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1

Preschoolers' Cognitive Performance Improves Following Massage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effects of massage on preschoolers' cognitive performance were assessed. Preschoolers were given Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised subtests before and after receiving 15-minute massage or spending 15 minutes reading stories with the experimenter. Children's performance on Block Design improved following massage, and…

Hart, Sybil; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Lundy, Brenda

1998-01-01

2

Beyond cognitive ability: Improving the prediction of performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

New measures of practical intelligence and personality traits were assessed for their ability to improve the prediction of performance beyond cognitive ability. Measures of practical intelligence from the newly developed Constructive Thinking Inventory and traits measuring emotional stability and expedience were used as independent variables in regression analyses predicting academic performance, training performance and leadership ratings of 86 student leaders.

Leanne E. Atwater

1992-01-01

3

Diet-Induced Ketosis Improves Cognitive Performance in Aged Rats  

PubMed Central

Aging is associated with increased susceptibility to hypoxic/ischemic insult and declines in behavioral function which may be due to attenuated adaptive/defense responses. We investigated if diet-induced ketosis would improve behavioral performance in the aged rats. Fischer 344 rats (3- and 22-month-old) were fed standard (STD) or ketogenic (KG) diet for 3 weeks and then exposed to hypobaric hypoxia. Cognitive function was measured using the T-maze and object recognition tests. Motor function was measured using the inclined-screen test. Results showed that KG diet significantly increased blood ketone levels in both young and old rats. In the aged rats, the KG diet improved cognitive performance under normoxic and hypoxic conditions; while motor performance remained unchanged. Capillary density and HIF-1? levels were elevated in the aged ketotic group independent of hypoxic challenge. These data suggest that diet-induced ketosis may be beneficial in the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:20204773

Xu, Kui; Sun, Xiaoyan; Eroku, Bernadette O.; Tsipis, Constantinos P.; Puchowicz, Michelle A.; LaManna, Joseph C.

2010-01-01

4

Social Housing Improves Dairy Calves' Performance in Two Cognitive Tests  

PubMed Central

Early social housing is known to benefit cognitive development in laboratory animals. Pre-weaned dairy calves are typically separated from their dam immediately after birth and housed alone, but no work to date has addressed the effect of individual housing on cognitive performance of these animals. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of individual versus social housing on two measures of cognitive performance: reversal learning and novel object recognition. Holstein calves were either housed individually in a standard calf pen (n?=?8) or kept in pairs using a double pen (n?=?10). Calves were tested twice daily in a Y-maze starting at 3 weeks of age. Calves were initially trained to discriminate two colours (black and white) until they reached a learning criterion of 80% correct over three consecutive sessions. Training stimuli were then reversed (i.e. the previously rewarded colour was now unrewarded, and vice-versa). Calves from the two treatments showed similar rates of learning in the initial discrimination task, but the individually housed calves showed poorer performance in the reversal task. At 7 weeks of age, calves were tested for their response to a novel object in eight tests over a two-day period. Pair-housed calves showed declining exploration with repeated testing but individually reared calves did not. The results of these experiments provide the first direct evidence that individual housing impairs cognitive performance in dairy calves. PMID:24587281

Gaillard, Charlotte; Meagher, Rebecca K.; von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.; Weary, Daniel M.

2014-01-01

5

Cognitive performance is improved while walking: Differences in cognitive–sensorimotor couplings between children and young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated how 9-year-olds and young adults performed a working memory task under different difficulty conditions while walking on a treadmill. Stride-length and stride-time variability tended to decrease with cognitive load in young adults, whereas children showed an increase in walking variability when cognitive load was very high. Participants in both age groups improved their cognitive performance when walking at

Sabine Schaefer; Martin Lövdén; Birgit Wieckhorst; Ulman Lindenberger

2010-01-01

6

Very low birth weight piglets show improved cognitive performance in the spatial cognitive holeboard task  

PubMed Central

Low birth weight (LBW) is common in humans and has been found to cause lasting cognitive and developmental deficits later in life. It is thought that the primary cause is intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to a shortage of oxygen and supply of nutrients to the fetus. Pigs appear to be a good model animal to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW, as LBW is common in commercially farmed breeds of pigs. Moreover, pigs are developmentally similar to humans and can be trained to perform complex tasks. In this study, we trained ten very low birth weight (vLBW) piglets and their ten normal birth weight (NBW) siblings in a spatial cognitive holeboard task in order to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW. In this task, four out of sixteen holes contain a hidden food reward, which allows measuring working memory (WM) (short-term memory) and reference memory (RM) (long-term memory) in parallel. Piglets were trained for 46–54 trials during the acquisition phase, followed by a 20-trial reversal phase in which a different set of four holes was baited. Both groups acquired the task and improved their performance over time. A mixed model repeated measures ANOVA revealed that vLBW piglets showed better RM performance than NBW piglets in both the acquisition and reversal phase. Additionally, WM scores in the vLBW were less disrupted than in the NBW animals when switched to the reversal phase. These findings are contrary to findings in humans. Moreover, vLBW pigs had lower hair cortisol concentrations (HCCs) than NBW pigs in flank hair at 12 weeks of age. These results could indicate that restricted intra-uterine growth causes compensatory mechanisms to arise in early development that result in beneficial effects for vLBW piglets, increasing their low survival chances in early-life competition. PMID:25774127

Antonides, Alexandra; Schoonderwoerd, Anne C.; Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef

2015-01-01

7

Cognitive remediation improves cognition and good cognitive performance increases time to relapse – results of a 5 year catamnestic study in schizophrenia patients  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive deficits are stable features of schizophrenia that are linked to functional outcome. Cognitive remediation approaches have been proven successful in ameliorating these deficits, although effect sizes vary considerably. Whether cognitive deficits are serious predictors of clinical outcome is less clear. Methods Sixty patients suffering from schizophrenia were included in our sample, thirty of them received computer-assisted cognitive training, and thirty received occupational therapy. For a subsample of 55 patients, who could be traced over a period of five years after the end of the cognitive remediation intervention, time until first relapse and time in psychosis were determined retrospectively from their medical records. Results Cognitive remediation significantly improved problem solving, memory and attention with high effect sizes. Employment status, a post test verbal memory performance measure and a measure of executive functioning outperformed all other measures in the prediction of time to relapse, while allocation to treatment group outperformed all other variables in the prediction of both cognitive measures. Conclusions Cognitive remediation of neurocognitive deficits thus makes sense in a twofold fashion: It enhances cognition directly and positively acts on clinical course indirectly via improved neurocognition. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Register: DRKS00004880 PMID:23837673

