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Sample records for improve cognitive performance

  1. Preschoolers' Cognitive Performance Improves Following Massage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Sybil; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Lundy, Brenda

    1998-01-01

    Effects of massage on preschoolers' cognitive performance were assessed. Preschoolers were given Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised subtests before and after receiving 15-minute massage or spending 15 minutes reading stories with the experimenter. Children's performance on Block Design improved following massage, and…

  2. A diet based on multiple functional concepts improves cognitive performance in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Disorders such as the metabolic syndrome (MetS), impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes, are associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Also several of the individual key features that define the MetS, e.g. hypertension, impaired glucose regulation, dyslipidemia, obesity, and inflammation, are related to an increased risk of cognitive decline. Consequently, a diet that prevents metabolic disorders might be expected to prevent cognitive decline. The purpose of the present study was to, in overweight but otherwise healthy subjects, investigate effects on cognitive functions of a dietary regime combining multiple functional concepts potentially beneficial to risk markers associated with MetS. The purpose was in addition to evaluate cognitive performance in relation to results on cardiometabolic risk variables (BMI, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, lipoprotein A-1 and B, hs-CRP, HbA1c, interleukin-6, TNF-?, and PAI-1). Methods Fourty-four healthy women and men (50–73 years, BMI 25–33, fasting glycemia???6.1 mmol/L) participated in a randomized, controlled crossover intervention, comparing a multifunctional diet (active diet (AD)) including foods with a potential anti-inflammatory action, with a control diet (CD) devoid of the “active” components. Both diets were composed in close agreement with the Nordic dietary recommendations. Each diet was consumed during 4 wk, separated by a 4 wk washout period. Cognitive tests were performed at fasting and in the postprandial period after a standardized breakfast, after each diet period. Results In comparison with the CD, the AD improved performance in the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning test (recognition test, p?improved performance in test of selective attention, which also included aspects of working memory (p?Performance in cognitive tests was inversely associated with plasma concentrations of cardiometabolic risk markers (fasting cholesterol, blood glucose, blood pressure) and cardiovascular risk scores (Framingham and Reynols), and positivly associated with apolipoprotein A1 (p?cognitive performance. A relationship seems to exist between cardiometabolic risk markers and cognitive performance in apparently healthy subjects. The results provide additional motives for diet based prevention of metabolic disturbances related to the MetS. PMID:23855966

  3. A physical education trial improves adolescents' cognitive performance and academic achievement: the EDUFIT study.

    PubMed

    Ardoy, D N; Fernández-Rodríguez, J M; Jiménez-Pavón, D; Castillo, R; Ruiz, J R; Ortega, F B

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the effects of an intervention focused on increasing the time and intensity of Physical Education (PE), on adolescents' cognitive performance and academic achievement. A 4-month group-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 67 adolescents from South-East Spain, 2007. Three classes were randomly allocated into control group (CG), experimental group 1 (EG1) and experimental group 2 (EG2). CG received usual PE (two sessions/week), EG1 received four PE sessions/week and EG2 received four PE sessions/week of high intensity. Cognitive performance (non-verbal and verbal ability, abstract reasoning, spatial ability, verbal reasoning and numerical ability) was assessed by the Spanish Overall and Factorial Intelligence Test, and academic achievement by school grades. All the cognitive performance variables, except verbal reasoning, increased more in EG2 than in CG (all P?improved more than EG1, without differences between EG1 and CG. Increased PE can benefit cognitive performance and academic achievement. This study contributes to the current knowledge by suggesting that the intensity of PE sessions might play a role in the positive effect of physical activity on cognition and academic success. Future studies involving larger sample sizes should confirm or contrast these preliminary findings. PMID:23826633

  4. Music Lessons Improve Auditory Perceptual and Cognitive Performance in Deaf Children

    PubMed Central

    Rochette, Françoise; Moussard, Aline; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Despite advanced technologies in auditory rehabilitation of profound deafness, deaf children often exhibit delayed cognitive and linguistic development and auditory training remains a crucial element of their education. In the present cross-sectional study, we assess whether music would be a relevant tool for deaf children rehabilitation. In normal-hearing children, music lessons have been shown to improve cognitive and linguistic-related abilities, such as phonetic discrimination and reading. We compared auditory perception, auditory cognition, and phonetic discrimination between 14 profoundly deaf children who completed weekly music lessons for a period of 1.5–4?years and 14 deaf children who did not receive musical instruction. Children were assessed on perceptual and cognitive auditory tasks using environmental sounds: discrimination, identification, auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory. Transfer to the linguistic domain was tested with a phonetic discrimination task. Musically trained children showed better performance in auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory and phonetic discrimination tasks, and multiple regressions showed that success on these tasks was at least partly driven by music lessons. We propose that musical education contributes to development of general processes such as auditory attention and perception, which, in turn, facilitate auditory-related cognitive and linguistic processes. PMID:25071518

  5. Music lessons improve auditory perceptual and cognitive performance in deaf children.

    PubMed

    Rochette, Françoise; Moussard, Aline; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Despite advanced technologies in auditory rehabilitation of profound deafness, deaf children often exhibit delayed cognitive and linguistic development and auditory training remains a crucial element of their education. In the present cross-sectional study, we assess whether music would be a relevant tool for deaf children rehabilitation. In normal-hearing children, music lessons have been shown to improve cognitive and linguistic-related abilities, such as phonetic discrimination and reading. We compared auditory perception, auditory cognition, and phonetic discrimination between 14 profoundly deaf children who completed weekly music lessons for a period of 1.5-4?years and 14 deaf children who did not receive musical instruction. Children were assessed on perceptual and cognitive auditory tasks using environmental sounds: discrimination, identification, auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory. Transfer to the linguistic domain was tested with a phonetic discrimination task. Musically trained children showed better performance in auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory and phonetic discrimination tasks, and multiple regressions showed that success on these tasks was at least partly driven by music lessons. We propose that musical education contributes to development of general processes such as auditory attention and perception, which, in turn, facilitate auditory-related cognitive and linguistic processes. PMID:25071518

  6. Cognitive Performance and Cognitive Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Behavioral Development, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Investigates (1) the relationships between cognitive performance and cognitive styles and predictive possibilities and (2) performance differences by sex, school, grade, and income in 92 Indian adolescents. Assessment measures included Liquid Conservation, Islands, Goat-Lion, Hanoi-Tower, Rabbits (Piagetian); Block Design (WISC-R); Paper Cutting…

  7. Does donepezil improve visual stimuli detection and perceptivo-cognitive performance of heathy young adults ?

    PubMed

    Chamoun, Mira; Huppé-Gourgues, Frédéric; Legault, Isabelle; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Faubert, Jocelyn; Vaucher, Elvire

    2015-09-01

    Donepezil enhances the cholinergic synaptic transmission in the brain by inhibiting the enzyme that metabolizes acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft, thereby prolonging the action of this neurotransmitter. It has been demonstrated that chronic administration of donepezil increases perceptual learning. Our study examines the effect of acute administration of donepezil on first and second order visual stimuli detection on one hand and on perceptual-cognitive performance on the other hand. A double-blind, placebo controlled design was used to evaluate the effect of cholinergic enhancement - donepezil administration (5 mg, given per os) - on visual attention using two different attention tasks. 10 young healthy adults were enrolled in each group. The task was performed 3 hours after the donepezil (or placebo) intake to synchronize with the peak plasma concentration of the drug. We started by testing the first and second order visual detection for motion and direction using the Neurominder task (Habak & Faubert, 2000) before and after taking donepezil. Motion and direction identification thresholds for the first order and second order visual detection were identical before and after donepezil intake. The multifocal attention of the participant was tested by the multiple object tracking task (Legault and Faubert, 2012). During this perceptual-cognitive task, the observer is required to simultaneously track multiple moving items among distracters in a dynamic virtual reality environment. The task is repeated once a week during 5 weeks to test the effect of learning. The speed thresholds in the MOT task increased significantly in each session in the same range for both donepezil and control groups. Our results suggest that an acute 5mg dose of donepezil might not be sufficient to elicit perceptual-cognitive or visual detection performance improvement when given to healthy young subjects. Additional studies are needed to better define the involvement of acetylcholine enhancement on perceptual learning/attentional tasks. Meeting abstract presented at VSS 2015. PMID:26326821

  8. Some strategies to improve performance in school chemistry, based on two cognitive factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danili, Eleni; Reid, Norman

    2004-02-01

    The background to this study are the difficulties facing the majority of Greek pupils in understanding chemistry concepts and, therefore, performing well in the National Examinations. The aim was to explore the problems and to suggest ways in which the situation might be improved. Working with 105 Greek pupils aged 15 to 16, the first stage of the enquiry confirmed that both working memory space and extent of field dependency were two psychological factors affecting performance. This is at least part of the nature of the problem. In the second stage, an attempt was made to explore how the problems might be reduced. New teaching materials were constructed to minimize any limitations to learning caused by working memory space and problems associated with being field dependent. The use of the new materials was compared to the normal teaching process working with 210 Greek pupils aged 15 to16. It was found that there was a significant difference in the average improvement of the experimental group and the control group, in favour of the experimental group. This result was independent of the effect of the teacher, and of the interaction of teaching method and teacher. It is suggested that approaches to learning must take into account cognitive factors in the learners in the context of information processing understandings of learning. If this is done, learning is much more effective.

  9. Carbohydrate intake improves cognitive performance of stress-prone individuals under controllable laboratory stress.

    PubMed

    Markus, C R; Panhuysen, G; Jonkman, L M; Bachman, M

    1999-12-01

    Cognitive performance has been found to decline after exposure to stress, particularly in stress-prone subjects. The present study investigated whether a carbohydrate-rich, protein-poor (CR/PP) diet, which may enhance cerebral serotonin function in stress-prone subjects due to increases in the available tryptophan, improves the performance of stress-prone subjects after exposure to acute laboratory stress. Twenty-two high-stress-prone (HS) subjects and twenty-one low-stress-prone (LS) subjects aged between 19 and 26 years performed a memory scanning task after controllable and uncontrollable stress, following either a CR/PP diet or a protein-rich, carbohydrate-poor (PR/CP) isoenergetic diet. Uncontrollable stress reduced feelings of control (F(1,38) 9.30; P = 0.004), whereas pulse rate and skin conductance increased after both stress tasks (F(1,38) 78.34; P = 0.0005 and F(1,37) 83.16; P = 0.0004). Diet, stress-proneness and stress-controllability interacted (F(1,36) 9.46; P = 0.004) in such a way that performance in HS subjects was better with the CR/PP diet than with the PR/CP diet, but only after controllable stress. As the CR/PP diet has been found to increase the plasma tryptophan:large neutral amino acids ratio, indicating an increased availability of cerebral tryptophan and, thus, higher serotonin levels, it appears that there may be an increased availability of brain serotonin in HS subjects after controllable laboratory stress. PMID:10690161

  10. Delayed, post-injury treatment with aniracetam improves cognitive performance after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Baranova, Anna I; Whiting, Mark D; Hamm, Robert J

    2006-08-01

    Chronic cognitive impairment is an enduring aspect of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in both humans and animals. Treating cognitive impairment in the post-traumatic stages of injury often involves the delivery of pharmacologic agents aimed at specific neurotransmitter systems. The current investigation examined the effects of the nootropoic drug aniracetam on cognitive recovery following TBI in rats. Three experiments were performed to determine (1) the optimal dose of aniracetam for treating cognitive impairment, (2) the effect of delaying drug treatment for a period of days following TBI, and (3) the effect of terminating drug treatment before cognitive assessment. In experiment 1, rats were administered moderate fluid percussion injury and treated with vehicle, 25, or 50 mg/kg aniracetam for 15 days. Both doses of aniracetam effectively reduced injury-induced deficits in the Morris water maze (MWM) as measured on postinjury days 11-15. In experiment 2, injured rats were treated with 50 mg/kg aniracetam or vehicle beginning on day 11 postinjury and continuing for 15 days. MWM performance, assessed on days 26-30, indicates that aniracetam-treated animals performed as well as sham-injured controls. In experiment 3, animals were injured and treated with aniracetam for 15 days. Drug treatment was terminated during MWM testing on postinjury days 16-20. In this experiment, aniracetam-treated rats did not perform better than vehicle-treated rats. The results of these experiments indicate that aniracetam is an effective treatment for cognitive impairment induced by TBI, even when treatment is delayed for a period of days following injury. PMID:16928181

  11. ?-alanine supplementation improves tactical performance but not cognitive function in combat soldiers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are no known studies that have examined ?-alanine supplementation in military personnel. Considering the physiological and potential neurological effects that have been reported during sustained military operations, it appears that ?-alanine supplementation may have a potential benefit in maintaining physical and cognitive performance during high-intensity military activity under stressful conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 28 days of ?-alanine ingestion in military personnel while fatigued on physical and cognitive performance. Methods Twenty soldiers (20.1?±?0.9 years) from an elite combat unit were randomly assigned to either a ?-alanine (BA) or placebo (PL) group. Soldiers were involved in advanced military training, including combat skill development, navigational training, self-defense/hand-to-hand combat and conditioning. All participants performed a 4-km run, 5-countermovement jumps using a linear position transducer, 120-m sprint, a 10-shot shooting protocol with assault rifle, including overcoming a misfire, and a 2-min serial subtraction test to assess cognitive function before (Pre) and after (Post) 28 days of supplementation. Results The training routine resulted in significant increases in 4-km run time for both groups, but no between group differences were seen (p?=?0.597). Peak jump power at Post was greater for BA than PL (p?=?0.034), while mean jump power for BA at Post was 10.2% greater (p?=?0.139) than PL. BA had a significantly greater (p?=?0.012) number of shots on target at Post (8.2?±?1.0) than PL (6.5?±?2.1), and their target engagement speed at Post was also significantly faster (p?=?0.039). No difference in serial subtraction performance was seen between the groups (p?=?0.844). Conclusion Results of this study indicate that 4-weeks of ?-alanine ingestion in young, healthy soldiers did not impact cognitive performance, but did enhance power performance, marksmanship and target engagement speed from pre-ingestion levels. PMID:24716994

  12. Initial Cognitive Performance Predicts Longitudinal Aviator Performance

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Booil; Adamson, Maheen M.; Kennedy, Quinn; Noda, Art; Hernandez, Beatriz; Zeitzer, Jamie M.; Friedman, Leah F.; Fairchild, Kaci; Scanlon, Blake K.; Murphy, Greer M.; Taylor, Joy L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The goal of the study was to improve prediction of longitudinal flight simulator performance by studying cognitive factors that may moderate the influence of chronological age. Method. We examined age-related change in aviation performance in aircraft pilots in relation to baseline cognitive ability measures and aviation expertise. Participants were aircraft pilots (N = 276) aged 40–77.9. Flight simulator performance and cognition were tested yearly; there were an average of 4.3 (± 2.7; range 1–13) data points per participant. Each participant was classified into one of the three levels of aviation expertise based on Federal Aviation Administration pilot proficiency ratings: least, moderate, or high expertise. Results. Addition of measures of cognitive processing speed and executive function to a model of age-related change in aviation performance significantly improved the model. Processing speed and executive function performance interacted such that the slowest rate of decline in flight simulator performance was found in aviators with the highest scores on tests of these abilities. Expertise was beneficial to pilots across the age range studied; however, expertise did not show evidence of reducing the effect of age. Discussion. These data suggest that longitudinal performance on an important real-world activity can be predicted by initial assessment of relevant cognitive abilities. PMID:21586627

  13. The increased potassium intake improves cognitive performance and attenuates histopathological markers in a model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Cisternas, Pedro; Lindsay, Carolina B; Salazar, Paulina; Silva-Alvarez, Carmen; Retamales, Rocio M; Serrano, Felipe G; Vio, Carlos P; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-12-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by hallmarks that include an accumulation of amyloid-? peptide (A?), inflammation, oxidative stress and synaptic dysfunction, which lead to a decrease in cognitive function. To date, the onset and progression of AD have been associated with pathologies such as hypertension and diabetes. Hypertension, a disease with a high incidence worldwide, is characterized by a chronic increase in blood pressure. Interestingly, this disease has a close relationship to the eating behavior of patients because high Na(+) intake is a significant risk factor for hypertension. In fact, a decrease in Na(+) consumption, along with an increase in K(+) intake, is a primary non-pharmacological approach to preventing hypertension. In the present work, we examined whether an increase in K(+) intake affects the expression of certain neuropathological markers or the cognitive performance of a murine model of AD. We observed that an increase in K(+) intake leads to a change in the aggregation pattern of the A? peptide, a partial decrease in some epitopes of tau phosphorylation and improvement in the cognitive performance. The recovery in cognitive performance was correlated with a significant improvement in the generation of long-term potentiation. We also observed a decrease in markers related to inflammation and oxidative stress such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). Together, our data support the idea that changes in diet, such as an increase in K(+) intake, may be important in the prevention of AD onset as a non-pharmacological therapy. PMID:26391254

  14. Improving cognitive function.

    PubMed

    2015-12-16

    Essential facts Age-related decline in mental ability varies from person to person. Individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have subtle but detectable problems with memory, but are able to function normally in everyday life. MCI affects between 5% and 20% of the UK population aged over 65 - or between half a million and two million people - according to research commissioned by Age UK. Although MCI increases the risk of dementia, with one in six people going on to develop it, many people remain stable and others improve, especially if it is caused by a treatable condition. PMID:26669382

  15. Low-dose add-on memantine treatment may improve cognitive performance and self-reported health conditions in opioid-dependent patients undergoing methadone-maintenance-therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Po See; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Lee, I. Hui; Chen, Kao Chin; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2015-01-01

    An important interaction between opioid and dopamine systems has been indicated, and using opioids may negatively affect cognitive functioning. Memantine, a medication for Alzheimer's disease, increasingly is being used for several disorders and maybe important for cognitive improvement. Opioid-dependent patients undergoing methadone-maintenance-therapy (MMT) and healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. Patients randomly assigned to the experimental (5?mg/day memantine (MMT+M) or placebo (MMT+P) group: 57 in MMT+M, 77 in MMT+P. Those completed the cognitive tasks at the baseline and after the 12-week treatment were analyzed. Thirty-seven age- and gender-matched HCs, and 42 MMT+P and 39 MMT+M patients were compared. The dropout rates were 49.4% in the MMT+P and 26.3% in the MMT+M. Both patient groups' cognitive performances were significantly worse than that of the HCs. After the treatment, both patient groups showed improved cognitive performance. We also found an interaction between the patient groups and time which indicated that the MMT+M group's post-treatment improvement was better than that of the MMT+P group. Memantine, previously reported as neuroprotective may attenuate chronic opioid-dependence-induced cognitive decline. Using such low dose of memantine as adjuvant treatment for improving cognitive performance in opioid dependents; the dose of memantine might be a worthy topic in future studies. PMID:25989606

  16. Low-dose add-on memantine treatment may improve cognitive performance and self-reported health conditions in opioid-dependent patients undergoing methadone-maintenance-therapy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yun-Hsuan; Chen, Shiou-Lan; Lee, Sheng-Yu; Chen, Po See; Wang, Tzu-Yun; Lee, I Hui; Chen, Kao Chin; Yang, Yen Kuang; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2015-01-01

    An important interaction between opioid and dopamine systems has been indicated, and using opioids may negatively affect cognitive functioning. Memantine, a medication for Alzheimer's disease, increasingly is being used for several disorders and maybe important for cognitive improvement. Opioid-dependent patients undergoing methadone-maintenance-therapy (MMT) and healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. Patients randomly assigned to the experimental (5 mg/day memantine (MMT+M) or placebo (MMT+P) group: 57 in MMT+M, 77 in MMT+P. Those completed the cognitive tasks at the baseline and after the 12-week treatment were analyzed. Thirty-seven age- and gender-matched HCs, and 42 MMT+P and 39 MMT+M patients were compared. The dropout rates were 49.4% in the MMT+P and 26.3% in the MMT+M. Both patient groups' cognitive performances were significantly worse than that of the HCs. After the treatment, both patient groups showed improved cognitive performance. We also found an interaction between the patient groups and time which indicated that the MMT+M group's post-treatment improvement was better than that of the MMT+P group. Memantine, previously reported as neuroprotective may attenuate chronic opioid-dependence-induced cognitive decline. Using such low dose of memantine as adjuvant treatment for improving cognitive performance in opioid dependents; the dose of memantine might be a worthy topic in future studies. PMID:25989606

  17. Multi-domain computerized cognitive training program improves performance of bookkeeping tasks: a matched-sampling active-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lampit, Amit; Ebster, Claus; Valenzuela, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive skills are important predictors of job performance, but the extent to which computerized cognitive training (CCT) can improve job performance in healthy adults is unclear. We report, for the first time, that a CCT program aimed at attention, memory, reasoning and visuo-spatial abilities can enhance productivity in healthy younger adults on bookkeeping tasks with high relevance to real-world job performance. 44 business students (77.3% female, mean age 21.4 ± 2.6 years) were assigned to either (a) 20 h of CCT, or (b) 20 h of computerized arithmetic training (active control) by a matched sampling procedure. Both interventions were conducted over a period of 6 weeks, 3–4 1-h sessions per week. Transfer of skills to performance on a 60-min paper-based bookkeeping task was measured at three time points—baseline, after 10 h and after 20 h of training. Repeated measures ANOVA found a significant Group X Time effect on productivity (F = 7.033, df = 1.745; 73.273, p = 0.003) with a significant interaction at both the 10-h (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.38, p = 0.014) and 20-h time points (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.40, p = 0.003). No significant effects were found on accuracy or on Conners' Continuous Performance Test, a measure of sustained attention. The results are discussed in reference to previous findings on the relationship between brain plasticity and job performance. Generalization of results requires further study. PMID:25120510

  18. Dietary supplementation with coffee improves motor and cognitive performance in aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenols found in fruits and nuts have anti-inflammatory properties that may provide protection against the decline of cognitive, motor and neuronal function in senescence. The presence of a number of bioactive compounds (e.g., polyphenols) implicates coffee as a potential nutritional therapeutic...

  19. Does Cognitively Focused Instruction Improve the Academic Performance of Low-Achieving Students?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Devin M.; Fuchs, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Stakeholders are debating the value of cognitively focused instruction for students who have not benefited from a skills-based approach. Much of the discussion, however, is occurring without recognition of research that has been conducted in the past 2 decades. In this article, we reviewed the research. Electronic databases and hard copies of…

  20. Cognitive Readiness Assessment and Reporting: An Open Source Mobile Framework for Operational Decision Support and Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heric, Matthew; Carter, Jenn

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive readiness (CR) and performance for operational time-critical environments are continuing points of focus for military and academic communities. In response to this need, we designed an open source interactive CR assessment application as a highly adaptive and efficient open source testing administration and analysis tool. It is capable…

  1. Improved motor and cognitive performance with sodium nitrite supplementation is related to small metabolite signatures: a pilot trial in middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    DeVan, Allison E.; Cruickshank-Quinn, Charmion; Reisdorph, Nichole; Bassett, Candace J.; Evans, Trent D.; Brooks, Forrest A.; Bryan, Nathan S.; Chonchol, Michel B.; Giordano, Tony; McQueen, Matthew B.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2015-01-01

    Advancing age is associated with reductions in nitric oxide bioavailability and changes in metabolic activity, which are implicated in declines in motor and cognitive function. In preclinical models, sodium nitrite supplementation (SN) increases plasma nitrite and improves motor function, whereas other nitric oxide-boosting agents improve cognitive function. This pilot study was designed to translate these findings to middle-aged and older (MA/O) humans to provide proof-of-concept support for larger trials. SN (10 weeks, 80 or 160 mg/day capsules, TheraVasc, Inc.) acutely and chronically increased plasma nitrite and improved performance on measures of motor and cognitive outcomes (all p<0.05 or better) in healthy MA/O adults (62 ± 7 years). Untargeted metabolomics analysis revealed that SN significantly altered 33 (160 mg/day) to 45 (80 mg/day) different metabolites, 13 of which were related to changes in functional outcomes; baseline concentrations of 99 different metabolites predicted functional improvements with SN. This pilot study provides the first evidence that SN improves aspects of motor and cognitive function in healthy MA/O adults, and that these improvements are associated with, and predicted by, the plasma metabolome. Our findings provide the necessary support for larger clinical trials on this promising pharmacological strategy for preserving physiological function with aging. PMID:26626856

  2. Performance of Cognitive Radio-Based Wireless Mesh Networks

    E-print Network

    Boutaba, Raouf

    and management. In this work, the potential performance improvement gained by applying cognitive radioPerformance of Cognitive Radio-Based Wireless Mesh Networks Nizar Bouabdallah, Brent Ishibashi, and Raouf Boutaba Abstract--Cognitive radio presents a new approach to wireless spectrum utilization

  3. Effect of a Kinect-Based Exercise Game on Improving Executive Cognitive Performance in Community-Dwelling Elderly: Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Kazuya; Nishiguchi, Shu; Yamada, Minoru; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2014-01-01

    Background Decrease of dual-task (DT) ability is known to be one of the risk factors for falls. We developed a new game concept, Dual-Task Tai Chi (DTTC), using Microsoft’s motion-capture device Kinect, and demonstrated that the DTTC test can quantitatively evaluate various functions that are known risk factors for falling in elderly adults. Moreover, DT training has been attracting attention as a way to improve balance and DT ability. However, only a few studies have reported that it improves cognitive performance. Objective The purpose of this study was to demonstrate whether or not a 12-week program of DTTC training would effectively improve cognitive functions. Methods This study examined cognitive functions in community-dwelling older adults before and after 12 weeks of DTTC training (training group [TG]) or standardized training (control group [CG]). Primary end points were based on the difference in cognitive functions between the TG and the CG. Cognitive functions were evaluated using the trail-making test (part A and part B) and verbal fluency test. Results A total of 41 elderly individuals (TG: n=26, CG: n=15) participated in this study and their cognitive functions were assessed before and after DTTC training. Significant differences were observed between the two groups with significant group × time interactions for the executive cognitive function measure, the delta-trail-making test (part B?part A; F 1,36=4.94, P=.03; TG: pre mean 48.8 [SD 43.9], post mean 42.2 [SD 29.0]; CG: pre mean 49.5 [SD 51.8], post mean 64.9 [SD 54.7]). Conclusions The results suggest that DTTC training is effective for improving executive cognitive functions. Trial Registration Japan Medical Association Clinical Trial Registration Number: JMA-IIA00092; https://dbcentre3.jmacct.med.or.jp/jmactr/App/JMACTRS06/JMACTRS06.aspx?seqno=2682 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6NRtOkZFh). PMID:24565806

  4. Cognitive Performance in Operational Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Michael; McGhee, James; Friedler, Edna; Thomas, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Optimal cognition during complex and sustained operations is a critical component for success in current and future military operations. "Cognitive Performance, Judgment, and Decision-making" (CPJD) is a newly organized U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command research program focused on sustaining operational effectiveness of Future Force Warriors by developing paradigms through which militarily-relevant, higher-order cognitive performance, judgment, and decision-making can be assessed and sustained in individuals, small teams, and leaders of network-centric fighting units. CPJD evaluates the impact of stressors intrinsic to military operational environments (e.g., sleep deprivation, workload, fatigue, temperature extremes, altitude, environmental/physiological disruption) on military performance, evaluates noninvasive automated methods for monitoring and predicting cognitive performance, and investigates pharmaceutical strategies (e.g., stimulant countermeasures, hypnotics) to mitigate performance decrements. This manuscript describes the CPJD program, discusses the metrics utilized to relate militarily applied research findings to academic research, and discusses how the simulated combat capabilities of a synthetic battle laboratory may facilitate future cognitive performance research.

  5. Prolonged oral cannabinoid administration prevents neuroinflammation, lowers ?-amyloid levels and improves cognitive performance in Tg APP 2576 mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain shows an ongoing inflammatory condition and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories diminish the risk of suffering the neurologic disease. Cannabinoids are neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory agents with therapeutic potential. Methods We have studied the effects of prolonged oral administration of transgenic amyloid precursor protein (APP) mice with two pharmacologically different cannabinoids (WIN 55,212-2 and JWH-133, 0.2 mg/kg/day in the drinking water during 4 months) on inflammatory and cognitive parameters, and on 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (18FDG) uptake by positron emission tomography (PET). Results Novel object recognition was significantly reduced in 11 month old Tg APP mice and 4 month administration of JWH was able to normalize this cognitive deficit, although WIN was ineffective. Wild type mice cognitive performance was unaltered by cannabinoid administration. Tg APP mice showed decreased 18FDG uptake in hippocampus and cortical regions, which was counteracted by oral JWH treatment. Hippocampal GFAP immunoreactivity and cortical protein expression was unaffected by genotype or treatment. In contrast, the density of Iba1 positive microglia was increased in Tg APP mice, and normalized following JWH chronic treatment. Both cannabinoids were effective at reducing the enhancement of COX-2 protein levels and TNF-? mRNA expression found in the AD model. Increased cortical ?-amyloid (A?) levels were significantly reduced in the mouse model by both cannabinoids. Noteworthy both cannabinoids enhanced A? transport across choroid plexus cells in vitro. Conclusions In summary we have shown that chronically administered cannabinoid showed marked beneficial effects concomitant with inflammation reduction and increased A? clearance. PMID:22248049

  6. Writing Performance: Effects of Cognitive Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg, Ronald T.

    1987-01-01

    Examines whether the cognitive strategies of outlining and draft writing enhance college students' writing performance. Reports that outlines improved the quality of writing, but did not enhance efficiency. Rough drafts did not affect quality or efficiency. A survey of faculty revealed that outlines correlated positively with productivity, whereas…

  7. Antecedents and correlates of improved cognitive performance in children exposed in Utero to low levels of lead

    SciTech Connect

    Bellinger, D.; Leviton, A. Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA ); Sloman, J. Wheelock College, Boston, MA )

    1990-11-01

    Up to 2 years of age, children with umbilical cord blood lead levels of 10 to 25 {mu}g/dL achieve significantly lower scores on tests of cognitive development than do children with lower prenatal exposures. By age 5 years, however, they appear to have recovered from, or at least compensated for, this early insult. Change in performance between 24 and 57 months of age was examined in relation to level of postnatal lead exposure and various sociodemographic factors. Among children with high prenatal lead exposure, greater recovery of function was associated with lower blood level at 57 months, higher socioeconomic status, higher Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment scores, higher maternal IQ, and female gender. The difference between the scores at 57 months of children with optimal and less optimal values on these variables generally exceed 1/2 standard deviation. Higher prenatal lead exposure is associated with an increased risk of early cognitive deficit. Furthermore, the risk that a deficit will persist through the preschool years is increased among children with high prenatal exposure and either high postnatal exposure or less optimal sociodemographic characteristics.

  8. Background music and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Angel, Leslie A; Polzella, Donald J; Elvers, Greg C

    2010-06-01

    The present experiment employed standardized test batteries to assess the effects of fast-tempo music on cognitive performance among 56 male and female university students. A linguistic processing task and a spatial processing task were selected from the Criterion Task Set developed to assess verbal and nonverbal performance. Ten excerpts from Mozart's music matched for tempo were selected. Background music increased the speed of spatial processing and the accuracy of linguistic processing. The findings suggest that background music can have predictable effects on cognitive performance. PMID:20865993

  9. Updating the Cognitive Performance Scale.

    PubMed

    Morris, John N; Howard, Elizabeth P; Steel, Knight; Perlman, Christopher; Fries, Brant E; Garms-Homolová, Vjenka; Henrard, Jean-Claude; Hirdes, John P; Ljunggren, Gunnar; Gray, Len; Szczerbi?ska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the first update of the Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS) in 20 years. Its goals are 3-fold: extend category options; characterize how the new scale variant tracks with the Mini-Mental State Examination; and present a series of associative findings. Secondary analysis of data from 3733 older adults from 8 countries was completed. Examination of scale dimensions using older and new items was completed using a forward-entry stepwise regression. The revised scale was validated by examining the scale's distribution with a self-reported dementia diagnosis, functional problems, living status, and distress measures. Cognitive Performance Scale 2 extends the measurement metric from a range of 0 to 6 for the original CPS, to 0 to 8. Relating CPS2 to other measures of function, living status, and distress showed that changes in these external measures correspond with increased challenges in cognitive performance. Cognitive Performance Scale 2 enables repeated assessments, sensitive to detect changes particularly in early levels of cognitive decline. PMID:26251111

  10. An improved cognitive model of the Iowa and Soochow Gambling Tasks with regard to model fitting performance and tests of parameter consistency

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Junyi; Kerestes, Rebecca; Upton, Daniel J.; Busemeyer, Jerome R.; Stout, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Soochow Gambling Task (SGT) are two experience-based risky decision-making tasks for examining decision-making deficits in clinical populations. Several cognitive models, including the expectancy-valence learning (EVL) model and the prospect valence learning (PVL) model, have been developed to disentangle the motivational, cognitive, and response processes underlying the explicit choices in these tasks. The purpose of the current study was to develop an improved model that can fit empirical data better than the EVL and PVL models and, in addition, produce more consistent parameter estimates across the IGT and SGT. Twenty-six opiate users (mean age 34.23; SD 8.79) and 27 control participants (mean age 35; SD 10.44) completed both tasks. Eighteen cognitive models varying in evaluation, updating, and choice rules were fit to individual data and their performances were compared to that of a statistical baseline model to find a best fitting model. The results showed that the model combining the prospect utility function treating gains and losses separately, the decay-reinforcement updating rule, and the trial-independent choice rule performed the best in both tasks. Furthermore, the winning model produced more consistent individual parameter estimates across the two tasks than any of the other models. PMID:25814963

  11. Do Action Video Games Improve Perception and Cognition?

    PubMed Central

    Boot, Walter R.; Blakely, Daniel P.; Simons, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Frequent action video game players often outperform non-gamers on measures of perception and cognition, and some studies find that video game practice enhances those abilities. The possibility that video game training transfers broadly to other aspects of cognition is exciting because training on one task rarely improves performance on others. At first glance, the cumulative evidence suggests a strong relationship between gaming experience and other cognitive abilities, but methodological shortcomings call that conclusion into question. We discuss these pitfalls, identify how existing studies succeed or fail in overcoming them, and provide guidelines for more definitive tests of the effects of gaming on cognition. PMID:21949513

  12. Improving Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: A Pilot Intervention Combining Computerized Social Cognition Training With Cognitive Remediation

    PubMed Central

    Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Background: Social cognition is significantly impaired in schizophrenia and contributes to poor community functioning. This study examined whether cognitive remediation (CR; COGPACK), shown to improve neurocognition, improves an integral component of social cognition, emotion perception, compared with CR combined with a computerized Emotion Perception intervention (Mind Reading: Interactive Guide to Emotions [MRIGE]). Methods: 59 stable schizophrenia or schizoaffective predominantly inpatients were randomized to either CR (N = 27) alone or CR + MRIGE (N = 32) for 12 weeks. Assessments included the Facial Emotion Identification Task (FEIT), Facial Emotion Discrimination Task (FEDT), MCCB-MATRICS, Personal and Social Performance Scale, and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Results: There was a significant group-by-time effect on FEIT (F = 11.509, P = .004); CR + MRIGE demonstrated signi?cantly greater improvement than CR alone (CR + MRIGE, Z = 1.89, P = .05; CR alone Z = 0.57, P = .13). There was significant group-by-time effect on FEDT (F = 5.663, P = .022); CR + MRIGE demonstrated signi?cantly greater improvement than CR alone (CR + MRIGE, Z = 1.90, P = .05; CR alone Z = 0.67, P = .21). There was also a significant group by time effect for social cognition, measured by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (F = 5.473, P = .050): CR + MRIGE demonstrated significantly greater improvement than CR alone (CR + MRIGE, Z = 1.98, P = .02; CR alone, Z = 1.00, P = .05). Conclusions: Combined CR with emotion perception remediation produced greater improvements in emotion recognition, emotion discrimination, social functioning, and neurocognition compared with CR alone in chronic schizophrenia. PMID:23125396

  13. Physical exercise and cognitive performance in the elderly: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kirk-Sanchez, Neva J; McGough, Ellen L

    2014-01-01

    In an aging population with increasing incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment, strategies are needed to slow age-related decline and reduce disease-related cognitive impairment in older adults. Physical exercise that targets modifiable risk factors and neuroprotective mechanisms may reduce declines in cognitive performance attributed to the normal aging process and protect against changes related to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia. In this review we summarize the role of exercise in neuroprotection and cognitive performance, and provide information related to implementation of physical exercise programs for older adults. Evidence from both animal and human studies supports the role of physical exercise in modifying metabolic, structural, and functional dimensions of the brain and preserving cognitive performance in older adults. The results of observational studies support a dose-dependent neuroprotective relationship between physical exercise and cognitive performance in older adults. Although some clinical trials of exercise interventions demonstrate positive effects of exercise on cognitive performance, other trials show minimal to no effect. Although further research is needed, physical exercise interventions aimed at improving brain health through neuroprotective mechanisms show promise for preserving cognitive performance. Exercise programs that are structured, individualized, higher intensity, longer duration, and multicomponent show promise for preserving cognitive performance in older adults. PMID:24379659

  14. Significant improvements in cognitive performance post-transcranial, red/near-infrared light-emitting diode treatments in chronic, mild traumatic brain injury: open-protocol study.

    PubMed

    Naeser, Margaret A; Zafonte, Ross; Krengel, Maxine H; Martin, Paula I; Frazier, Judith; Hamblin, Michael R; Knight, Jeffrey A; Meehan, William P; Baker, Errol H

    2014-06-01

    This pilot, open-protocol study examined whether scalp application of red and near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes (LED) could improve cognition in patients with chronic, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Application of red/NIR light improves mitochondrial function (especially in hypoxic/compromised cells) promoting increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) important for cellular metabolism. Nitric oxide is released locally, increasing regional cerebral blood flow. LED therapy is noninvasive, painless, and non-thermal (cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration [FDA], an insignificant risk device). Eleven chronic, mTBI participants (26-62 years of age, 6 males) with nonpenetrating brain injury and persistent cognitive dysfunction were treated for 18 outpatient sessions (Monday, Wednesday, Friday, for 6 weeks), starting at 10 months to 8 years post- mTBI (motor vehicle accident [MVA] or sports-related; and one participant, improvised explosive device [IED] blast injury). Four had a history of multiple concussions. Each LED cluster head (5.35 cm diameter, 500 mW, 22.2 mW/cm(2)) was applied for 10 min to each of 11 scalp placements (13 J/cm(2)). LEDs were placed on the midline from front-to-back hairline; and bilaterally on frontal, parietal, and temporal areas. Neuropsychological testing was performed pre-LED, and at 1 week, and 1 and 2 months after the 18th treatment. A significant linear trend was observed for the effect of LED treatment over time for the Stroop test for Executive Function, Trial 3 inhibition (p=0.004); Stroop, Trial 4 inhibition switching (p=0.003); California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)-II, Total Trials 1-5 (p=0.003); and CVLT-II, Long Delay Free Recall (p=0.006). Participants reported improved sleep, and fewer post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, if present. Participants and family reported better ability to perform social, interpersonal, and occupational functions. These open-protocol data suggest that placebo-controlled studies are warranted. PMID:24568233

  15. Significant Improvements in Cognitive Performance Post-Transcranial, Red/Near-Infrared Light-Emitting Diode Treatments in Chronic, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Open-Protocol Study

    PubMed Central

    Zafonte, Ross; Krengel, Maxine H.; Martin, Paula I.; Frazier, Judith; Hamblin, Michael R.; Knight, Jeffrey A.; Meehan, William P.; Baker, Errol H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This pilot, open-protocol study examined whether scalp application of red and near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes (LED) could improve cognition in patients with chronic, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Application of red/NIR light improves mitochondrial function (especially in hypoxic/compromised cells) promoting increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) important for cellular metabolism. Nitric oxide is released locally, increasing regional cerebral blood flow. LED therapy is noninvasive, painless, and non-thermal (cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration [FDA], an insignificant risk device). Eleven chronic, mTBI participants (26–62 years of age, 6 males) with nonpenetrating brain injury and persistent cognitive dysfunction were treated for 18 outpatient sessions (Monday, Wednesday, Friday, for 6 weeks), starting at 10 months to 8 years post- mTBI (motor vehicle accident [MVA] or sports-related; and one participant, improvised explosive device [IED] blast injury). Four had a history of multiple concussions. Each LED cluster head (5.35 cm diameter, 500?mW, 22.2?mW/cm2) was applied for 10?min to each of 11 scalp placements (13?J/cm2). LEDs were placed on the midline from front-to-back hairline; and bilaterally on frontal, parietal, and temporal areas. Neuropsychological testing was performed pre-LED, and at 1 week, and 1 and 2 months after the 18th treatment. A significant linear trend was observed for the effect of LED treatment over time for the Stroop test for Executive Function, Trial 3 inhibition (p=0.004); Stroop, Trial 4 inhibition switching (p=0.003); California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)-II, Total Trials 1–5 (p=0.003); and CVLT-II, Long Delay Free Recall (p=0.006). Participants reported improved sleep, and fewer post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, if present. Participants and family reported better ability to perform social, interpersonal, and occupational functions. These open-protocol data suggest that placebo-controlled studies are warranted. PMID:24568233

  16. Using Relaxation, Cognitive Therapy, and Mental Imagery To Reduce Test Anxiety and Improve Performance among Firefighter Trainees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogen, David S.

    The significant number of firefighter trainees experiencing performance evaluation anxiety during fire training school was addressed by the implementation of anxiety reduction and performance enhancement strategies. Audiotape recordings were chosen as the primary intervention medium to facilitate program effectiveness within an established fire…

  17. Xanthohumol improved cognitive flexibility in young mice

    PubMed Central

    Zamzow, Daniel R; Elias, Valerie; Legette, LeeCole L; Choi, Jaewoo; Stevens, J. Fred; Magnusson, Kathy R

    2014-01-01

    The protein palmitoylation cycle has been shown to be important for protein signaling and synaptic plasticity. Data from our lab showed a change in the palmitoylation status of certain proteins with age. A greater percentage of the NMDA receptor subunits GluN2A and GluN2B, along with Fyn and PSD95 proteins, were palmitoylated in the old mice. The higher level of protein palmitoylation was also associated with poorer learning scores. Xanthohumol is a prenylated flavonoid that has been shown to increase beta-oxidation in the livers of rodents, decreasing circulating free fatty acids in the serum. What is not known is whether the application of xanthohumol could influence the palmitoylation status of proteins. In this study, young and old mice were fed a diet supplemented with xanthohumol for 8 weeks. Spatial memory was assessed with the Morris water maze and protein palmitoylation quantified. The young xanthohumol-treated mice showed a significant improvement in cognitive flexibility. However, this appeared to be associated with the young control mice, on a defined, phytoestrogen-deficient diet, performing as poorly as the old mice and xanthohumol reversing this effect. The old mice receiving xanthohumol did not significantly improve their learning scores. Xanthohumol treatment was unable to affect the palmitoylation of NMDA receptor subunits and associated proteins assessed in this study. This evidence suggests that xanthohumol may play a role in improving cognitive flexability in young animals, but it appears to be ineffective in adjusting the palmitoylation status of neuronal proteins in aged individuals. PMID:25192637

  18. Xanthohumol improved cognitive flexibility in young mice.

    PubMed

    Zamzow, Daniel R; Elias, Valerie; Legette, LeeCole L; Choi, Jaewoo; Stevens, J Fred; Magnusson, Kathy R

    2014-12-15

    The protein palmitoylation cycle has been shown to be important for protein signaling and synaptic plasticity. Data from our lab showed a change in the palmitoylation status of certain proteins with age. A greater percentage of the NMDA receptor subunits GluN2A and GluN2B, along with Fyn and PSD95 proteins, were palmitoylated in the old mice. The higher level of protein palmitoylation was also associated with poorer learning scores. Xanthohumol is a prenylated flavonoid that has been shown to increase beta-oxidation in the livers of rodents, decreasing circulating free fatty acids in the serum. What is not known is whether the application of xanthohumol could influence the palmitoylation status of proteins. In this study, young and old mice were fed a diet supplemented with xanthohumol for 8 weeks. Spatial memory was assessed with the Morris water maze and protein palmitoylation quantified. The young xanthohumol-treated mice showed a significant improvement in cognitive flexibility. However, this appeared to be associated with the young control mice, on a defined, phytoestrogen-deficient diet, performing as poorly as the old mice and xanthohumol reversing this effect. The old mice receiving xanthohumol did not significantly improve their learning scores. Xanthohumol treatment was unable to affect the palmitoylation of NMDA receptor subunits and associated proteins assessed in this study. This evidence suggests that xanthohumol may play a role in improving cognitive flexability in young animals, but it appears to be ineffective in adjusting the palmitoylation status of neuronal proteins in aged individuals. PMID:25192637

  19. How Performance Improves

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry L. Harbour; Julie L. Marble

    2005-09-01

    Countless articles and books have been written about and numerous programs have been developed to improve performance. Despite this plethora of activity on how to improve performance, we have largely failed to address the more fundamental question of how performance actually improves. To begin exploring this more basic question, we have plotted some 1,200 performance records to date and found that irrespective of venue, industry, or business, there seems to be a fundamental and repeatable set of concepts regarding how performance improves over time. Such gained insights represent both opportunities and challenges to the performance technologist. Differences in performance outcomes may, for example, be as much a function of the life cycle stage of a performance system as the efficacy of the selected improvement method itself. Accordingly, it may be more difficult to compare differing performance improvement methods than previously thought.

  20. Individual variation in cognitive performance: developmental and evolutionary perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Alex; Lukas, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Animal cognition experiments frequently reveal striking individual variation but rarely consider its causes and largely ignore its potential consequences. Studies often focus on a subset of high-performing subjects, sometimes viewing evidence from a single individual as sufficient to demonstrate the cognitive capacity of a species. We argue that the emphasis on demonstrating species-level cognitive capacities detracts from the value of individual variation in understanding cognitive development and evolution. We consider developmental and evolutionary interpretations of individual variation and use meta-analyses of data from published studies to examine predictors of individual performance. We show that reliance on small sample sizes precludes robust conclusions about individual abilities as well as inter- and intraspecific differences. We advocate standardization of experimental protocols and pooling of data between laboratories to improve statistical rigour. Our analyses show that cognitive performance is influenced by age, sex, rearing conditions and previous experience. These effects limit the validity of comparative analyses unless developmental histories are taken into account, and complicate attempts to understand how cognitive traits are expressed and selected under natural conditions. Further understanding of cognitive evolution requires efforts to elucidate the heritability of cognitive traits and establish whether elevated cognitive performance confers fitness advantages in nature. PMID:22927576

  1. Leptin Replacement Improves Cognitive Development

    PubMed Central

    Paz-Filho, Gilberto J.; Babikian, Talin; Asarnow, Robert; Esposito, Karin; Erol, Halil K.; Wong, Ma-Li; Licinio, Julio

    2008-01-01

    Background Leptin changes brain structure, neuron excitability and synaptic plasticity. It also regulates the development and function of feeding circuits. However, the effects of leptin on neurocognitive development are unknown. Objective To evaluate the effect of leptin on neurocognitive development. Methodology A 5-year-old boy with a nonconservative missense leptin gene mutation (Cys-to-Thr in codon 105) was treated with recombinant methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin) at physiologic replacement doses of 0.03 mg/kg/day. Cognitive development was assessed using the Differential Ability Scales (DAS), a measure of general verbal and nonverbal functioning; and selected subtests from the NEPSY, a measure of neuropsychological functioning in children. Principal Findings Prior to treatment, the patient was morbidly obese, hypertensive, dyslipidemic, and hyperinsulinemic. Baseline neurocognitive tests revealed slower than expected rates of development (developmental age lower than chronological age) in a majority of the areas assessed. After two years, substantial increases in the rates of development in most neurocognitive domains were apparent, with some skills at or exceeding expectations based on chronological age. We also observed marked weight loss and resolution of hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperinsulinemia. Conclusions We concluded that replacement with r-metHuLeptin is associated with weight loss and changes in rates of development in many neurocognitive domains, which lends support to the hypothesis that, in addition to its role in metabolism, leptin may have a cognitive enhancing role in the developing central nervous system. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00659828 PMID:18769731

  2. Acupuncture improves cognitive function: A systematic review?

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Mason Chin Pang; Yip, Ka Keung; Lam, Chung Tsung; Lam, Ka Shun; Lau, Wai; Yu, Wing Lam; Leung, Amethyst King Man; So, Kwok-fai

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acupuncture has been used as a treatment for cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVE: This review assesses clinical evidence for or against acupuncture as a treatment for cognitive impairment. This review also discusses the proposed mechanism(s) that could link acupuncture to improved cognitive function. METHODS: We searched the literature using PolyUone search from its inception to January 2013, with full text available and language limited to English. Levels of evidence were examined using Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine–Levels of Evidence (March, 2009). RESULTS: Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria: 3 human studies and 9 animal studies. Levels of evidence ranged from level 1b to level 5. CONCLUSION: Most animal studies demonstrated a positive effect of acupuncture on cognitive impairment. However, the results of human studies were inconsistent. Further high-quality human studies with greater statistical power are needed to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture and an optimal protocol. PMID:25206464

  3. Improved Visual Cognition through Stroboscopic Training

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, L. Gregory; Schroeder, Julia E.; Cain, Matthew S.; Mitroff, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Humans have a remarkable capacity to learn and adapt, but surprisingly little research has demonstrated generalized learning in which new skills and strategies can be used flexibly across a range of tasks and contexts. In the present work we examined whether generalized learning could result from visual–motor training under stroboscopic visual conditions. Individuals were assigned to either an experimental condition that trained with stroboscopic eyewear or to a control condition that underwent identical training with non-stroboscopic eyewear. The training consisted of multiple sessions of athletic activities during which participants performed simple drills such as throwing and catching. To determine if training led to generalized benefits, we used computerized measures to assess perceptual and cognitive abilities on a variety of tasks before and after training. Computer-based assessments included measures of visual sensitivity (central and peripheral motion coherence thresholds), transient spatial attention (a useful field of view – dual task paradigm), and sustained attention (multiple-object tracking). Results revealed that stroboscopic training led to significantly greater re-test improvement in central visual field motion sensitivity and transient attention abilities. No training benefits were observed for peripheral motion sensitivity or peripheral transient attention abilities, nor were benefits seen for sustained attention during multiple-object tracking. These findings suggest that stroboscopic training can effectively improve some, but not all aspects of visual perception and attention. PMID:22059078

  4. Infection, nutrition and cognitive performance in children.

    PubMed

    Connolly, K J; Kvalsvig, J D

    1993-01-01

    The paper considers briefly the nature of cognition and its relationship to intelligence. The information processing model of human cognition is outlined and IQ and DQ are explained. The literature dealing with the effects of malnutrition and parasitic infection on cognitive performance and development in children is selectively reviewed. A speculative hypothesis concerning the psychological effects of parasitic infection is sketched and brief consideration is given to models and measures in research on development. PMID:8115183

  5. Effects of acute physical exercise characteristics on cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Collardeau, Maya; René, Arcelin

    2002-01-01

    The effect of physical exercise on mental function has been widely studied from the beginning of the 20th century. However, the contradictory findings of experimental research have led authors to identify several methodological factors to control in such studies including: (i) the nature of the psychological task; and (ii) the intensity and duration of physical exercise. The purpose of this article is to provide information, from the perspective of performance optimisation, on the main effects of physical task characteristics on cognitive performance. Within this framework, some consistent results have been observed during the last decade. Recent studies, using mainly complex decisional tasks, have provided the research community with clear support for an improvement of cognitive performance during exercise. Diverse contributing factors have been suggested to enhance cognitive efficacy. First, an increase in arousal level related to physical exertion has been hypothesised. Improvement in decisional performance has been observed immediately after the adrenaline threshold during incremental exercise. Such positive effects could be enhanced by nutritional factors, such as carbohydrate or fluid ingestion, but did not seem to be influenced by the level of fitness. Second, the mediating role of resource allocation has been suggested to explain improvement in cognitive performance during exercise. This effect highlights the importance of motivational factors in such tasks. Finally, when the cognitive performance was performed during exercise, consistent results have indicated that the dual task effect was strongly related to energetic constraints of the task. The greater the energy demand, the more attention is used to control movements. PMID:12096929

  6. Wilson's disease with cognitive impairment and without extrapyramidal signs: improvement of neuropsychological performance and reduction of MRI abnormalities with trientine treatment.

    PubMed

    Chung, Eun Joo; Kim, Eung Gyu; Kim, Sang Jin; Ji, Ki-Hwan; Seo, Jung Hwa

    2016-02-01

    Extrapyramidal signs are neurological dysfunction commonly associated with Wilson's disease (WD). In addition, cognitive dysfunction has been reported in the early stages of WD. In this report, we describe a 49-year-old woman presenting with memory impairments and without Parkinsonian or extrapyramidal signs. She was diagnosed with WD based on the presence of Kayser-Fleischer rings around the irises of her eyes and two ATP7B gene mutations, R778L at exon 8 and A874V at exdyon 11. Serial magnetic resonance imaging analysis and neuropsychological tests showed improvements following treatment with trientine. PMID:25988284

  7. COG1410, an apolipoprotein E-based peptide, improves cognitive performance and reduces cortical loss following moderate fluid percussion injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Nicholas A; Beare, Jason E; Tan, Arlene A; Vitek, Michael P; McKenna, Suzanne E; Hoane, Michael R

    2010-12-25

    COG1410, a small, novel ApoE-mimetic peptide derived from the receptor binding region of apolipoprotein E (ApoE), has been classified as anti-inflammatory in nature and improves motor, sensorimotor, and cognitive dysfunction following cortical contusion injury (CCI). In order to further examine COG1410's preclinical efficacy on cognitive recovery, the present study evaluated COG1410 following moderate fluid percussion injury (FPI). Animals were prepared with a moderate, unilateral FPI over the hippocampus. Following FPI, animals received a regimen of five doses of COG1410 or vehicle at 2 and 4h (1.0mg/kg, i.v.) followed by additional doses administered 24, 48, and 72 h (1.0mg/kg, i.p.). Prior to injury, animals were trained for 4 days (4 trials/day) in the Morris water maze (MWM) and then tested for retrograde amnesia on post-FPI day 11 and then on a working memory task on day 18. Testing for motor dysfunction on the tapered balanced beam began on day 2 post-FPI. Administration of this regimen of COG1410 significantly improved retention of memory in the retrograde amnesia test compared to vehicle post-FPI. However, COG1410 did not significantly improve acquisition of working memory in the MWM. Motor dysfunction on the tapered beam post-FPI was improved in the COG1410-treated group compared to vehicle treatment. Cortical lesion analysis revealed that the COG1410-treated animals demonstrated significantly less tissue loss compared to vehicle-treated animals. The results of this study suggest that COG1410 significantly limited the behavioral dysfunction and tissue loss associated with FPI and demonstrated continued preclinical efficacy for TBI. PMID:20600347

  8. Review of Human Cognitive Performance in Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangman, Gary; Bevan, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Human space exploration is inherently hazardous, particularly for lon g duration (LD) missions (22 days or longer). Maintenance of cognitive functioning is essential, but flight environments pose numerous pote ntial risks to the brain and cognitive performance (eg, radiation, to xins, chronic stress, sleep deprivation, hypercarbia, fluid shifts, h ormone imbalances, and injury). There have been persistent anecdotal reports of cognitive deficits during missions, but an up?-to-date rev iew of the evidence for such changes has remained unavailable. Method s: We identified and reviewed English language publications found via electronic searches in PubMed, PsycInfo, Inspec, the NASA Technical Report Server, and the Defense Technical Information Center, plus rec ursive searches of publication bibliographies. Search terms included the word cognition, cognitive, or performance along with spaceflight, flight, mission, or closely related terms. Results: Inter?-study variability precluded meta?-analysis. Some 32 published studies involving cognitive assessment during spaceflight were identified, involving a total of 110 participants (mean: 3.4 participants per study). The lo ngest?-duration study spanned 438 days, with six additional studies i nvolving flight durations of 90 days, and 11 more studies involved fl ight durations exceeding 21 days. The available evidence failed to st rongly support or refute the existence of cognitive deficits in LD sp aceflight, in part due to inadequate power or control conditions. Evi dence of increased variability in cognitive performance during spacef light, both within and between individuals, was common. Discussion: T hese results represent a negative finding based on small numbers of s ubjects for any given cognitive function. The increased variability within and (particularly) between individuals highlights the potential danger of generalizing from case studies. A mismatch therefore remain s between anecdotal reports describing generalized cognitive slowing, attention and memory problems during missions and the experimental e vidence supporting such deficits. Since a major justification for man ned spaceflight rests with the cognitive flexibility of humans, addit ional studies and further analysis of existing operational data appea rs warranted.

  9. Cognitive performances of cholinergically depleted rats following chronic donepezil administration.

    PubMed

    Cutuli, Debora; Foti, Francesca; Mandolesi, Laura; De Bartolo, Paola; Gelfo, Francesca; Federico, Francesca; Petrosini, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Since acute and chronic administration of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, namely donepezil, improves cognitive functions in patients afflicted by mild to moderate dementia and reverses memory deficits in experimental models of learning and memory, it seemed interesting to assess the effects of chronic donepezil treatment on cognitive functions in adult rats with forebrain cholinergic depletion. Lesions were performed by means of intracerebroventricular injections of the immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin. The cognitive functions of lesioned animals treated or not treated with donepezil were compared with those of intact animals. Cholinergic depletion affected working memory functions, weakened procedural competencies, affected the acquisition of localizing knowledge, and evoked remarkable compulsive and perseverative behaviors. In lesioned animals, chronic donepezil treatment ameliorated localizatory capabilities, performances linked to cognitive flexibility and procedural abilities. Furthermore, it attenuated compulsive deficits. The present data indicate positive effects of chronic donepezil treatment on specific cognitive performances, suggesting that an aimed use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, targeting some symptoms more than others, may be beneficial in the case of cholinergic hypofunction. The animal model used in the present research may provide an efficient method for analyzing cognition-enhancing drugs before clinical trials. PMID:19221411

  10. MCNP Progress & Performance Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Forrest B.; Bull, Jeffrey S.; Rising, Michael Evan

    2015-04-14

    Twenty-eight slides give information about the work of the US DOE/NNSA Nuclear Criticality Safety Program on MCNP6 under the following headings: MCNP6.1.1 Release, with ENDF/B-VII.1; Verification/Validation; User Support & Training; Performance Improvements; and Work in Progress. whisper methodology will be incorporated into the code, and run speed should be increased.

  11. Concurrent and Longitudinal Relationships Between Cognitive Activity, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Volume in Older Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Espeland, Mark A.; Smith, J. Carson; Tindle, Hilary A.; Rapp, Stephen R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated (a) cross-sectional associations between cognitive activity, cognitive performance, and MRI measures and (b) longitudinal associations between cognitive activity and change in cognitive performance, using structural equation modeling (SEM). Method. Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) Extension participants who continued annual neuropsychological assessments by telephone and completed a concurrent questionnaire of cognitive activities and MRI scans were included (mean age = 81.4 years; N = 393). Cognitive performance was measured by tests of attention, working memory, verbal fluency, executive function, and memory. Cognitive activity was measured by self-reported participation in a variety of cognitive activities (e.g., reading books, playing games, computer activities; N = 11 items) during the previous 12 months. MRI measures included gray and white matter normal and white matter lesion volumes. Results. SEM demonstrated a significant association between cognitive activity and baseline cognitive performance but not change over 2–3 years. Gray and white matter was associated with cognitive performance but not cognitive activity. All effects remained significant after modeling covariates (age, education, depressive symptoms, WHIMS intervention assignment, and intracranial volume). Conclusions. Cognitive activity benefits current cognitive performance but is not associated with change over 2–3 years. Cognitive activity and MRI volumes are independently associated with cognitive performance, suggesting distinct cognitive and brain reserve constructs. PMID:25209372

  12. Improving CSF Biomarkers’ Performance for Predicting Progression from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer’s Disease by Considering Different Confounding Factors: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Daniel; Rivero-Santana, Amado; Perestelo-Pérez, Lilisbeth; Westman, Eric; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Sarría, Antonio; Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers’ performance for predicting conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is still suboptimal. Objective: By considering several confounding factors we aimed to identify in which situations these CSF biomarkers can be useful. Data Sources: A systematic review was conducted on MEDLINE, PreMedline, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane, and CRD (1990–2013). Eligibility Criteria: (1) Prospective studies of CSF biomarkers’ performance for predicting conversion from MCI to AD/dementia; (2) inclusion of A?42 and T-tau and/or p-tau. Several meta-analyses were performed. Results: A?42/p-tau ratio had high capacity to predict conversion to AD in MCI patients younger than 70?years. The p-tau had high capacity to identify MCI cases converting to AD in ?24?months. Conclusions: Explaining how different confounding factors influence CSF biomarkers’ predictive performance is mandatory to elaborate a definitive map of situations, where these CSF biomarkers are useful both in clinics and research. PMID:25360114

  13. Novel Television-Based Cognitive Training Improves Working Memory and Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bureš, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60–87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of “adequate” to “high” system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition. PMID:24992187

  14. Word Recall: Cognitive Performance Within Internet Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Benjamin M; Jim, Heather S

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of online surveys for data collection has increased exponentially, yet it is often unclear whether interview-based cognitive assessments (such as face-to-face or telephonic word recall tasks) can be adapted for use in application-based research settings. Objective The objective of the current study was to compare and characterize the results of online word recall tasks to those of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) and determine the feasibility and reliability of incorporating word recall tasks into application-based cognitive assessments. Methods The results of the online immediate and delayed word recall assessment, included within the Women’s Health and Valuation (WHV) study, were compared to the results of the immediate and delayed recall tasks of Waves 5-11 (2000-2012) of the HRS. Results Performance on the WHV immediate and delayed tasks demonstrated strong concordance with performance on the HRS tasks (?c=.79, 95% CI 0.67-0.91), despite significant differences between study populations (P<.001) and study design. Sociodemographic characteristics and self-reported memory demonstrated similar relationships with performance on both the HRS and WHV tasks. Conclusions The key finding of this study is that the HRS word recall tasks performed similarly when used as an online cognitive assessment in the WHV. Online administration of cognitive tests, which has the potential to significantly reduce participant and administrative burden, should be considered in future research studies and health assessments. PMID:26543924

  15. Effects of flavonoids on cognitive performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies suggest that nutritional interventions, such as increasing dietary intake of fruits and vegetables, could possibly delay and even reverse age-related declines in brain function such as cognitive and motor performance. Fruits and vegetables rich in flavonoids play a critical role in pr...

