on cognitive performance in rats with a 6-OHDA lesion in prefrontal cortex.  

PubMed

RATIONALE: Altered cognitive function is a common feature of both the early and later stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) that involves alterations in cortical dopamine content. Adenosine A2A antagonists, such as istradefylline, improve motor function in PD, but their effect on cognitive impairment has not been determined. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated whether impairment of working memory due to the loss of dopaminergic input into the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is reversed by administration of istradefylline. We also evaluated whether A2A antagonist administration modulates dopamine levels in the PFC. METHODS: Bilateral lesions of the dopaminergic input to the PFC were produced in rats using 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Cognitive performance was evaluated using an object recognition task and delayed alternation task. The effects of istradefylline, donepezil and methamphetamine on cognitive performance were examined. In addition, the effect of istradefylline on extracellular dopamine levels in the PFC was studied. RESULTS: PFC dopamine levels and cognitive performance were significantly reduced by 6-OHDA lesioning. Istradefylline, donepezil and methamphetamine improved cognitive performance of PFC-lesioned rats. Istradefylline increased dopamine levels in the PFC in both normal and PFC-lesioned rats. CONCLUSIONS: PFC dopaminergic input plays an important role in working memory performance. Blockade of A2A receptors using istradefylline reverses the changes in cognitive function, and this may be due to an increase in PFC dopamine content. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists not only improve motor performance in PD but may also lead to improved cognition. PMID:23748382

Kadowaki Horita, Takako; Kobayashi, Minoru; Mori, Akihisa; Jenner, Peter; Kanda, Tomoyuki

2013-06-10

215

Environmental enrichment attenuates hippocampal neuroinflammation and improves cognitive function during influenza infection  

PubMed Central

Recent findings from our lab have shown that peripheral infection of adult mice with influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus induces a neuroinflammatory response that is paralleled by loss of neurotrophic and glial regulatory factors in the hippocampus, and deficits in cognitive function. Environmental enrichment has been shown to exert beneficial effects on the brain and behavior in many central nervous system (CNS) disorders, but its therapeutic potential during peripheral viral infection remains unknown. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine if long-term continuous exposure to environmental enrichment could prevent and/or attenuate the negative effects of influenza infection on the hippocampus and spatial cognition. Mice were housed in enriched or standard conditions for 4 months, and continued to live in their respective environments throughout influenza infection. Cognitive function was assessed in a reversal learning version of the Morris water maze, and changes in hippocampal expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-?, IFN-?), neurotrophic (BDNF, NGF), and immunomodulatory (CD200, CX3CL1) factors were determined. We found that environmental enrichment reduced neuroinflammation and helped prevent the influenza-induced reduction in hippocampal CD200. These changes were paralleled by improved cognitive performance of enriched mice infected with influenza when compared to infected mice in standard housing conditions. Collectively, these data are the first to demonstrate the positive impact of environmental enrichment on the brain and cognition during peripheral viral infection, and suggest that enhanced modulation of the neuroimmune response may underlie these beneficial effects.

Jurgens, Heidi A.; Johnson, Rodney W.

2012-01-01

216

Improved weighted RSS positioning algorithm for cognitive radio  

Microsoft Academic Search

Precise estimation of the position and transmission power of the primary user is of great importance in cognitive radio (CR) networks. These information can help the secondary users to exploit the spatial resources better and reduce the interference with primary users. In order to find position of the primary users, we propose a new cognitive situated received signal strength (RSS)

Mohammad Kazemi; Mehrdad Ardebilipour; Narges Noori

2010-01-01

217

Using Cognitive Traits for Improving the Detection of Learning Styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

While providing online courses that fit students' learning styles has high potential to make learning easier for students, it requires knowing students' learning styles first. This paper demonstrates how the consideration of cognitive traits such as working memory capacity (WMC) can help in detecting learning styles. Previous studies have identified a relationship between learning styles and cognitive traits. In this

Sabine Graf; K. Kinshuk

2010-01-01

218

Montessori Improved Cognitive Domains in Adults with Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Montessori materials were used in two adult day-care cen­ ters to slow cognitive decline in adults with Alzheimer's disease. Using a within-subject design, participants in one adult day care received three months of the Montessori materials, then standard intervention later. Par­ ticipants were administered a battery of cognitive measures at baseline, three months, and six months. Favorable scores for the

David E. Vance; Rebekah N. Johns

2002-01-01

219

Alterations in cognitive performance during passive hyperthermia are task dependent  

PubMed Central

The objectives of this study were to (1) assess the effect of passive heating upon attention and memory task performance, and (2) evaluate the effectiveness of the application of cold packs to the head on preserving these functions. Using a counterbalance design 16 subjects underwent three trials: a control (CON, 20°C, 40% rH), hot (HOT, 50°C, 50% rH) and hot with the head kept cool (HHC). In each condition, three attention tests and two memory tests were performed. Mean core, forehead and tympanic temperatures were all significantly higher (p< 0.05) during HOT (38.6° ±0.1°, 39.6° ±0.2° and 38.8°±0.1°C, respectively) and HHC (38°±0.2, 37.7°±0.3° and 37.7°C, respectively) than in CON (37.1°±0.6°, 33.3° ±0.2° and 35.9°±0.3°C, respectively). Results indicate that there was impairment in working memory with heat exposure (p < 0.05) without alteration in attentional processes. The regular application of cold packs only prevented the detrimental effect of hyperthermia on short-term memory. Our results show that impairments in cognitive function with passive hyperthermia and the beneficial effect of head cooling are task dependent and suggests that exposure to a hot environment is a competing variable to the cognitive processes.

Gaoua, Nadia; Racinais, Sebastien; Grantham, Justin; Massioui, Farid El

2011-01-01

220

Subjective Perception of Cognition is Related to Mood and Not Performance  

PubMed Central

Background Clinicians monitor cognitive effects of drugs primarily by asking patients to describe their side effects. We examined the relationship of subjective perception of cognition to mood and objective cognitive performance in healthy volunteers and neurological patients. Methods Three separate experiments using healthy adults treated with lamotrigine (LTG) and topiramate (TPM), adults with epilepsy on LTG or TPM, and patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Correlations were calculated for change scores on and off drugs in the first two experiments and for the single assessment in experiment three. Results Across all three experiments, significant correlations were more frequent (Chi square = 259; p?.000) for mood vs. subjective cognitive perception (59%) compared to subjective vs. objective cognition (2%) and mood vs. objective cognitive performance (2%). Conclusions Subjective perception of cognitive effects is related more to mood than objective performance. Clinicians should be aware of this relation when assessing patients’ cognitive complaints.

Marino, SE; Meador, KJ; Loring, DW; Okun, MS; Fernandez, HH; Fessler, AJ; Kustra, RP; Miller, JM; Ray, PG; Roy, A; Schoenberg, MR; Vahle, VJ; Werz, MA

2009-01-01

221

Restoring Executive Confidence in Performance Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many organizations have significantly decreased their investment in performance improvement initiatives because they believe they are too risky. In fact, organizations should invest in performance improvements to build cash reserves and gain market share. Recent scientific breakthroughs have led to the development of methodologies and…

Seidman, William; McCauley, Michael

2012-01-01

222

An examination of mediators of the transfer of cognitive speed of processing training to everyday functional performance.  

PubMed

The purpose of these analyses was to examine mediators of the transfer of cognitive speed of processing training to improved everyday functional performance (J. D. Edwards, V. G. Wadley,, D. E. Vance, D. L. Roenker, & K. K. Ball, 2005, The impact of speed of processing training on cognitive and everyday performance. Aging & Mental Health, 9, 262-271). Cognitive speed of processing and visual attention (as measured by the Useful Field of View Test; UFOV) were examined as mediators of training transfer. Secondary data analyses were conducted from the Staying Keen in Later Life (SKILL) study, a randomized cohort study including 126 community dwelling adults 63 to 87 years of age. In the SKILL study, participants were randomized to an active control group or cognitive speed of processing training (SOPT), a nonverbal, computerized intervention involving perceptual practice of visual tasks. Prior analyses found significant effects of training as measured by the UFOV and Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TIADL) Tests. Results from the present analyses indicate that speed of processing for a divided attention task significantly mediated the effect of SOPT on everyday performance (e.g., TIADL) in a multiple mediation model accounting for 91% of the variance. These findings suggest that everyday functional improvements found from SOPT are directly attributable to improved UFOV performance, speed of processing for divided attention in particular. Targeting divided attention in cognitive interventions may be important to positively affect everyday functioning among older adults. PMID:23066808

Edwards, Jerri D; Ruva, Christine L; O'Brien, Jennifer L; Haley, Christine B; Lister, Jennifer J

2012-10-15

223

Home Intervention Improves Cognitive and Social-Emotional Scores in Iron-Deficient Anemic Infants  

PubMed Central

Background Iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) is associated with alterations in infant behavior and development that may not be corrected with iron therapy. Objective To determine if a home-based intervention to foster child development improves behavior and development of infants with IDA. Methods Infants with IDA and nonanemic infants aged 6 and 12 months were treated with oral iron and randomly assigned to a year of surveillance or intervention. Infants in the surveillance group were visited weekly, and information on iron intake, feeding, and health were recorded. Infants in the intervention were visited weekly, and the home visits included an hour-long program to foster child development by providing support to the mother-infant relationship. The number of infants enrolled was 128 (66 who received intervention) and 149 (70 intervention) at 6 and 12 months, respectively. Psychologists who were unaware of iron status and intervention assignment assessed infants' cognitive, motor, and social-emotional development (Bayley Scales) at the beginning, midpoint, and end of the year; 116 6-month-olds and 134 12-month-olds had at least 2 assessments. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze change over time. Results Infants with IDA, regardless of enrollment age, were rated as less positive in social-emotional behavior at baseline. There were significant interactions between iron status and intervention associated with change in cognitive performance and positive social-emotional behavior. Infants with IDA who received intervention had developmental trajectories comparable to those of nonanemic infants in the intervention and surveillance groups, but these infants did not catch up in social-emotional behavior. Infants with IDA who received surveillance showed less increase in cognitive scores and had declines in positive social-emotional ratings. Conclusions Home-based intervention to foster child development improved cognitive and social-emotional scores in infants with IDA, but social-emotional differences remained between infants with IDA and those without IDA.

Lozoff, Betsy; Smith, Julia B.; Clark, Katy M.; Perales, Carmen Gloria; Rivera, Francisca; Castillo, Marcela

2011-01-01

224

Imipramine Treatment Improves Cognitive Outcome Associated with Enhanced Hippocampal Neurogenesis after Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice  

PubMed Central

Abstract Previous animal and human studies have demonstrated that chronic treatment with several different antidepressants can stimulate neurogenesis, neural remodeling, and synaptic plasticity in the normal hippocampus. Imipramine is a commonly used tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). We employed a controlled cortical impact (CCI) mouse model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) to assess the effect of imipramine on neurogenesis and cognitive and motor function recovery after TBI. Mice were given daily imipramine injections for either 2 or 4 weeks after injury. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered 3–7 days post-brain injury to label the cells that proliferated as a result of the injury. We assessed the effects of imipramine on post-traumatic motor function using a beam-walk test and an assessment of cognitive function: the novel object recognition test (NOR). Histological analyses were performed at 2 and 4 weeks after CCI. Brain-injured mice treated with imipramine showed significantly improved cognitive function compared to a saline-treated group (p<0.001). However, there was no significant difference in motor function recovery between imipramine-treated and saline-treated mice. Histological examination revealed increased preservation of proliferation of Ki-67- and BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) at 2 and 4 weeks after TBI. Immunofluorescence double-labeling with BrdU and neuron-specific markers at 4 weeks after injury showed that most progenitors became neurons in the DG and astrocytes in the hilus. Notably, treatment with imipramine increased preservation of the total number of newly-generated neurons. Our findings provide direct evidence that imipramine treatment contributes to cognitive improvement after TBI, perhaps by enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis.

Han, Xiaodi; Tong, Jing; Zhang, Jun; Farahvar, Arash; Wang, Ernest; Yang, Jiankai; Samadani, Uzma; Smith, Douglas H.

2011-01-01

225

Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm).  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) is a traditional herbal medicine, which enjoys contemporary usage as a mild sedative, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent. It has been suggested, in light of in vitro cholinergic binding properties, that Melissa extracts may effectively ameliorate the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. To date, no study has investigated the effects on cognition and mood of administration of Melissa to healthy humans. The present randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced-crossover study investigated the acute effects on cognition and mood of a standardised extract of M. officinalis. Twenty healthy, young participants received single doses of 300, 600 and 900 mg of M. officinalis (Pharmaton) or a matching placebo at 7-day intervals. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerised test battery and two serial subtraction tasks immediately prior to dosing and at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h thereafter. In vitro IC(50) concentrations for the displacement of [3H]-(N)-nicotine and [3H]-(N)-scopolamine from nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in human occipital cortex tissue were also calculated. Results, utilising the cognitive factors previously derived from the CDR battery, included a sustained improvement in Accuracy of Attention following 600 mg of Melissa and time- and dose-specific reductions in both Secondary Memory and Working Memory factors. Self-rated "calmness," as assessed by Bond-Lader mood scales, was elevated at the earliest time points by the lowest dose, whilst "alertness" was significantly reduced at all time points following the highest dose. Both nicotinic and muscarinic binding were found to be low in comparison to the levels found in previous studies. PMID:12062586

Kennedy, D O; Scholey, Andrew B; Tildesley, N T J; Perry, E K; Wesnes, K A

2002-07-01

226

The influence of personality on three aspects of cognitive performance: processing speed, intelligence and school performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the mental speed approach, measures of speed of information processing represent cognitive ability in a comparatively ‘pure’ form, i.e. less influenced by cultural and learning factors than psychometric intelligence tests. In contrast school performance is assumed to be strongly influenced by cultural and personality factors like motivation, diligence, relationship to teachers etc. Former research has shown, that the

Heiner Rindermann; Aljoscha C. Neubauer

2001-01-01

227

Navigating through virtual environments: visual realism improves spatial cognition.  

PubMed

Recent advances in computer technology have significantly facilitated the use of virtual environments (VE) for small and medium enterprises (SME). However, achieving visual realism in such VE requires high investments in terms of time and effort, while its usefulness has not yet become apparent from research. Other qualities of VE, such as the use of large displays, proved its effectiveness in enhancing the individual user's spatial cognition. The current study assessed whether the same benefits apply for visual realism in VE. Thirty-two participants were divided into two groups, who explored either a photorealistic or a nonrealistic supermarket presented on a large screen. The participants were asked to navigate through the supermarket on a predetermined route. Subsequently, spatial learning was tested in four pen-and-paper tests that assessed how accurately they had memorized the route and the environment's spatial layout. The study revealed increased spatial learning from the photorealistic compared to the nonrealistic supermarket. Specifically, participants performed better on tests that involved egocentric spatial knowledge. The results suggest visual realism is useful because it increases the user's spatial knowledge in the VE. Therefore, the current study provides clear evidence that it is worthwhile for SME to invest in achieving visual realism in VE. PMID:19619040

Meijer, Frank; Geudeke, Branko L; van den Broek, Egon L

2009-10-01

228

Cognitive-behaviour therapy and skilled motor performance in adults with chronic tic disorder.  

PubMed

The first aim of the present study was to compare performance of people with tic disorders (TD) and controls on executive function and a range of skilled motor tests requiring complex performance, guided movements, hand co-ordination, and fine control of steadiness. The second aim was to investigate the effect of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) on motor performance. A total of 55 patients with TD were recruited at baseline from participants in a behavioural management programme. A comparison group of 55 patients suffering from a variety of habit disorders (HD) involving complex manual movements, were matched on age and level of education to 34 non-psychiatric controls. Participants were evaluated pre- and post-treatment and post-waitlist with a neuropsychological evaluation focusing on executive function (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, WCST) and skilled motor performance (Purdue Pegboard, Hole Steadiness Test, and the Groove Test). Results revealed WCST scores in the normal range, while motor performance differed significantly on the Purdue Pegboard Tests in both TD and HD as compared to the control group. Cognitive-behavioural treatment selectively improved motor performance in both clinical groups compared to waitlist control, and this improvement related to clinical outcome measures. PMID:18058387

O'Connor, Kieron P; Lavoie, Marc E; Stip, Emmanuel; Borgeat, François; Laverdure, Anick

2008-01-01

229

Applying Neuroscience to Enhance Tactical Leader Cognitive Performance in Combat.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The U.S. Army relies on tactical-level leaders not for their physical warfighting skills, but for their ability to employ cognitive thought during stressful situations. Cognitive tasks include sensing patterns, deciphering complex environments, creating n...

A. C. Steadman

2011-01-01

230

Correlates of Canadian Native Children's Reading Performance: From Cognitive Styles to Cognitive Processes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in reading and cognitive processing among a sample of generally poor readers were studied in order to answer two major questions: Do they have a specific cognitive style that favors global-simultaneous strategies and a weak sequential strategy? If they do not have a distinct cognitive style or strategy, but are merely poor…

Das, J. P.; Janzen, Troy; Georgiou, George K.

2007-01-01

231

Correlates of Canadian native children's reading performance: From cognitive styles to cognitive processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in reading and cognitive processing among a sample of generally poor readers were studied in order to answer two major questions: Do they have a specific cognitive style that favors global-simultaneous strategies and a weak sequential strategy? If they do not have a distinct cognitive style or strategy, but are merely poor in using sequential (Successive) strategies, then,

J. P. Das; Troy Janzen; George K. Georgiou

2007-01-01

232

Hormone replacement therapy and cognitive performance in postmenopausal women—a review by cognitive domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory, animal and neuroimaging evidences suggest that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may be beneficial to human cognition. This systematic review includes 26 studies on the association between HRT and cognition and 17 studies on HRT and risk of dementia. It was hypothesised that HRT would have a positive association with cognitive speed and verbal memory and possibly visual memory but

Lee-Fay Low; Kaarin J. Anstey

2006-01-01

233

Heritability in Cognitive Performance: Evidence Using Computer-Based Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is overwhelming evidence of genetic influence on cognition. The effect is seen in general cognitive ability, as well as in specific cognitive domains. A conventional assessment approach using face-to-face paper and pencil testing is difficult for large-scale studies. Computerized neurocognitive testing is a suitable alternative. A total of…

Hervey, Aaron S.; Greenfield, Kathryn; Gualtieri, C. Thomas

2012-01-01

234

Describing the interplay between anxiety and cognition: from impaired performance under low cognitive load to reduced anxiety under high load.  

PubMed

Anxiety impairs the ability to think and concentrate, suggesting that the interaction between emotion and cognition may elucidate the debilitating nature of pathological anxiety. Using a verbal n-back task that parametrically modulated cognitive load, we explored the effect of experimentally induced anxiety on task performance and the startle reflex. Findings suggest there is a crucial inflection point between moderate and high cognitive load, where resources shift from anxious apprehension to focus on task demands. Specifically, we demonstrate that anxiety impairs performance under low load, but is reduced when subjects engage in a difficult task that occupies executive resources. We propose a two-component model of anxiety that describes a cognitive mechanism behind performance impairment and an automatic response that supports sustained anxiety-potentiated startle. Implications for therapeutic interventions and emotional pathology are discussed. PMID:22332819

Vytal, Katherine; Cornwell, Brian; Arkin, Nicole; Grillon, Christian

2012-02-14

235

The Relationship between the Need for Cognition, Metacognition, and Intellectual Task Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the relationship between the need for cognition, defined as the tendency to engage in effortful cognitive activity, and metacognition which is one's thinking about thinking and how these variables relate to intellectual task performance. Participants completed measures of need for cognition, metacognition, and problem-solved…

Coutinho, Savia A.