2013-01-01

8

A diet based on multiple functional concepts improves cognitive performance in healthy subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Disorders such as the metabolic syndrome (MetS), impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes, are associated with increased risk of cognitive decline. Also several of the individual key features that define the MetS, e.g. hypertension, impaired glucose regulation, dyslipidemia, obesity, and inflammation, are related to an increased risk of cognitive decline. Consequently, a diet that prevents metabolic disorders might be expected to prevent cognitive decline. The purpose of the present study was to, in overweight but otherwise healthy subjects, investigate effects on cognitive functions of a dietary regime combining multiple functional concepts potentially beneficial to risk markers associated with MetS. The purpose was in addition to evaluate cognitive performance in relation to results on cardiometabolic risk variables (BMI, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids, lipoprotein A-1 and B, hs-CRP, HbA1c, interleukin-6, TNF-?, and PAI-1). Methods Fourty-four healthy women and men (50–73 years, BMI 25–33, fasting glycemia???6.1 mmol/L) participated in a randomized, controlled crossover intervention, comparing a multifunctional diet (active diet (AD)) including foods with a potential anti-inflammatory action, with a control diet (CD) devoid of the “active” components. Both diets were composed in close agreement with the Nordic dietary recommendations. Each diet was consumed during 4 wk, separated by a 4 wk washout period. Cognitive tests were performed at fasting and in the postprandial period after a standardized breakfast, after each diet period. Results In comparison with the CD, the AD improved performance in the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning test (recognition test, p?improved performance in test of selective attention, which also included aspects of working memory (p?Performance in cognitive tests was inversely associated with plasma concentrations of cardiometabolic risk markers (fasting cholesterol, blood glucose, blood pressure) and cardiovascular risk scores (Framingham and Reynols), and positivly associated with apolipoprotein A1 (p?cognitive performance. A relationship seems to exist between cardiometabolic risk markers and cognitive performance in apparently healthy subjects. The results provide additional motives for diet based prevention of metabolic disturbances related to the MetS. PMID:23855966

2013-01-01

9

Music Lessons Improve Auditory Perceptual and Cognitive Performance in Deaf Children  

PubMed Central

Despite advanced technologies in auditory rehabilitation of profound deafness, deaf children often exhibit delayed cognitive and linguistic development and auditory training remains a crucial element of their education. In the present cross-sectional study, we assess whether music would be a relevant tool for deaf children rehabilitation. In normal-hearing children, music lessons have been shown to improve cognitive and linguistic-related abilities, such as phonetic discrimination and reading. We compared auditory perception, auditory cognition, and phonetic discrimination between 14 profoundly deaf children who completed weekly music lessons for a period of 1.5–4?years and 14 deaf children who did not receive musical instruction. Children were assessed on perceptual and cognitive auditory tasks using environmental sounds: discrimination, identification, auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory. Transfer to the linguistic domain was tested with a phonetic discrimination task. Musically trained children showed better performance in auditory scene analysis, auditory working memory and phonetic discrimination tasks, and multiple regressions showed that success on these tasks was at least partly driven by music lessons. We propose that musical education contributes to development of general processes such as auditory attention and perception, which, in turn, facilitate auditory-related cognitive and linguistic processes. PMID:25071518

Rochette, Françoise; Moussard, Aline; Bigand, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

10

Cognitive Strategy Instruction that Really Improves Children's Academic Performance. Cognitive Strategy Training Series. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume is the flagship volume in a series on cognitive strategy instruction. While strategies instruction is particularly appropriate for the learning disabled, it is also very useful for normal learners, especially inner city and minority children. The series focuses on conveying strategies instruction methods for use with these children.…

Pressley, Michael, Ed.; Woloshyn, Vera, Ed.

11

The combination of L-theanine and caffeine improves cognitive performance and increases subjective alertness.  

PubMed

The non-proteinic amino acid L-theanine and caffeine, a methylxanthine derivative, are naturally occurring ingredients in tea. The present study investigated the effect of a combination of 97 mg L-theanine and 40 mg caffeine as compared to placebo treatment on cognitive performance, alertness, blood pressure, and heart rate in a sample of young adults (n = 44). Cognitive performance, self-reported mood, blood pressure, and heart rate were measured before L-theanine and caffeine administration (i.e. at baseline) and 20 min and 70 min thereafter. The combination of moderate levels of L-theanine and caffeine significantly improved accuracy during task switching and self-reported alertness (both P < 0.01) and reduced self-reported tiredness (P < 0.05). There were no significant effects on other cognitive tasks, such as visual search, choice reaction times, or mental rotation. The present results suggest that 97 mg of L-theanine in combination with 40 mg of caffeine helps to focus attention during a demanding cognitive task. PMID:21040626

Giesbrecht, T; Rycroft, J A; Rowson, M J; De Bruin, E A

2010-12-01

12

"Brain training" improves cognitive performance and survival in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

Environmental enrichment (EE) has been shown to improve neurological function and cognitive performance in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD). We have shown recently that even when they are already living in an enriched environment, additional EE had beneficial effects in R6/2 mice. Here we examined the effects of three different enrichment paradigms on cognitive dysfunction in R6/2 mice in a longitudinal study. The EE consisted of either enforced physical exercise on the Rotarod (predominantly motor stimulation), training in a novel type of maze, the 'noughts and crosses' (OX) maze (mainly cognitive stimulation), or access to a playground, that gave the mice the opportunity for increased, self-motivated activity using running wheels and other toys in a social context (mixed EE). We designed the OX maze to test spatial memory in the R6/2 mouse while minimizing motor demands. Control mice remained in their home cages during the training period. Mice were given enrichment between 6 and 8 weeks of age, followed by cognitive (Lashley maze) and motor testing (Rotarod) between 8 and 10 weeks. Mice were then given a further period of enrichment between 10 and 12 weeks, and their behavior was re-tested between 12 and 14 weeks of age. We also collected body weights and age at death from all mice. The OX maze was as sensitive for detecting learning deficits in the R6/2 mice as other types of mazes (such as the Morris water maze). Interestingly, providing cognitive stimulation via training in the OX maze produced significant improvements in subsequent cognitive performance by male, but not female, R6/2 mice in the Lashley maze task. OX maze training also significantly improved loss of body weight and survival in male R6/2 mice. These effects became apparent after as little as 2 weeks of training in the OX maze. These data suggest that there is a cognitive reserve that may be exploited in neurodegenerative disease. While brain training was not beneficial for all mice, it produced no deleterious effects, and so warrants further study in rodent models of HD. PMID:21324361

Wood, Nigel I; Glynn, Dervila; Morton, A Jennifer

2011-06-01

13

Cognitive Performance and Cognitive Style.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates (1) the relationships between cognitive performance and cognitive styles and predictive possibilities and (2) performance differences by sex, school, grade, and income in 92 Indian adolescents. Assessment measures included Liquid Conservation, Islands, Goat-Lion, Hanoi-Tower, Rabbits (Piagetian); Block Design (WISC-R); Paper Cutting…