  16. Cognitive Correlates of Performance in Advanced Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Wei; Yuan, Hongbo; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhou, Xinlin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Much research has been devoted to understanding cognitive correlates of elementary mathematics performance, but little such research has been done for advanced mathematics (e.g., modern algebra, statistics, and mathematical logic).Aims: To promote mathematical knowledge among college students, it is necessary to understand what factors…

  17. Microgravity effects on standardized cognitive performance measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiflett, Samuel G.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment, selected to fly on the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) Spacelab mission, is to determine the effects of microgravity upon the cognitive skills which are critical to successful performance of many tasks on board the Space Shuttle. Six tests from the Unified Tri-service Cognitive Performance Assessment Battery (UTC-PAB) will be administered to the Mission Specialists to fulfill the goals of this experiment. These tests are based upon current theoretical models of human performance and the hypothesized effects of microgravity. The principle objective is the identification of the effects of microgravity upon specific information processing skills affecting performance from those of fatigue and shifts in work/rest cycles. Multiple measures of both short and long term fatigue will be obtained and used as a major independent variable for the analysis of these performance data. Scientific supporting studies will determine optimum practice and performance testing schedules for the astronauts. The same tests will be used post-flight to collect data on the recovery of any cognitive performance impairment compared with pre-flight, baseline levels.

  18. Sleep deprivation: Impact on cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Alhola, Paula; Polo-Kantola, Päivi

    2007-01-01

    Today, prolonged wakefulness is a widespread phenomenon. Nevertheless, in the field of sleep and wakefulness, several unanswered questions remain. Prolonged wakefulness can be due to acute total sleep deprivation (SD) or to chronic partial sleep restriction. Although the latter is more common in everyday life, the effects of total SD have been examined more thoroughly. Both total and partial SD induce adverse changes in cognitive performance. First and foremost, total SD impairs attention and working memory, but it also affects other functions, such as long-term memory and decision-making. Partial SD is found to influence attention, especially vigilance. Studies on its effects on more demanding cognitive functions are lacking. Coping with SD depends on several factors, especially aging and gender. Also interindividual differences in responses are substantial. In addition to coping with SD, recovering from it also deserves attention. Cognitive recovery processes, although insufficiently studied, seem to be more demanding in partial sleep restriction than in total SD. PMID:19300585

  19. Cognitive Performance in a Subclinical Obsessive-Compulsive Sample 1: Cognitive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Thomas; Dittrich, Winand H.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who are not clinically diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but still display obsessive-compulsive (OC) tendencies may show cognitive impairments. The present study investigated whether there are subgroups within a healthy group showing characteristic cognitive and emotional performance levels similar to those found in OCD patients and whether they differ from OCD subgroups regarding performance levels. Of interest are those cases showing subclinical symptomatology. The results revealed no impairments in the subclinical OC participants on the neuropsychological tasks, while evidence suggests that there exist high and low scores on two standardised clinical instruments (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Cognitive Assessment Instrument of Obsessions and Compulsions) in a healthy sample. OC symptoms may diminish the quality of life and prolong sustainable return to work. It may be that occupational rehabilitation programmes are more effective in rectifying subclinical OC tendencies compared to the often complex symptoms of diagnosed OCD patients. The relationship between cognitive style and subclinical OC symptoms is discussed in terms of how materials and information might be processed. Although subclinical OC tendencies would not seem to constitute a diagnosis of OCD, the quality of treatment programmes such as cognitive behavioural therapy can be improved based on the current investigation. PMID:24236282

  20. Improving Construct Validity with Cognitive Psychology Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embretson, Susan; Gorin, Joanna

    2001-01-01

    Examines testing practices in: (1) the past, in which the traditional paradigm left little room for cognitive psychology principles; (2) the present, in which testing research is enhanced by principles of cognitive psychology; and (3) the future, in which the potential of cognitive psychology should be fully realized through item design.…

  1. Modeling the Impact of Cognitive Moderators on Human Cognition and Performance

    E-print Network

    Ritter, Frank

    the mechanisms of the cognitive- affective interactions underlying these biases. In this talk I describeModeling the Impact of Cognitive Moderators on Human Cognition and Performance Kevin A. Gluck-3857 USA Introduction (Kevin Gluck) Cognitive moderators, such as emotions, personality, stress

  2. Exercise, Sedentary Pastimes, and Cognitive Performance in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Susanne Inez; Sammel, Mary Dupuis; Harel, Brian Tal; Schembri, Adrian; Policastro, Christopher; Bogner, Hillary R.; Negash, Selamawit; Arnold, Steven Edward

    2015-01-01

    Background Moderately vigorous physical activity (MVPA) provides a protective affect against cognitive decline and cardiovascular risk factors. Less is known about sedentary pastimes or non exercise physical activity (NEPA) and cognitive performance. Method 125 healthy adults 65 or older with no clinical evidence of cognitive impairment were enrolled. The CogState computerized neurocognitive battery was administered. Leisure activities were measured using the Community Health Activity Program for Seniors (CHAMPS). Results Sedentary pastimes were associated with executive dysfunction (P = 0.01); MVPA with high memory scores (P = 0.05) and NEPA with improved working memory (P = 0.05). Only sedentary pastimes and executive dysfunction retained significance after correction for multiple comparisons. Smoking and alcohol confounded the association of memory with sedentary pastimes and MVPA. Conclusions Study highlights: negative impact of sedentary pastimes on executive function, need for additional investigation of sedentary behavior, NEPA, the impact of addictions upon activity in late life. PMID:25100746

  3. Exercise therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy to improve fatigue, daily activity performance and quality of life in Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome: the protocol of the FACTS-2-PPS trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome (PPS) is a complex of late onset neuromuscular symptoms with new or increased muscle weakness and muscle fatigability as key symptoms. Main clinical complaints are severe fatigue, deterioration in functional abilities and health related quality of life. Rehabilitation management is the mainstay of treatment. Two different therapeutic interventions may be prescribed (1) exercise therapy or (2) cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). However, the evidence on the effectiveness of both interventions is limited. The primary aim of the FACTS-2-PPS trial is to study the efficacy of exercise therapy and CBT for reducing fatigue and improving activities and quality of life in patients with PPS. Additionally, the working mechanisms, patients' and therapists' expectations of and experiences with both interventions and cost-effectiveness will be evaluated. Methods/Design A multi-centre, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial will be conducted. A sample of 81 severely fatigued patients with PPS will be recruited from 3 different university hospitals and their affiliate rehabilitation centres. Patients will be randomized to one of three groups i.e. (1) exercise therapy + usual care, (2) CBT + usual care, (3) usual care. At baseline, immediately post-intervention and at 3- and 6-months follow-up, fatigue, activities, quality of life and secondary outcomes will be assessed. Costs will be based on a cost questionnaire, and statistical analyses on GEE (generalized estimated equations). Analysis will also consider mechanisms of change during therapy. A responsive evaluation will be conducted to monitor the implementation process and to investigate the perspectives of patients and therapists on both interventions. Discussion A major strength of the FACTS-2-PPS study is the use of a mixed methods design in which a responsive and economic evaluation runs parallel to the trial. The results of this study will generate new evidence for the rehabilitation treatment of persons with PPS. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR1371. PMID:20082714

  4. Cognitive improvement in patients with carotid stenosis is independent of treatment type.

    PubMed

    Wapp, Manuela; Everts, Regula; Burren, Yuliya; Kellner-Weldon, Frauke; El-Koussy, Marwan; Wiest, Roland; Federspiel, Andrea; Michel, Patrik; Schroth, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of carotid artery stenosis decreases the long-term risk of stroke and may enhance cerebral blood flow. It is therefore expected to have the potential to prevent cognitive decline or even improve cognition over the long-term. However, intervention itself can cause peri-interventional cerebral infarcts, possibly resulting in a decline of cognitive performance, at least for a short time. We investigated the long-term effects of three treatment methods on cognition and the emotional state one year after intervention. In this prospective observational cohort study, 58 patients with extracranial carotid artery stenosis (?70%) underwent magnetic resonance imaging and assessment of cognition, mood and motor speed before carotid endarterectomy (n = 20), carotid stenting (n = 10) or best medical treatment (n = 28) (i.e., time-point 1 [TP1]), and at one-year follow-up (TP2). Gain scores, reflecting cognitive change after treatment, were built according to performance as (TP2 -TP1)/TP1. Independent of the treatment type, significant improvement in frontal lobe functions, visual memory and motor speed was found. Performance level, motor speed and mood at TP1 were negatively correlated with gain scores, with greater improvement in patients with low performance before treatment. Active therapy, whether conservative or interventional, produces significant improvement of frontal lobe functions and memory in patients with carotid artery disease, independent of treatment type. This effect was particularly pronounced in patients with low cognitive performance prior to treatment. PMID:26700596

  5. Septohippocampal Neuromodulation Improves Cognition after Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Darrin J; Gurkoff, Gene G; Izadi, Ali; Seidl, Stacey E; Echeverri, Angela; Melnik, Mikhail; Berman, Robert F; Ekstrom, Arne D; Muizelaar, J Paul; Lyeth, Bruce G; Shahlaie, Kiarash

    2015-11-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in persistent attention and memory deficits that are associated with hippocampal dysfunction. Although deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used to treat neurological disorders related to motor dysfunction, the effectiveness of stimulation to treat cognition remains largely unknown. In this study, adult male Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a lateral fluid percussion or sham injury followed by implantation of bipolar electrodes in the medial septal nucleus (MSN) and ipsilateral hippocampus. In the first week after injury, there was a significant decrease in hippocampal theta oscillations that correlated with decreased object exploration and impaired performance in the Barnes maze spatial learning task. Continuous 7.7?Hz theta stimulation of the medial septum significantly increased hippocampal theta oscillations, restored normal object exploration, and improved spatial learning in injured animals. There were no benefits with 100?Hz gamma stimulation, and stimulation of sham animals at either frequency did not enhance performance. We conclude, therefore, that there was a theta frequency-specific benefit of DBS that restored cognitive function in brain-injured rats. These data suggest that septal theta stimulation may be an effective and novel neuromodulatory therapy for treatment of persistent cognitive deficits following TBI. PMID:26096267

  6. Absence of IFN? promotes hippocampal plasticity and enhances cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, S; Ferreira, F M; Pinto, V; Roque, S; Morais, M; de Sá-Calçada, D; Mota, C; Correia-Neves, M; Cerqueira, J J

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive functioning can be differentially modulated by components of the immune system. Interferon-? (IFN?) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose production is altered in many conditions displaying some degree of cognitive deficits, although its role in cognitive functioning is still unclear. Here we show that the absence of IFN? selectively enhances cognitive behaviours in tasks in which the hippocampus is implicated. Moreover, the absence of IFN? leads to volumetric and cell density changes that are restricted to the dorsal part of the hippocampus. In the dorsal hippocampus, the absence of this pro-inflammatory cytokine leads to an increase in the numbers of newly born neurons in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG), an adult neurogenic niche known to support learning and memory, and to an enlargement of the dendritic arborization of DG granule and cornu ammonis (CA)1 pyramidal neurons. Moreover, it also modestly impacts synaptic plasticity, by decreasing the paired-pulse facilitation in the Schaffer collateral to CA1 pyramidal cell synapses. Taken together, our results provide evidence that IFN? is a negative regulator of hippocampal functioning, as its absence positively impacts on dorsal hippocampus structure, cell density, neuronal morphology and synaptic plasticity. Importantly, these neuroplastic changes are associated with improved performance in learning and memory tasks. Therefore, blockage of the IFN? signalling may present as promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of inflammation-associated cognitive dysfunction. PMID:26731444

  7. Disentangling the Relationship between Hemispheric Asymmetry and Cognitive Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirnstein, Marco; Leask, Stuart; Rose, Jonas; Hausmann, Markus

    2010-01-01

    It is widely believed that advantages of hemispheric asymmetries originated in better cognitive processing, hence it is often implied that the relationship between hemispheric asymmetry and cognitive performance is linearly positive: the higher the degree of lateralization in a specific cognitive domain, the better the performance in a…

  8. Aerobic and Cognitive Exercise (ACE) Pilot Study for Older Adults: Executive Function Improves with Cognitive Challenge While Exergaming.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, Nicole; Shah, Nikita; Cohen, Katherine; Hogan, Michael J; Mulkerrin, Eamon; Arciero, Paul J; Cohen, Brian D; Kramer, Arthur F; Anderson-Hanley, Cay

    2015-11-01

    Dementia cases are increasing worldwide; thus, investigators seek to identify interventions that might prevent or ameliorate cognitive decline in later life. Extensive research confirms the benefits of physical exercise for brain health, yet only a fraction of older adults exercise regularly. Interactive mental and physical exercise, as in aerobic exergaming, not only motivates, but has also been found to yield cognitive benefit above and beyond traditional exercise. This pilot study sought to investigate whether greater cognitive challenge while exergaming would yield differential outcomes in executive function and generalize to everyday functioning. Sixty-four community based older adults (mean age=82) were randomly assigned to pedal a stationary bike, while interactively engaging on-screen with: (1) a low cognitive demand task (bike tour), or (2) a high cognitive demand task (video game). Executive function (indices from Trails, Stroop and Digit Span) was assessed before and after a single-bout and 3-month exercise intervention. Significant group × time interactions were found after a single-bout (Color Trails) and after 3 months of exergaming (Stroop; among 20 adherents). Those in the high cognitive demand group performed better than those in the low cognitive dose condition. Everyday function improved across both exercise conditions. Pilot data indicate that for older adults, cognitive benefit while exergaming increased concomitantly with higher doses of interactive mental challenge. (JINS, 2015, 21, 768-779). PMID:26581789

  9. Social Priming Improves Cognitive Control in Elderly Adults—Evidence from the Simon Task

    PubMed Central

    Aisenberg, Daniela; Cohen, Noga; Pick, Hadas; Tressman, Iris; Rappaport, Michal; Shenberg, Tal; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether social priming of cognitive states affects the inhibitory process in elderly adults, as aging is related to deficits in inhibitory control. Forty-eight elderly adults and 45 young adults were assigned to three groups and performed a cognitive control task (Simon task), which was followed by 3 different manipulations of social priming (i.e., thinking about an 82 year-old person): 1) negative—characterized by poor cognitive abilities, 2) neutral—characterized by acts irrelevant to cognitive abilities, and 3) positive—excellent cognitive abilities. After the manipulation, the Simon task was performed again. Results showed improvement in cognitive control effects in seniors after the positive manipulation, indicated by a significant decrease in the magnitude of the Simon and interference effects, but not after the neutral and negative manipulations. Furthermore, a healthy pattern of sequential effect (Gratton) that was absent before the manipulation in all 3 groups appeared after the positive manipulation. Namely, the Simon effect was only present after congruent but not after incongruent trials for the positive manipulation group. No influence of manipulations was found in young adults. These meaningful results were replicated in a second experiment and suggest a decrease in conflict interference resulting from positive cognitive state priming. Our study provides evidence that an implicit social concept of a positive cognitive condition in old age can affect the control process of the elderly and improve cognitive abilities. PMID:25635946

  10. EFFECTS OF BUPROPION ON COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE DURING INITIAL TOBACCO ABSTINENCE

    PubMed Central

    Perkins, Kenneth A.; Karelitz, Joshua L.; Jao, Nancy C.; Gur, Ruben C.; Lerman, Caryn

    2013-01-01

    Background Bupropion may aid tobacco abstinence by quickly relieving symptoms of nicotine withdrawal, perhaps including impaired cognitive performance. We examined whether bupropion would attenuate abstinence-induced cognitive deficits on the first day of a brief quit attempt, when smokers are most likely to relapse. Methods Smokers (N=24) with high quit interest were recruited for a within-subjects cross-over test of bupropion vs placebo on ability to abstain during separate short-term practice quit smoking attempts. After introduction to working memory (N-back) and sustained attention (continuous performance task; CPT) tasks during the pre-quit smoking baseline, performance on these tasks was assessed after abstaining overnight (CO<10 ppm) on the first day of each quit attempt, while on bupropion and on placebo. Results Compared to placebo, bupropion after abstinence improved correct response times for working memory (p=.01 for medication by memory load interaction) and for one measure of sustained attention (numbers, but not letters; p<.05). Discussion Bupropion may attenuate some features of impaired cognitive performance due to withdrawal on the first day of a quit attempt. Future studies could examine whether this effect of bupropion contributes to its efficacy for longer-term smoking cessation. PMID:23726977

  11. Aging and Cognitive Performance: Challenges and Implications for Physicians Practicing in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durning, Steven J.; Artino, Anthony R.; Holmboe, Eric; Beckman, Thomas J.; van der Vleuten, Cees; Schuwirth, Lambert

    2010-01-01

    The demands of physician practice are growing. Some specialties face critical shortages and a significant percentage of physicians are aging. To improve health care it is paramount to understand and address challenges, including cognitive issues, facing aging physicians. In this article, we outline several issues related to cognitive performance

  12. How Does Exercise Benefit Performance on Cognitive Tests in Primary-School Pupils?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Liam J. B.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Aucott, Lorna; Thomson, Jenny; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Aim: We have previously demonstrated improved cognitive performance after a classroom-based exercise regime. In this study, we examined the reproducibility of this effect in a more socio-economically diverse sample and also investigated whether cognitive benefits of exercise were moderated by body mass index (BMI) or symptoms of…

  13. Performance Improvement Assuming Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Individual performers, work teams, and organizations may be considered complex adaptive systems, while most current human performance technologies appear to assume simple determinism. This article explores the apparent mismatch and speculates on future efforts to enhance performance if complexity rather than simplicity is assumed. Included are…

  14. Donepezil Improved Cognitive Deficits in a Patient With Neurosyphilis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-Shan; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Lin, Chieh-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    A large number of patients with neurosyphilis present dementia with a progressive course and psychiatric symptoms such as depression, mania, and psychosis. Despite prompt and proper antibiotic treatment, the recovery is often incomplete, especially when tissue damage has occurred. We reported a patient with persisted cognitive decline associated with neurosyphilis that improved substantially after donepezil therapy. A 43-year-old man manifested significant psychiatric symptoms such as mania, psychosis, and cognitive impairment due to neurosyphilis. Subsequently, the patient was treated with antipsychotics and donepezil concurrent with an adequate antibiotic treatment for neurosyphilis. During the 1-year follow-up, his rapid plasma reagin titer approached from 1:256 to 1:64. His Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale scores improved from 12 to 25 and 42.3 to 6.3, respectively, after a 6-month donepezil treatment. Donepezil was discontinued. Three months later, worsening of cognitive impairment (MMSE score, 23) was noted. After donepezil was started again for 3 months, his MMSE score improved to 26. Persistent cognitive impairment is commonly associated with neurosyphilis despite adequate penicillin treatment. Treatment of the cognitive impairment is important but difficult. Cholinergic pathways are considered as involving in the cognitive deficit induced by neurosyphilis and donepezil, a cholinesterase inhibitor, which may be useful for the improvement of cognition. In this case report, we described for the first time the successful use of donepezil in treating cognitive impairment associated with neurosyphilis. The role of cholinesterase inhibitors in the treatment of cognitive impairments caused by neurosyphilis needs further studies. PMID:26166240

  15. Performance Improvement [in HRD].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    These four papers are from a symposium that was facilitated by Richard J. Torraco at the 1995 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (HRD). "Performance Technology--Isn't It Time We Found Some New Models?" (William J. Rothwell) reviews briefly two classic models, describes criteria for the high performance workplace (HPW), and…

  16. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Douris, Peter; Douris, Christopher; Balder, Nicole; LaCasse, Michael; Rand, Amir; Tarapore, Freya; Zhuchkan, Aleskey; Handrakis, John

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking. PMID:26672872

  17. Martial Art Training and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Douris, Peter; Douris, Christopher; Balder, Nicole; LaCasse, Michael; Rand, Amir; Tarapore, Freya; Zhuchkan, Aleskey; Handrakis, John

    2015-09-29

    Cognitive performance includes the processes of attention, memory, processing speed, and executive functioning, which typically declines with aging. Previous research has demonstrated that aerobic and resistance exercise improves cognitive performance immediately following exercise. However, there is limited research examining the effect that a cognitively complex exercise such as martial art training has on these cognitive processes. Our study compared the acute effects of 2 types of martial art training to aerobic exercise on cognitive performance in middle-aged adults. We utilized a repeated measures design with the order of the 3 exercise conditions randomly assigned and counterbalanced. Ten recreational middle-aged martial artists (mean age = 53.5 ± 8.6 years) participated in 3 treatment conditions: a typical martial art class, an atypical martial art class, and a one-hour walk at a self-selected speed. Cognitive performance was assessed by the Stroop Color and Word test. While all 3 exercise conditions improved attention and processing speed, only the 2 martial art conditions improved the highest order of cognitive performance, executive function. The effect of the 2 martial art conditions on executive function was not different. The improvement in executive function may be due to the increased cortical demand required by the more complex, coordinated motor tasks of martial art exercise compared to the more repetitive actions of walking. PMID:26672872

  18. Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone Differentially Improve Cognition in Aged Female Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benice, Ted S.; Raber, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Compared with age-matched male mice, female mice experience a more severe age-related cognitive decline (ACD). Since androgens are less abundant in aged female mice compared with aged male mice, androgen supplementation may enhance cognition in aged female mice. To test this, we assessed behavioral performance on a variety of tasks in 22- to…

  19. RC2S: A Cognitive Remediation Program to Improve Social Cognition in Schizophrenia and Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Peyroux, Elodie; Franck, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In people with psychiatric disorders, particularly those suffering from schizophrenia and related illnesses, pronounced difficulties in social interactions are a key manifestation. These difficulties can be partly explained by impairments in social cognition, defined as the ability to understand oneself and others in the social world, which includes abilities such as emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), attributional style, and social perception and knowledge. The impact of several kinds of interventions on social cognition has been studied recently. The best outcomes in the area of social cognition in schizophrenia are those obtained by way of cognitive remediation programs. New strategies and programs in this line are currently being developed, such as RC2S (cognitive remediation of social cognition) in Lyon, France. Considering that the social cognitive deficits experienced by patients with schizophrenia are very diverse, and that the main objective of social cognitive remediation programs is to improve patients’ functioning in their daily social life, RC2S was developed as an individualized and flexible program that allows patients to practice social interaction in a realistic environment through the use of virtual reality techniques. In the RC2S program, the patient’s goal is to assist a character named Tom in various social situations. The underlying idea for the patient is to acquire cognitive strategies for analyzing social context and emotional information in order to understand other characters’ mental states and to help Tom manage his social interactions. In this paper, we begin by presenting some data regarding the social cognitive impairments found in schizophrenia and related disorders, and we describe how these deficits are targeted by social cognitive remediation. Then we present the RC2S program and discuss the advantages of computer-based simulation to improve social cognition and social functioning in people with psychiatric disorders. PMID:24982627

  20. RC2S: A Cognitive Remediation Program to Improve Social Cognition in Schizophrenia and Related Disorders.

    PubMed

    Peyroux, Elodie; Franck, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In people with psychiatric disorders, particularly those suffering from schizophrenia and related illnesses, pronounced difficulties in social interactions are a key manifestation. These difficulties can be partly explained by impairments in social cognition, defined as the ability to understand oneself and others in the social world, which includes abilities such as emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), attributional style, and social perception and knowledge. The impact of several kinds of interventions on social cognition has been studied recently. The best outcomes in the area of social cognition in schizophrenia are those obtained by way of cognitive remediation programs. New strategies and programs in this line are currently being developed, such as RC2S (cognitive remediation of social cognition) in Lyon, France. Considering that the social cognitive deficits experienced by patients with schizophrenia are very diverse, and that the main objective of social cognitive remediation programs is to improve patients' functioning in their daily social life, RC2S was developed as an individualized and flexible program that allows patients to practice social interaction in a realistic environment through the use of virtual reality techniques. In the RC2S program, the patient's goal is to assist a character named Tom in various social situations. The underlying idea for the patient is to acquire cognitive strategies for analyzing social context and emotional information in order to understand other characters' mental states and to help Tom manage his social interactions. In this paper, we begin by presenting some data regarding the social cognitive impairments found in schizophrenia and related disorders, and we describe how these deficits are targeted by social cognitive remediation. Then we present the RC2S program and discuss the advantages of computer-based simulation to improve social cognition and social functioning in people with psychiatric disorders. PMID:24982627

  1. Job Performance: Improvement Needed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Jacob

    1974-01-01

    Personnel directors of 38 business firms responded to a questionnaire rating 24 employee traits related to competencies, attitudes, skills, and personality which needed improvement. Five traits were common among the rank order one to five to both retailer and commercial and service organization respondents: oral communication, initiative,…

  2. Using Simulations To Improve Cognitive Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Steven; Corriss, Darlene; Shia, Regina

    This study investigated changes in students' cognitive reasoning as they analyzed the dynamics of a rainforest ecosystem (El Yunque) in the aftermath of a hurricane in Puerto Rico. Students explore the virtual rainforest to study what happened to a type of frog after the hurricane. The culminating event is a simulation in which students manipulate…

  3. The effects of cognitive rehabilitation on Alzheimer’s dementia patients’ cognitive assessment reference diagnosis system performance based on level of cognitive functioning

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jung-Ha; Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Cho, Hyuk-Shin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to apply cognitive rehabilitation according to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients’ level of cognitive functioning to compare changes in Cognitive Assessment Reference Diagnosis System performance and present standards for effective intervention. [Subjects] Subjects were 30 inpatients diagnosed with AD. Subjects were grouped by Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) class (CDR-0.5, CDR-1, or CDR-2, n = 10 per group), which is based on level of cognitive functioning, and cognitive rehabilitation was applied for 50 minutes per day, five days per week, for four weeks. [Methods] After cognitive rehabilitation intervention, CARDS tests were conducted to evaluate memory. [Results] Bonferroni tests comparing the three groups revealed that the CDR-0.5 and CDR-1 groups showed significant increases in Delayed 10 word-list, Delayed 10 object-list, Recognition 10 object, and Recent memory performance compared to the CDR-2 group. In addition, the CDR-0.5 group showed significant decreases in Recognition 10 word performance compared to the CDR-1 group. [Conclusion] Cognitive rehabilitation, CDR-0.5 or CDR-1 subjects showed significantly greater memory improvements than CDR-2 subjects. Moreover, was not effective for CDR-2 subjects. PMID:26504315

  4. Improved cognition after control of risk factors for multi-infarct dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, J.S.; Judd, B.W.; Tawaklna, T.; Rogers, R.L.; Mortel, K.F.

    1986-10-24

    A cohort of 52 patients (30 men and 22 women) with multi-infarct dementia (MID) has been followed up prospectively for a mean interval of 22.2 months. Clinical course has been documented by serial history taking and interviews and neurological, medical, and psychological examinations, and correlated with measurements of cerebral blood flow. The clinical course and cognitive performance have been compared with those of age-matched normal volunteers and patients with Alzheimer's disease. Patients with MID were subdivided into hypertensive and normotensive groups, and also into those displaying stabilized or improved cognition and those whose condition deteriorated. Among hypertensive patients with MID, improved cognition and clinical course correlated with control of systolic blood pressure within upper limits of normalf (135 to 150 mm Hg), but if systolic blood pressure was reduced below this level, patients with MID deteriorated. Among normotensive patients with MID, improved cognition was associated with cessation of smoking cigarettes.

  5. Improving VLBI Station Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, K. U.; Kodet, J.; Plötz, C.

    2012-12-01

    Higher bandwidth and a vastly increased number of observed radio sources are basic elements of the roadmap into the future of VLBI. The new twin telescopes at Wettzell is a starting point for these goals. Systematic intra-technique biases are equally important. Modern instrumentation of quantum optics and recent progress in high resolution event timing provide new tools for studying system behavior and the improvement of system stability. Compensated optical fibers may qualify as suitable tools for oneway system delay reduction. This paper introduces current activities for a better system stabilization and inter- and intra- technique bias reductions at Wettzell.

  6. QUASAR's QStates cognitive gauge performance in the cognitive state assessment competition 2011.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Neil J; Soussou, Walid

    2011-01-01

    The Cognitive State Assessment Competition 2011 was organized by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to compare the performance of real-time cognitive state classification software. This paper presents results for QUASAR's data classification module, QStates, which is a software package for real-time (and off-line) analysis of physiologic data collected during cognitive-specific tasks. The classifier's methodology can be generalized to any particular cognitive state; QStates identifies the most salient features extracted from EEG signals recorded during different cognitive states or loads. PMID:22255838

  7. A single dose of oxytocin nasal spray improves higher-order social cognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Guastella, Adam J; Ward, Philip B; Hickie, Ian B; Shahrestani, Sara; Hodge, Marie Antoinette Redoblado; Scott, Elizabeth M; Langdon, Robyn

    2015-11-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with significant impairments in both higher and lower order social cognitive performance and these impairments contribute to poor social functioning. People with schizophrenia report poor social functioning to be one of their greatest unmet treatment needs. Recent studies have suggested the potential of oxytocin as such a treatment, but mixed results render it uncertain what aspects of social cognition are improved by oxytocin and, subsequently, how oxytocin might best be applied as a therapeutic. The aim of this study was to determine whether a single dose of oxytocin improved higher-order and lower-order social cognition performance for patients with schizophrenia across a well-established battery of social cognition tests. Twenty-one male patients received both a single dose of oxytocin nasal spray (24IU) and a placebo, two weeks apart in a randomized within-subjects placebo controlled design. Following each administration, participants completed the social cognition tasks, as well as a test of general neurocognition. Results revealed that oxytocin particularly enhanced performance on higher order social cognition tasks, with no effects on general neurocognition. Results for individual tasks showed most improvement on tests measuring appreciation of indirect hints and recognition of social faux pas. These results suggest that oxytocin, if combined to enhance social cognition learning, may be beneficial when targeted at higher order social cognition domains. This study also suggests that these higher order tasks, which assess social cognitive processing in a social communication context, may provide useful markers of response to oxytocin in schizophrenia. PMID:26150070

  8. Deconstructing and Reconstructing Cognitive Performance in Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Melinda L.; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M.; Belenky, Gregory; Rabat, Arnaud; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Mitigation of cognitive impairment due to sleep deprivation in operational settings is critical for safety and productivity. Achievements in this area are hampered by limited knowledge about the effects of sleep loss on actual job tasks. Sleep deprivation has different effects on different cognitive performance tasks, but the mechanisms behind this task-specificity are poorly understood. In this context it is important to recognize that cognitive performance is not a unitary process, but involves a number of component processes. There is emerging evidence that these component processes are differentially affected by sleep loss. Experiments have been conducted to decompose sleep-deprived performance into underlying cognitive processes using cognitive-behavioral, neuroimaging and cognitive modeling techniques. Furthermore, computational modeling in cognitive architectures has been employed to simulate sleep-deprived cognitive performance on the basis of the constituent cognitive processes. These efforts are beginning to enable quantitative prediction of the effects of sleep deprivation across different task contexts. This paper reviews a rapidly evolving area of research, and outlines a theoretical framework in which the effects of sleep loss on cognition may be understood from the deficits in the underlying neurobiology to the applied consequences in real-world job tasks. PMID:22884948

  9. Deconstructing and reconstructing cognitive performance in sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Melinda L; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M; Belenky, Gregory; Rabat, Arnaud; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2013-06-01

    Mitigation of cognitive impairment due to sleep deprivation in operational settings is critical for safety and productivity. Achievements in this area are hampered by limited knowledge about the effects of sleep loss on actual job tasks. Sleep deprivation has different effects on different cognitive performance tasks, but the mechanisms behind this task-specificity are poorly understood. In this context it is important to recognize that cognitive performance is not a unitary process, but involves a number of component processes. There is emerging evidence that these component processes are differentially affected by sleep loss. Experiments have been conducted to decompose sleep-deprived performance into underlying cognitive processes using cognitive-behavioral, neuroimaging and cognitive modeling techniques. Furthermore, computational modeling in cognitive architectures has been employed to simulate sleep-deprived cognitive performance on the basis of the constituent cognitive processes. These efforts are beginning to enable quantitative prediction of the effects of sleep deprivation across different task contexts. This paper reviews a rapidly evolving area of research, and outlines a theoretical framework in which the effects of sleep loss on cognition may be understood from the deficits in the underlying neurobiology to the applied consequences in real-world job tasks. PMID:22884948

  10. Musical Distracters, Personality Type and Cognitive Performance in School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furnham, Adrian; Stephenson, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the nature of the interaction between the affective value of musical distraction, personality type and performance on the cognitive tasks of reading comprehension, free recall, mental arithmetic and verbal reasoning in children aged 11-12 years. It was hypothesized that the cognitive performance of extraverts…

  11. Improved cognitive function in schizophrenia after one year of cognitive training and vocational services.

    PubMed

    Greig, Tamasine C; Zito, Wayne; Wexler, Bruce E; Fiszdon, Joanna; Bell, Morris D

    2007-11-01

    A year-long program of Neurocognitive Enhancement Therapy (NET) was used to remediate cognitive deficits in people with schizophrenia who were participating in a vocational program. Seventy-two stable outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, recruited from an urban community mental health center were randomly assigned to a twelve-month vocational program (VOC) or NET+VOC. The vocational program had characteristics of individual placement and support (IPS) programs but also included transitional funding. NET included computer-based cognitive training exercises, a social information processing group and a work feedback group. Sixty-two participants completed a neuropsychological test battery before and after treatment. After one year of treatment, participants receiving NET+VOC had significantly greater improvements on measures of executive function and working memory than did participants in the VOC only condition. Augmenting vocational services with a multifaceted cognitive remediation program may improve cognition in participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. PMID:17669629

  12. Improved Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia After One Year of Cognitive Training and Vocational Services

    PubMed Central

    Greig, Tamasine C.; Zito, Wayne; Wexler, Bruce E.; Fiszdon, Joanna; Bell, Morris D.

    2007-01-01

    A year- long program of Neurocognitive Enhancement Therapy (NET) was used to remediate cognitive deficits in people with schizophrenia who were participating in a vocational program Seventy-two stable outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, recruited from an urban community mental health center were randomly assigned to a 12 month vocational program (VOC) or NET + VOC. The vocational program had characteristics of individual placement and support (IPS) programs but also included transitional funding. NET included computer-based cognitive training exercises, a social information processing group and a work feedback group. Sixty-two participants completed a neuropsychological test battery before and after treatment. After one year of treatment, participants receiving NET+VOC had significantly greater improvements on measures of executive function and working memory than did participants in the VOC only condition. Augmenting vocational services with a multifaceted cognitive remediation program may improve cognition in participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. PMID:17669629

  13. Lifetime Occupation and Late-Life Cognitive Performance Among Women.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Pricila Cristina Correa; Lourenço, Roberto Alves

    2015-12-01

    We examined whether women who had regular jobs throughout life performed better cognitively than older adult housewives. Linear regression was used to compare global cognitive performance scores of housewives (G1) and women exposed to work of low (G2) and high (G3) complexity. The sample comprised 477 older adult Brazilian women, 430 (90.4%) of whom had performed lifelong jobs. In work with data, the G2 group's cognitive performance scores were 1.73 points higher (p =.03), and the G3 group scored 1.76 points (p =.02) higher, than the G1. In work with things and with people, the G3 scored, respectively, 2.04 (p <.01) and 2.21 (p <.01) cognitive test points higher than the G1. Based on our findings we suggest occupation of greater complexity is associated with better cognitive performance in women later in life. PMID:26291386

  14. Improving Cognition: A Multi-Cultural Approach. Final Report, MICA Project: Multi-Cultural Improvement of Cognitive Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Avila, Edward; And Others

    Described and summarized are the results of a program designed to improve the intellectual, academic, and linguistic functioning of children in a linguistically and culturally mixed setting. The program, Multicultural Improvement of Cognitive Abilities (MICA), was installed and supported by project staff in nine participating classrooms under two…

  15. Do cognitive interventions improve general cognition in dementia? A meta-analysis and meta-regression

    PubMed Central

    Huntley, J D; Gould, R L; Liu, K; Smith, M; Howard, R J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To review the efficacy of cognitive interventions on improving general cognition in dementia. Method Online literature databases and trial registers, previous systematic reviews and leading journals were searched for relevant randomised controlled trials. A systematic review, random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regression were conducted. Cognitive interventions were categorised as: cognitive stimulation (CS), involving a range of social and cognitive activities to stimulate multiple cognitive domains; cognitive training (CT), involving repeated practice of standardised tasks targeting a specific cognitive function; cognitive rehabilitation (CR), which takes a person-centred approach to target impaired function; or mixed  CT and stimulation (MCTS). Separate analyses were conducted for general cognitive outcome measures and for studies using ‘active’ (designed to control for non-specific therapeutic effects) and non-active (minimal or no intervention) control groups. Results 33 studies were included. Significant positive effect sizes (Hedges’ g) were found for CS with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) (g=0.51, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.69; p<0.001) compared to non-active controls and (g=0.35, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.65; p=0.019) compared to active controls. Significant benefit was also seen with the Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale-Cognition (ADAS-Cog) (g=?0.26, 95% CI ?0.445 to ?0.08; p=0.005). There was no evidence that CT or MCTS produced significant improvements on general cognition outcomes and not enough CR studies for meta-analysis. The lowest accepted minimum clinically important difference was reached in 11/17 CS studies for the MMSE, but only 2/9 studies for the ADAS-Cog. Additionally, 95% prediction intervals suggested that although statistically significant, CS may not lead to benefits on the ADAS-Cog in all clinical settings. Conclusions CS improves scores on MMSE and ADAS-Cog in dementia, but benefits on the ADAS-Cog are generally not clinically significant and difficulties with blinding of patients and use of adequate placebo controls make comparison with the results of dementia drug treatments problematic. PMID:25838501

  16. Practice of contemporary dance improves cognitive flexibility in aging.

    PubMed

    Coubard, Olivier A; Duretz, Stéphanie; Lefebvre, Virginie; Lapalus, Pauline; Ferrufino, Lena

    2011-01-01

    As society ages and frequency of dementia increases exponentially, counteracting cognitive aging decline is a challenging issue for countries of the developed world. Previous studies have suggested that physical fitness based on cardiovascular and strength training helps to improve attentional control in normal aging. However, how motor activity based on motor-skill learning can also benefit attentional control with age has been hitherto a neglected issue. This study examined the impact of contemporary dance (CD) improvisation on attentional control of older adults, as compared to two other motor training programs, fall prevention and Tai Chi Chuan. Participants performed setting, suppressing, and switching attention tasks before and after 5.7-month training in either CD or fall prevention or Tai Chi Chuan. Results indicated that CD improved switching but not setting or suppressing attention. In contrast, neither fall prevention nor Tai Chi Chuan showed any effect. We suggest that CD improvisation works as a training for change, inducing plasticity in flexible attention. PMID:21960971

  17. Practice of Contemporary Dance Improves Cognitive Flexibility in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Coubard, Olivier A.; Duretz, Stéphanie; Lefebvre, Virginie; Lapalus, Pauline; Ferrufino, Lena

    2011-01-01

    As society ages and frequency of dementia increases exponentially, counteracting cognitive aging decline is a challenging issue for countries of the developed world. Previous studies have suggested that physical fitness based on cardiovascular and strength training helps to improve attentional control in normal aging. However, how motor activity based on motor-skill learning can also benefit attentional control with age has been hitherto a neglected issue. This study examined the impact of contemporary dance (CD) improvisation on attentional control of older adults, as compared to two other motor training programs, fall prevention and Tai Chi Chuan. Participants performed setting, suppressing, and switching attention tasks before and after 5.7-month training in either CD or fall prevention or Tai Chi Chuan. Results indicated that CD improved switching but not setting or suppressing attention. In contrast, neither fall prevention nor Tai Chi Chuan showed any effect. We suggest that CD improvisation works as a training for change, inducing plasticity in flexible attention. PMID:21960971

  18. Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy for Musical-Performance Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendrick, Margaret J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compared the efficiency of cognitive-behavioral therapy, emphasizing self-instruction and attention-focusing techniques, with behavior rehearsal and with a waiting-list control in the treatment of debilitating musical-performance anxiety. Multivariate analyses indicated that both the cognitive-behavioral therapy and behavior-rehearsal programs…

  19. Improving Human-Machine Cooperative Classification Via Cognitive Theories of Similarity

    E-print Network

    Mozer, Michael C.

    Improving Human-Machine Cooperative Classification Via Cognitive Theories of Similarity Brett D of Colorado Boulder, CO 80309-0430 {brett.roads,mozer}@colorado.edu Abstract We explore human-machine cooperative classification systems that enable novices to perform difficult tasks such as skin

  20. Cognitive Performance as a Zeitgeber: Cognitive Oscillators and Cholinergic Modulation of the SCN Entrain Circadian Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Gritton, Howard J.; Stasiak, Ashley M.; Sarter, Martin; Lee, Theresa M.

    2013-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the primary circadian pacemaker in mammals that can synchronize or entrain to environmental cues. Although light exerts powerful influences on SCN output, other non-photic stimuli can modulate the SCN as well. We recently demonstrated that daily performance of a cognitive task requiring sustained periods of attentional effort that relies upon basal forebrain (BF) cholinergic activity dramatically alters circadian rhythms in rats. In particular, normally nocturnal rats adopt a robust diurnal activity pattern that persists for several days in the absence of cognitive training. Although anatomical and pharmacological data from non-performing animals support a relationship between cholinergic signaling and circadian rhythms, little is known about how endogenous cholinergic signaling influences SCN function in behaving animals. Here we report that BF cholinergic projections to the SCN provide the principal signal allowing for the expression of cognitive entrainment in light-phase trained animals. We also reveal that oscillator(s) outside of the SCN drive cognitive entrainment as daily timed cognitive training robustly entrains SCN-lesioned arrhythmic animals. Ablation of the SCN, however, resulted in significant impairments in task acquisition, indicating that SCN-mediated timekeeping benefits new learning and cognitive performance. Taken together, we conclude that cognition entrains non-photic oscillators, and cholinergic signaling to the SCN serves as a temporal timestamp attenuating SCN photic-driven rhythms, thereby permitting cognitive demands to modulate behavior. PMID:23441168

  1. Neighborhood Integration and Connectivity Predict Cognitive Performance and Decline

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Amber; Ferdous, Farhana; Moore, Keith Diaz; Burns, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neighborhood characteristics may be important for promoting walking, but little research has focused on older adults, especially those with cognitive impairment. We evaluated the role of neighborhood characteristics on cognitive function and decline over a 2-year period adjusting for measures of walking. Method In a study of 64 older adults with and without mild Alzheimer's disease (AD), we evaluated neighborhood integration and connectivity using geographical information systems data and space syntax analysis. In multiple regression analyses, we used these characteristics to predict 2-year declines in factor analytically derived cognitive scores (attention, verbal memory, mental status) adjusting for age, sex, education, and self-reported walking. Results Neighborhood integration and connectivity predicted cognitive performance at baseline, and changes in cognitive performance over 2 years. The relationships between neighborhood characteristics and cognitive performance were not fully explained by self-reported walking. Discussion Clearer definitions of specific neighborhood characteristics associated with walkability are needed to better understand the mechanisms by which neighborhoods may impact cognitive outcomes. These results have implications for measuring neighborhood characteristics, design and maintenance of living spaces, and interventions to increase walking among older adults. We offer suggestions for future research measuring neighborhood characteristics and cognitive function. PMID:26504889

  2. Is Education Associated with Improvements in General Cognitive Ability, or in Specific Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Stuart J.; Bates, Timothy C.; Deary, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that education influences cognitive development, but it is unclear what, precisely, is being improved. Here, we tested whether education is associated with cognitive test score improvements via domain-general effects on general cognitive ability ("g"), or via domain-specific effects on particular cognitive

  3. Performance Analysis of Dispersed Spectrum Cognitive Radio Systems 

    E-print Network

    Mohammad, Muneer

    2011-02-22

    Dispersed spectrum cognitive radio systems represent a promising approach to exploit the utilization of spectral resources to full extent. Therefore, the performance analysis of such systems is conducted in this research. The Average symbol error...

  4. The functional role of cognitive frameworks on visuomotor adaptation performance.

    PubMed

    Lex, Heiko; Weigelt, Matthias; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of cognitive representations of movement directions on sensorimotor adaptation performance. Adaptation performance was measured via a pointing experiment in which participants were provided with visual feedback that was distorted along the midsagittal plane (i.e., left-right reversal). Performance was analyzed relative to participants' individual adaptation gains and 3 groups were subsequently defined (i.e., skilled, average, and poor adapters). The group separation was kept for the Cognitive Measurement of Represented Directions, which was used to analyze participants' cognitive representation of movement directions. The results showed that skilled adapters, in contrast to poor adapters, possess a global representation of movement directions aligned to the cardinal axes. The cognitive representation structure hence supports the sensorimotor adaptation performance. PMID:25205332

  5. Psychological Intervention for Improving Cognitive Function in Cancer Survivors: A Literature Review and Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    King, Summer; Green, Heather Joy

    2015-01-01

    Although the impact of cancer and associated treatments on cognitive functioning is becoming an increasingly recognized problem, there are few published studies that have investigated psychological interventions to address this issue. A waitlist randomized controlled trial methodology was used to assess the efficacy of a group cognitive rehabilitation intervention (“ReCog”) that successfully targeted cancer-related cognitive decline in previously published pilot research. Participants were 29 cancer survivors who were randomly allocated to either the intervention group or a waitlist group who received the intervention at a later date, and 16 demographically matched community volunteers with no history of cancer (trial registration ACTRN12615000009516, available at http://www.ANZCTR.org.au/ACTRN12615000009516.aspx). The study was the first to include an adapted version of the Traumatic Brain Injury Self-Efficacy Scale to assess cognitive self-efficacy (CSE) in people who have experienced cancer. Results revealed participating in the intervention was associated with significantly faster performance on one objective cognitive task that measures processing speed and visual scanning. Significantly larger improvements for the intervention group were also found on measures of perceived cognitive impairments and CSE. There was some evidence to support the roles of CSE and illness perceptions as potential mechanisms of change for the intervention. Overall, the study provided additional evidence of feasibility and efficacy of group psychological intervention for targeting cancer-related cognitive decline. PMID:25859431

  6. Interactive Cognitive-Motor Step Training Improves Cognitive Risk Factors of Falling in Older Adults – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schoene, Daniel; Valenzuela, Trinidad; Toson, Barbara; Delbaere, Kim; Severino, Connie; Garcia, Jaime; Davies, Thomas A.; Russell, Frances; Smith, Stuart T.; Lord, Stephen R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Interactive cognitive-motor training (ICMT) requires individuals to perform both gross motor movements and complex information processing. This study investigated the effectiveness of ICMT on cognitive functions associated with falls in older adults. Methods A single-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted in community-dwelling older adults (N = 90, mean age 81.5±7) without major cognitive impairment. Participants in the intervention group (IG) played four stepping games that required them to divide attention, inhibit irrelevant stimuli, switch between tasks, rotate objects and make rapid decisions. The recommended minimum dose was three 20-minute sessions per week over a period of 16 weeks unsupervised at home. Participants in the control group (CG) received an evidence-based brochure on fall prevention. Measures of processing speed, attention/executive function (EF), visuo-spatial ability, concerns about falling and depression were assessed before and after the intervention. Results Eighty-one participants (90%) attended re-assessment. There were no improvements with respect to the Stroop Stepping Test (primary outcome) in the intervention group. Compared to the CG, the IG improved significantly in measures of processing speed, visuo-spatial ability and concern about falling. Significant interactions were observed for measures of EF and divided attention, indicating group differences varied for different levels of the covariate with larger improvements in IG participants with poorer baseline performance. The interaction for depression showed no change for the IG but an increase in the CG for those with low depressive symptoms at baseline. Additionally, low and high-adherer groups differed in their baseline performance and responded differently to the intervention. Compared to high adherers, low adherers improved more in processing speed and visual scanning while high-adherers improved more in tasks related to EF. Conclusions This study shows that unsupervised stepping ICMT led to improvements in specific cognitive functions associated with falls in older people. Low adherers improved in less complex functions while high-adherers improved in EF. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000671763 PMID:26673919

  7. TURBINE BURNERS: Engine Performance Improvements;

    E-print Network

    Heydari, Payam

    the expansion through the turbine for turbojet , turbofan , and stationary - power gas - turbine engines. StudyTURBINE BURNERS: Engine Performance Improvements; Mixing, Ignition, and Flame-Holding in High Acceleration Flows Presented by William A. Sirignano Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering University

  8. Acai fruit improves motor and cognitive function in aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aged rats show impaired performance on motor and cognitive tasks that require the use of spatial learning and memory. In previous studies, we have shown the beneficial effects of various berry fruits (blueberries, strawberries, and blackberries) in reversing age-related deficits in behavioral and ne...

  9. Improving functional disability and cognition in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Javier; García-Gorostiaga, Inés; Gomez-Beldarrain, Maria Angeles; Díez-Cirarda, María; Ojeda, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the efficacy of an integrative cognitive training program (REHACOP) to improve cognition, clinical symptoms, and functional disability of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: Forty-two patients diagnosed with PD in Hoehn & Yahr stages 1 to 3 were randomly assigned to either the cognitive training group (REHACOP) or the control group (occupational activities) for 3 months (3 sessions, 60 min/wk). Primary outcomes were change on processing speed, verbal memory, visual memory, executive functioning, and theory of mind. Secondary outcomes included changes on neuropsychiatric symptoms, depression, apathy, and functional disability. The trial was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02118480). Results: No baseline group differences were found. Bootstrapped analysis of variance results showed significant differences in the mean change scores between the REHACOP group and control group in processing speed (0.13 [SE = 0.07] vs ?0.15 [SE = 0.09], p = 0.025), visual memory (0.10 [SE = 0.10] vs ?0.24 [SE = 0.09], p = 0.011), theory of mind (1.00 [SE = 0.37] vs ?0.27 [SE = 0.29], p = 0.013), and functional disability (?5.15 [SE = 1.35] vs 0.53 [SE = 1.49], p = 0.012). Conclusions: Patients with PD receiving cognitive training with REHACOP demonstrated statistically significant and clinically meaningful changes in processing speed, visual memory, theory of mind, and functional disability. Future studies should consider the long-term effect of this type of intervention. These findings support the integration of cognitive training into the standard of care for patients with PD. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with PD, an integrative cognitive training program improves processing speed, visual memory, theory of mind, and functional disability. PMID:25361785

  10. Arctic cognition: a study of cognitive performance in summer and winter at 69 degrees N

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennen, T.; Martinussen, M.; Hansen, B. O.; Hjemdal, O.

    1999-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated over the past 15 years that affect in humans is cyclical. In winter there is a tendency to depression, with remission in summer, and this effect is stronger at higher latitudes. In order to determine whether human cognition is similarly rhythmical, this study investigated the cognitive processes of 100 participants living at 69 degrees N. Participants were tested in summer and winter on a range of cognitive tasks, including verbal memory, attention and simple reaction time tasks. The seasonally counterbalanced design and the very northerly latitude of this study provide optimal conditions for detecting impaired cognitive performance in winter, and the conclusion is negative: of five tasks with seasonal effects, four had disadvantages in summer. Like the menstrual cycle, the circannual cycle appears to influence mood but not cognition.

  11. Dual Motor-Cognitive Virtual Reality Training Impacts Dual-Task Performance in Freezing of Gait.

    PubMed

    Killane, Isabelle; Fearon, Conor; Newman, Louise; McDonnell, Conor; Waechter, Saskia M; Sons, Kristian; Lynch, Timothy; Reilly, Richard B

    2015-11-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG), an episodic gait disturbance characterized by the inability to generate effective stepping, occurs in more than half of Parkinson's disease patients. It is associated with both executive dysfunction and attention and becomes most evident during dual tasking (performing two tasks simultaneously). This study examined the effect of dual motor-cognitive virtual reality training on dual-task performance in FOG. Twenty community dwelling participants with Parkinson's disease (13 with FOG, 7 without FOG) participated in a pre-assessment, eight 20-minute intervention sessions, and a post-assessment. The intervention consisted of a virtual reality maze (DFKI, Germany) through which participants navigated by stepping-in-place on a balance board (Nintendo, Japan) under time pressure. This was combined with a cognitive task (Stroop test), which repeatedly divided participants' attention. The primary outcome measures were pre- and post-intervention differences in motor (stepping time, symmetry, rhythmicity) and cognitive (accuracy, reaction time) performance during single- and dual-tasks. Both assessments consisted of 1) a single cognitive task 2) a single motor task, and 3) a dual motor-cognitive task. Following the intervention, there was significant improvement in dual-task cognitive and motor parameters (stepping time and rhythmicity), dual-task effect for those with FOG and a noteworthy improvement in FOG episodes. These improvements were less significant for those without FOG. This is the first study to show benefit of a dual motor-cognitive approach on dual-task performance in FOG. Advances in such virtual reality interventions for home use could substantially improve the quality of life for patients who experience FOG. PMID:26394439

  12. Space Shuttle SRM performance improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speak, C. A.; Wilks, R. K.; Jones, K. W.

    1981-01-01

    A number of options for Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) performance improvement were studied and evaluated by NASA with respect to payload improvement potential, technical risk, schedule, cost, and impact on Shuttle system performance. It was found that the SRM delivered specific impulse could be improved by increasing the nozzle expansion ratio from 7.16 to 7.72. This was achieved by decreasing the throat diameter of the nozzle exit cone, while staying within tooling, facility, and ICD limitations. A simple modification of the grain inhibiting pattern was made to reshape the thrust-time history and thereby obtain more delivered impulse during the early portion of motor operation. These performance options, initiated in October 1980, provide a 3,000 lb payload increase. Longer range options are the use of a filament wound composite case, a HTPB propellant, and further increases in the nozzle expansion ratio. These improvements have a potential of 10,000 to 11,000 lb payload increase.

  13. Cognitive Style and Motor Skill and Sports Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riding, Richard J.; Al-Salih, Nizar

    2000-01-01

    Presents a study of cognitive style and motor skill performance on a battery of tasks and sports performance. Suggests four skills factors from the motor skills subsample (n=69), specifically bodily movement, interactive skills, mechanical skills, and aiming. Reveals a significant effect of style for tennis from the sports performance subsample…

  14. Cognitive Performance in Treatment-Naïve Active Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stan; Fein, George

    2011-01-01

    Background Most studies reporting cognitive deficits in chronic alcoholics have relied on treatment samples (predominantly men) from inpatient or outpatient treatment facilities. However, the majority of chronic alcoholics have never been in treatment, and there is increasing evidence that treated and non-treatment seeking alcoholic samples come from different populations with regard to alcohol use and other factors related to the severity of disease. Accordingly, in the present study, we assessed a broad range of cognitive functions in 55 treatment-naïve alcohol dependent (TNAD) individuals and 55 non-alcoholic controls (NAC) matched for age and education. In addition, a goal of the present study was to assess potential differential effects of alcohol dependence on cognitive performance in TNAD men and women. Methods Comprehensive neuropsychological assessment was conducted on TNAD and NAC. The following nine performance domains, each consisting of multiple measures, were examined: attention, auditory working memory, verbal processing, abstraction/cognitive flexibility, psychomotor function, immediate memory, delayed memory, reaction time, and spatial processing. Results Analysis revealed no cognitive deficits in TNAD, relative to NAC, in any of the nine cognitive domains. TNAD performed better than NAC in the attention domain. In addition, while men performed better than women in the spatial domain, there were no TNAD vs. NAC group by gender interactions for any domain. Conclusions Our results extend findings that TNAD show minimal behavioral effects of chronic heavy alcohol use, and are consistent with the contention that TNAD are relatively cognitively intact. Differences between our findings and those often reported for alcoholics recruited from treatment settings may be understood in terms of differences in alcohol use, along with genetic, psychiatric, and nutritional factors. In addition, the lack of differential effects of alcohol dependence on male and female cognitive performance in our study suggests that TNAD men and women do not differ in the severity of cerebral consequences of alcohol dependence. PMID:20860617

  15. Subjective Cognitive Complaints, Memory Performance, and Depressive Affect in Old Age: A Change-Oriented Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimprich, Daniel; Martin, Mike; Kliegel, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    The question of whether and how subjective cognitive complaints are related to actual cognitive performance represents a central issue in applied cognitive aging research. Until recently, however, many studies have failed to find a strong association between subjective cognitive complaints and actual cognitive performance. In our study, we examine…

  16. Integrated treatment approach improves cognitive function in demented and clinically depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Bragin, Valentin; Chemodanova, Marina; Dzhafarova, Narmina; Bragin, Ilya; Czerniawski, Jennifer L; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an integrative treatment approach on cognitive performance. The study sample comprised 35 medically ill patients (20 male, 15 female) with an average age of 71.05, who were diagnosed with mild dementia and depression. These patients were evaluated at baseline and at six, 12, and 24 months of treatment, which included antidepressants (sertraline, citalopram, or venlafaxine XR, alone or in combination with bupropion XR), cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, rivastigmine or galantamine), as well as vitamins and supplements (multivitamins, vitamin E, alpha-lipoic acid, omega-3 and coenzyme Q-10). Patients were encouraged to modify their diet and lifestyle and perform mild physical exercises. Results show that the integrative treatment not only protracted cognitive decline for 24 months but even improved cognition, especially memory and frontal lobe functions. PMID:15751450

  17. Does multicomponent physical exercise with simultaneous cognitive training boost cognitive performance in older adults? A 6-month randomized controlled trial with a 1-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Eggenberger, Patrick; Schumacher, Vera; Angst, Marius; Theill, Nathan; de Bruin, Eling D

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment is a health problem that concerns almost every second elderly person. Physical and cognitive training have differential positive effects on cognition, but have been rarely applied in combination. This study evaluates synergistic effects of multicomponent physical exercise complemented with novel simultaneous cognitive training on cognition in older adults. We hypothesized that simultaneous cognitive–physical components would add training specific cognitive benefits compared to exclusively physical training. Methods Seniors, older than 70 years, without cognitive impairment, were randomly assigned to either: 1) virtual reality video game dancing (DANCE), 2) treadmill walking with simultaneous verbal memory training (MEMORY), or 3) treadmill walking (PHYS). Each program was complemented with strength and balance exercises. Two 1-hour training sessions per week over 6 months were applied. Cognitive performance was assessed at baseline, after 3 and 6 months, and at 1-year follow-up. Multiple regression analyses with planned comparisons were calculated. Results Eighty-nine participants were randomized to the three groups initially, 71 completed the training, while 47 were available at 1-year follow-up. Advantages of the simultaneous cognitive–physical programs were found in two dimensions of executive function. “Shifting attention” showed a time×intervention interaction in favor of DANCE/MEMORY versus PHYS (F[2, 68] =1.95, trend P=0.075, r=0.17); and “working memory” showed a time×intervention interaction in favor of DANCE versus MEMORY (F[1, 136] =2.71, trend P=0.051, R2=0.006). Performance improvements in executive functions, long-term visual memory (episodic memory), and processing speed were maintained at follow-up in all groups. Conclusion Particular executive functions benefit from simultaneous cognitive–physical training compared to exclusively physical multicomponent training. Cognitive–physical training programs may counteract widespread cognitive impairments in the elderly. PMID:26316729

  18. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and cognitive performance in mid-life.