2006-01-01

236

The Influence of Individual Cognitive Style on Performance in Management Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the outcomes of an empirical study undertaken to explore the possibility that cognitive style may be an important factor influencing performance on certain types of task in management education. A total of 412 final year undergraduate degree students studying Management and Business Administration were tested using the Allinson- Hayes Cognitive Style Index. Their cognitive styles were then

Steven J. Armstrong

2000-01-01

237

Cognitive Performance and Neural Correlates of Detecting Driving Hazards in Healthy Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: In spite of the growing number of seniors who drive and their relatively frequent involvement in accidents, little is known about the cognitive substrates of road hazard recognition and their relationship with general cognitive performance in this population. We aimed to investigate, using a combination of functional MRI (fMRI) and a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, the anatomical and cognitive components

Victor A. Hirth; Ben Davis; Julius Fridriksson; Chris Rorden; Leonardo Bonilha

2007-01-01

238

Social Cognitive Career Theory, Conscientiousness, and Work Performance: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We performed a meta-analytic path analysis of an abbreviated version of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) model of work performance (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The model we tested included the central cognitive predictors of performance (ability, self-efficacy, performance goals), with the exception of outcome expectations. Results…

Brown, Steven D.; Lent, Robert W.; Telander, Kyle; Tramayne, Selena

2011-01-01

239

Social Cognitive Career Theory, Conscientiousness, and Work Performance: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We performed a meta-analytic path analysis of an abbreviated version of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) model of work performance (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The model we tested included the central cognitive predictors of performance (ability, self-efficacy, performance goals), with the exception of outcome expectations. Results…

Brown, Steven D.; Lent, Robert W.; Telander, Kyle; Tramayne, Selena

2011-01-01

240

Effects of a Group Program to Increase Cognitive Performance Through Cognitively Stimulating Leisure Activities in Healthy Older Subjects: The AKTIVA Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the effects of leisure activities on cognitive performance of healthy older subjects, an innovative intervention program was developed. Frequent participation in cognitively stimulating activities (i.e., reading, playing chess, or playing music) is associated with reduced risk of dementia. AKTIVA (active cognitive stimulation – prevention in the elderly) is an intervention program designed to enhance cognitive stimulation in everyday

Valentina A. Tesky; Christian Thiel; Winfried Banzer; Johannes Pantel

2011-01-01

241

Birth weight and cognitive performance in older women: the Rancho Bernardo study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low birth weight is associated with poorer cognitive function from infancy through early adulthood, but little is known about\\u000a low birth weight and cognitive performance in the elderly. This study examines the association of birth weight with cognitive\\u000a function in community-dwelling older women. Participants were 292 community-dwelling women aged 55–89 (median?=?71 years)\\u000a who attended a 1988–91 clinic visit when cognitive function

Kirsten Erickson; Donna Kritz-Silverstein; Deborah L. Wingard; Elizabeth Barrett-Connor

2010-01-01

242

Model-Based Cognitive Diagnosis of Students' Test Performance in an E-Learning Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cognitive diagnosis is the process of inferring a cognitive state from observations of performance. This paper considers the\\u000a problem of cognitive diagnosis as an instance of model-based diagnosis, as studied in artificial intelligence for many years.\\u000a The model-based cognitive diagnosis we present runs on a model of students’ courses in terms of knowledge items that they\\u000a may learn, tests them

Rong Chen; Junjie Xu; Yingjie Song; Wu Deng; Yanheng Li

2010-01-01

243

Inspiratory muscle training improves rowing performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

VOLIANITIS, S., A. K. MCCONNELL, Y. KOUTEDAKIS, L. MCNAUGHTON, K. BACKX, and D. A. JONES. Inspiratory muscle training improves rowing performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 33, No. 5, 2001, pp. 803- 809. Purpose: To investigate the effects of a period of resistive inspiratory muscle training (IMT) upon rowing performance. Methods: Performance was appraised in 14 female competitive rowers at

STEFANOS VOLIANITIS; ALISON K. MCCONNELL; YIANNIS KOUTEDAKIS; LARS MCNAUGHTON; KARRIANNE BACKX; DAVID A. JONES

2001-01-01

244

Improving Outage Performance: Outage Optimization Process  

SciTech Connect

Planned outage performance is a key measure of how well an Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) is operated. Performance during planned outages strongly affects virtually all of a plant's performance metrics. In recognition of this fact, NPP operators worldwide have and continue to focus on improving their outage performance. The process of improving outage performance is commonly referred to as 'Outage Optimization' in the industry. This paper starts with a summary of the principles of Outage Optimization. It then provides an overview of a process in common use in the USA and elsewhere to manage the improvement of planned outages. The program described is comprehensive in that it involves managing improvement in both the Preparation and Execution phases of outage management. (author)

LaPlatney, Jere J. [AREVA NP (United States)

2006-07-01

245

Environmental Supports to Improve Outcomes in Schizophrenia and other Conditions with Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reliability and cross-cultural validity of the Allen Cognitive Levels assessment will be discussed. We will describe the work of Claudia Allen as it applies to the development of Cognitive Adaptation Training (CAT) a psychosocial treatment that uses environmental supports to cue and sequence adaptive behavior in the home environment and improve functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. CAT interventions

Dawn I. Velligan

246

Diabetes-Associated Cognitive Impairment Is Improved by a Calcium Channel Blocker, Nifedipine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker, has been reported to exert pleiotropic effects on atherosclerosis, mainly through its antioxidative properties. However, the effect of the calcium channel blocker on cognitive impairment associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus is not well known. Here, we examined the possibility that a calcium channel blocker could improve cognitive function in a type 2 diabetic mouse

Kana Tsukuda; Masaki Mogi; Jian-Mei Li; Jun Iwanami; Li-Juan Min; Akiko Sakata; Teppei Fujita; Masaru Iwai; Masatsugu Horiuchi

2010-01-01

247

Improving cognitive abilities of elderly Alzheimer's patients with intense exercise therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on changes in the cognitive abilities of Alzheimer's patients residing in two separate long term care facilities as they were part of a group exercise therapy program. The research problem of this study was how to measure possible improvement in cognitive abilities in this population. The sample consisted of43 elderly (65-98 years old) Alzheimer's patients who resided

G. Frank Lindenmuth; Barbara Moose

1990-01-01

248

From IC to I see: amusing interactive platform to improve kids' cognition process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kids' observation is a psychological behavior. It takes long to change their cognitive habit and get used to new ones. Our project aims to build an amusing interactive platform with electronic technology, which is easy for kids to control and can quickly improve their cognition process.

Tao Ma; Rong Yong; Yue Meng

2007-01-01

249

ASSOCIATION BETWEEN HYPOTENSION, LOW EJECTION FRACTION AND COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN CARDIAC PATIENTS  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Impaired cardiac function can adversely affect the brain via decreased perfusion. The purpose of this study was to determine if cardiac ejection fraction (EF) is associated with cognitive performance, and whether this is modified by low blood pressure. Methods Neuropsychological testing evaluating multiple cognitive domains, measurement of mean arterial pressure (MAP), and measurement of EF were performed in 234 individuals with coronary artery disease. The association between level of EF and performance within each cognitive domain was explored, as was the interaction between low MAP and EF. Results Adjusted global cognitive performance, as well as performance in visuoconstruction and motor speed, was significantly directly associated with cardiac EF. This relationship was not entirely linear, with a steeper association between EF and cognition at lower levels of EF than at higher levels. Patients with low EF and low MAP at the time of testing had worse cognitive performance than either of these alone, particularly for the global and motor speed cognitive scores. Conclusions Low EF may be associated with worse cognitive performance, particularly among individuals with low MAP and for cognitive domains typically associated with vascular cognitive impairment. Further care should be paid to hypotension in the setting of heart failure, as this may exacerbate cerebral hypoperfusion.

Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Grega, Maura A.; Bailey, Maryanne M.; Zeger, Scott L.; Baumgartner, William A.; McKhann, Guy M.; Selnes, Ola A.

2010-01-01

250

Comparative Validities of Two Cognitive Ability Tests in Predicting Work Performance and Training Success of Psychiatric Aides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cognitive ability tests were evaluated using 98 state hospital psychiatric aides to determine if the use of both tests would improve the predictive validity. A verbal ability test used in the selection process correlated .20 (p < .05) with performance ratings and .36 (p < .05) with post-training job knowledge test scores. A vocabulary test given for research purposes

M. K. Distefano; Margaret W. Pryer; Gregory B. Crotty

1988-01-01

251

Relationship between cognitive domains, physical performance, and gait in elderly and demented subjects.  

PubMed

Cognitive function declines with age, with studies linking decreases in cognitive function to increased fall risk. The association between declines in specific cognitive domains and the development of gait and physical performance deficits has not been established. The current cross-sectional study was designed to address these issues using well characterized control subjects (n = 50), and individuals with early stage dementia (n = 50) tightly matched for age, gender, and education. All participants received detailed cognitive assessments for global cognitive function, as well as for processing speed, verbal fluency, and executive function. Additionally, participants were administered single- and dual-task gait assessments (GAITRite) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) measures of physical performance (gait, balance, chair stands). Data show that all measures of cognitive function correlated significantly with measures of gait and physical performance when analyzed in all subjects or just subjects with dementia. However, data also reveal that measures of processing speed and verbal fluency correlated significantly with multiple aspects of motor performance in non-demented, control subjects, even when corrected for age. There was no correlation between global cognitive function and motor performance, and only limited relationship between executive function and motor performance in non-demented, control subjects. These studies reveal the complex interactions between cognitive function and gait/physical performance in the context of aging and dementia, and suggest that impairments in specific cognitive domains might undermine gait and physical performance and thus exacerbate fall risk in the elderly. PMID:22466001

Bruce-Keller, Annadora J; Brouillette, Robert M; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Foil, Heather C; Gahan, William P; Nye, Danielle M; Guillory, Leslie; Keller, Jeffrey N

2012-01-01

252

How sleep deprivation affects psychological variables related to college students' cognitive performance.  

PubMed

The effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance psychological variables related to cognitive performance were studied in 44 college students. Participants completed the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal after either 24 hours of sleep deprivation or approximately 8 hours of sleep. After completing the cognitive task, the participants completed 2 questionnaires, one assessing self-reported effort, concentration, and estimated performance, the other assessing off-task cognitions. As expected, sleep-deprived participants performed significantly worse than the nondeprived participants on the cognitive task. However, the sleep-deprived participants rated their concentration and effort higher than the nondeprived participants did. In addition, the sleep-deprived participants rated their estimated performance significantly higher than the nondeprived participants did. The findings indicate that college students are not aware of the extent to which sleep deprivation negatively affects their ability to complete cognitive tasks. PMID:9394089

Pilcher, J J; Walters, A S

1997-11-01

253

Improved Performance in Mars Sample Access  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rover ability to reach samples on Mars can determine the constraints of the mission, improve of suspension and robotic arm should be considered part of an accessibility system where both affect performance in sample access.

Soto, A.

2012-06-01

254

Do Intensive Studies of a Foreign Language Improve Associative Memory Performance?  

PubMed Central

Formal education has been proposed to shape life-long cognitive development. Studies reporting that gains from cognitive training transfer to untrained tasks suggest direct effects of mental activity on cognitive processing efficiency. However, associative memory practice has not been known to produce transfer effects, which is odd considering that the key neural substrate of associative memory, the hippocampus, is known to be particularly plastic. We investigated whether extremely intensive studies of a foreign language, entailing demands on associative memory, cause improvements in associative memory performance. In a pretest-training–post-test design, military conscript interpreters and undergraduate students were measured on a battery of cognitive tasks. We found transfer from language studies to a face–name associative-memory task, but not to measures of working memory, strategy-sensitive episodic memory, or fluid intelligence. These findings provide initial evidence suggesting that associative memory performance can be improved in early adulthood, and that formal education can have such effects.

Martensson, Johan; Lovden, Martin

2011-01-01

255

Performance improvements in diode laser arrays  

SciTech Connect

The average power performance capability of semiconductor laser diode arrays has improved dramatically over the past several years. Additionally, optical conditioning technologies have been developed that increase the effective radiance of stacked two-dimensional arrays by nearly two orders of magnitude. These performance improvements have been accompanied by cost reductions that now make feasible the replacement of flashlamp pump sources by laser diode arrays in a large variety of military and commercial solid state laser systems.

Beach, R.J.; Emanuel, M.A.; Freitas, B.L.; Benett, W.J.; Skidmore, J.A.; Carlson, N.W.; Solarz, R.W.

1994-06-01

256

Listen to the Noise: Noise Is Beneficial for Cognitive Performance in ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Noise is typically conceived of as being detrimental to cognitive performance. However, given the mechanism of stochastic resonance, a certain amount of noise can benefit performance. We investigate cognitive performance in noisy environments in relation to a neurocomputational model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

Soderlund, Goran; Sikstrom, Sverker; Smart, Andrew

2007-01-01

257

Listen to the Noise: Noise Is Beneficial for Cognitive Performance in ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Noise is typically conceived of as being detrimental to cognitive performance. However, given the mechanism of stochastic resonance, a certain amount of noise can benefit performance. We investigate cognitive performance in noisy environments in relation to a neurocomputational model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

Soderlund, Goran; Sikstrom, Sverker; Smart, Andrew

2007-01-01

258

Developing models of how cognitive improvements change functioning: Mediation, moderation and moderated mediation  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive remediation (CRT) affects functioning but the extent and type of cognitive improvements necessary are unknown. Aim To develop and test models of how cognitive improvement transfers to work behaviour using the data from a current service. Method Participants (N49) with a support worker and a paid or voluntary job were offered CRT in a Phase 2 single group design with three assessments: baseline, post therapy and follow-up. Working memory, cognitive flexibility, planning and work outcomes were assessed. Results Three models were tested (mediation — cognitive improvements drive functioning improvement; moderation — post treatment cognitive level affects the impact of CRT on functioning; moderated mediation — cognition drives functioning improvements only after a certain level is achieved). There was evidence of mediation (planning improvement associated with improved work quality). There was no evidence that cognitive flexibility (total Wisconsin Card Sorting Test errors) and working memory (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III digit span) mediated work functioning despite significant effects. There was some evidence of moderated mediation for planning improvement if participants had poorer memory and/or made fewer WCST errors. The total CRT effect on work quality was d = 0.55, but the indirect (planning-mediated CRT effect) was d = 0.082 Conclusion Planning improvements led to better work quality but only accounted for a small proportion of the total effect on work outcome. Other specific and non-specific effects of CRT and the work programme are likely to account for some of the remaining effect. This is the first time complex models have been tested and future Phase 3 studies need to further test mediation and moderated mediation models.

Wykes, Til; Reeder, Clare; Huddy, Vyv; Taylor, Rumina; Wood, Helen; Ghirasim, Natalia; Kontis, Dimitrios; Landau, Sabine

2012-01-01

259

A cognitive classification of pilot performance in air combat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the air-to-air combat conducted in modern fighter aircraft occurs while the enemy is beyond visual range. This beyond-visual-range combat places heavy cognitive demands on the fighter pilot. The authors have developed a behavioral taxonomy that focuses on the cognitive aspects of this task. This taxonomy is specific to F-15C air-to-air combat and is based on mission and cognitive

Michael R. Houck; Leslie A. Whitaker; Robert R. Kendall

1992-01-01

260

Slow release caffeine and prolonged (64-h) continuous wakefulness: effects on vigilance and cognitive performance.  

PubMed

Some long work or shift work schedules necessitate an elevated and prolonged level of vigilance and performance but often result in sleep deprivation (SD), fatigue and sleepiness, which may impair efficiency. This study investigated the effects of a slow-release caffeine [(SRC) at the daily dose of 600 mg] on vigilance and cognitive performance during a 64 h continuous wakefulness period. Sixteen healthy males volunteered for this double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled, two-way crossover study. A total of 300-mg SRC or placebo (PBO) was given twice a day at 21:00 and 9:00 h during the SD period. Vigilance was objectively assessed with continuous electroencephalogram (EEG), the multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT) and wrist actigraphy. Cognitive functions (information processing and working memory), selective and divided attention were determined with computerised tests from the AGARD-NATO STRES Battery (Standardised Tests for Research with Environmental Stressors). Attention was also assessed with a symbol cancellation task and a Stroop's test; alertness was appreciated from visual analogue scales (VAS). Tests were performed at the hypo (02:00-04:00 h, 14:00-16:00 h) and hypervigilance (10:00-12:00 h, 22:00-00:00 h) periods during SD. Central temperature was continuously measured and safety of treatment was assessed from repeated clinical examinations. Compared with PBO, MSLT showed that SRC subjects were more vigilant from the onset (P=0.001) to the end of SD (P < 0.0001) whereas some cognitive functions were improved till the thirty third of SD but others were ameliorated through all the SD period and alertness was better from the thirteenth hour of SD, as shown by Stroop's test (P=0.048). We showed that 300-mg SRC given twice daily during a 64-h SD is able to antagonize the impairment produced on vigilance and cognitive functions. PMID:11903856

Beaumont, M; Batejat, D; Pierard, C; Coste, O; Doireau, P; Van Beers, P; Chauffard, F; Chassard, D; Enslen, M; Denis, J B; Lagarde, D

2001-12-01

261

EFFECT OF SEIZURE CONTROL ON IMPROVEMENT OF COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS IN EPILEPTIC PATIENTS  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY A group of fifty epileptic patients were tested with neuropsychological tools for cognitive functions like memory, intelligence, visuomotor coordination, spatial perception and body schema perception. Patients were on carbamazepine and were tested after three months. Seizure improvement was shown to have different effects on different cognitive functions. Memory and intellectual deficits improved, while no difference was observed in visuomotor coordination, spatial and personal perception.

Nainian, M.R.; Behere, P.B.; Mohanti, S.

1993-01-01

262

Performance, Productivity and Continuous Improvement. Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains four papers from a symposium on performance, productivity, and continuous improvement. "Investigating the Association between Productivity and Quality Performance in Two Manufacturing Settings" (Constantine Kontoghiorghes, Robert Gudgel) summarizes a study that identified the following quality management variables as the…

2002

263

Cognitive performance of neuromyelitis optica patients: comparison with multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

The aim of the present research was to investigate cognitive pattern of patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and to compare it with multiple sclerosis (MS) patients' performance. Methods: Fourteen NMO, 14 relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), and 14 healthy control patients participated in the investigation. Neuropsychological functions were evaluated with the Brief Repeatable Neuropsychological Battery for MS; Symbol Digit Modalities Test; Digit Span; and Semantic Fluency. Results: Fifty-seven percent of NMO patients and 42.85% of the MS ones had abnormal performance in at least two cognitive tests. The NMO Group showed abnormal performance in verbal fluency, verbal and visual memories, with greater attention deficits. NMO patients outperformed healthy control in the paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT). However, no difference was found between NMO and RRMS patients. Conclusions: The NMO Group showed more dysfunction in attention and verbal fluencies than in verbal and visual memories. When compared with the MS patients, a similar dysfunction pattern was found. O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi investigar o padrão cognitivo de pacientes com neuromielite óptica (NMO) e compará-lo com o desempenho de pacientes com esclerose múltipla (EM). Métodos: Quatorze pacientes com NMO, 14 com esclerose múltipla recorrente remitente (EMRR) e 14 participantes do Controle saudáveis participaram da presente investigação. As funções neuropsicológicas foram avaliadas com a Bateria Breve de Testes Neuropsicológicos de Rao, Teste Símbolo Digit e a Fluência Semântica. Resultados: Cinquenta e sete por cento dos pacientes com NMO e 42,85% daqueles com EM apresentaram desempenho anormal em pelo menos dois testes cognitivos. O Grupo NMO apresentarou desempenho anormal na fluência verbal e nas memórias visual e verbal, com maiores déficits de atenção. Pacientes com NMO superaram os controles saudáveis em PASAT. No entanto, não foi encontrada diferença entre os pacientes com NMO e aqueles com EMRR. Conclusões: O Grupo NMO mostrou mais disfunção nas fluências de atenção e verbais do que nas memórias verbal e visual. Quando comparados com os pacientes com EM, um padrão de disfunção semelhante foi encontrado. PMID:23828523

Vanotti, Sandra; Cores, Evangelina Valeria; Eizaguirre, Barbara; Melamud, Luciana; Rey, Raúl; Villa, Andrés

2013-06-01

264

Fuzzy cognitive map learning based on improved nonlinear Hebbian rule  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) is a powerful soft computing technique for modeling complex systems. It is a combination of fuzzy logic theory and neural networks. Developing of FCM is easy and adaptable based on human knowledge and experience. On the other hand, the main dependence on experts' knowledge and opinion, and the potential convergence to undesire steady states are the

SHENG-JLJN LI; Rui-Min Shen

2004-01-01

265

Construction process improvement through cognitive power under team generative learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to report a study that explores the means through which cognitive power under team learning is exploited for generative learning in order to remain competitive in the challenging business environment and to examine the extent to which various types of teams are used for purposes of generative learning by construction contractors. Design\\/methodology\\/approach

Grant Keeble Kululanga

2009-01-01

266

How can spatial arrangement in tables improve readers' cognitive processing ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research reported in this paper deals with the cognitive theories of graphical representations. Two experiments were carried out to investigate the production and comprehension of a neglected type of graphical representations: tables. The first experiment aimed at assessing whether the way people arrange pieces of information in table depended on the type of semantic relation they convey. Two relations

Anne Pellegrin; Mireille Bétrancourt

2000-01-01

267

Mindfulness meditation improves cognition: Evidence of brief mental training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although research has found that long-term mindfulness meditation practice promotes executive functioning and the ability to sustain attention, the effects of brief mindfulness meditation training have not been fully explored. We examined whether brief meditation training affects cognition and mood when compared to an active control group. After four sessions of either meditation training or listening to a recorded book,

Fadel Zeidan; Susan K. Johnson; Bruce J. Diamond; Zhanna David; Paula Goolkasian

2010-01-01

268

Physical predictors of cognitive performance in healthy older adults: a cross-sectional analysis.  

PubMed

There is ample evidence that physical and cognitive performance are related, but the results of studies investigating this relationship show great variability. Both physical performance and cognitive performance are constructs consisting of several subdomains, but it is presently unknown if the relationship between physical and cognitive performance depends on subdomain of either construct and whether gender and age moderate this relationship. The aim of this study is to identify the strongest physical predictors of cognitive performance, to determine the specificity of these predictors for various cognitive subdomains, and to examine gender and age as potential moderators of the relationship between physical and cognitive performance in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. In total, 98 men and 122 women (average age 74.0±5.6 years) were subjected to a series of performance-based physical fitness and neuropsychological tests. Muscle strength, balance, functional reach, and walking ability (combined score of walking speed and endurance) were considered to predict cognitive performance across several domains (i.e. memory, verbal attention, visual attention, set-shifting, visuo-motor attention, inhibition and intelligence). Results showed that muscle strength was a significant predictor of cognitive performance for men and women. Walking ability and balance were significant predictors of cognitive performance for men, whereas only walking ability was significant for women. We did not find a moderating effect of age, nor did we find support for a differential effect of the physical predictors across different cognitive subdomains. In summary, our results showed a significant relationship between cognitive and physical performance, with a moderating effect of gender. PMID:23936251

Blankevoort, Christiaan G; Scherder, Erik J A; Wieling, Martijn B; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Brouwer, Wiebo H; Geuze, Reint H; van Heuvelen, Marieke J G

2013-07-30

269

Physical Predictors of Cognitive Performance in Healthy Older Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis  

PubMed Central

There is ample evidence that physical and cognitive performance are related, but the results of studies investigating this relationship show great variability. Both physical performance and cognitive performance are constructs consisting of several subdomains, but it is presently unknown if the relationship between physical and cognitive performance depends on subdomain of either construct and whether gender and age moderate this relationship. The aim of this study is to identify the strongest physical predictors of cognitive performance, to determine the specificity of these predictors for various cognitive subdomains, and to examine gender and age as potential moderators of the relationship between physical and cognitive performance in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. In total, 98 men and 122 women (average age 74.0±5.6 years) were subjected to a series of performance-based physical fitness and neuropsychological tests. Muscle strength, balance, functional reach, and walking ability (combined score of walking speed and endurance) were considered to predict cognitive performance across several domains (i.e. memory, verbal attention, visual attention, set-shifting, visuo-motor attention, inhibition and intelligence). Results showed that muscle strength was a significant predictor of cognitive performance for men and women. Walking ability and balance were significant predictors of cognitive performance for men, whereas only walking ability was significant for women. We did not find a moderating effect of age, nor did we find support for a differential effect of the physical predictors across different cognitive subdomains. In summary, our results showed a significant relationship between cognitive and physical performance, with a moderating effect of gender.

Blankevoort, Christiaan G.; Scherder, Erik J. A.; Wieling, Martijn B.; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Brouwer, Wiebo H.; Geuze, Reint H.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.

2013-01-01

270

Cognitive and physical performance in patients with asymptomatic carotid artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine if patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis and occlusion demonstrate\\u000a deficits in cognitive and physical performance. The relationship between cognitive measures and performance of instrumental\\u000a activities of daily living was examined. Seventy-nine patients with asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis of moderate and severe\\u000a degrees or occlusion were tested. Cognition was assessed via the

Nancy C. LandgraffSusan; Susan L. Whitney; Elaine N. Rubinstein; Howard Yonas

2010-01-01

271

Effects of cognitive styles on 2D drafting and design performance in digital media  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the interactions between design students’ cognitive styles, as measured by Riding’s Cognitive Styles\\u000a Analysis, and performance in 2D drafting and design tasks in digital media. An empirical research revealed that Imager students\\u000a outperformed Verbalisers in both drafting and creativity scores. Wholist–Analytic cognitive style dimension was found to be\\u000a independent from drafting and design performance. The study suggests

Sule Tasli Pektas

2010-01-01

272

What Cognitive Abilities Are Involved in Trail-Making Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The cognitive abilities involved in the Connections (Salthouse, et al., 2000) version of the trail making test were investigated by administering the test, along with a battery of cognitive tests and tests of complex span and updating conceptualizations of working memory, to a sample of over 3600 adults. The results indicate that this variant of…

Salthouse, Timothy A.