International Journal of Behavioral Development, 1985

1985-01-01

14

Cerebrolysin improves cognitive performance in rats after mild traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

OBJECT Long-term memory deficits occur after mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs), and effective treatment modalities are currently unavailable. Cerebrolysin, a peptide preparation mimicking the action of neurotrophic factors, has beneficial effects on neurodegenerative diseases and brain injuries. The present study investigated the long-term effects of Cerebrolysin treatment on cognitive function in rats after mTBI. METHODS Rats subjected to closed-head mTBI were treated with saline (n = 11) or Cerebrolysin (2.5 ml/kg, n = 11) starting 24 hours after injury and then daily for 28 days. Sham animals underwent surgery without injury (n = 8). To evaluate cognitive function, the modified Morris water maze (MWM) test and a social odor-based novelty recognition task were performed after mTBI. All rats were killed on Day 90 after mTBI, and brain sections were immunostained for histological analyses of amyloid precursor protein (APP), astrogliosis, neuroblasts, and neurogenesis. RESULTS Mild TBI caused long-lasting cognitive memory deficits in the MWM and social odor recognition tests up to 90 days after injury. Compared with saline treatment, Cerebrolysin treatment significantly improved both long-term spatial learning and memory in the MWM test and nonspatial recognition memory in the social odor recognition task up to 90 days after mTBI (p < 0.05). Cerebrolysin significantly increased the number of neuroblasts and promoted neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, and it reduced APP levels and astrogliosis in the corpus callosum, cortex, dentate gyrus, CA1, and CA3 regions (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS These results indicate that Cerebrolysin treatment of mTBI improves long-term cognitive function, and this improvement may be partially related to decreased brain APP accumulation and astrogliosis as well as increased neuroblasts and neurogenesis. PMID:25614944

Zhang, Yanlu; Chopp, Michael; Meng, Yuling; Zhang, Zheng Gang; Doppler, Edith; Winter, Stefan; Schallert, Timothy; Mahmood, Asim; Xiong, Ye

2015-04-01

15

Computer-aided cognitive rehabilitation improves cognitive performances and induces brain functional connectivity changes in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis patients: an exploratory study.  

PubMed

To better understand the effects of short-term computer-based cognitive rehabilitation (cCR) on cognitive performances and default mode network (DMN) intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) in cognitively impaired relapsing remitting (RR) multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Eighteen cognitively impaired RRMS patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation by the Rao's brief repeatable battery and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate FC of the DMN before and after a short-term (8 weeks, twice a week) cCR. A control group of 14 cognitively impaired RRMS patients was assigned to an aspecific cognitive training (aCT), and underwent the same study protocol. Correlations between DMN and cognitive performances were also tested. After cCR, there was a significant improvement of the following tests: SDMT (p < 0.01), PASAT 3" (p < 0.00), PASAT 2" (p < 0.03), SRT-D (p < 0.02), and 10/36 SPART-D (p < 0.04); as well as a significant increase of the FC of the DMN in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and bilateral inferior parietal cortex (IPC). After cCR, a significant negative correlation between Stroop Color-Word Interference Test and FC in the PCC emerged. After aCT, the control group did not show any significant effect either on FC or neuropsychological tests. No significant differences were found in brain volumes and lesion load in both groups when comparing data acquired at baseline and after cCR or aCT. In cognitively impaired RRMS patients, cCR improves cognitive performances (i.e., processing speed and visual and verbal sustained memory), and increases FC in the PCC and IPC of the DMN. This exploratory study suggests that cCR may induce adaptive cortical reorganization favoring better cognitive performances, thus strengthening the value of cognitive exercise in the general perspective of building either cognitive or brain reserve. PMID:25308631

Bonavita, S; Sacco, R; Della Corte, M; Esposito, S; Sparaco, M; d'Ambrosio, A; Docimo, R; Bisecco, A; Lavorgna, L; Corbo, D; Cirillo, S; Gallo, A; Esposito, F; Tedeschi, G

2015-01-01

16

Single doses of Panax ginseng (G115) reduce blood glucose levels and improve cognitive performance during sustained mental activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single doses of the traditional herbal treatment Panax ginseng have recently been shown to elicit cognitive improvements in healthy young volunteers. The mechanisms by which ginseng improves cognitive performance are not known. However, they may be related to the glycaemic properties of some Panax species. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover design, 30 healthy young adults completed a 10min test

Jonathon L. Reay; David O. Kennedy; Andrew B. Scholey

2005-01-01

17

Some strategies to improve performance in school chemistry, based on two cognitive factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The background to this study are the difficulties facing the majority of Greek pupils in understanding chemistry concepts and, therefore, performing well in the National Examinations. The aim was to explore the problems and to suggest ways in which the situation might be improved. Working with 105 Greek pupils aged 15 to 16, the first stage of the enquiry confirmed that both working memory space and extent of field dependency were two psychological factors affecting performance. This is at least part of the nature of the problem. In the second stage, an attempt was made to explore how the problems might be reduced. New teaching materials were constructed to minimize any limitations to learning caused by working memory space and problems associated with being field dependent. The use of the new materials was compared to the normal teaching process working with 210 Greek pupils aged 15 to16. It was found that there was a significant difference in the average improvement of the experimental group and the control group, in favour of the experimental group. This result was independent of the effect of the teacher, and of the interaction of teaching method and teacher. It is suggested that approaches to learning must take into account cognitive factors in the learners in the context of information processing understandings of learning. If this is done, learning is much more effective.

Danili, Eleni; Reid, Norman

2004-02-01

18

?-alanine supplementation improves tactical performance but not cognitive function in combat soldiers  

PubMed Central

Background There are no known studies that have examined ?-alanine supplementation in military personnel. Considering the physiological and potential neurological effects that have been reported during sustained military operations, it appears that ?-alanine supplementation may have a potential benefit in maintaining physical and cognitive performance during high-intensity military activity under stressful conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 28 days of ?-alanine ingestion in military personnel while fatigued on physical and cognitive performance. Methods Twenty soldiers (20.1?±?0.9 years) from an elite combat unit were randomly assigned to either a ?-alanine (BA) or placebo (PL) group. Soldiers were involved in advanced military training, including combat skill development, navigational training, self-defense/hand-to-hand combat and conditioning. All participants performed a 4-km run, 5-countermovement jumps using a linear position transducer, 120-m sprint, a 10-shot shooting protocol with assault rifle, including overcoming a misfire, and a 2-min serial subtraction test to assess cognitive function before (Pre) and after (Post) 28 days of supplementation. Results The training routine resulted in significant increases in 4-km run time for both groups, but no between group differences were seen (p?=?0.597). Peak jump power at Post was greater for BA than PL (p?=?0.034), while mean jump power for BA at Post was 10.2% greater (p?=?0.139) than PL. BA had a significantly greater (p?=?0.012) number of shots on target at Post (8.2?±?1.0) than PL (6.5?±?2.1), and their target engagement speed at Post was also significantly faster (p?=?0.039). No difference in serial subtraction performance was seen between the groups (p?=?0.844). Conclusion Results of this study indicate that 4-weeks of ?-alanine ingestion in young, healthy soldiers did not impact cognitive performance, but did enhance power performance, marksmanship and target engagement speed from pre-ingestion levels. PMID:24716994