    PubMed

    Maddock, Jane; Geoffroy, Marie-Claude; Power, Chris; Hyppönen, Elina

    2014-03-14

    Hypovitaminosis D has been linked with poor cognitive function, particularly in older adults, but studies lack a lifespan approach; hence, the effects of reverse causality remain unknown. In the present study, we aimed to assess the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and subsequent cognitive performance in mid-adulthood and the influence of earlier life factors, including childhood cognitive ability, on this association. Information for the present study was obtained from the members of the 1958 British birth cohort (n 6496). Serum 25(OH)D concentration, indicating vitamin D status, was measured at age 45 years. Verbal memory (immediate and delayed word recall), verbal fluency (animal naming) and speed of processing were tested at age 50 years. Information on childhood cognitive ability, educational attainment, vitamin D-related behaviours and other covariates was collected prospectively from participants throughout their life. Childhood cognitive ability and educational attainment by age 42 years were strongly correlated with cognitive performance at age 50 years and with several vitamin D-related behaviours in mid-adulthood, but not with 25(OH)D concentrations at age 45 years. Participants with both low (<25 nmol/l) and high (?75 nmol/l) 25(OH)D concentrations at age 45 years performed significantly worse on immediate word recall. The associations attenuated after adjustment for childhood cognitive ability, education, and socio-economic position; however, for the immediate word recall test, there was a non-linear association with 25(OH)D after further adjustment for obesity, menopausal status, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and depressive symptoms at age 45 years (P(curvature)=0·01). The present study demonstrated that 25(OH)D concentrations were non-linearly associated with immediate word recall in mid-life. A clarification of the level of 25(OH)D concentrations that is most beneficial for predicting better cognitive performance in mid-life is required. PMID:24135155

  19. Musicians' Cognitive Processing of Imagery-Based Instructions for Expressive Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    This study addressed the cognitive processes of musicians using imagery to improve expressive performance. Specifically, it was an examination of the extent to which musicians translate imagery into explicit plans for the sound properties of music. Eighty-four undergraduate and graduate music majors completed a research packet during individual…

  20. Cognitive Performance Profiles by Latent Classes of Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Harrell, PT; Mancha, B; Martins, SS; Mauro, PM; Kuo, JH; Scherer, M; Bolla, KI; Latimer, WW

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives The relationship between substance use and cognitive deficits is complex and requires innovative methods to enhance understanding. The present study is the first to use LCA to examine associations of drug use patterns with cognitive performance. Methods Cocaine/heroin users (N=552) completed questionnaires, and cognitive measures. LCA identified classes based on past-month drug use and adjusted for probabilities of group membership when examining cognitive performance. Latent indicators were: alcohol (ALC), cigarettes (CIG), marijuana (MJ), crack smoking (CS), nasal heroin (NH), injection cocaine (IC), injection heroin (IH), and injection speedball (IS). Age and education were included as covariates in model creation. Results Bootstrap Likelihood Ratio Test (BLRT) supported a 5-class model. Prevalent indicators (estimated probability of over 50%) for each class are as follows: “Older Nasal Heroin/Crack Smokers” (ONH/CS, n=166.9): ALC, CIG, NH, CS; “Older, Less Educated Polysubstance” (OLEP, n=54.8): ALC, CIG, CS, IH, IC, and IS; “Younger Multi-Injectors” (MI, n=128.7): ALC, CIG, MJ, IH, IC, and IS; “Less Educated Heroin Injectors” (LEHI, n=87.4): CIG, IH; and “More Educated Nasal Heroin” users (MENH, n = ALC, CIG, NH). In general, all classes performed worse than established norms and older, less educated classes performed worse, with the exception that MENH demonstrated worse cognitive flexibility than YMI. Discussion and Conclusions This study demonstrated novel applications of a methodology for examining complicated relationships between polysubstance use and cognitive performance. Scientific Significance Education and/or nasal heroin use are associated with reduced cognitive flexibility in this sample of inner city drug users. PMID:24628774

  1. Estrogen Treatment Impairs Cognitive Performance following Psychosocial Stress and Monoamine Depletion in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Paul A.; Dumas, Julie; Wilkins, Heather; Coderre, Emily; Sites, Cynthia K.; Naylor, Magdalena; Benkelfat, Chawki; Young, Simon N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Recent studies have shown women experience an acceleration of cognitive problems after menopause, and that estrogen treatment can improve or at least maintain current levels of cognitive functioning in postmenopausal women. However, we have previously shown that the negative emotional effects of psychosocial stress are magnified in normal postmenopausal women after estrogen treatment. This study examined whether estradiol administration can modify cognitive performance after exposure to psychological stress and monoamine depletion. Methods Participants consisted of 22 postmenopausal women placed on either oral placebo or 17?-estradiol (E2) (1 mg/day for 1 month, then 2 mg/day for 2 months). At the end of the 3 month treatment phase, participants underwent three depletion challenges in which they ingested one of three amino acid mixtures: deficient in tryptophan, deficient in phenylalanine/tyrosine, or balanced. Five hours later, participants performed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), followed by mood and anxiety ratings and cognitive testing. Cognitive measures included tests of attention, psychomotor function, and verbal episodic memory. Results E2-treated compared to placebo-treated participants exhibited significant worsening of cognitive performance on tasks measuring attentional performance and psychomotor speed. Similar trends for impairment were seen in measures of long-term episodic memory compared to placebo-treated postmenopausal women. E2-treated participants also showed a significant increase in negative mood and anxiety compared to placebo-treated women after but not before the TSST, though the worsening of both cognitive and behavioral functioning were not correlated. These effects were independent of tryptophan or tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion and were not manifest before the TSST or at baseline. Conclusions These data suggest that the relationship between estrogen administration and cognitive/behavioral performance in postmenopausal women may be more complex than initially appreciated and that effects of psychosocial stress may influence whether hormone effects are beneficial. PMID:20616673

  2. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Memory, Visual Discrimination Performance, and the

    E-print Network

    Squire, Larry R.

    Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Memory, Visual Discrimination Performance, and the Human Hippocampus, University of California, San Diego, California 92093, and 6Veterans Affairs Healthcare System, San Diego discrimination performance, for example, when spatial processing is required and the stimuli have a high degree

  3. Cognitive intervention results in web-based videophone treatment adherence and improved cognitive scores

    PubMed Central

    Riegler, Lindsay James; Neils-Strunjas, Jean; Boyce, Suzanne; Wade, Shari L.; Scheifele, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Background We report findings from an intervention study using telehealth modalities to determine whether provision of telehealth services can improve access to care and increase adherence to cognitive therapy in veterans with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) while matching traditional care in terms of outcomes. Material/Methods Veterans who were initially non-adherent to clinic-based cognitive therapy were offered a newly developed treatment. The control participants were selected from patient records of veterans who had completed cognitive treatment and matched to MOPS-VI participants on the basis of age, marital or relationship status, and composite memory index score. Baseline and post-treatment cognitive functioning as assessed by the Test of Memory and Learning 2nd Edition (TOMAL-2) was obtained for all participants. The MOPS-VI modules were designed to increase understanding of TBI and elicit problem-solving skills for attention and memory impairment. Results Sixty-seven percent of veterans (who were assigned to the MOPS-VI treatment group because they were initially non-adherent with the clinic-based treatment) completed the MOPS-VI telemedicine treatment. Results of a two-way analysis of Variance (ANOVA) comparing baseline and follow-up scores on the TOMAL-2 in the MOPS-VI and control groups revealed there was a significant pre-post assessment effect, indicating that participant’s memory and learning improved after treatment for both MOPS-VI and standard treatment groups. There was no significant difference between clinic-based treatment and MOPS-VI therapy. Conclusions Preliminary evidence supports the efficacy of the treatment, defined as increased compliance in completing the treatment program, and improvements in standardized memory and learning test results comparable to those following clinic-based treatment. PMID:23584165

  4. Physical exercise improves peripheral BDNF levels and cognitive functions in mild cognitive impairment elderly with different bdnf Val66Met genotypes.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Carla Manuela Crispim; Pereira, Jessica Rodrigues; Pires de Andrade, Larissa; Garuffi, Marcelo; Ayan, Carlos; Kerr, Daniel Shikanai; Talib, Leda Leme; Cominetti, Márcia Regina; Stella, Florindo

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of physical exercise on improvements in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and cognitive functioning have been reported in the literature. However, the variability of individual responses may be linked to genetic differences. BDNF is considered one of the most plausible factors involved in the cognitive benefits associated with physical activity practice. A single nucleotide polymorphism localized in the gene that codes BDNF results in a missense mutation that promotes an amino acid substitution (Val66Met) in the protein. This process has been associated with decreased levels of BDNF secretion, with corresponding impairments in specific cognitive functions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a multimodal physical exercise program on peripheral BDNF levels and cognitive functions in elderly individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The participants were genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. Cognitive functions were assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) prior to and after the intervention. Forty-five participants were assigned to the control and trained groups. The trained group participated in a multimodal physical training for a 16-week period. The results showed a significant between-subjects interaction (p < 0.05), which indicates the beneficial contribution of training on cognitive functions independent of the BDNF genotype. However, only participants with BDNF-Met genotypes exhibited significant improvements in peripheral BDNF levels. The BDNF genotype appears to modulate the effects of physical exercise on BDNF secretion, but it does not influence cognition. This is the first study that evaluated the influence of a BDNF polymorphism on physical activity and cognition performance in elderly MCI individuals. PMID:25062900

  5. Improving storage bandwidth guarantees with performance insulation

    E-print Network

    Improving storage bandwidth guarantees with performance insulation Matthew Wachs, Gregory R. Ganger insulation that bounds interference among workloads and its effect on performance and total system capacity, performance guarantees, storage performance, virtualization, per- formance insulation, performance isolation

  6. A Cognitive Framework for Understanding and Improving Interference Resolution in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Jyoti; Anguera, Joaquin A.; Ziegler, David A.; Gazzaley, Adam

    2014-01-01

    All of us are familiar with the negative impact of interference on achieving our task goals. We are referring to interference by information, which either impinges on our senses from an external environmental source or is internally generated by our thoughts. Informed by more than a decade of research on the cognitive and neural processing of interference, we have developed a framework for understanding how interference impacts our neural systems and especially how it is regulated and suppressed during efficient on-task performance. Importantly, externally and internally generated interferences have distinct neural signatures, and further, distinct neural processing emerges depending on whether individuals must ignore and suppress the interference, as for distractions, or engage with them in a secondary task, as during multitasking. Here, we elaborate on this cognitive framework and how it changes throughout the human lifespan, focusing mostly on research evidence from younger adults and comparing these findings to data from older adults, children, and cognitively impaired populations. With insights gleaned from our growing understanding, we then describe three novel translational efforts in our lab directed at improving distinct aspects of interference resolution using cognitive training. Critically, these training approaches were specifically developed to target improved interference resolution based on neuroplasticity principles and have shown much success in randomized controlled first version evaluations in healthy aging. Our results show not only on-task training improvements but also robust generalization of benefit to other cognitive control abilities. This research showcases how an in-depth understanding of neural mechanisms can then inform the development of effective deficit-targeted interventions, which can in turn benefit both healthy and cognitively impaired populations. PMID:24309262

  7. Cognition and the Placebo Effect – Dissociating Subjective Perception and Actual Performance

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Katharina A.; Büchel, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The influence of positive or negative expectations on clinical outcomes such as pain relief or motor performance in patients and healthy participants has been extensively investigated for years. Such research promises potential benefit for patient treatment by deliberately using expectations as means to stimulate endogenous regulation processes. Especially regarding recent interest and controversies revolving around cognitive enhancement, the question remains whether mere expectancies might also yield enhancing or impairing effects in the cognitive domain, i.e., can we improve or impair cognitive performance simply by creating a strong expectancy in participants about their performance? Moreover, previous literature suggests that especially subjective perception is highly susceptible to expectancy effects, whereas objective measures can be affected in certain domains, but not in others. Does such a dissociation of objective measures and subjective perception also apply to cognitive placebo and nocebo effects? In this study, we sought to investigate whether placebo and nocebo effects can be evoked in cognitive tasks, and whether these effects influence objective and subjective measures alike. To this end, we instructed participants about alleged effects of different tone frequencies (high, intermediate, low) on brain activity and cognitive functions. We paired each tone with specific success rates in a Flanker task paradigm as a preliminary conditioning procedure, adapted from research on placebo hypoalgesia. In a subsequent test phase, we measured reaction times and success rates in different expectancy conditions (placebo, nocebo, and control) and then asked participants how the different tone frequencies affected their performance. Interestingly, we found no effects of expectation on objective measures, but a strong effect on subjective perception, i.e., although actual performance was not affected by expectancy, participants strongly believed that the placebo tone frequency improved their performance. PMID:26148009

  8. Daily iron supplementation on cognitive performance in primary-school-aged children with and without anemia: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiu-min; Liu, Hui; Qian, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is an important public health and clinical problem. Observational studies have linked iron deficiency and anemia in children with many poor outcomes, including impaired cognitive development. In this study, we summarize the evidence for the effect of daily iron supplementation on cognitive performance in primary-school-aged children. We searched electronic databases (including MEDLINE and Wangfang database) and other sources (August 2015) for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials involving daily iron supplementation on cognitive performance in children aged 5-12 years. We combined the data using random effects meta-analysis. We identified 3219 studies; of these, we evaluated 5 full-text papers including 1825 children. Iron supplementation cannot improve global cognitive scores (Mean difference 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.69 to 4.79, P<0.01). Our analysis suggests that iron supplementation improves global cognitive c outcomes among primary-school-aged children is still unclear. PMID:26629120

  9. The effect of breakfast cereal consumption on adolescents' cognitive performance and mood.

    PubMed

    Defeyter, Margaret A; Russo, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of breakfast consumption on cognitive performance and mood in adolescents, and any interaction that breakfast consumption might have with cognitive load. The rationale for this approach was that the beneficial effects of any intervention with regard to cognitive function may be more readily apparent when more demands are placed on the system. Furthermore, as skipping breakfast is particularly prevalent within this age group, thus, we focused on adolescents who habitually skip breakfast. Cognitive load was modulated by varying the level of difficulty of a series of cognitive tasks tapping memory, attention, and executive functions. Mood measured with Bond-Lader scales (1974) as well as measures of thirst, hunger, and satiety were recorded at each test session both at baseline and after the completion of each test battery. Forty adolescents (mean age = 14:2) participated in this within-subjects design study. According to treatment, all participants were tested before and after the intake of a low Glycaemic index breakfast (i.e., a 35 g portion of AllBran and 125 ml semi-skimmed milk) and before and after no breakfast consumption. Assessment time had two levels: 8.00 am (baseline) and 10.45 am. The orders of cognitive load tasks were counterbalanced. Overall it appeared that following breakfast participants felt more alert, satiated, and content. Following breakfast consumption, there was evidence for improved cognitive performance across the school morning compared to breakfast omission in some tasks (e.g., Hard Word Recall, Serial 3's and Serial 7's). However, whilst participants performance on the hard version of each cognitive task was significantly poorer compared to the corresponding easy version, there was limited evidence to support the hypothesis that the effect of breakfast was greater in the more demanding versions of the tasks. PMID:24312043

  10. The effect of breakfast cereal consumption on adolescents' cognitive performance and mood

    PubMed Central

    Defeyter, Margaret A.; Russo, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of breakfast consumption on cognitive performance and mood in adolescents, and any interaction that breakfast consumption might have with cognitive load. The rationale for this approach was that the beneficial effects of any intervention with regard to cognitive function may be more readily apparent when more demands are placed on the system. Furthermore, as skipping breakfast is particularly prevalent within this age group, thus, we focused on adolescents who habitually skip breakfast. Cognitive load was modulated by varying the level of difficulty of a series of cognitive tasks tapping memory, attention, and executive functions. Mood measured with Bond–Lader scales (1974) as well as measures of thirst, hunger, and satiety were recorded at each test session both at baseline and after the completion of each test battery. Forty adolescents (mean age = 14:2) participated in this within-subjects design study. According to treatment, all participants were tested before and after the intake of a low Glycaemic index breakfast (i.e., a 35 g portion of AllBran and 125 ml semi-skimmed milk) and before and after no breakfast consumption. Assessment time had two levels: 8.00 am (baseline) and 10.45 am. The orders of cognitive load tasks were counterbalanced. Overall it appeared that following breakfast participants felt more alert, satiated, and content. Following breakfast consumption, there was evidence for improved cognitive performance across the school morning compared to breakfast omission in some tasks (e.g., Hard Word Recall, Serial 3's and Serial 7's). However, whilst participants performance on the hard version of each cognitive task was significantly poorer compared to the corresponding easy version, there was limited evidence to support the hypothesis that the effect of breakfast was greater in the more demanding versions of the tasks. PMID:24312043

  11. Expert music performance: cognitive, neural, and developmental bases.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rachel M; Zatorre, Robert J; Penhune, Virginia B

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we explore what happens in the brain of an expert musician during performance. Understanding expert music performance is interesting to cognitive neuroscientists not only because it tests the limits of human memory and movement, but also because studying expert musicianship can help us understand skilled human behavior in general. In this chapter, we outline important facets of our current understanding of the cognitive and neural basis for music performance, and developmental factors that may underlie musical ability. We address three main questions. (1) What is expert performance? (2) How do musicians achieve expert-level performance? (3) How does expert performance come about? We address the first question by describing musicians' ability to remember, plan, execute, and monitor their performances in order to perform music accurately and expressively. We address the second question by reviewing evidence for possible cognitive and neural mechanisms that may underlie or contribute to expert music performance, including the integration of sound and movement, feedforward and feedback motor control processes, expectancy, and imagery. We further discuss how neural circuits in auditory, motor, parietal, subcortical, and frontal cortex all contribute to different facets of musical expertise. Finally, we address the third question by reviewing evidence for the heritability of musical expertise and for how expertise develops through training and practice. We end by discussing outlooks for future work. PMID:25725910

  12. Homocysteine and Cognitive Performance in Elders with Self-Neglect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated plasma homocysteine has been associated with altered cognitive performance in older adults. Elders referred to Adult Protective Services (APS) for self-neglect have been reported to have elevated plasma homocysteine levels and to suffer from cognitive impairment. This study assesses the association, if any, between plasma homocysteine and cognitive performance among elders with self-neglect. Methods: Sixty-five community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 matched controls (matched for age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS), the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Tests (CDT) and a comprehensive nutritional biochemistry panel, which included plasma homocysteine. Student s t tests and Pearson correlations were conducted to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Elders with self-neglect had significantly higher plasma homocysteine levels (M=12.68umol/L, sd=4.4) compared to the controls (M=10.40umol/L, sd=3.61;t=3.21, df=127, p=.002). There were no statistically significant associations between cognitive performance and plasma homocysteine in the self-neglect group, however there was a significant correlation between plasma homocysteine and the CDT among the controls (r=-.296, p=.022). Conclusion: Mean plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in elders with self-neglect, however, they do not appear to be related to cognitive performance, indicating that cognitive impairment in elder self-neglect involve mechanisms other than hyperhomocysteinemia. These findings warrant further investigation

  13. Modeling Cognitive Strategies during Complex Task Performing Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazman, Sacide Guzin; Altun, Arif

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine individuals' computer based complex task performing processes and strategies in order to determine the reasons of failure by cognitive task analysis method and cued retrospective think aloud with eye movement data. Study group was five senior students from Computer Education and Instructional Technologies…

  14. Midsagittal Brain Shape Correlation with Intelligence and Cognitive Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Emiliano; Martin-Loeches, Manuel; Burgaleta, Miguel; Colom, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Brain shape might influence cognitive performance because of the relationships between functions, spatial organization, and differential volumetric development of cortical areas. Here we analyze the relationships between midsagittal brain shape variation and a set of basic psychological measures. Coordinates in 2D from 102 MRI-scanned young adult…

  15. Distributed Cognition in Sports Teams: Explaining Successful and Expert Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Kellie; Cox, Rochelle

    2014-01-01

    In this article we use a hybrid methodology to better understand the skilful performance of sports teams as an exemplar of distributed cognition. We highlight key differences between a team of individual experts (an aggregate system) and an expert team (an emergent system), and outline the kinds of shared characteristics likely to be found in an…

  16. Performance and Cognitive Assessment in 3-D Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahrer, Nolan E.; Ernst, Jeremy V.; Branoff, Theodore J.; Clark, Aaron C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate identifiable differences between performance and cognitive assessment scores in a 3-D modeling unit of an engineering drafting course curriculum. The study aimed to provide further investigation of the need of skill-based assessments in engineering/technical graphics courses to potentially increase…

  17. Prospective Associations between Dietary Patterns and Cognitive Performance during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyaradi, Anett; Foster, Jonathan K.; Hickling, Siobhan; Li, Jianghong; Ambrosini, Gina L.; Jacques, Angela; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to investigate prospective associations between dietary patterns and cognitive performance during adolescence. Methods: Participants were sourced from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study that includes 2868 children born between 1989 and 1992 in Perth, Western Australia. When the children were…

  18. Qualitative Pedagogical Inquiry into Cognitive Modulation of Musical Performance Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, Andre

    1999-01-01

    Presents a study that identifies some concepts involved in the cognitive modulation of naturalistic Musical Performance Anxiety (MPA) episodes among undergraduate music students and elaborates an alternative to psychological apprehension in regard to MPA. The research was exploratory and consisted of eight case studies. Data were collected and…

  19. Composition Instruction and Cognitive Performance: Results of a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugos, Jennifer; Jacobs, Edward

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a composition program, Composers in Public Schools (CiPS), on cognitive skills essential for academic success. The underlying hypothesis is that composition instruction will promote creative expression and increase performance on music-specific skills such as music reading, as well as foster…

  20. An Overview of the EPIC Architecture for Cognition and Performance

    E-print Network

    Hornof, Anthony

    An Overview of the EPIC Architecture for Cognition and Performance with Application to Human Report No. 5 (TR-95/ONR-EPIC-5) December 5, 1995 This research was supported by the Office of Naval Government. Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited #12;An Overview of the EPIC Architecture

  1. Physical Education Performance Outcomes and Cognitive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelli, Darla M.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2007-01-01

    This article intends to inform physical education teachers about the current research describing the relationship between physical education performance outcomes as identified by the national physical education standards (i.e., regular participation in physical activity, physical fitness, motor competence; National Association of Physical…

  2. EEG Analysis of the Effects of Therapeutic Cooling on the Cognitive Performance of Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Leslie D.; Montgomery, Richard W.; Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Luna, Bernadette; Lee, Hank C.; Kliss, Mark; Webbon, Bruce; Mead, Susan C. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project was to determine whether a controlled period of head and torso cooling would enhance the cognitive performance of multiple sclerosis patients. Nineteen MS patients (11 men and 8 women) participated in the study. Control data were taken from nineteen healthy volunteers (12 men and 7 women). All but six of nineteen MS patients tested improved their cognitive performance, as measured by their scores on the Rao test battery. A second objective was to gain insight into the neurological effects of cooling. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) stimulated by a reversing checkerboard pattern were recorded before and after cooling. We found that cooling selectively benefited the cognitive performance of those MS patients whose pre-cooling VEPs were abnormally shaped (which is an indication of visual pathway impairment due to demyelinization). Moreover, for female MS patients, the degree of cognitive performance improvement following cooling was correlated with a change in the shape of their VEPs toward a more normal shape following cooling.

  3. Physical exercise in MCI elderly promotes reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and improvements on cognition and BDNF peripheral levels.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Carla Manuela Crispim; Pereira, Jessica Rodrigues; de Andrade, Larissa Pires; Garuffi, Marcelo; Talib, Leda Leme; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente; Cancela, Jose Maria; Cominetti, Marcia Regina; Stella, Florindo

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of physical exercise to reduce low-grade inflammation and improve Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) levels and cognitive function became a growing field of interest. Low-grade inflammation is common during aging and seems to be linked to neurodegenerative process. Regular physical exercises can help to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines levels and to improve BDNF peripheral concentrations. The main goal of this research was to analyze the effects of a 16-week multimodal physical exercise program on peripheral BDNF levels and on Tumor Necrosis-? (TNF-?) and Interleukin- 6 (IL-6) as pro-inflammatory markers in cognitive healthy elderly individuals and in elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Cognitive functions were assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) prior to and after the intervention. Thirty cognitively healthy participants and thirty-seven MCI participants were assigned to the control (CG) and trained (TG) groups. The TG participated in a multimodal physical training program for a 16-week period. The results showed a significant between-subjects interaction, which indicates the beneficial contribution of training on the reduction of TNF-? (p=0.001) and IL-6 (p<0.001) and on the improvement of BDNF (p<0.001) peripheral concentrations. Cognitive functions also presented significant improvements for MCI trained group (p=0.03). In conclusion, physical exercise was effective to reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines and to improve BDNF peripheral levels, with positive reflexes on cognition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluated longitudinally the effects of a multimodal physical exercises protocol on peripheral concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cognition performance in elderly MCI individuals. PMID:25212919

  4. Children's Cognitive Performance and Selective Attention Following Recent Community Violence

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Raver, C. Cybele; Sharkey, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown robust relationships between community violence and psychopathology, yet relatively little is known about the ways in which community violence may affect cognitive performance and attention. The present study estimates the effects of police-reported community violence on 359 urban children's performance on a computerized neuropsychological task using a quasi-experimental fixed-effects design. Living in close proximity to a recent violent crime predicted faster but marginally less accurate task performance for the full sample, evolutionarily adaptive patterns of “vigilant” attention (i.e., less attention toward positive stimuli, more attention toward negative stimuli) for children reporting low trait anxiety, and potentially maladaptive patterns of “avoidant” attention for highly anxious children. These results suggest that community violence can directly affect children's cognitive performance while also having different (and potentially orthogonal) impacts on attention deployment depending on children's levels of biobehavioral risk. Implications for mental health and sociological research are discussed. PMID:25663176

  5. Intranasal Insulin Improves Age-Related Cognitive Deficits and Reverses Electrophysiological Correlates of Brain Aging.

    PubMed

    Maimaiti, Shaniya; Anderson, Katie L; DeMoll, Chris; Brewer, Lawrence D; Rauh, Benjamin A; Gant, John C; Blalock, Eric M; Porter, Nada M; Thibault, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral insulin resistance is a key component of metabolic syndrome associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes. While the impact of insulin resistance is well recognized in the periphery, it is also becoming apparent in the brain. Recent studies suggest that insulin resistance may be a factor in brain aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD) whereby intranasal insulin therapy, which delivers insulin to the brain, improves cognition and memory in AD patients. Here, we tested a clinically relevant delivery method to determine the impact of two forms of insulin, short-acting insulin lispro (Humalog) or long-acting insulin detemir (Levemir), on cognitive functions in aged F344 rats. We also explored insulin effects on the Ca(2+)-dependent hippocampal afterhyperpolarization (AHP), a well-characterized neurophysiological marker of aging which is increased in the aged, memory impaired animal. Low-dose intranasal insulin improved memory recall in aged animals such that their performance was similar to that seen in younger animals. Further, because ex vivo insulin also reduced the AHP, our results suggest that the AHP may be a novel cellular target of insulin in the brain, and improved cognitive performance following intranasal insulin therapy may be the result of insulin actions on the AHP. PMID:25659889

  6. Flipperons for Improved Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabe, James H.

    2008-01-01

    Lightweight, piezoelectrically actuated bending flight-control surfaces have shown promise as means of actively controlling airflows to improve the performances of transport airplanes. These bending flight-control surfaces are called flipperons because they look somewhat like small ailerons, but, unlike ailerons, are operated in an oscillatory mode reminiscent of the actions of biological flippers. The underlying concept of using flipperons and other flipperlike actuators to impart desired characteristics to flows is not new. Moreover, elements of flipperon-based active flow-control (AFC) systems for aircraft had been developed previously, but it was not until the development reported here that the elements have been integrated into a complete, controllable prototype AFC system for wind-tunnel testing to enable evaluation of the benefits of AFC for aircraft. The piezoelectric actuator materials chosen for use in the flipperons are single- crystal solid solutions of lead zinc niobate and lead titanate, denoted generically by the empirical formula (1-x)[Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3]:x[PbTiO3] (where x<1) and popularly denoted by the abbreviation PZN-PT. These are relatively newly recognized piezoelectric materials that are capable of strain levels exceeding 1 percent and strain-energy densities 5 times greater than those of previously commercially available piezoelectric materials. Despite their high performance levels, (1-x)[Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3]:x[PbTiO3] materials have found limited use until now because, relative to previously commercially available piezoelectric materials, they tend to be much more fragile.

  7. Improving Performance in a Nuclear Cardiology Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFleur, Doug; Smalley, Karolyn; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    Improving performance in the medical industry is an area that is ideally suited for the tools advocated by the International Society of Performance Improvement (ISPI). This paper describes an application of the tools that have been developed by Dale Brethower and Geary Rummler, two pillars of the performance improvement industry. It allows the…

  8. Improving pulverized coal plant performance

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, J.W.; Borio, R.W.; Palkes, M.; Mirolli, M.; Wesnor, J.D.; Bender, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    A major deliverable of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project ``Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emissions Boiler Systems`` (LEBS) is the design of a large, in this case 400 MWe, commercial generating unit (CGU) which will meet the Project objectives. The overall objective of the LEBS Project is to dramatically improve environmental performance of future pulverized coal fired power plants without adversely impacting efficiency or the cost of electricity. The DOE specified the use of near-term technologies, i.e., advanced technologies that partially developed, to reduce NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions to be substantially less than current NSPS limits. In addition, air toxics must be in compliance and waste must be reduced and made more disposable. The design being developed by the ABB Team is projected to meet all the contract objectives and to reduce emission of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particulates to one-fifth to one-tenth NSPS limits while increasing net station efficiency significantly and reducing the cost of electricity. This design and future work are described in the paper.

  9. Improving pulverized coal plant performance

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, J.W.; Borio, R.W.; Palkes, M.; Mirolli, M.D.; Wesnor, J.D.; Bender, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    A major deliverable of the US Department of Energy (DOE) project ``Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emissions Boiler Systems`` (LEBS) is the design of a large, in this case 400 MWe, commercial generating unit (CGU) which will meet the Project objectives. The overall objective of the LEBS Project is to dramatically improve environmental performance of future pulverized coal fired power plants without adversely impacting efficiency or the cost of electricity. The DOE specified the use of near-term technologies, i.e., advanced technologies that are partially developed, to reduce NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions to be substantially less than current NSPS limits. In addition, air toxics must be in compliance and waste must be reduced and made more disposable. The design being developed by the ABB Team is projected to meet all the contract objectives and to reduce emission of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particulates to one-fifth to one-tenth NSPS limits while increasing net station efficiency significantly and reducing the cost of electricity. This design and future work are described in the paper.

  10. Improved Processing Speed: Online Computer-Based Cognitive Training in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Tamara; Camfield, David; Pipingas, Andrew; Macpherson, Helen; Stough, Con

    2012-01-01

    In an increasingly aging population, a number of adults are concerned about declines in their cognitive abilities. Online computer-based cognitive training programs have been proposed as an accessible means by which the elderly may improve their cognitive abilities; yet, more research is needed in order to assess the efficacy of these programs. In…

  11. The effect of age on cognitive performance of frontal patients.

    PubMed

    Cipolotti, Lisa; Healy, Colm; Chan, Edgar; MacPherson, Sarah E; White, Mark; Woollett, Katherine; Turner, Martha; Robinson, Gail; Spanò, Barbara; Bozzali, Marco; Shallice, Tim

    2015-08-01

    Age is known to affect prefrontal brain structure and executive functioning in healthy older adults, patients with neurodegenerative conditions and TBI. Yet, no studies appear to have systematically investigated the effect of age on cognitive performance in patients with focal lesions. We investigated the effect of age on the cognitive performance of a large sample of tumour and stroke patients with focal unilateral, frontal (n=68), or non-frontal lesions (n=45) and healthy controls (n=52). We retrospectively reviewed their cross sectional cognitive and imaging data. In our frontal patients, age significantly predicted the magnitude of their impairment on two executive tests (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, RAPM and the Stroop test) but not on nominal (Graded Naming Test, GNT) or perceptual (Incomplete Letters) task. In our non-frontal patients, age did not predict the magnitude of their impairment on the RAPM and GNT. Furthermore, the exacerbated executive impairment observed in our frontal patients manifested itself from middle age. We found that only age consistently predicted the exacerbated executive impairment. Lesions to specific frontal areas, or an increase in global brain atrophy or white matter abnormalities were not associated with this impairment. Our results are in line with the notion that the frontal cortex plays a critical role in aging to counteract cognitive and neuronal decline. We suggest that the combined effect of aging and frontal lesions impairs the frontal cortical systems by causing its computational power to fall below the threshold needed to complete executive tasks successfully. PMID:26102190

  12. The effect of age on cognitive performance of frontal patients

    PubMed Central

    Cipolotti, Lisa; Healy, Colm; Chan, Edgar; MacPherson, Sarah E.; White, Mark; Woollett, Katherine; Turner, Martha; Robinson, Gail; Spanò, Barbara; Bozzali, Marco; Shallice, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Age is known to affect prefrontal brain structure and executive functioning in healthy older adults, patients with neurodegenerative conditions and TBI. Yet, no studies appear to have systematically investigated the effect of age on cognitive performance in patients with focal lesions. We investigated the effect of age on the cognitive performance of a large sample of tumour and stroke patients with focal unilateral, frontal (n=68), or non-frontal lesions (n=45) and healthy controls (n=52). We retrospectively reviewed their cross sectional cognitive and imaging data. In our frontal patients, age significantly predicted the magnitude of their impairment on two executive tests (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, RAPM and the Stroop test) but not on nominal (Graded Naming Test, GNT) or perceptual (Incomplete Letters) task. In our non-frontal patients, age did not predict the magnitude of their impairment on the RAPM and GNT. Furthermore, the exacerbated executive impairment observed in our frontal patients manifested itself from middle age. We found that only age consistently predicted the exacerbated executive impairment. Lesions to specific frontal areas, or an increase in global brain atrophy or white matter abnormalities were not associated with this impairment. Our results are in line with the notion that the frontal cortex plays a critical role in aging to counteract cognitive and neuronal decline. We suggest that the combined effect of aging and frontal lesions impairs the frontal cortical systems by causing its computational power to fall below the threshold needed to complete executive tasks successfully. PMID:26102190

  13. Imaging of neuro-cognitive performance in extreme Environments—A (p)review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Stefan; Bubeev, Juri A.; Choukèr, Alexander; Morukov, Boris; Johannes, Bernd; Strüder, Heiko K.

    2012-12-01

    Living in extreme environments is accompanied by a number of stressors, which can be classified either as physiological stressors (e.g. microgravity, missing sunlight) or psychological stressors (e.g. confinement). From earth bound studies a negative impact of stress on mental health and cognitive performance is well known and both factors might impair mission success and mission safety during longer inhabitation of space. Accordingly there is the need to identify adequate countermeasures. Nevertheless causal research of neuro-cognitive impairments in space remains speculative due to missing possibilities of brain imaging. Furthermore the reliability of current psychological tests used to assess and monitor cognitive performance in extreme environments seems to be vulnerable due to a lack of compliance. With on-going plans of international space agencies to send people to moon and/or mars, this manuscript aims to summarize and review research attempts of the past two decades and to identify methodological shortcomings. Finally, following the guideline that research has no legacy for its own but must serve the self-concept and well-being of man, this manuscript presents a number of recommendations to enhance future neuro-cognitive research in extreme environments. A deeper insight into neuro-cognitive coherence is not only desirable to understand the effects of stress on mental health, which seems to be a major issue for our current society, and to develop adequate countermeasures but will also help to maintain and improve mission success and mission safety in manned space flight.

  14. Improved cognitive-cerebral function in older adults with chromium supplementation.

    PubMed

    Krikorian, Robert; Eliassen, James C; Boespflug, Erin L; Nash, Tiffany A; Shidler, Marcelle D

    2010-06-01

    Insulin resistance is implicated in the pathophysiological changes associated with Alzheimer's disease, and pharmaceutical treatments that overcome insulin resistance improve memory function in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease. Chromium (Cr) supplementation improves glucose disposal in patients with insulin resistance and diabetes. We sought to assess whether supplementation with Cr might improve memory and neural function in older adults with cognitive decline. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 26 older adults to receive either chromium picolinate (CrPic) or placebo for 12 weeks. Memory and depression were assessed prior to treatment initiation and during the final week of treatment. We also performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans on a subset of subjects. Although learning rate and retention were not enhanced by CrPic supplementation, we observed reduced semantic interference on learning, recall, and recognition memory tasks. In addition, fMRI indicated comparatively increased activation for the CrPic subjects in right thalamic, right temporal, right posterior parietal, and bifrontal regions. These findings suggest that supplementation with CrPic can enhance cognitive inhibitory control and cerebral function in older adults at risk for neurodegeneration. PMID:20423560

  15. Differential effect of motivational features on training improvements in school-based cognitive training

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Benjamin; Jaeggi, Susanne; Buschkuehl, Martin; Stegman, Alyse; Shah, Priti

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive training often utilizes game-like motivational features to keep participants engaged. It is unclear how these elements, such as feedback, reward, and theming impact player performance during training. Recent research suggests that motivation and engagement are closely related to improvements following cognitive training. We hypothesized that training paradigms featuring game-like motivational elements would be more effective than a version with no motivational elements. Five distinct motivational features were chosen for examination: a real-time scoring system, theme changes, prizes, end-of-session certificates, and scaffolding to explain the lives and leveling system included in the game. One version of the game was created with all these motivational elements included, and one was created with all of them removed. Other versions removed a single element at a time. Seven versions of a game-like n-back working memory task were then created and administered to 128 students in second through eight grade at school-based summer camps in southeastern Michigan. The inclusion of real-time scoring during play, a popular motivational component in both entertainment games and cognitive training, was found to negatively impact training improvements over the three day period. Surprisingly, scaffolding to explain lives and levels also negatively impacted training gains. The other game adjustments did not significantly impact training improvement compared to the original version of the game with all features included. These findings are preliminary and are limited by both the small sample size and the brevity of the intervention. Nonetheless, these findings suggest that certain motivational elements may distract from the core cognitive training task, reducing task improvement, especially at the initial stage of learning. PMID:24795603

  16. Differential effect of motivational features on training improvements in school-based cognitive training.

    PubMed

    Katz, Benjamin; Jaeggi, Susanne; Buschkuehl, Martin; Stegman, Alyse; Shah, Priti

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive training often utilizes game-like motivational features to keep participants engaged. It is unclear how these elements, such as feedback, reward, and theming impact player performance during training. Recent research suggests that motivation and engagement are closely related to improvements following cognitive training. We hypothesized that training paradigms featuring game-like motivational elements would be more effective than a version with no motivational elements. Five distinct motivational features were chosen for examination: a real-time scoring system, theme changes, prizes, end-of-session certificates, and scaffolding to explain the lives and leveling system included in the game. One version of the game was created with all these motivational elements included, and one was created with all of them removed. Other versions removed a single element at a time. Seven versions of a game-like n-back working memory task were then created and administered to 128 students in second through eight grade at school-based summer camps in southeastern Michigan. The inclusion of real-time scoring during play, a popular motivational component in both entertainment games and cognitive training, was found to negatively impact training improvements over the three day period. Surprisingly, scaffolding to explain lives and levels also negatively impacted training gains. The other game adjustments did not significantly impact training improvement compared to the original version of the game with all features included. These findings are preliminary and are limited by both the small sample size and the brevity of the intervention. Nonetheless, these findings suggest that certain motivational elements may distract from the core cognitive training task, reducing task improvement, especially at the initial stage of learning. PMID:24795603

  17. Brief bursts of infrasound may improve cognitive function - An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Weichenberger, Markus; Kühler, Robert; Bauer, Martin; Hensel, Johannes; Brühl, Rüdiger; Ihlenfeld, Albrecht; Ittermann, Bernd; Gallinat, Jürgen; Koch, Christian; Sander, Tilmann; Kühn, Simone

    2015-10-01

    At present, infrasound (sound frequency < 20 Hz; IS) is being controversially discussed as a potential mediator of several adverse bodily as well as psychological effects. However, it remains unclear, if and in what way IS influences cognition. Here, we conducted an fMRI experiment, in which 13 healthy participants were exposed to IS, while cognitive performance was assessed in an n-back working memory paradigm. During the task, short sinusoidal tone bursts of 12 Hz were administered monaurally with sound pressure levels that had been determined individually in a categorical loudness scaling session prior to the fMRI experiment. We found that task execution was associated with a significant activation of the prefrontal and the parietal cortex, as well as the striatum and the cerebellum, indicating the recruitment of a cognitive control network. Reverse contrast analysis (n-back with tone vs. n-back without tone) revealed a significant activation of the bilateral primary auditory cortex (Brodmann areas 41, 42). Surprisingly, we also found a strong, yet non-significant trend for an improvement of task performance during IS exposure. There was no correlation between performance and brain activity measures in tone and no-tone condition with sum scores of depression-, anxiety-, and personality factor assessment scales (BDI, STAIX1/X2, BFI-S). Although exerting a pronounced effect on cortical brain activity, we obtained no evidence for an impairment of cognition due to brief bursts of IS. On the contrary, potential improvement of working memory function introduces an entirely new aspect to the debate on IS-related effects. PMID:26260309

  18. Negative Symptom Improvement During Cognitive Rehabilitation: Results from a Two-Year Trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Eack, Shaun M.; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive rehabilitation has shown beneficial effects on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which may also help to improve negative symptoms due to overlapping pathophysiology between these two domains. To better understand the possible relationship between these areas, we conducted an exploratory analysis of the effects of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) on negative symptoms. Early course schizophrenia outpatients (n = 58) were randomized to two years of CET or an Enriched Supportive Therapy (EST) control condition. Results revealed significant and medium-sized (d = .61) differential improvements favoring CET in overall negative symptoms, particularly social withdrawal, affective flattening, and motor retardation. Neurocognitive improvement was associated with reduced negative symptoms in CET, but not EST patients. No relationships were observed between improvements in emotion processing aspects of social cognition, as measured by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, and negative symptoms. CET represents an effective cognitive rehabilitation intervention for schizophrenia that may also have benefits to negative symptoms. Future studies specifically designed to examine negative symptoms during the course of cognitive rehabilitation are needed. PMID:23623449

  19. Cognitive-Behavioral–Based Physical Therapy to Improve Surgical Spine Outcomes: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Motzny, Nicole; Abraham, Christine M.; Yaffe, Donna; Seebach, Caryn L.; Devin, Clinton J.; Spengler, Dan M.; McGirt, Matthew J.; Aaronson, Oran S.; Cheng, Joseph S.; Wegener, Stephen T.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Fear of movement is a risk factor for poor postoperative outcomes in patients following spine surgery. The purposes of this case series were: (1) to describe the effects of a cognitive-behavioral–based physical therapy (CBPT) intervention in patients with high fear of movement following lumbar spine surgery and (2) to assess the feasibility of physical therapists delivering cognitive-behavioral techniques over the telephone. Case Description Eight patients who underwent surgery for a lumbar degenerative condition completed the 6-session CBPT intervention. The intervention included empirically supported behavioral self-management, problem solving, and cognitive restructuring and relaxation strategies and was conducted in person and then weekly over the phone. Patient-reported outcomes of pain and disability were assessed at baseline (6 weeks after surgery), postintervention (3 months after surgery), and at follow-up (6 months after surgery). Performance-based outcomes were tested at baseline and postintervention. The outcome measures were the Brief Pain Inventory, Oswestry Disability Index, 5-Chair Stand Test, and 10-Meter Walk Test. Outcomes Seven of the patients demonstrated a clinically significant reduction in pain, and all 8 of the patients had a clinically significant reduction in disability at 6-month follow-up. Improvement on the performance-based tests also was noted postintervention, with 5 patients demonstrating clinically meaningful change on the 10-Meter Walk Test. Discussion The findings suggest that physical therapists can feasibly implement cognitive-behavioral skills over the telephone and may positively affect outcomes after spine surgery. However, a randomized clinical trial is needed to confirm the results of this case series and the efficacy of the CBPT intervention. Clinical implications include broadening the availability of well-accepted cognitive-behavioral strategies by expanding implementation to physical therapists and through a telephone delivery model. PMID:23599351

  20. Relationship between physical performance and cognitive performance measures among community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Won, Huiloo; Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit; Din, Normah Che; Badrasawi, Manal; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Tan, Sin Thien; Tai, Chu Chiau; Shahar, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Cognitive impairment is correlated with physical function. However, the results in the literature are inconsistent with cognitive and physical performance measures. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the association between cognitive performance and physical function among older adults. Methods A total of 164 older adults aged ?60 years and residing in low-cost housing areas in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia participated in this study. Cognitive performance was measured using the Mini Mental State Examination, clock drawing test, Rey auditory verbal learning test, digit symbol test, digit span test, matrix reasoning test, and block design test. Physical performance measures were assessed using the ten step test for agility, short physical performance battery test for an overall physical function, static balance test using a Pro.Balance board, and dynamic balance using the functional reach test. Results There was a negative and significant correlation between agility and the digit symbol test (r=?0.355), clock drawing test (r=?0.441), matrix reasoning test (r=?0.315), and block design test (r=?0.045). A significant positive correlation was found between dynamic balance, digit symbol test (r=0.301), and matrix reasoning test (r=0.251). The agility test appeared as a significant (R2=0.183, R2=0.407, R2=0.299, P<0.05) predictor of some cognitive performance measures, including the digit span test, clock drawing test, and Mini Mental State Examination. Conclusion These results suggest that a decline in most cognitive performance measures can be predicted by poor execution of a more demanding physical performance measure such as the ten step test for agility. It is imperative to use a more complex and cognitively demanding physical performance measure to identify the presence of an overall cognitive impairment among community-dwelling older adults. It may also be beneficial to promote more complex and cognitively challenging exercises and activities among older adults for optimal physical and cognitive function. PMID:25328418

  1. Social hierarchies and emotions: cortical prefrontal activity, facial feedback (EMG), and cognitive performance in a dynamic interaction.

    PubMed

    Balconi, Michela; Pagani, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    In the present research, we manipulated the perceived superior/inferior status during a competitive cognitive task. In two experiments, we created an explicit and strongly reinforced social hierarchy based on incidental rating on an attentional task. Based on our hypotheses, social rank may influence nonverbal cues (such as facial mimic related to emotional response), cortical lateralized activity in frontal areas (brain oscillations), and cognitive outcomes in response to rank modulation. Thus, the facial mimic (corrugators vs. zygomatic muscle activity), frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta), and real cognitive performance [(error rate (ER); response times (RTs)] were considered. Specifically, a peer-group comparison was enrolled and an improved (experiment 1, N = 29) or decreased (experiment 2, N = 31) performance was artificially manipulated by the experimenter. Results showed a significant improved cognitive performance (decreased ER and RTs), an increased zygomatic activity (positive emotions), and a more prefrontal left-lateralized cortical response in the case of a perceived increased social ranking. On the contrary, a significant decreased cognitive performance (increased ER and RTs), an increased corrugators activity (negative emotions), and a less left-lateralized cortical response were observed as a consequence of a perceived decreased social ranking. Moreover, the correlational values revealed a consistent trend between behavioral (RTs) and EMG and EEG measures for both experiments. The present results suggest that social status not only guides social behavior, but it also influences cognitive processes and subjects' performance. PMID:25372808

  2. The Effect of a Six-Month Dancing Program on Motor-Cognitive Dual-Task Performance in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Hamacher, Dennis; Hamacher, Daniel; Rehfeld, Kathrin; Hökelmann, Anita; Schega, Lutz

    2015-10-01

    Dancing is a complex sensorimotor activity involving physical and mental elements which have positive effects on cognitive functions and motor control. The present randomized controlled trial aims to analyze the effects of a dancing program on the performance on a motor-cognitive dual task. Data of 35 older adults, who were assigned to a dancing group or a health-related exercise group, are presented in the study. In pretest and posttest, we assessed cognitive performance and variability of minimum foot clearance, stride time, and stride length while walking. Regarding the cognitive performance and the stride-to-stride variability of minimum foot clearance, interaction effects have been found, indicating that dancing lowers gait variability to a higher extent than conventional health-related exercise. The data show that dancing improves minimum foot clearance variability and cognitive performance in a dual-task situation. Multi-task exercises (like dancing) might be a powerful tool to improve motor-cognitive dual-task performance. PMID:25642826

  3. Infant feeding practice and childhood cognitive performance in South India

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Wills, Andrew K; Hill, Jacqueline C; Kurpad, Anura V; Muthayya, Sumithra; Karat, Samuel C; Nalinakshi, Mahadevu; Fall, Caroline HD

    2012-01-01

    Aim Several studies have suggested a beneficial effect of infant breast-feeding on childhood cognitive function. Our main objective was to examine whether duration of breast-feeding and age at introduction of complementary foods are related to cognitive performance in 9-10 year old school going children in South-India. Methods We examined 514 children from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort for whom breast-feeding duration (6 categories from <3 to ?18 months) and age at introduction of complementary foods (4 categories from <4 to ?6 months) were collected at the 1st, 2nd and 3rd year annual follow-up visits. Their cognitive function was assessed at a mean age of 9.7 years using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children and additional tests measuring long-term retrieval/storage, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. Results All the children were initially breast-fed. The mode for duration of breast-feeding was 12-17 months (45.7%) and for age at introduction of complementary foods 4 months (37.1%). There were no associations between longer duration of breast-feeding, or age of introduction of complementary foods, and cognitive function at 9-10 years, either unadjusted or after adjustment for age, sex, gestation, birth size, maternal age, parity, socio-economic status, parents’ attained schooling, and rural/urban residence. Conclusions Within this cohort, in which prolonged breast-feeding was the norm (90% breast-fed ?6 months and 65% breast-fed for ?12 months), there was no evidence suggesting a beneficial effect of longer duration of breast-feeding on later cognitive ability. PMID:19946010

  4. A systematic review of the effect of breakfast on the cognitive performance of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hoyland, Alexa; Dye, Louise; Lawton, Clare L

    2009-12-01

    Breakfast is recommended as part of a healthy diet because it is associated with healthier macro- and micronutrient intakes, BMI and lifestyle. Breakfast is also widely promoted to improve cognitive function and academic performance, leading to the provision of breakfast initiatives by public health bodies. Despite this positive and intuitive perception of cognitive benefits, there has been no systematic review of the evidence. Systematic review methodology was employed to evaluate the effects of breakfast on cognitive performance in well-nourished children and nutritionally at-risk or stunted children. Acute experimental studies, school feeding programmes and studies of habitual breakfast intake are reviewed. Comparisons of breakfast v. no breakfast and breakfasts differing in energy and macronutrient composition are discussed. Included are forty-five studies described in forty-one papers published between 1950 and 2008. The evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is more beneficial than skipping breakfast, but this effect is more apparent in children whose nutritional status is compromised. There is a lack of research comparing breakfast type, precluding recommendations for the size and composition of an optimal breakfast for children's cognitive function. Few studies examined adolescents. Studies of school breakfast programmes suggest that such interventions can have positive effects on academic performance, but this may be in part explained by the increased school attendance that programmes encourage. The present systematic review considers methodological issues in this field and makes recommendations for future research design and policy priorities. PMID:19930787

  5. Amphetamine improves cognitive function in medicated individuals with schizophrenia and in healthy volunteers

    E-print Network

    Amphetamine improves cognitive function in medicated individuals with schizophrenia and in healthy administration of d-amphetamine can improve cognitive function in individuals with schizophrenia who are well production, and Stroop tasks under both placebo and 0.25 mg/kg of d-amphetamine. Results: d-Amphetamine

  6. Performance Pay Path to Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Donald B.

    2011-01-01

    The primary goal of performance pay for the past decade has been higher test scores, and the most prominent strategy has been to increase teacher performance through financial incentives. If teachers are rewarded for success, according to this logic, they will try harder. If they try harder, more children will achieve higher test scores. The…

  7. Improving recognition performance by modelling pronunciation variation. 

    E-print Network

    Kessens, Judith M; Wester, Mirjam

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a method for improving the performance of a continuous speech recognizer by modelling pronunciation variation. Although the improvements obtained with this method are small, they are in line with those ...

  8. Human Performance Improvement: Lessons To Be Learned from Quality Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummel, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses quality improvement (QI) and how it can help human performance improvement (HPI). Compares QI and HPI and discusses focusing on products and services; focusing on the customer; using data more effectively; continuous improvement; benchmarking; establishing standards; specialization; and involving the clients. (LRW)

  9. FITNESS AND ACTION MONITORING: EVIDENCE FOR IMPROVED COGNITIVE FLEXIBILITY IN YOUNG ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Themanson, Jason R.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2008-01-01

    To improve behavior, one must detect errors and initiate subsequent corrective adaptations. This action monitoring process has been widely studied, but little is known about how one may improve this aspect of cognition. To examine the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and action monitoring, we recorded the error-related negativity (ERN), an event-related brain potential believed to index action monitoring, as well as post-error behavioral indices of action monitoring from healthy young adults (18–25 years) who varied in cardiorespiratory fitness. These measures were collected during the execution of flanker tasks emphasizing response accuracy or speed to better assess the specificity of any potential relationships between fitness and action monitoring. Higher fitness was associated with greater post-error accuracy and ERN amplitude during task conditions emphasizing accuracy, as well as greater modulation of these indices across task instruction conditions. These findings suggest that higher fitness is associated with increased cognitive flexibility, evidenced through greater change in action monitoring indices as a function of task parameters. Thus, fitness may benefit action monitoring by selectively increasing cognitive control under conditions where error detection and performance adjustments are more salient. PMID:18845227

  10. A narrative review of physical activity, nutrition, and obesity to cognition and scholastic performance across the human lifespan.

    PubMed

    Burkhalter, Toni M; Hillman, Charles H

    2011-03-01

    We reviewed studies that examine the relationship of energy consumption, storage, and expenditure to cognition and scholastic performance. Specifically, the literature base on nutrient intake, body mass, and physical activity is described relative to cognitive development and academic achievement. The review of literature regarding the overconsumption of energy and excess body mass suggests poorer academic achievement during development and greater decay of brain structure and function accompanied by increased cognitive aging during older adulthood. The review of literature regarding energy expenditure through the adoption of increased physical activity participation suggests increased cognitive health and function. Although this area of study is in its infancy, the preliminary data are promising and matched with the declining physical health of industrialized nations; this area of science could provide insight aimed at improving brain health and cognitive function across the human lifespan. PMID:22332052

  11. Comparing cognitive performance in illiterate and literate children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matute, Esmeralda; Montiel, Teresita; Pinto, Noemí; Rosselli, Monica; Ardila, Alfredo; Zarabozo, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    While it is known that the process of becoming literate begins in early childhood and usually involves several years of schooling, research related to cognitive characteristics has been done mostly on illiterate adults, and information concerning illiterate children is therefore limited. The aim of the present study, involving 21 illiterate and 22 literate Mexican children aged 6 to 13, was to investigate the effects of literacy on neuropsychological characteristics during childhood. The children's performance on 16 cognitive domains of the Evaluación Neuropsicológica Infantil (ENI, Child Neuropsychological Assessment) was examined in three mixed within- and between-groups profile analyses. The results suggest that the effect of literacy observed in adults is already evident in children in almost every task analysed. Moreover, the fact that an age effect was detected for the calculation abilities suggests that maths learning is school- and environment-dependent.

  12. Improvement of cognitive impairment in female type 2 diabetes mellitus mice by spironolactone.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Akiko; Mogi, Masaki; Iwanami, Jun; Tsukuda, Kana; Min, Li-Juan; Jing, Fei; Ohshima, Kousei; Ito, Masaharu; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2012-03-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) exhibit more severe cognitive decline in females compared with males; however, the preventive approach to this gender-specific cognitive decline is still an enigma. Spironolactone is a potassium-sparing diuretic that also acts as an androgen receptor antagonist. Here, we investigated whether spironolactone attenuates cognitive impairment observed in female T2DM mice. Adult wild-type (WT) mice and an obese T2DM model, KKAy mice, were employed in this study. Cognitive function was evaluated by the shuttle avoidance test and Morris water maze test. Administration of spironolactone (50 mg/kg per day in chow) had no significant effect on blood pressure, glucose tolerance or insulin resistance. In WT mice, no significant sex difference in cognitive function was observed; however, treatment with spironolactone improved spatial memory in the water maze, especially in female WT mice. Administration of spironolactone markedly improved the cognitive decline in female KKAy mice up to the level in male KKAy mice. Spironolactone treatment also improved cognitive function in ovariectomized-KKAy mice, but failed to improve it in those with administration of estradiol (200 µg/kg per day). In diabetic mice, spironolactone improved impaired cognitive function observed in female mice, suggesting that spironolactone may prevent cognitive impairment associated with diabetes in females clinically. PMID:21729993

  13. Predicting Improved Chiller Performance Through Thermodynamic Modeling 

    E-print Network

    Figueroa, I. E.; Cathey, M.; Medina, M. A.; Nutter, D. W.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents two case studies in which thermodynamic modeling was used to predict improved chiller performance. The model predicted the performance (COP and total energy consumption) of water-cooled centrifugal chillers as a function...

  14. Cognitive Load Theory: An Empirical Study of Anxiety and Task Performance in Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, I-Jung; Chang, Chi-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This study explores the relationship among three variables--cognitive load, foreign language anxiety, and task performance. Cognitive load refers to the load imposed on working memory while performing a particular task. The authors hypothesized that anxiety consumes the resources of working memory, leaving less capacity for cognitive

  15. Improved performance in NASTRAN (R)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Gordon C.

    1989-01-01

    Three areas of improvement in COSMIC/NASTRAN, 1989 release, were incorporated recently that make the analysis program run faster on large problems. Actual log files and actual timings on a few test samples that were run on IBM, CDC, VAX, and CRAY computers were compiled. The speed improvement is proportional to the problem size and number of continuation cards. Vectorizing certain operations in BANDIT, makes BANDIT run twice as fast in some large problems using structural elements with many node points. BANDIT is a built-in NASTRAN processor that optimizes the structural matrix bandwidth. The VAX matrix packing routine BLDPK was modified so that it is now packing a column of a matrix 3 to 9 times faster. The denser and bigger the matrix, the greater is the speed improvement. This improvement makes a host of routines and modules that involve matrix operation run significantly faster, and saves disc space for dense matrices. A UNIX version, converted from 1988 COSMIC/NASTRAN, was tested successfully on a Silicon Graphics computer using the UNIX V Operating System, with Berkeley 4.3 Extensions. The Utility Modules INPUTT5 and OUTPUT5 were expanded to handle table data, as well as matrices. Both INPUTT5 and OUTPUT5 are general input/output modules that read and write FORTRAN files with or without format. More user informative messages are echoed from PARAMR, PARAMD, and SCALAR modules to ensure proper data values and data types being handled. Two new Utility Modules, GINOFILE and DATABASE, were written for the 1989 release. Seven rigid elements are added to COSMIC/NASTRAN. They are: CRROD, CRBAR, CRTRPLT, CRBE1, CRBE2, CRBE3, and CRSPLINE.

  16. Improvements in manual dexterity relate to improvements in cognitive planning after assisted cycling therapy (ACT) in adolescents with down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Holzapfel, Simon D; Ringenbach, Shannon D R; Mulvey, Genna M; Sandoval-Menendez, Amber M; Cook, Megan R; Ganger, Rachel O; Bennett, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported beneficial effects of acute (i.e., single session) Assisted Cycling Therapy (ACT) on manual dexterity and cognitive planning ability in adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). In the present study, we report the chronic effects of eight weeks of ACT, voluntary cycling (VC), and no cycling (NC), on the same measures in adolescents with DS. Participants completed 8 weeks of ACT, VC, or NC. Those in the ACT and VC groups completed 30min sessions three times per week on a stationary bicycle. During ACT, the mechanical motor of the bicycle augmented the cadence to a rate which was on average 79% faster than the voluntary cadence. During VC, the participants pedaled at a self-selected rate. Unimanual dexterity scores as measured with the Purdue Pegboard test (PPT) improved significantly more for the ACT and VC groups compared to the NC group. ACT lead to greater improvements than VC and NC in the assembly sub-test, which is a task that requires more advanced temporal and spatial processing. The ACT group improved significantly more than the VC group and non-significantly more than the NC group in cognitive planning ability as measured by the Tower of London test (ToL). There were also significant correlations between the assembly subtest of the PPT and all measures of the ToL. These correlations were stronger during post-testing than pre-testing. Pre-post changes in the combined PPT score and ToL number of correct moves correlated positively in the ACT group. These results support the efficacy of the salutary effects of ACT on global fine motor function and executive function in DS. Additionally, the performance on complex bimanual dexterity tasks appears to be related to the capacity of cognitive planning ability. This research has important implications for persons with movement deficits that affect activities of daily living. PMID:26280691

  17. Performance comparison of modulation techniques for underlay cognitive radio transceivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Imtiyaz; Singh, Poonam

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a quantitative comparison of two agile modulation techniques employed by cognitive radio transceivers operating in a dynamic spectrum access (DSA) network. One of the modulation techniques is single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA). The other modulation technique under study is a variant of multicarrier code division multiple access (MCCDMA). Although several studies comparing conventional OFDM and MC-CDMA has been conducted in literature to justify robust error performance of MC-CDMA, a quantitative performance evaluation of these schemes has not been performed when employed in a DSA network. In this paper we show that their performances can be significantly different from the conventional setup. Analytical expressions for the error probability of an SC-FDMA transceiver have been derived and compared with computer simulation results. The results show that the error robustness of SC-FDMA is relatively better then MC-CDMA in underlay communication.

  18. Mental Training for Cognitive Improvement in Elderly People: What have We Learned from Clinical and Neurophysiologic Studies?

    PubMed

    Li, Bin-Yin; Tang, Hui-Dong; Qiao, Yuan; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a major concern in elderly people, and a variety of nonpharmacological therapies (NPTs) have been developed to help with cognitive decline. One of the most popular therapies is cognitive training, which includes pencil-and-paper puzzles, computerized games, or the combination of the two. Training is designed to have participants perform diverse exercises in one or more cognitive domains. Most clinical training trials indicate that well-organized tasks are clinically effective for cognitive improvement. Neural plasticity is a probable explanation for positive training effects. EEG and fMRI research show that the electrical activity and metabolism of specific brain areas are changed, and these changes are retained for a long period after training. Studies on mice to uncover the cellular and molecular changes underlying neural connectivity have found effective changes in brain networks after learning or training. Rac1 and NMDA receptors are thought to be involved in hippocampal neurogenesis, which is induced by learning. Here we review clinical trials of cognitive training, published during the last five years, and summarized some important characteristics of training tasks design. The probable role of neuronal plasticity and molecular mechanisms in training effects also are discussed. Most importantly, we discuss key ways to modifying the design of tasks based on studies we review. This review mainly identifies and discusses the reasons for positive training effects on cognition from clinical and neurophysiological perspectives. Based on the findings and their related mechanisms, further studies should design more effective and specific training tasks. PMID:26238812

  19. The impact of cognitive load on operatic singers' timing performance.

    PubMed

    Çorlu, Muzaffer; Maes, Pieter-Jan; Muller, Chris; Kochman, Katty; Leman, Marc

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we report the results of an empirical study on the effects of cognitive load on operatic singing. The main aim of the study was to investigate to what extent a working memory task affected the timing of operatic singers' performance. Thereby, we focused on singers' tendency to speed up, or slow down their performance of musical phrases and pauses. Twelve professional operatic singers were asked to perform an operatic aria three times; once without an additional working memory task, once with a concurrent working memory task (counting shapes on a computer screen), and once with a relatively more difficult working memory task (more shapes to be counted appearing one after another). The results show that, in general, singers speeded up their performance under heightened cognitive load. Interestingly, this effect was more pronounced in pauses-more in particular longer pauses-compared to musical phrases. We discuss the role of sensorimotor control and feedback processes in musical timing to explain these findings. PMID:25954218

  20. The impact of cognitive load on operatic singers' timing performance

    PubMed Central

    Çorlu, Muzaffer; Maes, Pieter-Jan; Muller, Chris; Kochman, Katty; Leman, Marc

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we report the results of an empirical study on the effects of cognitive load on operatic singing. The main aim of the study was to investigate to what extent a working memory task affected the timing of operatic singers' performance. Thereby, we focused on singers' tendency to speed up, or slow down their performance of musical phrases and pauses. Twelve professional operatic singers were asked to perform an operatic aria three times; once without an additional working memory task, once with a concurrent working memory task (counting shapes on a computer screen), and once with a relatively more difficult working memory task (more shapes to be counted appearing one after another). The results show that, in general, singers speeded up their performance under heightened cognitive load. Interestingly, this effect was more pronounced in pauses—more in particular longer pauses—compared to musical phrases. We discuss the role of sensorimotor control and feedback processes in musical timing to explain these findings. PMID:25954218

  1. Improving the performance of GWW 

    E-print Network

    Bethune, Iain

    2010-08-09

    bottleneck to application scaling. Several alternative methods for the FFT transpose were implemented, and the performance of these was studied on HECToR (Phase 2a and 2b). Speedups of up to 400% (on 128 cores of HECToR Phase 2a) were demonstrated for the 3D...