2011-01-01

273

Reduced Cardiac Vagal Modulation Impacts on Cognitive Performance in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive difficulties and autonomic dysfunction have been reported separately in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). A role for heart rate variability (HRV) in cognitive flexibility has been demonstrated in healthy individuals, but this relationship has not as yet been examined in CFS. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between HRV and cognitive performance in patients with CFS. Methods Participants were 30 patients with CFS and 40 healthy controls; the groups were matched for age, sex, education, body mass index, and hours of moderate exercise/week. Questionnaires were used to obtain relevant medical and demographic information, and assess current symptoms and functional impairment. Electrocardiograms, perceived fatigue/effort and performance data were recorded during cognitive tasks. Between–group differences in autonomic reactivity and associations with cognitive performance were analysed. Results Patients with CFS showed no deficits in performance accuracy, but were significantly slower than healthy controls. CFS was further characterized by low and unresponsive HRV; greater heart rate (HR) reactivity and prolonged HR-recovery after cognitive challenge. Fatigue levels, perceived effort and distress did not affect cognitive performance. HRV was consistently associated with performance indices and significantly predicted variance in cognitive outcomes. Conclusions These findings reveal for the first time an association between reduced cardiac vagal tone and cognitive impairment in CFS and confirm previous reports of diminished vagal activity.

Beaumont, Alison; Burton, Alexander R.; Lemon, Jim; Bennett, Barbara K.; Lloyd, Andrew; Vollmer-Conna, Ute

2012-01-01

274

Major Depressive Disorder, Cognitive Symptoms, and Neuropsychological Performance among Ethnically Diverse HIV+ Men and Women  

PubMed Central

Major depressive disorder (MDD), cognitive symptoms, and mild cognitive deficits commonly occur in HIV-infected individuals, despite highly active antiretroviral therapies. In this study, we compared neuropsychological performance and cognitive symptoms of 191 HIV-infected participants. Results indicated that participants with a formal diagnosis of current MDD performed significantly worse than participants without MDD in all seven neuropsychological domains evaluated, with the largest effect sizes in information processing speed, learning, and memory. In addition, a brief assessment of cognitive symptoms, derived from a comprehensive neuromedical interview, correlated significantly with neurocognitive functioning. Participants with MDD reported more cognitive symptoms and showed greater neurocognitive deficits than participants without MDD. These findings indicate that HIV-infected adults with MDD have more cognitive symptoms and worse neuropsychological performance than HIV-infected individuals without MDD. The results of this study have important implications for the diagnosis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND).

Fellows, Robert P.; Byrd, Desiree A.; Morgello, Susan

2013-01-01

275

Effectively Managing Nuclear Risk Through Human Performance Improvement  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. commercial nuclear industry has just completed an outstanding decade of plant performance. Safety levels and electric production are at unprecedented high levels and continue to exceed even high industry goals. Nuclear energy continues to keep the highest priority on performance improvement programs and highly trained and qualified people that maintain its record setting safety and reliability of operations. While the industry has maintained a high level of performance, the advent of deregulation and the consolidation of nuclear power plant ownership, as well as the current climate for concern about both rising energy costs and the availability of power, have raised the standard for nuclear energy's level of competitiveness in today's market place. The resulting challenge is how to more effectively manage risk and to improve performance even further in a generally high-performing industry. One of the most effective ways to develop this culture is to apply the principles of Hum an Performance Technology, or HPT. HPT is a relatively new field. Its principles are derived from the research and practice of behavioral and cognitive psychologists, instructional technologists, training designers, organizational developers, and various human resource specialists. Using the principles of HPT can help the nuclear industry successfully meet ever-changing environmental and business demands.

Coe, Richard [Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, Somers Point, NJ (US); Lake, Patricia [Louisiana Pacific Corporation, Portland, OR (US)

2003-09-01

276

Testing whether reduced cognitive performance in burnout can be reversed by a motivational intervention  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that the motivation to spend effort is decreased in burnout patients, resulting in reduced cognitive performance. A question that remains is whether this decreased motivation can be reversed by motivational interventions. We investigated this by examining the effect of a motivational intervention on cognitive performance. We presented 40 burnout patients in The Netherlands and 40 matched

Arno van Dam; Ger P. J. Keijsers; Paul A. T. M. Eling; Eni S. Becker

2011-01-01

277

Effects of Transdermal Nicotine and Concurrent Smoking on Cognitive Performance in Tobacco-Abstinent Smokers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smokers experience cognitive decrements during tobacco abstinence and boosts in performance on resumption of smoking. Few studies have examined whether smoking cessation treatments such as transdermal nicotine (TN) ameliorate these decrements or attenuate the cognitive effects of smoking. Identifying the effects of nicotine on these tobacco-related changes in performance could guide the development of more efficacious treatments. The purpose of

Bethea A. Kleykamp; Janine M. Jennings; Thomas Eissenberg

2011-01-01

278

Performance of Children with Autism on Selected Measures of Reading Achievement and Cognitive-Linguistic Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the performance of children with autism on selected measures of reading achievement and cognitive-linguistic ability. How children with autism performed on three reading achievement measures, Letter-Word Identification, Passage Comprehension, and Oral Reading Fluency, and two cognitive-linguistic measures, Rapid Letter Naming…

Turner, Vicky

2010-01-01

279

Performance of Children with Autism on Selected Measures of Reading Achievement and Cognitive-Linguistic Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the performance of children with autism on selected measures of reading achievement and cognitive-linguistic ability. How children with autism performed on three reading achievement measures, Letter-Word Identification, Passage Comprehension, and Oral Reading Fluency, and two cognitive-linguistic measures, Rapid Letter Naming…

Turner, Vicky

2010-01-01

280

Mother-Child Attachment and Cognitive Performance in Middle Childhood: An Examination of Mediating Mechanisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although mother-child attachment has been shown to predict cognitive performance, there has been a lack of attention to the mediating mechanisms that explain these associations. In the present study, we investigated relations of early mother-child attachment and cognitive performance in middle childhood (the latter in terms of both academic…

West, Katara K.; Mathews, Brittany L.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

2013-01-01

281

GPR30 is positioned to mediate estrogen effects on basal forebrain cholinergic neurons and cognitive performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beneficial effects of estrogen therapy on cognitive performance diminish with age and time following the loss of ovarian function. This has led to the ‘Window of Opportunity’ hypothesis, which states that estrogen therapy must be administered within a limited period of time following menopause in order to be effective. Effects of estrogen therapy on cognitive performance are due, at least

R. Hammond; R. B. Gibbs

2011-01-01

282

Cognitive Representations and Processes in Arithmetic: Inferences From the Performance of Brain-Damaged Subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we present data from two brain-damaged patients with calculation impairments in support of claims about the cognitive mechanisms underlying simple arithmetic performance. We first present a model of the functional architecture of the cognitive calculation system based on previous research. We then elaborate this architecture through detailed examination of the patterns of spared and impaired performance of

Scott M. Sokol; Michael McCloskey; Neal J. Cohen; Donna Aliminosa

1991-01-01

283

Examination of Cognitive and Instrumental Functional Performance as Indicators for Driving Cessation Risk Across 3 Years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to prospec- tively examine the role of cognitive and instrumental functional performance in driving cessation while simultaneously accounting for any contributions of demographics, vision, physical performance, and health among a sample of older adults without dementia. Design and Methods: Included in the analyses were 1,838 participants from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent

Michelle L. Ackerman; Jerri D. Edwards; Lesley A. Ross; Karlene K. Ball; Melissa Lunsman

2008-01-01

284

Mother-Child Attachment and Cognitive Performance in Middle Childhood: An Examination of Mediating Mechanisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although mother-child attachment has been shown to predict cognitive performance, there has been a lack of attention to the mediating mechanisms that explain these associations. In the present study, we investigated relations of early mother-child attachment and cognitive performance in middle childhood (the latter in terms of both academic…

West, Katara K.; Mathews, Brittany L.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

2013-01-01

285

Cognitive performance and age-related changes in the hippocampal proteome  

PubMed Central

Declining cognitive performance is associated with increasing age, even in the absence of overt pathological processes. We and others have reported that declining cognitive performance is associated with age-related changes in brain glucose utilization, long-term potentiation and paired-pulse facilitation, protein expression, neurotransmitter levels, and trophic factors. However, it is unclear whether these changes are causes or symptoms of the underlying alterations in dendritic and synaptic morphology that occur with age. In this study, we examined the hippocampal proteome for age- and cognition-associated changes in behaviorally stratified young and old rats, using 2-DIGE and MS/MS-MS. Comparison of old cognitively intact with old cognitively impaired animals revealed additional changes that would not have been detected otherwise. Interestingly, not all age-related changes in protein expression were associated with cognitive decline, and distinct differences in protein expression were found when comparing old cognitively intact with old cognitively impaired rats. A large number of protein changes with age were related to the glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway. In total, the proteomic changes suggest that age-related alterations act synergistically with other perturbations to result in cognitive decline. This study also demonstrates the importance of examining behaviorally-defined animals in proteomic studies, as comparison of young to old animals regardless of behavioral performance would have failed to detect many cognitive impairment-specific protein expression changes evident when behavioral stratification data was used.

Freeman, Willard M.; VanGuilder, Heather D.; Bennett, Colleen; Sonntag, William E.

2008-01-01

286

Chronic Haloperidol Administration Does Not Block Acute Nicotine-Induced Improvements in Radial-Arm Maze Performance in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotine has been found to improve cognitive performance in a variety of tasks including the radial maze. Nicotine has also been shown to promote the release of a variety of neurotransmitters including dopamine (DA). DA has been found to be important for nicotine’s reinforcing effects. DA involvement with nicotine’s cognitive effects is unclear. In the current study, the effects of

Edward D Levin

1997-01-01

287

Ischemic preconditioning improves maximal performance in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repeated episodes of ischemia followed by reperfusion, commonly referred to as ischemic preconditioning (IPC), represent an\\u000a endogenous protective mechanism that delays cell injury. IPC also increases blood flow and improves endothelial function.\\u000a We hypothesize that IPC will improve physical exercise performance and maximal oxygen consumption. The purpose of the study\\u000a was to examine the effect of ischemic preconditioning in leg

Patricia C. E. de Groot; Dick H. J. Thijssen; Manuel Sanchez; Reinier Ellenkamp; Maria T. E. Hopman

2010-01-01

288

Psychosocial stress, cognitive performance and disability after common whiplash.  

PubMed

The relationship between psychosocial stress, cognitive performance and disability was assessed in 97 randomly selected common whiplash patients. Patients were investigated early after injury (mean 7.2 days, SD = 3.8) and again at 6 months. Assessment included different aspects of psychosocial stress, negative affectivity, personality traits and attentional functioning. At 6 months six patients (7%) showed partial or complete disability (disabled group) while 91 patients went back to work at pre-injury levels (non-disabled group). However, 26 patients from the latter group at 6 months were still symptomatic. The disabled and non-disabled groups did not differ with respect to psychosocial stress, negative affectivity and personality traits as assessed at baseline. At 6 months no significant differences were found between the disabled group and 26 symptomatic patients from the non-disabled group with respect to any of the assessed factors. The disabled group showed a combination of the following variables as assessed at baseline: greater age, initial neck pain intensity, initial back pain, blurred vision, and anxiety but less dizziness, sensitivity to noise and neurotic or behavioural problems in childhood. PMID:8421255

Radanov, B P; Di Stefano, G; Schnidrig, A; Sturzenegger, M

1993-01-01

289

Cognitive Correlates of Functional Performance in Older Adults: Comparison of Self-Report, Direct Observation, and Performance-Based Measures  

PubMed Central

Neuropsychologists are often asked to answer questions about the effects of cognitive deficits on everyday functioning. This study examined the relationship between and the cognitive correlates of self-report, performance-based, and direct observation measures commonly used as proxy measures for everyday functioning. Participants were 88 community-dwelling, cognitively healthy older adults (age 50–86 years). Participants completed standardized neuropsychological tests and questionnaires, and performed eight activities of daily living (e.g., water plants, fill a medication dispenser) while under direct observation in a campus apartment. All proxy measures of everyday function were sensitive to the effects of healthy cognitive aging. After controlling for age, cognitive predictors explained a unique amount of the variance for only the performance-based behavioral simulation measure (i.e., Revised Observed Tasks of Daily Living). The self-report instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and the performance-based everyday problem-solving test (i.e., EPT) did not correlate with each other; however, both were unique predictors of the direct observation measure. These findings suggest that neuropsychologists must be cautious in making predictions about the quality of everyday activity completion in cognitively healthy older adults from specific cognitive functions. The findings further suggest that a self-report of IADLs and the performance-based EPT may be useful measures for assessing everyday functional status in cognitively healthy older adults.

Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Parsey, Carolyn; Cook, Diane J.

2013-01-01

290

Improving dementia care: the role of screening and detection of cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

The value of screening for cognitive impairment, including dementia and Alzheimer's disease, has been debated for decades. Recent research on causes of and treatments for cognitive impairment has converged to challenge previous thinking about screening for cognitive impairment. Consequently, changes have occurred in health care policies and priorities, including the establishment of the annual wellness visit, which requires detection of any cognitive impairment for Medicare enrollees. In response to these changes, the Alzheimer's Foundation of America and the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation convened a workgroup to review evidence for screening implementation and to evaluate the implications of routine dementia detection for health care redesign. The primary domains reviewed were consideration of the benefits, harms, and impact of cognitive screening on health care quality. In conference, the workgroup developed 10 recommendations for realizing the national policy goals of early detection as the first step in improving clinical care and ensuring proactive, patient-centered management of dementia. PMID:23375564

Borson, Soo; Frank, Lori; Bayley, Peter J; Boustani, Malaz; Dean, Marge; Lin, Pei-Jung; McCarten, J Riley; Morris, John C; Salmon, David P; Schmitt, Frederick A; Stefanacci, Richard G; Mendiondo, Marta S; Peschin, Susan; Hall, Eric J; Fillit, Howard; Ashford, J Wesson

2013-01-30

291

The Role of Social Cognitive Career Theory in The Role of Social Cognitive Career Theory in Information Technology based Academic Information Technology based Academic Performance Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positive academic efficacy beliefs elevate educational expectations that lead to academic success (Bandura, 1997; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of the variables: past performance, computer self-efficacy, outcome expectations, academic grade goal, and academic performance within social cognitive career theory's model of performance (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The study focused

Sheila M. Smith

292

Selective GABA(A) ?5 positive allosteric modulators improve cognitive function in aged rats with memory impairment.  

PubMed

A condition of excess activity in the hippocampal formation is observed in the aging brain and in conditions that confer additional risk during aging for Alzheimer's disease. Compounds that act as positive allosteric modulators at GABA(A) ?5 receptors might be useful in targeting this condition because GABA(A) ?5 receptors mediate tonic inhibition of principal neurons in the affected network. While agents to improve cognitive function in the past focused on inverse agonists, which are negative allosteric modulators at GABA(A) ?5 receptors, research supporting that approach used only young animals and predated current evidence for excessive hippocampal activity in age-related conditions of cognitive impairment. Here, we used two compounds, Compound 44 [6,6-dimethyl-3-(3-hydroxypropyl)thio-1-(thiazol-2-yl)-6,7-dihydro-2-benzothiophen-4(5H)-one] and Compound 6 [methyl 3,5-diphenylpyridazine-4-carboxylate], with functional activity as potentiators of ?-aminobutyric acid at GABA(A) ?5 receptors, to test their ability to improve hippocampal-dependent memory in aged rats with identified cognitive impairment. Improvement was obtained in aged rats across protocols differing in motivational and performance demands and across varying retention intervals. Significant memory improvement occurred after either intracereboventricular infusion with Compound 44 (100 ?g) in a water maze task or systemic administration with Compound 6 (3 mg/kg) in a radial arm maze task. Furthermore, systemic administration improved behavioral performance at dosing shown to provide drug exposure in the brain and in vivo receptor occupancy in the hippocampus. These data suggest a novel approach to improve neural network function in clinical conditions of excess hippocampal activity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. PMID:22732440

Koh, Ming Teng; Rosenzweig-Lipson, Sharon; Gallagher, Michela

2012-06-23

293

The impact of speed of processing training on cognitive and everyday performance.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the impact of speed of processing training on the cognitive and everyday abilities of older adults with initial processing speed or processing difficulty. Participants were randomized to either a speed of processing intervention or a social- and computer-contact control group. Results indicate that speed of processing training not only improves processing speed, as indicated by performance on the Useful Field of View test (UFOV), but also transfers to certain everyday functions, as indicated by improved performance on Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (Timed IADL). Transfer of speed of processing training to other cognitive domains was not evident. This study provides additional evidence that speed of processing training has the potential to enhance everyday functions that maintain independence and quality of life, particularly when the training is targeted toward individuals who most need it. Further study is needed to learn about the long-term effects of such training in relation to everyday abilities. PMID:16019280

Edwards, J D; Wadley, V G; Vance, D E; Wood, K; Roenker, D L; Ball, K K

2005-05-01

294

Performance Improvement of High Speed Jet Fan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a numerical study has been carried out to investigate the influence of jet fan design variables on the performance of a jet fan. In order to achieve an optimum jet fan design and to explain the interactions between the different geometric configurations in the jet fan, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and the Design of Experiments method have been applied. Several geometric variables, i.e., hub-tip ratio, meridional shape, rotor stagger angle, number of rotor-stator blades and stator geometry respectively, were employed to improve the performance of the jet fan. The objective functions of the jet fan are defined as the exit velocity and total efficiency at the operating condition. Based on the results of computational analyses, the performance of the jet fan was significantly improved. The performance degradations when the jet fan is operated in the reverse direction are also discussed.

Choi, Young-Seok; Kim, Joon-Hyung; Lee, Kyoung-Yong; Yang, Sang-Ho

2010-06-01

295

The Cognitive Environment Simulation as a tool for modeling human performance and reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a program to develop improved methods to model the cognitive behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel. A tool called Cognitive Environment Simulation (CES) was developed for simulating how people form intentions to act in NPP emergencies. CES provides an analytic tool for exploring plausible human responses in emergency situations. In addition a

D. D. Woods; H. E. Jr. Pople; E. M. Roth

1990-01-01

296

The Cognitive Environment Simulation as a tool for modeling human performance and reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a program to develop improved methods to model the cognitive behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel. A tool called Cognitive Environment Simulation (CES) was developed for simulating how people form intentions to act in NPP emergencies. CES provides an analytic tool for exploring plausible human response in emergency situations. In addition a

D. D. Woods; H. E. Jr. Pople; E. M. Roth

1990-01-01

297

Cognitive Performances Are Selectively Enhanced during Chronic Caloric Restriction or Resveratrol Supplementation in a Primate  

PubMed Central

Effects of an 18-month treatment with a moderate, chronic caloric restriction (CR) or an oral supplementation with resveratrol (RSV), a potential CR mimetic, on cognitive and motor performances were studied in non-human primates, grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus). Thirty-three adult male mouse lemurs were assigned to three different groups: a control (CTL) group fed ad libitum, a CR group fed 70% of the CTL caloric intake, and an RSV group (RSV supplementation of 200 mg.kg?1.day?1) fed ad libitum. Three different cognitive tests, two motor tests, one emotional test and an analysis of cortisol level were performed in each group. Compared to CTL animals, CR or RSV animals did not show any change in motor performances evaluated by rotarod and jump tests, but an increase in spontaneous locomotor activity was observed in both groups. Working memory was improved by both treatments in the spontaneous alternation task. Despite a trend for CR group, only RSV supplementation increased spatial memory performances in the circular platform task. Finally, none of these treatments induced additional stress to the animals as reflected by similar results in the open field test and cortisol analyses compared to CTL animals. The present data provided the earliest evidence for a beneficial effect of CR or RSV supplementation on specific cognitive functions in a primate. Taken together, these results suggest that RSV could be a good candidate to mimic long-term CR effects and support the growing evidences that nutritional interventions can have beneficial effects on brain functions even in adults.

Marchal, Julia; Picq, Jean-Luc; Aujard, Fabienne

2011-01-01

298

The largest human cognitive performance dataset reveals insights into the effects of lifestyle factors and aging  

PubMed Central

Making new breakthroughs in understanding the processes underlying human cognition may depend on the availability of very large datasets that have not historically existed in psychology and neuroscience. Lumosity is a web-based cognitive training platform that has grown to include over 600 million cognitive training task results from over 35 million individuals, comprising the largest existing dataset of human cognitive performance. As part of the Human Cognition Project, Lumosity's collaborative research program to understand the human mind, Lumos Labs researchers and external research collaborators have begun to explore this dataset in order uncover novel insights about the correlates of cognitive performance. This paper presents two preliminary demonstrations of some of the kinds of questions that can be examined with the dataset. The first example focuses on replicating known findings relating lifestyle factors to baseline cognitive performance in a demographically diverse, healthy population at a much larger scale than has previously been available. The second example examines a question that would likely be very difficult to study in laboratory-based and existing online experimental research approaches at a large scale: specifically, how learning ability for different types of cognitive tasks changes with age. We hope that these examples will provoke the imagination of researchers who are interested in collaborating to answer fundamental questions about human cognitive performance.

Sternberg, Daniel A.; Ballard, Kacey; Hardy, Joseph L.; Katz, Benjamin; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Scanlon, Michael

2013-01-01

299

Aerobic endurance training improves soccer performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

HELGERUD, J., L. C. ENGEN, U. WISLØFF, and J. HOFF. Aerobic endurance training improves soccer performance.Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 33, No. 11, 2001, pp. 1925-1931. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to study the effects of aerobic training on performance during soccer match and soccer specific tests. Methods: Nineteen male elite junior soccer players, age 18.1 0.8

JAN HELGERUD; LARS CHRISTIAN ENGEN; JAN HOFF

2001-01-01

300

Effect of menopause on cognitive performance in women with Down syndrome.  