2014-01-01

19

Memory Decline in Peri- and Post-menopausal Women: The Potential of Mind–Body Medicine to Improve Cognitive Performance  

PubMed Central

Cognitive decline is a frequent complaint during the menopause transition and among post-menopausal women. Changes in memory correspond with diminished estrogen production. Further, many peri- and post-menopausal women report sleep concerns, depression, and hot flashes, and these factors may contribute to cognitive decline. Hormone therapy can increase estrogen but is contraindicated for many women. Mind–body medicine has been shown to have beneficial effects on sleep, mood, and hot flashes, among post-menopausal women. Further, mind–body medicine holds potential in addressing symptoms of cognitive decline post-menopause. This study proposes an initial framework for how mind–body interventions may improve cognitive performance and inform future research seeking to identify the common and specific factors associated with mind–body medicine for addressing memory decline in peri- and post-menopausal women. It is our hope that this article will eventually lead to a more holistic and integrative approach to the treatment of cognitive deficits in peri- and post-menopausal women. PMID:25125972

Sliwinski, Jim R; Johnson, Aimee K; Elkins, Gary R

2014-01-01

20

Improved cognitive performance and mental fatigue following a multi-vitamin and mineral supplement with added guaraná (Paullinia cupana).  

PubMed

Guaraná (Paullinia cupana) extracts are most commonly used in Western markets as putatively psychoactive food and drink additives. This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, parallel groups study assessed the acute effects of either a vitamin/mineral/guaraná supplement or placebo drink in 129 healthy young adults (18-24 years). Participants completed a 10min version of the Cognitive Demand Battery (comprising: Serial 3s and Serial 7s subtraction tasks, a Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVIP) task, 'mental fatigue' scale). Thirty minutes following their drink participants made six consecutive completions of the battery (i.e. 60 min). The vitamin/mineral/guaraná combination resulted in improved task performance, in comparison to placebo, in terms of both increased speed and accuracy of performing the RVIP task throughout the post-dose assessment. The increase in mental fatigue associated with extended task performance was also attenuated by the supplement. This research supports previous findings demonstrating guaraná's cognition enhancing properties and provides evidence that its addition to a multi-vitamin-mineral supplement can improve cognitive performance and reduce the mental fatigue associated with sustained mental effort. PMID:18077056

Kennedy, D O; Haskell, C F; Robertson, B; Reay, J; Brewster-Maund, C; Luedemann, J; Maggini, S; Ruf, M; Zangara, A; Scholey, A B

2008-01-01

21

Effectiveness of interventions to improve occupational performance of people with cognitive impairments after stroke: an evidence-based review.  

PubMed

This evidence-based review was conducted to determine which interventions are effective in improving occupational performance after stroke. Forty-six articles met the inclusion criteria and were examined. Interventions for the following impairments were reviewed: general cognitive deficits, executive dysfunction, apraxia, memory loss, attention deficits, visual field deficits (included because of their close relationship with neglect), and unilateral neglect. Evidence is available from a variety of clinical trials to guide interventions regarding general cognition, apraxia, and neglect. The evidence regarding interventions for executive dysfunction and memory loss is limited. There is insufficient evidence regarding impairments of attention and mixed evidence regarding interventions for visual field deficits. The effective interventions have some commonalities, including being performance focused, involving strategy training, and using a compensatory as opposed to a remediation approach. The implications of the findings for practice, research, and education are discussed. PMID:25553743

Gillen, Glen; Nilsen, Dawn M; Attridge, Jessica; Banakos, Erasmia; Morgan, Marie; Winterbottom, Lauren; York, Wesley

2015-01-01

22

Initial Cognitive Performance Predicts Longitudinal Aviator Performance  

PubMed Central

Objectives. The goal of the study was to improve prediction of longitudinal flight simulator performance by studying cognitive factors that may moderate the influence of chronological age. Method. We examined age-related change in aviation performance in aircraft pilots in relation to baseline cognitive ability measures and aviation expertise. Participants were aircraft pilots (N = 276) aged 40–77.9. Flight simulator performance and cognition were tested yearly; there were an average of 4.3 (± 2.7; range 1–13) data points per participant. Each participant was classified into one of the three levels of aviation expertise based on Federal Aviation Administration pilot proficiency ratings: least, moderate, or high expertise. Results. Addition of measures of cognitive processing speed and executive function to a model of age-related change in aviation performance significantly improved the model. Processing speed and executive function performance interacted such that the slowest rate of decline in flight simulator performance was found in aviators with the highest scores on tests of these abilities. Expertise was beneficial to pilots across the age range studied; however, expertise did not show evidence of reducing the effect of age. Discussion. These data suggest that longitudinal performance on an important real-world activity can be predicted by initial assessment of relevant cognitive abilities. PMID:21586627

Jo, Booil; Adamson, Maheen M.; Kennedy, Quinn; Noda, Art; Hernandez, Beatriz; Zeitzer, Jamie M.; Friedman, Leah F.; Fairchild, Kaci; Scanlon, Blake K.; Murphy, Greer M.; Taylor, Joy L.

2011-01-01

23

Semi-supervised multimodal relevance vector regression improves cognitive performance estimation from imaging and biological biomarkers.  

PubMed

Accurate estimation of cognitive scores for patients can help track the progress of neurological diseases. In this paper, we present a novel semi-supervised multimodal relevance vector regression (SM-RVR) method for predicting clinical scores of neurological diseases from multimodal imaging and biological biomarker, to help evaluate pathological stage and predict progression of diseases, e.g., Alzheimer's diseases (AD). Unlike most existing methods, we predict clinical scores from multimodal (imaging and biological) biomarkers, including MRI, FDG-PET, and CSF. Considering that the clinical scores of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects are often less stable compared to those of AD and normal control (NC) subjects due to the heterogeneity of MCI, we use only the multimodal data of MCI subjects, but no corresponding clinical scores, to train a semi-supervised model for enhancing the estimation of clinical scores for AD and NC subjects. We also develop a new strategy for selecting the most informative MCI subjects. We evaluate the performance of our approach on 202 subjects with all three modalities of data (MRI, FDG-PET and CSF) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. The experimental results show that our SM-RVR method achieves a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 1.91 and a correlation coefficient (CORR) of 0.80 for estimating the MMSE scores, and also a RMSE of 4.45 and a CORR of 0.78 for estimating the ADAS-Cog scores, demonstrating very promising performances in AD studies. PMID:23504659