  2. Prospective memory performance of patients with Parkinson's disease depends on shifting aptitude: evidence from cognitive rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Costa, Alberto; Peppe, Antonella; Serafini, Francesca; Zabberoni, Silvia; Barban, Francesco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of cognitive training aimed at improving shifting ability on Parkinson's disease (PD) patients' performance of prospective memory (PM) tasks. Using a double-blind protocol, 17 PD patients were randomly assigned to two experimental arms. In the first arm (n=9) shifting training was administered, and in the second (placebo) arm (n=8), language and respiratory exercises. Both treatments consisted of 12 sessions executed over 4 weeks. PM and shifting measures (i.e., Trail Making Test and Alternate Fluency Test) were administered at T0 (before treatment) and T1 (immediately after treatment). A mixed analysis of variance was applied to the data. To evaluate the effects of treatment, the key effect was the interaction between Group (experimental vs. placebo) and Time of Assessment (T0 vs. T1). This interaction was significant for the accuracy indices of the PM procedure (p<.05) and for the performance parameters of the shifting tasks (p ?.05). Tukey's HSD tests showed that in all cases passing from T0 to T1 performance significantly improved in the experimental group (in all cases p ?.02) but remained unchanged in the placebo group (all p consistently>.10). The performance change passing from T0 to T1 on the Alternate Fluency test and the PM procedure was significantly correlated (p<.05). Results show that the cognitive training significantly improved PD patients' event-based PM performance and suggest that their poor PM functioning might be related to reduced shifting abilities. PMID:24967725

  3. Neural changes after training to perform cognitive tasks

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xue-Lian; Constantinidis, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive operations requiring working memory rely on the activity of neurons in areas of the association cortex, most prominently the lateral prefrontal cortex. Human imaging and animal neurophysiological studies indicate that this activity is shaped by learning, though much is unknown about how much training alters neural activity and cortical organization. Results from non-human primates demonstrate that prior to any training in cognitive tasks, prefrontal neurons respond to stimuli, exhibit persistent activity after their offset, and differentiate between matching and non-matching stimuli presented in sequence. A number of important changes also occur after training in a working memory task. More neurons are recruited by the stimuli and exhibit higher firing rates, particularly during the delay period. Operant stimuli that need to be recognized in order to perform the task elicit higher overall rates of responses, while the variability of individual discharges and correlation of discharges between neurons decrease after training. New information is incorporated in the activity of a small population of neurons highly specialized for the task and in a larger population of neurons that exhibit modest task related information, while information about other aspects of stimuli remains present in neuronal activity. Despite such changes, the relative selectivity of the dorsal and ventral aspect of the lateral prefrontal cortex is not radically altered with regard to spatial and non-spatial stimuli after training. Collectively, these results provide insights on the nature and limits of cortical plasticity mediating cognitive tasks. PMID:23261872

  4. The influence of exercise on prefrontal cortex activity and cognitive performance during a simulated space flight to Mars (MARS500).

    PubMed

    Schneider, Stefan; Abeln, Vera; Popova, Julia; Fomina, Elena; Jacubowski, Amrei; Meeusen, Romain; Strüder, Heiko K

    2013-01-01

    With respect to the plans of national and internationals space agencies to send people to Mars or Moon, long-term isolation studies are performed to learn about the psycho-physiological and psycho-social limitations of such missions. From June 3rd 2010 to November 4th 2011 six participants lived under totally isolated and confined conditions in the MARS500 habitat located in Moscow. Despite the possibility to mimic the condition of space travel, this study allowed for experimental conditions under very reliable and traceable conditions. As exercise is widely discussed to have a positive impact on neuro-cognitive performance, this study aimed to test the effect of different exercise protocol (endurance/strength orientated) on brain cortical activity and cognitive performance. Brain cortical activity was recorded using a 16 channel EEG before and after exercise across the 520 days of confinement. Cognitive performance was assessed using three commercially available brain games. Following the theory of transient hypofrontality, results show a significant decrease of frontal brain cortical activity after exercise (p<.05) which was most expressed after endurance orientated protocols. Cognitive performance was improved following running sessions on an active treadmill (p<.05). Results let us assume that not exercise per se acts as a neuro-enhancer. It is more likely that a general defocusing caused by an immersion into exercise is necessary to improve cognitive performance. PMID:22944515

  5. Restoring Executive Confidence in Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidman, William; McCauley, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Many organizations have significantly decreased their investment in performance improvement initiatives because they believe they are too risky. In fact, organizations should invest in performance improvements to build cash reserves and gain market share. Recent scientific breakthroughs have led to the development of methodologies and technologies…

  6. Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia: NIMH MATRICS initiative to support the development of agents for improving cognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Marder, Stephen R; Fenton, Wayne

    2004-12-15

    The impairments in social and vocational outcome that are common in schizophrenia are strongly related to the severity of impaired neurocognition. This observation led to the initiation of The NIMH's Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) initiative, which supports the development of pharmacological agents to improve cognition in schizophrenia. MATRICS addresses barriers to drug development through a number of activities, including the development of a consensus battery for measuring cognition in schizophrenia; the development of a consensus regarding the most promising molecular targets that should be the focus of drug development; the use of a joint meeting with representatives from the industry, academia, NIMH, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to clarify guidelines for the design of clinical trials for cognition enhancing agents; and finally, to assist NIMH in developing its research agenda in this area. PMID:15531402

  7. Human performance cognitive-behavioral modeling: a benefit for occupational safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2002-01-01

    Human Performance Modeling (HPM) is a computer-aided job analysis software methodology used to generate predictions of complex human-automation integration and system flow patterns with the goal of improving operator and system safety. The use of HPM tools has recently been increasing due to reductions in computational cost, augmentations in the tools' fidelity, and usefulness in the generated output. An examination of an Air Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (Air MIDAS) model evaluating complex human-automation integration currently underway at NASA Ames Research Center will highlight the importance to occupational safety of considering both cognitive and physical aspects of performance when researching human error.

  8. An innovative intervention for the treatment of cognitive impairment–Emisymmetric bilateral stimulation improves cognitive functions in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment: an open-label study

    PubMed Central

    Guerriero, Fabio; Botarelli, Emanuele; Mele, Gianni; Polo, Lorenzo; Zoncu, Daniele; Renati, Paolo; Sgarlata, Carmelo; Rollone, Marco; Ricevuti, Giovanni; Maurizi, Niccolo; Francis, Matthew; Rondanelli, Mariangela; Perna, Simone; Guido, Davide; Mannu, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims In the last decade, the development of different methods of brain stimulation by electromagnetic fields (EMF) provides a promising therapeutic tool for subjects with impaired cognitive functions. Emisymmetric bilateral stimulation (EBS) is a novel and innovative EMF brain stimulation, whose working principle is to introduce very weak noise-like stimuli through EMF to trigger self-arrangements in the cortex of treated subjects, thereby improving cognitive faculties. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate in patients with cognitive impairment the effectiveness of EBS treatment with respect to global cognitive function, episodic memory, and executive functions. Methods Fourteen patients with cognitive decline (six with mild cognitive impairment and eight with Alzheimer’s disease) underwent three EBS applications per week to both the cerebral cortex and auricular-specific sites for a total of 5 weeks. At baseline, after 2 weeks and 5 weeks, a neuropsychological assessment was performed through mini–mental state examination, free and cued selective reminding tests, and trail making test. As secondary outcomes, changes in behavior, functionality, and quality of life were also evaluated. Results After 5 weeks of standardized EBS therapy, significant improvements were observed in all neurocognitive assessments. Mini–mental state examination score significantly increased from baseline to end treatment (+3.19, P=0.002). Assessment of episodic memory showed an improvement both in immediate and delayed recalls (immediate recall =+7.57, P=0.003; delayed recall =+4.78, P<0.001). Executive functions significantly improved from baseline to end stimulation (trail making test A ?53.35 seconds; P=0.001). Of note, behavioral disorders assessed through neuropsychiatric inventory significantly decreased (?28.78, P<0.001). The analysis concerning the Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment group confirmed a significant improvement of cognitive functions and behavior after EBS treatment. Conclusion This pilot study has shown EBS to be a promising, effective, and safe tool to treat cognitive impairment, in addition to the drugs presently available. Further investigations and controlled clinical trials are warranted. PMID:26425094

  9. How does emotion influence different creative performances? The mediating role of cognitive flexibility.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Lun; Tsai, Ping-Hsun; Lin, Hung-Yu; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive flexibility is proposed to be one of the factors underlying how positive emotions can improve creativity. However, previous works have seldom set up or empirically measured an independent index to demonstrate its mediating effect, nor have they investigated its mediating role on different types of creative performances, which involve distinct processes. In this study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to positive, neutral or negative affect conditions. Their levels of cognitive flexibility were then measured by a switch task. Finally, their creative performances were calibrated by either an open-ended divergent thinking test or a closed-ended insight problem-solving task. The results showed that positive emotional states could reduce switch costs and enhance both types of creative performances. However, cognitive flexibility exhibited a full mediating effect only on the relationship between positive emotion and insight problem solving, but not between positive emotion and divergent thinking. Divergent thinking was instead more associated with arousal level. These results suggest that emotions might influence different creative performances through distinct mechanisms. PMID:24237485

  10. Li Anode Technology for Improved Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Tuqiang

    2011-01-01

    A novel, low-cost approach to stabilization of Li metal anodes for high-performance rechargeable batteries was developed. Electrolyte additives are selected and used in Li cell electrolyte systems, promoting formation of a protective coating on Li metal anodes for improved cycle and safety performance. Li batteries developed from the new system will show significantly improved battery performance characteristics, including energy/power density, cycle/ calendar life, cost, and safety.

  11. Are Improvements in Cognitive Content and Depressive Symptoms Correlates or Mediators during Acute-Phase Cognitive Therapy for Recurrent Major Depressive Disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Vittengl, Jeffrey R.; Clark, Lee Anna; Thase, Michael E.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2015-01-01

    The cognitive model of depression posits that cognitive therapy’s (CT) effect on depressive symptoms is mediated by changes in cognitive content (e.g., automatic negative thoughts dysfunctional attitudes, failure attributions). We tested improvement and normalization of cognitive content among outpatients (N = 523) with recurrent major depressive disorder treated with acute-phase CT (Jarrett & Thase, 2010; Jarrett et al., 2013). We also tested whether improvement in cognitive content accounted for subsequent changes in depressive symptoms and vice versa. Five measures of content improved substantively from pre- to post-CT (median d = 0.96), and the proportions of patients scoring in “healthy” ranges increased (median 45% to 82%). Evidence for cognitive mediation of symptom reduction was limited (median r = .06), as was evidence for symptom mediation of cognitive content improvement (median r = .07). We discuss measurement and design issues relevant to detection of mediators and consider alternative theories of change. PMID:26401194

  12. Alterations in cognitive performance during passive hyperthermia are task dependent

    PubMed Central

    Gaoua, Nadia; Racinais, Sebastien; Grantham, Justin; Massioui, Farid El

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) assess the effect of passive heating upon attention and memory task performance, and (2) evaluate the effectiveness of the application of cold packs to the head on preserving these functions. Using a counterbalance design 16 subjects underwent three trials: a control (CON, 20°C, 40% rH), hot (HOT, 50°C, 50% rH) and hot with the head kept cool (HHC). In each condition, three attention tests and two memory tests were performed. Mean core, forehead and tympanic temperatures were all significantly higher (p< 0.05) during HOT (38.6° ±0.1°, 39.6° ±0.2° and 38.8°±0.1°C, respectively) and HHC (38°±0.2, 37.7°±0.3° and 37.7°C, respectively) than in CON (37.1°±0.6°, 33.3° ±0.2° and 35.9°±0.3°C, respectively). Results indicate that there was impairment in working memory with heat exposure (p < 0.05) without alteration in attentional processes. The regular application of cold packs only prevented the detrimental effect of hyperthermia on short-term memory. Our results show that impairments in cognitive function with passive hyperthermia and the beneficial effect of head cooling are task dependent and suggests that exposure to a hot environment is a competing variable to the cognitive processes. PMID:21070137

  13. Does Mandatory Attendance Improve Student Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marburger, Daniel R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous empirical literature indicates that student performance is inversely correlated with absenteeism. The author investigates the impact of enforcing an attendance policy on absenteeism and student performance. The evidence suggests that an enforced mandatory attendance policy significantly reduces absenteeism and improves exam performance.

  14. Social Cognitive Career Theory, Conscientiousness, and Work Performance: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven D.; Lent, Robert W.; Telander, Kyle; Tramayne, Selena

    2011-01-01

    We performed a meta-analytic path analysis of an abbreviated version of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) model of work performance (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The model we tested included the central cognitive predictors of performance (ability, self-efficacy, performance goals), with the exception of outcome expectations. Results…

  15. Gear Performance Improved by Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.

    2004-01-01

    Gears, bearings, and other mechanical elements transmit loads through contacting surfaces. Even if properly designed, manufactured, installed, and maintained, gears and bearings will eventually fail because of the fatigue of the working surfaces. Economical means for extending the fatigue lives of gears and bearings are highly desired, and coatings offer the opportunity to engineer surfaces to extend the fatigue lives of mechanical components. A tungsten-containing diamondlike-carbon coating exhibiting high hardness, low friction, and good toughness was evaluated for application to spur gears. Fatigue testing was done at the NASA Glenn Research Center on both uncoated and coated spur gears. The results showed that the coating extended the surface fatigue lives of the gears by a factor of about 5 relative to the uncoated gears. For the experiments, a lot of spur test gears made from AISI 9310 gear steel were case-carburized and ground to aerospace specifications. The geometries of the 28-tooth, 8-pitch gears were verified as meeting American Gear Manufacturing Association (AGMA) quality class 12. One-half of the gears were randomly selected for coating. The method of coating was selected to achieve desired adherence, toughness, hardness, and low-friction characteristics. First the gears to be coated were prepared by blasting (vapor honing) with Al2O3 particles and cleaning. Then, the gears were provided with a thin adhesion layer of elemental chromium followed by magnetron sputtering of the outer coating consisting of carbon (70 at.%), hydrogen (15 at.%), tungsten (12 at.%), and nickel (3 at.%) (atomic percent at the surface). In total, the coating thickness was about 2.5 to 3 microns. As compared with the steel substrate, the coated surface was harder by a factor of about 2 and had a smaller elastic modulus. All gears were tested using a 5-centistoke synthetic oil, a 10,000-rpm rotation speed, and a hertzian contact stress of at least 1.7 GPa (250 ksi). Tests were run until either surface fatigue occurred or 300 million stress cycles were completed. Tests were run using either a pair of uncoated gears or a pair of coated gears (coated gears mated with uncoated gears were not evaluated). The fatigue test results, shown on Weibull coordinates in the graph, demonstrate that the coating provided substantially longer fatigue lives even though some of the coated gears endured larger stresses. The increase in fatigue life was a factor of about 5 and the statistical confidence for the improvement is high (greater than 99 percent). Examination of the tested gears revealed substantial reductions of total wear for coated gears in comparison to uncoated gears. The coated gear surface topography changed with running, with localized areas of the tooth surface becoming smoother with running. Theories explaining how coatings can extend gear fatigue lives are research topics for coating, tribology, and fatigue specialists. This work was done as a partnership between NASA, the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, United Technologies Research Corporation, and Sikorsky Aircraft.

  16. Evaluation of Title I ESEA Projects, 1971-1972. Volume III, Instructional Practices and Student Cognitive Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prusso, Kenneth W.; And Others

    In this volume, ESEA Title I projects related to instructional practices and student cognitive performance, carried out in Philadelphia during 1971-1972, are evaluated. The six projects in this cluster are: Class for Mentally Retarded/Emotionally Distrubed Children; English as a Second Language; Improvement of Reading Skills (Reading Skills…

  17. Subjective cognitive complaints versus objective neuropsychological performance in older adults with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Galioto, Rachel; Blum, Andrew S; Tremont, Geoffrey

    2015-10-01

    Memory complaints are common among older adults with epilepsy (OAE), though discrepancy between subjective complaints and objective performance often exists. This study examined how accurately OAE and their informants reported on the participant's cognitive difficulties by comparing ratings of everyday cognition to objective performance. Thirty-seven OAE and 27 older adult controls completed a brief battery of neuropsychological tests, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Cognitive Difficulties Scale (CDS). Each participant had an informant who completed the CDS. Older adults with epilepsy performed worse than controls on cognitive testing and reported more subjective cognitive complaints. Neither participant- nor informant-reported cognitive complaints were related to performance on any of the neuropsychological tests for either the group with epilepsy or control group, but both were related to greater depressive symptoms. Results suggest that subjective report of cognitive problems by both OAE and their informants may not reliably reflect the extent to which these problems exist. PMID:26255885

  18. Cognitive Performance by Humans During a Smoked Cocaine Binge-Abstinence Cycle

    E-print Network

    Walker, Matthew P.

    Cognitive Performance by Humans During a Smoked Cocaine Binge-Abstinence Cycle Edward F. Pace York, USA 3 Cognitive Drug Research, Ltd., Oxon, United Kingdom Abstract: Five cocaine in the afternoon. Data suggest that abstinence can unmask cognitive deficits induced by chronic cocaine use

  19. QoS Performance Analysis of Cognitive Radio-based Virtual Wireless Networks

    E-print Network

    Boutaba, Raouf

    ]. However, while cognitive radio encapsulates many different concepts into a single vision, early work hasQoS Performance Analysis of Cognitive Radio-based Virtual Wireless Networks Brent Ishibashi of Waterloo Waterloo, Canada Email: rboutaba@uwaterloo.ca Abstract--Cognitive radio presents a new approach

  20. Effects of Cognitive Styles on 2D Drafting and Design Performance in Digital Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pektas, Sule Tasli

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the interactions between design students' cognitive styles, as measured by Riding's Cognitive Styles Analysis, and performance in 2D drafting and design tasks in digital media. An empirical research revealed that Imager students outperformed Verbalisers in both drafting and creativity scores. Wholist-Analytic cognitive

  1. A Nutritional Formulation for Cognitive Performance in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Placebo-Controlled Trial with an Open-Label Extension.

    PubMed

    Remington, Ruth; Lortie, Jevin J; Hoffmann, Heather; Page, Robert; Morrell, Christopher; Shea, Thomas B

    2015-10-01

    Thirty-four individuals with mild cognitive impairment were randomized for 6 months to a nutraceutical formulation (NF: folate, alpha-tocopherol, B12, S-adenosyl methioinine, N-acetyl cysteine, acetyl-L-carnitine) or indistinguishable placebo, followed by a 6-month open-label extension in which all individuals received NF. The NF cohort improved in the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS; effect size >0.7) and maintained baseline performance in CLOX-1. The placebo cohort did not improve in DRS and declined in CLOX-1, but during the open-label extension improved in DRS and ceased declining in CLOX-1. These findings extend prior studies of NF efficacy for individuals without cognitive impairment and with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26402075

  2. Natalizumab Significantly Improves Cognitive Impairment over Three Years in MS: Pattern of Disability Progression and Preliminary MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Flavia; Stampatori, Chiara; Bellomi, Fabio; Scarpazza, Cristina; Capra, Ruggero

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reported that Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients treated with natalizumab for one or two years exhibit a significant reduction in relapse rate and in cognitive impairment, but the long term effects on cognitive performance are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of natalizumab on cognitive impairment in a cohort of 24 consecutive patients with relapsing remitting MS treated for 3 years. The neuropsychological tests, as well as relapse number and EDSS, were assessed at baseline and yearly for three years. The impact on cortical atrophy was also considered in a subgroup of them, and are thus to be considered as preliminary. Results showed a significant reduction in the number of impaired neuropsychological tests after three years, a significant decrease in annualized relapse rate at each time points compared to baseline and a stable EDSS. In the neuropsychological assessment, a significant improvement in memory, attention and executive function test scores was detected. Preliminary MRI data show that, while GM volume did not change at 3 years, a significantly greater parahippocampal and prefrontal gray matter density was noticed, the former correlating with neuropsychological improvement in a memory test. This study showed that therapy with Natalizumab is helpful in improving cognitive performance, and is likely to have a protective role on grey matter, over a three years follow-up. PMID:26148120

  3. Multifocal Clinical Performance Improvement Across 21 Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Barbara; Skeath, Melinda; Whippy, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Improving quality and safety across an entire healthcare system in multiple clinical areas within a short time frame is challenging. We describe our experience with improving inpatient quality and safety at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. The foundations of performance improvement are a “four-wheel drive” approach and a comprehensive driver diagram linking improvement goals to focal areas. By the end of 2011, substantial improvements occurred in hospital-acquired infections (central-line–associated bloodstream infections and Clostridium difficile infections); falls; hospital-acquired pressure ulcers; high-alert medication and surgical safety; sepsis care; critical care; and The Joint Commission core measures. PMID:26247072

  4. Multifocal Clinical Performance Improvement across 21 Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Barbara; Skeath, Melinda; Whippy, Alan

    2013-08-27

    Improving quality and safety across an entire healthcare system in multiple clinical areas within a short time frame is challenging. We describe our experience with improving inpatient quality and safety at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. The foundations of performance improvement are a "four-wheel drive" approach and a comprehensive driver diagram linking improvement goals to focal areas. By the end of 2011, substantial improvements occurred in hospital-acquired infections (central-line-associated bloodstream infections and Clostridium difficile infections); falls; hospital-acquired pressure ulcers; high-alert medication and surgical safety; sepsis care; critical care; and The Joint Commission core measures. PMID:24001267

  5. Cognitive Improvement after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Measured with Functional Neuroimaging during the Acute Period

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Glenn R.; Freeman, Kalev; Thomas, Alex; Shpaner, Marina; OKeefe, Michael; Watts, Richard; Naylor, Magdalena R.

    2015-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) have been largely limited to patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms, utilizing images obtained months to years after the actual head trauma. We sought to distinguish acute and delayed effects of mild traumatic brain injury on working memory functional brain activation patterns < 72 hours after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and again one-week later. We hypothesized that clinical and fMRI measures of working memory would be abnormal in symptomatic mTBI patients assessed < 72 hours after injury, with most patients showing clinical recovery (i.e., improvement in these measures) within 1 week after the initial assessment. We also hypothesized that increased memory workload at 1 week following injury would expose different cortical activation patterns in mTBI patients with persistent post-concussive symptoms, compared to those with full clinical recovery. We performed a prospective, cohort study of working memory in emergency department patients with isolated head injury and clinical diagnosis of concussion, compared to control subjects (both uninjured volunteers and emergency department patients with extremity injuries and no head trauma). The primary outcome of cognitive recovery was defined as resolution of reported cognitive impairment and quantified by scoring the subject’s reported cognitive post-concussive symptoms at 1 week. Secondary outcomes included additional post-concussive symptoms and neurocognitive testing results. We enrolled 46 subjects: 27 with mild TBI and 19 controls. The time of initial neuroimaging was 48 (+22 S.D.) hours after injury (time 1). At follow up (8.7, + 1.2 S.D., days after injury, time 2), 18 of mTBI subjects (64%) reported moderate to complete cognitive recovery, 8 of whom fully recovered between initial and follow-up imaging. fMRI changes from time 1 to time 2 showed an increase in posterior cingulate activation in the mTBI subjects compared to controls. Increases in activation were greater in those mTBI subjects without cognitive recovery. As workload increased in mTBI subjects, activation increased in cortical regions in the right hemisphere. In summary, we found neuroimaging evidence for working memory deficits during the first week following mild traumatic brain injury. Subjects with persistent cognitive symptoms after mTBI had increased requirement for posterior cingulate activation to complete memory tasks at 1 week following a brain injury. These results provide insight into functional activation patterns during initial recovery from mTBI and expose the regional activation networks that may be involved in working memory deficits. PMID:25962067

  6. Improving network routing performance in dynamic environments 

    E-print Network

    Liu, Yong

    2007-04-25

    In this dissertation, we study methods for improving the routing performance of computer communication networks in dynamic environments. The dynamic environments we considered in this work include both network topology ...

  7. Flow line performance analysis and improvement

    E-print Network

    Liu, Ang, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is application-driven, aiming to improve overall performance of a flow line. Specifically, the goal is to increase production rate of the line and reduce average WIP between stations by optimization of existing ...

  8. Longitudinal Associations between Physical and Cognitive Performance among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tolea, Magdalena I.; Morris, John C.; Galvin, James E.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the directionality of the association between physical and cognitive decline in later life, we compared patterns of decline in performance across groups defined by baseline presence of cognitive and/or physical impairment [none (n = 217); physical only (n = 169); cognitive only (n = 158), or both (n = 220)] in a large sample of participants in a cognitive aging study at the Knight Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center at Washington University in St. Louis who were followed for up to 8 years (3,079 observations). Rates of decline reached 20% for physical performance and varied across cognitive tests (global, memory, speed, executive function, and visuospatial skills). We found that physical decline was better predicted by baseline cognitive impairment (slope = -1.22, p<0.001), with baseline physical impairment not contributing to further decline in physical performance (slope = -0.25, p = 0.294). In turn, baseline physical impairment was only marginally associated with rate of cognitive decline across various cognitive domains. The cognitive-functional association is likely to operate in the direction of cognitive impairment to physical decline although physical impairment may also play a role in cognitive decline/dementia. Interventions to prevent further functional decline and development of disability and complete dependence may benefit if targeted to individuals with cognitive impairment who are at increased risk. PMID:25875165

  9. Exercise Improves Cognitive Responses to Psychological Stress through Enhancement of Epigenetic Mechanisms

    E-print Network

    Kalueff, Allan V.

    forced swimming is involved in memory formation of the stressful event, the observations in exercisedExercise Improves Cognitive Responses to Psychological Stress through Enhancement of Epigenetic shown previously that exercise benefits stress resistance and stress coping capabilities. Furthermore

  10. Heritability in Cognitive Performance: Evidence Using Computer-Based Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hervey, Aaron S.; Greenfield, Kathryn; Gualtieri, C. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There is overwhelming evidence of genetic influence on cognition. The effect is seen in general cognitive ability, as well as in specific cognitive domains. A conventional assessment approach using face-to-face paper and pencil testing is difficult for large-scale studies. Computerized neurocognitive testing is a suitable alternative. A total of…

  11. Improved cognitive, affective and anxiety measures in patients with chronic systemic disorders following structured physical activity.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Robson Bonoto; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; de Sá Junior, Antonio Reis; de Carvalho, Cristiane Junqueira; da Silva Moura, Tiago Augusto; Lade, Carlos Gabriel; Rizvanov, Albert A; Kiyasov, Andrey P; Mukhamedyarov, Marat A; Zefirov, Andrey L; Palotás, András; Lima, Luciana Moreira

    2015-11-01

    Mental illnesses are frequent co-morbid conditions in chronic systemic diseases. High incidences of depression, anxiety and cognitive impairment complicate cardiovascular and metabolic disorders such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Lifestyle changes including regular exercise have been advocated to reduce blood pressure and improve glycaemic control. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effect of physical training on the most prevalent corollary psychiatric problems in patients with chronic organic ailments. This longitudinal study assessed the mental health of hypertensive (age: 57?±?8?years) and/or diabetic (age: 53?±?8?years) patients using mini-mental state examination, Beck's depression inventory, Beck's anxiety inventory and self-reporting questionnaire-20 before and after a 3-month supervised resistance and aerobic exercise programme comprising structured physical activity three times a week. Clinically relevant improvement was observed in the Beck's depression inventory and Beck's anxiety inventory scores following the 12-week training (61%, p?=?0.001, and 53%, p?=?0.02, respectively). Even though statistically not significant (p?=?0.398), the cognitive performance of this relatively young patient population also benefited from the programme. These results demonstrate positive effects of active lifestyle on non-psychotic mental disorders in patients with chronic systemic diseases, recommending exercise as an alternative treatment option. PMID:26410835

  12. Emotional exhaustion and cognitive performance in apparently healthy teachers: a longitudinal multi-source study.

    PubMed

    Feuerhahn, Nicolas; Stamov-Roßnagel, Christian; Wolfram, Maren; Bellingrath, Silja; Kudielka, Brigitte M

    2013-10-01

    We investigate how emotional exhaustion (EE), the core component of burnout, relates to cognitive performance, job performance and health. Cognitive performance was assessed by self-rated cognitive stress symptoms, self-rated and peer-rated cognitive impairments in everyday tasks and a neuropsychological test of learning and memory (LGT-3); job performance and physical health were gauged by self-reports. Cross-sectional linear regression analyses in a sample of 100 teachers confirm that EE is negatively related to cognitive performance as assessed by self-rating and peer-rating as well as neuropsychological testing (all p?cognitive performance. Executive control deficits might explain impaired cognitive performance in EE. In longitudinal analyses, EE also significantly predicts physical health. Contrary to our expectations, EE does not affect job performance. When reversed causation is tested, none of the outcome variables at Time 1 predict EE at Time 2. This speaks against cognitive dysfunctioning serving as a vulnerability factor for exhaustion. In sum, results underpin the negative consequences of EE for cognitive performance and health, which are relevant for individuals and organizations alike. In this way, findings might contribute to the understanding of the burnout syndrome. PMID:23086898

  13. Phenomenological and biological correlates of improved cognitive function in hospitalized elderly medical inpatients.

    PubMed

    Adamis, Dimitrios; Meagher, David; Treloar, Adrian; Dunne, Colum; Larvin, Michael; Martin, Finbarr C; Macdonald, Alastair J D

    2014-01-01

    Deterioration of cognitive ability is a recognized outcome following acute illness in older patients. Levels of circulating cytokines and APOE genotype have both been linked with acute illness-related cognitive decline. In this observational longitudinal study, consecutive admissions to an elderly medical unit of patients aged ?70 years were assessed within 3 days and re-assessed twice weekly with a range of scales assessing cognitive function, functional status and illness severity. Cytokines and APOE genotype were measured in a subsample. Improvement was defined as either a 20% or three points increase in mini mental state examination (MMSE). From the 142 participants 55 (39%) experienced cognitive improvement, of which 30 (54.5%) had delirium while 25 had non-delirious acute cognitive disorder. Using bivariate statistics, subjects with more severe acute illness, lower insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels and more severe delirium were more likely to experience a ?20% improvement in MMSE scores. When the criterion of cognitive improvement was a 3 point improvement in MMSE, those with more severe delirium, females and older were more likely to be improved. Longitudinal analysis using any criterion of improvement indicated that improvement was significantly (p<.05) predicted by higher levels of IGF-I, lower levels of IL-1 (alpha and beta), lack of APOE epsilon 4 allele, and female gender. In conclusion, cognitive recovery during admission is not exclusively linked to delirium status, but reflects a range of factors. The character and relevance of non-delirious acute cognitive disorder warrants further study. PMID:25189345

  14. How sleep deprivation affects psychological variables related to college students' cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, J J; Walters, A S

    1997-11-01

    The effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance psychological variables related to cognitive performance were studied in 44 college students. Participants completed the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal after either 24 hours of sleep deprivation or approximately 8 hours of sleep. After completing the cognitive task, the participants completed 2 questionnaires, one assessing self-reported effort, concentration, and estimated performance, the other assessing off-task cognitions. As expected, sleep-deprived participants performed significantly worse than the nondeprived participants on the cognitive task. However, the sleep-deprived participants rated their concentration and effort higher than the nondeprived participants did. In addition, the sleep-deprived participants rated their estimated performance significantly higher than the nondeprived participants did. The findings indicate that college students are not aware of the extent to which sleep deprivation negatively affects their ability to complete cognitive tasks. PMID:9394089

  15. Listen to the Noise: Noise Is Beneficial for Cognitive Performance in ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderlund, Goran; Sikstrom, Sverker; Smart, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Background: Noise is typically conceived of as being detrimental to cognitive performance. However, given the mechanism of stochastic resonance, a certain amount of noise can benefit performance. We investigate cognitive performance in noisy environments in relation to a neurocomputational model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

  16. Afternoon Nap and Bright Light Exposure Improve Cognitive Flexibility Post Lunch

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Rémy; Peigneux, Philippe; Leproult, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of napping or bright light exposure on cognitive performance have been reported in participants exposed to sleep loss. Nonetheless, few studies investigated the effect of these potential countermeasures against the temporary drop in performance observed in mid-afternoon, and even less so on cognitive flexibility, a crucial component of executive functions. This study investigated the impact of either an afternoon nap or bright light exposure on post-prandial alterations in task switching performance in well-rested participants. Twenty-five healthy adults participated in two randomized experimental conditions, either wake versus nap (n=15), or bright light versus placebo (n=10). Participants were tested on a switching task three times (morning, post-lunch and late afternoon sessions). The interventions occurred prior to the post-lunch session. In the nap/wake condition, participants either stayed awake watching a 30-minute documentary or had the opportunity to take a nap for 30 minutes. In the bright light/placebo condition, participants watched a documentary under either bright blue light or dim orange light (placebo) for 30 minutes. The switch cost estimates cognitive flexibility and measures task-switching efficiency. Increased switch cost scores indicate higher difficulties to switch between tasks. In both control conditions (wake or placebo), accuracy switch-cost score increased post lunch. Both interventions (nap or bright light) elicited a decrease in accuracy switch-cost score post lunch, which was associated with diminished fatigue and decreased variability in vigilance. Additionally, there was a trend for a post-lunch benefit of bright light with a decreased latency switch-cost score. In the nap group, improvements in accuracy switch-cost score were associated with more NREM sleep stage N1. Thus, exposure to bright light during the post-lunch dip, a countermeasure easily applicable in daily life, results in similar beneficial effects as a short nap on performance in the cognitive flexibility domain with possible additional benefits on latency switch-cost scores. PMID:26016658

  17. Performance, Productivity and Continuous Improvement. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on performance, productivity, and continuous improvement. "Investigating the Association between Productivity and Quality Performance in Two Manufacturing Settings" (Constantine Kontoghiorghes, Robert Gudgel) summarizes a study that identified the following quality management variables as the…

  18. Effects of a Mindfulness Meditation Course on Learning and Cognitive Performance among University Students in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Ho-Hoi; Koo, Malcolm; Tsai, Tsung-Huang; Chen, Chiu-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Mindfulness training has recently gained much research interest because of its putative benefits for both mental and physical health. However, little is available in its effects on Asian students. Therefore, a quasi-experimental pre/posttest design was used to assess the effects of a one-semester mindfulness meditation course in 152 first-year Taiwanese university students and compared with 130 controls. The Chinese version of the College Learning Effectiveness Inventory (CLEI) and a computer software program focused on specific cognitive tasks were used for the evaluation. Results from the analysis of covariance revealed that while the score of the full CLEI scale was significantly higher in the intervention group compared with the control (P = 0.022), none of the comparisons between the nine CLEI subscales were significantly different between the two groups. For the computer cognitive tasks, the intervention group exhibited significantly better performance in the accuracy of the digital vigilance task (P = 0.048), choice reaction time (P = 0.004), spatial working memory (P = 0.042), and digital vigilance task reaction time (P = 0.004). This study showed that a one-semester mindfulness meditation course was able to improve learning effectiveness and both attention and memory aspects of cognitive performance among Taiwanese university students. PMID:26640495

  19. Slow release caffeine and prolonged (64-h) continuous wakefulness: effects on vigilance and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, M; Batejat, D; Pierard, C; Coste, O; Doireau, P; Van Beers, P; Chauffard, F; Chassard, D; Enslen, M; Denis, J B; Lagarde, D

    2001-12-01

    Some long work or shift work schedules necessitate an elevated and prolonged level of vigilance and performance but often result in sleep deprivation (SD), fatigue and sleepiness, which may impair efficiency. This study investigated the effects of a slow-release caffeine [(SRC) at the daily dose of 600 mg] on vigilance and cognitive performance during a 64 h continuous wakefulness period. Sixteen healthy males volunteered for this double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled, two-way crossover study. A total of 300-mg SRC or placebo (PBO) was given twice a day at 21:00 and 9:00 h during the SD period. Vigilance was objectively assessed with continuous electroencephalogram (EEG), the multiple sleep latency tests (MSLT) and wrist actigraphy. Cognitive functions (information processing and working memory), selective and divided attention were determined with computerised tests from the AGARD-NATO STRES Battery (Standardised Tests for Research with Environmental Stressors). Attention was also assessed with a symbol cancellation task and a Stroop's test; alertness was appreciated from visual analogue scales (VAS). Tests were performed at the hypo (02:00-04:00 h, 14:00-16:00 h) and hypervigilance (10:00-12:00 h, 22:00-00:00 h) periods during SD. Central temperature was continuously measured and safety of treatment was assessed from repeated clinical examinations. Compared with PBO, MSLT showed that SRC subjects were more vigilant from the onset (P=0.001) to the end of SD (P < 0.0001) whereas some cognitive functions were improved till the thirty third of SD but others were ameliorated through all the SD period and alertness was better from the thirteenth hour of SD, as shown by Stroop's test (P=0.048). We showed that 300-mg SRC given twice daily during a 64-h SD is able to antagonize the impairment produced on vigilance and cognitive functions. PMID:11903856

  20. Interdisciplinary Project-Based Learning: Technology for Improving Student Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stozhko, Natalia; Bortnik, Boris; Mironova, Ludmila; Tchernysheva, Albina; Podshivalova, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    The article studies a way of enhancing student cognition by using interdisciplinary project-based learning (IPBL) in a higher education institution. IPBL is a creative pedagogic approach allowing students of one area of specialisation to develop projects for students with different academic profiles. The application of this approach in the Ural…

  1. The neurobiology of modafinil as an enhancer of cognitive performance and a potential treatment for substance use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mereu, Maddalena; Bonci, Antonello; Newman, Amy Hauck; Tanda, Gianluigi

    2013-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives Modafinil (MOD) and its R-enantiomer (R-MOD) are approved medications for narcolepsy and other sleep disorders. They have also been used, off label, as cognitive enhancers in populations of patients with mental disorders, including substance abusers that demonstrate impaired cognitive function. A debated non-medical use of MOD in healthy individuals to improve intellectual performance is raising questions about its potential abuse liability in this population. Results and Conclusions MOD has low micromolar affinity for the dopamine transporter (DAT). Inhibition of dopamine (DA) reuptake via the DAT explains the enhancement of DA levels in several brain areas, an effect shared with psychostimulants like cocaine, methylphenidate and the amphetamines. However, its neurochemical effects and anatomical pattern of brain area activation differ from typical psychostimulants and are consistent with its beneficial effects on cognitive performance processes such as attention, learning, and memory. At variance with typical psychostimulants, MOD shows very low, if any, abuse liability, in spite of its use as a cognitive enhancer by otherwise healthy individuals. Finally, recent clinical studies have focused on the potential use of MOD as a medication for treatment of drug abuse, but have not shown consistent outcomes. However, positive trends in several result measures suggest that medications that improve cognitive function, like MOD or R-MOD, may be beneficial for treatment of substance use disorders in certain patient populations. PMID:23934211

  2. Effects of psychiatric history on cognitive performance in old-age depression.

    PubMed

    Pantzar, Alexandra; Atti, Anna Rita; Bäckman, Lars; Laukka, Erika J

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in old-age depression vary as a function of multiple factors; one rarely examined factor is long-term psychiatric history. We investigated effects of psychiatric history on cognitive performance in old-age depression and in remitted persons. In the population-based Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen study, older persons (?60 years) without dementia were tested with a cognitive battery and matched to the Swedish National Inpatient Register (starting 1969). Participants were grouped according to current depression status and psychiatric history and compared to healthy controls (n = 96). Group differences were observed for processing speed, attention, executive functions, and verbal fluency. Persons with depression and psychiatric inpatient history (n = 20) and late-onset depression (n = 49) performed at the lowest levels, whereas cognitive performance in persons with self-reported recurrent unipolar depression (n = 52) was intermediate. Remitted persons with inpatient history of unipolar depression (n = 38) exhibited no cognitive deficits. Heart disease burden, physical inactivity, and cumulative inpatient days modulated the observed group differences in cognitive performance. Among currently depressed persons, those with inpatient history, and late onset performed at the lowest levels. Importantly, remitted persons showed no cognitive deficits, possibly reflecting the extended time since the last admission (m = 15.6 years). Thus, the present data suggest that cognitive deficits in unipolar depression may be more state- than trait-related. Information on profiles of cognitive performance, psychiatric history, and health behaviors may be useful in tailoring individualized treatment. PMID:26175699

  3. Effects of psychiatric history on cognitive performance in old-age depression

    PubMed Central

    Pantzar, Alexandra; Atti, Anna Rita; Bäckman, Lars; Laukka, Erika J.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in old-age depression vary as a function of multiple factors; one rarely examined factor is long-term psychiatric history. We investigated effects of psychiatric history on cognitive performance in old-age depression and in remitted persons. In the population-based Swedish National Study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen study, older persons (?60 years) without dementia were tested with a cognitive battery and matched to the Swedish National Inpatient Register (starting 1969). Participants were grouped according to current depression status and psychiatric history and compared to healthy controls (n = 96). Group differences were observed for processing speed, attention, executive functions, and verbal fluency. Persons with depression and psychiatric inpatient history (n = 20) and late-onset depression (n = 49) performed at the lowest levels, whereas cognitive performance in persons with self-reported recurrent unipolar depression (n = 52) was intermediate. Remitted persons with inpatient history of unipolar depression (n = 38) exhibited no cognitive deficits. Heart disease burden, physical inactivity, and cumulative inpatient days modulated the observed group differences in cognitive performance. Among currently depressed persons, those with inpatient history, and late onset performed at the lowest levels. Importantly, remitted persons showed no cognitive deficits, possibly reflecting the extended time since the last admission (m = 15.6 years). Thus, the present data suggest that cognitive deficits in unipolar depression may be more state- than trait-related. Information on profiles of cognitive performance, psychiatric history, and health behaviors may be useful in tailoring individualized treatment. PMID:26175699

  4. Virulent bacterial infection improves aversive learning performance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Babin, Aurélie; Kolly, Sylvain; Kawecki, Tadeusz J

    2014-10-01

    Virulent infections are expected to impair learning ability, either as a direct consequence of stressed physiological state or as an adaptive response that minimizes diversion of energy from immune defense. This prediction has been well supported for mammals and bees. Here, we report an opposite result in Drosophila melanogaster. Using an odor-mechanical shock conditioning paradigm, we found that intestinal infection with bacterial pathogens Pseudomonas entomophila or Erwinia c. carotovora improved flies' learning performance after a 1h retention interval. Infection with P. entomophila (but not E. c. carotovora) also improved learning performance after 5 min retention. No effect on learning performance was detected for intestinal infections with an avirulent GacA mutant of P. entomophila or for virulent systemic (hemocoel) infection with E. c. carotovora. Assays of unconditioned responses to odorants and shock do not support a major role for changes in general responsiveness to stimuli in explaining the changes in learning performance, although differences in their specific salience for learning cannot be excluded. Our results demonstrate that the effects of pathogens on learning performance in insects are less predictable than suggested by previous studies, and support the notion that immune stress can sometimes boost cognitive abilities. PMID:24863366

  5. Mechanisms of Functional Improvement in a Two-Year Trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Early Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Eack, Shaun M.; Pogue-Geile, Michael F.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cognitive rehabilitation has emerged as an effective treatment for addressing cognitive impairments and functional disability in schizophrenia; however, the degree to which changes in various social and non-social cognitive processes translate into improved functioning during treatment remains unclear. This research sought to identify the neurocognitive and social-cognitive mechanisms of functional improvement during a two-year trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) for early course schizophrenia. Method Patients in the early course of schizophrenia were randomly assigned to CET (n = 31) or an Enriched Supportive Therapy control (n = 27) and treated for up to two years. A comprehensive neurocognitive assessment battery and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) were completed annually, along with measures of functioning. Mediator analyses using mixed-effects growth models were conducted to examine the effects of neurocognitive and social-cognitive improvement on functional change. Results Two-year improvement in neurocognition and the emotion management branch of the MSCEIT were found to be significantly related to improved functional outcome in early course schizophrenia patients. Neurocognitive improvement, primarily in executive functioning, and social-cognitive change in emotion management also mediated the robust effects of CET on functioning. Conclusions Improvements in neurocognition and social cognition that result from cognitive rehabilitation are both significant mediators of functional improvement in early course schizophrenia. Cognitive rehabilitation programs for schizophrenia may need to target deficits in both social and non-social cognition to achieve an optimal functional response. PMID:20860867

  6. A Comparative Study of Autistic Subjects' Performance at Two Levels of Visual and Cognitive Perspective Taking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Taffy; Peterson, Candida

    1990-01-01

    This study found that 13 autistic subjects performed less well on cognitive than on visual perspective-taking tasks at two levels of difficulty. Autistic subjects performed as well as 13 intellectually handicapped controls and 13 normal controls on visual perspective-taking tasks but more poorly than controls on cognitive perspective-taking tasks.…

  7. Dimensions of Manic Symptoms in Youth: Psychosocial Impairment and Cognitive Performance in the IMAGEN Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringaris, Argyris; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J.; Bokde, Arun L.; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Juergen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Itterman, Bernd; Lawrence, Claire; Nees, Frauke; Paillere-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N.; Schumann, Gunter; Goodman, Robert; Conrod, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background: It has been reported that mania may be associated with superior cognitive performance. In this study, we test the hypothesis that manic symptoms in youth separate along two correlated dimensions and that a symptom constellation of high energy and cheerfulness is associated with superior cognitive performance. Method: We studied 1755…

  8. Marital Conflict, Allostatic Load, and the Development of Children's Fluid Cognitive Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinnant, J. Benjamin; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Buckhalt, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Relations between marital conflict, children's respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and fluid cognitive performance were examined over 3 years to assess allostatic processes. Participants were 251 children reporting on marital conflict, baseline RSA, and RSA reactivity (RSA-R) to a lab challenge were recorded, and fluid cognitive performance

  9. Improving satisfaction performance through faster turnaround times.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    In order to increase satisfaction and improve department performance, Florida Hospital Memorial Medical Center focused on decreasing report turnaround time with a goal of two hours from completion of the examination by the technologist to a final signed report by the radiologist. Through the introduction of voice recognition software, not only were efficiencies gained, but there was a dramatic reduction in transcription costs--from $30,000 per month to less than $300. Turnaround times were ultimately reduced, thus improving performance and increasing satisfaction. This was made evident by the tracking over time of physician satisfaction scores and HCAHPS scores rating patient satisfaction. PMID:22043733

  10. Chronic treatment with anesthetic propofol improves cognitive function and attenuates caspase activation in both aged and Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Shao, Haijun; Zhang, Yiying; Dong, Yuanlin; Yu, Buwei; Xia, Weiming; Xie, Zhongcong

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to seek new treatment(s) for Alzheimer's disease (AD). A recent study showed that AD patients may have decreased levels of functional GABA receptors. Propofol, a commonly used anesthetic, is a GABA receptor agonist. We therefore set out to perform a proof of concept study to determine whether chronic treatment with propofol (50 mg/kg/week) can improve cognitive function in both aged wild-type (WT) and AD transgenic (Tg) mice. Propofol was administrated to the WT and AD Tg mice once a week for 8 or 12 weeks, respectively. Morris water maze was used to assess the cognitive function of the mice following the propofol treatment. Activation of caspase-3, caspase-9, and caspase-8 was investigated using western blot analysis at the end of the propofol treatment. In the mechanistic studies, effects of propofol, amyloid-? protein (A?), and GABA receptor antagonist flumazenil on caspase-3 activation and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore were assessed in H4 human neuroglioma and mouse neuroblastoma cells by western blot analysis and flow cytometry. Here we showed that the propofol treatment improved cognitive function and attenuated brain caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation in both aged WT and AD Tg mice. Propofol attenuated A?-induced caspase-3 activation and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in the cells, and flumazenil inhibited the propofol's effects. These results suggested that propofol might improve cognitive function via attenuating the A?-induced mitochondria dysfunction and caspase activation, which explored the potential that anesthetic propofol could improve cognitive function in elderly and AD patients. PMID:24643139

  11. Chronic Treatment with Anesthetic Propofol Improves Cognitive Function and Attenuates Caspase Activation in Both Aged and Alzheimer's Disease Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yuanlin; Yu, Buwei; Xia, Weiming; Xie, Zhongcong

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to seek new treatment(s) for Alzheimer's disease (AD). A recent study showed that AD patients may have decreased levels of functional GABA receptors. Propofol, a commonly used anesthetic, is a GABA receptor agonist. We therefore set out to perform a proof of concept study to determine whether chronic treatment with propofol (50 mg/kg/week) can improve cognitive function in both aged wild-type (WT) and AD transgenic (Tg) mice. Propofol was administrated to the WT and AD Tg mice once a week for 8 or 12 weeks, respectively. Morris water maze was used to assess the cognitive function of the mice following the propofol treatment. Activation of caspase-3, caspase-9, and caspase-8 was investigated using western blot analysis at the end of the propofol treatment. In the mechanistic studies, effects of propofol, amyloid-? protein (A?), and GABA receptor antagonist flumazenil on caspase-3 activation and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore were assessed in H4 human neuroglioma and mouse neuroblastoma cells by western blot analysis and flow cytometry. Here we showed that the propofol treatment improved cognitive function and attenuated brain caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation in both aged WT and AD Tg mice. Propofol attenuated A?-induced caspase-3 activation and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in the cells, and flumazenil inhibited the propofol's effects. These results suggested that propofol might improve cognitive function via attenuating the A?-induced mitochondria dysfunction and caspase activation, which explored the potential that anesthetic propofol could improve cognitive function in elderly and AD patients. PMID:24643139

  12. A Framework for Designing Scaffolds That Improve Motivation and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Belland, Brian R.; Kim, ChanMin; Hannafin, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    A problematic, yet common, assumption among educational researchers is that when teachers provide authentic, problem-based experiences, students will automatically be engaged. Evidence indicates that this is often not the case. In this article, we discuss (a) problems with ignoring motivation in the design of learning environments, (b) problem-based learning and scaffolding as one way to help, (c) how scaffolding has strayed from what was originally equal parts motivational and cognitive support, and (d) a conceptual framework for the design of scaffolds that can enhance motivation as well as cognitive outcomes. We propose guidelines for the design of computer-based scaffolds to promote motivation and engagement while students are solving authentic problems. Remaining questions and suggestions for future research are then discussed. PMID:24273351

  13. Computer-Based Cognitive Programs for Improvement of Memory, Processing Speed and Executive Function during Age-Related Cognitive Decline: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yan-kun; Mang, Jing; Li, Pei-lan; Wang, Jie; Deng, Ting; Xu, Zhong-xin

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have assessed the effects of computer-based cognitive programs (CCP) in the management of age-related cognitive decline, but the role of CCP remains controversial. Therefore, this systematic review evaluated the evidence on the efficacy of CCP for age-related cognitive decline in healthy older adults. Methods Six electronic databases (through October 2014) were searched. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. The standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of a random-effects model were calculated. The heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochran Q statistic and quantified with the I2 index. Results Twelve studies were included in the current review and were considered as moderate to high methodological quality. The aggregated results indicate that CCP improves memory performance (SMD, 0.31; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.45; p < 0.0001) and processing speed (SMD, 0.50; 95% CI 0.14 to 0.87; p = 0.007) but not executive function (SMD, -0.12; 95% CI -0.33 to 0.09; p = 0.27). Furthermore, there were long-term gains in memory performance (SMD, 0.59; 95% CI 0.13 to 1.05; p = 0.01). Conclusion CCP may be a valid complementary and alternative therapy for age-related cognitive decline, especially for memory performance and processing speed. However, more studies with longer follow-ups are warranted to confirm the current findings. PMID:26098943

  14. Loss-aversion or loss-attention: the impact of losses on cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Yechiam, Eldad; Hochman, Guy

    2013-03-01

    Losses were found to improve cognitive performance, and this has been commonly explained by increased weighting of losses compared to gains (i.e., loss aversion). We examine whether effects of losses on performance could be modulated by two alternative processes: an attentional effect leading to increased sensitivity to task incentives; and a contrast-related effect. Empirical data from five studies show that losses improve performance even when the enhanced performance runs counter to the predictions of loss aversion. In Study 1-3 we show that in various settings, when an advantageous option produces large gains and small losses, participants select this alternative at a higher rate than when it does not produce losses. Consistent with the joint influence of attention and contrast-related processes, this effect is smaller when a disadvantageous alternative produces the losses. In Studies 4 and 5 we find a positive effect on performance even with no contrast effects (when a similar loss is added to all alternatives). These findings indicate that both attention and contrast-based processes are implicated in the effect of losses on performance, and that a positive effect of losses on performance is not tantamount to loss aversion. PMID:23334108

  15. The kidney disease quality of life cognitive function subscale and cognitive performance maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Cognitive impairment is common but often undiagnosed in patients with end-stage renal disease, in part reflecting limited validated and easily administered tools to assess cognitive function in dialysis patients. Accordingly, we assessed the utility of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life ...

  16. Method for improving fuel cell performance

    DOEpatents

    Uribe, Francisco A.; Zawodzinski, Thomas

    2003-10-21

    A method is provided for operating a fuel cell at high voltage for sustained periods of time. The cathode is switched to an output load effective to reduce the cell voltage at a pulse width effective to reverse performance degradation from OH adsorption onto cathode catalyst surfaces. The voltage is stepped to a value of less than about 0.6 V to obtain the improved and sustained performance.

  17. The effects of goal difficulty on physiological arousal, cognition, and task performance.

    PubMed

    Gellatly, I R; Meyer, J P

    1992-10-01

    Two laboratory experiments with 117 undergraduate students were conducted to examine (a) the effect of assigned goal difficulty on arousal (self-report and heart rate), cognition (perceived norm, self-efficacy strength, and personal goal), and behavioral (task performance) measures and (b) the role of heart rate as a mediator of the goal-difficulty-performance relation. All Ss performed a task requiring cognitive and physical responses. Results of both experiments demonstrated that assigned goal difficulty affected heart rate, cognition, and task performance and that heart-rate change was positively related to the cognitive and behavioral measures. Regression analyses suggested that a cognitive-affective mechanism may mediate the goal-difficulty-performance relation. Discussion is focused on the theoretical and practical implications of integrating an arousal concept within goal-setting theory. PMID:1429347

  18. Reducing Dysfunctional Beliefs about Sleep Does Not Significantly Improve Insomnia in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals’ scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia. PMID:25025164

  19. Daytime Cognitive Performance in Response to Sunlight or Fluorescent Light Controlling for Sleep Duration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramos, Jhanic; Zamos, Adela; Rao, Rohit; Flynn-Evans, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Light is the primary synchronizer of the human circadian rhythm and also has acute alerting effects. Our study involves and comparing the alertness, performance and sleep of participants in the NASA Ames Sustainability Base, which uses sunlight as its primary light source, to in a traditional office building which uses overhead florescent lighting and varying exposure to natural light. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the use of natural lighting as a primary light source improves daytime cognitive function and promotes nighttime sleep. Participants from the Sustainability Base will be matched by gender and age to individuals working in other NASA buildings. In a prior study we found no differences in performance between those working in the Sustainability Base and those working in other buildings. Unexpectedly, we found that the average sleep duration among participants in both buildings was short, which likely obscured our ability to detect a difference the effect of light exposure on alertness. Given that such sleep deprivation has negative effects on cognitive performance, in this iteration of the study we are asking the participants to maintain a regular schedule with eight hours in bed each night in order to control for the effect of self-selected sleep restriction. Over the course of one week, we will ask the participants to wear actiwatches continuously, complete a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and digit symbol substitution task (DSST) three times per day, and keep daily sleepwork diaries. We hope that this study will provide data to support the idea that natural lighting and green architectural design are optimal to enhance healthy nighttime sleep patterns and daytime cognitive performance.

  20. Group Comparisons of Mathematics Performance from a Cognitive Diagnostic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yi-Hsin; Ferron, John M.; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Gorin, Joanna S.; Tatsuoka, Kikumi K.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional comparisons of test score means identify group differences in broad academic areas, but fail to provide substantive description of how the groups differ on the specific cognitive attributes required for success in the academic area. The rule space method (RSM) allows for group comparisons at the cognitive attribute level, which…

  1. Potential Role of the Combination of Galantamine and Memantine to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Koola, Maju Mathew; Buchanan, Robert W.; Pillai, Anilkumar; Aitchison, Katherine J.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Aaronson, Scott T.; Dickerson, Faith B.

    2014-01-01

    The Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) and Treatment Units for Research on Neurocognition and Schizophrenia projects were designed to facilitate the development of new drugs for the treatment of cognitive impairments in people with schizophrenia. The MATRICS project identified three drug mechanisms of particular interest: dopaminergic, cholinergic, and glutamatergic. As a group, while people with schizophrenia have moderate cognitive impairment, it is the best predictor of long-term outcome. Unfortunately, there are no approved medications for cognitive impairment in this population. Hence, the development of new pharmacological approaches is critical for reducing illness-related disability. The combination of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) and memantine is more effective than either medication alone to improve cognition in Alzheimer’s dementia. Galantamine is not only an AChEI, but also a positive allosteric modulator of the ?4?2 and ?7 nicotinic receptors. Hypofunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been implicated in the pathophysiology of cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia and hence memantine may positively impact cognition. Memantine decreases the tonic NMDA current and galantamine enhances the action potential mediated by a postsynaptic NMDA current. This results in an increased signal transmission; therefore, a greater signal-to-noise ratio occurs with the combination than memantine alone. Galantamine improves the ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazol-propionate (AMPA)-mediated signaling which could be neuroprotective and may improve memory coding. The combination of galantamine and memantine may be particularly effective in schizophrenia in order to increase the selective cognition enhancement produced by either medication alone. In the future, multitarget-directed ligands may play a role in the treatment of complex diseases like schizophrenia. PMID:24878431

  2. Mind over Matter: Reappraising Arousal Improves Cardiovascular and Cognitive Responses to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Jeremy P.; Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have theorized that changing the way we think about our bodily responses can improve our physiological and cognitive reactions to stressful events. However, the underlying processes through which mental states improve downstream outcomes are not well understood. To this end, we examined whether reappraising stress-induced arousal could…

  3. A Paradigm Shift to Improve Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rulloda, Rudolfo B.

    2009-01-01

    A shift to computer skills for improving academic performances was investigated. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 increased the amount of high school dropouts after the Act was enacted. At-risk students were included in this research study. Several models described using teachers for core subjects and mentors to built citizenship skills, along…

  4. Improving Academic Performance Among American Indian, Alaska

    E-print Network

    Rau, Don C.

    Improving Academic Performance Among American Indian, Alaska Native, & Native Hawaiian Students Office of English Language Acquisition Office of Indian Education U.S. Department of Education Services National Institute for Literacy Office of Indian Education Programs Bureau of Indian Affairs OTHER

  5. Improving Reproductive Performance: Long and Short Term

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements in reproductive performance for beef herds can be classified as short term (current year) or long term (lifetime production) and can be applied to and measured in individual animals or the entire herd. In other species, results show that rearing young animals under caloric restriction ...

  6. A Performance Technology Approach to Improving Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer-Murphy, Lucia; Moller, Leslie; Benscoter, Bud

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the evaluation component of instructional design, suggests a performance technology approach to improve evaluation, and describes the Rummler-Brache Organizational Alignment Model that provides guidelines for systematically identifying the key variables when reorganizing training toward more appropriate evaluation. (LRW)

  7. The largest human cognitive performance dataset reveals insights into the effects of lifestyle factors and aging

    PubMed Central

    Sternberg, Daniel A.; Ballard, Kacey; Hardy, Joseph L.; Katz, Benjamin; Doraiswamy, P. Murali; Scanlon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Making new breakthroughs in understanding the processes underlying human cognition may depend on the availability of very large datasets that have not historically existed in psychology and neuroscience. Lumosity is a web-based cognitive training platform that has grown to include over 600 million cognitive training task results from over 35 million individuals, comprising the largest existing dataset of human cognitive performance. As part of the Human Cognition Project, Lumosity's collaborative research program to understand the human mind, Lumos Labs researchers and external research collaborators have begun to explore this dataset in order uncover novel insights about the correlates of cognitive performance. This paper presents two preliminary demonstrations of some of the kinds of questions that can be examined with the dataset. The first example focuses on replicating known findings relating lifestyle factors to baseline cognitive performance in a demographically diverse, healthy population at a much larger scale than has previously been available. The second example examines a question that would likely be very difficult to study in laboratory-based and existing online experimental research approaches at a large scale: specifically, how learning ability for different types of cognitive tasks changes with age. We hope that these examples will provoke the imagination of researchers who are interested in collaborating to answer fundamental questions about human cognitive performance. PMID:23801955

  8. The largest human cognitive performance dataset reveals insights into the effects of lifestyle factors and aging.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, Daniel A; Ballard, Kacey; Hardy, Joseph L; Katz, Benjamin; Doraiswamy, P Murali; Scanlon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Making new breakthroughs in understanding the processes underlying human cognition may depend on the availability of very large datasets that have not historically existed in psychology and neuroscience. Lumosity is a web-based cognitive training platform that has grown to include over 600 million cognitive training task results from over 35 million individuals, comprising the largest existing dataset of human cognitive performance. As part of the Human Cognition Project, Lumosity's collaborative research program to understand the human mind, Lumos Labs researchers and external research collaborators have begun to explore this dataset in order uncover novel insights about the correlates of cognitive performance. This paper presents two preliminary demonstrations of some of the kinds of questions that can be examined with the dataset. The first example focuses on replicating known findings relating lifestyle factors to baseline cognitive performance in a demographically diverse, healthy population at a much larger scale than has previously been available. The second example examines a question that would likely be very difficult to study in laboratory-based and existing online experimental research approaches at a large scale: specifically, how learning ability for different types of cognitive tasks changes with age. We hope that these examples will provoke the imagination of researchers who are interested in collaborating to answer fundamental questions about human cognitive performance. PMID:23801955

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil lower anxiety, improve cognitive functions and reduce spontaneous locomotor activity in a non-human primate.