PubMed

We compared cognitive function in nondemented pre- and postmenopausal women with Down syndrome, aged 21-57 years, with their age-matched male peers. The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability-Revised were used to assess cognitive function at baseline and 2 years later. Premenopausal women performed better than their age-matched male peers, while postmenopausal women performed more poorly than age-matched male peers (p = 0.007). Premenopausal women and young men showed no significant declines in cognition over time. Postmenopausal women, but not their age-matched male peers, showed significant declines in cognitive function. Our results support the hypothesis that cognitive declines in postmenopausal women are associated with estrogen deficiency rather than with age. PMID:11522943

Patel, B N; Seltzer, G B; Wu, H S; Schupf, N

2001-08-28

301

Virtually Perfect Time Sharing in Dual-Task Performance: Uncorking the Central Cognitive Bottleneck  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental issue for psychological science concerns the extent to which people can simultaneously perform two perceptual-motor tasks. Some theorists have hypothesized that such dual-task performance is severely and persistently constrained by a central cognitive \\

Eric H. Schumacher; Travis L. Seymour; Jennifer M. Glass; David E. Fencsik; Erick J. Lauber; David E. Kieras; David E. Meyer

2001-01-01

302

Effects of Cognitive Hardiness on Stress, Health, Performance, and Cardiovascular/Neuroendocrine Function.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cognitive hardiness is a psychological construct of stress resiliency which has been postulated to moderate stress-illness and stress-performance relationships. Hardiness has also been thought to exert main effects on health and performance outcomes. In S...

J. T. Drummond

1997-01-01

303

How predictive is the MMSE for cognitive performance after stroke?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive deficits are commonly observed in stroke patients. Neuropsychological testing is time-consuming and not easy to\\u000a administer after hospital discharge. Standardised screening measures are desirable. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)\\u000a is the test most widely applied to screen for cognitive deficits. Despite its broad use, its predictive characteristics after\\u000a stroke have not been exhaustively investigated. The aim of this study

Sascha Rasquin; Anita Boreas; Martien Limburg; Frans Verhey

2010-01-01

304

Poor performance on cognitive tasks in depression: Doing too much or not enough?  

PubMed Central

Depressed people perform poorly on cognitive tasks – it is unclear whether these deficits are due to decreased devotion of task-related resources or increased attention to non-task-related information. We examined the degree to which depressed and healthy adults displayed pupillary motility which varied at the frequency of presented stimuli on a cognitive task, which we interpreted as task-related processing, and at other frequencies which we interpreted as reflecting intrinsic processing. Depressed participants made more consecutive errors compared to controls. More pupillary motility at other frequencies was associated with poorer performance whereas more pupillary motility at the frequency of presented stimuli was associated with better performance. Depressed participants had more pupillary motility at other frequencies which partially mediated observed deficits in cognitive performance. These findings support the hypothesis that allocating cognitive resources to intrinsic processing, contributes to observed cognitive deficits in depression.

Jones, Neil P.; Siegle, Greg J.; Muelly, Emilie R.; Haggerty, Agnes; Ghinassi, Frank

2010-01-01

305

Human cognition performance model to Human cognition performance model to Human cognition performance model to Human cognition performance model to evaluate safe spacing in air traffic evaluate safe spacing in air traffic evaluate safe spacing in air traffic evaluate safe spacing in air traffic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract This paper develops a mathematical,model,for cognitive performance,of a tactical air traffic controller in an,en-route air traffic context. The aim of this model-based approach,is to enable the evaluation of both accident risk and aspects like cognitive workload,and effectiveness in managing air traffic safely. Use is made of human error modelling, Hollnagel’s cognitive mode model and Wicken’s Multiple Resources model. The

H. A. P. Blom; S. H. Stroeve; M. H. C. Everdij

2003-01-01

306

Effective time management for improved performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The paper aims to consider how effective time management can lead to improved personal and organisational performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper draws on the collective experience of the authors. The relationship between culture and chronicity is explained with reference to working styles. It deals with the notion of time and time span with regard to new technologies, and

Lyndon Jones; Penny Hood

2010-01-01

307

Improvements of Condenser Performance with Granulate Balls.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the nuclear power plant Oskarshamn has during time Nov 1983-Apr 1985 test series been done to investigate the improvements of condensor performance with granulate balls. This type of ball is a normal sponge rubber ball coated with granulated plastic ma...

L. Bratthaell

1986-01-01

308

JSP Splitting for Improving Execution Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Splitting a JSP (JavaServer Pages) page into fragments can improve the execution performance of JSP pages when the Web application server can separately cache the Web page fragments obtained by executing the JSP fragments. If a JSP page is split into fragments according to the update frequency of each portion of the Web page obtained by executing the JSP page,

Takuya Nakaike; Goh Kondoh; Hiroaki Nakamura; Fumihiko Kitayama; Shin'ichi Hirose

2004-01-01

309

Improving Hash Join Performance through Prefetching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hash join algorithms suffer from extensive CPU cache stalls. This paper shows that the standard hash join algorithm for disk-oriented databases (i.e. GRACE) spends over 73% of its user time stalled on CPU cache misses, and explores the use of prefetching to improve its cache performance. Applying prefetching to hash joins is complicated by the data dependencies, multiple code paths,

Shimin Chen; Anastassia Ailamaki; Phillip B. Gibbons; Todd C. Mowry

2004-01-01

310

Football to Improve Math and Reading Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schools frequently increase instructional time to improve students' numeric and reading performance, but there is little evidence on the effectiveness of such an increase. This study evaluates 'Playing for Success', an extended day program for underachieving pupils that uses the football environment as a motivating force. Primary school pupils with low motivation and self-esteem are offered practical and sports related

C. Van Klaveren; K. De Witte

2012-01-01

311

Does Reflective Journal Writing Improve Course Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether a reflective journal writing assignment would improve students' course performance. A total of 166 students from undergraduate sections of a course taught by the same instructor over three semesters completed the assignment as part of their requirements. Students (N = 317) from five previous semesters of the same…

Cisero, Cheryl A.

2006-01-01

312

Does Reflective Journal Writing Improve Course Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated whether a reflective journal writing assignment would improve students' course performance. A total of 166 students from undergraduate sections of a course taught by the same instructor over three semesters completed the assignment as part of their requirements. Students (N = 317) from five previous semesters of the same…

Cisero, Cheryl A.

2006-01-01

313

Improving performance and retention in CS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Fall 2003, we introduced a new course, Introduction to Computer Science (CS0), and required it of all prospective Computer Science majors and Information Systems majors. Our intention was to improve the subsequent performance of students in our Introduction to Computer Programming course (CS1), which had formerly been our first major course, to reduce the proportion of students who withdrew

John Kevin Doyle

2005-01-01

314

Improved Performance Band Track Program: Test Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A seventeen inch lightweight improved performance band track was developed for use on the Automotive Test Rig (ATR), a 14 ton amphibious vehicle, under contract to the David Taylor Naval Ship R&D Center. The track was designed utilizing corrosion resistan...

S. W. Miller S. Fox

1985-01-01

315

DHEAS repeated treatment improves cognitive and behavioral deficits after mild traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is characterized by diffused symptoms, which when combined are called "post-concussion syndrome". Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) is a neuroactive neurosteroid. Previously, we have reported that closed head mTBI causes long lasting cognitive deficits and depressive-like behavior. In the present study we describe the effects of DHEAS on the behavior of mice that suffered closed head mTBI. Following the induction of mTBI, mice were treated once a week with DHEAS (s.c. 20 mg/kg) and their performance in the passive avoidance test and the forced swimming test (FST) were evaluated 7, 30, 60 and 90 days post-injury. The most important interactions were between injury and injection (passive avoidance; p<0.001 and FST; p=0.001), meaning that DHEAS has beneficial effects only when given to injured animals. Our results demonstrate that the long-term cognitive and behavioral effects induced by mTBI may be improved by a repeated weekly treatment with DHEAS. PMID:17669633

Milman, A; Zohar, O; Maayan, R; Weizman, R; Pick, C G

2007-07-31

316

Improvement of cognitive functions in chronic schizophrenic patients by recombinant human erythropoietin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizophrenia is increasingly recognized as a neurodevelopmental disease with an additional degenerative component, comprising cognitive decline and loss of cortical gray matter. We hypothesized that a neuroprotective\\/neurotrophic add-on strategy, recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) in addition to stable antipsychotic medication, may be able to improve cognitive function even in chronic schizophrenic patients. Therefore, we designed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, multicenter, proof-of-principle

H Ehrenreich; D Hinze-Selch; S Stawicki; C Aust; S Knolle-Veentjer; S Wilms; G Heinz; S Erdag; H Jahn; D Degner; M Ritzen; A Mohr; M Wagner; U Schneider; M Bohn; M Huber; A Czernik; T Pollmächer; W Maier; A-L Sirén; J Klosterkötter; P Falkai; E Rüther; J B Aldenhoff; H Krampe

2007-01-01

317

The Effect of Compliance-Improving Interventions on the Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment of Pathological Gambling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study investigated the effect of interventions designed to improve compliance and reduce dropout rates during the outpatient treatment of pathological gambling at a University-based gambling treatment clinic. Forty subjects (29 males, 11 females, mean age = 37.6) meeting DSM-IV criteria (APA, 1994) for pathological gambling were randomly assigned to either a cognitive-behavioural treatment or a cognitive-behavioural treatment combined

Simon Milton; Rocco Crino; Caroline Hunt; Emma Prosser

2002-01-01

318

Depressive Rumination: Investigating Mechanisms to Improve Cognitive Behavioural Treatments  

PubMed Central

Rumination has been identified as a core process in the development and maintenance of depression. Treatments targeting ruminative processes may, therefore, be particularly helpful for treating chronic and recurrent depression. The development of such treatments requires translational research that marries clinical trials, process–outcome research, and basic experimental research that investigates the mechanisms underpinning pathological rumination. For example, a program of experimental research has demonstrated that there are distinct processing modes during rumination that have distinct functional effects for the consequences of rumination on a range of clinically relevant cognitive and emotional processes: an adaptive style characterized by more concrete, specific processing and a maladaptive style characterized by abstract, overgeneral processing. Based on this experimental work, two new treatments for depression have been developed and evaluated: (a) rumination-focused cognitive therapy, an individual-based face-to-face therapy, which has encouraging results in the treatment of residual depression in an extended case series and a pilot randomized controlled trial; and (b) concreteness training, a facilitated self-help intervention intended to increase specificity of processing in patients with depression, which has beneficial findings in a proof-of-principle study in a dysphoric population. These findings indicate the potential value of process–outcome research (a) explicitly targeting identified vulnerability processes and (b) developing interventions informed by research into basic mechanisms.

Watkins, Edward R.

2009-01-01

319

Correlation between menstrual cycle and cognitive performance in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).  

PubMed

Extensive research on human subjects has tried to investigate whether there is a correlation between cognitive performance and the menstrual cycle. Less is known about the relationship between the menstrual cycle and task performance in other cognitive animals. We test whether the secretion of a sex hormone [luteinizing hormone(LH)] influences the performance of cognitive tasks by a female chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) who is part of a long-term cognition research program. We focus on two cognitive tasks: an "easy task," which consists of simple numerical ordering, and a "difficult task," which combines numerical ordering with memorizing the numerals' spatial location. Data on the performance of these cognitive tasks, urine samples, and sexual swelling over six menstrual cycles showed that the chimpanzee's performance accuracy decreased and that the intertrial interval was longer during the LH-surge of the menstrual cycle, but only for the performance of the difficult task. These performance attributes seem to reflect a decrease in attention or motivation during ovulation. In summary, the cognitive performance of a chimpanzee was disturbed by hormonal changes despite her long-term experience in the tasks. PMID:21341914

Inoue, Sana; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

2011-02-01

320

Improved Neurobehavioral Performance during the Wake Maintenance Zone  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Although impairment of daytime functioning is a symptom of many sleep disorders, there are limited data on their nature for some patient groups. The role of the circadian system on impaired functioning, specifically the wake maintenance zone (WMZ)—a ?3-h window of reduced sleep propensity that occurs shortly before the onset of melatonin synthesis—has received little attention. The study examined the influence of the WMZ on neurobehavioral performance under normal conditions and following sleep deprivation. Methods: Thirty-one adults (8 F; 18-29 y) completed an in-patient protocol including a baseline day (8-h sleep:16-h wake) and a ?50-h constant routine (CR), including regular assessment of plasma melatonin and neurobehavioral performance (i.e., auditory and visual psychomotor vigilance tests [aPVT, vPVT], Digit Symbol Substitution Test [DSST], and subjective sleepiness). Results: Performance in the 3 hours before the onset of melatonin secretion (i.e., the expected WMZ) was significantly improved compared to performance during a 3-hour block earlier in the biological day, despite a longer time awake. The improvement during WMZ was most prominent after extended wakefulness (i.e., day 2 of the CR). Conclusions: These results suggest that alignment of circa-dian phase with respect to sleep-wake timing may affect cognitive performance, particularly when homeostatic sleep pressure is high, and especially when performance is assessed in the evening, near the predicted WMZ. The potential contribution of the WMZ to sleep-onset insomnia complaints should be assessed further, using objective neurobehavioral testing and simultaneous circadian phase measurement. Citation: Shekleton JA; Rajaratnam SMW; Gooley JJ; Van Reen E; Czeisler CA; Lockley SW. Improved neurobehavioral performance during the wake maintenance zone. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(4):353-362.

Shekleton, Julia A.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.; Gooley, Joshua J.; Van Reen, Eliza; Czeisler, Charles A.; Lockley, Steven W.

2013-01-01

321

Mind over Matter: Reappraising Arousal Improves Cardiovascular and Cognitive Responses to Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Researchers have theorized that changing the way we think about our bodily responses can improve our physiological and cognitive reactions to stressful events. However, the underlying processes through which mental states improve downstream outcomes are not well understood. To this end, we examined whether reappraising stress-induced arousal…

Jamieson, Jeremy P.; Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

2012-01-01

322

Cognitive and neuroradiological improvement in three patients with attenuated MPS I treated by laronidase.  

PubMed

Stem cell transplantation is not appropriate first-line treatment for attenuated phenotypes of mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I). In three patients with attenuated MPSA I treated by laronidase, Patients 2 and 3 displayed significant cognitive improvement within 2years; Patients 1 and 3 displayed improvement on MRI scans of the brain. PMID:20106688

Valayannopoulos, V; Boddaert, N; Barbier, V; Le Merrer, M; Caillaud, C; de Lonlay, P

2010-01-04

323

Cognitive test anxiety and cognitive enhancement: the influence of students' worries on their use of performance-enhancing drugs.  

PubMed

This online panel study (n(t)(1) = 5,882; n(t)(2) = 3,486 (randomly selected)) used multiple metrics to assess the prevalence of the nonmedical use of prescription medication for enhancing cognitive performance among German university students in 2010. Rare events logistic regression revealed that increased cognitive test anxiety increased the prevalence of medication use over various time windows. Negative binomial regression models showed that the higher the cognitive test anxiety, the higher the use frequencies were during the previous six months. The models controlled for expected side effects, risk attitudes, self-attributed competencies, prior medication use, sex, and age. We also discuss the study's implications. PMID:23302063

Sattler, Sebastian; Wiegel, Constantin

2013-01-10

324

Hunger in the Absence of Caloric Restriction Improves Cognition and Attenuates Alzheimer's Disease Pathology in a Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that caloric restriction (CR) delays aging and possibly delays the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We conjecture that the mechanism may involve interoceptive cues, rather than reduced energy intake per se. We determined that hunger alone, induced by a ghrelin agonist, reduces AD pathology and improves cognition in the APP-SwDI mouse model of AD. Long-term treatment with a ghrelin agonist was sufficient to improve the performance in the water maze. The treatment also reduced levels of amyloid beta (A?) and inflammation (microglial activation) at 6 months of age compared to the control group, similar to the effect of CR. Thus, a hunger-inducing drug attenuates AD pathology, in the absence of CR, and the neuroendocrine aspects of hunger also prevent age-related cognitive decline.

Dhurandhar, Emily J.; Allison, David B.; van Groen, Thomas; Kadish, Inga

2013-01-01

325

Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on clinical, social, and cognitive performance in postpartum depression  

PubMed Central

Background: This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot study evaluated the impact of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on clinical, cognitive, and social performance in women suffering with postpartum depression. Methods: Fourteen patients were randomized to receive 20 sessions of sham rTMS or active 5 Hz rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Psychiatric clinical scales and a neuropsychological battery were applied at baseline (pretreatment), week 4 (end of treatment), and week 6 (follow-up, posttreatment week 2). Results: The active rTMS group showed significant improvement 2 weeks after the end of rTMS treatment (week 6) in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (P = 0.020), Global Assessment Scale (P = 0.037), Clinical Global Impression (P = 0.047), and Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report-Work at Home (P = 0.020). Conclusion: This study suggests that rTMS has the potential to improve the clinical condition in postpartum depression, while producing marginal gains in social and cognitive function.

Myczkowski, Martin Luiz; Dias, Alvaro Machado; Luvisotto, Tatiana; Arnaut, Debora; Bellini, Bianca Boura; Mansur, Carlos Gustavo; Renno, Joel; Tortella, Gabriel; Ribeiro, Philip Leite; Marcolin, Marco Antonio

2012-01-01

326

Clock Drawing Performance and Brain Morphology in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a widely used instrument in the neuropsychological assessment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As CDT performance necessitates several cognitive functions (e.g., visuospatial and constructional abilities, executive functioning), an interaction of multiple brain regions is likely. Fifty-one subjects with mild cognitive

Thomann, Philipp A.; Toro, Pablo; Santos, Vasco Dos; Essig, Marco; Schroder, Johannes

2008-01-01

327

Children's sleep and cognitive performance: a cross-domain analysis of change over time.  

PubMed

Relations between changes in children's cognitive performance and changes in sleep problems were examined over a 3-year period, and family socioeconomic status, child race/ethnicity, and gender were assessed as moderators of these associations. Participants were 250 second- and third-grade (8-9 years old at Time 1) boys and girls. At each assessment, children's cognitive performance (Verbal Comprehension, Decision Speed) was measured using the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities, and sleep problems (Sleepiness, Sleep/Wake Problems) were collected via self-report. Individual growth models revealed that children who reported increases in Sleepiness exhibited little growth in Verbal Comprehension over time compared with their peers who reported decreases in Sleepiness, resulting in a nearly 11-point cognitive deficit by the end of the study. These associations were not found for Sleep/Wake Problems or Decision Speed. Child race/ethnicity and gender moderated these associations, with Sleepiness serving as a vulnerability factor for poor cognitive outcomes, especially among African American children and girls. Differences in cognitive performance for children with high and low Sleepiness trajectories ranged from 16 to 19 points for African American children and from 11 to 19 points for girls. Results build substantially on existing literature examining associations between sleep and cognitive functioning in children and are the first to demonstrate that children's sleep trajectories over 3 waves were associated with changes in their cognitive performance over time. PMID:21942668

Bub, Kristen L; Buckhalt, Joseph A; El-Sheikh, Mona

2011-09-26

328

The Development and Implementation of an Instrument to Assess Cognitive Performance in High School Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An instrument, "The Assessment of Cognitive Transfer in Science Inventory," was designed to evaluate cognitive performance in biology. The instrument is based on students' verbal responses to a structured sequence of situations and questions. Items were classified in terms of a modification of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. The…

Benson, Bernard W.

329

Comparable cortical activation with inferior performance in women during a novel cognitive inhibition task  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men are hypothesised to perform better than women at tasks requiring cognitive inhibition. The present study applied whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural correlates of cognitive inhibition using a novel task, requiring detection of numbers decreasing in numerical order, in relation to sex. The study involved 19 young healthy subjects (9 men, 10 women). Behavioural sex differences

R. Halari; V. Kumari

2005-01-01

330

Performance on Middle School Geometry Problems with Geometry Clues Matched to Three Different Cognitive Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between 3 ability-based cognitive styles (verbal deductive, spatial imagery, and object imagery) and performance on geometry problems that provided different types of clues. The purpose was to determine whether students with a specific cognitive style outperformed other students, when the geometry problems…

Anderson, Karen L.; Casey, M. Beth; Thompson, William L.; Burrage, Marie S.; Pezaris, Elizabeth; Kosslyn, Stephen M.

2008-01-01

331

Relationship between Poor Sleep and Daytime Cognitive Performance in Young Adults with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Poor sleep is a common feature in autism even though patients themselves do not necessarily complain. The impact of poor sleep on daytime cognitive functioning in autism is not well-known and we therefore investigated whether sleep in autism correlates with daytime cognitive performance. A battery of non-verbal tasks was administered, in the…

Limoges, Elyse; Bolduc, Christianne; Berthiaume, Claude; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

2013-01-01

332

Performance of psychopaths on cognitive tasks related to frontal lobe function  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of their performance on several cognitive tasks, including the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Necker Cube, and a sequential matching memory task (SMMT), E. E. Gorenstein concluded that psychopaths have specific deficits in cognitive processes associated with frontal-lobe functioning. However, it is argued that his diagnostic procedures were inadequate and his results confounded by group differences

Robert D. Hare

1984-01-01

333

Epilepsy in the School Aged Child: Cognitive-Behavioral Characteristics and Effects on Academic Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Children with epilepsy frequently display cognitive sequelae that are overlooked or misunderstood by educational personnel, yet may adversely impact academic performance. Reviews common cognitive-behavioral characteristics of children with epilepsy, typical effects of anticonvulsant medications, and various periictal phenomena and their relative…

Black, Kathryn C.; Hynd, George W.

1995-01-01

334

Occupational Exposure to Solvents and Cognitive Performance in the GAZEL Cohort: Preliminary Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The impact of occupational exposure to solvents on cognitive ageing remains unclear. We examined whether long-term occupational exposure is associated with poor cognitive performance in late midlife. Methods: Participants in the GAZEL cohort, set up in 1989, are employees of the French national electricity and gas company. Data on the working environment were used to create measures of cumulative

C. Berr; M. N. Vercambre; S. Bonenfant; A. Singh Manoux; M. Zins; M. Goldberg

2010-01-01

335

The gender difference in distraction of background music and noise on the cognitive task performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the effect of background music and noise on the cognitive task performance and tested the gender difference. Ninety-one participants completed (53 female, 38 male) two kinds of cognitive tasks: one was simple task (perception task), the other was complex task (spatial reasoning task, which had two levels: easy & difficult). Participants were randomly assigned to one

Yang Jing; Shi Jing; Cai Huajian; Shen Chuangang; Lin Yan

2012-01-01

336

Children's Sleep and Cognitive Performance: A Cross-Domain Analysis of Change Over Time  

PubMed Central

Relations between changes in children's cognitive performance and changes in sleep problems were examined over a 3-year period, and family socioeconomic status, child race/ethnicity, and gender were assessed as moderators of these associations. Participants were 250 second- and third-grade (8–9 years old at Time 1) boys and girls. At each assessment, children's cognitive performance (Verbal Comprehension, Decision Speed) was measured using the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities, and sleep problems (Sleepiness, Sleep/Wake Problems) were collected via self-report. Individual growth models revealed that children who reported increases in Sleepiness exhibited little growth in Verbal Comprehension over time compared with their peers who reported decreases in Sleepiness, resulting in a nearly 11-point cognitive deficit by the end of the study. These associations were not found for Sleep/Wake Problems or Decision Speed. Child race/ethnicity and gender moderated these associations, with Sleepiness serving as a vulnerability factor for poor cognitive outcomes, especially among African American children and girls. Differences in cognitive performance for children with high and low Sleepiness trajectories ranged from 16 to 19 points for African American children and from 11 to 19 points for girls. Results build substantially on existing literature examining associations between sleep and cognitive functioning in children and are the first to demonstrate that children's sleep trajectories over 3 waves were associated with changes in their cognitive performance over time.