Cheng, Bo; Zhang, Daoqiang; Chen, Songcan; Kaufer, Daniel I; Shen, Dinggang

2013-07-01

24

COG1410 Improves Cognitive Performance and Reduces Cortical Neuronal Loss in the Traumatically Injured Brain  

PubMed Central

Abstract We have previously shown that a single dose of COG1410, a small molecule ApoE-mimetic peptide derived from the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) receptor binding region, improves sensorimotor and motor outcome following cortical contusion injury (CCI). The present study evaluated a regimen of COG1410 following frontal CCI in order to examine its preclinical efficacy on cognitive recovery. Animals were prepared with a bilateral CCI of the frontal cortex. A regimen of COG1410 (0.8?mg/kg intravenously [IV]) was administered twice, at 30?min and again at 24?h post-CCI. Starting on day 11, the animals were tested for their acquisition of a reference memory task in the Morris water maze (MWM), followed by a working memory task in the MWM on day 15. Following CCI, the animals were also tested on the bilateral tactile adhesive removal test to measure sensorimotor dysfunction. On all of the behavioral tests the COG1410 group was no different from the uninjured sham group. Administration of the regimen of COG1410 significantly improved recovery on the reference and working memory tests, as well as on the sensorimotor test. Lesion analysis revealed that COG1410 significantly reduced the size of the injury cavity. Administration of COG1410 also reduced the number of degenerating neurons, as measured by Fluoro-Jade C staining, in the frontal cortex at 48?h post-CCI. These results suggest that a regimen of COG1410 appeared to block the development of significant behavioral deficits and reduced tissue loss. These combined findings suggest that COG1410 appears to have strong preclinical efficacy when administered following traumatic brain injury (TBI). PMID:19119914

Kaufman, Nicholas; Vitek, Michael P.; McKenna, Suzanne E.

2009-01-01

25

Reorganization of functional brain networks mediates the improvement of cognitive performance following real-time neurofeedback training of working memory.  

PubMed

Working memory (WM) is essential for individuals' cognitive functions. Neuroimaging studies indicated that WM fundamentally relied on a frontoparietal working memory network (WMN) and a cinguloparietal default mode network (DMN). Behavioral training studies demonstrated that the two networks can be modulated by WM training. Different from the behavioral training, our recent study used a real-time functional MRI (rtfMRI)-based neurofeedback method to conduct WM training, demonstrating that WM performance can be significantly improved after successfully upregulating the activity of the target region of interest (ROI) in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Zhang et al., [2013]: PloS One 8:e73735); however, the neural substrate of rtfMRI-based WM training remains unclear. In this work, we assessed the intranetwork and internetwork connectivity changes of WMN and DMN during the training, and their correlations with the change of brain activity in the target ROI as well as with the improvement of post-training behavior. Our analysis revealed an "ROI-network-behavior" correlation relationship underlying the rtfMRI training. Further mediation analysis indicated that the reorganization of functional brain networks mediated the effect of self-regulation of the target brain activity on the improvement of cognitive performance following the neurofeedback training. The results of this study enhance our understanding of the neural basis of real-time neurofeedback and suggest a new direction to improve WM performance by regulating the functional connectivity in the WM related networks. Hum Brain Mapp 36:1705-1715, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25545862

Zhang, Gaoyan; Yao, Li; Shen, Jiahui; Yang, Yihong; Zhao, Xiaojie

2015-05-01

26

Multi-domain computerized cognitive training program improves performance of bookkeeping tasks: a matched-sampling active-controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Cognitive skills are important predictors of job performance, but the extent to which computerized cognitive training (CCT) can improve job performance in healthy adults is unclear. We report, for the first time, that a CCT program aimed at attention, memory, reasoning and visuo-spatial abilities can enhance productivity in healthy younger adults on bookkeeping tasks with high relevance to real-world job performance. 44 business students (77.3% female, mean age 21.4 ± 2.6 years) were assigned to either (a) 20 h of CCT, or (b) 20 h of computerized arithmetic training (active control) by a matched sampling procedure. Both interventions were conducted over a period of 6 weeks, 3–4 1-h sessions per week. Transfer of skills to performance on a 60-min paper-based bookkeeping task was measured at three time points—baseline, after 10 h and after 20 h of training. Repeated measures ANOVA found a significant Group X Time effect on productivity (F = 7.033, df = 1.745; 73.273, p = 0.003) with a significant interaction at both the 10-h (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.38, p = 0.014) and 20-h time points (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.40, p = 0.003). No significant effects were found on accuracy or on Conners' Continuous Performance Test, a measure of sustained attention. The results are discussed in reference to previous findings on the relationship between brain plasticity and job performance. Generalization of results requires further study. PMID:25120510

Lampit, Amit; Ebster, Claus; Valenzuela, Michael

2014-01-01

27

Multi-domain computerized cognitive training program improves performance of bookkeeping tasks: a matched-sampling active-controlled trial.  

PubMed

Cognitive skills are important predictors of job performance, but the extent to which computerized cognitive training (CCT) can improve job performance in healthy adults is unclear. We report, for the first time, that a CCT program aimed at attention, memory, reasoning and visuo-spatial abilities can enhance productivity in healthy younger adults on bookkeeping tasks with high relevance to real-world job performance. 44 business students (77.3% female, mean age 21.4 ± 2.6 years) were assigned to either (a) 20 h of CCT, or (b) 20 h of computerized arithmetic training (active control) by a matched sampling procedure. Both interventions were conducted over a period of 6 weeks, 3-4 1-h sessions per week. Transfer of skills to performance on a 60-min paper-based bookkeeping task was measured at three time points-baseline, after 10 h and after 20 h of training. Repeated measures ANOVA found a significant Group X Time effect on productivity (F = 7.033, df = 1.745; 73.273, p = 0.003) with a significant interaction at both the 10-h (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.38, p = 0.014) and 20-h time points (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.40, p = 0.003). No significant effects were found on accuracy or on Conners' Continuous Performance Test, a measure of sustained attention. The results are discussed in reference to previous findings on the relationship between brain plasticity and job performance. Generalization of results requires further study. PMID:25120510

Lampit, Amit; Ebster, Claus; Valenzuela, Michael

2014-01-01

28

Dietary supplementation with coffee improves motor and cognitive performance in aged rats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Polyphenols found in fruits and nuts have anti-inflammatory properties that may provide protection against the decline of cognitive, motor and neuronal function in senescence. The presence of a number of bioactive compounds (e.g., polyphenols) implicates coffee as a potential nutritional therapeutic...