    PubMed

    Vinot, Nina; Jouin, Mélanie; Lhomme-Duchadeuil, Adrien; Guesnet, Philippe; Alessandri, Jean-Marc; Aujard, Fabienne; Pifferi, Fabien

    2011-01-01

    Omega-3 (?3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are major components of brain cells membranes. ?3 PUFA-deficient rodents exhibit severe cognitive impairments (learning, memory) that have been linked to alteration of brain glucose utilization or to changes in neurotransmission processes. ?3 PUFA supplementation has been shown to lower anxiety and to improve several cognitive parameters in rodents, while very few data are available in primates. In humans, little is known about the association between anxiety and ?3 fatty acids supplementation and data are divergent about their impact on cognitive functions. Therefore, the development of nutritional studies in non-human primates is needed to disclose whether a long-term supplementation with long-chain ?3 PUFA has an impact on behavioural and cognitive parameters, differently or not from rodents. We address the hypothesis that ?3 PUFA supplementation could lower anxiety and improve cognitive performances of the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus), a nocturnal Malagasy prosimian primate. Adult male mouse lemurs were fed for 5 months on a control diet or on a diet supplemented with long-chain ?3 PUFA (n?=?6 per group). Behavioural, cognitive and motor performances were measured using an open field test to evaluate anxiety, a circular platform test to evaluate reference spatial memory, a spontaneous locomotor activity monitoring and a sensory-motor test. ?3-supplemented animals exhibited lower anxiety level compared to control animals, what was accompanied by better performances in a reference spatial memory task (80% of successful trials vs 35% in controls, p<0.05), while the spontaneous locomotor activity was reduced by 31% in ?3-supplemented animals (p<0.001), a parameter that can be linked with lowered anxiety. The long-term dietary ?3 PUFA supplementation positively impacts on anxiety and cognitive performances in the adult mouse lemur. The supplementation of human food with ?3 fatty acids may represent a valuable dietary strategy to improve behavioural and cognitive functions. PMID:21666750

  10. Lower but not higher doses of transdermal nicotine facilitate cognitive performance in smokers on gender non-preferred tasks.

    PubMed

    Poltavski, Dmitri V; Petros, Thomas V; Holm, Jeffrey E

    2012-09-01

    One of the most widely used treatments for smoking cessation is nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). There is some evidence that smokers experience abstinence-induced deficits in cognitive function, which are attenuated by NRTs. Additionally it's been suggested that the degree of reversal of cognitive deficits may depend on the NRT dose and the smoker's gender. In the present placebo-controlled study we investigated effects of three doses of transdermal nicotine (7 mg, 14 mg and 21 mg) on cognitive performance of 48 male and 48 female smokers after overnight abstinence and 6h of patch application. Cognitive tasks used in the study included the Conners' CPT, emotional Stroop, mental arithmetic, and verbal recall of affective prose passages. The results showed greater probability of attentional problems in the male sample compared to females as identified by the Conners' CPT. Within gender women showed improved performance in the 7 mg and 14 mg conditions on several measures of the Conners' CPT, and faster hit reaction time on the emotional Stroop test compared to women in the placebo and 21 mg of nicotine groups. Conversely, males showed a moderate overall advantage on the mental arithmetic task and were differentially sensitive to nicotine treatment on the prose recall task, on which the greatest improvement in recall of affective material was observed for the 14 mg group compared to the 21 mg group. The results are explained on the basis of an inverted U-shaped relationship between nicotinic stimulation and cognitive performance as well as greater sensitivity to nicotine dose manipulation on gender non-preferred cognitive tasks. PMID:22691869

  11. Action Video Gaming and Cognitive Control: Playing First Person Shooter Games Is Associated with Improved Action Cascading but Not Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Steenbergen, Laura; Sellaro, Roberta; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian; Colzato, Lorenza S.

    2015-01-01

    There is a constantly growing interest in developing efficient methods to enhance cognitive functioning and/or to ameliorate cognitive deficits. One particular line of research focuses on the possibly cognitive enhancing effects that action video game (AVG) playing may have on game players. Interestingly, AVGs, especially first person shooter games, require gamers to develop different action control strategies to rapidly react to fast moving visual and auditory stimuli, and to flexibly adapt their behaviour to the ever-changing context. This study investigated whether and to what extent experience with such videogames is associated with enhanced performance on cognitive control tasks that require similar abilities. Experienced action videogame-players (AVGPs) and individuals with little to no videogame experience (NVGPs) performed a stop-change paradigm that provides a relatively well-established diagnostic measure of action cascading and response inhibition. Replicating previous findings, AVGPs showed higher efficiency in response execution, but not improved response inhibition (i.e. inhibitory control), as compared to NVGPs. More importantly, compared to NVGPs, AVGPs showed enhanced action cascading processes when an interruption (stop) and a change towards an alternative response were required simultaneously, as well as when such a change had to occur after the completion of the stop process. Our findings suggest that playing AVGs is associated with enhanced action cascading and multi-component behaviour without affecting inhibitory control. PMID:26655929

  12. Six months of dance intervention enhances postural, sensorimotor, and cognitive performance in elderly without affecting cardio-respiratory functions

    PubMed Central

    Kattenstroth, Jan-Christoph; Kalisch, Tobias; Holt, Stephan; Tegenthoff, Martin; Dinse, Hubert R.

    2013-01-01

    During aging, sensorimotor, cognitive and physical performance decline, but can improve by training and exercise indicating that age-related changes are treatable. Dancing is increasingly used as an intervention because it combines many diverse features making it a promising neuroplasticity-inducing tool. We here investigated the effects of a 6-month dance class (1 h/week) on a group of healthy elderly individuals compared to a matched control group (CG). We performed a broad assessment covering cognition, intelligence, attention, reaction time, motor, tactile, and postural performance, as well as subjective well-being and cardio-respiratory performance. After 6 months, in the CG no changes, or further degradation of performance was found. In the dance group, beneficial effects were found for dance-related parameters such as posture and reaction times, but also for cognitive, tactile, motor performance, and subjective well-being. These effects developed without alterations in the cardio-respiratory performance. Correlation of baseline performance with the improvement following intervention revealed that those individuals, who benefitted most from the intervention, were those who showed the lowest performance prior to the intervention. Our findings corroborate previous observations that dancing evokes widespread positive effects. The pre-post design used in the present study implies that the efficacy of dance is most likely not based on a selection bias of particularly gifted individuals. The lack of changes of cardio-respiratory fitness indicates that even moderate levels of physical activity can in combination with rich sensorimotor, cognitive, social, and emotional challenges act to ameliorate a wide spectrum of age-related decline. PMID:23447455

  13. Six months of dance intervention enhances postural, sensorimotor, and cognitive performance in elderly without affecting cardio-respiratory functions.

    PubMed

    Kattenstroth, Jan-Christoph; Kalisch, Tobias; Holt, Stephan; Tegenthoff, Martin; Dinse, Hubert R

    2013-01-01

    During aging, sensorimotor, cognitive and physical performance decline, but can improve by training and exercise indicating that age-related changes are treatable. Dancing is increasingly used as an intervention because it combines many diverse features making it a promising neuroplasticity-inducing tool. We here investigated the effects of a 6-month dance class (1 h/week) on a group of healthy elderly individuals compared to a matched control group (CG). We performed a broad assessment covering cognition, intelligence, attention, reaction time, motor, tactile, and postural performance, as well as subjective well-being and cardio-respiratory performance. After 6 months, in the CG no changes, or further degradation of performance was found. In the dance group, beneficial effects were found for dance-related parameters such as posture and reaction times, but also for cognitive, tactile, motor performance, and subjective well-being. These effects developed without alterations in the cardio-respiratory performance. Correlation of baseline performance with the improvement following intervention revealed that those individuals, who benefitted most from the intervention, were those who showed the lowest performance prior to the intervention. Our findings corroborate previous observations that dancing evokes widespread positive effects. The pre-post design used in the present study implies that the efficacy of dance is most likely not based on a selection bias of particularly gifted individuals. The lack of changes of cardio-respiratory fitness indicates that even moderate levels of physical activity can in combination with rich sensorimotor, cognitive, social, and emotional challenges act to ameliorate a wide spectrum of age-related decline. PMID:23447455

  14. Neuropsychological Test Performance and Cognitive Reserve in Healthy Aging and the Alzheimer’s Disease Spectrum: A Theoretically-Driven Factor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Meghan B.; Shaughnessy, Lynn W.; Shirk, Steven D.; Yang, Frances M.; Atri, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Accurate measurement of cognitive function is critical for understanding the disease course of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Detecting cognitive change over time can be confounded by level of premorbid intellectual function or cognitive reserve and lead to under or over diagnosis of cognitive impairment and AD. Statistical models of cognitive performance that include cognitive reserve can improve sensitivity to change and clinical efficacy. We used confirmatory factor analysis to test a four-factor model comprised of memory/language, processing speed/executive function, attention, and cognitive reserve factors in a group of cognitively healthy older adults and a group of participants along the spectrum of amnestic mild cognitive impairment to AD (aMCI-AD). The model showed excellent fit for the control group (?2 = 100, df = 78, CFI = .962, RMSEA = .049) and adequate fit for the aMCI-AD group (?2 = 1750, df = 78, CFI = .932, RMSEA = .085). Though strict invariance criteria were not met, invariance testing to determine if factor structures are similar across groups yielded acceptable absolute model fits and provide evidence in support of configural, metric, and scalar invariance. These results provide further support for the construct validity of cognitive reserve in healthy and memory impaired older adults. PMID:23039909

  15. The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities III's Cognitive Performance Model: Empirical Support for Intermediate Factors within CHC Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.

    2014-01-01

    The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability Third Edition is developed using the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) measurement-theory test design as the instrument's theoretical blueprint. The instrument provides users with cognitive scores based on the Cognitive Performance Model (CPM); however, the CPM is not a part of CHC theory. Within the…

  16. Lactulose enhances neuroplasticity to improve cognitive function in early hepatic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Nan; Liu, He; Jiang, Yao; Zheng, Ji; Li, Dong-mei; Ji, Chao; Liu, Yan-yong; Zuo, Ping-ping

    2015-01-01

    Lactulose is known to improve cognitive function in patients with early hepatic encephalopathy; however, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the behavioral and neurochemical effects of lactulose in a rat model of early hepatic encephalopathy induced by carbon tetrachloride. Immunohistochemistry showed that lactulose treatment promoted neurogenesis and increased the number of neurons and astrocytes in the hippocampus. Moreover, lactulose-treated rats showed shorter escape latencies than model rats in the Morris water maze, indicating that lactulose improved the cognitive impairments caused by hepatic encephalopathy. The present findings suggest that lactulose effectively improves cognitive function by enhancing neuroplasticity in a rat model of early hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:26604907

  17. Lactulose enhances neuroplasticity to improve cognitive function in early hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Nan; Liu, He; Jiang, Yao; Zheng, Ji; Li, Dong-Mei; Ji, Chao; Liu, Yan-Yong; Zuo, Ping-Ping

    2015-09-01

    Lactulose is known to improve cognitive function in patients with early hepatic encephalopathy; however, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the behavioral and neurochemical effects of lactulose in a rat model of early hepatic encephalopathy induced by carbon tetrachloride. Immunohistochemistry showed that lactulose treatment promoted neurogenesis and increased the number of neurons and astrocytes in the hippocampus. Moreover, lactulose-treated rats showed shorter escape latencies than model rats in the Morris water maze, indicating that lactulose improved the cognitive impairments caused by hepatic encephalopathy. The present findings suggest that lactulose effectively improves cognitive function by enhancing neuroplasticity in a rat model of early hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:26604907

  18. Training-Induced Improvement of Response Selection and Error Detection in Aging Assessed by Task Switching: Effects of Cognitive, Physical, and Relaxation Training

    PubMed Central

    Gajewski, Patrick D.; Falkenstein, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive control functions decline with increasing age. The present study examines if different types of group-based and trainer-guided training effectively enhance performance of older adults in a task switching task, and how this expected enhancement is reflected in changes of cognitive functions, as measured in electrophysiological brain activity (event-related potentials). One hundred forty-one healthy participants aged 65?years and older were randomly assigned to one of four groups: physical training (combined aerobic and strength training), cognitive training (paper–pencil and computer-aided), relaxation and wellness (social control group), and a control group that did not receive any intervention. Training sessions took place twice a week for 90?min for a period of 4?months. The results showed a greater improvement of performance for attendants of the cognitive training group compared to the other groups. This improvement was evident in a reduction of mixing costs in accuracy and intraindividual variability of speed, indexing improved maintenance of multiple task sets in working memory, and an enhanced coherence of neuronal processing. These findings were supported by event-related brain potentials which showed higher amplitudes in a number of potentials associated with response selection (N2), allocation of cognitive resources (P3b), and error detection (Ne). Taken together, our findings suggest neurocognitive plasticity of aging brains which can be stimulated by broad and multilayered cognitive training and assessed in detail by electrophysiological methods. PMID:22593740

  19. Case report: Is verbal cognitive performance in bilingual neuropsychiatric patients test-language dependent?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Mabel; Kratochvilova, Zuzana; Kuniss, Renata; Vorackova, Veronika; Dorazilova, Aneta; Fajnerova, Iveta

    2015-12-01

    Bilingualism (BL) is increasing around the world. Although BL has been shown to have a broad impact-both positive and negative-on language and cognitive functioning, cognitive models and standards are mainly based on monolinguals. If we take cognitive performance of monolinguals as a standard, then the performance of bilinguals might not be accurately estimated. The assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of both the diagnostic process and further treatment in neurological and neuropsychiatric patients. In order to identify the presence or absence of cognitive deficit in bilingual patients, it will be important to determine the positive and/or negative impact of BL properties on measured cognitive performance. However, research of the impact of BL on cognitive performance in neuropsychiatric patients is limited. This article aims to compare the influence of the language (dominant-L1, second-L2) used for assessment of verbal cognitive performance in two cases of bilingual neuropsychiatric patients (English/Czech). Despite the fact that the two cases have different diagnoses, similarities in working memory and verbal learning profiles for L1 and L2 were present in both patients. We expected L1 to have higher performance in all measures when compared with L2. This assumption was partially confirmed. As expected, verbal working memory performance was better when assessed in L1. In contrast, verbal learning showed the same or better performance in L2 when compared with L1. Verbal fluency and immediate recall results were comparable in both languages. In conclusion, the language of administration partially influenced verbal performance of bilingual patients. Whether the language itself influenced low performance in a given language or it was a result of a deficit requires further research. According to our results, we suggest that an assessment in both languages needs to be a component of reasonable cognitive assessment of bilingual patients. PMID:26663627

  20. Children's Sleep, Sleepiness, and Performance on Cognitive Tasks.

    PubMed

    Buckhalt, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    While causal connections between sleep deprivation and attention, learning, and memory have been well established in adults, much less research has been done with children. Relations between the amount and quality of sleep and daytime sleepiness have been found for a number of cognitive and academic tasks in several groups of children. These relations have been found for children who have sleep disorders, for children with disorders involving cognitive impairment, and for typically developing children with no known disorders. The research is reviewed here with a focus on the types of cognitive and academic tasks that have been related to insufficient sleep. A series of studies is described that relates sleep parameters to the Woodcock-Johnson® III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and other, similar measures. Implications for educators and psychologists who work with children are discussed. PMID:25279390

  1. Improving performance via mini-applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Crozier, Paul Stewart; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Numrich, Robert W.; Williams, Alan B.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Keiter, Eric Richard; Rajan, Mahesh; Willenbring, James M.; Doerfler, Douglas W.; Heroux, Michael Allen

    2009-09-01

    Application performance is determined by a combination of many choices: hardware platform, runtime environment, languages and compilers used, algorithm choice and implementation, and more. In this complicated environment, we find that the use of mini-applications - small self-contained proxies for real applications - is an excellent approach for rapidly exploring the parameter space of all these choices. Furthermore, use of mini-applications enriches the interaction between application, library and computer system developers by providing explicit functioning software and concrete performance results that lead to detailed, focused discussions of design trade-offs, algorithm choices and runtime performance issues. In this paper we discuss a collection of mini-applications and demonstrate how we use them to analyze and improve application performance on new and future computer platforms.

  2. Effects of artificial dawn and morning blue light on daytime cognitive performance, well-being, cortisol and melatonin levels.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Virginie; Maire, Micheline; Reichert, Carolin F; Chellappa, Sarah L; Schmidt, Christina; Hommes, Vanja; Viola, Antoine U; Cajochen, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Light exposure elicits numerous effects on human physiology and behavior, such as better cognitive performance and mood. Here we investigated the role of morning light exposure as a countermeasure for impaired cognitive performance and mood under sleep restriction (SR). Seventeen participants took part of a 48h laboratory protocol, during which three different light settings (separated by 2 wks) were administered each morning after two 6-h sleep restriction nights: a blue monochromatic LED (light-emitting diode) light condition (BL; 100 lux at 470 nm for 20 min) starting 2 h after scheduled wake-up time, a dawn-simulating light (DsL) starting 30 min before and ending 20 min after scheduled wake-up time (polychromatic light gradually increasing from 0 to 250 lux), and a dim light (DL) condition for 2 h beginning upon scheduled wake time (<8 lux). Cognitive tasks were performed every 2 h during scheduled wakefulness, and questionnaires were administered hourly to assess subjective sleepiness, mood, and well-being. Salivary melatonin and cortisol were collected throughout scheduled wakefulness in regular intervals, and the effects on melatonin were measured after only one light pulse. Following the first SR, analysis of the time course of cognitive performance during scheduled wakefulness indicated a decrease following DL, whereas it remained stable following BL and significantly improved after DsL. Cognitive performance levels during the second day after SR were not significantly affected by the different light conditions. However, after both SR nights, mood and well-being were significantly enhanced after exposure to morning DsL compared with DL and BL. Melatonin onset occurred earlier after morning BL exposure, than after morning DsL and DL, whereas salivary cortisol levels were higher at wake-up time after DsL compared with BL and DL. Our data indicate that exposure to an artificial morning dawn simulation light improves subjective well-being, mood, and cognitive performance, as compared with DL and BL, with minimal impact on circadian phase. Thus, DsL may provide an effective strategy for enhancing cognitive performance, well-being, and mood under mild sleep restriction. PMID:23841684

  3. Post-carotid endarterectomy changes in cerebral glucose metabolism on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography associated with postoperative improvement or impairment in cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Koji; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Saura, Hiroaki; Saito, Hideo; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Yoshida, Kenji; Terasaki, Kazunori; Fujiwara, Shunrou; Ogawa, Akira

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT Cognitive function is often improved or impaired after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for patients with cerebral hemodynamic impairment. Cerebral glucose metabolism measured using positron emission tomography (PET) with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) correlates with cognitive function in patients with neurodegenerative diseases. The present study aimed to determine whether postoperative changes in cerebral glucose metabolism are associated with cognitive changes after CEA. METHODS In patients who were scheduled to undergo CEA for ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis (? 70% narrowing), cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) to acetazolamide were assessed preoperatively using brain perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). CBF measurement using SPECT was also performed immediately after CEA. For patients with reduced preoperative CVR to acetazolamide in the cerebral hemisphere ipsilateral to surgery, cerebral glucose metabolism was assessed using FDG-PET before surgery and 3 months after surgery and was analyzed using 3D stereotactic surface projection. Neuropsychological testing was also performed preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. RESULTS Twenty-two patients with reduced preoperative CVR to acetazolamide successfully underwent FDG-PET studies and neuropsychological testing before and after CEA. Seven, 9, and 6 patients were defined as showing improved, unchanged, and impaired postoperative cognition, respectively, based on the neuropsychological assessments. The cortical area with increased postoperative glucose metabolism was greater in patients with improved postoperative cognition than in those with unchanged (p < 0.001) or impaired (p < 0.001) postoperative cognition. The cortical area with decreased postoperative glucose metabolism was greater in patients with impaired postoperative cognition than in those with improved (p < 0.001) or unchanged (p < 0.001) postoperative cognition. All 7 patients with improved cognition exhibited postoperative hemispheric increases in glucose metabolism, while 5 of the 6 patients with impaired cognition exhibited postoperative hemispheric decreases in glucose metabolism. Brain perfusion SPECT revealed that the latter 6 patients experienced postoperative cerebral hyperperfusion, and 2 of the 6 patients exhibited cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome. The cortical area with decreased postoperative glucose metabolism in these 2 patients was greater than that in other patients. CONCLUSIONS Postoperative changes in cerebral glucose metabolism, as measured using FDG-PET, are associated with cognitive improvement and impairment after CEA. PMID:26230467

  4. Integrated inspection system for improved machine performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Jong-I.; Donmez, M. Alkan

    1993-11-01

    An integrated inspection system for improving the accuracy of CNC machine tools is proposed. The system described in this paper emphasizes the integration of the on-machine inspection and analysis techniques with the information coming from post-process and on- machine inspection to improve machine performance automatically. Algorithms are derived for analyzing the post-process and on-machine inspection data to identify residual systematic errors and relate them to the machine performance. Various data analysis algorithms and techniques are compared. A feature comparison approach is developed to relate the dimensional and form errors of a manufactured workpiece to the systematic machine tool errors. Inverse kinematics technique and statistical methods are used to identify and characterize the contribution of each geometric error component. A self tuning algorithm is also proposed to fine tune the geometric-thermal model.

  5. Improving performance through self-assessment.

    PubMed

    Pitt, D J

    1999-01-01

    Wakefield and Pontefract Community Health NHS Trust uses the European Business Excellence Model self-assessment for continuous improvement. An outline of the key aspects of the model, an approach to TQM, is presented. This article sets out the context that led to the adoption of the model in the Trust and describes the approach that has been taken to completing self-assessments. Use of the model to secure continuous improvement is reviewed against Bhopal and Thomson's Audit Cycle and consideration is given to lessons learned. The article concludes with a discussion on applicability of the model to health care organisations. It is concluded that, after an initial learning curve, the model has facilitated integration of a range of quality initiatives, and progress with continuous improvement. Critical to this was the linking of self-assessment to business planning and performance management systems. PMID:10537856

  6. Epilepsy in the School Aged Child: Cognitive-Behavioral Characteristics and Effects on Academic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Kathryn C.; Hynd, George W.

    1995-01-01

    Children with epilepsy frequently display cognitive sequelae that are overlooked or misunderstood by educational personnel, yet may adversely impact academic performance. Reviews common cognitive-behavioral characteristics of children with epilepsy, typical effects of anticonvulsant medications, and various periictal phenomena and their relative…

  7. Cognitive Style and GCSE Performance in Mathematics, English Language, and French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riding, Richard; Caine, Tracey

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a preliminary study of cognitive style and performance of 182 secondary students on the British General Certificate of Secondary Education. Finds that students who tested at an intermediate position on both dimensions of the Wholist-Analytic cognitive style measure did best on the test. (CFR)

  8. Frequency of and risk factors for poor cognitive performance in hemodialysis patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are few detailed data on cognition in patients undergoing dialysis. We evaluated the frequency of and risk factors for poor cognitive performance using detailed neurocognitive testing. In this cross-sectional cohort study, 314 hemodialysis patients from 6 Boston-area hemodialysis units underwe...

  9. Relationship between Poor Sleep and Daytime Cognitive Performance in Young Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limoges, Elyse; Bolduc, Christianne; Berthiaume, Claude; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Poor sleep is a common feature in autism even though patients themselves do not necessarily complain. The impact of poor sleep on daytime cognitive functioning in autism is not well-known and we therefore investigated whether sleep in autism correlates with daytime cognitive performance. A battery of non-verbal tasks was administered, in the…

  10. Predicting Students' Performance with SimStudent: Learning Cognitive Skills from Observation1

    E-print Network

    Matsuda, Noboru

    Human-Computer Interaction Institute 2 Machine Learning Department Carnegie Mellon University Abstract. SimStudent is a machine-learning agent that learns cognitive skills by demonstration. SimPredicting Students' Performance with SimStudent: Learning Cognitive Skills from Observation1

  11. Physical Fitness Performance of Young Adults with and without Cognitive Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jiabei; Piwowar, Nathan; Reilly, Coleen Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the physical fitness performance of young adults with and without cognitive impairments. Participants were 75 young adults, including 41 without disabilities (23 females, 18 males; M of age = 21.88) and 34 with mild cognitive impairments (14 females, 20 males; M of age = 21.79). They received…

  12. Do Cognitive Distortions Mediate the Test Anxiety-Examination Performance Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putwain, David William; Connors, Liz; Symes, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to follow up exploratory research suggesting that the inverse relationship between test anxiety and examination performance was mediated by cognitive distortions such as catastrophising. Self-report data for measures of test anxiety and cognitive distortions were collected from students in their final year of compulsory…

  13. Cognitive Performance of Egyptian Adults as a Function of Nutritional Intake and Sociodemographic Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachs, Theodore D.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Whether variability in adult cognitive performance was associated with variability in dietary energy intake quality was studied with 54 male and 101 female Egyptians. Results emphasize the importance of nutritional intake for adult cognition even in populations that are not clinically malnourished. (SLD)

  14. Digital Game-Based Learning Supports Student Motivation, Cognitive Success, and Performance Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jeng-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Traditional multimedia learning is primarily based on the cognitive load concept of information processing theory. Recent digital game-based learning (DGBL) studies have focused on exploring content support for learning motivation and related game characteristics. Motivation, volition, and performance (MVP) theory indicates that cognitive load and…

  15. Retrospective lifetime dietary patterns predict cognitive performance in community-dwelling older Australians.

    PubMed

    Hosking, Diane E; Nettelbeck, Ted; Wilson, Carlene; Danthiir, Vanessa

    2014-07-28

    Dietary intake is a modifiable exposure that may have an impact on cognitive outcomes in older age. The long-term aetiology of cognitive decline and dementia, however, suggests that the relevance of dietary intake extends across the lifetime. In the present study, we tested whether retrospective dietary patterns from the life periods of childhood, early adulthood, adulthood and middle age predicted cognitive performance in a cognitively healthy sample of 352 older Australian adults >65 years. Participants completed the Lifetime Diet Questionnaire and a battery of cognitive tests designed to comprehensively assess multiple cognitive domains. In separate regression models, lifetime dietary patterns were the predictors of cognitive factor scores representing ten constructs derived by confirmatory factor analysis of the cognitive test battery. All regression models were progressively adjusted for the potential confounders of current diet, age, sex, years of education, English as native language, smoking history, income level, apoE ?4 status, physical activity, other past dietary patterns and health-related variables. In the adjusted models, lifetime dietary patterns predicted cognitive performance in this sample of older adults. In models additionally adjusted for intake from the other life periods and mechanistic health-related variables, dietary patterns from the childhood period alone reached significance. Higher consumption of the 'coffee and high-sugar, high-fat extras' pattern predicted poorer performance on simple/choice reaction time, working memory, retrieval fluency, short-term memory and reasoning. The 'vegetable and non-processed' pattern negatively predicted simple/choice reaction time, and the 'traditional Australian' pattern positively predicted perceptual speed and retrieval fluency. Identifying early-life dietary antecedents of older-age cognitive performance contributes to formulating strategies for delaying or preventing cognitive decline. PMID:24709049

  16. Cultural Factors Affecting the Differential Performance of Israeli and Palestinian Children on the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josman, Naomi; Abdallah, Taisir M.; Engel-Yeger, Batya

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive performance is essential for children's functioning and may also predict school readiness. The suitability of Western standardized assessments for cognitive performance among children from different cultures needs to be elaborated. This study referred to the existence of differences in cognitive performance between and within children…

  17. Interrelationships between pain processing, cortisol and cognitive performance in chronic whiplash-associated disorders.

    PubMed

    Meeus, Mira; Van Oosterwijck, Jessica; Ickmans, Kelly; Baert, Isabel; Coppieters, Iris; Roussel, Nathalie; Struyf, Filip; Pattyn, Nathalie; Nijs, Jo

    2015-03-01

    The present study aims at studying interactions between cognitive performance and conditioned pain modulation in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) and healthy controls. In addition, the relation between cortisol concentrations and cognitive performance will be studied in patients with chronic WAD. Thirty-one subjects, 16 healthy subjects and 15 patients with chronic WAD, were enrolled and subjected to several self-report and physiological measures. Self-report measures encompassed pain rating during a procedure evaluating conditioned pain modulation. Afterward, they were subjected to physiological measures, which are cognitive tests (Stroop task, psychomotor vigilance task, and operation span task) preceded and followed by salivary cortisol concentration measurements. Chronic WAD patients performed worse in recall at the operation span task and presented longer reaction times at the psychomotor vigilance task and at the Stroop task when sleep-related words were shown (p??.05). Only in the healthy subjects, conditioned pain modulation and baseline cortisol concentrations were correlated to cognitive performance (p?cognitive performance in chronic WAD. We did not reveal impaired pain inhibition but did reveal cognitive dysfunctions in patients with chronic WAD. In healthy subjects, pain inhibition was related to cognitive performance but not in the patient group. PMID:24337691

  18. Improving Fatigue Performance of AHSS Welds

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Zhili; Yu, Xinghua; Erdman, III, Donald L.; Wang, Yanli; Kelly, Steve; Hou, Wenkao; Yan, Benda; Wang, Zhifeng; Yu, Zhenzhen; Liu, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Reported herein is technical progress on a U.S. Department of Energy CRADA project with industry cost-share aimed at developing the technical basis and demonstrate the viability of innovative in-situ weld residual stresses mitigation technology that can substantially improve the weld fatigue performance and durability of auto-body structures. The developed technology would be costeffective and practical in high-volume vehicle production environment. Enhancing weld fatigue performance would address a critical technology gap that impedes the widespread use of advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) and other lightweight materials for auto body structure light-weighting. This means that the automotive industry can take full advantage of the AHSS in strength, durability and crashworthiness without the concern of the relatively weak weld fatigue performance. The project comprises both technological innovations in weld residual stress mitigation and due-diligence residual stress measurement and fatigue performance evaluation. Two approaches were investigated. The first one was the use of low temperature phase transformation (LTPT) weld filler wire, and the second focused on novel thermo-mechanical stress management technique. Both technical approaches have resulted in considerable improvement in fatigue lives of welded joints made of high-strength steels. Synchrotron diffraction measurement confirmed the reduction of high tensile weld residual stresses by the two weld residual stress mitigation techniques.

  19. Improving Contract Performance by Corrective Actions Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Dowd, A.S., jr.

    2002-06-23

    Corrective Action Plans (CAPs) are required to be developed, submitted, and reported upon by the prime contractors for the U.S. Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Management and Operations (M and O) contracts. The best known CAP ''type,'' and there are many, is for Price-Anderson Amendments Act (PAAA) ''potential noncompliances.'' The M and O contractor fines for PAAA problems have increased from approximately $100,000 in 1996 to almost $2,000,000 in 2000. In order to improve CAP performance at the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) site at Y-12 in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, the contractor chose to centralize the company-wide processes of problem identification and reporting with the PAAA (and other) CAP processes. This directly integrates these functional reports to the contractor General Manager. The functions contained in the M and O contractor central organization, called ''Performance Assurance,'' are: PAAA; Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Liaison; Contract Requirements Management; Issues Management (including the CAP processes); Lessons Learned; Independent and Management Assessments; Internal Audits; and Ethics. By centrally locating and managing these problem identification and problem correction functions, the contractor, BWXT Y-12, L.L.C., has improved PAAA (and other) CAP performance more than 200 percent in the first year of the contract. Much of this improvement (see Table 1 for examples) has been achieved by increasing the knowledge and experience of management and workers in the specific contract and company requirements for CAPs. The remainder of this paper will describe some of the many CAP processes at Y-12 to show the reader the non-trivial scope of the CAP process. Improvements in CAP management will be discussed. In addition, a specific recommendation for CAP management, in a major capital construction project, will be presented.

  20. Improving Access to Foundational Energy Performance Data

    SciTech Connect

    Studer, D.; Livingood, W.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-08-01

    Access to foundational energy performance data is key to improving the efficiency of the built environment. However, stakeholders often lack access to what they perceive as credible energy performance data. Therefore, even if a stakeholder determines that a product would increase efficiency, they often have difficulty convincing their management to move forward. Even when credible data do exist, such data are not always sufficient to support detailed energy performance analyses, or the development of robust business cases. One reason for this is that the data parameters that are provided are generally based on the respective industry norms. Thus, for mature industries with extensive testing standards, the data made available are often quite detailed. But for emerging technologies, or for industries with less well-developed testing standards, available data are generally insufficient to support robust analysis. However, even for mature technologies, there is no guarantee that the data being supplied are the same data needed to accurately evaluate a product?s energy performance. To address these challenges, the U.S. Department of Energy funded development of a free, publically accessible Web-based portal, the Technology Performance Exchange(TM), to facilitate the transparent identification, storage, and sharing of foundational energy performance data. The Technology Performance Exchange identifies the intrinsic, technology-specific parameters necessary for a user to perform a credible energy analysis and includes a robust database to store these data. End users can leverage stored data to evaluate the site-specific performance of various technologies, support financial analyses with greater confidence, and make better informed procurement decisions.

  1. Cognitively automated assembly processes: a simulation based evaluation of performance.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Marcel Ph; Odenthal, Barbara; Faber, Marco; Schlick, Christopher M

    2012-01-01

    The numerical control of an experimental assembly cell with two robots--termed a cognitive control unit (CCU)--is able to simulate human information processing at a rule-based level of cognitive control. To enable the CCU to work on a large range of assembly tasks expected of a human operator, the cognitive architecture SOAR is used. The CCU can plan assembly processes autonomously and react to ad-hoc changes in assembly sequences effectively. Extensive simulation studies have shown that cognitive automation based on SOAR is especially suitable for random parts supply, which reduces planning effort in logistics. Conversely, a disproportional increase in processing time was observed for deterministic parts supply, especially for assemblies containing large numbers of identical parts. In this contribution, the effect of phase-shifts in deterministic part supply is investigated for assemblies containing maximal different parts. It can be shown that the concept of cognitive automation is as well suitable for these planning problems. PMID:22317246

  2. The Associations between Regional Gray Matter Structural Changes and Changes of Cognitive Performance in Control Groups of Intervention Studies

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nagase, Tomomi; Nouchi, Rui; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-01-01

    In intervention studies of cognitive training, the challenging cognitive tests, which were used as outcome measures, are generally completed in more than a few hours. Here, utilizing the control groups' data from three 1-week intervention studies in which young healthy adult subjects underwent a wide range of cognitive tests and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) before and after the intervention period, we investigated how regional gray matter (GM) density (rGMD) of the subjects changed through voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Statistically significant increases in rGMD were observed in the anatomical cluster that mainly spread around the bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and the right superior frontal gyrus (rSFG). Moreover, mean rGMD within this cluster changes were significantly and positively correlated with performance changes in the Stroop task, and tended to positively correlate with performance changes in a divergent thinking task. Affected regions are considered to be associated with performance monitoring (dACC) and manipulation of the maintained information including generating associations (rSFG), and both are relevant to the cognitive functions measured in the cognitive tests. Thus, the results suggest that even in the groups of the typical “control group” in intervention studies including those of the passive one, experimental or non-experimental factors can result in an increase in the regional GM structure and form the association between such neural changes and improvements related to these cognitive tests. These results suggest caution toward the experimental study designs without control groups.

  3. Training creative cognition: adolescence as a flexible period for improving creativity

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Claire E.; Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; de Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Crone, Eveline A.

    2014-01-01

    Creativity commonly refers to the ability to generate ideas, solutions, or insights that are novel yet feasible. The ability to generate creative ideas appears to develop and change from childhood to adulthood. Prior research, although inconsistent, generally indicates that adults perform better than adolescents on the alternative uses task (AUT), a commonly used index of creative ideation. The focus of this study was whether performance could be improved by practicing alternative uses generation. We examined the effectiveness of creative ideation training in adolescents (13–16 years, N = 71) and adults (23–30 years, N = 61). Participants followed one of three types of training, each comprising eight 20-min practice sessions within 2 week time: (1) alternative uses generation (experimental condition: creative ideation); (2) object characteristic generation (control condition: general ideation); (3) rule-switching (control condition: rule-switching). Progression in fluency, flexibility, originality of creative ideation was compared between age-groups and training conditions. Participants improved in creative ideation and cognitive flexibility, but not in general ideation. Participants in all three training conditions became better in fluency and originality on the AUT. With regard to originality, adolescents benefitted more from training than adults, although this was not specific for the creative ideation training condition. These results are interpreted in relation to (a) the different underlying processes targeted in the three conditions and (b) developmental differences in brain plasticity with increased sensitivity to training in adolescents. In sum, the results show that improvement can be made in creative ideation and supports the hypothesis that adolescence is a developmental stage of increased flexibility optimized for learning and explorative behavior. PMID:25400565

  4. Training creative cognition: adolescence as a flexible period for improving creativity.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Claire E; Kleibeuker, Sietske W; de Dreu, Carsten K W; Crone, Eveline A

    2014-01-01

    Creativity commonly refers to the ability to generate ideas, solutions, or insights that are novel yet feasible. The ability to generate creative ideas appears to develop and change from childhood to adulthood. Prior research, although inconsistent, generally indicates that adults perform better than adolescents on the alternative uses task (AUT), a commonly used index of creative ideation. The focus of this study was whether performance could be improved by practicing alternative uses generation. We examined the effectiveness of creative ideation training in adolescents (13-16 years, N = 71) and adults (23-30 years, N = 61). Participants followed one of three types of training, each comprising eight 20-min practice sessions within 2 week time: (1) alternative uses generation (experimental condition: creative ideation); (2) object characteristic generation (control condition: general ideation); (3) rule-switching (control condition: rule-switching). Progression in fluency, flexibility, originality of creative ideation was compared between age-groups and training conditions. Participants improved in creative ideation and cognitive flexibility, but not in general ideation. Participants in all three training conditions became better in fluency and originality on the AUT. With regard to originality, adolescents benefitted more from training than adults, although this was not specific for the creative ideation training condition. These results are interpreted in relation to (a) the different underlying processes targeted in the three conditions and (b) developmental differences in brain plasticity with increased sensitivity to training in adolescents. In sum, the results show that improvement can be made in creative ideation and supports the hypothesis that adolescence is a developmental stage of increased flexibility optimized for learning and explorative behavior. PMID:25400565

  5. Improved performance of the optically scanned transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, C. W.; Bolorforosh, M. S.

    1992-11-01

    The rapid increase in the use of ultrasound in both clinical and industrial applications requires more advanced and reliable imaging systems for calibrating and characterizing high performance ultrasonic transducers. The optically scanned hydrophone (OSH) is an alternative imaging system capable of quasi-real time imaging of broadband acoustic fields. The main application of the OSH is in the imaging and characterization of acoustic fields such as those emitted from clinical and therapeutic transducers. In this paper, the recent development of the OSH and its application to real time imaging of broadband acoustic fields are reported. Using improved fabrication techniques the optical sampling efficiency of the OSH has been considerably improved. This is achieved by adopting new assembly techniques and incorporating a novel differential electrode configuration. The improved optical sampling efficiency has provided a more competitive, versatile, and faster imaging system. The performance of the modified OSH is compared against the other types of hydrophone such as the spot poled and the needle types.

  6. Goal Setting: A Cognitive Model of Productivity Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Ruth Colvin

    1985-01-01

    Discusses five ways to make goal setting effective: set difficult and specific goals, monitor results, reward performance, participate in goal setting, and challenge individual self-confidence and goal dissatisfaction. A model showing internal and environmental factors related to performance and a list of management strategies for enhancing…

  7. Hypnotherapy and Test Anxiety: Two Cognitive-Behavioral Constructs. The Effects of Hypnosis in Reducing Test Anxiety and Improving Academic Achievement in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Marty

    A two-group randomized multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the effects of cognitive-behavioral hypnosis in reducing test anxiety and improving academic performance in comparison to a Hawthorne control group. Subjects were enrolled in a rigorous introductory psychology course which covered an entire text in one…

  8. Chronic fluoxetine treatment improves ischemia-induced spatial cognitive deficits through increasing hippocampal neurogenesis after stroke.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Lei; Cai, Hui-Hui; Wang, Bin; Chen, Ling; Zhou, Qi-Gang; Luo, Chun-Xia; Liu, Na; Ding, Xin-Sheng; Zhu, Dong-Ya

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive deficits, including spatial memory impairment, are very common after ischemic stroke. Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) contributes to forming spatial memory in the ischemic brain. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, can enhance neurogenesis in the hippocampus in physiological situations and some neurological diseases. However, whether it has effects on ischemia-induced spatial cognitive impairment and hippocampal neurogenesis has not been determined. Here we report that fluoxetine treatment (10 mg kg(-1), i.p.) for 4 weeks promoted the survival of newborn cells in the ischemic hippocampus and, consequently, attenuated spatial memory impairment of mice after focal cerebral ischemia. Disrupting hippocampal neurogenesis blocked the beneficial effect of fluoxetine on ischemia-induced spatial cognitive impairment. These results suggest that chronic fluoxetine treatment benefits spatial cognitive function recovery following ischemic insult, and the improved cognitive function is associated with enhanced newborn cell survival in the hippocampus. Our results raise the possibility that fluoxetine can be used as a drug to treat poststroke spatial cognitive deficits. PMID:18711744

  9. Cognitive ability, personality, and experience: evidence for differential impact on job performance factors 

    E-print Network

    Slaughter, Andrew Joseph

    2005-08-29

    Using a sample of 443 participants employed in a variety of jobs, the interactions between cognitive ability, conscientiousness, agreeableness, task experience, and task and contextual performance were explored. Results suggest that task experience...

  10. The cognitive performance of patients with multiple sclerosis during periods of high and low fatigue.

    E-print Network

    Parmenter, Brett A.; Denney, Douglas R.; Lynch, Sharon G.

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether multiple sclerosis (MS)-related fatigue affects patients' cognitive performance. Thirty patients who had substantial fatigue in conjunction with MS and who reported marked diurnal variability...

  11. Performance in multiple domains of social cognition in parents of patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Marie-Audrey; Plana, India; Jackson, Philip L; Godmaire-Duhaime, Florence; Bédard Lacroix, Jacinthe; Achim, Amélie M

    2014-12-15

    Social cognition refers to a set of cognitive abilities that allow us to perceive and interpret social stimuli. Social cognition is affected in schizophrenia and impairments have also been documented in unaffected relatives, suggesting that social cognition may be related to a genetic vulnerability to the disease. This study aims to investigate potential impairments in four domains of social cognition (mentalizing, emotion recognition, social knowledge and empathy) in the same group of relatives in order to gather a more complete picture of social cognition difficulties in this population. The Batterie Intégrée de Cognition Sociale (BICS) (mentalizing, emotion recognition, and social knowledge) and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) (empathy) were administered to 31 parents of patients with a psychotic disorder and 38 healthy controls. Parents of patients performed significantly worse than controls on the mentalizing test but significantly better on the social knowledge test. No significant between-group differences were observed for emotion recognition and empathy. This study is the first to evaluate four social cognition domains in this population. The results precise which social cognition processes may be impaired or preserved in unaffected relatives of patients and lead us to propose an hypothesis about a mechanism that could underlie the mentalizing difficulties observed in this population. PMID:25216560

  12. Assessing Cognitive Load Theory to Improve Student Learning for Mechanical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impelluso, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    A computer programming class for students of mechanical engineering was redesigned and assessed: Cognitive Load Theory was used to redesign the content; online technologies were used to redesign the delivery. Student learning improved and the dropout rate was reduced. This article reports on both attitudinal and objective assessment: comparing…

  13. Teaching Old Dogs New Tricks: Using Cognitive Feedback to Improve Physicians' Diagnostic Judgments on Simulated Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigton, Robert S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    An educational intervention was effective in improving the judgment of experienced student-health physicians (N=11) in predicting positive culture in simulated patients with pharyngitis. The intervention was three parts: an initial one-hour lecture; three sessions with computer-based cognitive feedback; and monthly reports of the percentage of…

  14. Combined Fluency and Cognitive Strategies Instruction Improves Mathematics Achievement in Early Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Martha; Taasoobshirazi, Gita; Stroud, Rena; Royer, James M.

    2011-01-01

    One hundred and seventy-eight second grade students from two states (Georgia and Massachusetts) participated in an experiment in which they were randomly assigned to either (1) a computer program designed to increase fluency in addition and subtraction, (2) a program designed to improve cognitive strategy use for addition and subtraction, (3) a…

  15. Integrating Cognitive Science and Technology Improves Learning in a STEM Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Andrew C.; Marsh, Elizabeth J.; Slavinsky, J. P.; Baraniuk, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    The most effective educational interventions often face significant barriers to widespread implementation because they are highly specific, resource intense, and/or comprehensive. We argue for an alternative approach to improving education: leveraging technology and cognitive science to develop interventions that generalize, scale, and can be…

  16. Quality Rating and Improvement Systems and Children's Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Providing enriched learning environments is important to stimulating children's development in early childhood. Early child-care policymakers in many states in the US have adopted Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS) as a way to verify quality of child care and to support children's school readiness. Objective: The purpose of…

  17. Methods and apparatus for improving sensor performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor); Reynolds, Joseph K. (Inventor); Van Zandt, Thomas R. (Inventor); Waltman, Steven B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for improving performance of a sensor having a sensor proof mass elastically suspended at an initial equilibrium position by a suspension force, provide a tunable force opposing that suspension force and preset the proof mass with that tunable force to a second equilibrium position less stable than the initial equilibrium position. The sensor is then operated from that preset second equilibrium position of the proof mass short of instability. The spring constant of the elastic suspension may be continually monitored, and such continually monitored spring constant may be continually adjusted to maintain the sensor at a substantially constant sensitivity during its operation.

  18. Comment: Performance improvement with computer training in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Hershey, Linda A

    2014-04-01

    Computer-based memory and attention training methods improve episodic recall in older adults who have amnestic mild cognitive impairment.(1,2) Memory and attention are highly interactive and interdependent processes due to their shared circuitry. The cognitive benefits of computer-based memory training appear to persist for at least 6 months.(1) Traditional cognitive training programs are administered by professionals and may cost as much as $15 to $100 an hour, depending on the educational level of the staff member who delivers the training.(2) More cost-effective methods of computer-based memory training are needed. In the study by Zimmermann et al.(3) on patients with Parkinson disease (PD), 2 types of computer training were compared: a specific cognitive training method (CogniPlus) and a nonspecific method, Nintendo Wii, a game console. PMID:24623844

  19. Short Report Testosterone and Male Cognitive Performance in Tsimane

    E-print Network

    Gurven, Michael

    is positively associated with short- and long-term verbal memory (b 5 0.267, P 5 0.018; b 5 0.326, P 5 0­86 (median 5 49) participated in a cognitive battery (assessing short- and long-term recall, digit span, semantic memory, and visual scan) and provided urine and blood samples to measure testosterone and markers

  20. Male cognitive performance declines in the absence of sexual selection

    PubMed Central

    Hollis, Brian; Kawecki, Tadeusz J.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual selection is responsible for the evolution of male ornaments and armaments, but its role in the evolution of cognition—the ability to process, retain and use information—is largely unexplored. Because successful courtship is likely to involve processing information in complex, competitive sexual environments, we hypothesized that sexual selection contributes to the evolution and maintenance of cognitive abilities in males. To test this, we removed mate choice and mate competition from experimental populations of Drosophila melanogaster by enforcing monogamy for over 100 generations. Males evolved under monogamy became less proficient than polygamous control males at relatively complex cognitive tasks. When faced with one receptive and several unreceptive females, polygamous males quickly focused on receptive females, whereas monogamous males continued to direct substantial courtship effort towards unreceptive females. As a result, monogamous males were less successful in this complex setting, despite being as quick to mate as their polygamous counterparts with only one receptive female. This diminished ability to use past information was not limited to the courtship context: monogamous males (but not females) also showed reduced aversive olfactory learning ability. Our results provide direct experimental evidence that the intensity of sexual selection is an important factor in the evolution of male cognitive ability. PMID:24573848

  1. Comparing Cognitive Performance in Illiterate and Literate Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matute, Esmeralda; Montiel, Teresita; Pinto, Noemi; Rosselli, Monica; Ardila, Alfredo; Zarabozo, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    While it is known that the process of becoming literate begins in early childhood and usually involves several years of schooling, research related to cognitive characteristics has been done mostly on illiterate adults, and information concerning illiterate children is therefore limited. The aim of the present study, involving 21 illiterate and 22…

  2. Does Consumption of LC Omega-3 PUFA Enhance Cognitive Performance in Healthy School-Aged Children and throughout Adulthood? Evidence from Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Stonehouse, Welma

    2014-01-01

    Long-chain (LC) omega-3 PUFA derived from marine sources may play an important role in cognitive performance throughout all life stages. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the dominant omega-3 in the brain, is a major component of neuronal cell membranes and affects various neurological pathways and processess. Despite its critical role in brain function, human’s capacity to synthesize DHA de novo is limited and its consumption through the diet is important. However, many individuals do not or rarely consume seafood. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the current evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) in healthy school-aged children, younger and older adults to determine whether consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA improves cognitive performance and to make recommendations for future research. Current evidence suggests that consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA, particularly DHA, may enhance cognitive performance relating to learning, cognitive development, memory and speed of performing cognitive tasks. Those who habitually consume diets low in DHA, children with low literacy ability and malnourished and older adults with age-related cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment seem to benefit most. However, study design limitations in many RCTs hamper firm conclusions. The measurement of a uniform biomarker, e.g., % DHA in red blood cells, is essential to establish baseline DHA-status, to determine targets for cognitive performance and to facilitate dosage recommendations. It is recommended that future studies be at least 16 weeks in duration, account for potential interaction effects of gender, age and apolipoprotein E genotype, include vegan/vegetarian populations, include measures of speed of cognitive performance and include brain imaging technologies as supportive information on working mechanisms of LC omega-3 PUFA. PMID:25054550

  3. Does consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA enhance cognitive performance in healthy school-aged children and throughout adulthood? Evidence from clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Stonehouse, Welma

    2014-07-01

    Long-chain (LC) omega-3 PUFA derived from marine sources may play an important role in cognitive performance throughout all life stages. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the dominant omega-3 in the brain, is a major component of neuronal cell membranes and affects various neurological pathways and processess. Despite its critical role in brain function, human's capacity to synthesize DHA de novo is limited and its consumption through the diet is important. However, many individuals do not or rarely consume seafood. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the current evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) in healthy school-aged children, younger and older adults to determine whether consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA improves cognitive performance and to make recommendations for future research. Current evidence suggests that consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA, particularly DHA, may enhance cognitive performance relating to learning, cognitive development, memory and speed of performing cognitive tasks. Those who habitually consume diets low in DHA, children with low literacy ability and malnourished and older adults with age-related cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment seem to benefit most. However, study design limitations in many RCTs hamper firm conclusions. The measurement of a uniform biomarker, e.g., % DHA in red blood cells, is essential to establish baseline DHA-status, to determine targets for cognitive performance and to facilitate dosage recommendations. It is recommended that future studies be at least 16 weeks in duration, account for potential interaction effects of gender, age and apolipoprotein E genotype, include vegan/vegetarian populations, include measures of speed of cognitive performance and include brain imaging technologies as supportive information on working mechanisms of LC omega-3 PUFA. PMID:25054550

  4. Declining Cognition and Falls: Role of Risky Performance of Everyday Mobility Activities

    PubMed Central

    Gleason, Carey E.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Janczewski, Jodi; Shea, Terry; Mahoney, Jane E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Declining cognition is a risk factor for falls among older adults. The extent to which impaired judgment in performance of daily activities increases fall risk is unclear. Objective The aim of this study was to determine whether engagement in mobility activities in a risky manner explains the association between declining cognition and rate of falls. Design This study was a secondary analysis of baseline and prospective data from older adults enrolled in the intervention arm of a randomized clinical trial. Methods Two hundred forty-five community-dwelling older adults (79% female; mean age=79 years, SD=8.0) who were at risk for falls received physical, cognitive, and functional evaluations. Cognition was assessed with the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ). Using interview and in-home assessment data, physical therapists determined whether participants were at risk for falls when performing mobility-related activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL). Falls were measured prospectively for 1 year using monthly falls diaries. Results Declining cognition was associated with increased number of mobility activities designated as risky (1.5% of mobility activities performed in a risky manner per SPMSQ point) and with increased rate of falls (rate ratio=1.16 for each unit change in SPMSQ score). Risky performance of mobility activities mediated the relationship between cognition and rate of falls. Limitations Risk assessment was based on the clinical judgment of experienced physical therapists. Cognition was measured with a relatively insensitive instrument, and only selected mobility activities were evaluated. Conclusions Engagement in mobility ADL and IADL tasks in a risky manner emerged as a link between declining cognition and increased number of falls, suggesting a mechanism through which the rate of falls may increase. Specifically, declining cognition is associated with performance of mobility activities in an unsafe manner, thereby increasing the risk for falls. PMID:24231226

  5. Stereo TV improves remote manipulator performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Robert E.; Parker, Donna L.

    1989-09-01

    Six observers, experienced in telerobotic operations, were used across four replicated studies of remote performance of a simulated space station assembly task. An alignment/insertion task was performed with a remotely operated manipulator arm viewed either directly or through stereoscopic or monoscopic TV viewing systems. Target position, space light, and learning effects were also assessed by measures of task time and manipulator collisions. Performance with Stereo view was significantly superior to that with Mono in Experiments 1, 2, and 4. It's superiority fell below required significance levels in Experiment 3 due to of the accumulation of practice effects across the first two studies. Experiment 4, in which the left-right positions of manipulator arm and task element were reversed, reestablished the strong superiority of Stereo view over Mono. These results clearly show the superiority of Stereo TV over Mono viewing systems. They suggest that learning can also improve performance under Mono view when accompanied by Direct view and Stereo view experience, but such learning is specific to the perceptual and motor conditions that were present in practice. Space lighting was not significant in the two studies in which it was assessed.

  6. Effect of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation on dual-task cognitive and motor performance in isolated dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Kelly A; Markun, Leslie C; Luciano, Marta San; Rizk, Rami; Allen, I Elaine; Racine, Caroline A; Starr, Philip A; Alberts, Jay L; Ostrem, Jill L

    2015-01-01

    Objective Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) can improve motor complications of Parkinson's disease (PD) but may worsen specific cognitive functions. The effect of STN DBS on cognitive function in dystonia patients is less clear. Previous reports indicate that bilateral STN stimulation in patients with PD amplifies the decrement in cognitive-motor dual-task performance seen when moving from a single-task to dual-task paradigm. We aimed to determine if the effect of bilateral STN DBS on dual-task performance in isolated patients with dystonia, who have less cognitive impairment and no dementia, is similar to that seen in PD. Methods Eight isolated predominantly cervical patients with dystonia treated with bilateral STN DBS, with average dystonia duration of 10.5?years and Montreal Cognitive Assessment score of 26.5, completed working memory (n-back) and motor (forced-maintenance) tests under single-task and dual-task conditions while on and off DBS. Results A multivariate, repeated-measures analysis of variance showed no effect of stimulation status (On vs Off) on working memory (F=0.75, p=0.39) or motor function (F=0.22, p=0.69) when performed under single-task conditions, though as working memory task difficulty increased, stimulation disrupted the accuracy of force-tracking. There was a very small worsening in working memory performance (F=9.14, p=0.019) when moving from single-task to dual-tasks when using the ‘dual-task loss’ analysis. Conclusions This study suggests the effect of STN DBS on working memory and attention may be much less consequential in patients with dystonia than has been reported in PD. PMID:25012202

  7. Cost and performance: complements for improvement.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Paul; Harrison, Julie; Turner, Nikki

    2011-10-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) share similar views of resource consumption in the production of outputs. While DEA has a high level focus typically using aggregated data in the form of inputs and outputs, ABC is more detailed and oriented around very disaggregated data. We use a case study of immunisation activities in 24 New Zealand primary care practices to illustrate how DEA and ABC can be used in conjunction to improve performance analysis and benchmarking. Results show that practice size, socio-economic environment, parts of the service delivery process as well as regular administrative tasks are major cost and performance drivers for general practices in immunisation activities. It is worth noting that initial analyses of the ABC results, using contextual information and conventional methods of analysis such as regression and correlations, did not result in any patterns of significance. Reorganising this information using the DEA efficiency scores has revealed trends that make sense to practitioners and provide insights into where to place efforts for improvement. PMID:20703677

  8. Relationship of cognitive strategy use to prospective memory performance in a diverse sample of nondemented older adults with varying degrees of cognitive complaints and impairment

    PubMed Central

    Aronov, Avner; Rabin, Laura A.; Fogel, Joshua; Chi, Susan Y.; Kann, Sarah J.; Abdelhak, Nachama; Zimmerman, Molly E.

    2015-01-01

    Although older adults typically have better performance on prospective memory (PM) tasks carried out in naturalistic settings, a paucity of research directly assesses older adults’ use of compensatory strategies on such tasks. The current study investigates external memory strategy use during performance of a clinical PM test that features both short-term (in laboratory) and long-term (out of laboratory) subtasks (i.e., the Royal Prince Alfred Prospective Memory Test – RPA-ProMem. Nondemented, community-dwelling older adults (n = 214; mean age = 80.5; 68.2% female; 39.7% non-white) with mild cognitive impairment, subjective cognitive decline, and healthy controls completed the RPA-ProMem while external strategy use was permitted and recorded. Overall, participants utilized external strategies 41% of the time on the RPA-ProMem. Increased utilization of external memory strategies was significantly associated with better PM performance. Additionally, better performance on executive functioning tasks was associated with increased use of external memory strategies. Results are discussed in relation to how memory strategy use can be enhanced to improve everyday memory ability in older adults at risk for dementia. PMID:25471537

  9. Reliability and validity of the NeuroCognitive Performance Test, a web-based neuropsychological assessment

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Glenn E.; Simone, Christa M.; Ng, Nicole F.; Hardy, Joseph L.

    2015-01-01

    The NeuroCognitive Performance Test (NCPT) is a brief, repeatable, web-based cognitive assessment platform that measures performance across several cognitive domains. The NCPT platform is modular and includes 18 subtests that can be arranged into customized batteries. Here we present normative data from a sample of 130,140 healthy volunteers for an NCPT battery consisting of 8 subtests. Participants took the NCPT remotely and without supervision. Factor structure and effects of age, education, and gender were evaluated with this normative dataset. Test-retest reliability was evaluated in a subset of participants who took the battery again an average of 78.8 days later. The eight NCPT subtests group into 4 putative cognitive domains, have adequate to good test-retest reliability, and are sensitive to expected age- and education-related cognitive effects. Concurrent validity to standard neuropsychological tests was demonstrated in 73 healthy volunteers. In an exploratory analysis the NCPT battery could differentiate those who self-reported Mild Cognitive Impairment or Alzheimer's disease from matched healthy controls. Overall these results demonstrate the reliability and validity of the NCPT battery as a measure of cognitive performance and support the feasibility of web-based, unsupervised testing, with potential utility in clinical and research settings. PMID:26579035

  10. Cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills in relation to cognition and academic performance in children - a review.

    PubMed

    Haapala, Eero A

    2013-03-01

    Different elements of physical fitness in children have shown a declining trend during the past few decades. Cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills have been associated with cognition, but the magnitude of this association remains unknown. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the relationship of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills with cognitive functions and academic performance in children up to 13 years of age. Cross-sectional studies suggest that children with higher cardiorespiratory fitness have more efficient cognitive processing at the neuroelectric level, as well as larger hippocampal and basal ganglia volumes, compared to children with lower cardiorespiratory fitness. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness has been associated with better inhibitory control in tasks requiring rigorous attention allocation. Better motor skills have been related to more efficient cognitive functions including inhibitory control and working memory. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness and better motor skills have also been associated with better academic performance. Furthermore, none of the studies on cardiorespiratory fitness have revealed independent associations with cognitive functions by controlling for motor skills. Studies concerning the relationship between motor skills and cognitive functions also did not consider cardiorespiratory fitness in the analyses. The results of this review suggest that high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills may be beneficial for cognitive development and academic performance but the evidence relies mainly on cross-sectional studies. PMID:23717355

  11. Gait Velocity Is an Indicator of Cognitive Performance in Healthy Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jabourian, Artin; Lancrenon, Sylvie; Delva, Catherine; Perreve-Genet, Alain; Lablanchy, Jean-Pierre; Jabourian, Maritza

    2014-01-01

    Psychomotor retardation, especially motor and cognitive slowing down, has been described many times in the elderly but to our knowledge, has never been examined in healthy middle-aged adults. The present study explores whether walking time may provide an early signal of cognitive performance, using 266 healthy adults ([18–65] years old, mean age: 45.7±12.9 years) who were also subdivided in 2 groups: under or over 50. Walking time (50 meters) and cognitive performances (mini-mental state examination, Benton Visual Retention Test and Rey Complex Figure) were assessed; total psychometric score was the sum of individual test scores. Analyses were controlled for age, gender, education level, height and weight. The mean psychometric scores were within the normal range. A substantial proportion of subjects exhibited low performance in some aspects of visuospatial memory, particularly in the older subset. In the total population, walking time was negatively correlated with all cognitive tests, particularly to total psychometric score (R?=??0.817, p<0.0001); the unique contribution of walking time on all cognitive scores was very high (delta R-squared?=?0.496). In the older subset, performances on walk and cognition were lower than in the younger subset. Total psychometric score showed the strongest correlation with walking time in the older subset (R?=??0.867; p<0.001). In all subsets, walking time was the main explanatory variable of the total psychometric score (delta R-squared: ? 49?=?0.361; ?50?=?0.613). These findings indicate that i) a significant proportion of adults without cognitive complaints exhibit low cognitive performance including visuospatial memory and longer walking time, ii) cognitive functioning is strongly correlated to walking time in healthy middle-aged adults, iii) gait velocity (GV) could be an indicator of cognitive performance in some important cognitive domains. These results warrant further investigation because such data may represent a marker for the detection of middle-aged adults who are at risk for further cognitive decline. PMID:25089518

  12. Cognitive skills and literacy performance of Chinese adolescents with and without dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kevin K H; Ho, Connie S-H; Chan, David W; Tsang, Suk-Man; Lee, Suk-Han

    2011-08-01

    The present study sought to identify cognitive abilities that might distinguish Hong Kong Chinese adolescents with dyslexia and to assess how these abilities were associated with Chinese word reading, word dictation, and reading comprehension. The cognitive skills of interest were morphological awareness, visual-orthographic knowledge, rapid naming, and verbal working memory. A total of 90 junior secondary school students, 30 dyslexic, 30 chronological age controls, and 30 reading level controls was tested on a range of cognitive and literacy tasks. Dyslexic students were less competent than the control students in all cognitive and literacy measures. The regression analyses also showed that verbal working memory, rapid naming, morphological awareness, and visual-orthographic knowledge were significantly associated with literacy performance. Findings underscore the importance of these cognitive skills for Chinese literacy acquisition. Overall, this study highlights the persistent difficulties of Chinese dyslexic adolescents who seem to have multiple causes for reading and spelling difficulties. PMID:21841896

  13. Acute effects of dietary constituents on motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lindsay B; Nuccio, Ryan P; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-12-01

    Performance in many sports is at least partially dependent on motor control, coordination, decision-making, and other cognitive tasks. This review summarizes available evidence about the ingestion of selected nutrients or isolated compounds (dietary constituents) and potential acute effects on motor skill and/or cognitive performance in athletes. Dietary constituents discussed include branched-chain amino acids, caffeine, carbohydrate, cocoa flavanols, Gingko biloba, ginseng, guarana, Rhodiola rosea, sage, L-theanine, theobromine, and tyrosine. Although this is not an exhaustive list, these are perhaps the most researched dietary constituents. Caffeine and carbohydrate have the greatest number of published reports supporting their ability to enhance acute motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes. At this time, there is insufficient published evidence to substantiate the use of any other dietary constituents to benefit sports-related motor skill or cognitive performance. The optimal dose and timing of caffeine and carbohydrate intake promoting enhanced motor skill and cognitive performance remain to be identified. Valid, reliable, and sensitive batteries of motor skills and cognitive tests should be developed for use in future efficacy studies. PMID:25400063

  14. Sleep and athletic performance: the effects of sleep loss on exercise performance, and physiological and cognitive responses to exercise.