Bub, Kristen L.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona

2012-01-01

337

A Comparison of Sideline Versus Clinical Cognitive Test Performance in Collegiate Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To test whether performance on 5 cognitive tests administered in a controlled clinical environment differed com- pared with administration in an uncontrolled sideline environ- ment. Additionally, we investigated the effect of testing envi- ronment order on the learning effect for each cognitive test. Design and Setting: Athletes were assessed on 2 test occasions (8 6 2 days apart), once

James A. Onate; Kevin M. Guskiewicz; Bryan L. Riemann; William E. Prentice

338

Clock Drawing Performance and Brain Morphology in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a widely used instrument in the neuropsychological assessment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). As CDT performance necessitates several cognitive functions (e.g., visuospatial and constructional abilities, executive functioning), an interaction of multiple brain regions is likely. Fifty-one subjects with mild cognitive

Thomann, Philipp A.; Toro, Pablo; Santos, Vasco Dos; Essig, Marco; Schroder, Johannes

2008-01-01

339

Physical Fitness Performance of Young Adults with and without Cognitive Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the physical fitness performance of young adults with and without cognitive impairments. Participants were 75 young adults, including 41 without disabilities (23 females, 18 males; M of age = 21.88) and 34 with mild cognitive impairments (14 females, 20 males; M of age = 21.79). They received…

Zhang, Jiabei; Piwowar, Nathan; Reilly, Coleen Jennifer

2009-01-01

340

Sensitivity to change in cognitive performance and mood measures of energy and fatigue in response to morning caffeine alone or in combination with carbohydrate.  

PubMed

This double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects (N = 17) experiment compared the sensitivity to change of the cognitive performance and mood measures of mental energy following consumption of either a moderate dose of caffeine (200 mg), a small amount of carbohydrate (50 g white bread), or both. Caffeine improved mood and performance. The sensitivity to change of the mood and cognitive measures did not differ in response to the three treatments (all p values > .05). The mood and cognitive measures of mental energy used here have similar sensitivity to detecting change in response to caffeine and carbohydrate. PMID:19922353

Maridakis, Victor; O'Connor, Patrick J; Tomporowski, Phillip D

2009-01-01

341

Six months of dance intervention enhances postural, sensorimotor, and cognitive performance in elderly without affecting cardio-respiratory functions  

PubMed Central

During aging, sensorimotor, cognitive and physical performance decline, but can improve by training and exercise indicating that age-related changes are treatable. Dancing is increasingly used as an intervention because it combines many diverse features making it a promising neuroplasticity-inducing tool. We here investigated the effects of a 6-month dance class (1 h/week) on a group of healthy elderly individuals compared to a matched control group (CG). We performed a broad assessment covering cognition, intelligence, attention, reaction time, motor, tactile, and postural performance, as well as subjective well-being and cardio-respiratory performance. After 6 months, in the CG no changes, or further degradation of performance was found. In the dance group, beneficial effects were found for dance-related parameters such as posture and reaction times, but also for cognitive, tactile, motor performance, and subjective well-being. These effects developed without alterations in the cardio-respiratory performance. Correlation of baseline performance with the improvement following intervention revealed that those individuals, who benefitted most from the intervention, were those who showed the lowest performance prior to the intervention. Our findings corroborate previous observations that dancing evokes widespread positive effects. The pre-post design used in the present study implies that the efficacy of dance is most likely not based on a selection bias of particularly gifted individuals. The lack of changes of cardio-respiratory fitness indicates that even moderate levels of physical activity can in combination with rich sensorimotor, cognitive, social, and emotional challenges act to ameliorate a wide spectrum of age-related decline.

Kattenstroth, Jan-Christoph; Kalisch, Tobias; Holt, Stephan; Tegenthoff, Martin; Dinse, Hubert R.

2013-01-01

342

Six months of dance intervention enhances postural, sensorimotor, and cognitive performance in elderly without affecting cardio-respiratory functions.  

PubMed

During aging, sensorimotor, cognitive and physical performance decline, but can improve by training and exercise indicating that age-related changes are treatable. Dancing is increasingly used as an intervention because it combines many diverse features making it a promising neuroplasticity-inducing tool. We here investigated the effects of a 6-month dance class (1 h/week) on a group of healthy elderly individuals compared to a matched control group (CG). We performed a broad assessment covering cognition, intelligence, attention, reaction time, motor, tactile, and postural performance, as well as subjective well-being and cardio-respiratory performance. After 6 months, in the CG no changes, or further degradation of performance was found. In the dance group, beneficial effects were found for dance-related parameters such as posture and reaction times, but also for cognitive, tactile, motor performance, and subjective well-being. These effects developed without alterations in the cardio-respiratory performance. Correlation of baseline performance with the improvement following intervention revealed that those individuals, who benefitted most from the intervention, were those who showed the lowest performance prior to the intervention. Our findings corroborate previous observations that dancing evokes widespread positive effects. The pre-post design used in the present study implies that the efficacy of dance is most likely not based on a selection bias of particularly gifted individuals. The lack of changes of cardio-respiratory fitness indicates that even moderate levels of physical activity can in combination with rich sensorimotor, cognitive, social, and emotional challenges act to ameliorate a wide spectrum of age-related decline. PMID:23447455

Kattenstroth, Jan-Christoph; Kalisch, Tobias; Holt, Stephan; Tegenthoff, Martin; Dinse, Hubert R

2013-02-26

343

Health Literacy and Cognitive Performance among Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives Specific cognitive abilities may explain the association of health literacy with health status. We studied the relationship between health literacy and memory and verbal fluency in older adults. Design Cross-sectional cohort. Setting Twenty senior centers and apartment buildings in New York City, NY. Participants Independently living, English and Spanish-speaking adults ages 60 and older (n=414). Measurements Health literacy was measured using the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA). The associations of S-TOFHLA scores with immediate and delayed recall (Wechsler Memory Scale II), verbal fluency (Animal Naming), and global cognitive function (Mini Mental Status Exam, MMSE), were modeled with multivariable logistic and linear regression. Results Health literacy was inadequate in 24.3%. Impairment of immediate recall occurred in 20.4%; delayed recall, 15.0%; verbal fluency, 9.9%; and MMSE, 17.4%. Abnormal cognitive function was strongly associated with inadequate health literacy: immediate recall (AOR 3.44, 95% CI 1.71 to 6.94, p<.0001); delayed recall (AOR 3.48, 95% CI 1.58 to 7.67, p = .002); and verbal fluency (AOR 3.47, 95% CI 1.44 to 8.38, p=.006). These associations persisted in subgroups that excluded individuals with normal age-adjusted MMSE scores. Conclusion Memory and verbal fluency are strongly associated with health literacy, independently of education and health status, even among those with subtle cognitive dysfunction. Reducing the cognitive burden of health information might mitigate the detrimental effects of limited health literacy in older adults. Research that examines the impact of materials tailored to older adults' cognitive limitations on health literacy and health outcomes is needed.

Federman, Alex D.; Sano, Mary; Wolf, Michael S.; Siu, Albert L.; Halm, Ethan A.

2009-01-01

344

Improving performance via mini-applications.  

SciTech Connect

Application performance is determined by a combination of many choices: hardware platform, runtime environment, languages and compilers used, algorithm choice and implementation, and more. In this complicated environment, we find that the use of mini-applications - small self-contained proxies for real applications - is an excellent approach for rapidly exploring the parameter space of all these choices. Furthermore, use of mini-applications enriches the interaction between application, library and computer system developers by providing explicit functioning software and concrete performance results that lead to detailed, focused discussions of design trade-offs, algorithm choices and runtime performance issues. In this paper we discuss a collection of mini-applications and demonstrate how we use them to analyze and improve application performance on new and future computer platforms.

Crozier, Paul Stewart; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Numrich, Robert W. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Williams, Alan B.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Keiter, Eric Richard; Rajan, Mahesh; Willenbring, James M.; Doerfler, Douglas W.; Heroux, Michael Allen

2009-09-01

345

Low-Level Laser Light Therapy Improves Cognitive Deficits and Inhibits Microglial Activation after Controlled Cortical Impact in Mice  

PubMed Central

Abstract Low-level laser light therapy (LLLT) exerts beneficial effects on motor and histopathological outcomes after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI), and coherent near-infrared light has been reported to improve cognitive function in patients with chronic TBI. However, the effects of LLLT on cognitive recovery in experimental TBI are unknown. We hypothesized that LLLT administered after controlled cortical impact (CCI) would improve post-injury Morris water maze (MWM) performance. Low-level laser light (800?nm) was applied directly to the contused parenchyma or transcranially in mice beginning 60–80?min after CCI. Injured mice treated with 60?J/cm2 (500?mW/cm2×2?min) either transcranially or via an open craniotomy had modestly improved latency to the hidden platform (p<0.05 for group), and probe trial performance (p<0.01) compared to non-treated controls. The beneficial effects of LLLT in open craniotomy mice were associated with reduced microgliosis at 48?h (21.8±2.3 versus 39.2±4.2 IbA-1+ cells/200×field, p<0.05). Little or no effect of LLLT on post-injury cognitive function was observed using the other doses, a 4-h administration time point and 7-day administration of 60?J/cm2. No effect of LLLT (60?J/cm2 open craniotomy) was observed on post-injury motor function (days 1–7), brain edema (24?h), nitrosative stress (24?h), or lesion volume (14 days). Although further dose optimization and mechanism studies are needed, the data suggest that LLLT might be a therapeutic option to improve cognitive recovery and limit inflammation after TBI.

Khuman, Jugta; Zhang, Jimmy; Park, Juyeon; Carroll, James D.; Donahue, Chad

2012-01-01

346

Effects of interferon beta-1b on cognitive performance in patients with a first event suggestive of multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Cognitive dysfunction occurs at the earliest stages of multiple sclerosis (MS), including the stage of clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). Methods: We evaluated the impact of interferon beta-1b (IFN?-1b) 250 µg on cognitive performance during the CIS stage in the BENEFITstudy. Cognition was assessed by Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test-3” (PASAT-3”) scores. Results: Improvement in PASAT-3” score from baseline to year two was greater for IFN?-1b treatment than placebo in patients not reaching clinically definite MS (CDMS) by year two. The treatment effect was maintained at year five and was statistically significant. Conclusions: To conclude, early IFN?-1b treatment had a sustained positive effect on PASAT-3” score over the 5-year BENEFIT study.

Stemper, Brigitte; Calabrese, Pasquale; Freedman, Mark S; Polman, Chris H; Edan, Gilles; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Miller, David H; Montalban, Xavier; Barkhof, Frederik; Pleimes, Dirk; Lanius, Vivian; Pohl, Christoph; Kappos, Ludwig; Sandbrink, Rupert

2012-01-01

347

Characterizing and explaining differences in cognitive test performance between African American and European American older adults  

PubMed Central

The present study examined differences in cognitive performance of African American and European American older adults on cognitive and intellectual measures, and the extent to which literacy status or reading level was useful in explaining these group differences. African American elders performed more poorly than European American elders on twelve of thirteen cognitive tests administered, p < .05. After controlling for reading level achievement, differences in performance became non-significant for five of these twelve tests. Nonetheless, some differences persisted, suggesting that other potential mediators of race differences remain to be explored in future research.

Morgan, Adrienne T. Aiken; Marsiske, Michael; Whitfield, Keith E.

2007-01-01

348

Improving performance through self-assessment.  

PubMed

Wakefield and Pontefract Community Health NHS Trust uses the European Business Excellence Model self-assessment for continuous improvement. An outline of the key aspects of the model, an approach to TQM, is presented. This article sets out the context that led to the adoption of the model in the Trust and describes the approach that has been taken to completing self-assessments. Use of the model to secure continuous improvement is reviewed against Bhopal and Thomson's Audit Cycle and consideration is given to lessons learned. The article concludes with a discussion on applicability of the model to health care organisations. It is concluded that, after an initial learning curve, the model has facilitated integration of a range of quality initiatives, and progress with continuous improvement. Critical to this was the linking of self-assessment to business planning and performance management systems. PMID:10537856

Pitt, D J

1999-01-01

349

Cognitive enhancement therapy improves emotional intelligence in early course schizophrenia: Preliminary effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examined the preliminary effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) on social cognition in early course schizophrenia, using an objective, performance-based measure of emotional intelligence. Individuals in the early course of schizophrenia were randomly assigned to either CET (n=18) or Enriched Supportive Therapy (n=20), and assessed at baseline and after 1 year of treatment with the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test.

Shaun M. Eack; Gerard E. Hogarty; Deborah P. Greenwald; Susan S. Hogarty; Matcheri S. Keshavan

2007-01-01

350

Improving emergency response and human- robotic performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparedness for chemical, biological, and radiological\\/nuclear incidents at nuclear power plants (NPPs) includes the deployment of well trained emergency response teams. While teams are expected to do well, data from other domains suggests that the timeliness and accuracy associated with incident response can be improved through collaborative human-robotic interaction. Many incident response scenarios call for multiple, complex procedure-based activities performed

David I. Gertman; David J. Bruemmer; R. Scott Hartley

2007-01-01

351

Brain antioxidant markers, cognitive performance and acetylcholinesterase activity of rats: efficiency of Sonchus asper  

PubMed Central

Background Sonchus asper (SA) is traditionally used as a folk medicine to treat mental disorders in Pakistan. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of polyphenolic rich methanolic fraction of SA on cognitive performance, brain antioxidant activities and acetylcholinesterase activity in male rats. Methods 30 male Sprague–Dawley rats were equally divided into three groups in this study. Animals of group I (control) received saline (vehicle), group II received SA (50 mg/kg) body weight (b.w.), and group III treated with SA (100 mg/kg b.w.,) orally in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) for 7 days. The effect of SA was checked on rat cognitive performance, brain antioxidatant and acetylcholinesterase activities. Evaluation of learning and memory was assessed by a step-through a passive avoidance test on day 6 after two habituation trials and an initial acquisition trial on day 5. Antioxidant potential was determined by measuring activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in whole-brain homogenates. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was determined by the colorimetric method. Results Results showed that 100 mg/kg b.w., SA treated rats exhibited a significant improvement in learning and memory (step-through latency time). SA administration reduced lipid peroxidation products and elevated glutathione levels in the SA100-treated group. Furthermore, salt and detergent soluble AChE activity was significantly decreased in both SA-treated groups. Short-term orally supplementation of SA showed significant cognitive enhancement as well as elevated brain antioxidant enzymes and inhibited AChE activity. Conclusion These findings stress the critical impact of Sonchus asper bioactive components on brain function.

2012-01-01

352

Cognitive correlates of cross-sectional differences and longitudinal changes in trail making performance  

PubMed Central

A total of 1,576 adults between 18 and 95 years of age performed a battery of cognitive tests and the Connections version of the trail making test twice, with an average interval between assessments of 2.5 years. Consistent with previous results, speed ability and fluid cognitive ability were strongly correlated with trail making performance. Neither speed nor fluid cognitive ability at the first occasion predicted longitudinal changes in trail making performance, but there were significant correlations between the changes in these abilities and the changes in trail making performance. These results indicate that individual differences in speed and fluid cognitive abilities are associated with individual differences in trail making performance both at a single point in time (cross-sectional differences), and in the changes over time (longitudinal changes).

Salthouse, Timothy A.

2010-01-01

353

Omega-3 Fatty Acids from Fish Oil Lower Anxiety, Improve Cognitive Functions and Reduce Spontaneous Locomotor Activity in a Non-Human Primate  

PubMed Central

Omega-3 (?3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are major components of brain cells membranes. ?3 PUFA-deficient rodents exhibit severe cognitive impairments (learning, memory) that have been linked to alteration of brain glucose utilization or to changes in neurotransmission processes. ?3 PUFA supplementation has been shown to lower anxiety and to improve several cognitive parameters in rodents, while very few data are available in primates. In humans, little is known about the association between anxiety and ?3 fatty acids supplementation and data are divergent about their impact on cognitive functions. Therefore, the development of nutritional studies in non-human primates is needed to disclose whether a long-term supplementation with long-chain ?3 PUFA has an impact on behavioural and cognitive parameters, differently or not from rodents. We address the hypothesis that ?3 PUFA supplementation could lower anxiety and improve cognitive performances of the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus), a nocturnal Malagasy prosimian primate. Adult male mouse lemurs were fed for 5 months on a control diet or on a diet supplemented with long-chain ?3 PUFA (n?=?6 per group). Behavioural, cognitive and motor performances were measured using an open field test to evaluate anxiety, a circular platform test to evaluate reference spatial memory, a spontaneous locomotor activity monitoring and a sensory-motor test. ?3-supplemented animals exhibited lower anxiety level compared to control animals, what was accompanied by better performances in a reference spatial memory task (80% of successful trials vs 35% in controls, p<0.05), while the spontaneous locomotor activity was reduced by 31% in ?3-supplemented animals (p<0.001), a parameter that can be linked with lowered anxiety. The long-term dietary ?3 PUFA supplementation positively impacts on anxiety and cognitive performances in the adult mouse lemur. The supplementation of human food with ?3 fatty acids may represent a valuable dietary strategy to improve behavioural and cognitive functions.

Vinot, Nina; Jouin, Melanie; Lhomme-Duchadeuil, Adrien; Guesnet, Philippe; Alessandri, Jean-Marc; Aujard, Fabienne; Pifferi, Fabien

2011-01-01

354

Age-dependent effects of carotid endarterectomy or stenting on cognitive performance.  

PubMed

Although evidence is accumulating that age modifies the risk of carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) versus endarterectomy (CEA) for patients with significant carotid stenosis, the impact of age on cognition after either CEA or CAS remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the effects of age on cognitive performance after either CEA or CAS using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery with parallel test forms and a control group to exclude a learning effect. The neuropsychological outcomes after revascularization were determined in 19 CAS and 27 CEA patients with severe carotid stenosis. The patients were subdivided according to their median age (<68 years and ?68 years); 27 healthy subjects served as a control group. In all patients clinical examinations, MRI scans and a neuropsychological test battery that assessed four major cognitive domains were performed immediately before, within 72 h, and 3 months after CEA or CAS. While patients <68 years of age showed no significant cognitive alteration after either CEA or CAS, a significant cognitive decline was observed in patients ?68 years in both treatment groups (p = 0.001). Notably, this cognitive deterioration persisted in patients after CEA, whereas it was only transient in patients treated with CAS. These results demonstrate an age-dependent effect of CEA and CAS on cognitive functions. In contrast to the recently observed increased clinical complication rates in older subjects after CAS compared with CEA, CEA appears to be associated with a greater, persistent decline in cognitive performance than CAS in this subgroup of patients. PMID:22527231

Wasser, Katrin; Hildebrandt, Helmut; Gröschel, Sonja; Stojanovic, Tomislav; Schmidt, Holger; Gröschel, Klaus; Pilgram-Pastor, Sara M; Knauth, Michael; Kastrup, Andreas

2012-04-19

355

Ischemic preconditioning improves maximal performance in humans.  

PubMed

Repeated episodes of ischemia followed by reperfusion, commonly referred to as ischemic preconditioning (IPC), represent an endogenous protective mechanism that delays cell injury. IPC also increases blood flow and improves endothelial function. We hypothesize that IPC will improve physical exercise performance and maximal oxygen consumption. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of ischemic preconditioning in leg skeletal muscles on cycling exercise performance in healthy individuals. Fifteen healthy, well-trained subjects performed two incremental maximal exercise tests on a bicycle ergometer. Power output, oxygen consumption, ventilation, respiratory quotient, and heart rate were measured continuously. Blood pressure and blood lactate were measured before and after the test. One exercise test was performed after the application of ischemic preconditioning, using a protocol of three series of 5-min ischemia at both legs with resting periods of 5 min in between. The other maximal cycling test served as a control. Tests were conducted in counterbalanced order, at least 1 week apart, at the same time of the day. The repeated ischemic periods significantly increased maximal oxygen consumption from 56.8 to 58.4 ml/min per kg (P = 0.003). Maximal power output increased significantly from 366 to 372 W (P = 0.05). Ischemic preconditioning had no effect on ventilation, respiratory quotient, maximal heart rate, blood pressure or on blood lactate. Repeated short-term leg ischemia prior to an incremental bicycle exercise test improves maximal oxygen consumption by 3% and power output by 1.6%. This protocol, which is suggested to mimic the effects of ischemic preconditioning, may have important implications for exercise performance. PMID:19760432

de Groot, Patricia C E; Thijssen, Dick H J; Sanchez, Manuel; Ellenkamp, Reinier; Hopman, Maria T E

2009-09-18

356

Comparing Cognitive Performance in Illiterate and Literate Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While it is known that the process of becoming literate begins in early childhood and usually involves several years of schooling, research related to cognitive characteristics has been done mostly on illiterate adults, and information concerning illiterate children is therefore limited. The aim of the present study, involving 21 illiterate and 22…

Matute, Esmeralda; Montiel, Teresita; Pinto, Noemi; Rosselli, Monica; Ardila, Alfredo; Zarabozo, Daniel

2012-01-01

357

Performance Analysis of Cognitive Radio Spectrum Access with Prioritized Traffic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic spectrum access (DSA) is an important de- sign aspect for the cognitive radio networks. Most of the existing DSA schemes are to govern the unlicensed user (i.e., secondary user) traffic in a licensed spectrum without compromising the transmissions of the licensed users, in which all the unlicensed users are typically treated equally. In this paper, prioritized unlicensed user traffic

Vamsi Krishna Tumuluru; Ping Wang; Dusit Niyato

2011-01-01

358

Performance Analysis of Cognitive Radio Spectrum Access With Prioritized Traffic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic spectrum access (DSA) is an important design aspect for cognitive radio networks. Most of existing DSA schemes are to govern unlicensed user (i.e., secondary user, SU) traffic in a licensed spectrum without compromising the transmissions of the licensed users, in which all the unlicensed users are typically treated equally. In this paper, prioritized unlicensed user traffic is considered. Specifically,

Vamsi Krishna Tumuluru; Ping Wang; Dusit Niyato; Wei Song

2012-01-01

359

The Feuerstein Perspective on the Modification of Cognitive Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|R. Fuerstein's views on increasing cognitive functioning of handicapped students is reviewed. His theory of mediated learning experience, which stresses structured learning, is discussed. The Learning Potential Assessment Device, a measure of learning modifiability, is considered, and a specific curriculum, Instrumental Enrichment, is explained.…

Harth, Robert

1982-01-01

360

Prediction of Cognitive Performance from Infancy to Early Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two longitudinal studies are described, in both of which it was found that measures of looking behaviour in early infancy predicted later problem solving and verbal and general intelligence. These results are a further demonstration that cognitive development from infancy to later childhood displays some degree of continuity. It is argued that these and other findings do not give clear

Alan Slater; Rachel Cooper; David Rose; Victoria Morison

1989-01-01

361

Cognitive and Perceptual Factors in Aging and Driving Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report examines cognitive and perceptual factors as a function of age differences in drivers. Three major groups of participants employed in the proposed research. The younger group range from 19 to 34 years of age, the middle-age group range from 35 ...