29

Performance Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers presented at a symposium on performance improvement moderated by Edward Schorer at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD) "The Organizational Ecology of Ethical Problems: International Case Studies in the Light of HPT [Human Performance Technology]" (Peter J. Dean, Laurence…

1996

30

Nutraceutical Intervention Improves Older Adults' Cognitive Functioning  

PubMed Central

Abstract Interventions to improve the cognitive health of older adults are of critical importance. In the current study, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using a pill-based nutraceutical (NT-020) that contained a proprietary formulation of blueberry, carnosine, green tea, vitamin D3, and Biovin to evaluate the impact on changes in multiple domains of cognitive functioning. One hundred and five cognitively intact adults aged 65–85 years of age (M=73.6 years) were randomized to receive NT-020 (n=52) or a placebo (n=53). Participants were tested with a battery of cognitive performance tests that were classified into six broad domains—episodic memory, processing speed, verbal ability, working memory, executive functioning, and complex speed at baseline and 2 months later. The results indicated that persons taking NT-020 improved significantly on two measures of processing speed across the 2-month test period in contrast to persons on the placebo whose performance did not change. None of the other cognitive ability measures were related to intervention group. The results also indicated that the NT-020 was well tolerated by older adults, and the presence of adverse events or symptoms did not differ between the NT-020 and placebo groups. Overall, the results of the current study were promising and suggest the potential for interventions like these to improve the cognitive health of older adults. PMID:24134194

Rawson, Kerri S.; Martin, Christina; Eisel, Sarah L.; Sanberg, Cyndy D.; McEvoy, Cathy L.; Sanberg, Paul R.; Shytle, R. Douglas; Tan, Jun; Bickford, Paula C.

2014-01-01

31

Improving everyday prospective memory performance in older adults: comparing cognitive process and strategy training.  

PubMed

Considering the importance of prospective memory for independence in old age recently, research has started to examine interventions to reduce prospective memory errors. Two general approaches can be proposed: (a) process training of executive control associated with prospective memory functioning, and/or (b) strategy training to reduce executive task demands. The present study was the first to combine and compare both training methods in a sample of 62 community-dwelling older adults (60-86 years) and to explore their effects on an ecologically valid everyday life prospective memory task (here: regular blood pressure monitoring). Even though the training of executive control was successful in enhancing the trained ability, clear transfer effects on prospective memory performance could only be found for the strategy training. However, participants with low executive abilities benefited particularly from the implementation intention strategy. Conceptually, this supports models suggesting interactions between task demands and individual differences in executive control in explaining individual differences in prospective memory performance. PMID:25244491

Brom, Sarah Susanne; Kliegel, Matthias

2014-09-01

32

Ketogenic diet improves motor performance but not cognition in two mouse models of Alzheimer's pathology.  

PubMed

Dietary manipulations are increasingly viewed as possible approaches to treating neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies suggest that Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients present an energy imbalance with brain hypometabolism and mitochondrial deficits. Ketogenic diets (KDs), widely investigated in the treatment and prevention of seizures, have been suggested to bypass metabolic deficits present in AD brain by providing ketone bodies as an alternative fuel to neurons. We investigated the effects of a ketogenic diet in two transgenic mouse lines. Five months old APP/PS1 (a model of amyloid deposition) and Tg4510 (a model of tau deposition) mice were offered either a ketogenic or a control (NIH-31) diet for 3 months. Body weight and food intake were monitored throughout the experiment, and blood was collected at 4 weeks and 4 months for ketone and glucose assessments. Both lines of transgenic mice weighed less than nontransgenic mice, yet, surprisingly, had elevated food intake. The ketogenic diet did not affect these differences in body weight or food consumption. Behavioral testing during the last two weeks of treatment found that mice offered KD performed significantly better on the rotarod compared to mice on the control diet independent of genotype. In the open field test, both transgenic mouse lines presented increased locomotor activity compared to nontransgenic, age-matched controls, and this effect was not influenced by KD. The radial arm water maze identified learning deficits in both transgenic lines with no significant differences between diets. Tissue measures of amyloid, tau, astroglial and microglial markers in transgenic lines showed no differences between animals fed the control or the ketogenic diet. These data suggest that ketogenic diets may play an important role in enhancing motor performance in mice, but have minimal impact on the phenotype of murine models of amyloid or tau deposition. PMID:24069439

Brownlow, Milene L; Benner, Leif; D'Agostino, Dominic; Gordon, Marcia N; Morgan, Dave

2013-01-01

33

Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia II: Developing  

E-print Network

REVIEWS Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia II The Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative, funded in treatment development for impaired cognition in schizophre- nia by developing tools from cognitive

34

Performance of Cognitive Radio-Based Wireless Mesh Networks  

E-print Network

Performance of Cognitive Radio-Based Wireless Mesh Networks Nizar Bouabdallah, Brent Ishibashi, and Raouf Boutaba Abstract--Cognitive radio presents a new approach to wireless spectrum utilization and management. In this work, the potential performance improvement gained by applying cognitive radio

Boutaba, Raouf

35

Effect of a Kinect-Based Exercise Game on Improving Executive Cognitive Performance in Community-Dwelling Elderly: Case Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background Decrease of dual-task (DT) ability is known to be one of the risk factors for falls. We developed a new game concept, Dual-Task Tai Chi (DTTC), using Microsoft’s motion-capture device Kinect, and demonstrated that the DTTC test can quantitatively evaluate various functions that are known risk factors for falling in elderly adults. Moreover, DT training has been attracting attention as a way to improve balance and DT ability. However, only a few studies have reported that it improves cognitive performance. Objective The purpose of this study was to demonstrate whether or not a 12-week program of DTTC training would effectively improve cognitive functions. Methods This study examined cognitive functions in community-dwelling older adults before and after 12 weeks of DTTC training (training group [TG]) or standardized training (control group [CG]). Primary end points were based on the difference in cognitive functions between the TG and the CG. Cognitive functions were evaluated using the trail-making test (part A and part B) and verbal fluency test. Results A total of 41 elderly individuals (TG: n=26, CG: n=15) participated in this study and their cognitive functions were assessed before and after DTTC training. Significant differences were observed between the two groups with significant group × time interactions for the executive cognitive function measure, the delta-trail-making test (part B?part A; F 1,36=4.94, P=.03; TG: pre mean 48.8 [SD 43.9], post mean 42.2 [SD 29.0]; CG: pre mean 49.5 [SD 51.8], post mean 64.9 [SD 54.7]). Conclusions The results suggest that DTTC training is effective for improving executive cognitive functions. Trial Registration Japan Medical Association Clinical Trial Registration Number: JMA-IIA00092; https://dbcentre3.jmacct.med.or.jp/jmactr/App/JMACTRS06/JMACTRS06.aspx?seqno=2682 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6NRtOkZFh). PMID:24565806

Okamoto, Kazuya; Nishiguchi, Shu; Yamada, Minoru; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Aoyama, Tomoki

2014-01-01

36

Cognitive Performance in Operational Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimal cognition during complex and sustained operations is a critical component for success in current and future military operations. "Cognitive Performance, Judgment, and Decision-making" (CPJD) is a newly organized U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command research program focused on sustaining operational effectiveness of Future Force Warriors by developing paradigms through which militarily-relevant, higher-order cognitive performance, judgment, and decision-making can be assessed and sustained in individuals, small teams, and leaders of network-centric fighting units. CPJD evaluates the impact of stressors intrinsic to military operational environments (e.g., sleep deprivation, workload, fatigue, temperature extremes, altitude, environmental/physiological disruption) on military performance, evaluates noninvasive automated methods for monitoring and predicting cognitive performance, and investigates pharmaceutical strategies (e.g., stimulant countermeasures, hypnotics) to mitigate performance decrements. This manuscript describes the CPJD program, discusses the metrics utilized to relate militarily applied research findings to academic research, and discusses how the simulated combat capabilities of a synthetic battle laboratory may facilitate future cognitive performance research.