    PubMed

    Fullagar, Hugh H K; Skorski, Sabrina; Duffield, Rob; Hammes, Daniel; Coutts, Aaron J; Meyer, Tim

    2015-02-01

    Although its true function remains unclear, sleep is considered critical to human physiological and cognitive function. Equally, since sleep loss is a common occurrence prior to competition in athletes, this could significantly impact upon their athletic performance. Much of the previous research has reported that exercise performance is negatively affected following sleep loss; however, conflicting findings mean that the extent, influence, and mechanisms of sleep loss affecting exercise performance remain uncertain. For instance, research indicates some maximal physical efforts and gross motor performances can be maintained. In comparison, the few published studies investigating the effect of sleep loss on performance in athletes report a reduction in sport-specific performance. The effects of sleep loss on physiological responses to exercise also remain equivocal; however, it appears a reduction in sleep quality and quantity could result in an autonomic nervous system imbalance, simulating symptoms of the overtraining syndrome. Additionally, increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines following sleep loss could promote immune system dysfunction. Of further concern, numerous studies investigating the effects of sleep loss on cognitive function report slower and less accurate cognitive performance. Based on this context, this review aims to evaluate the importance and prevalence of sleep in athletes and summarises the effects of sleep loss (restriction and deprivation) on exercise performance, and physiological and cognitive responses to exercise. Given the equivocal understanding of sleep and athletic performance outcomes, further research and consideration is required to obtain a greater knowledge of the interaction between sleep and performance. PMID:25315456

  15. Perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport: some considerations when applying the expert performance approach.

    PubMed

    Williams, A Mark; Ericsson, K Anders

    2005-06-01

    The number of researchers studying perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport is increasing. The intention in this paper is to review the currently accepted framework for studying expert performance and to consider implications for undertaking research work in the area of perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport. The expert performance approach presents a descriptive and inductive approach for the systematic study of expert performance. The nature of expert performance is initially captured in the laboratory using representative tasks that identify reliably superior performance. Process-tracing measures are employed to determine the mechanisms that mediate expert performance on the task. Finally, the specific types of activities that lead to the acquisition and development of these mediating mechanisms are identified. General principles and mechanisms may be discovered and then validated by more traditional experimental designs. The relevance of this approach to the study of perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport is discussed and suggestions for future work highlighted. PMID:16095739

  16. PIMM: A Performance Improvement Measurement Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-15

    This report presents a Performance Improvement Measurement Methodology (PIMM) for measuring and reporting the mission performance for organizational elements of the U.S. Department of Energy to comply with the Chief Financial Officer`s Act (CFOA) of 1990 and the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) of 1993. The PIMM is illustrated by application to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), a Research, Development and Demonstration (RD&D) field center of the Office of Fossil Energy, along with limited applications to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Office and the Office of Fossil Energy. METC is now implementing the first year of a pilot project under GPRA using the PIMM. The PIMM process is applicable to all elements of the Department; organizations may customize measurements to their specific missions. The PIMM has four aspects: (1) an achievement measurement that applies to any organizational element, (2) key indicators that apply to institutional elements, (3) a risk reduction measurement that applies to all RD&D elements and to elements with long-term activities leading to risk-associated outcomes, and (4) a cost performance evaluation. Key Indicators show how close the institution is to attaining long range goals. Risk reduction analysis is especially relevant to RD&D. Product risk is defined as the chance that the product of new technology will not meet the requirements of the customer. RD&D is conducted to reduce technology risks to acceptable levels. The PIMM provides a profile to track risk reduction as RD&D proceeds. Cost performance evaluations provide a measurement of the expected costs of outcomes relative to their actual costs.

  17. Computerized cognitive training interventions to improve neuropsychological outcomes: evidence and future directions.

    PubMed

    Howren, M Bryant; Vander Weg, Mark W; Wolinsky, Fredric D

    2014-03-01

    Age-related cognitive decline is common and may affect memory, orientation, attention, abstract thinking and perception, which may lead to substantial difficulties and disabilities in everyday life. Much evidence suggests that computerized cognitive training interventions may mitigate decline by improving neuropsychological outcomes in older adults, but there is clearly a need for large-scale, methodologically rigorous comparative effectiveness trials in the area. This article underscores that need and reviews eight trials that met a set of predetermined criteria before highlighting two novel and complementary analytic methods - big data analytics and network meta-analysis - that may be used to facilitate decisions regarding which cognitive training programs should serve as candidate interventions for large comparative effectiveness trials. PMID:24645688

  18. Inhibition of Src Family Kinases Protects Hippocampal Neurons and Improves Cognitive Function after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Frank R.; Van, Ken C.; Ander, Bradley P.; Ghiasvand, Rahil; Zhan, Xinhua; Stamova, Boryana; Jickling, Glen C.; Lyeth, Bruce G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is often associated with intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhage. Thrombin is a neurotoxin generated at bleeding sites fater TBI and can lead to cell death and subsequent cognitive dysfunction via activation of Src family kinases (SFKs). We hypothesize that inhibiting SFKs can protect hippocampal neurons and improve cognitive memory function after TBI. To test these hypotheses, we show that moderate lateral fluid percussion (LFP) TBI in adult rats produces bleeding into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in both lateral ventricles, which elevates oxyhemoglobin and thrombin levels in the CSF, activates the SFK family member Fyn, and increases Rho-kinase 1(ROCK1) expression. Systemic administration of the SFK inhibitor, PP2, immediately after moderate TBI blocks ROCK1 expression, protects hippocampal CA2/3 neurons, and improves spatial memory function. These data suggest the possibility that inhibiting SFKs after TBI might improve clinical outcomes. PMID:24428562

  19. Protective Effect of Long-Term CPAP Therapy on Cognitive Performance in Elderly Patients with Severe OSA: The PROOF Study

    PubMed Central

    Crawford-Achour, Emilie; Dauphinot, Virginie; Saint Martin, Magali; Tardy, Magali; Gonthier, Régis; Barthelemy, Jean Claude; Roche, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) leads to a deterioration in cognitive functions, with regard to memory and executive functions. However, few studies have investigated the impact of treatment on these cognitive functions in elderly subjects. Methods: The study was conducted in a large cohort of subjects aged 65 years or older (the PROOF cohort). Subjects were not diagnosed or treated for OSA. Subjects underwent a polygraphic recording. Cognitive performance was assessed in all OSA subjects at baseline and 10 years later, whether or not they were receiving continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Results: A group of 126 patients were analyzed. Only 26% of them were treated, with therapy initiated at the discretion of the primary care physician. Among treated subjects, self-reported compliance with therapy was good (> 6 h/night on average), and 66% of them reported an improvement in their quality of life. Patients receiving CPAP treatment had a higher apneahypopnea index (p = 0.006), a higher oxygen desaturation index (p < 0.001), and experienced more pronounced daytime repercussions (p = 0.004). These patients showed a statistically significant improvement in mental agility (similarities test; p < 0.0001) and memory performance (Grober and Buschke delayed free recall; p = 0.02). Conclusion: CPAP treatment is associated with the maintenance of memory performance over time. Citation: Crawford-Achour E, Dauphinot V, Saint Martin M, Tardy M, Gonthier R, Barthelemy JC, Roche F. Protective effect of long-term CPAP therapy on cognitive performance in elderly patients with severe OSA: the PROOF study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(5):519–524. PMID:25700873

  20. COGNITIVE MODELING AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING RUNWAY SAFETY Michael J. Schoelles

    E-print Network

    Gray, Wayne

    -R 6.0 cognitive model, named SimPilot, of a pilot taxiing a simulated Boeing 737-800 aircraft in conjunction with the Aptima developed Performance Engine (PE), which collects and stores data from a data, watch for other aircraft, etc. Therefore a model of the pilot must be able to multitask. Recently

  1. Relationship between estradiol and progesterone concentrations and cognitive performance in normally cycling female cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kromrey, Sarah A; Czoty, Paul W; Nader, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    Preclinical research has demonstrated that cognitive function may be influenced by estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) concentrations, although few cognition studies involve normally cycling females. The present study examined cognitive performance in normally cycling female cynomolgus macaques (n = 14), a species with similarities to humans in brain organization and a nearly identical menstrual cycle to women. Initial assessments compared cognitive measures to circulating concentrations of E2 and P4 (n = 12). Once a relationship was characterized between hormones and cognitive performance, the menstrual cycle was divided into four distinct phases: early follicular (EF), late follicular (LF), early luteal (EL) and late luteal (LL), verified by the onset of menses and serum concentrations of E2 and P4. Concentrations of E2 were highest during the LF phase and P4 concentrations peaked during the EL phase. All monkeys were trained on two cognitive tasks: reversal learning, involving simple discrimination (SD) and reversal (SDR), which measured associative learning and behavioral flexibility, respectively (n = 3-4 per phase) and a delayed match-to-sample (DMS) task which assessed working memory (n = 11). P4 concentrations were positively correlated with number of trials and errors during acquisition of SD performance, but not during acquisition of the SDR task or maintenance of the reversal-learning task. Across the menstrual cycle, significantly fewer errors were made in the SDR task during the LF phase, when E2 concentrations were high and P4 concentrations low. Working memory, assessed with the DMS task, was not consistently altered based on previously characterized menstrual cycle phases. These findings demonstrate a relationship between P4, E2 and cognitive performance in normally cycling cynomolgus monkeys that is task dependent. Knowledge of these interactions may lead to a better understanding of sex-specific cognitive performance. PMID:25921587

  2. Monitoring and predicting cognitive state and performance via physiological correlates of neuronal signals.

    PubMed

    Russo, Michael B; Stetz, Melba C; Thomas, Maria L

    2005-07-01

    Judgment, decision making, and situational awareness are higher-order mental abilities critically important to operational cognitive performance. Higher-order mental abilities rely on intact functioning of multiple brain regions, including the prefrontal, thalamus, and parietal areas. Real-time monitoring of individuals for cognitive performance capacity via an approach based on sampling multiple neurophysiologic signals and integrating those signals with performance prediction models potentially provides a method of supporting warfighters' and commanders' decision making and other operationally relevant mental processes and is consistent with the goals of augmented cognition. Cognitive neurophysiological assessments that directly measure brain function and subsequent cognition include positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, mass spectroscopy, near-infrared spectroscopy, magnetoencephalography, and electroencephalography (EEG); however, most direct measures are not practical to use in operational environments. More practical, albeit indirect measures that are generated by, but removed from the actual neural sources, are movement activity, oculometrics, heart rate, and voice stress signals. The goal of the papers in this section is to describe advances in selected direct and indirect cognitive neurophysiologic monitoring techniques as applied for the ultimate purpose of preventing operational performance failures. These papers present data acquired in a wide variety of environments, including laboratory, simulator, and clinical arenas. The papers discuss cognitive neurophysiologic measures such as digital signal processing wrist-mounted actigraphy; oculometrics including blinks, saccadic eye movements, pupillary movements, the pupil light reflex; and high-frequency EEG. These neurophysiological indices are related to cognitive performance as measured through standard test batteries and simulators with conditions including sleep loss, time on task, and aviation flight-induced fatigue. PMID:16018331

  3. Cognitive improvements in a mouse model with substituted 1,2,3-triazole agonists for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Arunrungvichian, Kuntarat; Boonyarat, Chantana; Fokin, Valery V; Taylor, Palmer; Vajragupta, Opa

    2015-08-19

    The ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a recognized drug target for dementias of aging and certain developmental disorders. Two selective and potent ?7-nAChR agonists, winnowed from a list of 43 compounds characterized in a companion article (DOI: 10.1021/acschemneuro.5b00058), 5-((quinuclid-3-yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)-1H-indole (IND8) and 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl) quinuclidine (QND8), were evaluated for cognitive improvement in both short- and long-term memory. Tacrine, a centrally active acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, and PNU-282987, a congeneric ?7 nAChR agonist, were employed as reference standards. Three behavioral tests, modified Y-maze, object recognition test (ORT), and water maze, were performed in scopolamine-induced amnesic mice. Intraperitoneal injection of these two compounds significantly improved the cognitive impairment in a modified Y-maze test (5 ?mol/kg for IND8 and 10 ?mol/kg for QND8), ORT (10 ?mol/kg), and water maze test (25 ?mol/kg). For delay induced memory deficit or natural memory loss in mice, IND8 and QND8 at 10 ?mol/kg were able to enhance memory comparable to PNU-282987 when evaluated using ORT time delay model. Cognitive enhancement of IND8 and QND8 was mediated through ?7-nAChRs as evidenced by its complete abolition after pretreatment with a selective ?7-nAChR antagonist, methyllycaconitine. These data demonstrate that IND8 and QND8 and their congeners are potential candidates for treatment of cognitive disorders, and the substituted triazole series formed by cycloaddition of alkynes and azides warrant further preclinical optimization. PMID:25978789

  4. CF6 Jet Engine Performance Improvement Program: High Pressure Turbine Aerodynamic Performance Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasching, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    The improved single shank high pressure turbine design was evaluated in component tests consisting of performance, heat transfer and mechanical tests, and in core engine tests. The instrumented core engine test verified the thermal, mechanical, and aeromechanical characteristics of the improved turbine design. An endurance test subjected the improved single shank turbine to 1000 simulated flight cycles, the equivalent of approximately 3000 hours of typical airline service. Initial back-to-back engine tests demonstrated an improvement in cruise sfc of 1.3% and a reduction in exhaust gas temperature of 10 C. An additional improvement of 0.3% in cruise sfc and 6 C in EGT is projected for long service engines.

  5. A carboxyfullerene SOD mimetic improves cognition and extends the lifespan of mice.

    PubMed

    Quick, Kevin L; Ali, Sameh S; Arch, Robert; Xiong, Chengjie; Wozniak, David; Dugan, Laura L

    2008-01-01

    In lower organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila, many genes identified as key regulators of aging are involved in either detoxification of reactive oxygen species or the cellular response to oxidatively-damaged macromolecules. Transgenic mice have been generated to study these genes in mammalian aging, but have not in general exhibited the expected lifespan extension or beneficial behavioral effects, possibly reflecting compensatory changes during development. We administered a small-molecule synthetic enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic to wild-type (i.e. non-transgenic, non-senescence accelerated) mice starting at middle age. Chronic treatment not only reduced age-associated oxidative stress and mitochondrial radical production, but significantly extended lifespan. Treated mice also exhibited improved performance on the Morris water maze learning and memory task. This is to our knowledge the first demonstration that an administered antioxidant with mitochondrial activity and nervous system penetration not only increases lifespan, but rescues age-related cognitive impairment in mammals. SOD mimetics with such characteristics may provide unique complements to genetic strategies to study the contribution of oxidative processes to nervous system aging. PMID:17079053

  6. Improved multimodal biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment diagnosis: data from ADNI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Torteya, Antonio; Treviño-Alvarado, Víctor; Tamez-Peña, José

    2013-02-01

    The accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) confers many clinical research and patient care benefits. Studies have shown that multimodal biomarkers provide better diagnosis accuracy of AD and MCI than unimodal biomarkers, but their construction has been based on traditional statistical approaches. The objective of this work was the creation of accurate AD and MCI diagnostic multimodal biomarkers using advanced bioinformatics tools. The biomarkers were created by exploring multimodal combinations of features using machine learning techniques. Data was obtained from the ADNI database. The baseline information (e.g. MRI analyses, PET analyses and laboratory essays) from AD, MCI and healthy control (HC) subjects with available diagnosis up to June 2012 was mined for case/controls candidates. The data mining yielded 47 HC, 83 MCI and 43 AD subjects for biomarker creation. Each subject was characterized by at least 980 ADNI features. A genetic algorithm feature selection strategy was used to obtain compact and accurate cross-validated nearest centroid biomarkers. The biomarkers achieved training classification accuracies of 0.983, 0.871 and 0.917 for HC vs. AD, HC vs. MCI and MCI vs. AD respectively. The constructed biomarkers were relatively compact: from 5 to 11 features. Those multimodal biomarkers included several widely accepted univariate biomarkers and novel image and biochemical features. Multimodal biomarkers constructed from previously and non-previously AD associated features showed improved diagnostic performance when compared to those based solely on previously AD associated features.

  7. It's a Matter of Mind! Cognitive Functioning Predicts the Athletic Performance in Ultra-Marathon Runners.

    PubMed

    Cona, Giorgia; Cavazzana, Annachiara; Paoli, Antonio; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Grainer, Alessandro; Bisiacchi, Patrizia Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at exploring the influence of cognitive processes on performance in ultra-marathon runners, providing an overview of the cognitive aspects that characterize outstanding runners. Thirty runners were administered a battery of computerized tests right before their participation in an ultra-marathon. Then, they were split according to the race rank into two groups (i.e., faster runners and slower runners) and their cognitive performance was compared. Faster runners outperformed slower runners in trials requiring motor inhibition and were more effective at performing two tasks together, successfully suppressing the activation of the information for one of the tasks when was not relevant. Furthermore, slower runners took longer to remember to execute pre-defined actions associated with emotional stimuli when such stimuli were presented. These findings suggest that cognitive factors play a key role in running an ultra-marathon. Indeed, if compared with slower runners, faster runners seem to have a better inhibitory control, showing superior ability not only to inhibit motor response but also to suppress processing of irrelevant information. Their cognitive performance also appears to be less influenced by emotional stimuli. This research opens new directions towards understanding which kinds of cognitive and emotional factors can discriminate talented runners from less outstanding runners. PMID:26172546

  8. MEMS Actuators for Improved Performance and Durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yearsley, James M.

    Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) devices take advantage of force-scaling at length scales smaller than a millimeter to sense and interact with directly with phenomena and targets at the microscale. MEMS sensors found in everyday devices like cell-phones and cars include accelerometers, gyros, pressure sensors, and magnetic sensors. MEMS actuators generally serve more application specific roles including micro- and nano-tweezers used for single cell manipulation, optical switching and alignment components, and micro combustion engines for high energy density power generation. MEMS rotary motors are actuators that translate an electric drive signal into rotational motion and can serve as rate calibration inputs for gyros, stages for optical components, mixing devices for micro-fluidics, etc. Existing rotary micromotors suffer from friction and wear issues that affect lifetime and performance. Attempts to alleviate friction effects include surface treatment, magnetic and electrostatic levitation, pressurized gas bearings, and micro-ball bearings. The present work demonstrates a droplet based liquid bearing supporting a rotary micromotor that improves the operating characteristics of MEMS rotary motors. The liquid bearing provides wear-free, low-friction, passive alignment between the rotor and stator. Droplets are positioned relative to the rotor and stator through patterned superhydrophobic and hydrophilic surface coatings. The liquid bearing consists of a central droplet that acts as the motor shaft, providing axial alignment between rotor and stator, and satellite droplets, analogous to ball-bearings, that provide tip and tilt stable operation. The liquid bearing friction performance is characterized through measurement of the rotational drag coefficient and minimum starting torque due to stiction and geometric effects. Bearing operational performance is further characterized by modeling and measuring stiffness, environmental survivability, and high-speed alignment capability. The superhydrophobic coatings developed for droplet containment are also discussed and measurements of contact angle are shown to affect device performance through correlation to models of bearing friction and stiffness.

  9. Citicoline Treatment Improves Measures of Impulsivity and Task Performance in Chronic Marijuana Smokers: A Pilot BOLD fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Staci A.; Sagar, Kelly A.; Dahlgren, Mary Kathryn; Gonenç, Atilla; Conn, Nina A.; Winer, Jeffrey P.; Penetar, David; Lukas, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Citicoline is an endogenous nucleotide that has historically been used to treat stroke, traumatic brain injury, and cognitive dysfunction. Research has also shown that citicoline treatment is associated with improved cognitive performance in substance-abusing populations. We hypothesized that marijuana (MJ) smokers who received citicoline would demonstrate improvement in cognitive performance as well as increased neural efficiency during tasks of cognitive control relative to those who received placebo. Method The current study tested this hypothesis by examining the effects of citicoline in treatment-seeking chronic MJ smokers. In an 8-week double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 19 MJ smokers were randomly assigned via a double-blind procedure to the citicoline (8 Males, 2 Females) or placebo group (9 Males, 0 Females). All participants completed fMRI scanning at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment during two cognitive measures of inhibitory processing, the Multi Source Interference Test (MSIT) and Stroop Color Word Test, and also completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), a self-report measure of impulsivity. Results Following the 8 week trial, MJ smokers treated with citicoline demonstrated significantly lower levels of behavioral impulsivity, improved task accuracy on both the MSIT and Stroop tasks, and exhibited significantly different patterns of brain activation relative to baseline levels and relative to those who received placebo. Conclusions Findings suggest that citicoline may facilitate the treatment of MJ use disorders by improving the cognitive skills necessary to fully engage in comprehensive treatment programs. PMID:26658924

  10. Soft Magnetic Materials for Improved Energy Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willard, Matthew

    2012-02-01

    A main focus of sustainable energy research has been development of renewable energy technologies (e.g. from wind, solar, hydro, geothermal, etc.) to decrease our dependence on non-renewable energy resources (e.g. fossil fuels). By focusing on renewable energy sources now, we hope to provide enough energy resources for future generations. In parallel with this focus, it is essential to develop technologies that improve the efficiency of energy production, distribution, and consumption, to get the most from these renewable resources. Soft magnetic materials play a central role in power generation, conditioning, and conversion technologies and therefore promoting improvements in the efficiency of these materials is essential for our future energy needs. The losses generated by the magnetic core materials by hysteretic, acoustic, and/or eddy currents have a great impact on efficiency. A survey of soft magnetic materials for energy applications will be discussed with a focus on improvement in performance using novel soft magnetic materials designed for these power applications. A group of premiere soft magnetic materials -- nanocrystalline soft magnetic alloys -- will be highlighted for their potential in addressing energy efficiency. These materials are made up of nanocrystalline magnetic transition metal-rich grains embedded within an intergranular amorphous matrix, obtained by partial devitrification of melt-spun amorphous ribbons. The nanoscale grain size results in a desirable combination of large saturation induction, low coercivity, and moderate resistivity unobtainable in conventional soft magnetic alloys. The random distribution of these fine grains causes a reduction in the net magnetocrystalline anisotropy, contributing to the excellent magnetic properties. Recently developed (Fe,Co,Ni)88Zr7B4Cu1 alloys will be discussed with a focus on the microstructure/magnetic property relationship and their effects on the energy efficiency of these materials for AC applications.

  11. Erythropoietin Improved Cognitive Function and Decreased Hippocampal Caspase Activity in Rat Pups after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Requena, Daniela F.; Block, Benjamin; Davis, Lizeth J.; Rodesch, Christopher; Casper, T. Charles; Juul, Sandra E.; Kesner, Raymond P.; Lane, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of acquired neurologic disability in children. Erythropoietin (EPO), an anti-apoptotic cytokine, improved cognitive outcome in adult rats after TBI. To our knowledge, EPO has not been studied in a developmental TBI model. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that EPO would improve cognitive outcome and increase neuron fraction in the hippocampus in 17-day-old (P17) rat pups after controlled cortical impact (CCI). Methods: EPO or vehicle was given at 1, 24, and 48?h after CCI and at post injury day (PID) 7. Cognitive outcome at PID14 was assessed using Novel Object Recognition (NOR). Hippocampal EPO levels, caspase activity, and mRNA levels of the apoptosis factors Bcl2, Bax, Bcl-xL, and Bad were measured during the first 14 days after injury. Neuron fraction and caspase activation in CA1, CA3, and DG were studied at PID2. Results: EPO normalized recognition memory after CCI. EPO blunted the increased hippocampal caspase activity induced by CCI at PID1, but not at PID2. EPO increased neuron fraction in CA3 at PID2. Brain levels of exogenous EPO appeared low relative to endogenous. Timing of EPO administration was associated with temporal changes in hippocampal mRNA levels of EPO and pro-apoptotic factors. Conclusion/Speculation: EPO improved recognition memory, increased regional hippocampal neuron fraction, and decreased caspase activity in P17 rats after CCI. We speculate that EPO improved cognitive outcome in rat pups after CCI as a result of improved neuronal survival via inhibition of caspase-dependent apoptosis early after injury. PMID:23972011

  12. Dietary nitrate modulates cerebral blood flow parameters and cognitive performance in humans: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover investigation.

    PubMed

    Wightman, Emma L; Haskell-Ramsay, Crystal F; Thompson, Kevin G; Blackwell, Jamie R; Winyard, Paul G; Forster, Joanne; Jones, Andrew M; Kennedy, David O

    2015-10-01

    Nitrate derived from vegetables is consumed as part of a normal diet and is reduced endogenously via nitrite to nitric oxide. It has been shown to improve endothelial function, reduce blood pressure and the oxygen cost of sub-maximal exercise, and increase regional perfusion in the brain. The current study assessed the effects of dietary nitrate on cognitive performance and prefrontal cortex cerebral blood-flow (CBF) parameters in healthy adults. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-groups study, 40 healthy adults received either placebo or 450 ml beetroot juice (~5.5 mmol nitrate). Following a 90 minute drink/absorption period, participants performed a selection of cognitive tasks that activate the frontal cortex for 54 min. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to monitor CBF and hemodynamics, as indexed by concentration changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated-haemoglobin, in the frontal cortex throughout. The bioconversion of nitrate to nitrite was confirmed in plasma by ozone-based chemi-luminescence. Dietary nitrate modulated the hemodynamic response to task performance, with an initial increase in CBF at the start of the task period, followed by consistent reductions during the least demanding of the three tasks utilised. Cognitive performance was improved on the serial 3s subtraction task. These results show that single doses of dietary nitrate can modulate the CBF response to task performance and potentially improve cognitive performance, and suggest one possible mechanism by which vegetable consumption may have beneficial effects on brain function. PMID:26037632

  13. Caffeine: Cognitive and Physical Performance Enhancer or Psychoactive Drug?

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Simone; Daria, Piacentino; Sani, Gabriele; Aromatario, Mariarosaria

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine use is increasing worldwide. The underlying motivations are mainly concentration and memory enhancement and physical performance improvement. Coffee and caffeine-containing products affect the cardiovascular system, with their positive inotropic and chronotropic effects, and the central nervous system, with their locomotor activity stimulation and anxiogenic-like effects. Thus, it is of interest to examine whether these effects could be detrimental for health. Furthermore, caffeine abuse and dependence are becoming more and more common and can lead to caffeine intoxication, which puts individuals at risk for premature and unnatural death. The present review summarizes the main findings concerning caffeine's mechanisms of action (focusing on adenosine antagonism, intracellular calcium mobilization, and phosphodiesterases inhibition), use, abuse, dependence, intoxication, and lethal effects. It also suggests that the concepts of toxic and lethal doses are relative, since doses below the toxic and/or lethal range may play a causal role in intoxication or death. This could be due to caffeine's interaction with other substances or to the individuals' preexisting metabolism alterations or diseases. PMID:26074744

  14. Caffeine: Cognitive and Physical Performance Enhancer or Psychoactive Drug?

    PubMed Central

    Cappelletti, Simone; Daria, Piacentino; Sani, Gabriele; Aromatario, Mariarosaria

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine use is increasing worldwide. The underlying motivations are mainly concentration and memory enhancement and physical performance improvement. Coffee and caffeine-containing products affect the cardiovascular system, with their positive inotropic and chronotropic effects, and the central nervous system, with their locomotor activity stimulation and anxiogenic-like effects. Thus, it is of interest to examine whether these effects could be detrimental for health. Furthermore, caffeine abuse and dependence are becoming more and more common and can lead to caffeine intoxication, which puts individuals at risk for premature and unnatural death. The present review summarizes the main findings concerning caffeine’s mechanisms of action (focusing on adenosine antagonism, intracellular calcium mobilization, and phosphodiesterases inhibition), use, abuse, dependence, intoxication, and lethal effects. It also suggests that the concepts of toxic and lethal doses are relative, since doses below the toxic and/or lethal range may play a causal role in intoxication or death. This could be due to caffeine’s interaction with other substances or to the individuals' preexisting metabolism alterations or diseases. PMID:26074744

  15. The Relationship between Perceived Cognitive Dysfunction and Objective Neuropsychological Performance in Persons with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Shin, So Young; Katz, Patricia; Julian, Laura

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Research shows a gap between perceived cognitive dysfunction and objective neuropsychological performance in persons with chronic diseases. We explored this relationship in persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS Individuals from a longitudinal cohort study of RA participated in a study visit that included physical, psychosocial, and biological metrics. Subjective cognitive dysfunction was assessed using the Perceived Deficits Questionnaire (PDQ; 0–20, higher scores = greater perceived impairment). Objective cognitive impairment was assessed using a battery of 12 standardized neuropsychological measures yielding 16 indices. On each test, subjects were classified as ‘impaired’ if they performed 1 SD below age-based population norms. Total cognitive function scores were calculated by summing the transformed scores (0–16, higher scores = greater impairment). Multiple linear regression analyses determined the relationship of total cognitive function score with PDQ score, controlling for gender, race, marital status, income, education, disease duration, disease severity, depression, and fatigue. RESULTS 120 subjects (mean ± SD age: 58.5 ± 11.0 years) were included. Mean ± SD scores of total cognitive function and PDQ were 2.5 ± 2.2 (0–10) and 5.8 ± 3.8 (0–16), respectively. In multivariate analysis, there was no significant relationship between total cognitive function score and PDQ score. However, depression and fatigue (? = 0.31, p < 0.001; ? = 0.31, p = 0.001) were significantly associated with PDQ score. CONCLUSION The findings emphasize the gap between subjective and objective measures of cognitive impairment and the importance of considering psychological factors within the context of cognitive complaints in clinical settings. PMID:22899659

  16. Investigation of microwave antennas with improved performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Rongguo

    This dissertation presents the investigation of antennas with improved performances at microwave frequencies. It covers the following three topics: the study of the metamaterial with near-zero index of refraction and its application in directive antenna design, the design technique of a wideband circularly polarized patch antenna for 60GHz wireless application and the investigation of a novel direction of arrival (DOA) estimation technique inspired by human auditory system. First, the metamaterial composed of two-dimensional (2-D) metallic wire arrays is investigated as an effective medium with an effective index of refraction less than unity (neff < 1). The effective medium parameters (permittivity epsilon eff, permeability mueff and neff ) of a wire array are extracted from the finite-element simulated scattering parameters and verified through a 2-D electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structure case study. A simple design methodology for directive monopole antennas is introduced by embedding a monopole within a metallic wire array with neff < 1 at the antenna operating frequencies. The narrow beam effect of the monopole antenna is demonstrated in both simulation and experiment at X-band (8 -- 12 GHz). The measured antenna properties including return loss and radiation patterns are in good agreement with simulation results. Parametric studies of the antenna system are performed. The physical principles and interpretations of the directive monopole antenna embedded in the wire array medium are also discussed. Second, a fully packaged wideband circularly polarized patch antenna is designed for 60GHz wireless communication. The patch antenna incorporates a diagonal slot at the center and features a superstrate and an air cavity backing to achieve desired performances including wide bandwidth, high efficiency and low axial ratio. The detailed design procedure of the circularly polarized antenna, including the design of the microstrip-fed patch antenna and the comparison of the performances of the antenna with different feeding interfaces, is described. The experimental results of the final packaged antenna agree reasonably with the simulation results. Third, an improved two-antenna direction of arrival (DOA) estimation technique is explored, which is inspired by the human auditory system. The idea of this work is to utilize a lossy scatter, which emulates the low-pass filtering function of the human head at high frequency, to achieve more accurate DOA estimation. A simple 2-monopole example is studied and the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm is applied to calculate the DOA. The improved estimation accuracy is demonstrated in both simulation and experiment. Furthermore, inspired by the sound localization capability of human using just a single ear, a novel direction of arrival estimation technique using a single UWB antenna is proposed and studied. The DOA estimation accuracies of the single UWB antenna are studied in the x-y, x-z and y-z planes with different Signal to Noise Ratios (SNR). The proposed single antenna DOA technique is demonstrated in both simulation and experiment, although with reduced accuracy comparing with the case of two antennas with a scatter in between. At the end, the conclusions of this dissertation are drawn and possible future works are discussed.

  17. Pubertal immune challenge blocks the ability of estradiol to enhance performance on cognitive tasks in adult female mice

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Nafissa; Blaustein, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Puberty is a period characterized by brain reorganization that contributes to the development of neural and behavioral responses to gonadal steroids. Previously, we have shown that a single injection of the bacterial endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1.5mg/kg IP), during the pubertal period (around 6 weeks old) in mice decreases sexual receptivity in response to estradiol and progesterone in adulthood. These findings suggest that pubertal immune challenge has an enduring effect of decreasing the behavioral responsiveness to gonadal steroid hormones. Since estradiol improves cognitive function in certain tasks in mice, we investigated the effect of pubertal immune challenge on the ability of estradiol to enhance cognitive function. We hypothesized that estradiol would be less effective at enhancing performance on particular cognitive tasks in female mice treated with LPS during puberty. Six-week old (pubertal) and ten-week old (adult) female CD1 mice were injected with either saline or LPS. Five weeks later, they were ovariectomized and implanted subcutaneously with either an estradiol- or oil-filled Silastic© capsule followed one week later with testing for cognitive function. The duration of juvenile investigation during social discrimination and recognition tests was used as a measure of social memory, and the duration of object investigation during object recognition and placement tests was used as a measure of object memory. Chronic estradiol treatment enhanced social and object memory in saline-treated females and in females treated with LPS in adulthood. In contrast, in females treated with LPS at 6 weeks old, estradiol failed to improve social and object memories. These results support the hypothesis that exposure to an immune challenge during puberty reduces at least some of the cognitive effects of estradiol. Moreover, these results support the idea that pubertal immune challenge compromises a wide variety of behavioral influences of ovarian hormones. PMID:23218519

  18. Differential cognitive effects of energy drink ingredients: Caffeine, taurine, and glucose

    E-print Network

    Patel, Aniruddh D.

    Differential cognitive effects of energy drink ingredients: Caffeine, taurine, and glucose Grace E online 20 July 2012 Keywords: Caffeine Taurine Glucose Cognition Mood Cortisol Heart rate Energy drinks containing caffeine, taurine, and glucose may improve mood and cognitive performance. However

  19. Exploring Positive and Negative Affect as Key Indicators of Life Satisfaction among Centenarians: Does Cognitive Performance Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Alex J.; Martin, Peter; Poon, Leonard; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine how cognitive performance was associated with positive and negative affect and life satisfaction over time. This study involved a secondary longitudinal analysis of cross-section data collected at Phase I (1988–1992) and during an 18-month longitudinal followup at Phase II (1992–1998) of the Georgia Centenarian Study. Participants included N = 137 centenarians at Time 1 and N = 68 survivors at Time 2. Significant stability in cognitive impairment existed at Time 1 and Time 2 for positive (? = .55, P < .01) and negative affect (? = .54, P < .01) models. Negative affect at Time 1 was associated with lower life satisfaction at Time 1 (? = ?.42, P < .01 ). In addition, cognitive impairment at Time 2 was associated with decreased positive emotionality at Time 2 (? = ?.39, P > .01). Furthermore, greater positive affect at Time 2 was associated with greater satisfaction with life at Time 2 (? = .35, P < .01). It appears that positive emotionality contemporaneously influences the association between cognitive impairment and life satisfaction among centenarians. Implications relative to improving life satisfaction among centenarians are discussed. PMID:21876811

  20. NMDA Receptor Function During Senescence: Implication on Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, a family of L-glutamate receptors, play an important role in learning and memory, and are critical for spatial memory. These receptors are tetrameric ion channels composed of a family of related subunits. One of the hallmarks of the aging human population is a decline in cognitive function; studies in the past couple of years have demonstrated deterioration in NMDA receptor subunit expression and function with advancing age. However, a direct relationship between impaired memory function and a decline in NMDA receptors is still ambiguous. Recent studies indicate a link between an age-associated NMDA receptor hypofunction and memory impairment and provide evidence that age-associated enhanced oxidative stress might be contributing to the alterations associated with senescence. However, clear evidence is still deficient in demonstrating the underlying mechanisms and a relationship between age-associated impaired cognitive faculties and NMDA receptor hypofunction. The current review intends to present an overview of the research findings regarding changes in expression of various NMDA receptor subunits and deficits in NMDA receptor function during senescence and its implication in age-associated impaired hippocampal-dependent memory function. PMID:26732087

  1. B vitamins and cognitive performance in older adults: review.

    PubMed

    Reay, J L; Smith, M A; Riby, L M

    2013-01-01

    A copious amount of scientific scrutiny has been dedicated to documenting typical and atypical human ageing, with a substantial body of work focusing upon the impact of lifestyle choices. One such lifestyle choice is that of diet and, in particular, micronutrient ingestion. Epidemiological studies have reported positive associations between B vitamin status and cognitive function, including negative associations between biological markers (i.e., homocysteine) of dysregulated one-carbon metabolism and cognitive function. This has led to a surge of randomised control trials (RCTs) investigations into B vitamin therapy. However, results have continuingly failed to show beneficial behavioural effects. Despite this, results reliably show treatment-related increases in B vitamin level and decreases in homocysteine level-both of which have been identified as risk factors for atypical ageing. In this paper we argue that it would be premature to conclude that B vitamin therapy has no potential and that more research is needed to systematically investigate the optimal dose, the therapeutic "window," and individual differences in therapy responders and nonresponders. We start with a brief look at one-carbon metabolism and then consider the evidence from epidemiological studies and RCTs in relation to three specific B vitamins: folic acid (B9), pyridoxine (B6), and cobamides (B12). PMID:24959550

  2. A High-Performance Approach to Model Calibration and Validation Keywords: model validation, cognitive models, behavior moderators, genetic algorithms

    E-print Network

    Ritter, Frank

    algorithms to fit cognitive models to human performance data. The efficiency, accuracy, and non-biasness, cognitive models, behavior moderators, genetic algorithms ABSTRACT: A new model validation approach fits; and is available and extendable to other parameterized models, search algorithms, cognitive

  3. Simulation-Based Assessment to Evaluate Cognitive Performance in an Anesthesiology Residency Program

    PubMed Central

    Sidi, Avner; Baslanti, Tezcan Ozrazgat; Gravenstein, Nikolaus; Lampotang, Samsun

    2014-01-01

    Background Problem solving in a clinical context requires knowledge and experience, and most traditional examinations for learners do not capture skills that are required in some situations where there is uncertainty about the proper course of action. Objective We sought to evaluate anesthesiology residents for deficiencies in cognitive performance within and across 3 clinical domains (operating room, trauma, and cardiac resuscitation) using simulation-based assessment. Methods Individual basic knowledge and cognitive performance in each simulation-based scenario were assessed in 47 residents using a 15- to 29-item scenario-specific checklist. For every scenario and item we calculated group error scenario rate (frequency) and individual (resident) item success. For all analyses, alpha was designated as 0.05. Results Postgraduate year (PGY)-3 and PGY-4 residents' cognitive items error rates were higher and success rates lower compared to basic and technical performance in each domain tested (P < .05). In the trauma and resuscitation scenarios, the cognitive error rate by PGY-4 residents was fairly high (0.29–0.5) and their cognitive success rate was low (0.5–0.68). The most common cognitive errors were anchoring, availability bias, premature closure, and confirmation bias. Conclusions Simulation-based assessment can differentiate between higher-order (cognitive) and lower-order (basic and technical) skills expected of relatively experienced (PGY-3 and PGY-4) anesthesiology residents. Simulation-based assessments can also highlight areas of relative strength and weakness in a resident group, and this information can be used to guide curricular modifications to address deficiencies in tasks requiring higher-order processing and cognition. PMID:24701316

  4. Goal setting for improvement in product development performance of organizations

    E-print Network

    Kashyap, Pankaj Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Companies have been constantly trying for ways and means to improve R&D performance as it is one of the most important competitive advantage tools of an organization. Literature review on R&D performance improvement suggests ...

  5. Environmental heat exposure and cognitive performance in older adults: a controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Trezza, Beatriz Maria; Apolinario, Daniel; de Oliveira, Rafaela Sanchez; Busse, Alexandre Leopold; Gonçalves, Fábio Luiz Teixeira; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Jacob-Filho, Wilson

    2015-06-01

    Thermal stress has a negative effect on the cognitive performance of military personnel and industry workers exposed to extreme environments. However, no studies have investigated the effects of environmental thermal stress on the cognitive functions of older adults. We carried out a controlled trial with 68 healthy older adults (mean age 73.3 years, 69 % female), each of whom has been assessed twice on the same day with selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Repeated sessions were conducted with air temperatures set at 24 °C and 32 °C in a balanced order. Our primary analyses did not show significant differences when comparing the cognitive performance of the total sample under the two experimental temperatures. However, interaction analysis has shown that humidity levels modify the effect of temperature on cognitive outcomes. The subgroup exposed to relative humidity greater than the median value (57.8 %) presented worse cognitive performance in the heat session when compared to the control session. Reported exercising frequency explained individual vulnerability to heat stress. Volunteers with lower levels of physical activity (<4 times per week) were more likely to present worsened cognitive performance under heat stress. In a fully adjusted linear regression model, the performance under heat stress remained associated with relative humidity (? =?-0.21; p = 0.007) and frequency of exercising (? = 0.18; p = 0.020). Our results indicate that heat stress may have detrimental effects on the cognitive functioning of some subgroups of older adults and under particular circumstances. Further research is needed for exploring a variety of potentially influential factors. PMID:25916595

  6. Statins enhance cognitive performance in object location test in albino Swiss mice: involvement of beta-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Vandresen-Filho, Samuel; França, Lucas Moreira; Alcantara-Junior, José; Nogueira, Lucas Caixeta; de Brito, Thiago Marques; Lopes, Lousã; Junior, Fernando Mesquita; Vanzeler, Maria Luzinete; Bertoldo, Daniela Bohn; Dias, Paula Gomes; Colla, André R S; Hoeller, Alexandre; Duzzioni, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; de Lima, Thereza C M; Tasca, Carla Inês; Viola, Giordano Gubert

    2015-05-01

    Statins are inhibitors of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, thereby inhibiting cell synthesis of cholesterol and isoprenoids. Moreover, several studies have been evaluating pleiotropic effects of statins, mainly because they present neuroprotective effects in various pathological conditions. However, knowledge about behavioral effects of statins per se is relatively scarce. Considering these facts, we aimed to analyze behavioral responses of atorvastatin or simvastatin-treated mice in the open field test, elevated plus maze and object location test. Atorvastatin treatment for 7 consecutive days at 1 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg (v.o.) or simvastatin 10 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg enhanced cognitive performance in object location test when compared to control group (saline-treated mice). Simvastatin effects on mice performance in the object location test was abolished by post-training infusion of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol. Atorvastatin and simvastatin did not change the behavioral response in open field and elevated plus-maze (EPM) tests in any of the used doses. These data demonstrate the positive effects of both statins in cognitive processes in mice, without any alteration in locomotor parameters in the open field test or anxiolytic-like behavior in EPM. In conclusion, we demonstrate that atorvastatin and simvastatin per se improve the cognitive performance in a rodent model of spatial memory and this effect is related to beta-adrenergic receptors modulation. PMID:25700896

  7. Improving the learning of clinical reasoning through computer-based cognitive representation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bian; Wang, Minhong; Johnson, Janice M.; Grotzer, Tina A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Clinical reasoning is usually taught using a problem-solving approach, which is widely adopted in medical education. However, learning through problem solving is difficult as a result of the contextualization and dynamic aspects of actual problems. Moreover, knowledge acquired from problem-solving practice tends to be inert and fragmented. This study proposed a computer-based cognitive representation approach that externalizes and facilitates the complex processes in learning clinical reasoning. The approach is operationalized in a computer-based cognitive representation tool that involves argument mapping to externalize the problem-solving process and concept mapping to reveal the knowledge constructed from the problems. Methods Twenty-nine Year 3 or higher students from a medical school in east China participated in the study. Participants used the proposed approach implemented in an e-learning system to complete four learning cases in 4 weeks on an individual basis. For each case, students interacted with the problem to capture critical data, generate and justify hypotheses, make a diagnosis, recall relevant knowledge, and update their conceptual understanding of the problem domain. Meanwhile, students used the computer-based cognitive representation tool to articulate and represent the key elements and their interactions in the learning process. Results A significant improvement was found in students’ learning products from the beginning to the end of the study, consistent with students’ report of close-to-moderate progress in developing problem-solving and knowledge-construction abilities. No significant differences were found between the pretest and posttest scores with the 4-week period. The cognitive representation approach was found to provide more formative assessment. Conclusions The computer-based cognitive representation approach improved the learning of clinical reasoning in both problem solving and knowledge construction. PMID:25518871

  8. Cocoa flavanol consumption improves cognitive function, blood pressure control, and metabolic profile in elderly subjects: the Cocoa, Cognition, and Aging (CoCoA) Study—a randomized controlled trial1234

    PubMed Central

    Mastroiacovo, Daniela; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Grassi, Davide; Necozione, Stefano; Raffaele, Angelo; Pistacchio, Luana; Righetti, Roberta; Bocale, Raffaella; Lechiara, Maria Carmela; Marini, Carmine; Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent evidence has indicated that flavanol consumption may have many health benefits in humans, including improved cognitive activities. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect of flavanol consumption on cognitive performance in cognitively intact elderly subjects. Design: This was a double-blind, controlled, parallel-arm study conducted in 90 elderly individuals without clinical evidence of cognitive dysfunction who were randomly assigned to consume daily for 8 wk a drink containing 993 mg [high flavanol (HF)], 520 mg [intermediate flavanol (IF)], or 48 mg [low flavanol (LF)] cocoa flavanols (CFs). Cognitive function was assessed at baseline and after 8 wk by using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Trail Making Test (TMT) A and B, and the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT). Results: The changes in MMSE score in response to the 3 different treatments were not different. In contrast, there was a positive impact of the intervention on specific aspects of cognitive function. Mean changes (±SEs) in the time required to complete the TMT A and B after consumption of the HF (?8.6 ± 0.4 and ?16.5 ± 0.8 s, respectively) and IF (?6.7 ± 0.5 and ?14.2 ± 0.5 s, respectively) drinks significantly (P < 0.0001) differed from that after consumption of the LF drinks (?0.8 ± 1.6 and ?1.1 ± 0.7 s, respectively). Similarly, VFT scores significantly improved among all treatment groups, but the magnitude of improvement in the VFT score was significantly (P < 0.0001) greater in the HF group (7.7 ± 1.1 words/60 s) than in the IF (3.6 ± 1.2 words/60 s) and LF (1.3 ± 0.5 words/60 s) groups. Significantly different improvements in insulin resistance (P < 0.0001), blood pressure (P < 0.0001), and lipid peroxidation (P = 0.001) were also observed for the HF and IF groups in comparison with the LF group. Changes in insulin resistance explained ?17% of changes in composite z score (partial r2 = 0.1703, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: This dietary intervention study provides evidence that regular CF consumption can reduce some measures of age-related cognitive dysfunction, possibly through an improvement in insulin sensitivity. These data suggest that the habitual intake of flavanols can support healthy cognitive function with age. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN68970511. PMID:25733639

  9. Social Cognitive Predictors of Pre-Service Teachers' Technology Integration Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkmen, Serkan; Pamuk, Sonmez

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the study was to examine interrelationships among social cognitive variables (self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and performance goals) and their role in predicting pre-service teachers' technology integration performance. Although researchers have examined the role of these variables in the teacher-education context, the…

  10. A biomathematical model of the restoring effects of caffeine on cognitive performance during sleep deprivation

    E-print Network

    A biomathematical model of the restoring effects of caffeine on cognitive performance during sleep Spring, MD 20910, USA H I G H L I G H T S c We model the restoring effects of caffeine on sleep-deprived individuals. c Caffeine effects were modeled as a multiplying factor on caffeine-free performance. c

  11. Personality and Cognitive Ability Predictors of Performance in Graduate Business School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Mitchell G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A cross-validation study is reported in which personality and cognitive ability variables were evaluated as predictors of 2 separate performance criteria for 450 Master of Business Administration students. Personality variables are found to be related to academic success when characteristic modes of behavior play a role in academic performance.…

  12. How Need for Cognition Affects the Formation of Performance Expectancies at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickhauser, Oliver; Reinhard, Marc-Andre

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with low Need for Cognition (NFC) have been found to process information using a peripheral route compared to individuals higher in NFC. These differences affect the formation of performance expectancies. Based on previous work demonstrating that the formation of performance expectancies can be understood as an information processing…

  13. Examination of Cognitive and Instrumental Functional Performance as Indicators for Driving Cessation Risk across 3 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Michelle L.; Edwards, Jerri D.; Ross, Lesley A.; Ball, Karlene K.; Lunsman, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine the role of cognitive and instrumental functional performance in driving cessation while simultaneously accounting for any contributions of demographics, vision, physical performance, and health among a sample of older adults without dementia. Design and Methods: Included in the…

  14. Performance Assessment in CTE: Focusing on the Cognitive, Psychomotor ...and Affective Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washer, Bart; Cochran, Lori

    2012-01-01

    When a student is performing in the psychomotor domain, the authors believe the student is also performing in the cognitive domain (sequencing steps, evaluating the situation) and in the affective domain (appreciating a job well done, quality control, safety). As Dabney Doty, former instructor at the University of Central Missouri, stated, "There…

  15. Exposure to Music and Cognitive Performance: Tests of Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Nakata, Takayuki; Hunter, Patrick G.; Tamoto, Sachiko

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on two experiments of exposure to music and cognitive performance. In Experiment 1, Canadian undergraduates performed better on an IQ subtest (Symbol Search) after listening to an up-tempo piece of music composed by Mozart in comparison to a slow piece by Albinoni. The effect was evident, however, only when the two pieces also…

  16. Television Viewing Pattern of Primary School Children and Its Relationship to Academic Performance and Cognitive Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shastri, Jigisha; Mohite, Prerana

    1997-01-01

    Classified primary students in India into light, moderate, and heavy television viewers (controlling for socioeconomic status) and assessed them for either academic performance or cognitive skills, using various instruments. Found no significant differences among groups, but light viewers performed significantly better on oral reading; results may…

  17. A versus F: The Effects of Implicit Letter Priming on Cognitive Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciani, Keith D.; Sheldon, Kennon M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: It has been proposed that motivational responses outside people's conscious awareness can be primed to affect academic performance. The current research focused on the relationship between primed evaluative letters (A and F), explicit and implicit achievement motivation, and cognitive performance. Aim: Given the evaluative connotation…

  18. The Influence of Distracting Familiar Vocal Music on Cognitive Performance of Introverts and Extraverts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avila, Christina; Furnham, Adrian; McClelland, Alastair

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of familiar musical distractors on the cognitive performance of introverts and extraverts. Participants completed a verbal, numerical and logic test in three music conditions: vocal music, instrumental music and silence. It was predicted that introverts would perform worse with vocal music, better with…

  19. Mechanism of Isoflavone Aglycone's Effect on Cognitive Performance of Senescence-Accelerated Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hong; Jin, Guifang; Ren, Dongdong; Luo, Sijing; Zhou, Tianhong

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of isoflavone aglycone (IA) on the learning and memory performance of senescence-accelerated mice, and explored its neural protective mechanism. Results showed that SAM-P/8 senescence-accelerated mice treated with IA performed significantly better in the Y-maze cognitive test than the no treatment control (P less…

  20. Application of Cognitive Apprenticeship Model to a Graduate Course in Performance Systems Analysis: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darabi, A. Aubteen

    2005-01-01

    This article reports a case study describing how the principles of a cognitive apprenticeship (CA) model developed by Collins, Brown, and Holum (1991) were applied to a graduate course on performance systems analysis (PSA), and the differences this application made in student performance and evaluation of the course compared to the previous…

  1. Social Class, Sex Differences and Performance on Cognitive Tasks Among Two-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reppucci, N. Dickon

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the relation between sex, social class as indexed by parental education level, and performance on three different types of cognitive tasks among two year old children. It was expected that social class would be related positively to superior performance on all the tasks for girls but unrelated for…

  2. Social jetlag, academic achievement and cognitive performance: Understanding gender/sex differences.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Morales, Juan F; Escribano, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents in high school suffer from circadian misalignment, undersleeping on weekdays and oversleeping on weekends. Since high schools usually impose early schedules, adolescents suffer from permanent social jetlag (SJL) and thus are a suitable population to study the effects of SJL on both academic and cognitive performance. In this study, 796 adolescents aged 12-16 years reported information about their sleep habits, morningness-eveningness (M-E), cognitive abilities and grade point average (GPA). Time in bed on both weekdays and weekends was not related to cognitive abilities, and only time in bed on weekdays was related to academic achievement. SJL was negatively related to academic achievement, cognitive abilities (except for vocabulary and verbal fluency abilities) and general cognitive ability (g), whereas M-E was slightly positively related to academic achievement and marginally negatively related to inductive reasoning. Results separated by sex/gender indicated that SJL may be more detrimental to girls' performance, as it was negatively related to a greater number of cognitive abilities and GPA. PMID:26061587

  3. Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations of Different Sedentary Behaviors with Cognitive Performance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Charreire, Hélène; Andreeva, Valentina A.; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Oppert, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    Background The deleterious health effects of sedentary behaviors, independent of physical activity, are increasingly being recognized. However, associations with cognitive performance are not known. Purpose To estimate the associations between different sedentary behaviors and cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Methods Computer use, time spent watching television (TV), time spent reading and habitual physical activity levels were self-reported twice (in 2001 and 2007) by participants in the SUpplémentation en Vitamines et MinérauX (SU.VI.MAX and SU.VI.MAX2) study. Cognitive performance was assessed at follow-up (in 2007–2009) via a battery of 6 neuropsychological tests used to derive verbal memory and executive functioning scores. Analyses (ANCOVA) were performed among 1425 men and 1154 women aged 65.6±4.5 at the time of the neuropsychological evaluation. We estimated mean differences with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) in cognitive performance across categories of each type of sedentary behavior. Results In multivariable cross-sectional models, compared to non-users, participants using the computer for >1 h/day displayed better verbal memory (mean difference?=?1.86; 95%CI: 0.95, 2.77) and executive functioning (mean difference?=?2.15; 95%CI: 1.22, 3.08). A negative association was also observed between TV viewing and executive functioning. Additionally, participants who increased their computer use by more than 30 min between 2001 and 2007 showed better performance on both verbal memory (mean difference?=?1.41; 95%CI: 0.55, 2.27) and executive functioning (mean difference?=?1.41; 95%CI: 0.53, 2.28) compared to those who decreased their computer use during that period. Conclusion Specific sedentary behaviors are differentially associated with cognitive performance. In contrast to TV viewing, regular computer use may help maintain cognitive function during the aging process. Clinical Trial Registration clinicaltrial.gov (number NCT00272428). PMID:23082222

  4. Use of the Cognitive Performance Test for Identifying Deficits in Hospitalized Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Alison; Letts, Lori; Eva, Kevin; Richardson, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. The Cognitive Performance Test (CPT) is a functional assessment for persons with dementia. The study purpose was to evaluate the reliability, discriminant, and concurrent validity of the CPT. Method. The CPT was tested against other measures of cognition (Standardized Mini Mental Status Exam (SMMSE) and Assessment of Motor and Process Skills-Process scale (AMPS-Process)). Participants were persons 65 years and older admitted to a geriatric rehabilitation unit (n = 47). Results. The CPT correlated moderately with measures of cognition (SMMSE r = 0.47, AMPS-Process r = 0.53, P < 0.01), and ADL burden of care (FIM r = 0.32, P < 0.05). Scores were not affected by age, sex, years of education, motor skills, or comorbidities. The CPT differentiated between impaired and unimpaired individuals differently from other measures. Conclusion. While CPT appears related to other measures of cognition, test interpretation requires noting the variability between CPT scores and those measures. PMID:22720163

  5. Evaluation of improvements to Brayton cycle performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasyk, M. A.

    1986-05-01

    This study addresses the problem of finding an energy conversion method to take advantage of the high maximum cycle temperatures achieved with solar central receivers. Most current practice is to use steam-based heat engines with solar receivers but these Rankine cycles cannot operate at the higher possible temperatures. Derivatives of gas-based Brayton cycles are considered to take advantage of the expected increased cycle performance of higher temperatures. Computer modeling was done to examine the effect of maximum temperature on efficiency of two Brayton cycle derivatives and a simple Brayton cycle (GT). The modified Brayton cycles include a combination of intercooling, regeneration, and reheat (IGT) and a Brayton cycle with steam injection (STIG). The turbine inlet temperature, the steam-to-air injection mass ratio (for the STIG), and the compression pressure ratios were treated as parameters in the analysis. Both First Law and Second Law efficiencies were examined. Efficiencies were highest for the IGT followed by the STIG and GT, respectively. Considerable improvements in specific work output were demonstrated by the STIG over both the IGT and GT systems. First and Second law analyses show a gradual increase of efficiency with turbine inlet temperature with diminishing returns at higher temperatures.

  6. Learning to improve path planning performance

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pang C.

    1995-04-01

    In robotics, path planning refers to finding a short. collision-free path from an initial robot configuration to a desired configuratioin. It has to be fast to support real-time task-level robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To remedy this situation, we present and analyze a learning algorithm that uses past experience to increase future performance. The algorithm relies on an existing path planner to provide solutions to difficult tasks. From these solutions, an evolving sparse network of useful robot configurations is learned to support faster planning. More generally, the algorithm provides a speedup-learning framework in which a slow but capable planner may be improved both cost-wise and capability-wise by a faster but less capable planner coupled with experience. The basic algorithm is suitable for stationary environments, and can be extended to accommodate changing environments with on-demand experience repair and object-attached experience abstraction. To analyze the algorithm, we characterize the situations in which the adaptive planner is useful, provide quantitative bounds to predict its behavior, and confirm our theoretical results with experiments in path planning of manipulators. Our algorithm and analysis are sufficiently, general that they may also be applied to other planning domains in which experience is useful.

  7. Improved effectiveness of performance monitoring in amateur instrumental musicians?

    PubMed Central

    Jentzsch, Ines; Mkrtchian, Anahit; Kansal, Nayantara

    2014-01-01

    Here we report a cross-sectional study investigating the influence of instrumental music practice on the ability to monitor for and respond to processing conflicts and performance errors. Behavioural and electrophysiological indicators of response monitoring in amateur musicians with various skill levels were collected using simple conflict tasks. The results show that instrumental musicians are better able than non-musicians to detect conflicts and errors as indicated by systematic increases in the amplitude of the error-related negativity and the N200 with increasing levels of instrumental practice. Also, high levels of musical training were associated with more efficient and less reactive responses after experience of conflicts and errors as indicated by reduced post-error interference and post-conflict processing adjustments. Together, the present findings suggest that playing a musical instrument might improve the ability to monitor our behavior and adjust our responses effectively when needed. As these processes are amongst the first to be affected by cognitive aging, our evidence could promote musical activity as a realistic intervention to slow or even prevent age-related decline in frontal cortex mediated executive functioning. PMID:24056298

  8. Relationships between cognitive performance, neuroimaging, and vascular disease: the DHS-Mind Study

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Fang-Chi; Raffield, Laura M.; Hugenschmidt, Christina E.; Cox, Amanda; Xu, Jianzhao; Carr, J. Jeffery; Freedman, Barry I.; Maldjian, Joseph A.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Bowden, Donald W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus increases risk for cognitive decline and dementia; elevated burdens of vascular disease are hypothesized to contribute to this risk. These relationships were examined in the Diabetes Heart Study-Mind using a battery of cognitive tests, neuroimaging measures, and subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden assessed by coronary artery calcified plaque (CAC). We hypothesized that CAC would attenuate the association between neuroimaging measures and cognition performance. Methods Associations were examined using marginal models in this family-based cohort of 572 European Americans from 263 families. All models were adjusted for age, gender, education, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension, with some neuroimaging measures additionally adjusted for intracranial volume. Results Higher total brain volume (TBV) was associated with better performance on the Digit Symbol Substitution Task (DSST) and Semantic Fluency (both p?7.0 x 10?4). Higher gray matter volume (GMV) was associated with better performance on the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination and Semantic Fluency (both p?9.0 x 10?4). Adjusting for CAC caused minimal changes to the results. Conclusions Relationships exist between neuroimaging measures and cognitive performance in a type 2 diabetes-enriched European American cohort. Associations were minimally attenuated after adjusting for subclinical CVD. Additional work is needed to understand how subclinical CVD burden interacts with other factors and impacts relationships between neuroimaging and cognitive testing measures. PMID:26185004

  9. Relationship between cognition and gait performance in older adults receiving physical therapy interventions in the home.