E. J. Rinalducci M. Mouloua J. Smither

2003-01-01

362

Nicotine–Haloperidol Interactions and Cognitive Performance in Schizophrenics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly 90% of schizophrenics smoke cigarettes, considerably higher than the general population's rate of 25%. There is some indication that schizophrenics may smoke as a form of self-medication. Nicotine has a variety of pharmacologic effects that may both counteract some of the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia and counteract some of the adverse side effects of antipsychotic drugs. In the current

Edward D Levin; William Wilson; Jed E Rose; Joseph McEvoy

1996-01-01

363

Cognitive performance, sleep quality and mood during deep oxyhelium diving  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study forms part of a series of simulated saturation oxyhelium dives, examining physiological and psychological changes in man in high pressure conditions. A series of five dives are reported, lasting between 18 and 26 days, and reaching maximum depths of between 300 and 540msw. Tests of cognitive functioning, including associative and short term memory, arithmetic ability, perceptual speed, spatial

VIVIEN J. LEWIS; ALAN D. BADDELEY

1981-01-01

364

Predictors of improvement in a cognitive-behavioral intervention for women with rheumatoid arthritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we present a secondary analysis of data from a brief cognitive—behavioral intervention for women with rheumatoid\\u000a arthritis that resulted in significant overall improvements in personal coping resources, pain coping behaviors, psychological\\u000a well-being, and fatigue. Not every participant, however, improved during the intervention. Establishing predictors of improvement\\u000a in brief interventions is important to optimize the cost-effective use of

Vaughn G. Sinclair; Kenneth A. Wallston

2001-01-01

365

The effects of practice on the cognitive test performance of neurologically normal individuals assessed at brief test-retest intervals.  

PubMed

Performance on many cognitive and neuropsychological tests may be improved by prior exposure to testing stimuli and procedures. These beneficial practice effects can have a significant impact on test performance when conventional neuropsychological tests are administered at test-retest intervals of weeks, months or years. Many recent investigations have sought to determine changes in cognitive function over periods of minutes or hours (e.g., before and after anesthesia) using computerized tests. However, the effects of practice at such brief test-retest intervals has not been reported. The current study sought to determine the magnitude of practice effects in a group of 113 individuals assessed with an automated cognitive test battery on 4 occasions in 1 day. Practice effects were evident both between and within assessments, and also within individual tests. However, these effects occurred mostly between the 1st and 2nd administration of the test battery, with smaller, nonsignificant improvements observed between the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th administrations. On the basis of these results, methodological and statistical strategies that may aid in the differentiation of practice effects from drug-induced cognitive changes are proposed. PMID:12666766

Collie, Alexander; Maruff, Paul; Darby, David G; McStephen, Michael

2003-03-01

366

Cognitive Expertise, Emotional Development and Reflective Capacity: Clinical Skills for Improved Pain Care  

PubMed Central

The overarching goal of medical training is to nurture the growth of knowledgeable, caring and insightful clinicians guided by the ideals of medical professionalism. Recent definitions of professional competence identify essential clinical skills, including cognitive expertise, emotional competence, and reflective capacity. This modern framework reflects the increasingly complex nature of the patient-clinician interaction, in which the clinician must exchange diagnostic information while supportively engaging the patient on a deeper, affective level. The affective dimension can be particularly potent when pain is the primary symptom, as it is for the majority of medical visits. Unfortunately, however, current models of professionalism, used as an early guide for medical trainees to develop an understanding of the clinical exchange, largely focus on interactions in the cognitive domain. To emphasize the importance of emotions in professional development, we propose the Cognitive and Emotional Preparedness Model (CEPM), which describes the clinical encounter occurring on two channels, one cognitive and the other emotional, and stresses the importance of multidimensional development in preparing the clinician to 1) communicate clinical information, 2) provide emotional support, and 3) actively reflect on experiences for continued improvement. Together, acquisition of knowledge, emotional development, and reflective skill will improve the clinical interaction. Perspective The proficiency of medical trainees in developing clinical skills profoundly shapes patient satisfaction and treatment outcomes. This article reviews the cognitive, emotional and reflective development of medical trainees and presents a model illustrating how clinical development impacts pain care. For improved efficacy, pain education should be calibrated to students' developmental needs.

Murinson, Beth B.; Agarwal, Aakash K.; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.

2008-01-01

367

Nicotine improves performance in an attentional set shifting task in rats.  

PubMed

A large number of studies in both humans and experimental animals have demonstrated nicotine-induced improvements in various aspects of cognitive function, including attention and memory. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to be critically involved in the modulation of executive function and these attentional processes are enhanced by nicotine acting at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The involvement of nicotinic processes on cognitive flexibility in particular has not been specifically investigated. The effects of nicotine on attentional flexibility were therefore evaluated using the rodent attentional set shifting task in rats. Nicotine injected both acutely and following repeated pre-exposure significantly improved both intradimensional and extradimensional set shifting performance in the task. Further investigation of the acute effects of nicotine demonstrated this improvement in attentional flexibility to be dose-dependent. These results implicate the nicotinic receptor system in the mediation of processes underlying cognitive flexibility and suggest that nicotine improves attentional flexibility in rats, both within and between perceptual dimensions of a compound stimulus. Nicotine-induced alterations in prefrontal circuitry may underlie these effects on cognitive flexibility. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. PMID:22776507

Allison, Claire; Shoaib, Mohammed

2012-07-06

368

Influence of 8-Weeks of Whey Protein and Leucine Supplementation on Physical and Cognitive Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was designed to investigate the ability of 8-weeks of whey protein and leucine supplementation to enhance physical and cognitive performance and body composition. It was further designed to examine the impact of such supplementation on circulat...

B. Lebegue E. Anderson J. Smith M. Herrera T. B. Walker

2009-01-01

369

Influence of 8 Weeks of Whey-Protein and Leucine Supplementation on Physical and Cognitive Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of whey- protein and leucine supplementation to enhance physical and cognitive performance and body composition. Thirty moderately fit participants completed a modified Air Force fitness test, a com...

A. Pinchak B. Lebegue J. Smith M. Herrera T. B. Walker

2010-01-01

370

Marital Conflict, Allostatic Load, and the Development of Children's Fluid Cognitive Performance.  

PubMed

Relations between marital conflict, children's respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and fluid cognitive performance were examined over 3 years to assess allostatic processes. Participants were 251 children reporting on marital conflict, baseline RSA, and RSA reactivity (RSA-R) to a lab challenge were recorded, and fluid cognitive performance was measured using the Woodcock-Johnson III. A cross-lagged model showed that higher levels of marital conflict at age 8 predicted weaker RSA-R at age 9 for children with lower baseline RSA. A growth model showed that lower baseline RSA in conjunction with weaker RSA-R predicted the slowest development of fluid cognitive performance. Findings suggest that stress may affect development of physiological systems regulating attention, which are tied to the development of fluid cognitive performance. PMID:23534537

Hinnant, J Benjamin; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Buckhalt, Joseph A

2013-03-27

371

Effects of a Commercial Drink on Acceleration Tolerance and Cognitive Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examined the ability of a commercial energy drink to enhance acceleration tolerance, strength under G-load, and cognitive performance immediately prior to and following acceleration exposure. Eight experienced centrifuge subjects completed thre...

G. L. Warren J. Fischer T. B. Walker U. Balldin W. Storm

2009-01-01

372

Need for cognition, task difficulty, and the formation of performance expectancies.  

PubMed

In the present article, the authors analyze how performance expectancies are generated and how they affect actual performance. The authors predicted that task difficulty would affect performance expectancies only when cognitive motivation (i.e., need for cognition [NFC]) and cognitive capacity are high. This should be the case because analyzing task difficulty is a process requiring cognitive capacity as well as cognitive motivation. The findings supported the expected NFC x Difficulty interaction for the formation of performance expectancies (Study 1, Study 2), but only when cognitive capacity was high (Study 2). The authors also predicted that expectancies would affect actual performance only if the task is difficult and if task difficulty is taken into account when the expectancy is generated. This hypothesis was supported: Significant relations between performance expectancies and actual performance were found only for difficult tasks and for participants higher in NFC. Studies 5 and 6 showed clear evidence that the NFC x Difficulty interaction could not be explained by differences in the use of task-specific self-concepts. The findings were robust across academic, social, and physical tasks. PMID:19379036

Reinhard, Marc-André; Dickhäuser, Oliver

2009-05-01

373

TeLPI Performance in Subjects With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease: A Validation Study.  

PubMed

APA guidelines for the evaluation of age-related cognitive decline and dementia emphasize the need for baseline (premorbid) data against which current performance can be compared. As this information rarely exists, clinicians must rely on instruments especially designed for estimation of premorbid abilities. No such instrument was available in Portugal until the development of the TeLPI, an irregular words oral reading test. This study aims to examine TeLPI's validity as a measure of premorbid ability in the spectrum of aging cognitive decline, from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD), by the analysis of its stability in normal versus impaired samples. A total of 104 patients, classified into 2 clinical groups, MCI (n=53) and probable mild to moderate AD (n=51), were compared with a group of cognitively healthy controls (C_MCI: n=53; C_AD: n=51) and matched for sex, age, education, and residence. As expected, the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment results were significantly different between the groups (ADcognitive impairment. TeLPI median scores of controls, MCI, and probable AD patients were comparable after correcting for years of education, revealing no significant effect of cognitive impairment on TeLPI performance, and suggesting its validity for estimating premorbid intelligence in subjects with cognitive decline and dementia. PMID:23314065

Alves, Lara; Simões, Mário R; Martins, Cristina; Freitas, Sandra; Santana, Isabel

2013-01-14

374

Cognitive Performance in Rhesus Monkeys Varies by Sex and Prenatal Androgen Exposure  

PubMed Central

Men and women differ on performance and strategy on several spatial tasks. Rodents display similar sex differences, and manipulations of early hormone exposure alter the direction of these differences. However, most cognitive testing of nonhuman primates has utilized sample sizes too small to investigate sexually-differentiated behaviors. This study presents an investigation of sex differences and the effects of prenatal androgen on spatial memory and strategy use in rhesus monkeys. Monkeys prenatally exposed to vehicle, testosterone, or the androgen receptor blocker flutamide performed a search task in which 5 of 12 goal boxes contained food rewards. Spatial consistency and the presence of local landmarks were varied. Performance when both spatial and marker cues were available did not differ by sex or prenatal treatment. Contrary to predictions, females easily solved the task when local markers were removed, and their performance outscored males. Although eliminating spatial consistency and requiring subjects to use local markers impaired performance by all monkeys, females continued to locate correct goal boxes at higher than chance levels and scored better than males. Blocking prenatal androgen exposure in males improved use of local markers. These findings suggest that the tendency to attend to landmarks and to use them in solving spatial problems is typical of females across many species, including rodents, humans, and rhesus monkeys. In rhesus monkeys and rodents, developmental androgen eliminates this specialization. However, these results are the only known example of better performance of females than males when salient markers are removed.

Herman, Rebecca A.; Wallen, Kim

2007-01-01

375

Improvement in social-interpersonal functioning after cognitive therapy for recurrent depression  

PubMed Central

Background. Cognitive therapy reduces depressive symptoms of major depressive disorder, but little is known about concomitant reduction in social-interpersonal dysfunction. Method. We evaluated social-interpersonal functioning (self-reported social adjustment, interpersonal problems and dyadic adjustment) and depressive symptoms (two self-report and two clinician scales) in adult outpatients (n=156) with recurrent major depressive disorder at several points during a 20-session course of acute phase cognitive therapy. Consenting acute phase responders (n=84) entered a 2-year follow-up phase, which included an 8-month experimental trial comparing continuation phase cognitive therapy to assessment-only control. Results. Social-interpersonal functioning improved after acute phase cognitive therapy (dyadic adjustment d=0.47; interpersonal problems d=0.91; social adjustment d=1.19), but less so than depressive symptoms (d=1.55). Improvement in depressive symptoms and social-interpersonal functioning were moderately to highly correlated (r=0.39–0.72). Improvement in depressive symptoms was partly independent of social-interpersonal functioning (r=0.55–0.81), but improvement in social-interpersonal functioning independent of change in depressive symptoms was not significant (r=0.01–0.06). In acute phase responders, continuation phase therapy did not further enhance social-interpersonal functioning, but improvements in social-interpersonal functioning were maintained through the follow-up. Conclusions. Social-interpersonal functioning is improved after acute phase cognitive therapy and maintained in responders over 2 years. Improvement in social-interpersonal functioning is largely accounted for by decreases in depressive symptoms.

VITTENGL, J. R.; CLARK, L. A.; JARRETT, R. B.

2005-01-01

376

Using analogies to improve the teaching performance of preservice teachers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Prior research in both education and cognitive science has identified analogy making as a powerful tool for explanation as well as a fundamental mechanism for facilitating an individual's construction of knowledge. While a considerable body of research exists focusing on the role analogy plays in learning science concepts, relatively little is known about how instruction in the use of analogies might influence the teaching performance of preservice teachers. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between pedagogical analogy use and pedagogical reasoning ability in a sample of preservice elementary teachers (PTs), a group that has been identified for their particular difficulties in teaching science. The study utilized a treatment/contrast group design in which the treatment group was provided instruction that guided them in the generation of analogies to aid in the explanation phase of learning cycle lessons. A relationship between analogy use and positive indicants of teaching performance was observed and a case study of a low performing preservice teacher who drastically improved teaching performance using analogy-based pedagogy is presented. A notable effect on conceptual understanding of Newton's Third Law as a result of two brief analogy-based demonstration lessons was also observed.

James, Mark C.; Scharmann, Lawrence C.

2012-01-20

377

Children's Sleep and Cognitive Performance: A Cross-Domain Analysis of Change Over Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations between changes in children's cognitive performance and changes in sleep problems were examined over a 3-year period, and family socioeconomic status, child race\\/ethnicity, and gender were assessed as moderators of these associations. Participants were 250 second- and third-grade (8–9 years old at Time 1) boys and girls. At each assessment, children's cognitive performance (Verbal Comprehension, Decision Speed) was measured

Kristen L. Bub; Joseph A. Buckhalt; Mona El-Sheikh

2011-01-01

378

Effect of 30% Oxygen Administration on Verbal Cognitive Performance, Blood Oxygen Saturation and Heart Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of 30% oxygen administration on verbal cognitive performance, blood oxygen saturation, and heart rate. Five male (24.6(±0.9) years) and five female (22.2(±1.9) years) college students were selected as the subjects for this study. Two psychological tests were developed to measure the performance level of verbal cognition. The experiment consisted of two runs: one was a

Soon-Cheol Chung; Sunao Iwaki; Gye-Rae Tack; Jeong-Han Yi; Ji-Hye You; Ji-Hun Kwon

2006-01-01

379

A CAG repeat polymorphism of KCNN3 predicts SK3 channel function and cognitive performance in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

KCNN3, encoding the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel SK3, harbours a polymorphic CAG repeat in the amino-terminal coding region with yet unproven function. Hypothesizing that KCNN3 genotypes do not influence susceptibility to schizophrenia but modify its phenotype, we explored their contribution to specific schizophrenic symptoms. Using the Göttingen Research Association for Schizophrenia (GRAS) data collection of schizophrenic patients (n = 1074), we performed a phenotype-based genetic association study (PGAS) of KCNN3. We show that long CAG repeats in the schizophrenic sample are specifically associated with better performance in higher cognitive tasks, comprising the capacity to discriminate, select and execute (p < 0.0001). Long repeats reduce SK3 channel function, as we demonstrate by patch-clamping of transfected HEK293 cells. In contrast, modelling the opposite in mice, i.e. KCNN3 overexpression/channel hyperfunction, leads to selective deficits in higher brain functions comparable to those influenced by SK3 conductance in humans. To conclude, KCNN3 genotypes modify cognitive performance, shown here in a large sample of schizophrenic patients. Reduction of SK3 function may constitute a pharmacological target to improve cognition in schizophrenia and other conditions with cognitive impairment.

Grube, Sabrina; Gerchen, Martin F; Adamcio, Bartosz; Pardo, Luis A; Martin, Sabine; Malzahn, Dorthe; Papiol, Sergi; Begemann, Martin; Ribbe, Katja; Friedrichs, Heidi; Radyushkin, Konstantin A; Muller, Michael; Benseler, Fritz; Riggert, Joachim; Falkai, Peter; Bickeboller, Heike; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Brose, Nils; Stuhmer, Walter; Ehrenreich, Hannelore

2011-01-01

380

Advanced fenestration systems for improved daylight performance  

SciTech Connect

The use of daylight to replace or supplement electric lighting in commercial buildings can result in significant energy and demand savings. High performance fenestration systems area necessary, but not sufficient, element of any successful daylighting design that reduces lighting energy use. However, these savings may be reduced if the fenestration systems impose adverse thermal loads. In this paper, we review the state of the art of several advanced fenestration systems which are designed to maximize the energy-saving potential of daylighting, while improving comfort and visual performance at an "affordable" cost. We first review the key performance issues that successful fenestration systems must address, and then review several classes of fenestration systems intended to meet those performance needs. The systems are reviewed in two categories: static and dynamic. Static systems include not only glazings, such as spectrally-selective and holographic glazings, but specialized designs of light-shelves and light-pipes, while dynamic systems cover automatically-operated Venetian blinds and electrochromic glazings. We include a discussion of the research directions in this area, and how these efforts might lead to static and dynamic hardware and system solutions that fulfill the multiple roles that these systems must play in terms of energy efficiency, comfort, visual performance, health, and amenity in future buildings.

Lee, E.S.; Selkowitz, S.

1998-03-01

381

Fuzzy Cognitive Maps in Banking Business Process Performance Measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper addresses the problem of designing an “intelligent” decision support methodology tool to act as a back end to financial\\u000a planning. The methodology tool proposes a novel approach to supplementing typical financial strategy formulation projects\\u000a by utilizing the fuzzy causal characteristics of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) to generate a hierarchical and dynamic network\\u000a of interconnected profit and loss (P&L)

George Xirogiannis; Michael Glykas; Christos Staikouras

382

Alternative measures of cognitive complexity as predictors of communication performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies were conducted to compare the predictive validity of the two of the most popular measures of cognitive complexity: Bieri et al.'s (1966) grid-based measure (elicited and provided versions) and Crockett's (1965) Role Category Questionnaire (RCQ). Two other grid-based measures of construct system quality also were included. Criterion measures included indices of the accommodative, person-centered quality of communication behavior

James L. Applecate; Susan L. Kline; Jesse G. Delia

1991-01-01

383

Neuropsychological Performance in Mild Cognitive Impairment with and without Apathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the neuropsychological characteristics of patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) with and without apathy. Methods: A cohort of 245 MCI patients (mean age = 72 ± 5.5 years; mean MMSE = 27.5 ± 1.3) was divided into two subgroups according to their Apathy Inventory score and underwent an extensive neuropsychological battery. Results: There were 94 (38.4%)

Philippe H. Robert; Claudine Berr; Magali Volteau; Christelle Bertogliati; Michel Benoit; Florence Mahieux; Sylvie Legrain; Bruno Dubois

2006-01-01

384

Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Treatment is Associated with Improved Cognition in Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Endogenous Granulocyte Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (GMCSF) is released in rheumatoid arthritis patients, who are largely protected from Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Introducing exogenous GMCSF into an AD mouse model reduced amyloid deposition by 55% and restored normal cognition. No published studies have examined exogenous GMCSF and cognitive functioning in humans. Objectives/Design The goal of the current study was to examine the association between receipt of GMCSF and cognitive functioning in patients receiving colony stimulating factors as part of routine supportive care for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Setting and Participants Archived neuropsychological data were examined from a longitudinal study of cognitive functioning in 95 patients receiving HCT at the Moffitt Cancer Center. Intervention Receipt of GMCSF and/or Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (GCSF) was ascertained through patient billing records. Measurements Patients were assessed with a battery of neuropsychological tests prior to transplant and 6 and 12 months post-transplant. Results Patients treated with GMCSF and GCSF (n=19) showed significantly greater improvement in total neuropsychological functioning (TNP) at 6 months than patients treated with GCSF only (n=76) (p=.04). There was no group difference in TNP at 12 months (p=.24). Improvement in TNP from baseline to 6 months post-HCT was significant in the GMCSF+GCSF group (p=.01) but not the GCSF only group (p=.33). Improvement in TNP from baseline to 12 months post-HCT was significant in both groups (ps<.01). Conclusion Preliminary data from this study of humans receiving colony stimulating factors suggest that receipt of GMCSF+GCSF was associated with greater cognitive improvement than GCSF alone. Randomized controlled trials of the effects of GMCSF on cognitive functioning in humans are warranted and underway to confirm these findings.

Jim, Heather SL; Boyd, Tim D; Booth-Jones, Margaret; Pidala, Joseph; Potter, Huntington

2012-01-01

385

Teaching cognitive skills improves learning in surgical skills courses: a blinded, prospective, randomized study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the teaching of cognitive skills within a technical skills course, we carried out a blinded, randomized prospective study. Methods Twenty-one junior residents (postgraduate years 1– 3) from a single program at a surgical-skills training centre were randomized to 2 surgical skills courses teaching total knee arthroplasty. One course taught only technical skill and had more repetitions of the task (5 or 6). The other focused more on developing cognitive skills and had fewer task repetitions (3 or 4). All were tested with the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill (OSATS) both before and after the course, as well as a pre- and postcourse error-detection exam and a postcourse exam with multiple-choice questions (MCQs) to test their cognitive skills. Results Both groups' technical skills as assessed by OSATS were equivalent, both pre- and postcourse. Taking their courses improved the technical skills of both groups (OSATS, p < 0.01) over their pre-course scores. Both groups demonstrated equivalent levels of knowledge on the MCQ exam, but the cognitive group scored better on the error-detection test (p = 0.02). Conclusions Cognitive skills training enhances the ability to correctly execute a surgical skill. Furthermore, specific training and practice are required to develop procedural knowledge into appropriate cognitive skills. Surgeons need to be trained to judge the correctness of their actions.