Russo, Michael; McGhee, James; Friedler, Edna; Thomas, Maria

2005-01-01

37

Prolonged oral cannabinoid administration prevents neuroinflammation, lowers ?-amyloid levels and improves cognitive performance in Tg APP 2576 mice  

PubMed Central

Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain shows an ongoing inflammatory condition and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories diminish the risk of suffering the neurologic disease. Cannabinoids are neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory agents with therapeutic potential. Methods We have studied the effects of prolonged oral administration of transgenic amyloid precursor protein (APP) mice with two pharmacologically different cannabinoids (WIN 55,212-2 and JWH-133, 0.2 mg/kg/day in the drinking water during 4 months) on inflammatory and cognitive parameters, and on 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (18FDG) uptake by positron emission tomography (PET). Results Novel object recognition was significantly reduced in 11 month old Tg APP mice and 4 month administration of JWH was able to normalize this cognitive deficit, although WIN was ineffective. Wild type mice cognitive performance was unaltered by cannabinoid administration. Tg APP mice showed decreased 18FDG uptake in hippocampus and cortical regions, which was counteracted by oral JWH treatment. Hippocampal GFAP immunoreactivity and cortical protein expression was unaffected by genotype or treatment. In contrast, the density of Iba1 positive microglia was increased in Tg APP mice, and normalized following JWH chronic treatment. Both cannabinoids were effective at reducing the enhancement of COX-2 protein levels and TNF-? mRNA expression found in the AD model. Increased cortical ?-amyloid (A?) levels were significantly reduced in the mouse model by both cannabinoids. Noteworthy both cannabinoids enhanced A? transport across choroid plexus cells in vitro. Conclusions In summary we have shown that chronically administered cannabinoid showed marked beneficial effects concomitant with inflammation reduction and increased A? clearance. PMID:22248049

2012-01-01

38

Cognitive Training Improves Sleep Quality and Cognitive Function among Older Adults with Insomnia  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives To investigate the effect of an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program on sleep quality and cognitive performance among older adults with insomnia. Design Participants (n?=?51) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group (n?=?34) or to an active control group (n?=?17). The participants in the cognitive training group completed an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program, while the participants in the active control group completed an eight-week, home-based program involving computerized tasks that do not engage high-level cognitive functioning. Before and after training, all participants' sleep was monitored for one week by an actigraph and their cognitive performance was evaluated. Setting Community setting: residential sleep/performance testing facility. Participants Fifty-one older adults with insomnia (aged 65–85). Interventions Eight weeks of computerized cognitive training for older adults with insomnia. Results Mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed between-group improvements for the cognitive training group on both sleep quality (sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency) and cognitive performance (avoiding distractions, working memory, visual memory, general memory and naming). Hierarchical linear regressions analysis in the cognitive training group indicated that improved visual scanning is associated with earlier advent of sleep, while improved naming is associated with the reduction in wake after sleep onset and with the reduction in number of awakenings. Likewise the results indicate that improved “avoiding distractions” is associated with an increase in the duration of sleep. Moreover, the results indicate that in the active control group cognitive decline observed in working memory is associated with an increase in the time required to fall asleep. Conclusions New learning is instrumental in promoting initiation and maintenance of sleep in older adults with insomnia. Lasting and personalized cognitive training is particularly indicated to generate the type of learning necessary for combined cognitive and sleep enhancements in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00901641 PMID:23577218

Haimov, Iris; Shatil, Evelyn

2013-01-01

39

An improved cognitive model of the Iowa and Soochow Gambling Tasks with regard to model fitting performance and tests of parameter consistency.  

PubMed

The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Soochow Gambling Task (SGT) are two experience-based risky decision-making tasks for examining decision-making deficits in clinical populations. Several cognitive models, including the expectancy-valence learning (EVL) model and the prospect valence learning (PVL) model, have been developed to disentangle the motivational, cognitive, and response processes underlying the explicit choices in these tasks. The purpose of the current study was to develop an improved model that can fit empirical data better than the EVL and PVL models and, in addition, produce more consistent parameter estimates across the IGT and SGT. Twenty-six opiate users (mean age 34.23; SD 8.79) and 27 control participants (mean age 35; SD 10.44) completed both tasks. Eighteen cognitive models varying in evaluation, updating, and choice rules were fit to individual data and their performances were compared to that of a statistical baseline model to find a best fitting model. The results showed that the model combining the prospect utility function treating gains and losses separately, the decay-reinforcement updating rule, and the trial-independent choice rule performed the best in both tasks. Furthermore, the winning model produced more consistent individual parameter estimates across the two tasks than any of the other models. PMID:25814963

Dai, Junyi; Kerestes, Rebecca; Upton, Daniel J; Busemeyer, Jerome R; Stout, Julie C

2015-01-01

40

An improved cognitive model of the Iowa and Soochow Gambling Tasks with regard to model fitting performance and tests of parameter consistency  

PubMed Central

The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and the Soochow Gambling Task (SGT) are two experience-based risky decision-making tasks for examining decision-making deficits in clinical populations. Several cognitive models, including the expectancy-valence learning (EVL) model and the prospect valence learning (PVL) model, have been developed to disentangle the motivational, cognitive, and response processes underlying the explicit choices in these tasks. The purpose of the current study was to develop an improved model that can fit empirical data better than the EVL and PVL models and, in addition, produce more consistent parameter estimates across the IGT and SGT. Twenty-six opiate users (mean age 34.23; SD 8.79) and 27 control participants (mean age 35; SD 10.44) completed both tasks. Eighteen cognitive models varying in evaluation, updating, and choice rules were fit to individual data and their performances were compared to that of a statistical baseline model to find a best fitting model. The results showed that the model combining the prospect utility function treating gains and losses separately, the decay-reinforcement updating rule, and the trial-independent choice rule performed the best in both tasks. Furthermore, the winning model produced more consistent individual parameter estimates across the two tasks than any of the other models. PMID:25814963

Dai, Junyi; Kerestes, Rebecca; Upton, Daniel J.; Busemeyer, Jerome R.; Stout, Julie C.