    PubMed

    Whitney, Susan L; Marchetti, Gregory F; Ellis, Jennifer; Otis, Laurie; Asiri, Faisal; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Persons undergoing physical therapy home services often have difficulty with mobility and gait. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a relationship between gait and a rating of cognitive functioning in persons undergoing home-care physical therapy services. Patients over the age of 65 (n = 11,601) seen by a home-care agency between 2007 and 2008 were included in the retrospective analysis, and 10,953 (mean +/- standard deviation age 83.2 +/- 7.1; 31%) met the criteria of being able to ambulate independently or with an assistive device. All patients attempted to perform the modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration and Balance plus either the Performance Oriented Measurement Assessment (POMA) or the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI). Mental function was scored as part of the Outcome and Assessment Information Set. A multivariate model with adjustment for age and sex identified gait performance as measured by the DGI to be independently associated with the likelihood that a patient required cognitive prompting (p = 0.03). Both the DGI and POMA scores were independently associated with requiring assistance/dependence with cognitive tasks. There was a strong relationship between cognition and gait performance in persons undergoing physical therapy interventions in the home. Changes in gait may be related to cognitive decline. PMID:24458894

  10. Sex differences in neocortical structure and cognitive performance: A surface-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Escorial, Sergio; Román, Francisco J; Martínez, Kenia; Burgaleta, Miguel; Karama, Sherif; Colom, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    On average, men show larger brain volumes than women. Regional differences have been also observed, although most of the available studies apply voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Reports applying surface-based morphometry (SBM) have been focused mainly on cortical thickness (CT). Here we apply SBM for obtaining global and regional indices of CT, cortical surface area (CSA), and cortical gray matter volume (CGMV) from samples of men (N=40) and women (N=40) matched for their performance on four cognitive factors varying in their complexity: processing speed, attention control, working memory capacity, and fluid intelligence. These were the main findings: 1) CT and CSA produced very weak correlations in both sexes, 2) men showed larger values in CT, CSA, and CGMV, and 3) cognitive performance was unrelated to brain structural variation within sexes. Therefore, we found substantial group differences in brain structure, but there was no relationship with cognitive performance both between and within-sexes. PMID:25255941

  11. Serum Uric Acid and Subsequent Cognitive Performance in Patients with Pre-Existing Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Molshatzki, Noa; Weinstein, Galit; Streifler, Jonathan Y.; Goldbourt, Uri; Tanne, David

    2015-01-01

    High serum uric acid (UA) levels are associated with numerous vascular risk factors, and vascular disease, that predispose patients to cognitive impairment, yet UA is also a major natural antioxidant and higher levels have been linked to slower progression of several neurodegenerative disease. In-order to test the association between UA and subsequent cognitive performance among patients that carry a high vascular burden, UA levels were determined by calorimetric enzymatic tests in a sub-cohort of patients with chronic cardiovascular disease who previously participating in a secondary prevention trial. After an average of 9.8±1.7 years, we assessed cognitive performance (Neurotrax Computerized Cognitive Battery) as well as cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) and common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). Among 446 men (mean age 62.3±6.4 yrs) mean UA levels were 5.8±1.1 mg/dL. Adjusted linear regression models revealed that low UA levels (bottom quintile) were associated with poorer cognitive performance. Adjusted differences between the bottom quintile and grouped top UA quintiles were (B coefficient±SE) ?4.23±1.28 for global cognitive scores (p = 0.001), ?4.69±1.81 for memory scores (p = 0.010), ?3.32±1.43 for executive scores (p = 0.020) and ?3.43±1.97 for visual spatial scores (p = 0.082). Significant difference was also found for attention scores (p = 0.015). Additional adjustment for impaired CVR and high common carotid IMT slightly attenuated the relationship. Stronger UA effect on cognitive performance was found for older (age>65) patients with significant age interaction for global cognitive score (p = 0.016) and for executive (p = 0.018) and attention domains (p<0.001). In conclusion, we demonstrate that low UA levels in patients with preexisting cardiovascular disease are associated with poorer cognitive function a decade later. These findings lend support to the hypothesis that oxidative stress may be involved in the pathogenesis of age-associated cognitive impairment. PMID:25794156

  12. Improved Blood Biomarkers but No Cognitive Effects from 16 Weeks of Multivitamin Supplementation in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Elizabeth; Macpherson, Helen; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Supplementation with vitamins, minerals and phytonutrients may be beneficial for cognition, especially in older adults. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of multivitamin supplementation in older adults on cognitive function and associated blood biomarkers. In a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial, healthy women (n = 68) and men (n = 48) aged 55–65 years were supplemented daily for 16 weeks with women’s and men’s formula multivitamin supplements. Assessments at baseline and post-supplementation included computerised cognitive tasks and blood biomarkers relevant to cognitive aging. No cognitive improvements were observed after supplementation with either formula; however, several significant improvements were observed in blood biomarkers including increased levels of vitamins B6 and B12 in women and men; reduced C-reactive protein in women; reduced homocysteine and marginally reduced oxidative stress in men; as well as improvements to the lipid profile in men. In healthy older people, multivitamin supplementation improved a number of blood biomarkers that are relevant to cognition, but these biomarker changes were not accompanied by improved cognitive function. PMID:25996285

  13. Alcohol and tobacco use and cognitive-motivational variables in school settings: effects on academic performance in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Inglés, Cándido J; Torregrosa, María S; Rodríguez-Marín, Jesús; García del Castillo, José A; Gázquez, José J; García-Fernández, José M; Delgado, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze: (a) the relationship between alcohol and tobacco use and academic performance, and (b) the predictive role of psycho-educational factors and alcohol and tobacco abuse on academic performance in a sample of 352 Spanish adolescents from grades 8 to 10 of Compulsory Secondary Education. The Self-Description Questionnaire-II, the Sydney Attribution Scale, and the Achievement Goal Tendencies Questionnaire were administered in order to analyze cognitive-motivational variables. Alcohol and tobacco abuse, sex, and grade retention were also measured using self-reported questions. Academic performance was measured by school records. Frequency analyses and logistic regression analyses were used. Frequency analyses revealed that students who abuse of tobacco and alcohol show a higher rate of poor academic performance. Logistic regression analyses showed that health behaviours, and educational and cognitive-motivational variables exert a different effect on academic performance depending on the academic area analyzed. These results point out that not only academic, but also health variables should be address to improve academic performance in adolescence. PMID:23487281

  14. “No level up!”: no effects of video game specialization and expertise on cognitive performance

    PubMed Central

    Gobet, Fernand; Johnston, Stephen J.; Ferrufino, Gabriella; Johnston, Matthew; Jones, Michael B.; Molyneux, Antonia; Terzis, Argyrios; Weeden, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Previous research into the effects of action video gaming on cognition has suggested that long term exposure to this type of game might lead to an enhancement of cognitive skills that transfer to non-gaming cognitive tasks. However, these results have been controversial. The aim of the current study was to test the presence of positive cognitive transfer from action video games to two cognitive tasks. More specifically, this study investigated the effects that participants' expertise and genre specialization have on cognitive improvements in one task unrelated to video gaming (a flanker task) and one related task (change detection task with both control and genre-specific images). This study was unique in three ways. Firstly, it analyzed a continuum of expertise levels, which has yet to be investigated in research into the cognitive benefits of video gaming. Secondly, it explored genre-specific skill developments on these tasks by comparing Action and Strategy video game players (VGPs). Thirdly, it used a very tight experiment design, including the experimenter being blind to expertise level and genre specialization of the participant. Ninety-two university students aged between 18 and 30 (M = 21.25) were recruited through opportunistic sampling and were grouped by video game specialization and expertise level. While the results of the flanker task were consistent with previous research (i.e., effect of congruence), there was no effect of expertise, and the action gamers failed to outperform the strategy gamers. Additionally, contrary to expectation, there was no interaction between genre specialization and image type in the change detection task, again demonstrating no expertise effect. The lack of effects for game specialization and expertise goes against previous research on the positive effects of action video gaming on other cognitive tasks. PMID:25506330

  15. "No level up!": no effects of video game specialization and expertise on cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Gobet, Fernand; Johnston, Stephen J; Ferrufino, Gabriella; Johnston, Matthew; Jones, Michael B; Molyneux, Antonia; Terzis, Argyrios; Weeden, Luke

    2014-01-01

    Previous research into the effects of action video gaming on cognition has suggested that long term exposure to this type of game might lead to an enhancement of cognitive skills that transfer to non-gaming cognitive tasks. However, these results have been controversial. The aim of the current study was to test the presence of positive cognitive transfer from action video games to two cognitive tasks. More specifically, this study investigated the effects that participants' expertise and genre specialization have on cognitive improvements in one task unrelated to video gaming (a flanker task) and one related task (change detection task with both control and genre-specific images). This study was unique in three ways. Firstly, it analyzed a continuum of expertise levels, which has yet to be investigated in research into the cognitive benefits of video gaming. Secondly, it explored genre-specific skill developments on these tasks by comparing Action and Strategy video game players (VGPs). Thirdly, it used a very tight experiment design, including the experimenter being blind to expertise level and genre specialization of the participant. Ninety-two university students aged between 18 and 30 (M = 21.25) were recruited through opportunistic sampling and were grouped by video game specialization and expertise level. While the results of the flanker task were consistent with previous research (i.e., effect of congruence), there was no effect of expertise, and the action gamers failed to outperform the strategy gamers. Additionally, contrary to expectation, there was no interaction between genre specialization and image type in the change detection task, again demonstrating no expertise effect. The lack of effects for game specialization and expertise goes against previous research on the positive effects of action video gaming on other cognitive tasks. PMID:25506330

  16. Improved Cognitive Function After Transcranial, Light-Emitting Diode Treatments in Chronic, Traumatic Brain Injury: Two Case Reports

    E-print Network

    Naeser, Margaret A.

    Objective: Two chronic, traumatic brain injury (TBI) cases, where cognition improved following treatment with red and near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs), applied transcranially to forehead and scalp areas, are ...

  17. Cognitive performance deficits in a simulated climb of Mount Everest - Operation Everest II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Dunlap, W. P.; Banderet, L. E.; Smith, M. G.; Houston, C. S.

    1989-01-01

    Cognitive function at simulated altitude was investigated in a repeated-measures within-subject study of performance by seven volunteers in a hypobaric chamber, in which atmospheric pressure was systematically lowered over a period of 40 d to finally reach a pressure equivalent to 8845 m, the approximate height of Mount Everest. The automated performance test system employed compact computer design; automated test administrations, data storage, and retrieval; psychometric properties of stability and reliability; and factorial richness. Significant impairments of cognitive function were seen for three of the five tests in the battery; on two tests, grammatical reasoning and pattern comparison, every subject showed a substantial decrement.

  18. Partnering through Training and Practice to Achieve Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a partnership effort among managers, trainers, and employees to spring to life performance improvement using the performance templates (P-T) approach. P-T represents a process model as well as a method of training leading to performance improvement. Not only does it add to our repertoire of training and performance management…

  19. Comparison of motor and cognitive performance of children attending public and private day care centers

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Mariana M.; Corsi, Carolina; Marques, Luisa A. P.; Rocha, Nelci A. C. F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Given that environmental factors, such as the school environment, can influence child development, more attention should be paid to the development of children attending day care centers. Objective Todetermine whether there are differences in the gross motor, fine motor, or cognitive performances of children between 1 and3 years-old of similar socioeconomic status attending public and private day care centers full time. Method Participants were divided into 2 groups, 1 of children attending public day care centers (69 children) and another of children attending private day care centers (47 children). All children were healthy and regularly attended day care full time for over 4 months. To assess cognitive, gross and fine motor performance, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III was used. The Mann-Whitney test was used for comparative analyses between groups of children between 13 and 24 months, 25 and 41 months, and 13 and 41 months. Results Children in public day care centers exhibited lower scores on the cognitive development scale beginning at 13 months old. The fine and gross motor performance scores were lower in children over the age of 25 months attending public centers. Maternal education was not related to the performance of children in either group. Conclusion The scores of cognitive performance as well as fine and gross motor performance of children of similar socioeconomic status who attend public day care centers are lower than children attending private daycare centers. PMID:24346293

  20. Midlife plasma vitamin D concentrations and performance in different cognitive domains assessed 13 years later.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Karen E; Touvier, Mathilde; Andreeva, Valentina A; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Constans, Thierry; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-05-28

    25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) insufficiency is very common in many countries. Yet, the extent to which 25(OH)D status affects cognitive performance remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cross-time association between midlife plasma 25(OH)D concentrations and subsequent cognitive performance, using a subsample from the French 'SUpplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants' randomised trial (SU.VI.MAX, 1994-2002) and the SU.VI.MAX 2 observational follow-up study (2007-9). 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in plasma samples drawn in 1994-5, using an electrochemoluminescent immunoassay. Cognitive performance was evaluated in 2007-9 with a neuropsychological battery including phonemic and semantic fluency tasks, the RI-48 (rappel indicé-48 items) cued recall test, the Trail Making Test and the forward and backward digit span. Cognitive factors were extracted via principal component analysis (PCA). Data from 1009 individuals, aged 45-60 years at baseline, with available 25(OH)D and cognitive measurements were analysed by multivariable linear regression models and ANCOVA, stratified by educational level. PCA yielded two factors, designated as 'verbal memory' (strongly correlated with the RI-48 and phonemic/semantic fluency tasks) and 'short-term/working memory' (strongly correlated with the digit span tasks). In the fully adjusted regression model, among individuals with low education, there was a positive association between 25(OH)D concentrations and the 'short-term/working memory' factor (P=0.02), mainly driven by the backward digit span (P=0.004). No association with either cognitive factor was found among better educated participants. In conclusion, higher midlife 25(OH)D concentrations were linked to better outcomes concerning short-term and working memory. However, these results were specific to subjects with low education, suggesting a modifying effect of cognitive reserve. PMID:25864611

  1. Sleep Deprivation Differentially Impairs Cognitive Performance in Abstinent Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (“Ecstasy”) Users

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Una D.; Wilson, Michael J.; Sgambati, Francis P.; Ricaurte, George A.

    2011-01-01

    Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; “Ecstasy”) is a popular recreational drug and brain serotonin (5-HT) neurotoxin. Neuroimaging data indicate that some human MDMA users develop persistent deficits in brain 5-HT neuronal markers. Although the consequences of MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity are not fully understood, abstinent MDMA users have been found to have subtle cognitive deficits and altered sleep architecture. The present study sought to test the hypothesis that sleep disturbance plays a role in cognitive deficits in MDMA users. Nineteen abstinent MDMA users and 21 control subjects participated in a 5 d inpatient study in a clinical research unit. Baseline sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory. Cognitive performance was tested three times daily using a computerized cognitive battery. On the third day of admission, subjects began a 40 h sleep deprivation period and continued cognitive testing using the same daily schedule. At baseline, MDMA users performed less accurately than controls on a task of working memory and more impulsively on four of the seven computerized tests. During sleep deprivation, MDMA users, but not controls, became increasingly impulsive, performing more rapidly at the expense of accuracy on tasks of working and short-term memory. Tests of mediation implicated baseline sleep disturbance in the cognitive decline seen during sleep deprivation. These findings are the first to demonstrate that memory problems in MDMA users may be related, at least in part, to sleep disturbance and suggest that cognitive deficits in MDMA users may become more prominent in situations associated with sleep deprivation. PMID:19890014

  2. The relationship between dual-task and cognitive performance among elderly participants who exercise regularly

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Luciana C. A.; Ansai, Juliana H.; Andrade, Larissa P.; Takahashi, Anielle C. M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dual-task performance is associated with the functionality of the elderly and it becomes more complex with age. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the Timed Up and Go dual task (TUG-DT) and cognitive tests among elderly participants who exercise regularly. METHOD: This study examined 98 non-institutionalized people over 60 years old who exercised regularly. Participants were assessed using the TUG-DT (i.e. doing the TUG while listing the days of the week in reverse order), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the Clock Drawing Test (CDT), and the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). The motor (i.e. time and number of steps) and cognitive (i.e. number of correct words) data were collected from TUG-DT . We used a significance level of ?=0.05 and SPSS 17.0 for all data analyses. RESULTS: This current elderly sample featured a predominance of women (69.4%) who were highly educated (median=10 years of education) compared to Brazilian population and mostly non-fallers (86.7%). The volunteers showed a good performance on the TUG-DT and the other cognitive tests, except the MoCA, with scores below the cutoff of 26 points. Significant and weak correlations were observed between the TUG-DT (time) and the visuo-spatial/executive domain of the MoCA and the MMSE. The cognitive component of the TUG-DT showed strong correlations between the total MoCA performance score and its visuo-spatial/executive domain. CONCLUSIONS: The use of the TUG-DT to assess cognition is promising; however, the use of more challenging cognitive tasks should be considered when the study population has a high level of education. PMID:25993629

  3. Spatial Cognitive Performance During Adaptation to Conflicting Tilt-Translation Stimuli as a Sensorimotor Spaceflight Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kayanickupuram, A. J.; Ramos, K. A.; Cordova, M. L.; Wood, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    The need to resolve new patterns of sensory feedback in altered gravitoinertial environments requires cognitive processes to develop appropriate reference frames for spatial orientation awareness. The purpose of this study was to examine deficits in spatial cognitive performance during adaptation to conflicting tilt-translation stimuli. Fourteen subjects were tilted within a lighted enclosure that simultaneously translated at one of 3 frequencies. Tilt and translation motion was synchronized to maintain the resultant gravitoinertial force aligned with the longitudinal body axis, resulting in a mismatch analogous to spaceflight in which the canals and vision signal tilt while the otoliths do not. Changes in performance on different spatial cognitive tasks were compared 1) without motion, 2) with tilt motion alone (pitch at 0.15, 0.3 and 0.6 Hz or roll at 0.3 Hz), and 3) with conflicting tilt-translation motion. The adaptation paradigm was continued for up to 30 min or until the onset of nausea. The order of the adaptation conditions were counter-balanced across 4 different test sessions. There was a significant effect of stimulus frequency on both motion sickness and spatial cognitive performance. Only 3 of 14 were able to complete the full 30 min protocol at 0.15 Hz, while 7 of 14 completed 0.3 Hz and 13 of 14 completed 0.6 Hz. There were no changes in simple visual-spatial cognitive tests, e.g., mental rotation or match-to-sample. There were significant deficits during 0.15 Hz adaptation in both accuracy and reaction time during a spatial reference task in which subjects are asked to identify a match of a 3D reoriented cube assemblage. Our results are consistent with antidotal reports of cognitive impairment that are common during sensorimotor adaptation with G-transitions. We conclude that these cognitive deficits stem from the ambiguity of spatial reference frames for central processing of inertial motion cues.

  4. Examining the Association Between Quadriceps Strength and Cognitive Performance in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Liang; Peng, Tao-Chun; Sun, Yu-Shan; Yang, Hui-Fang; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Wu, Li-Wei; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Kao, Tung-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Emerging evidences showed impaired muscle strength was prevalent in older adults with mild cognition impairment or dementia. However, little was known about the role of quadriceps strength in the cognition decline among older population. The objective of our study was to investigate the relation between quadriceps strength and cognitive performance. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2002), a total of 1799 participants aged ?60 years were enrolled in the study. Every subject completed a household interview, digit symbol substitution test (DSST), physical performances, and a questionnaire regarding personal health. Estimation of relationship between quadriceps strength and cognition was using multiple linear regression and quartile-based analysis with an extended-model approach for covariates adjustment. In a model adjusted for demographics, chronic diseases, health behaviors, and levels of folate and vitamin B12, the level of quadriceps strength was significantly associated with the scores of DSST. The ? coefficient interpreted as change of DSST scores for each Newton increment in quadriceps strength comparing participants in the highest quartile of quadriceps strength to those in the lowest quartile was 5.003 (95% confidence interval, 2.725–7.281, P?cognitive performance. PMID:26266380

  5. Are Performance Improvement Professionals Measurably Improving Performance? What "PIJ" and "PIQ" Have to Say about the Current Use of Evaluation and Measurement in the Field of Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra-Lopez, Ingrid; Leigh, Hillary N.

    2009-01-01

    Measurement and evaluation are at the core of reliably improving performance. It is through these central mechanisms that performance improvement professionals are able to demonstrate the true worth of their efforts. However, the true value of the contributions they make is inconclusive. This article presents a content analysis of 10 years' worth…

  6. Hippocampal development and the dissociation of cognitive-spatial mapping from motor performance

    PubMed Central

    Devan, Bryan D.; Magalis, Christopher; McDonald, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The publication of a recent article in F1000Research has led to discussion of, and correspondence on a broader issue that has a long history in the fields of neuroscience and psychology.  Namely, is it possible to separate the cognitive components of performance, in this case spatial behavior, from the motoric demands of a task?  Early psychological experiments attempted such a dissociation by studying a form of spatial maze learning where initially rats were allowed to explore a complex maze, termed “latent learning,” before reinforcement was introduced.  Those rats afforded the latent learning experience solved the task faster than those that were not, implying that cognitive map learning during exploration aided in the performance of the task once a motivational component was introduced.  This form of latent learning was interpreted as successfully demonstrating that an exploratory cognitive map component was acquired irrespective of performing a learned spatial response under deprivation/motivational conditions.  The neural substrate for cognitive learning was hypothesized to depend on place cells within the hippocampus.  Subsequent behavioral studies attempted to directly eliminate the motor component of spatial learning by allowing rats to passively view the distal environment before performing any motor response using a task that is widely considered to be hippocampal-dependent.  Latent learning in the water maze, using a passive placement procedure has met with mixed results.  One constraint on viewing cues before performing a learned swimming response to a hidden goal has been the act of dynamically viewing distal cues while moving through a part of the environment where an optimal learned spatial escape response would be observed.  We briefly review these past findings obtained with adult animals to the recent efforts of establishing a “behavioral topology” separating cognitive-spatial learning from tasks differing in motoric demands in an attempt to define when cognitive-spatial behavior emerges during development. PMID:26594345

  7. Acute cocaine induced deficits in cognitive performance in rhesus macaque monkeys treated with baclofen

    PubMed Central

    Porrino, Linda J.; Hampson, Robert E.; Opris, Ioan; Deadwyler, Samuel A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Acute and/or chronic exposure to cocaine can affect cognitive performance, which may influence rate of recovery during treatment. Objective Effects of the GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen were assessed for potency to reverse the negative influence of acute, pre-session, intravenous (IV) injection of cocaine on cognitive performance in Macaca mulatta nonhuman primates. Methods Animals were trained to perform a modified delayed match to sample (DMS) task incorporating two types of trials with varying degrees of cognitive load that had different decision requirements in order to correctly utilize information retained over the delay interval. The effects of cocaine (0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 mg/kg, IV) alone and in combination with baclofen (0.29 and 0.40 mg/kg, IV) were examined with respect to sustained performance levels. Brain metabolic activity during performance of the task was assessed using PET imaged uptake of [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose. Results Acute cocaine injections produced a dose-dependent decline in DMS performance selective for trials of high cognitive load. The GABA-receptor agonist baclofen, co-administered with cocaine, reversed task performance back to nondrug (saline IV) control levels. Simultaneous assessment of PET-imaged brain metabolic activity in prefrontal cortex (PFC) showed alterations by cocaine compared to PFC metabolic activation in nondrug (saline, IV) control DMS sessions, but like performance, PFC activation was returned to control levels by baclofen (0.40 mg/kg, IV) injected with cocaine. Conclusions The results show that baclofen, administered at a relatively high dose, reversed the cognitive deficits produced by acute cocaine intoxication that may have implications for use in chronic drug exposure. PMID:22836369

  8. Drugs with anticholinergic properties and cognitive performance in the elderly: results from the PAQUID Study

    PubMed Central

    Lechevallier-Michel, Nathalie; Molimard, Mathieu; Dartigues, Jean-François; Fabrigoule, Colette; Fourrier-Réglat, Annie

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To measure the association between the use of drugs with anticholinergic properties and cognitive performance in an elderly population, the PAQUID cohort. Methods The sample studied was composed of 1780 subjects aged 70 and older, living at home in South western France. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, medical history and drug use were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Cognitive performance was assessed using the following neuropsychological tests: the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) which evaluates global cognitive functioning, the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT) which assesses immediate visual memory, and the Isaacs’ Set Test (IST) which assesses verbal fluency. For each test, scores were dichotomized between low performance and normal to high performance using the score at the 10th percentile of the study sample as the cut-off point, according to age, gender and educational level. The association between the use of drugs with anticholinergic properties and cognitive performance was examined using logistic regression models, adjusting for several potential confounding factors. Results About 13.7% of the subjects used at least one drug with anticholinergic properties. In multivariate analyses, the use of these drugs was significantly associated with low performance in the BVRT [odds ratio (OR) = 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1, 2.3] and in the IST (OR = 1.9; 95% CI 1.3, 2.8). The association found with low performance in the MMSE (OR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.0, 2.1) was barely statistically significant. Conclusion These findings suggest that the use of drugs with anticholinergic properties is associated with low cognitive performance among community-dwelling elderly people. PMID:15676035

  9. Improving the neural mechanisms of cognition through the pursuit of happiness

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Karuna; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews evidence on the neural basis of how positive mood states can modulate cognition, particularly during creative problem-solving. Studies performed over the past few decades demonstrate that individuals in a positive mood engage in a broader scope of attention, enhancing their access to distant and unusual semantic associations, and increasing task-shifting and problem-solving capacities. In this review, we summarize these behavioral studies; we then present recent findings on the changes in brain activation patterns that are induced by a positive mood when participants engage in problem-solving tasks and show how these relate to task performance. Additionally, we integrate findings on the neuromodulatory influence of positive mood on cognition as mediated by dopaminergic signaling in the prefrontal cortex and we describe how this system can go awry during pathological states of elevated mood as in mania. Finally, we describe current and future research directions using psychotherapeutic and real-time fMRI neurofeedback approaches to up-regulate positive mood and facilitate optimal creative cognitive performance. We conclude with some speculations on the clinical implications of this emerging area of research. PMID:23966924

  10. Influence of Two Different Exercise Programs on Physical Fitness and Cognitive Performance in Active Older Adults: Functional Resistance-Band Exercises vs. Recreational Oriented Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Ponce-Bravo, Hernán; Ponce, Christian; Feriche, Belén; Padial, Paulino

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of a resistance-band functional exercise program, compared with a recreational exercise program, on physical fitness and reaction times in persons older than 60 years. Fifty-four community-dwelling volunteers (71.76 ± 6.02 years) were assigned to a specific exercise program: Functional activity program (focused on resistance-band multi-joint activities; experimental group, EG), or recreational physical activity program (with gross motor activities of ludic content; control group, CG). Before and after the intervention, we determined cognitive capacity in terms of simple reaction time (S-RT), choice reaction time (C-RT) and fitness. In both groups physical performance improved, though this improvement was more marked in the EG for grip strength, arm strength and gross motor abilities (p < 0.05). Reaction times were better only in EG (S-RT = 10.70%, C-RT = 14.34%; p < 0.05) after the corresponding physical training intervention. The training period showed no effect on the moderate relationship between both RT and gross motor abilities in the CG, whereas the EG displayed an enhanced relationship between S-RT and grip-strength as well as the C-RT with arm strength and aerobic capacity (r ~ 0.457; p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that a functional exercise program using a resistance band improves fitness and cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Key points Better cognitive processes can be achieved as physical condition improves Exercise sessions of a more recreational type do not seem to constitute a stimulus able to improve both physical and cognitive performance in healthy active older adults The improvement of cognitive function, as assessed through reaction times, seems more linked to the workload and strength component of the training program. PMID:26664267

  11. Influence of Two Different Exercise Programs on Physical Fitness and Cognitive Performance in Active Older Adults: Functional Resistance-Band Exercises vs. Recreational Oriented Exercises.

    PubMed

    Ponce-Bravo, Hernán; Ponce, Christian; Feriche, Belén; Padial, Paulino

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the impact of a resistance-band functional exercise program, compared with a recreational exercise program, on physical fitness and reaction times in persons older than 60 years. Fifty-four community-dwelling volunteers (71.76 ± 6.02 years) were assigned to a specific exercise program: Functional activity program (focused on resistance-band multi-joint activities; experimental group, EG), or recreational physical activity program (with gross motor activities of ludic content; control group, CG). Before and after the intervention, we determined cognitive capacity in terms of simple reaction time (S-RT), choice reaction time (C-RT) and fitness. In both groups physical performance improved, though this improvement was more marked in the EG for grip strength, arm strength and gross motor abilities (p < 0.05). Reaction times were better only in EG (S-RT = 10.70%, C-RT = 14.34%; p < 0.05) after the corresponding physical training intervention. The training period showed no effect on the moderate relationship between both RT and gross motor abilities in the CG, whereas the EG displayed an enhanced relationship between S-RT and grip-strength as well as the C-RT with arm strength and aerobic capacity (r ~ 0.457; p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that a functional exercise program using a resistance band improves fitness and cognitive performance in healthy older adults. Key pointsBetter cognitive processes can be achieved as physical condition improvesExercise sessions of a more recreational type do not seem to constitute a stimulus able to improve both physical and cognitive performance in healthy active older adultsThe improvement of cognitive function, as assessed through reaction times, seems more linked to the workload and strength component of the training program. PMID:26664267

  12. Cognitive Test Performance in Relation to Health and Function in 12 European Countries: The SHARE Study

    PubMed Central

    Sterniczuk, Roxanne; Theou, Olga; Rusak, Benjamin; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Background Even subtle impairments on cognitive test scores can be associated with future cognitive decline and dementia. We assayed the relationships between test score impairment and adverse outcomes. Methods Secondary analyses were performed on data from non-institutionalized participants, 50+ years of age (N = 30,038), from 12 countries taking part in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) longitudinal study on aging. At baseline, participants’ cognition was tested using verbal fluency, immediate recall, and delayed recall tasks. Results Greater levels of cognitive impairment at baseline were strongly associated with future poor health outcomes and functional impairment. Controlling for age, sex and education, those with 1 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.34–1.87) or ? 2 (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 2.17–3.09) impaired tests at baseline were more likely to die after an average of 40 months compared to individuals with no impairments. After selecting for participants who reported the absence of dementia initially, those with ? 2 cognitive impairments at baseline (OR = 3.34, 95% CI = 2.27–4.92) were more likely to report dementia at follow-up compared to those with no impairment. Conclusions People with impaired cognitive test scores at baseline are at greater risk to die or develop dementia within four years than their less impaired or unimpaired counterparts. PMID:26495048

  13. Students' Classroom Emotions: Socio-Cognitive Antecedents and School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephanou, Georgia

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined (a) students' experienced emotions in classes of Mathematics and Language, (b) the role of students' emotions in perceiving their school performance in the same school subjects as successful or unsuccessful, and (c) the effects of students' self-beliefs (performance expectations, value beliefs, ability…

  14. Cognitive Linguistic Performances of Multilingual University Students Suspected of Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Signe-Anita; Laine, Matti

    2011-01-01

    High-performing adults with compensated dyslexia pose particular challenges to dyslexia diagnostics. We compared the performance of 20 multilingual Finnish university students with suspected dyslexia with 20 age-matched and education-matched controls on an extensive test battery. The battery tapped various aspects of reading, writing, word…

  15. Maternal milk DHA content predicts cognitive performance in a sample of 28 nations.

    PubMed

    Lassek, William Day; Gaulin, Steven J C

    2015-10-01

    Convergent evidence from neuronal biology and hominin brain hypertrophy suggests that omega-3 fatty acids are a limiting resource for neural and cognitive development in Homo sapiens, and therefore that children from populations with higher omega-3 availability should display superior cognitive performance. Using multiple regression, we tested this prediction in a sample of 28 countries, with Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) math scores in 2009 as an index of cognitive performance, and country-specific breast milk levels of omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as an index of omega-3 availability. Breast milk DHA makes a highly significant contribution to math scores (??=?0.462, P?=?0.006), greater in magnitude than the control variables of per capita Gross Domestic Product (PCGDP) and educational expenditures per pupil. Together, dietary fish (positively) and total fat (negatively) explain 61% of the variance in maternal milk DHA in a larger sample of 39 countries. PMID:23795772

  16. Football to Improve Math and Reading Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Klaveren, Chris; De Witte, Kristof

    2015-01-01

    Schools frequently increase the instructional time to improve primary school children's math and reading skills. There is, however, little evidence that math and reading skills are effectively improved by these instruction-time increases. This study evaluates "Playing for Success" (PfS), an extended school day program for underachieving…

  17. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate improves processing speed and memory in cognitively impaired MS patients: a phase II study.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Sarah A; Smerbeck, Audrey; Patrick, Kara; Cookfair, Diane; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Benedict, Ralph H B

    2013-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes cognitive impairment including slowed processing speed and problems with learning and memory. Stimulants are attractive candidates for improving mental speed but carry risk of addiction and other adverse behavioral effects. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX) is a D-amphetamine prodrug currently approved for attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder with the potential to be better tolerated due to its prolonged clinical effect. This phase II placebo-controlled, double-blind study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of LDX in cognitively impaired MS patients. Subjects were patients with clinically definite MS, aged 18-56 years, and impaired on either of two primary outcomes: the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) or the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). Both SDMT and PASAT are measures of cognitive processing speed. Of 174 MS patients screened, 63 were randomized to 30 mg of LDX or placebo in a 2:1 fashion; the dose was increased as tolerated to 70 mg over 4 weeks and then maintained for another 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes were the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test Revised (BVMTR), the California Verbal Learning Test 2nd edition (CVLT2), both measures of episodic memory, and the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function for adults (BRIEF-A), a self-report measure of executive function. Fatigue and depression were also evaluated. There was significant improvement in the SDMT score (+4.6 vs. +1.3) and CVLT2 score (+4.7 vs. -0.9) in the LDX group compared with the placebo group among the 49 completers. There was no change on the other outcomes. A high proportion of both LDX-treated and placebo-treated subjects reported adverse events (73.5 % vs. 68.4 %). However, there were no serious adverse events noted in the study. These preliminary data indicate that LDX has the potential to be an efficacious treatment for MS patients with cognitive impairment. PMID:23001556

  18. Improving File System Performance by Striping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Terance L.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This document discusses the performance and advantages of striped file systems on the SGI AD workstations. Performance of several striped file system configurations are compared and guidelines for optimal striping are recommended.

  19. Performance Improvement--A People Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Jim; Stow, Shirley

    1981-01-01

    Describes components of the Administrator Performance Evaluation and Teacher Performance Evaluation (APE/TPE) system and delineates the functions and responsibilities of the subcommittees necessary for carrying out the program. (JD)

  20. Central activation of PPAR-gamma ameliorates diabetes induced cognitive dysfunction and improves BDNF expression.

    PubMed

    Kariharan, Thiruchelvam; Nanayakkara, Gayani; Parameshwaran, Kodeeswaran; Bagasrawala, Inseyah; Ahuja, Manuj; Abdel-Rahman, Engy; Amin, Arin T; Dhanasekaran, Murali; Suppiramaniam, Vishnu; Amin, Rajesh H

    2015-03-01

    Diabetes and Alzheimer's disease share pathologic links toward cognitive deficits. Pharmacologic agonist of the nuclear receptor, peroxisomal proliferator-activating receptor gamma (PPAR?), that is, rosiglitazone (rosi), are insulin sensitizing agents that improve memory in Alzheimer's disease. However, direct molecular signaling targets that improve memory by PPAR? in the hippocampus have not been investigated. We compared outcomes from oral versus intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of rosi on memory and changes in synaptic plasticity in type 2 diabetic (db/db) mice. Db/db mice treated with rosi (ICV) showed significant improvement in memory, long-term potentiation, and post-tetanic potentiation but did not improve peripheral insulin sensitivity. Gene and protein analysis revealed increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in db/db mice treated with rosi (ICV). Transcriptional activation of exon IX as determined by luciferase assays confirmed PPAR? regulation of BDNF promoter activity. Transient transfection of constitutively active PPAR? plasmid in hippocampal neuronal cells induced increased BDNF, AMPA, and NMDA receptors expression and spine formation. Findings from the present study implicate a novel PPAR?-BDNF molecular signaling mechanism as a potential therapeutic target for cognitive impairment. PMID:25510319

  1. A New Approach to Improve Cognition, Muscle Strength, and Postural Balance in Community-Dwelling Elderly with a 3-D Virtual Reality Kayak Program.

    PubMed

    Park, Junhyuck; Yim, JongEun

    2016-01-01

    Aging is usually accompanied with deterioration of physical abilities, such as muscular strength, sensory sensitivity, and functional capacity. Recently, intervention methods with virtual reality have been introduced, providing an enjoyable therapy for elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a 3-D virtual reality kayak program could improve the cognitive function, muscle strength, and balance of community-dwelling elderly. Importantly, kayaking involves most of the upper body musculature and needs the balance control. Seventy-two participants were randomly allocated into the kayak program group (n = 36) and the control group (n = 36). The two groups were well matched with respect to general characteristics at baseline. The participants in both groups performed a conventional exercise program for 30 min, and then the 3-D virtual reality kayak program was performed in the kayak program group for 20 min, two times a week for 6 weeks. Cognitive function was measured using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Muscle strength was measured using the arm curl and handgrip strength tests. Standing and sitting balance was measured using the Good Balance system. The post-test was performed in the same manner as the pre-test; the overall outcomes such as cognitive function (p < 0.05), muscle strength (p < 0.05), and balance (standing and sitting balance, p < 0.05) were significantly improved in kayak program group compared to the control group. We propose that the 3-D virtual reality kayak program is a promising intervention method for improving the cognitive function, muscle strength, and balance of elderly. PMID:26656425

  2. Impact of Monetary Incentives on Cognitive Performance and Error Monitoring following Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Shulan; Li, Tzu-Hsien; Tsai, Ling-Ling

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine whether monetary incentives attenuate the negative effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance in a flanker task that requires higher-level cognitive-control processes, including error monitoring. Design: Twenty-four healthy adults aged 18 to 23 years were randomly divided into 2 subject groups: one received and the other did not receive monetary incentives for performance accuracy. Both subject groups performed a flanker task and underwent electroencephalographic recordings for event-related brain potentials after normal sleep and after 1 night of total sleep deprivation in a within-subject, counterbalanced, repeated-measures study design. Results: Monetary incentives significantly enhanced the response accuracy and reaction time variability under both normal sleep and sleep-deprived conditions, and they reduced the effects of sleep deprivation on the subjective effort level, the amplitude of the error-related negativity (an error-related event-related potential component), and the latency of the P300 (an event-related potential variable related to attention processes). However, monetary incentives could not attenuate the effects of sleep deprivation on any measures of behavior performance, such as the response accuracy, reaction time variability, or posterror accuracy adjustments; nor could they reduce the effects of sleep deprivation on the amplitude of the Pe, another error-related event-related potential component. Conclusions: This study shows that motivation incentives selectively reduce the effects of total sleep deprivation on some brain activities, but they cannot attenuate the effects of sleep deprivation on performance decrements in tasks that require high-level cognitive-control processes. Thus, monetary incentives and sleep deprivation may act through both common and different mechanisms to affect cognitive performance. Citation: Hsieh S; Li TH; Tsai LL. Impact of monetary incentives on cognitive performance and error monitoring following sleep deprivation. SLEEP 2010;33(4):499-507. PMID:20394319

  3. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    DOEpatents

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J.

    2012-12-25

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  4. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    SciTech Connect

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J

    2013-07-30

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  5. White matter integrity supports BOLD signal variability and cognitive performance in the aging human brain.

    PubMed

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Voss, Michelle W; Cooke, Gillian E; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-01-01

    Decline in cognitive performance in old age is linked to both suboptimal neural processing in grey matter (GM) and reduced integrity of white matter (WM), but the whole-brain structure-function-cognition associations remain poorly understood. Here we apply a novel measure of GM processing-moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal (SDBOLD)-to study the associations between GM function during resting state, performance on four main cognitive domains (i.e., fluid intelligence, perceptual speed, episodic memory, vocabulary), and WM microstructural integrity in 91 healthy older adults (aged 60-80 years). We modeled the relations between whole-GM SDBOLD with cognitive performance using multivariate partial least squares analysis. We found that greater SDBOLD was associated with better fluid abilities and memory. Most of regions showing behaviorally relevant SDBOLD (e.g., precuneus and insula) were localized to inter- or intra-network "hubs" that connect and integrate segregated functional domains in the brain. Our results suggest that optimal dynamic range of neural processing in hub regions may support cognitive operations that specifically rely on the most flexible neural processing and complex cross-talk between different brain networks. Finally, we demonstrated that older adults with greater WM integrity in all major WM tracts had also greater SDBOLD and better performance on tests of memory and fluid abilities. We conclude that SDBOLD is a promising functional neural correlate of individual differences in cognition in healthy older adults and is supported by overall WM integrity. PMID:25853882

  6. The Relationship between Nutrition in Infancy and Cognitive Performance during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Nyaradi, Anett; Oddy, Wendy H.; Hickling, Siobhan; Li, Jianghong; Foster, Jonathan K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In this study, we aimed to investigate the long-term associations between breastfeeding duration during infancy, diet quality as measured by a diet score at 1?year of age, and cognitive performance during adolescence. Methods: Participants (n?=?717) were recruited from the West Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, a prospective longitudinal study of 2868 children and their families based in Perth, WA, Australia. Breastfeeding duration and an early diet score at age 1?year were used as the main predictor variables, while a computerized cognitive battery (CogState) was used to assess adolescents’ cognitive performance at 17?years. The diet score, which has seven food group components, was based on a 24-h recall questionnaire completed by the mother at 1?year of age. A higher diet score represents a better, more nutritious eating pattern. Associations between breastfeeding duration, diet score, and cognitive performance were assessed in multivariable regression models. Results: Higher diet scores at 1?year representing better diet quality were significantly associated with faster reaction times in cognitive performance at 17?years [Detection Task (DET): ??=??0.004, 95% CI: ?0.008; 0.000, p?=?0.036; Identification Task (IDN): ??=??0.004, 95% CI: ?0.008; 0.000, p?=?0.027]. Breastfeeding duration (?4?months) was also significantly associated with a shorter reaction time, but only for males (DET: ??=??0.026, 95% CI: ?0.046; ?0.006, p?=?0.010). Conclusion: Nutrition in early childhood may have a long-term association with fundamental cognitive processing speed, which is likely to be related to enhanced brain development in the first year of life. PMID:26082928

  7. Nutritional status and cognitive performance of mother-child pairs in Sidama, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bogale, Alemtsehay; Stoecker, Barbara J; Kennedy, Tay; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Thomas, David; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hambidge, K Michael

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional status and cognitive performance of women and their 5-year-old children using a cross-sectional design. Cognitive performance of mothers and children was assessed with Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) and Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children-II (KABC-II). Demographic characteristics, food consumption patterns and anthropometry were also measured. Four rural districts in Sidama, southern Ethiopia served as the setting for this study. Subjects were one hundred women and their 5-year-old children. Mean?±?standard deviation age of the mothers was 29?±?6 years and family size was 7.0?±?2.6. Maternal body mass index (BMI) ranged from 15.3 to 29.0 with 14% of the mothers having BMI?cognitive test scores. There were significant differences in mean cognitive test scores between stunted and non-stunted, and between underweight and normal-weight children. Height-for-age z-scores were correlated with scores for short-term memory (r?=?0.42, P?cognitive performance of the subjects. Performance on memory and visual processing tasks was significantly lower in children with growth deficits suggesting that efficient and cost effective methods to alleviate malnutrition and food insecurity would impact not only child health but also cognitive function. PMID:21806779

  8. Performance Enhancement with Low Stress and Anxiety Modulated by Cognitive Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyung Woo; Kee, Baik Seok; Na, Churl; Na, Do-Hyun E.; Zaichkowsky, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to compare cognitive flexibility abilities, stress, and anxiety between starters and non-starter athletes. Methods A total of 30 male professional-soccer and 40 professional-baseball athletes were recruited. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Trail Making Test A & B (TMT A & B) were administered to assess cognitive flexibility during competition. The Korean version of the STAI form Y (STAI-KY) and Visual analogue scale for anxiety and stress were used to assess the anxiety and stress. Results The starter group had better cognitive function (fewer perseverative errors and rapid TMTB times) (Z=3.32, p<0.01; Z=2.20, p=0.03, respectively) and lower stress and anxiety (F=4.34, p=0.01; F=6.61, p<0.01, respectively) during competition than the non-starter group. Conclusion The better cognitive performances were negatively correlated with stress and anxiety. Current results suggested that cognitive flexibility would enhance human performance by modulation of the anxiety and stress during competition. PMID:21994509

  9. The effect of cognitive status and visuospatial performance on affective theory of mind in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    McKinlay, Audrey; Albicini, Michelle; Kavanagh, Phillip S

    2013-01-01

    It is now well accepted that theory of mind (ToM) functioning is impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, what remain unknown are the functions that underlie this impairment. It has been suggested that cognitive skills may be key in this area of functioning; however, many of the cognitive tests used to assess this have relied on intact visuospatial abilities. This study aimed to examine whether deficits in ToM were generated by cognitive or visuospatial dysfunction and the mediating effect of visuospatial function on ToM performance. Fifty PD patients (31 male, 19 female; mean age = 66.34 years) and 49 healthy controls (16 male, 33 female; mean age = 67.29 years) completed a ToM task (reading the mind in the eyes) and visuospatial task (line orientation). The results revealed that current cognitive status was a significant predictor for performance on the ToM task, and that 54% of the total effect of cognitive status on ToM was mediated by visuospatial abilities. It was concluded that visuospatial functioning plays an important mediating role for the relationship between executive dysfunction and affective ToM deficits in PD patients, and that visuospatial deficits may directly contribute to the presence of affective ToM difficulties seen in individuals with PD. PMID:24019747

  10. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-23

    This sourcebook is designed to provide steam system users with a reference that describes the basic steam system components, outlines opportunities for energy and performance improvements, and discusses the benefits of a systems approach in identifying and implementing these improvement opportunities. The sourcebook is divided into three main sections: steam system basics, performance improvement opportunities, and where to find help.

  11. Effects of Cognitive Appraisal and Mental Workload Factors on Performance in an Arithmetic Task.

    PubMed

    Galy, Edith; Mélan, Claudine

    2015-12-01

    We showed in a previous study an additive interaction between intrinsic and extraneous cognitive loads and of participants' alertness in an 1-back working memory task. The interaction between intrinsic and extraneous cognitive loads was only observed when participants' alertness was low (i.e. in the morning). As alertness is known to reflect an individual's general functional state, we suggested that the working memory capacity available for germane cognitive load depends on a participant's functional state, in addition to intrinsic and extraneous loads induced by the task and task conditions. The relationships between the different load types and their assessment by specific load measures gave rise to a modified cognitive load model. The aim of the present study was to complete the model by determining to what extent and at what processing level an individual's characteristics intervene in order to implement efficient strategies in a working memory task. Therefore, the study explored participants' cognitive appraisal of the situation in addition to the load factors considered previously-task difficulty, time pressure and alertness. Each participant performed a mental arithmetic task in four different cognitive load conditions (crossover of two task difficulty conditions and of two time pressure conditions), both while their alertness was low (9 a.m.) and high (4 p.m.). Results confirmed an additive effect of task difficulty and time pressure, previously reported in the 1-back memory task, thereby lending further support to the modified cognitive load model. Further, in the high intrinsic and extraneous load condition, performance was reduced on the morning session (i.e. when alertness was low) on one hand, and in those participants' having a threat appraisal of the situation on the other hand. When these factors were included into the analysis, a performance drop occurred in the morning irrespective of cognitive appraisal, and with threat appraisal in the afternoon (i.e. high alertness). Taken together, these findings indicate that mental overload can be the result of a combination of subject-related characteristics, including alertness and cognitive appraisal, in addition to well-documented task-related components (intrinsic and extraneous load). As the factors investigated in the study are known to be critically involved in a number of real job-activities, the findings suggest that solutions designed to reduce incidents and accidents at work should consider the situation from a global perspective, including individual characteristics, task parameters, and work organization, rather than dealing with each factor separately. PMID:26205469

  12. Can Visual Arts Training Improve Physician Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joel T.; Khoshbin, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Clinical educators use medical humanities as a means to improve patient care by training more self-aware, thoughtful, and collaborative physicians. We present three examples of integrating fine arts — a subset of medical humanities — into the preclinical and clinical training as models that can be adapted to other medical environments to address a wide variety of perceived deficiencies. This novel teaching method has promise to improve physician skills, but requires further validation. PMID:25125749

  13. Cognitive performance and BMI in childhood: Shared genetic influences between reaction time but not response inhibition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this work is to understand whether shared genetic influences can explain the associationbetween obesity and cognitive performance, including slower and more variable reaction times(RTs) and worse response inhibition. RT on a four-choice RT task and the go/no-go task, and commission errors...

  14. MPH enhances cognitive performance in adults with poor baseline capacities regardless of ADHD diagnosis

    E-print Network

    Yechiam, Eldad

    (performance-based) profile. Keywords: MPH, ADHD, attention, working memory, decision making a Max Wertheimer. Corresponding Author: Eldad Yechiam, Max Wertheimer Minerva Center for Cognitive Studies, Faculty of Industrial-8294420, Fax: (972) 4-8295688, Email: yeldad@tx.technion.ac.il. This work was supported in part by the Max

  15. Arithmetic Performance of Children with Cerebral Palsy: The Influence of Cognitive and Motor Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rooijen, Maaike; Verhoeven, Ludo; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Becher, Jules G.; Steenbergen, Bert

    2012-01-01

    Children diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP) often show difficulties in arithmetic compared to their typically developing peers. The present study explores whether cognitive and motor variables are related to arithmetic performance of a large group of primary school children with CP. More specifically, the relative influence of non-verbal…

  16. Caffeine's Effect on Appraisal and Mental Arithmetic Performance: A Cognitive Modeling Approach Tells Us More

    E-print Network

    Ritter, Frank

    Caffeine's Effect on Appraisal and Mental Arithmetic Performance: A Cognitive Modeling Approach Abstract A human subject experiment was conducted to investigate caffeine's effect on appraisal treatment groups: placebo, 200 mg caffeine, and 400 mg caffeine. Data were analyzed by average across

  17. The Effect of Art Therapy on Cognitive Performance among Ethnically Diverse Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Amanda Alders

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of art therapy on the cognitive performance of a multisite, ethnically diverse sample ("N" = 91) of older adults. Participants were recruited from several U.S. facilities that included a community center, a retirement center, an adult daycare, an assisted living facility, and a skilled nursing facility.…

  18. Cognitive Performance, School Behavior, and Achievement of Children from One-Parent Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetherington, E. Mavis; And Others

    This report reviews the research literature on the effects of divorce and one-parent childrearing on academic achievement and intellectual functioning in children. Life changes following the decision to separate are described along with scholastic achievement measured by IQ and aptitude tests and patterns of cognitive performance. Factors…

  19. Effects of age on the disruption of cognitive performance by exposure to space radiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure to low doses of heavy particles and protons can cause deficits in cognitive performance when measured within a short time (1-4 months) following irradiation. The long-term effects of such exposures and their relationship to the short-term effects remain to be established. The present exp...

  20. Lack of reliability in the disruption of cognitive performance following exposure to protons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of three replications were run to determine the reliability with which exposure to protons produces a disruption of cognitive performance, using a novel object recognition task and operant responding on an ascending fixed-ratio task. For the first two replications, rats were exposed to hea...

  1. Children's Sleep and Cognitive Performance: A Cross-Domain Analysis of Change over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bub, Kristen L.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Relations between changes in children's cognitive performance and changes in sleep problems were examined over a 3-year period, and family socioeconomic status, child race/ethnicity, and gender were assessed as moderators of these associations. Participants were 250 second- and third-grade (8-9 years old at Time 1) boys and girls. At each…

  2. Identification of cognitive factors related to remote work performance using closed circuit TV displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, M. M.; Garin, J.

    1981-01-01

    Operator perceptual cognitive styles as predictors of remote task performance were identified. Remote tasks which require the use of servo controlled master/slave manipulators and closed circuit television for teleoperator repair and maintenance of nuclear fuel recycling systems are examined. A useful procedure for identifying such perceptual styles is described.

  3. A Synthesis of Mathematical and Cognitive Performances of Students with Mathematics Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Mikyung; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize the findings from 23 articles that compared the mathematical and cognitive performances of students with mathematics learning disabilities (LD) to (a) students with LD in mathematics and reading, (b) age- or grade-matched students with no LD, and (c) mathematical-ability-matched younger students with no…

  4. How Students Build Their Performance Expectancies: The Importance of Need for Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickhauser, Oliver; Reinhard, Marc-Andre

    2010-01-01

    Individual differences in need for cognition (NFC) have been found to correspond with differences in information processing. Individuals with lower NFC process information using a peripheral route compared to individuals higher in NFC. These differences may effect the formation of performance expectancies. Based on previous work demonstrating that…

  5. Mexican-American Mothers' Estimations of Their Preschool Children's Cognitive Performance. Final Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Richard R.; Cruz, Josue, Jr.

    A study investigated 261 Mexican American mothers' estimations of their preschool children's cognitive performance. Existing literature on parental estimations was reviewed. The McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA) were administered to 107 boys and 154 girls, ranging from 32 to 75 months of age. The children's mothers were then asked how…

  6. Context-Sensitive Adjustment of Cognitive Control in Dual-Task Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Rico; Gottschalk, Caroline; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2014-01-01

    Performing 2 highly similar tasks at the same time requires an adaptive regulation of cognitive control to shield prioritized primary task processing from between-task (cross-talk) interference caused by secondary task processing. In the present study, the authors investigated how implicitly and explicitly delivered information promotes the…

  7. Profiles of Cognitive Developmental Performance in Gifted Children: Effect of Bilingualism, Monolingualism, and Socioeconomic Status Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Virginia

    2006-01-01

    This quasiexperimental research studies the effect of socioeconomic status (SES), language learning, and culture on gifted Hispanic children's performance in an alternative developmental scale (Qualitative Use of English and Spanish Tasks) of cognitive ability for generating developmental profiles. Results show the effect of SES and language…

  8. Changes in cognitive performance during a 216 kilometer, extreme endurance footrace: a descriptive and prospective study.

    PubMed

    Doppelmayr, Michael M; Finkernagel, Holger; Doppelmayr, Hildegard I

    2005-04-01

    Two subjects participated in a 216 km ultramarathon with outside temperatures above 50 degrees C while several physiological and psychological parameters (cognitive performance assessed by a mental calculation task and an attentional task, subjective bodily experience, and lactate level) were evaluated throughout the race. Severe stress from dehydration, sleep deprivation, and total physical exhaustion are combined in a unique manner, allowing evaluation of their effects in a range far outside that obtainable in a laboratory setting. During the race the subjects answered a questionnaire about their actual bodily experiences, underwent 8 medical examinations, and performed two cognitive tests approximately every 35 kilometers. Analysis showed cognitive performance did not decrease steadily in a simple and gradual way but reached a peak in the morning of Day 2 after a short sleeping period and then decreased. In the early morning of Day 3, in general cognitive performance exhibited the worst results but increased differentially between the subjects again in the last test 1 km before the finish line. PMID:15974358

  9. Exploring a Cognitive Approach to Make Sense of Student Responses to Mathematics Performance Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ming-Sung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore a cognitive approach to analyzing students' written responses to mathematics performance assessments to inform learning, instruction, and assessment design and development. The existing data used in this study were seventh grade students' written responses to, and item scores on, four released mathematics…

  10. Relation of Home Chaos to Cognitive Performance and Behavioral Adjustment of Pakistani Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamama-tus-Sabah, Syeda; Gilani, Nighat; Wachs, Theodore D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent findings from Western developed countries have linked home chaos to children's cognitive performance and behavioral problems. In the present paper we test whether the same pattern of associations can be replicated in a non-Western developing country. Our sample was 203 Pakistani primary school children. To assess home chaos the Confusion,…

  11. The Effects of Cognitive Flexibility and Openness to Change on College Students' Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Ya-Wei

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the relationship between cognitive flexibility and openness to change and their effects on academic performance among college students at National Taiwan University in Taipei, Taiwan. Using a quantitative purposeful sampling strategy, data were collected in classroom settings from 770 undergraduate voluntary…

  12. Sleep Deprivation and Sustained Attention Performance: Integrating Mathematical and Cognitive Modeling

    E-print Network

    Pennsylvania, University of

    Sleep Deprivation and Sustained Attention Performance: Integrating Mathematical and Cognitive and concomitant behavioral impacts of sleep deprivation, sleep restriction, and circadian rhythms. Little research attention task across 88 h of total sleep deprivation. The integrated model captures changes due to time

  13. The Effect of Art Therapy on Cognitive Performance of Hispanic/Latino Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alders, Amanda; Levine-Madori, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a pilot study investigating the efficacy of art therapy to enhance cognitive performance in a sample of 24 elderly Hispanic/Latino members of a community center who participated in a weekly structured thematic therapeutic arts program. A 12-week, quasi-experimental, pretest/posttest, nonrandomized, controlled…

  14. PFIESTERIA PISCICIDA-INDUCED COGNITIVE EFFECTS: VISUAL SIGNAL DETECTION PERFORMANCE AND REVERSAL.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans exposed to Pfiesteria piscicida report cognitive impairment. In a rat model, we showed that exposure to Pfiesteria impaired learning a new task, but not performance of previously-learned behavior. In this study, we characterized the behavioral effects of Pfiesteria in rats...

  15. Performance of a computer-based assessment of cognitive function measures in two cohorts of seniors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Computer-administered assessment of cognitive function is being increasingly incorporated in clinical trials, however its performance in these settings has not been systematically evaluated. The Seniors Health and Activity Research Program (SHARP) pilot trial (N=73) developed a computer-based tool f...

  16. HOMOCYSTEINE & COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN THE FRAMINGHAM OFFSPRING STUDY: AGE IS IMPORTANT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations are associated with deficits in cognitive performance in persons free from dementia. The extent to which age modifies these associations is in need of further investigation in large, community-based, prospective studies combining the following elements...

  17. Standardized Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina Extract Enhances Cognitive Performance in Normal Naive Mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Se Jin; Ahn, Young Je; Lee, Hyung Eun; Hong, Eunyoung; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2015-11-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is closely associated with neuronal plasticity, cognitive function and the etiology of neurological diseases. We previously reported that the standardized ethanolic extract of Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina (EEPV) can be used for the prevention and treatment of cognitive impairments associated with Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of EEPV on cognitive ability in normal naive mice and the underlying mechanism(s) governing these effects, including adult hippocampal neurogenesis. In the passive avoidance task, sub-chronic administration of EEPV (25 or 50?mg/kg, p.o.) for 14?days markedly induced the improvement of cognitive function in mice. In addition, sub-chronic administration of EEPV (25 or 50?mg/kg) for 14?days significantly increased neural cell proliferation and the number of immature neurons, but not newly generated cell survival, in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Increased ERK, Akt and GSK-3? phosphorylation levels in the hippocampus were also observed after such administration. Our results indicate that EEPV may enhance cognitive function via the activation of various intracellular signaling molecules and the up-regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26376910

  18. A Periodic Diet that Mimics Fasting Promotes Multi-System Regeneration, Enhanced Cognitive Performance, and Healthspan.