Kohls-Gatzoulis, Julie A.; Regehr, Glenn; Hutchison, Carol

2004-01-01

386

Neural Basis for the Ability of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Cognitive impairments are considered to largely affect functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia, other psychotic illnesses, or mood disorders. Specifically, there is much attention to the role of psychotropic compounds acting on serotonin (5-HT) receptors in ameliorating cognitive deficits of schizophrenia. It is noteworthy that atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs), e.g., clozapine, melperone, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole, perospirone, blonanserin, and lurasidone, have variable affinities for these receptors. Among the 5-HT receptor subtypes, the 5-HT1A receptor is attracting particular interests as a potential target for enhancing cognition, based on preclinical and clinical evidence. The neural network underlying the ability of 5-HT1A agonists to treat cognitive impairments of schizophrenia likely includes dopamine, glutamate, and gamma-aminobutyric acid neurons. A novel strategy for cognitive enhancement in psychosis may be benefited by focusing on energy metabolism in the brain. In this context, lactate plays a major role, and has been shown to protect neurons against oxidative and other stressors. In particular, our data indicate chronic treatment with tandospirone, a partial 5-HT1A agonist, recover stress-induced lactate production in the prefrontal cortex of a rat model of schizophrenia. Recent advances of electrophysiological measures, e.g., event-related potentials, and their imaging have provided insights into facilitative effects on cognition of some AAPDs acting directly or indirectly on 5-HT1A receptors. These findings are expected to promote the development of novel therapeutics for the improvement of functional outcome in people with schizophrenia.

Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Higuchi, Yuko; Uehara, Takashi

2013-01-01

387

Improved language performance in Alzheimer disease following brain stimulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesRepetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been proposed as a possible treatment for the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer disease (AD). The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effects, on cognitive performance, of rTMS applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in AD patients.MethodsTen AD patients were randomly assigned to one of two study groups. Multiple-baseline

Maria Cotelli; Marco Calabria; Rosa Manenti; Sandra Rosini; Orazio Zanetti; Stefano F Cappa; Carlo Miniussi

2010-01-01

388

Sleep Deprivation Differentially Impairs Cognitive Performance in Abstinent Methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("Ecstasy") Users  

PubMed Central

Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; “Ecstasy”) is a popular recreational drug and brain serotonin (5-HT) neurotoxin. Neuroimaging data indicate that some human MDMA users develop persistent deficits in brain 5-HT neuronal markers. Although the consequences of MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity are not fully understood, abstinent MDMA users have been found to have subtle cognitive deficits and altered sleep architecture. The present study sought to test the hypothesis that sleep disturbance plays a role in cognitive deficits in MDMA users. Nineteen abstinent MDMA users and 21 control subjects participated in a 5 d inpatient study in a clinical research unit. Baseline sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory. Cognitive performance was tested three times daily using a computerized cognitive battery. On the third day of admission, subjects began a 40 h sleep deprivation period and continued cognitive testing using the same daily schedule. At baseline, MDMA users performed less accurately than controls on a task of working memory and more impulsively on four of the seven computerized tests. During sleep deprivation, MDMA users, but not controls, became increasingly impulsive, performing more rapidly at the expense of accuracy on tasks of working and short-term memory. Tests of mediation implicated baseline sleep disturbance in the cognitive decline seen during sleep deprivation. These findings are the first to demonstrate that memory problems in MDMA users may be related, at least in part, to sleep disturbance and suggest that cognitive deficits in MDMA users may become more prominent in situations associated with sleep deprivation.

McCann, Una D.; Wilson, Michael J.; Sgambati, Francis P.; Ricaurte, George A.

2011-01-01

389

Cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills in relation to cognition and academic performance in children - a review.  

PubMed

Different elements of physical fitness in children have shown a declining trend during the past few decades. Cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills have been associated with cognition, but the magnitude of this association remains unknown. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the relationship of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills with cognitive functions and academic performance in children up to 13 years of age. Cross-sectional studies suggest that children with higher cardiorespiratory fitness have more efficient cognitive processing at the neuroelectric level, as well as larger hippocampal and basal ganglia volumes, compared to children with lower cardiorespiratory fitness. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness has been associated with better inhibitory control in tasks requiring rigorous attention allocation. Better motor skills have been related to more efficient cognitive functions including inhibitory control and working memory. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness and better motor skills have also been associated with better academic performance. Furthermore, none of the studies on cardiorespiratory fitness have revealed independent associations with cognitive functions by controlling for motor skills. Studies concerning the relationship between motor skills and cognitive functions also did not consider cardiorespiratory fitness in the analyses. The results of this review suggest that high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills may be beneficial for cognitive development and academic performance but the evidence relies mainly on cross-sectional studies. PMID:23717355

Haapala, Eero A

2013-03-28

390

Improving the Quality of Facial Composites Using a Holistic Cognitive Interview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Witnesses to and victims of serious crime are normally asked to describe the appearance of a criminal suspect, using a Cognitive Interview (CI), and to construct a facial composite, a visual representation of the face. Research suggests that focusing on the global aspects of a face, as opposed to its facial features, facilitates recognition and improves composite quality; also, that

Charlie D. Frowd; Vicki Bruce; Ashley J. Smith; Peter J. B. Hancock

2008-01-01

391

Test of Improved Performance in TFTR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have studied three models responsible for improved energy confinement and enhanced fusion reactivity in TFTR. The relevant plasma parameters in these models are deuterium influx(J. D. Strachan, Nucl. Fus. 34, 1017 (1994)), beam fueling profile(H. K. Park and S.Sabbagh, Nucl. Fus. 37, 629 (1997)) and edge ion temperature(M. Kotschenreuther, et al, Phys. Plasmas 2, 2381 (1995)). In general, the performance improvement has been highly correlated with the reduction of the deuterium influx [reduction in edge density (?barn_e]. At the same time, the edge ion temperature is anti-correlated with the edge density (?barn_e) in TFTR. Note that the edge ion temperature and density peakedness (F_ne = n_e(0)/) are critical in the ITG model. The beam fueling profile shape factor (H_ne), strongly correlated with the plasma performance in TFTR, can be expressed as [~=F_neexp(-0.24barn_e)]. In this paper, we present an experimental plan which can isolate the effect of three important plasma parameters in each model in TFTR and discuss the impact on other tokamak.

Park, H.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Budny, R. V.; Bush, C.; Hahm, T. S.; Mansfield, D. K.; Skinner, C. H.; Yamada, M.

1997-11-01

392

The use of bayesian latent class cluster models to classify patterns of cognitive performance in healthy ageing.  

PubMed

The main focus of this study is to illustrate the applicability of latent class analysis in the assessment of cognitive performance profiles during ageing. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to detect main cognitive dimensions (based on the neurocognitive test variables) and Bayesian latent class analysis (LCA) models (without constraints) were used to explore patterns of cognitive performance among community-dwelling older individuals. Gender, age and number of school years were explored as variables. Three cognitive dimensions were identified: general cognition (MMSE), memory (MEM) and executive (EXEC) function. Based on these, three latent classes of cognitive performance profiles (LC1 to LC3) were identified among the older adults. These classes corresponded to stronger to weaker performance patterns (LC1>LC2>LC3) across all dimensions; each latent class denoted the same hierarchy in the proportion of males, age and number of school years. Bayesian LCA provided a powerful tool to explore cognitive typologies among healthy cognitive agers. PMID:23977183

Costa, Patrício Soares; Santos, Nadine Correia; Cunha, Pedro; Palha, Joana Almeida; Sousa, Nuno

2013-08-20

393

Cognitive performance in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: A longitudinal study in daily practice using a brief computerized cognitive battery  

PubMed Central

Background There is need for a cognitive test battery that can be easily used in clinical practice to detect or monitor cognitive performance in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). In order to conduct, in this patient group, a preliminary investigation of the validity and utility of a brief computerized battery, the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) battery, we longitudinally assessed cognition in patients with relapsing remitting (RR) MS. Methods Forty-three mildly disabled, clinically active RRMS patients were repeatedly assessed with the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and five composite scores derived from the CDR computerized cognitive test system (CDR System): Power of Attention, Continuity of Attention, Quality of Working Memory, Quality of Episodic Memory and Speed of Memory. The Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) measured disability. Results The composite scores from the CDR battery generally showed excellent test-retest reliability over the repeated assessments, though was low on occasions for the Quality of Working Memory and Quality of Episodic Memory measures. The CDR measures tended to be highly correlated with other measures of cognition (DSST and PASAT) and were also strongly related to disability (EDSS and MSFC). Baseline scores indicated large impairments to visual information processing speed and attention (DSST, Cohen's d 1.1; Power of Attention d 1.4 [reaction time on tasks of focussed and sustained attention]), and a moderate impairment both to sustained attention (Continuity of Attention d 0.6) and complex information processing speed (Speed of memory d 0.7 [reaction time on tasks of working and episodic Memory]), when compared to normative data derived from healthy volunteers enrolled in a series of separate, prior clinical trials. Working memory (Quality of Working Memory) and episodic memory (Quality of Episodic Memory) were unimpaired. Conclusions Preliminary validation of the CDR System indicated that for most, but not all measures psychometric properties were adequate and the measures were related to disability (EDSS and MSFC) and other measures of cognition.

2011-01-01

394

Improving Performance Efficiency in the Warfighter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of this project is to design novel compounds that selectively bind estrogen receptor beta ER(3) to alleviate fear and anxiety- related behaviors and enhance cognitive function ER(3) is a recently described member of the steroid/thyroid hormone re...

T. J. Wu

2007-01-01

395

A selective dopamine reuptake inhibitor improves prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive function: potential relevance to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.  

PubMed

Drugs used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) improve prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent cognitive function. The majority of ADHD-related treatments act either as dual norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) reuptake inhibitors (psychostimulants) or selective NE reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Certain benztropine analogs act as highly selective DA reuptake inhibitors while lacking the reinforcing actions, and thus abuse potential, of psychostimulants. To assess the potential use of these compounds in the treatment of ADHD, we examined the effects of a well-characterized benztropine analog, AHN 2-005, on performance of rats in a PFC-dependent delayed-alternation task of spatial working memory. Similar to that seen with all drugs currently approved for ADHD, AHN 2-005 dose-dependently improved performance in this task. Clinically-relevant doses of psychostimulants and SNRIs elevate NE and DA preferentially in the PFC. Despite the selectivity of this compound for the DA transporter, additional microdialysis studies demonstrated that a cognition-enhancing dose of AHN 2-005 that lacked locomotor activating effects increased extracellular levels of both DA and NE in the PFC. AHN 2-005 produced a larger increase in extracellular DA in the nucleus accumbens, although the magnitude of this was well below that seen with motor activating doses of psychostimulants. Collectively, these observations suggest that benztropine analogs may be efficacious in the treatment of ADHD or other disorders associated with PFC dysfunction. These studies provide a strong rationale for future research focused on the neural mechanisms contributing to the cognition-enhancing actions and the potential clinical utility of AHN 2-005 and related compounds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. PMID:22796428

Schmeichel, Brooke E; Zemlan, Frank P; Berridge, Craig W

2012-07-11

396

PIMM: A Performance Improvement Measurement Methodology  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a Performance Improvement Measurement Methodology (PIMM) for measuring and reporting the mission performance for organizational elements of the U.S. Department of Energy to comply with the Chief Financial Officer`s Act (CFOA) of 1990 and the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) of 1993. The PIMM is illustrated by application to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), a Research, Development and Demonstration (RD&D) field center of the Office of Fossil Energy, along with limited applications to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Office and the Office of Fossil Energy. METC is now implementing the first year of a pilot project under GPRA using the PIMM. The PIMM process is applicable to all elements of the Department; organizations may customize measurements to their specific missions. The PIMM has four aspects: (1) an achievement measurement that applies to any organizational element, (2) key indicators that apply to institutional elements, (3) a risk reduction measurement that applies to all RD&D elements and to elements with long-term activities leading to risk-associated outcomes, and (4) a cost performance evaluation. Key Indicators show how close the institution is to attaining long range goals. Risk reduction analysis is especially relevant to RD&D. Product risk is defined as the chance that the product of new technology will not meet the requirements of the customer. RD&D is conducted to reduce technology risks to acceptable levels. The PIMM provides a profile to track risk reduction as RD&D proceeds. Cost performance evaluations provide a measurement of the expected costs of outcomes relative to their actual costs.

Not Available

1994-05-15

397

Performance of a computer-based assessment of cognitive function measures in two cohorts of seniors.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Computer-administered assessment of cognitive function is being increasingly incorporated in clinical trials; however, its performance in these settings has not been systematically evaluated. DESIGN: The Seniors Health and Activity Research Program pilot trial (N?=?73) developed a computer-based tool for assessing memory performance and executive functioning. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders investigators incorporated this battery in a full-scale multicenter clinical trial (N?=?1635). We describe relationships that test scores have with those from interviewer-administered cognitive function tests and risk factors for cognitive deficits and describe performance measures (completeness, intraclass correlations [ICC]). RESULTS: Computer-based assessments of cognitive function had consistent relationships across the pilot and full-scale trial cohorts with interviewer-administered assessments of cognitive function, age, and a measure of physical function. In the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders cohort, their external validity was further demonstrated by associations with other risk factors for cognitive dysfunction: education, hypertension, diabetes, and physical function. Acceptable levels of data completeness (>83%) were achieved on all computer-based measures; however, rates of missing data were higher among older participants (odds ratio?=?1.06 for each additional year; p?cognitive measures loaded onto the first principal component (global cognitive function), which accounted for 40% of the overall variance. CONCLUSION: Our results support the use of computer-based tools for assessing cognitive function in multicenter clinical trials of older individuals. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23589390

Espeland, Mark A; Katula, Jeffrey A; Rushing, Julia; Kramer, Arthur F; Jennings, Janine M; Sink, Kaycee M; Nadkarni, Neelesh K; Reid, Kieran F; Castro, Cynthia M; Church, Timothy; Kerwin, Diana R; Williamson, Jeff D; Marottoli, Richard A; Rushing, Scott; Marsiske, Michael; Rapp, Stephen R

2013-04-16

398

Volleyball and Four-Dimensional Visual\\/Cognitive\\/Motor Symmetry: A Model for Performance Enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volleyball athlete, as a dynamic visual\\/cognitive\\/motor operating system (VCM), is capable of performing in several operating modes simultaneously. The operating mode of the athlete in a normal performance state is a serial VCM operating mode, while the peak performance state (also known as 'flow' or in 'the zone') of that same athlete is a parallel VCM operating mode. A

Scott Ford; William Hines; Darlene A. Kluka

399

Fuzzy cognitive map-based approach to evaluate EDI performance: a test of causal model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes the usage of fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) for the evaluation of electronic data interchange (EDI) performance. Although there has been a stream of research on the performance of EDI systems during the last decades, possible interrelationships among those individual factors of EDI performance have been largely ignored and thereby were not adequately examined.The main task of evaluation

Sangjae Lee; Byung Gon Kim; Kidong Lee

2004-01-01

400

Cognitive-behaviour therapy and skilled motor performance in adults with chronic tic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first aim of the present study was to compare performance of people with tic disorders (TD) and controls on executive function and a range of skilled motor tests requiring complex performance, guided movements, hand co-ordination, and fine control of steadiness. The second aim was to investigate the effect of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) on motor performance. A total of

Kieron P. Oconnor; Marc E. Lavoie; Emmanuel Stip; François Borgeat; Anick Laverdure

2008-01-01

401

Cognitive Ability, Emotional Intelligence, and the Big Five Personality Dimensions as Predictors of Criminal Investigator Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the extent to which cognitive ability, the Big Five factor personality dimensions, and emotional intelligence are related to training and job performance of U.S. federal criminal investigators. Training performance measures were collected during a 17-week training program. Job performance measures were collected 1 year after the investigators completed the training program. Conscientiousness was modestly related to training

Masakatsu Ono; Daniel A. Sachau; William P. Deal; David R. Englert; Michael D. Taylor

2011-01-01

402

Effects of physical workload on cognitive task performance and situation awareness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen participants performed a military operations simulation directing loading of helicopters to weight capacity within an allotted timeframe and subject to a set of decision rules. The participants stood, walked or jogged on a treadmill while performing the simulated cognitive task. Task performance was measured in terms of helicopter loading rate and accuracy. Situation awareness (SA) was measured using a

Carlene M. Perry; Mohamed A. Sheik-Nainar; Noa Segall; Ruiqi Ma; David B. Kaber

2008-01-01

403

Monitoring and predicting cognitive state and performance via physiological correlates of neuronal signals.  

PubMed

Judgment, decision making, and situational awareness are higher-order mental abilities critically important to operational cognitive performance. Higher-order mental abilities rely on intact functioning of multiple brain regions, including the prefrontal, thalamus, and parietal areas. Real-time monitoring of individuals for cognitive performance capacity via an approach based on sampling multiple neurophysiologic signals and integrating those signals with performance prediction models potentially provides a method of supporting warfighters' and commanders' decision making and other operationally relevant mental processes and is consistent with the goals of augmented cognition. Cognitive neurophysiological assessments that directly measure brain function and subsequent cognition include positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, mass spectroscopy, near-infrared spectroscopy, magnetoencephalography, and electroencephalography (EEG); however, most direct measures are not practical to use in operational environments. More practical, albeit indirect measures that are generated by, but removed from the actual neural sources, are movement activity, oculometrics, heart rate, and voice stress signals. The goal of the papers in this section is to describe advances in selected direct and indirect cognitive neurophysiologic monitoring techniques as applied for the ultimate purpose of preventing operational performance failures. These papers present data acquired in a wide variety of environments, including laboratory, simulator, and clinical arenas. The papers discuss cognitive neurophysiologic measures such as digital signal processing wrist-mounted actigraphy; oculometrics including blinks, saccadic eye movements, pupillary movements, the pupil light reflex; and high-frequency EEG. These neurophysiological indices are related to cognitive performance as measured through standard test batteries and simulators with conditions including sleep loss, time on task, and aviation flight-induced fatigue. PMID:16018331

Russo, Michael B; Stetz, Melba C; Thomas, Maria L

2005-07-01

404

A cognitive engineering approach to improving signalized left turn intersections.  

PubMed

This research evaluated the effect of providing advanced left turn information to individuals faced with deciding whether or not it is safe to turn at a signalized intersection. Younger (mean age 37 years) and older (mean age 71 years) drivers were tested in simulations of approaching an intersection with and without advanced cueing. Experiment 1 used a featureless background; Experiment 2 used an animated presentation of traffic control displays. In both experiments the subjects had to determine whether or not they had right-of-way to make a left turn. Exaggerated error rates and increased decision latencies for displays conveying unprotected turn status occurred in both studies. Cueing drivers with advanced notice of the decision rule through a redundant upstream posting of sign elements improved both accuracy and latency of younger and older drivers' decisions. PMID:1769675

Staplin, L; Fisk, A D

1991-10-01

405

Hypnotherapy and Test Anxiety: Two Cognitive-Behavioral Constructs. The Effects of Hypnosis in Reducing Test Anxiety and Improving Academic Achievement in College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-group randomized multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the effects of cognitive-behavioral hypnosis in reducing test anxiety and improving academic performance in comparison to a Hawthorne control group. Subjects were enrolled in a rigorous introductory psychology course which covered an entire text in one…

Sapp, Marty

406

The Influence of Genetic and Environmental Factors among MDMA Users in Cognitive Performance  

PubMed Central

This study is aimed to clarify the association between MDMA cumulative use and cognitive dysfunction, and the potential role of candidate genetic polymorphisms in explaining individual differences in the cognitive effects of MDMA. Gene polymorphisms related to reduced serotonin function, poor competency of executive control and memory consolidation systems, and high enzymatic activity linked to bioactivation of MDMA to neurotoxic metabolites may contribute to explain variations in the cognitive impact of MDMA across regular users of this drug. Sixty ecstasy polydrug users, 110 cannabis users and 93 non-drug users were assessed using cognitive measures of Verbal Memory (California Verbal Learning Test, CVLT), Visual Memory (Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test, ROCFT), Semantic Fluency, and Perceptual Attention (Symbol Digit Modalities Test, SDMT). Participants were also genotyped for polymorphisms within the 5HTT, 5HTR2A, COMT, CYP2D6, BDNF, and GRIN2B genes using polymerase chain reaction and TaqMan polymerase assays. Lifetime cumulative MDMA use was significantly associated with poorer performance on visuospatial memory and perceptual attention. Heavy MDMA users (>100 tablets lifetime use) interacted with candidate gene polymorphisms in explaining individual differences in cognitive performance between MDMA users and controls. MDMA users carrying COMT val/val and SERT s/s had poorer performance than paired controls on visuospatial attention and memory, and MDMA users with CYP2D6 ultra-rapid metabolizers performed worse than controls on semantic fluency. Both MDMA lifetime use and gene-related individual differences influence cognitive dysfunction in ecstasy users.

Cuyas, Elisabet; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio; Fagundo, Ana Beatriz; Khymenets, Olha; Rodriguez, Joan; Cuenca, Aida; de Sola Llopis, Susana; Langohr, Klaus; Pena-Casanova, Jordi; Torrens, Marta; Martin-Santos, Rocio; Farre, Magi; de la Torre, Rafael

2011-01-01

407

Ginger pharmacopuncture improves cognitive impairment and oxidative stress following cerebral ischemia.  

PubMed

Recent findings have demonstrated that acupuncture and ginger can each improve memory impairment following cerebral ischemia. We hypothesized that ginger pharmacopuncture, a combination of these two treatments, could increase the beneficial effects. Due to the limitation of supporting evidence, we aimed to determine whether ginger pharmacopuncture could improve cognitive function and oxidative stress following cerebral ischemia. Male Wistar rats were induced by right middle cerebral artery occlusion (Rt. MCAO) and subjected to either acupuncture or ginger pharmacopuncture once daily over a period of 14 days after Rt. MCAO. Cognitive function was determined every 7 days, using escape latency and retention time as indices, and the oxidative stress status of the rats was determined at the end of the study. Rats subjected either to acupuncture or to ginger pharmacopuncture at GV20 demonstrated enhanced spatial memory, and the activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase in both cerebral cortex and hippocampus were improved. Elevation of superoxide dismutase activity was observed only in the hippocampus. Cognitive enhancement was observed sooner with ginger pharmacopuncture than with acupuncture. The cognitive enhancing effect of acupuncture and ginger pharmacopuncture is likely to be at least partially attributable to decreased oxidative stress. However, other mechanisms may also be involved, and this requires further study. PMID:23265080

Jittiwat, Jinatta; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn

2012-09-27

408

A prediction model for cognitive performance in health ageing using diffusion tensor imaging with graph theory.  

PubMed

In this study, we employed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to construct brain structural network and then derive the connection matrices from 96 healthy elderly subjects. The correlation analysis between these topological properties of network based on graph theory and the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI) index were processed to extract the significant network characteristics. These characteristics were then integrated to estimate the models by various machine-learning algorithms to predict user's cognitive performance. From the results, linear regression model and Gaussian processes model showed presented better abilities with lower mean absolute errors of 5.8120 and 6.25 to predict the cognitive performance respectively. Moreover, these extracted topological properties of brain structural network derived from DTI also could be regarded as the bio-signatures for further evaluation of brain degeneration in healthy aged and early diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). PMID:24109740

Yun, Ruijuan; Lin, Chung-Chih; Wu, Shuicai; Huang, Chu-Chung; Lin, Ching-Po; Chao, Yi-Ping

2013-07-01

409

Expectancy effect: impact of pill administration on cognitive performance in healthy seniors.  

PubMed

Expectancy or placebo effects on cognitive function have not been well studied. To determine the effect of taking pills on cognitive function, 40 participants were randomly assigned to a pill or no-pill condition. Healthy seniors who took a 2-week supply of methylcellulose pills, which they were told was an experimental cognitive enhancer, were compared to seniors not taking any pills. There were 2 primary outcome measures defined prior to the study-Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) Word List delayed recall and Stroop color word task time-as well as 7 other cognitive outcome measures. There was a significant effect of pill taking on the 2 primary outcome measures. There was also an effect of pill taking on choice reaction time and Word List immediate recall but not on the other 5 secondary cognitive outcome measures. In an exploratory analysis of potential predictors of the expectancy effect, perceived stress and self-efficacy but not personality traits interacted with the pill-taking effect on cognitive function. Further characterizing and understanding this observed expectancy effect is important to maximize cognitive health and improve clinical trial design. PMID:18165936

Oken, Barry S; Flegal, Kristin; Zajdel, Daniel; Kishiyama, Shirley; Haas, Mitchell; Peters, Dawn

2007-12-12

410

Cerebral Malaria; Mechanisms Of Brain Injury And Strategies For Improved Neuro-Cognitive Outcome  

PubMed Central

Cerebral malaria is the most severe neurological complication of infection with Plasmodium falciparum. With over 575,000 cases annually, children in sub-Saharan Africa are the most affected. Surviving patients have an increased risk of neurological and cognitive deficits, behavioral difficulties and epilepsy making cerebral malaria a leading cause of childhood neuro-disability in the region. The pathogenesis of neuro-cognitive sequelae is poorly understood: coma develops through multiple mechanisms and there may be several mechanisms of brain injury. It is unclear how an intravascular parasite causes such brain injury. Understanding these mechanisms is important to develop appropriate neuro-protective interventions. This paper examines possible mechanisms of brain injury in cerebral malaria, relating this to the pathogenesis of the disease and explores prospects for improved neuro-cognitive outcome.

Idro, Richard; Marsh, Kevin; John, Chandy C; Newton, Charles RJ

2011-01-01

411

The Emerging Role of Cognitive Remediation Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Age-related cognitive declines can hinder older adults' ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living. As a result, this decline places an additional burden on formal and informal caregivers. Fortunately, based on the principles of cognitive reserve and neuroplasticity, cognitive remediation therapy shows promise in reducing the severity of such cognitive declines and improving everyday functioning. Incorporating such therapy into

David E. Vance

2009-01-01

412

Extreme overbalance perforating improves well performance  

SciTech Connect

The application of extreme overbalance perforating, by Oryx Energy Co., is consistently outperforming the unpredictable, tubing-conveyed, underbalance perforating method which is generally accepted as the industry standard. Successful results reported from more than 60 Oryx Energy wells, applying this technology, support this claim. Oryx began this project in 1990 to address the less-than-predictable performance of underbalanced perforating. The goal was to improve the initial completion efficiency, translating it into higher profits resulting from earlier product sales. This article presents the concept, mechanics, procedures, potential applications and results of perforating using overpressured well bores. The procedure can also be used in wells with existing perforations if an overpressured surge is used. This article highlights some of the case histories that have used these techniques.

Dees, J.M.; Handren, P.J. [Oryx Energy Co., Dallas, TX (United States)

1994-01-01

413

Mechanism of isoflavone aglycone's effect on cognitive performance of senescence-accelerated mice.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effect of isoflavone aglycone (IA) on the learning and memory performance of senescence-accelerated mice, and explored its neural protective mechanism. Results showed that SAM-P/8 senescence-accelerated mice treated with IA performed significantly better in the Y-maze cognitive test than the no treatment control (P<0.05). The cortex AchE activity, serum SOD and GSH-Px activities were notably higher (P<0.05). MDA concentration and the ?-secretase activity in the hippocampal tissue were both lower (P<0.05). Additionally, the number of hippocampal neurons was increased and cell morphology was significantly improved. Data suggested that IA could indirectly increase concentration of the cholinergic neural transmitter Ach through regulation of AchE, therefore improving the central cholinergic function and enhancing the learning and memory ability. By reducing the ?-secretase activity, IA could decrease the formation and deposition of insoluble Adebris, relieve the resulted toxicity and damage to neurons, and thereby effectively protect the nervous system. PMID:21463916

Yang, Hong; Jin, Guifang; Ren, Dongdong; Luo, Sijing; Zhou, Tianhong

2011-04-03

414

Soft Magnetic Materials for Improved Energy Performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A main focus of sustainable energy research has been development of renewable energy technologies (e.g. from wind, solar, hydro, geothermal, etc.) to decrease our dependence on non-renewable energy resources (e.g. fossil fuels). By focusing on renewable energy sources now, we hope to provide enough energy resources for future generations. In parallel with this focus, it is essential to develop technologies that improve the efficiency of energy production, distribution, and consumption, to get the most from these renewable resources. Soft magnetic materials play a central role in power generation, conditioning, and conversion technologies and therefore promoting improvements in the efficiency of these materials is essential for our future energy needs. The losses generated by the magnetic core materials by hysteretic, acoustic, and/or eddy currents have a great impact on efficiency. A survey of soft magnetic materials for energy applications will be discussed with a focus on improvement in performance using novel soft magnetic materials designed for these power applications. A group of premiere soft magnetic materials -- nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys -- will be highlighted for their potential in addressing energy efficiency. These materials are made up of nanocrystalline magnetic transition metal-rich grains embedded within an intergranular amorphous matrix, obtained by partial devitrification of melt-spun amorphous ribbons. The nanoscale grain size results in a desirable combination of large saturation induction, low coercivity, and moderate resistivity unobtainable in conventional soft magnetic alloys. The random distribution of these fine grains causes a reduction in the net magnetocrystalline anisotropy, contributing to the excellent magnetic properties. Recently developed (Fe,Co,Ni)88Zr7B4Cu1 alloys will be discussed with a focus on the microstructure/magnetic property relationship and their effects on the energy efficiency of these materials for AC applications.

Willard, Matthew

2012-02-01

415

Poor performance on cognitive tasks in depression: Doing too much or not enough?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depressed people perform poorly on cognitive tasks. It is unclear whether these deficits are due to decreased devotion of\\u000a task-related resources or to increased attention to non-task-related information. In the present study, we examined the degree\\u000a to which depressed and healthy adults displayed pupillary motility that varied at the frequency of presented stimuli on a\\u000a cognitive task, which we interpreted

Neil P. Jones; Greg J. Siegle; Emilie R. Muelly; Agnes Haggerty; Frank Ghinassi

2010-01-01

416

Cognitive complaints in closed-head injury: Relationship to memory test performance and emotional disturbance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-appraisal of cognitive difficulties by a sample of 63 male patients with closed-head injury (CHI) was examined in relation to their performance on the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R; Wechsler, 1987), WA1S-R Digit Span (Wechsler, 1981), and to their scores on MMP1–2 (Butcher, Dahlstrom, Graham, Tellegen, & Kaemmer, 1989) measures of anxiety and depression. In an initial step, the Cognitive Difficulties

Carlton S. Gass; Christine Apple

1997-01-01

417

Posttraining androgens’ enhancement of cognitive performance is temporally distinct from androgens’ increases in affective behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Steroid hormone-induced variations in spatial learning and memory tasks have been reported. In this study, androgens’ effects\\u000a in various cognitive and affective tasks were investigated in order to determine whether any observed differences in cognitive\\u000a performance could be due to affective changes produced by the hormones. Ovariectomized rats (N = 72) received 0.0, 3.0, or 7.5 mg\\/kg subcutaneously, of testosterone

Cheryl A. Frye; Elizabeth H. Lacey

2001-01-01

418

The impact of thought self-leadership on individual goal performance : A cognitive perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to apply an existing self-leadership theory to goal-setting theory in order to propose a mechanism to enhance the effectiveness of individual goal performance. An integral part of self-leadership is the concept of thought self-leadership (TSL). This perspective suggests that individuals can influence themselves by utilizing specific cognitive strategies. This article develops a cognitive explanation

Jeffrey L. Godwin; Christopher P. Neck; Jeffery D. Houghton

1999-01-01

419

Activities, Self-Referent Memory Beliefs, and Cognitive Performance: Evidence for Direct and Mediated Relations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the authors investigated the role of activities and self-referent memory beliefs for cognitive performance in a life-span sample. A factor analysis identified 8 activity factors, including Developmental Activities, Experiential Activities, Social Activities, Physical Activities, Technology Use, Watching Television, Games, and Crafts. A second-order general activity factor was significantly related to a general factor of cognitive function as

Daniela Jopp; Christopher Hertzog

2007-01-01

420

Sex-sensitive cognitive performance in untreated patients with early onset gender identity disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. We explored whether the cognitive performance of gender identity disorder patients (GID) was comparable to that of their biological sex or skewed towards that of their gender identity.Method. We tested four potentially sex-sensitive cognitive factors (rotation, visualization, perception, and verbalization) as well as two neutral factors (logic and arithmetic) in GID patients from Norway (GID-N, n=33) or the USA

I. R. Haraldsen; S. Opjordsmoen; T. Egeland; A. Finset

2003-01-01

421

Effectiveness of the ISAAC cognitive prosthetic system for improving rehabilitation outcomes with neurofunctional impairment.  

PubMed

Cognitive rehabilitation has the capacity to empower persons with brain-injuries and help them achieve heightened functional, personal, and social interactions within their environments. Interventions aimed at compensation for deficits and adaptation to cognitive disability can be aided through the use of assistive technology devices (ATD's). ATDs allow for their users to experience greater levels of independence, as well as social and vocational participation, which leads to a higher quality of life. The ISAAC system is a small, individualized, wearable cognitive prosthetic assistive technology system. Being fully individualized and very easy to use makes this system adaptable to, and appropriate for, patients with a wide variety of cognitive disabilities ranging from individuals with developmental disabilities to high functioning survivors of brain injury. The current article will discuss two cases that illustrate the effectiveness of the ISAAC system in assisting patients with generalization of rehabilitation to their home environments. Both patients incurred significant cognitive impairment, for which they were able to successfully compensate with the assistance of their ISAAC systems. These two case studies are typical examples of the functional independence that can be achieved through the use of the ISAAC system. When patients are properly selected for use of this system, appropriate content is authored, and sufficient training on the system is provided, the ISAAC system can prove very effective at improving patients' functional independence. PMID:12719621

Gorman, Patrick; Dayle, Randy; Hood, Carrie-Ann; Rumrell, Linda

2003-01-01

422

Tartary buckwheat improves cognition and memory function in an in vivo amyloid-?-induced Alzheimer model.  

PubMed

Protective effects of Tartary buckwheat (TB) and common buckwheat (CB) on amyloid beta (A?)-induced impairment of cognition and memory function were investigated in vivo in order to identify potential therapeutic agents against Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its associated progressive memory deficits, cognitive impairment, and personality changes. An in vivo mouse model of AD was created by injecting the brains of ICR mice with A?(25-35), a fragment of the full-length A? protein. Damage of mice recognition ability through following A?(25-35) brain injections was confirmed using the T-maze test, the object recognition test, and the Morris water maze test. Results of behavior tests in AD model showed that oral administration of the methanol (MeOH) extracts of TB and CB improved cognition and memory function following A?(25-35) injections. Furthermore, in groups receiving the MeOH extracts of TB and CB, lipid peroxidation was significantly inhibited, and nitric oxide levels in tissue, which are elevated by injection of A?(25-35), were also decrease. In particular, the MeOH extract of TB exerted a stronger protective activity than CB against A?(25-35)-induced memory and cognition impairment. The results indicate that TB may play a promising role in preventing or reversing memory and cognition loss associated with A?(25-35)-induced AD. PMID:23219778

Choi, Ji Yeon; Cho, Eun Ju; Lee, Hae Song; Lee, Jeong Min; Yoon, Young-Ho; Lee, Sanghyun

2012-11-28

423

Does Methylphenidate Improve Inhibition and Other Cognitive Abilities in Adults with Childhood-Onset ADHD?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of methylphenidate (Mph) on inhibition and several other cognitive abilities in 43 adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by use of Conners’ Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and the Change Task (ChT), an extension of the Stop Signal Test (SST). In a double blind, cross-over, placebo controlled study with Mph, tests were administered during the third

A. Marije Boonstra; J. J. Sandra Kooij; Jaap Oosterlaan; Joseph A. Sergeant; Jan K. Buitelaar

2005-01-01

424

Aerobic Fitness and Response Variability in Preadolescent Children Performing a Cognitive Control Task  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and cognitive variability in preadolescent children. METHOD Forty-eight preadolescent children (25 males, 23 females, mean age = 10.1 years) were grouped into higher- and lower-fit groups according to their performance on a test of aerobic capacity (VO2max). Cognitive function was measured via behavioral responses to a modified flanker task. The distribution in reaction time was calculated within each participant to assess intra-individual variability of performance. Specifically, the standard deviation and coefficient variation of reaction time were used to represent cognitive variability. RESULTS Preadolescent children, regardless of fitness, exhibited longer reaction time, increased response variability, and decreased response accuracy to incongruent compared to congruent trials. Further, higher-fit children were less variable in their response time and more accurate in their responses across conditions of the flanker task, while no group differences were observed for response speed. CONCLUSION These findings suggest that fitness is associated with better cognitive performance during a task that varies cognitive control demands, and extends this area of research to suggest that intra-individual variability may be a useful measure to examine the relationship between fitness and cognition during preadolescence.

Wu, Chien-Ting; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Raine, Lauren B.; Chaddock, Laura; Voss, Michelle W.; Kramer, Arthur F.; Hillman, Charles H.

2010-01-01

425

Scaling in cognitive performance reflects multiplicative multifractal cascade dynamics  

PubMed Central

Self-organized criticality purports to build multi-scaled structures out of local interactions. Evidence of scaling in various domains of biology may be more generally understood to reflect multiplicative interactions weaving together many disparate scales. The self-similarity of power-law scaling entails homogeneity: fluctuations distribute themselves similarly across many spatial and temporal scales. However, this apparent homogeneity can be misleading, especially as it spans more scales. Reducing biological processes to one power-law relationship neglects rich cascade dynamics. We review recent research into multifractality in executive-function cognitive tasks and propose that scaling reflects not criticality but instead interactions across multiple scales and among fluctuations of multiple sizes.

Stephen, Damian G.; Anastas, Jason R.; Dixon, James A.

2012-01-01

426

Improved antisaccade performance with risperidone in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Objective: Antisaccade errors are consistently increased in schizophrenia. As they have been demonstrated only in cross sectional studies, it is unclear how they vary longitudinally or with different medications. In a previous cross sectional study, we reported a trend towards a reduction in error rates in a patient group treated with risperidone, compared with clozapine and sulpiride treated groups. Methods: Gap random and antisaccade paradigms were performed on two occasions in the same sample of DSM-IV schizophrenic patients (n=12) in transition between conventional antipsychotic drugs and risperidone. A cross over design was used with six patients switching from risperidone to conventional (group I) and six in the opposite direction (group II). A control sample (n=12) was also tested on two occasions and their performance compared. The effects of practice between first and second testing and of switching between conventional antipsychotic drugs and risperidone and vice versa was also evaluated. Results: A significant reduction in error rate was demonstrated during risperidone treatment (n=12), compared with conventional APD treatment. Switching from conventional to risperidone produced a reduction in errors, and vice versa. Conclusions: Treatment with risperidone was associated with improvement in antisaccade errors.

Burke, J; Reveley, M

2002-01-01

427

Improving MEG performance with additional tangential sensors.  

PubMed

Recently, the signal space separation (SSS) method, based on the multipole expansion of the magnetic field, has become increasingly important in magnetoencephalography (MEG). Theoretical arguments and simulations suggest that increasing the asymmetry of the MEG sensor array from the traditional, rather symmetric geometry can significantly improve the performance of the method. To test this concept, we first simulated addition of tangentially oriented standard sensor elements to the existing 306-channel Elekta Neuromag sensor array, and evaluated and optimized the performance of the new sensor configuration. Based on the simulation results, we then constructed a prototype device with 18 additional tangential triple-sensor elements and a total of 360 channels. The experimental results from the prototype are largely in agreement with the simulations. In application of the spatial SSS method, the 360-channel device shows an approximately 100% increase in software shielding capability, while residual reconstruction noise of evoked responses is decreased by 20%. Further, the new device eliminates the need for regularization while applying the SSS method. In conclusion, we have demonstrated in practice the benefit of reducing the symmetry of the MEG array, without the need for a complete redesign. PMID:23649129

Nurminen, Jussi; Taulu, Samu; Nenonen, Jukka; Helle, Liisa; Simola, Juha; Ahonen, Antti

2013-04-29

428

Improved multimodal biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment diagnosis: data from ADNI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) confers many clinical research and patient care benefits. Studies have shown that multimodal biomarkers provide better diagnosis accuracy of AD and MCI than unimodal biomarkers, but their construction has been based on traditional statistical approaches. The objective of this work was the creation of accurate AD and MCI diagnostic multimodal biomarkers using advanced bioinformatics tools. The biomarkers were created by exploring multimodal combinations of features using machine learning techniques. Data was obtained from the ADNI database. The baseline information (e.g. MRI analyses, PET analyses and laboratory essays) from AD, MCI and healthy control (HC) subjects with available diagnosis up to June 2012 was mined for case/controls candidates. The data mining yielded 47 HC, 83 MCI and 43 AD subjects for biomarker creation. Each subject was characterized by at least 980 ADNI features. A genetic algorithm feature selection strategy was used to obtain compact and accurate cross-validated nearest centroid biomarkers. The biomarkers achieved training classification accuracies of 0.983, 0.871 and 0.917 for HC vs. AD, HC vs. MCI and MCI vs. AD respectively. The constructed biomarkers were relatively compact: from 5 to 11 features. Those multimodal biomarkers included several widely accepted univariate biomarkers and novel image and biochemical features. Multimodal biomarkers constructed from previously and non-previously AD associated features showed improved diagnostic performance when compared to those based solely on previously AD associated features.

Martinez-Torteya, Antonio; Treviño-Alvarado, Víctor; Tamez-Peña, José

2013-02-01

429

Cognitive Improvement Following Treatment in Late Life Depression: Relationship to Vascular Risk and Age of Onset  

PubMed Central

Objectives To test the hypothesis that the degree vascular burden and/or age of onset may influence the degree to which cognition can improve during the course of treatment in late life depression. Design Measurement of cognition both prior to and following 12-weeks of treatment with Sertraline. Setting University Medical Centers (Washington University and Duke University) Participants 166 individuals with late life depression. Intervention Sertraline treatment. Measurements The cognitive tasks were grouped into five domains (language, processing speed, working memory, episodic memory, and executive function). We measured vascular risk using the Framingham Stroke Risk Profile measure. We measured T2 based white matter hyperintensities using the Fazekas criteria. Results Both episodic memory and executive function demonstrated significant improvement among adults with late life depression during treatment with sertraline. Importantly, older age, higher vascular risk scores, and lower baseline Mini-Mental state exam scores predicted less change in working memory. Further, older age, later age of onset, and higher vascular risk scores predicted less change in executive function. Conclusions These results have important clinical implications, in that they suggest that a regular assessment of vascular risk in older adults with depression is necessary as a component of treatment planning and in predicting prognosis, both for the course of the depression itself and for the cognitive impairments that often accompany depression in later life.

Barch, Deanna M.; D'Angelo, Gina; Pieper, Carl; Wilkins, Consuelo H.; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen; Taylor, Warren; Garcia, Keith S.; Gersing, Kenneth; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Sheline, Yvette I.

2012-01-01

430

Accountability and need for cognition effects on contrast, halo, and accuracy in performance ratings.  

PubMed

In the present study, the authors investigated the effects of accountability and need for cognition on contrast errors, halo, and accuracy of performance ratings examined in good and poor performance context conditions, as well as in a context-free control condition. The accountability manipulation reduced the contrast effect and also modified rater recall of good ratee behavior. Accountability reduced halo in ratings and increased rating accuracy in a poor performance context. Accountability also interacted with need for cognition in predicting individual rater halo. PMID:15844760

Palmer, Jerry K; Feldman, Jack M

2005-03-01

431

A comparison of the CogState Schizophrenia Battery and the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Battery in assessing cognitive impairment in chronic schizophrenia.  

PubMed

This study examined the criterion and construct validity of a brief computerized cognitive test battery (CogState Schizophrenia Battery) compared to a conventional cognitive test battery recommended by the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) consensus. The CogState and MATRICS batteries yielded comparable effect sizes in comparing patients with schizophrenia to healthy controls (Cohen's ds = -1.50 for both batteries). Moderate to large correlations were observed between CogState and MATRICS measures of processing speed, attention/vigilance, working memory, verbal and visual learning, reasoning/problem solving, and social cognition (rs = .56-.79). CogState and MATRICS composite scores also correlated strongly with scores on the University of California at San Diego (UCSD) Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA; rs = .76 and .79, respectively) in patients with schizophrenia. Results of this study suggest that the CogState Schizophrenia Battery provides valid measurement of the cognitive domains nominated by the MATRICS consensus group as being important to consider in the context of pharmacological treatments for cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. PMID:19142774

Pietrzak, Robert H; Olver, James; Norman, Trevor; Piskulic, Danijela; Maruff, Paul; Snyder, Peter J

2009-01-14