    PubMed

    Brandhorst, Sebastian; Choi, In Young; Wei, Min; Cheng, Chia Wei; Sedrakyan, Sargis; Navarrete, Gerardo; Dubeau, Louis; Yap, Li Peng; Park, Ryan; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Di Biase, Stefano; Mirzaei, Hamed; Mirisola, Mario G; Childress, Patra; Ji, Lingyun; Groshen, Susan; Penna, Fabio; Odetti, Patrizio; Perin, Laura; Conti, Peter S; Ikeno, Yuji; Kennedy, Brian K; Cohen, Pinchas; Morgan, Todd E; Dorff, Tanya B; Longo, Valter D

    2015-07-01

    Prolonged fasting (PF) promotes stress resistance, but its effects on longevity are poorly understood. We show that alternating PF and nutrient-rich medium extended yeast lifespan independently of established pro-longevity genes. In mice, 4 days of a diet that mimics fasting (FMD), developed to minimize the burden of PF, decreased the size of multiple organs/systems, an effect followed upon re-feeding by an elevated number of progenitor and stem cells and regeneration. Bi-monthly FMD cycles started at middle age extended longevity, lowered visceral fat, reduced cancer incidence and skin lesions, rejuvenated the immune system, and retarded bone mineral density loss. In old mice, FMD cycles promoted hippocampal neurogenesis, lowered IGF-1 levels and PKA activity, elevated NeuroD1, and improved cognitive performance. In a pilot clinical trial, three FMD cycles decreased risk factors/biomarkers for aging, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer without major adverse effects, providing support for the use of FMDs to promote healthspan. PMID:26094889

  19. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor serum levels correlate with cognitive performance in Parkinson’s disease patients with mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Alberto; Peppe, Antonella; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Zabberoni, Silvia; Scalici, Francesco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Angelucci, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a trophic factor regulating cell survival and synaptic plasticity. Recent findings indicate that BDNF could be a potential regulatory factor for cognitive functioning in normal and/or neuropathological conditions. With regard to neurological disorders, recent data suggest that individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) may be affected by cognitive deficits and that they have altered BDNF production. Therefore, the hypothesis can be advanced that BDNF levels are associated with the cognitive state of these patients. With this in mind, the present study was aimed at exploring the relationship between BDNF serum levels and cognitive functioning in PD patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Thirteen PD patients with MCI were included in the study. They were administered an extensive neuropsychological test battery that investigated executive, episodic memory, attention, visual-spatial and language domains. A single score was obtained for each cognitive domain by averaging z-scores on tests belonging to that specific domain. BDNF serum levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Pearson’s correlation analyses were performed between BDNF serum levels and cognitive performance. Results showed a significant positive correlation between BDNF serum levels and both attention (p < 0.05) and executive (p < 0.05) domains. Moreover, in the executive domain we found a significant correlation between BDNF levels and scores on tests assessing working memory and self-monitoring/inhibition. These preliminary data suggest that BDNF serum levels are associated with cognitive state in PD patients with MCI. Given the role of BDNF in regulating synaptic plasticity, the present findings give further support to the hypothesis that this trophic factor may be a potential biomarker for evaluating cognitive changes in PD and other neurological syndromes associated with cognitive decline. PMID:26441580

  20. Nobiletin treatment improves motor and cognitive deficits seen in MPTP-induced Parkinson model mice.

    PubMed

    Yabuki, Y; Ohizumi, Y; Yokosuka, A; Mimaki, Y; Fukunaga, K

    2014-02-14

    Nobiletin, a polymethoxylated flavonoid found in citrus fruit peel, reportedly improves memory impairment in rodent models. Here we report its effect on 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced motor and cognitive deficits. Nobiletin administration (50mg/kg i.p.) for 2 consecutive weeks improved motor deficits seen in MPTP-induced Parkinson model mice by 2weeks, an effect that continued until 2weeks after drug withdrawal. Drug treatment promoted similar rescue of MPTP-induced cognitive impairment at equivalent time points. Nonetheless, nobiletin treatment did not block loss of dopaminergic neurons seen in the MPTP-treated mouse midbrain, nor did it rescue decreased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein levels seen in the striatum or hippocampal CA1 region of these mice. Interestingly, nobiletin administration (50mg/kg i.p.) rescued reduced levels of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) autophosphorylation and phosphorylation at Thr-34 of dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein-32 (DARPP-32) in striatum and hippocampal CA1 to levels seen in sham-operated mice. Likewise, CaMKII- and cAMP kinase-dependent TH phosphorylation was significantly restored by nobiletin treatment. MPTP-induced reduction of dopamine contents in the striatum and hippocampal CA1 region was improved by nobiletin administration (50mg/kg i.p.). Acute intraperitoneal administration of nobiletin also enhanced dopamine release in striatum and hippocampal CA1, an effect partially inhibited by treatment with nifedipine (a L-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitor) or NNC 55-0396 (a T-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitor) and completely abolished by combined treatment with both. Overall, our study describes a novel nobiletin activity in brain and suggests that nobiletin rescues motor and cognitive dysfunction in MPTP-induced Parkinson model mice, in part by enhancing dopamine release. PMID:24316474

  1. The Effect of Two-Dimensional and Stereoscopic Presentation on Middle School Students' Performance of Spatial Cognition Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Aaron; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether and how student performance on three types of spatial cognition tasks differs when worked with two-dimensional or stereoscopic representations. We recruited nineteen middle school students visiting a planetarium in a large Midwestern American city and analyzed their performance on a series of spatial cognition tasks in…

  2. Enhancing dentate gyrus function with dietary flavanols improves cognition in older adults.

    PubMed

    Brickman, Adam M; Khan, Usman A; Provenzano, Frank A; Yeung, Lok-Kin; Suzuki, Wendy; Schroeter, Hagen; Wall, Melanie; Sloan, Richard P; Small, Scott A

    2014-12-01

    The dentate gyrus (DG) is a region in the hippocampal formation whose function declines in association with human aging and is therefore considered to be a possible source of age-related memory decline. Causal evidence is needed, however, to show that DG-associated memory decline in otherwise healthy elders can be improved by interventions that enhance DG function. We addressed this issue by first using a high-resolution variant of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map the precise site of age-related DG dysfunction and to develop a cognitive task whose function localized to this anatomical site. Then, in a controlled randomized trial, we applied these tools to study healthy 50-69-year-old subjects who consumed either a high or low cocoa flavanol-containing diet for 3 months. A high-flavanol intervention was found to enhance DG function, as measured by fMRI and by cognitive testing. Our findings establish that DG dysfunction is a driver of age-related cognitive decline and suggest non-pharmacological means for its amelioration. PMID:25344629

  3. BMI, a Performance Parameter for Speed Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Sedeaud, Adrien; Marc, Andy; Marck, Adrien; Dor, Frédéric; Schipman, Julien; Dorsey, Maya; Haida, Amal; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between anthropometric characteristics and performance in all track and field running events and assess Body Mass Index (BMI) as a relevant performance indicator. Data of mass, height, BMI and speed were collected for the top 100 international men athletes in track events from 100 m to marathon for the 1996–2011 seasons, and analyzed by decile of performance. Speed is significantly associated with mass (r?=?0.71) and BMI (r?=?0.71) in world-class runners and moderately with height (r?=?0.39). Athletes, on average were continuously lighter and smaller with distance increments. In track and field, speed continuously increases with BMI. In each event, performances are organized through physique gradients. «Lighter and smaller is better» in endurance events but «heavier and taller is better» for sprints. When performance increases, BMI variability progressively tightens, but it is always centered around a distance-specific optimum. Running speed is organized through biometric gradients, which both drives and are driven by performance optimization. The highest performance level is associated with narrower biometric intervals. Through BMI indicators, diversity is possible for sprints whereas for long distance events, there is a more restrictive aspect in terms of physique. BMI is a relevant indicator, which allows for a clear differentiation of athletes' capacities between each discipline and level of performance in the fields of human possibilities. PMID:24587266

  4. Anonymous IBE from Quadratic Residuosity with Improved Performance

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Anonymous IBE from Quadratic Residuosity with Improved Performance Michael Clear , Hitesh Tewari Based Encryption, Anonymous IBE, Cocks Scheme, Quadratic Residuosity Abstract. Identity Based Encryption. Cocks constructed the first such scheme, and subsequent improvements have been made to achieve anonymity

  5. Is cognitive ability a liability? A critique and future research agenda on skilled performance.

    PubMed

    Beier, Margaret E; Oswald, Frederick L

    2012-12-01

    Over a century of psychological research provides strong and consistent support for the idea that cognitive ability correlates positively with success in tasks that people face in employment, education, and everyday life. Recent experimental research, however, has converged on a different and provocative conclusion, namely that lower-ability people can actually be more effective performers within special environments characterized by features such as time pressure, social evaluation, and unpredictable task change. If this conclusion is true, it has extensive implications for practices such as personnel selection, training design, and teaching methods. The current article reexamines and reinterprets this research within the context of well-established resource theories of cognitive processing and skill acquisition leading to a less provocative conclusion that serves to reiterate the benefits of cognitive ability for task performance. Following this reexamination, we conclude by providing a research agenda for examining the determinants of skilled performance in dynamic task environments, including the following: (a) broadening the range of abilities and task difficulties examined, (b) considering the role of nonability traits and goals in skilled performance (e.g., personality, learning, and performance goals), (c) investigating the processes (e.g., problem solving strategies) that people use in complex environments, (d) developing research designs and analytic strategies for examining adaptive performance, and (e) investigating how best to train for adaptive performance. PMID:23294281

  6. Cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive performance before and after confinement in a nuclear submarine.

    PubMed

    Bennett, B L; Schlichting, C L; Bondi, K R

    1985-11-01

    The aim of this study was to further document physiological deconditioning from occupational exposure to submarines as described in a small number of reports and determine whether cognitive performance parallels the physiological changes associated with physical training and deconditioning. We examined cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive performance in 14 male subjects during 70 d of confinement in a nuclear submarine. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and anaerobic threshold (AT) were assessed before and after confinement. Six exercising subjects (ES) cycled 4-7 times per week for 20 min at 75% max heart rate for 8 weeks. Eight control subjects (CS) did no exercise. Every 14 d of the patrol, cognitive performance was evaluated in both groups by administering a mental arithmetic and choice reaction time tests before cycling, during cycling, and post cycling. The cycle bout consisted of exercising at 75% VO2max for 15 min. After confinement, VO2max remained constant for ES but declined 7% statistically nonsignificant for the CS. AT expressed as a percentage of VO2max increased 15% (p less than 0.05) in the ES and decreased 20% (p less than 0.05) in the CS. The only significant effect in the cognitive tests was that both groups responded faster in the choice reaction time test during the exercise session. In conclusion, these data demonstrate a training effect for AT in the ES and a deconditioning response for AT and a statistically nonsignificant reduction in VO2max in the CS. Under the conditions of this experiment we could find no effects of physical training and deconditioning on the cognitive performance test employed here, although some trends suggest that exercisers out-performed the control group. PMID:4074262

  7. Personality Traits, Facets and Cognitive Performance: Age Differences in Their Relations

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Eileen K.; Lachman, Margie E.

    2014-01-01

    Personality traits and cognitive performance are related, but little work has examined how these associations vary by personality facet or age. 154 adults aged 22 to 84 completed the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT) and the NEO Five Factor Personality Inventory. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed negative emotional aspects of personality (neuroticism, depression) were associated with lower reasoning, and social aspects of personality (assertiveness) were associated with faster reaction time, yet lower reasoning. The association between neuroticism and performance was found primarily among younger adults. In older adulthood, better performance was associated with positive emotional aspects of personality. We discuss how personality may have different associations with performance across age and the implications for possible interventions. PMID:24821992

  8. Relationship between adiposity and cognitive performance in 9-10 year old children in south India

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R; Hegde, Bhavya G; Ramachandraiah, Somashekara; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Fall, Caroline HD; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies in high-income countries have shown inverse associations between adiposity and cognitive performance in children. We aimed to examine the relationship between adiposity and cognitive function in Indian children. Methods At a mean age of 9.7 years, height, weight, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses and waist circumference were recorded for 540 children born in Mysore, India. Body fat percentage was estimated using bio-impedance. Cognitive function was assessed using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children-II edition and additional tests measuring learning, short-term memory, reasoning, verbal and visuo-spatial abilities, attention and concentration. Data on the parents’ socio-economic status, education, occupation and income were collected. Results According to WHO definitions, 3.5% of the children were overweight/obese (BMI>+1SD) and 27% underweight (BMIcognitive test scores increased with increase in BMI and skinfold thickness, (unadjusted ?=0.10 to 0.20 SD; p<0.05 for all). The effects, though attenuated, remained mainly significant after adjustment for age, sex and socio-economic factors. Similar associations were found for waist circumference and percentage body fat. Conclusions In this Indian population, in which obesity was uncommon, greater adiposity predicted higher cognitive ability. These associations were only partly explained by socio-economic factors. Our findings suggest that better nutrition is associated with better cognitive function, and that inverse associations between adiposity and cognitive function in high-income countries reflect confounding by socio-economic factors. PMID:24146284

  9. Characterization of cognitive and motor performance during dual-tasking in healthy older adults and patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Wild, Lucia Bartmann; de Lima, Daiane Borba; Balardin, Joana Bisol; Rizzi, Luana; Giacobbo, Bruno Lima; Oliveira, Henrique Bianchi; de Lima Argimon, Irani Iracema; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre; Rieder, Carlos R M; Bromberg, Elke

    2013-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dual-tasking on cognitive performance and gait parameters in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) without dementia. The impact of cognitive task complexity on cognition and walking was also examined. Eighteen patients with PD (ages 53-88, 10 women; Hoehn and Yahr stage I-II) and 18 older adults (ages 61-84; 10 women) completed two neuropsychological measures of executive function/attention (the Stroop Test and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). Cognitive performance and gait parameters related to functional mobility of stride were measured under single (cognitive task only) and dual-task (cognitive task during walking) conditions with different levels of difficulty and different types of stimuli. In addition, dual-task cognitive costs were calculated. Although cognitive performance showed no significant difference between controls and PD patients during single or dual-tasking conditions, only the patients had a decrease in cognitive performance during walking. Gait parameters of patients differed significantly from controls at single and dual-task conditions, indicating that patients gave priority to gait while cognitive performance suffered. Dual-task cognitive costs of patients increased with task complexity, reaching significantly higher values then controls in the arithmetic task, which was correlated with scores on executive function/attention (Stroop Color-Word Page). Baseline motor functioning and task executive/attentional load affect the performance of cognitive tasks of PD patients while walking. These findings provide insight into the functional strategies used by PD patients in the initial phases of the disease to manage dual-task interference. PMID:23052601

  10. Cognitive test performance among nondemented elderly African Americans and whites.

    PubMed

    Manly, J J; Jacobs, D M; Sano, M; Bell, K; Merchant, C A; Small, S A; Stern, Y

    1998-05-01

    We examined the neuropsychological test performance of a randomly selected community sample of English-speaking non-Hispanic African American and white elders in northern Manhattan. All participants were diagnosed as nondemented by a neurologist, whose assessment was made independent of neuropsychological test scores. African American elders obtained significantly lower scores on measures of verbal and nonverbal learning and memory, abstract reasoning, language, and visuospatial skill than whites. After using a stratified random sampling technique to match groups on years of education, many of the discrepancies became nonsignificant; however, significant ethnic group differences on measures of figure memory, verbal abstraction, category fluency, and visuospatial skill remained. Discrepancies in test performance of education-matched African Americans and whites could not be accounted for by occupational attainment or history of medical conditions such as hypertension and diabetes. These findings emphasize the importance of using culturally appropriate norms when evaluating ethnically diverse elderly for dementia. PMID:9595969

  11. Overstimulation of newborn mice leads to behavioral differences and deficits in cognitive performance

    PubMed Central

    Christakis, D. A.; Ramirez, J. S. B.; Ramirez, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Observational studies in humans have found associations between overstimulation in infancy via excessive television viewing and subsequent deficits in cognition and attention. We developed and tested a mouse model of overstimulation whereby p10 mice were subjected to audio (70?db) and visual stimulation (flashing lights) for six hours per day for a total of 42 days. 10 days later cognition and behavior were tested using the following tests: Light Dark Latency, Elevated Plus Maze, Novel Object Recognition, and Barnes Maze. In all tests, overstimulated mice performed significantly worse compared to controls suggesting increased activity and risk taking, diminished short term memory, and decreased cognitive function. These findings suggest that excessive non-normative stimulation during critical periods of brain development can have demonstrable untoward effects on subsequent neurocognitive function. PMID:22855702

  12. Neural Correlates of Fast Pupil Dilation in Nonhuman Primates: Relation to Behavioral Performance and Cognitive Workload

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, R.E.; Opris, Ioan; Deadwyler, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    Pupil dilation in humans has been previously shown to correlate with cognitive workload, whereby increased frequency of dilation is associated with increased degree of difficulty of a task. It has been suggested that frontal oculomotor brain areas control cognitively-related pupil dilations, but this has not been confirmed due to lack of animal models of cognitive workload and task-related pupil dilation. This is the first report of a wavelet analysis applied to continuous measures of pupil size used to detect the onset of abrupt pupil dilations and the frequency of those dilations in nonhuman primates (NHPs) performing a trial-unique delayed match to sample (DMS) task. An additional unique finding shows that electrophysiological recordings in the same animals revealed correlated firing of neurons in frontal cortex with different components of pupil dilation during task performance. It is further demonstrated that the frequency of fast pupil dilations (but not rate of eye movements) correlated with cognitive workload during task performance. Such correlations suggest that frontal neuron encoding of pupil dilation provides critical feedback to other brain areas involved in the processing of complex visual information. PMID:20226215

  13. Audience entrainment during live contemporary dance performance: physiological and cognitive measures

    PubMed Central

    Bachrach, Asaf; Fontbonne, Yann; Joufflineau, Coline; Ulloa, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Perceiving and synchronizing to a piece of dance is a remarkable skill in humans. Research in this area is very recent and has been focused mainly on entrainment produced by regular rhythms. Here, we investigated entrainment effects on spectators perceiving a non-rhythmic and extremely slow performance issued from contemporary dance. More specifically, we studied the relationship between subjective experience and entrainment produced by perceiving this type of performance. We defined two types of entrainment. Physiological entrainment corresponded to cardiovascular and respiratory coordinated activities. Cognitive entrainment was evaluated through cognitive tasks that quantified time distortion. These effects were thought to reflect attunement of a participant’ internal temporal clock to the particularly slow pace of the danced movement. Each participant’ subjective experience—in the form of responses to questionnaires—were collected and correlated with cognitive and physiological entrainment. We observe: (a) a positive relationship between psychological entrainment and attention to breathing (their own one or that of dancers); and (b) a positive relationship between cognitive entrainment (reflected as an under-estimation of time following the performance) and attention to their own breathing, and attention to the muscles’ dancers. Overall, our results suggest a close relationship between attention to breathing and entrainment. This proof-of-concept pilot study was intended to prove the feasibility of a quantitative situated paradigm. This research is inscribed in a large-scale interdisciplinary project of dance spectating (labodanse.org). PMID:25999831

  14. Child feeding practices, food habits, anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance among preschoolers in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Norimah, Abdul Karim; Hazizi, Abu Saad; Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Loh, Siow Hon; Suraya, Ibrahim

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between child feeding practices, food habits, and anthropometric indicators with cognitive performance of preschoolers aged 4-6 years in Peninsular Malaysia (n=1933). Parents were interviewed on socio-demographic background, nutrition knowledge, child feeding practices and food habits. Height and weight of the preschoolers were measured; BMI-for-age, weight-for-age and height-for-age were determined. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices. The mean monthly household income was RM3610 and 59.6% of parents attained secondary education. Thirty-three percent of parents had good knowledge on nutrition, 39% satisfactory and 28% poor. For child feeding practices, perceived responsibility had the highest mean score (M=3.99, SD=0.72), while perceived child weight had the lowest (M=2.94, SD=0.38). The prevalence of possible risk of overweight, being overweight, and obesity were 3.9%, 7.9% and 8.1%, respectively, whereas the prevalence of underweight and stunting were 8.0% and 8.4%, respectively. Breakfast was the second most frequently skipped meal (16.8%) after dinner (18.1%). The mean cognitive score was 103.5 (SD=14.4). Height-for-age and consumption of dinner were found to contribute significantly towards cognitive performance after controlling for socio-demographic background and parent's nutrition knowledge. PMID:22265752

  15. Expectancy of Stress-Reducing Aromatherapy Effect and Performance on a Stress-Sensitive Cognitive Task

    PubMed Central

    Chamine, Irina; Oken, Barry S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Stress-reducing therapies help maintain cognitive performance during stress. Aromatherapy is popular for stress reduction, but its effectiveness and mechanism are unclear. This study examined stress-reducing effects of aromatherapy on cognitive function using the go/no-go (GNG) task performance and event related potentials (ERP) components sensitive to stress. The study also assessed the importance of expectancy in aromatherapy actions. Methods. 81 adults were randomized to 3 aroma groups (active experimental, detectable, and undetectable placebo) and 2 prime subgroups (prime suggesting stress-reducing aroma effects or no-prime). GNG performance, ERPs, subjective expected aroma effects, and stress ratings were assessed at baseline and poststress. Results. No specific aroma effects on stress or cognition were observed. However, regardless of experienced aroma, people receiving a prime displayed faster poststress median reaction times than those receiving no prime. A significant interaction for N200 amplitude indicated divergent ERP patterns between baseline and poststress for go and no-go stimuli depending on the prime subgroup. Furthermore, trends for beneficial prime effects were shown on poststress no-go N200/P300 latencies and N200 amplitude. Conclusion. While there were no aroma-specific effects on stress or cognition, these results highlight the role of expectancy for poststress response inhibition and attention. PMID:25802539

  16. Traditional Labs + New Questions = Improved Student Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezba, Richard J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents three typical lab activities involving the breathing rate of fish, the behavior of electromagnets, and tests for water hardness to demonstrate how labs can be modified to teach process skills. Discusses how basic concepts about experimentation are developed and ways of generating and improving science experiments. Includes a laboratory…

  17. Improving Children's Working Memory and Classroom Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St Clair-Thompson, Helen; Stevens, Ruth; Hunt, Alexandra; Bolder, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated close relationships between working memory and children's scholastic attainment. The aim of the present study was to explore a method of improving working memory, using memory strategy training. Two hundred and fifty-four children aged five to eight years were tested on measures of the phonological loop,…

  18. Improve Compressed Air System Performance with AIRMaster+

    SciTech Connect

    2005-05-01

    AIRMaster+ provides a systematic apporach for assessing the supply-side performance of compressed air systems. Using plant-specific data, the software effectively evaluates supply-side operational costs for various equipment configurations and system pro

  19. Performance Contracting for Public Sector Improvement Projects 

    E-print Network

    Mallory, A. D.

    2013-01-01

    Efficiency | Solutions A.Denise Malloy Solutions Account Executive December 18, 2013 Alternative Financing for Energy Efficiency Performance Contracting ESL-KT-13-12-41 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec...

  20. Improving performance of TCP over wireless networks 

    E-print Network

    Mehta, Miten N.

    1998-01-01

    TCP has been designed and tuned to perform well on a phics. wired network made up of links with low bit-error rates. Wireless networks and heterogeneous networks consisting of wired and wireless links have many different characteristics compared...

  1. Using analytics to improve delivery performance

    E-print Network

    Napolillo, Tacy J. (Tacy Jean)

    2014-01-01

    Delivery Precision is a key performance indicator that measures Nike's ability to deliver product to the customer in full and on time. The objective of the six-month internship was to quantify areas in the supply chain ...

  2. Functional Connectivity in Multiple Cortical Networks Is Associated with Performance Across Cognitive Domains in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Emily E.; Schultz, Aaron P.; Sperling, Reisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Intrinsic functional connectivity MRI has become a widely used tool for measuring integrity in large-scale cortical networks. This study examined multiple cortical networks using Template-Based Rotation (TBR), a method that applies a priori network and nuisance component templates defined from an independent dataset to test datasets of interest. A priori templates were applied to a test dataset of 276 older adults (ages 65–90) from the Harvard Aging Brain Study to examine the relationship between multiple large-scale cortical networks and cognition. Factor scores derived from neuropsychological tests represented processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Resting-state BOLD data were acquired in two 6-min acquisitions on a 3-Tesla scanner and processed with TBR to extract individual-level metrics of network connectivity in multiple cortical networks. All results controlled for data quality metrics, including motion. Connectivity in multiple large-scale cortical networks was positively related to all cognitive domains, with a composite measure of general connectivity positively associated with general cognitive performance. Controlling for the correlations between networks, the frontoparietal control network (FPCN) and executive function demonstrated the only significant association, suggesting specificity in this relationship. Further analyses found that the FPCN mediated the relationships of the other networks with cognition, suggesting that this network may play a central role in understanding individual variation in cognition during aging. PMID:25827242

  3. Improving Processor Design by Exploiting Performance Variance 

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhe

    2014-07-28

    .17 Results running on eight-core one-rank system with NRU LLC . . . . . . 64 4.18 Performance evaluated for various configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 4.19 False positive rate and fraction of correctly predicted last-write blocks for last...-write predictor with one-rank and NRU LLC configuration . . . . . . 67 4.20 Bus utilization results running on eight-core one-rank system with NRU LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 4.21 Performance evaluated...

  4. Improved Cognitive Function After Transcranial, Light-Emitting Diode Treatments in Chronic, Traumatic Brain Injury: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Saltmarche, Anita; Krengel, Maxine H.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Knight, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Two chronic, traumatic brain injury (TBI) cases, where cognition improved following treatment with red and near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs), applied transcranially to forehead and scalp areas, are presented. Background: Significant benefits have been reported following application of transcranial, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) to humans with acute stroke and mice with acute TBI. These are the first case reports documenting improved cognitive function in chronic, TBI patients treated with transcranial LED. Methods: Treatments were applied bilaterally and to midline sagittal areas using LED cluster heads [2.1? diameter, 61 diodes (9?×?633?nm, 52?×?870?nm); 12–15?mW per diode; total power: 500?mW; 22.2?mW/cm2; 13.3?J/cm2 at scalp (estimated 0.4?J/cm2 to cortex)]. Results: Seven years after closed-head TBI from a motor vehicle accident, Patient 1 began transcranial LED treatments. Pre-LED, her ability for sustained attention (computer work) lasted 20 min. After eight weekly LED treatments, her sustained attention time increased to 3 h. The patient performs nightly home treatments (5 years); if she stops treating for more than 2 weeks, she regresses. Patient 2 had a history of closed-head trauma (sports/military, and recent fall), and magnetic resonance imaging showed frontoparietal atrophy. Pre-LED, she was on medical disability for 5 months. After 4 months of nightly LED treatments at home, medical disability discontinued; she returned to working full-time as an executive consultant with an international technology consulting firm. Neuropsychological testing after 9 months of transcranial LED indicated significant improvement (+1, +2SD) in executive function (inhibition, inhibition accuracy) and memory, as well as reduction in post-traumatic stress disorder. If she stops treating for more than 1 week, she regresses. At the time of this report, both patients are continuing treatment. Conclusions: Transcranial LED may improve cognition, reduce costs in TBI treatment, and be applied at home. Controlled studies are warranted. PMID:21182447

  5. A Comparison of Cognitive and Everyday Functional Performance among Older Adults With and Without Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hudak, Elizabeth M.; Edwards, Jerri D.; Athilingam, Ponrathi; McEvoy, Cathy L.

    2013-01-01

    Secondary data analyses examined the differences in cognitive and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) performance among hypertensive individuals taking one of four classes of antihypertensive medications, hypertensive individuals not taking any antihypertensive medications, and normotensive individuals (N=770). After adjusting for covariates, significant group differences were evident on all measures (speed of processing, motor speed, reaction time, ps < .05) except memory and Timed IADL (ps > .05). Follow-up a priori planned comparisons compared hypertensive individuals not on medications to each of the four antihypertensive medication groups. Results indicated that only those on beta blockers (BB) were significantly slower in speed of processing (ps < .05). A priori planned comparisons also revealed that normotensive individuals had better cognitive performance on measures of processing speed, motor speed, and reaction time than hypertensive individuals regardless of antihypertensive medication use. Additionally, normotensive individuals performed significantly better on memory (Digit and Spatial Span) than individuals with hypertension on medications. No differences were found between groups on memory (Hopkins Verbal Learning Test) or Timed IADL performance. With regard to antihypertensive medications, the use of BBs was associated with slowed processing speed. These analyses provide empirical evidence that hypertension primarily impacts speed of processing, but not severe enough to affect IADL performance. Given the contribution of processing speed to memory and executive function performance, this is an important finding. Clinicians need to take into consideration the potential negative impact that BBs may have on cognition when determining the best treatment of hypertension among older adult patients. PMID:25346567

  6. Rolipram-induced improvement of cognitive function correlates with changes in hippocampal CREB phosphorylation, BDNF and Arc protein levels.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yuan; Zhu, Yitong; He, Ting; Li, Wei; Yan, Hong; Miao, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Diabetics suffer from a higher risk of cognitive decline. cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is a transcription factor associated with memory and synaptic plasticity. Here, we investigated the molecular changes in the hippocampus correlated with diabetes associated cognitive decline (DACD) from a CREB-centered perspective in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, we tested the therapeutic effect of rolipram on DACD. High-fat diet and low-dose streptozocin were adopted to induce diabetes in SD rats. Results show that supplementation with rolipram for 23 days (0.5mg/kg, once a day) improved the performance of diabetic rats in Morris water navigation task with increased level of CREB, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and Arc protein in the hippocampus. Rolipram, acting as an inhibitor of PDE4, was found to repair the imbalance in the CREB/BDNF/Arc pathway. This study may provide important insights into the mechanisms underlying DACD and provide new therapeutic targets for clinical treatment. PMID:26552011

  7. Perinatal choline supplementation improves cognitive functioning and emotion regulation in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Moon, J.; Chen, M.; Gandhy, S.U.; Strawderman, M.; Levitsky, D.A.; Maclean, K.N.; Strupp, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    In addition to mental retardation, individuals with Down syndrome (DS) also develop the neuropathological changes typical of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and the majority of these individuals become demented. The Ts65Dn mouse model of DS exhibits key features of these disorders, including early degeneration of cholinergic basal forebrain (CBF) neurons and impairments in functions dependent on the two CBF projection systems; namely, attention and explicit memory. Herein, we demonstrate that supplementing the maternal diet with excess choline during pregnancy and lactation dramatically improved attentional function of the adult trisomic offspring. Specifically, the adult offspring of choline-supplemented Ts65Dn dams performed significantly better than unsupplemented Ts65Dn mice on a series of five visual attention tasks, and in fact, on some tasks did not differ from the normosomic (2N) controls. A second area of dysfunction in the trisomic animals, heightened reactivity to committing an error, was partially normalized by the early choline supplementation. The 2N littermates also benefited from increased maternal choline intake on one attention task. These findings collectively suggest that perinatal choline supplementation might significantly lessen cognitive dysfunction in DS and reduce cognitive decline in related neurodegenerative disorders such as AD. PMID:20528079

  8. HIPO in-flight performance improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunham, E. W.; Bida, T. A.; Collins, P. L.; Mandushev, Georgi; Zoonematkermani, S.; Van Cleve, J.; Angerhausen, D.; Mandell, Avi

    2014-07-01

    The High-speed Imaging Photometer for Occultations (HIPO) is a special purpose science instrument for SOFIA. HIPO can be co-mounted with FLITECAM in the so-called FLIPO configuration for stellar occultation or extrasolar planet transit observations. We gained some flight experience with HIPO and FLITECAM in 2011 as described in a previous publication (Dunham, et al., Proc SPIE, 8446-42, 2012). Since that time a number of improvements to HIPO have been made and a deeper understanding of the airborne environment's impact on photometric precision at optical wavelengths has been obtained. The improvements to HIPO include an improved beamsplitter for the FLIPO configuration, adding deep depletion CCDs as a detector option, expanding the filter set to include a Sloan Digital Sky Survey filter set as well as two custom filters for transit work, and an ability to guide the SOFIA telescope using HIPO data being acquired for science purposes. We now understand that variations in PSF size due to varying static air density has a noticeable impact on photometric stability while the related effect of Mach number is unimportant. The seriousness of ozone absorption in the Chappuis band is now understood and an approach to avoid this has been found. Finally we present demonstration transit data to illustrate our current transit photometry capability.

  9. Effects of caffeine and maltodextrin mouth rinsing on P300, brain imaging, and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    De Pauw, K; Roelands, B; Knaepen, K; Polfliet, M; Stiens, J; Meeusen, R

    2015-03-15

    Caffeine (CAF) and maltodextrin (MALT) mouth rinses (MR) improve exercise performance. The current experiment aims to determine the effect of CAF and MALT MR on cognitive performance and brain activity. Ten healthy male subjects (age 27 ± 3 yr) completed three experimental trials. Each trial included four Stroop tasks: two familiarization tasks, and one task before and one task after an MR period. The reaction time (in milliseconds) and accuracy (percent) of simple, congruent, and incongruent stimuli were assessed. Electroencephalography was applied throughout the experiment to record brain activity. The amplitudes and latencies of the P300 were determined during the Stroop tasks before and after the MR period. Subjects received MR with CAF (0.3 g/25 ml), MALT (1.6 g/25 ml), or placebo (PLAC) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design. During MR, the brain imaging technique standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography was applied. Magnitude-based inferences showed that CAF MR is likely trivial (63.5%) and likely beneficial (36.4%) compared with PLAC MR, and compared with MALT MR likely beneficial to reaction time on incongruent stimuli (61.6%). Additionally, both the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were activated only during CAF MR, potentially explaining the likely beneficial effect on reaction times. MALT MR increased brain activity only within the orbitofrontal cortex. However, this brain activation did not alter the reaction time. Furthermore, no significant differences in the accuracy of stimuli responses were observed between conditions. In conclusion, only CAF MR exerted a likely beneficial effect on reaction time due to the subsequent activation of both the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortexes. PMID:25614603

  10. Improve strategic supplier performance using DMAIC to develop a Quality Improvement Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardim, Kevin P.

    Supplier performance that meets the requirements of the customer has long plagued quality professionals. Despite the vast efforts by organizations to improve supplier performance, little has been done to standardize the plan to improve performance. This project presents a guideline and problem-solving strategy using a Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control (DMAIC) structured tool that will assist in the management and improvement of supplier performance. An analysis of benchmarked Quality Improvement Plans indicated that this topic needs more focus on how to accomplish improved supplier performance. This project is part of a growing body of supplier continuous improvement efforts. With the input of Zodiac Aerospace quality professionals this project's results provide a solution to Quality Improvement Plans and show objective evidence of its benefits. This project contributes to the future research on similar topics.

  11. Research into the interaction between high performance and cognitive skills in an intelligent tutoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Pamela K.

    1991-01-01

    Two intelligent tutoring systems were developed. These tutoring systems are being used to study the effectiveness of intelligent tutoring systems in training high performance tasks and the interrelationship of high performance and cognitive tasks. The two tutoring systems, referred to as the Console Operations Tutors, were built using the same basic approach to the design of an intelligent tutoring system. This design approach allowed researchers to more rapidly implement the cognitively based tutor, the OMS Leak Detect Tutor, by using the foundation of code generated in the development of the high performance based tutor, the Manual Select Keyboard (MSK). It is believed that the approach can be further generalized to develop a generic intelligent tutoring system implementation tool.

  12. Does Musical Training Improve School Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetter, Olive Emil; Koerner, Fritz; Schwaninger, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    In a retrospective study, we compared school performance of 53 children practicing music (group 1) with 67 controls not practicing music (group 2). Overall average marks as well as average marks of all school subjects except sports were significantly higher in children who do (group 1) than in those who do not practice music (group 2). In a…

  13. Does Negotiation Training Improve Negotiators' Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ElShenawy, Eman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper's objective is to test the main effect of negotiation training-level on acquiring negotiation skills. Training level refers to the time a trainee spends in a negotiation training course receiving the standard style and methods of training. Negotiation skills are manifested through trainees' performance after receiving training.…

  14. Improving Oral Performance through Interactions Flashcards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquijo, Jasson

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an action research project that addressed the issue of low oral performance in English among third grade learners at a public girls' school in Bogota, Colombia. The issue was identified via content analysis of ten field logs compiled over the third and fourth quarter of the second semester, 2010. To address the problem of…

  15. An empirical investigation of operator performance in cognitively demanding simulated emergencies

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, E.M.; Mumaw, R.J.; Lewis, P.M.

    1994-07-01

    This report documents the results of an empirical study of nuclear power plant operator performance in cognitively demanding simulated emergencies. During emergencies operators follow highly prescriptive written procedures. The objectives of the study were to understand and document what role higher-level cognitive activities such as diagnosis, or more generally `situation assessment`, play in guiding operator performance, given that operators utilize procedures in responding to the events. The study examined crew performance in variants of two emergencies: (1) an Interfacing System Loss of Coolant Accident and (2) a Loss of Heat Sink scenario. Data on operator performance were collected using training simulators at two plant sites. Up to 11 crews from each plant participated in each of two simulated emergencies for a total of 38 cases. Crew performance was videotaped and partial transcripts were produced and analyzed. The results revealed a number of instances where higher-level cognitive activities such as situation assessment and response planning enabled crews to handle aspects of the situation that were not fully addressed by the procedures. This report documents these cases and discusses their implications for the development and evaluation of training and control room aids, as well as for human reliability analyses.

  16. COGNITIVE TASK PERFORMANCE AND SYMPTOMS CONTRIBUTE TO PERSONALITY ABNORMALITIES IN FIRST HOSPITALIZED SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Gurrera, Ronald J.; McCarley, Robert W.; Salisbury, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Chronic schizophrenia patients have personality abnormalities and cognitive deficits that are associated with poor clinical, social, and vocational outcomes. Very few studies have examined relationships between personality and cognitive function, and chronic illness effects may have confounded those studies. In this study personality traits in clinically stable first episode schizophrenia patients (21M, 9F) and psychiatrically healthy controls (38M, 24F) were measured with the NEO-FFI, a self-report measure of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. All subjects completed the Information, Digit Span, Vocabulary, and Digit Symbol subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale; and Trails A and B. Standard statistical techniques were used to quantify relationships between personality and symptom levels and/or task performance, and relative contributions of diagnosis and task performance to personality variance. Patients showed elevated mean neuroticism and openness, and reduced mean extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness. Task performance and negative symptoms contributed significantly and uniquely to most personality dimensions in patients. Task performance accounted for significant amounts of personality variance even after accounting for diagnosis, and it also contributed to personality variance in controls. These results suggest that cognitive deficits and negative symptoms contribute to consistently observed personality abnormalities in this disorder, and that the contribution of neuropsychological performance to personality variance may be independent of diagnostic classification. Personality abnormalities in schizophrenia may stem from the neurocognitive deficits associated with this disorder, and add to their adverse effects on social and vocational functioning. PMID:24750960

  17. The Impact of Learning Driven Constructs on the Perceived Higher Order Cognitive Skills Improvement: Multimedia vs. Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagarukayo, Emily; Weide, Theo; Mbarika, Victor; Kim, Min

    2012-01-01

    The study aims at determining the impact of learning driven constructs on Perceived Higher Order Cognitive Skills (HOCS) improvement when using multimedia and text materials. Perceived HOCS improvement is the attainment of HOCS based on the students' perceptions. The research experiment undertaken using a case study was conducted on 223 students…

  18. Improving fatigue performance of rail thermite welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezzini-Aouad, M.; Flahaut, P.; Hariri, S.; Winiar, L.

    2010-06-01

    Rail transport development offers economic and ecological interests. Nevertheless, it requires heavy investments in rolling material and infrastructure. To be competitive, this transportation means must rely on safe and reliable infrastructure, which requires optimization of all implemented techniques and structure. Rail thermite (or aluminothermic) welding is widely used within the railway industry for in-track welding during re-rail and defect replacement. The process provides numerous advantages against other welding technology commonly used. Obviously, future demands on train traffic are heavier axle loads, higher train speeds and increased traffic density. Thus, a new enhanced weld should be developed to prevent accidents due to fracture of welds and to lower maintenance costs. In order to improve such assembly process, a detailed metallurgical study coupled to a thermomechanical modelling of the phenomena involved in the thermite welding process is carried out. Obtained data enables us to develop a new improved thermite weld (type A). This joint is made by modifying the routinely specified procedure (type B) used in a railway rail by a standard gap alumino-thermic weld. Joints of type A and B are tested and compared. Based on experimental temperature measurements, a finite element analysis is used to calculate the thermal residual stresses induced. In the vicinity of the weld, the residual stress patterns depend on the thermal conditions during welding as it also shown by litterature [1, 2]. In parallel, X-Ray diffraction has been used to map the residual stress field that is generated in welded rail of types A and B. Their effect on fatigue crack growth in rail welds is studied. An experimental study based on fatigue tests of rails welded by conventional and improved processes adjudicates on the new advances and results will be shown.

  19. Cognitive Complaints After Breast Cancer Treatments: Examining the Relationship With Neuropsychological Test Performance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cognitive complaints are reported frequently after breast cancer treatments. Their association with neuropsychological (NP) test performance is not well-established. Methods Early-stage, posttreatment breast cancer patients were enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal, cohort study prior to starting endocrine therapy. Evaluation included an NP test battery and self-report questionnaires assessing symptoms, including cognitive complaints. Multivariable regression models assessed associations among cognitive complaints, mood, treatment exposures, and NP test performance. Results One hundred eighty-nine breast cancer patients, aged 21–65 years, completed the evaluation; 23.3% endorsed higher memory complaints and 19.0% reported higher executive function complaints (>1 SD above the mean for healthy control sample). Regression modeling demonstrated a statistically significant association of higher memory complaints with combined chemotherapy and radiation treatments (P = .01), poorer NP verbal memory performance (P = .02), and higher depressive symptoms (P < .001), controlling for age and IQ. For executive functioning complaints, multivariable modeling controlling for age, IQ, and other confounds demonstrated statistically significant associations with better NP visual memory performance (P = .03) and higher depressive symptoms (P < .001), whereas combined chemotherapy and radiation treatment (P = .05) approached statistical significance. Conclusions About one in five post–adjuvant treatment breast cancer patients had elevated memory and/or executive function complaints that were statistically significantly associated with domain-specific NP test performances and depressive symptoms; combined chemotherapy and radiation treatment was also statistically significantly associated with memory complaints. These results and other emerging studies suggest that subjective cognitive complaints in part reflect objective NP performance, although their etiology and biology appear to be multifactorial, motivating further transdisciplinary research. PMID:23606729

  20. Fructose consumption reduces hippocampal synaptic plasticity underlying cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Cisternas, Pedro; Salazar, Paulina; Serrano, Felipe G; Montecinos-Oliva, Carla; Arredondo, Sebastián B; Varela-Nallar, Lorena; Barja, Salesa; Vio, Carlos P; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2015-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a global epidemic, which involves a spectrum of metabolic disorders comprising diabetes and obesity. The impact of MetS on the brain is becoming to be a concern, however, the poor understanding of mechanisms involved has limited the development of therapeutic strategies. We induced a MetS-like condition by exposing mice to fructose feeding for 7weeks. There was a dramatic deterioration in the capacity of the hippocampus to sustain synaptic plasticity in the forms of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). Mice exposed to fructose showed a reduction in the number of contact zones and the size of postsynaptic densities (PSDs) in the hippocampus, as well as a decrease in hippocampal neurogenesis. There was an increase in lipid peroxidation likely associated with a deficiency in plasma membrane excitability. Consistent with an overall hippocampal dysfunction, there was a subsequent decrease in hippocampal dependent learning and memory performance, i.e., spatial learning and episodic memory. Most of the pathological sequel of MetS in the brain was reversed three month after discontinue fructose feeding. These results are novel to show that MetS triggers a cascade of molecular events, which disrupt hippocampal functional plasticity, and specific aspects of learning and memory function. The overall information raises concerns about the risk imposed by excessive fructose consumption on the pathology of neurological disorders. PMID:26300486

  1. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) reduces the cost of performing a cognitive task on gait and postural control

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junhong; Hao, Ying; Wang, Ye; Jor’dan, Azizah; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing; Manor, Brad

    2014-01-01

    This proof-of-concept, double-blind study is designed to determine the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the “cost” of performing a secondary cognitive task on gait and postural control in healthy young adults. Twenty adults aged 22±2yrs completed two separate double-blind visits in which gait and postural control were assessed immediately before and after a 20-minute session of either real or sham tDCS (1.5 mA) targeting the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Gait speed and stride duration variability, along with standing postural sway speed and area, were recorded under normal conditions and while simultaneously performing a serial-subtraction cognitive task. Dual task cost was calculated as the percent change in each outcome from normal to dual task conditions. tDCS was well-tolerated by all subjects. Stimulation did not alter gait or postural control under normal conditions. As compared to sham stimulation, real tDCS led to increased gait speed (p=0.006), as well as decreased standing postural sway speed (p=0.01) and area (p=0.01), when performing serial-subtraction task. Real tDCS also diminished (p<0.01) the dual task cost on each of these outcomes. No effects of tDCS were observed for stride duration variability. A single session of tDCS targeting the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex improved the ability to adapt one’s gait and postural control to a concurrent cognitive task and reduced the cost normally associated with such dual tasking. These results highlight the involvement of cortical brain networks in gait and posture control, and implicate the modulation of prefrontal cortical excitability as a potential therapeutic intervention. PMID:24443958

  2. Effects of supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on cognitive performance and cardiometabolic risk markers in healthy 51 to 72 years old subjects: a randomized controlled cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Higher plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have been associated with a lower risk of age related cognitive decline, and to beneficially affect cardiometabolic risk factors. A relation exists between metabolic disorders such as diabetes type 2 and cognitive decline. Results regarding the potential effects of n-3 PUFA on risk factors in healthy subjects are divergent, and studies regarding the possible relation between cardiometabolic parameters and cognitive performance are scarce. The objective was to evaluate the effects of five weeks intake of long chain n-3 PUFA on cognitive performance in healthy individuals, and to exploit the possible relation between outcomes in cognitive tests to cardiometabolic risk parameters. Methods Fish oil n-3 PUFA (3g daily) were consumed during 5weeks separated by a 5 week washout period in a cross-over placebo controlled study, including 40 healthy middle aged to elderly subjects. Cognitive performance was determined by tests measuring working memory (WM) and selective attention. Results Supplementation with n-3 PUFA resulted in better performance in the WM-test compared with placebo (p < 0.05). In contrast to placebo, n-3 PUFA lowered plasma triacylglycerides (P < 0.05) and systolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001). Systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05), f-glucose (p = 0.05), and s-TNF-? (p = 0.05), were inversely related to the performance in cognitive tests. Conclusions Intake of n-3 PUFA improved cognitive performance in healthy subjects after five weeks compared with placebo. In addition, inverse relations were obtained between cardiometabolic risk factors and cognitive performance, indicating a potential of dietary prevention strategies to delay onset of metabolic disorders and associated cognitive decline. PMID:23173831

  3. Teaching Performance Improvement: An Opportunity for Continuing Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staker, Larry V.

    2003-01-01

    Practicing physicians generally are not engaged in either the methods of performance improvement for health care or the measurement and reporting of clinical outcomes. The principal reasons are lack of compensation for such work, the perception that the work of performance improvement adds no value and is a waste of time, the lack of knowledge and…

  4. LEAD: Leveraging Protocol Signatures for Improving Wireless Link Performance

    E-print Network

    Xing, Guoliang

    LEAD: Leveraging Protocol Signatures for Improving Wireless Link Performance Jun Huang, Yu Wang and inter- ference. This paper presents a new cross-layer solution called LEAD to improve the performance layer information at upper-layers, LEAD represents a paradigm shift in that it leverages upper

  5. Exploiting Wireless Broadcast Property to Improve Performance of Mutual Exclusion

    E-print Network

    Vaidya, Nitin

    Exploiting Wireless Broadcast Property to Improve Performance of Mutual Exclusion Ghazale at Urbana-Champaign Introduction · Mutual Exclusion (MUTEX) : a group of processors require to enter to improve performance. Correctness · Mutual Exclusion (safety) : At most one node is in CS at any time

  6. Improving Student Naval Aviator Aircraft Carrier Landing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Thomas H.; Foster, T. Chris

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the use of human performance technology (HPT) to improve qualification rates for learning to land onboard aircraft carriers. This project started as a request for a business case analysis and evolved into a full-fledged performance improvement project, from mission analysis through evaluation. The result was a significant…

  7. Improved Distributed Model for Capacitors in High-Performance Packages

    E-print Network

    Improved Distributed Model for Capacitors in High-Performance Packages C. R. Sullivan A. M. Kern the IEEE. #12;Improved Distributed Model for Capacitors in High-Performance Packages Charles R. Sullivan that a simple lumped RLC model for a multilayer ceramic capacitor is inade- quate, overestimating high

  8. Improved PSI Performance for Landslide Monitoring Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duro, Javier; Iglesias, Ruben; Blanco, Pablo; Sanchez, Francisco; Albiol, David

    2015-05-01

    The work proposed in this paper shows advanced Persistent Scatter Interferometry (PSI) processing based on the use of the Non-Local Interferometric SAR (NLInSAR) filtering for improving landslides monitoring applications. The rationale is to enhance the interferometric phase quality, preserving the full resolution of SAR images, in order to detect both distributed and deterministic scatterers, with the objective of increasing the density of final PSI products. Moreover, since SAR systems are only sensitive to detect displacements in the line-of-sight (LOS) direction, the importance of projecting PSI displacement products along the steepest gradient of the terrain slope is put forward. Two TerraSAR-X data sets acquired in ascending mode corresponding to the period from April to November 2011, and from August to November 2013, respectively, over the area of El Portalet (Central Spanish Pyrenees), are employed for this purpose.

  9. Cognitive Functioning and Academic Performance in Elementary School Children with Anxious/Depressed and Withdrawn Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lundy, Shannon M; Silva, Graciela E; Kaemingk, Kristine L; Goodwin, James L; Quan, Stuart F

    2010-04-14

    RATIONALE: Few studies have evaluated the relationship between depressive symptomatology and neuropsychological performance in children without symptomatic depression. OBJECTIVES: This study determined the relationship between anxious/depressed and withdrawn symptoms and performance on cognitive and academic achievement measures. METHODS: 335 Caucasian and Hispanic children aged 6 to 11 years who participated in the Tucson Children's Assessment of Sleep Apnea (TuCASA) study were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery measuring cognitive functioning and academic achievement. Their parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Correlations between performance on the cognitive and academic achievement measures and two Internalizing scales from the CBCL were calculated. Comparisons were made between a "Clinical" referral group (using a T-score of ? 60 from the CBCL scales) and a "Normal" group, as well as between Caucasians and Hispanics. RESULTS: No differences were found between those participants with increased anxious/depressed or withdrawn symptoms on the CBCL and those without increased symptoms with respect to age, gender, ethnicity, or parental education level. However, significant negative correlations were found between these symptoms and general intellectual function, language, visual construction skills, attention, processing speed, executive functioning abilities, aspects of learning and memory, psychomotor speed and coordination, and basic academic skills. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the hypothesis that depressive symptomatology negatively impacts performance on cognitive and academic achievement measures in school-aged children and these findings are not affected by ethnicity. The findings also reinforce the concept that the presence of anxious/depressed or withdrawn symptoms needs to be considered when evaluating poor neuropsychological performance in children. PMID:20664711

  10. Uncertain behaviours of integrated circuits improve computational performance

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Chihiro; Yamaoka, Masanao; Hayashi, Masato; Okuyama, Takuya; Aoki, Hidetaka; Kawarabayashi, Ken-ichi; Mizuno, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Improvements to the performance of conventional computers have mainly been achieved through semiconductor scaling; however, scaling is reaching its limitations. Natural phenomena, such as quantum superposition and stochastic resonance, have been introduced into new computing paradigms to improve performance beyond these limitations. Here, we explain that the uncertain behaviours of devices due to semiconductor scaling can improve the performance of computers. We prototyped an integrated circuit by performing a ground-state search of the Ising model. The bit errors of memory cell devices holding the current state of search occur probabilistically by inserting fluctuations into dynamic device characteristics, which will be actualised in the future to the chip. As a result, we observed more improvements in solution accuracy than that without fluctuations. Although the uncertain behaviours of devices had been intended to be eliminated in conventional devices, we demonstrate that uncertain behaviours has become the key to improving computational performance. PMID:26586362

  11. Uncertain behaviours of integrated circuits improve computational performance.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Chihiro; Yamaoka, Masanao; Hayashi, Masato; Okuyama, Takuya; Aoki, Hidetaka; Kawarabayashi, Ken-Ichi; Mizuno, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Improvements to the performance of conventional computers have mainly been achieved through semiconductor scaling; however, scaling is reaching its limitations. Natural phenomena, such as quantum superposition and stochastic resonance, have been introduced into new computing paradigms to improve performance beyond these limitations. Here, we explain that the uncertain behaviours of devices due to semiconductor scaling can improve the performance of computers. We prototyped an integrated circuit by performing a ground-state search of the Ising model. The bit errors of memory cell devices holding the current state of search occur probabilistically by inserting fluctuations into dynamic device characteristics, which will be actualised in the future to the chip. As a result, we observed more improvements in solution accuracy than that without fluctuations. Although the uncertain behaviours of devices had been intended to be eliminated in conventional devices, we demonstrate that uncertain behaviours has become the key to improving computational performance. PMID:26586362

  12. Improving Robotic Operator Performance Using Augmented Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maida, James C.; Bowen, Charles K.; Pace, John W.

    2007-01-01

    The Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) is a two-armed robot that functions as an extension to the end effector of the Space Station Robotics Manipulator System (SSRMS), currently in use on the International Space Station (ISS). Crew training for the SPDM is accomplished using a robotic hardware simulator, which performs most of SPDM functions under normal static Earth gravitational forces. Both the simulator and SPDM are controlled from a standard robotic workstation using a laptop for the user interface and three monitors for camera views. Most operations anticipated for the SPDM involve the manipulation, insertion, and removal of any of several types of Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU), modules which control various ISS functions. Alignment tolerances for insertion of the ORU into its receptacle are 0.25 inch and 0.5 degree from nominal values. The pre-insertion alignment task must be performed within these tolerances by using available video camera views of the intrinsic features of the ORU and receptacle, without special registration markings. Since optimum camera views may not be available, and dynamic orbital lighting conditions may limit periods of viewing, a successful ORU insertion operation may require an extended period of time. This study explored the feasibility of using augmented reality (AR) to assist SPDM operations. Geometric graphical symbols were overlaid on one of the workstation monitors to afford cues to assist the operator in attaining adequate pre-insertion ORU alignment. Twelve skilled subjects performed eight ORU insertion tasks using the simulator with and without the AR symbols in a repeated measures experimental design. Results indicated that using the AR symbols reduced pre-insertion alignment error for all subjects and reduced the time to complete pre-insertion alignment for most subjects.

  13. Improvement in subclinical cognitive dysfunction with thyroxine therapy in hypothyroidism: A study from tertiary care center

    PubMed Central

    Paladugu, Sridevi; Hanmayyagari, Babul Reddy; Kudugunti, Neelaveni; Reddy, Ram; Sahay, Rakesh; Ramesh, Jayanthy

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of hypothyroidism (both overt and subclinical) on cognitive function using latencies of P300 auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). P300 latency suggests that shorter latency times are related to better cognitive performance. P300 latencies were also done after thyroxine replacement to see the effect of treatment on cognitive function. Materials and Methods: Biochemically proven new onset cases with hypothyroidism (overt and subclinical) were enrolled into the study, AEPs of these two groups when compared with matched controls. After detailed history and physical examination, P300 potentials were recorded at two points Cz and Pz (Cz: On the midline of the head at the vertex, Pz: On the midline of the head between the vertex and occipital protuberance) using a Nicolet Viking Select neuro diagnostic system version 10.0. The study was done in electrophysiology lab in Osmania Medical College. Results: A patient characteristics of both cases and controls were comparable. The cases consisted of two groups, overt hypothyroid cases 24, mean thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) values in them was 94, subclinical cases 21 in whom mean TSH value was 12.3. Mean P300 latencies of all cases at Cz was 342.42 ± 29.5 ms, and at Pz was 345.4 ± 30 ms. Mean P300 latencies of controls at Cz was 296.4 ± 34 ms and at Pz was 297.9 ± 33 ms (difference in P < 0.001). Mean P300 values in overt cases were 362.6 ± 32.9 ms at Cz, and at Pz it was 362.5 ± 33.9 ms. Mean P300 values in subclinical cases were 319.3 ± 30.9 ms at Cz, and at Pz it was 316.4 ± 27.9 ms. P300 values in overt cases were highly significant as compared to controls, and P300 values in the subclinical cases versus controls were also significant (P < 0.001). Conclusion: P300 latency prolongation in both clinical and subclinical hypothyroid cases shows that cognitive function is affected adversely in hypothyroidism including the subclinical hypothyroid cases. Larger studies evaluating the effect of subclinical hypothyroidism on cognitive function are needed with objective means such as the AEPs P300.

  14. Effects of target and distractor saturations on the cognitive performance of an integrated display interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Chengqi; Li, Jing; Wang, Haiyan; Niu, Yafeng

    2015-01-01

    Color coding is often used to enhance decision quality in complex man-machine interfaces of integrated display systems. However, people are easily distracted by irrelevant colors and by the numerous data points and complex structures in the interface. Although an increasing number of studies are seriously focusing on the problem of achieving efficient color coding, few are able to determine the effects of target and distractor saturations on cognitive performance. To study the performances of target colors among distractors, a systematic experiment is conducted to assess the influence of high and low saturated targets on cognitive performance, and the affecting extent of different saturated distractors of homogeneous colors on targets. According to the analysis of the reaction time through the non-parametric statistical method, a calculation method of the cognitive performance of each color is proposed. Based on the calculation of the color differences and the accumulation of the reaction times, it is shown that with the different saturated distractors of homogeneous colors, the high saturated yellow targets perform better than the low saturated ones, and the green and blue targets have moderate performances. When searching for a singleton target placed on a black background, the color difference between the target and the distractor should be more than 20? E*ab units in the yellow saturation coding, whereas the color difference should be more than 40? E*ab units in the blue and green saturation coding. In addition, as regards saturation coding, the influence of the color difference between the target and the background on cognitive performance is greater than that of the color difference between the target and the distractor. Seemingly, the hue attribute determines whether the saturation difference between the target and the distractor affects the cognitive performance. Based on the experimental results, the simulation design of the instrument dials in a flight situation awareness interface is completed and tested. Simulation results show the feasibility of the method of choosing the target and distractor colors, and the proposed research provides the instruction for the color saturation design of the interface.

  15. Morning Sleep Inertia in Alertness and Performance: Effect of Cognitive Domain and White Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Santhi, Nayantara; Groeger, John A.; Archer, Simon N.; Gimenez, Marina; Schlangen, Luc J. M.; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2013-01-01

    The transition from sleep to wakefulness entails a temporary period of reduced alertness and impaired performance known as sleep inertia. The extent to which its severity varies with task and cognitive processes remains unclear. We examined sleep inertia in alertness, attention, working memory and cognitive throughput with the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), n-back and add tasks, respectively. The tasks were administered 2 hours before bedtime and at regular intervals for four hours, starting immediately after awakening in the morning, in eleven participants, in a four-way cross-over laboratory design. We also investigated whether exposure to Blue-Enhanced or Bright Blue-Enhanced white light would reduce sleep inertia. Alertness and all cognitive processes were impaired immediately upon awakening (p<0.01). However, alertness and sustained attention were more affected than cognitive throughput and working memory. Moreover, speed was more affected than accuracy of responses. The light conditions had no differential effect on performance except in the 3-back task (p<0.01), where response times (RT) at the end of four hours in the two Blue-Enhanced white light conditions were faster (200 ms) than at wake time. We conclude that the effect of sleep inertia varies with cognitive domain and that it’s spectral/intensity response to light is different from that of sleepiness. That is, just increasing blue-wavelength in light may not be sufficient to reduce sleep inertia. These findings have implications for critical professions like medicine, law-enforcement etc., in which, personnel routinely wake up from night-time sleep to respond to emergency situations. PMID:24260280

  16. Chewing Gum: Cognitive Performance, Mood, Well-Being, and Associated Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Andrew P.; Smith, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies) examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on well-being and performance, as well as postwork mood and cognitive performance. In Study 4, performance and well-being were reported throughout the workday and at the end of the day, and heart rate and cortisol were measured. Under experimental conditions, gum was associated with higher alertness regardless of whether performance tasks were completed and altered sustained attention. Rate of chewing and subjective force of chewing did not alter mood but had some limited effects on attention. Chewing gum during the workday was associated with higher productivity and fewer cognitive problems, raised cortisol levels in the morning, and did not affect heart rate. The results emphasise that chewing gum can attenuate reductions in alertness, suggesting that chewing gum enhances worker performance. PMID:26075253

  17. Cognitive control and language across the life span: does labeling improve reactive control?

    PubMed

    Lucenet, Joanna; Blaye, Agnès; Chevalier, Nicolas; Kray, Jutta

    2014-05-01

    How does cognitive control change with age, and what are the processes underlying these changes? This question has been extensively studied using versions of the task-switching paradigm, which allow participants to actively prepare for the upcoming task (Kray, Eber, & Karbach, 2008). Little is known, however, about age-related changes in this ability across the life span when there is no opportunity to anticipate task goals. We examined the effect of 2 kinds of verbal self-instruction-labeling either the task goal or the relevant feature of the stimulus-on 2 components of cognitive control, goal setting and switching, in children, young adults, and older adults. All participants performed single-task blocks and mixed-task blocks (involving unpredictable switching between 2 tasks) in silent and labeling conditions. Participants categorized bidimensional stimuli either by picture or by color, depending on their spatial position in a 2-cell vertical grid. Response times revealed an inverted U shape in performance with age. These age differences were more pronounced for goal setting than for switching, thus generalizing results obtained in situations taping proactive control to this new context forcing reactive control. Further, differential age-related effects of verbalization were also obtained. Verbalizations were detrimental for young adults, beneficial for older adults, and had mixed effects in children. These differences are interpreted in terms of qualitative developmental changes in reactive goal-setting strategies. PMID:24491213

  18. Different Effects of Adding White Noise on Cognitive Performance of Sub-, Normal and Super-Attentive School Children

    PubMed Central

    Helps, Suzannah K.; Bamford, Susan; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Söderlund, Göran B. W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Noise often has detrimental effects on performance. However, because of the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), auditory white noise (WN) can alter the “signal to noise” ratio and improve performance. The Moderate Brain Arousal (MBA) model postulates different levels of internal “neural noise” in individuals with different attentional capacities. This in turn determines the particular WN level most beneficial in each individual case–with one level of WN facilitating poor attenders but hindering super-attentive children. The objective of the present study is to find out if added WN affects cognitive performance differently in children that differ in attention ability. Methods Participants were teacher-rated super- (N?=?25); normal- (N?=?29) and sub-attentive (N?=?36) children (aged 8 to 10 years). Two non-executive function (EF) tasks (a verbal episodic recall task and a delayed verbal recognition task) and two EF tasks (a visuo-spatial working memory test and a Go-NoGo task) were performed under three WN levels. The non-WN condition was only used to control for potential differences in background noise in the group testing situations. Results There were different effects of WN on performance in the three groups-adding moderate WN worsened the performance of super-attentive children for both task types and improved EF performance in sub-attentive children. The normal-attentive children’s performance was unaffected by WN exposure. The shift from moderate to high levels of WN had little further effect on performance in any group. Significance The predicted differential effect of WN on performance was confirmed. However, the failure to find evidence for an inverted U function challenges current theories. Alternative explanations are discussed. We propose that WN therapy should be further investigated as a possible non-pharmacological treatment for inattention. PMID:25393410

  19. Effects of Vitamin E on Cognitive Performance during Ageing and in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    La Fata, Giorgio; Weber, Peter; Mohajeri, M. Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin E is an important antioxidant that primarily protects cells from damage associated with oxidative stress caused by free radicals. The brain is highly susceptible to oxidative stress, which increases during ageing and is considered a major contributor to neurodegeneration. High plasma vitamin E levels were repeatedly associated with better cognitive performance. Due to its antioxidant properties, the ability of vitamin E to prevent or delay cognitive decline has been tested in clinical trials in both ageing population and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. The difficulty in performing precise and uniform human studies is mostly responsible for the inconsistent outcomes reported in the literature. Therefore, the benefit of vitamin E as a treatment for neurodegenerative disorders is still under debate. In this review, we focus on those studies that mostly have contributed to clarifying the exclusive function of vitamin E in relation to brain ageing and AD. PMID:25460513

  20. The impact of cardiac perception on emotion experience and cognitive performance under mental stress.

    PubMed

    Kindermann, Nicole K; Werner, Natalie S

    2014-12-01

    Mental stress evokes several physiological responses such as the acceleration of heart rate, increase of electrodermal activity and the release of adrenaline. Moreover, physiological stress responses interact with emotional and behavioral stress responses. In the present study we provide evidence that viscero-sensory feedback from the heart (cardiac perception) is an important factor modulating emotional and cognitive stress responses. In our study, we compared participants with high versus low cardiac perception using a computerized mental stress task, in which they had to respond to rapidly presented visual and acoustic stimuli. Additionally, we assessed physiological responses (heart rate, skin conductance). Participants high in cardiac perception reported more negative emotions and showed worse task performance under the stressor than participants low in cardiac perception. These results were not moderated by physiological responses. We conclude that cardiac perception modulates stress responses by intensifying negative emotions and by impairing cognitive performance. PMID:24719221