2015-01-01

41

Improving Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: A Pilot Intervention Combining Computerized Social Cognition Training With Cognitive Remediation  

PubMed Central

Background: Social cognition is significantly impaired in schizophrenia and contributes to poor community functioning. This study examined whether cognitive remediation (CR; COGPACK), shown to improve neurocognition, improves an integral component of social cognition, emotion perception, compared with CR combined with a computerized Emotion Perception intervention (Mind Reading: Interactive Guide to Emotions [MRIGE]). Methods: 59 stable schizophrenia or schizoaffective predominantly inpatients were randomized to either CR (N = 27) alone or CR + MRIGE (N = 32) for 12 weeks. Assessments included the Facial Emotion Identification Task (FEIT), Facial Emotion Discrimination Task (FEDT), MCCB-MATRICS, Personal and Social Performance Scale, and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Results: There was a significant group-by-time effect on FEIT (F = 11.509, P = .004); CR + MRIGE demonstrated signi?cantly greater improvement than CR alone (CR + MRIGE, Z = 1.89, P = .05; CR alone Z = 0.57, P = .13). There was significant group-by-time effect on FEDT (F = 5.663, P = .022); CR + MRIGE demonstrated signi?cantly greater improvement than CR alone (CR + MRIGE, Z = 1.90, P = .05; CR alone Z = 0.67, P = .21). There was also a significant group by time effect for social cognition, measured by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (F = 5.473, P = .050): CR + MRIGE demonstrated significantly greater improvement than CR alone (CR + MRIGE, Z = 1.98, P = .02; CR alone, Z = 1.00, P = .05). Conclusions: Combined CR with emotion perception remediation produced greater improvements in emotion recognition, emotion discrimination, social functioning, and neurocognition compared with CR alone in chronic schizophrenia. PMID:23125396

Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre

2013-01-01

42

Connectivity in MEG resting-state networks increases after resective surgery for low-grade glioma and correlates with improved cognitive performance?  

PubMed Central

Purpose Low-grade glioma (LGG) patients often have cognitive deficits. Several disease- and treatment related factors affect cognitive processing. Cognitive outcome of resective surgery is unpredictable, both for improvement and deterioration, especially for complex domains such as attention and executive functioning. MEG analysis of resting-state networks (RSNs) is a good candidate for presurgical prediction of cognitive outcome. In this study, we explore the relation between alterations in connectivity of RSNs and changes in cognitive processing after resective surgery, as a stepping stone to ultimately predict postsurgical cognitive outcome. Methods Ten patients with LGG were included, who had no adjuvant therapy. MEG recording and neuropsychological assessment were obtained before and after resective surgery. MEG data were recorded during a no-task eyes-closed condition, and projected to the anatomical space of the AAL atlas. Alterations in functional connectivity, as characterized by the phase lag index (PLI), within the default mode network (DMN), executive control network (ECN), and left- and right-sided frontoparietal networks (FPN) were compared to cognitive changes. Results Lower alpha band DMN connectivity was increased after surgery, and this increase was related to improved verbal memory functioning. Similarly, right FPN connectivity was increased after resection in the upper alpha band, which correlated with improved attention, working memory and executive functioning. Discussion Increased alpha band RSN functional connectivity in MEG recordings correlates with improved cognitive outcome after resective surgery. The mechanisms resulting in functional connectivity alterations after resection remain to be elucidated. Importantly, our findings indicate that connectivity of MEG RSNs may be used for presurgical prediction of cognitive outcome in future studies. PMID:24179752

van Dellen, E.; de Witt Hamer, P.C.; Douw, L.; Klein, M.; Heimans, J.J.; Stam, C.J.; Reijneveld, J.C.; Hillebrand, A.

2012-01-01

43

Significant improvements in cognitive performance post-transcranial, red/near-infrared light-emitting diode treatments in chronic, mild traumatic brain injury: open-protocol study.  

PubMed

This pilot, open-protocol study examined whether scalp application of red and near-infrared (NIR) light-emitting diodes (LED) could improve cognition in patients with chronic, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Application of red/NIR light improves mitochondrial function (especially in hypoxic/compromised cells) promoting increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) important for cellular metabolism. Nitric oxide is released locally, increasing regional cerebral blood flow. LED therapy is noninvasive, painless, and non-thermal (cleared by the United States Food and Drug Administration [FDA], an insignificant risk device). Eleven chronic, mTBI participants (26-62 years of age, 6 males) with nonpenetrating brain injury and persistent cognitive dysfunction were treated for 18 outpatient sessions (Monday, Wednesday, Friday, for 6 weeks), starting at 10 months to 8 years post- mTBI (motor vehicle accident [MVA] or sports-related; and one participant, improvised explosive device [IED] blast injury). Four had a history of multiple concussions. Each LED cluster head (5.35 cm diameter, 500 mW, 22.2 mW/cm(2)) was applied for 10 min to each of 11 scalp placements (13 J/cm(2)). LEDs were placed on the midline from front-to-back hairline; and bilaterally on frontal, parietal, and temporal areas. Neuropsychological testing was performed pre-LED, and at 1 week, and 1 and 2 months after the 18th treatment. A significant linear trend was observed for the effect of LED treatment over time for the Stroop test for Executive Function, Trial 3 inhibition (p=0.004); Stroop, Trial 4 inhibition switching (p=0.003); California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT)-II, Total Trials 1-5 (p=0.003); and CVLT-II, Long Delay Free Recall (p=0.006). Participants reported improved sleep, and fewer post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, if present. Participants and family reported better ability to perform social, interpersonal, and occupational functions. These open-protocol data suggest that placebo-controlled studies are warranted. PMID:24568233

Naeser, Margaret A; Zafonte, Ross; Krengel, Maxine H; Martin, Paula I; Frazier, Judith; Hamblin, Michael R; Knight, Jeffrey A; Meehan, William P; Baker, Errol H

2014-06-01

44

Xanthohumol improved cognitive flexibility in young mice.  

PubMed

The protein palmitoylation cycle has been shown to be important for protein signaling and synaptic plasticity. Data from our lab showed a change in the palmitoylation status of certain proteins with age. A greater percentage of the NMDA receptor subunits GluN2A and GluN2B, along with Fyn and PSD95 proteins, were palmitoylated in the old mice. The higher level of protein palmitoylation was also associated with poorer learning scores. Xanthohumol is a prenylated flavonoid that has been shown to increase beta-oxidation in the livers of rodents, decreasing circulating free fatty acids in the serum. What is not known is whether the application of xanthohumol could influence the palmitoylation status of proteins. In this study, young and old mice were fed a diet supplemented with xanthohumol for 8 weeks. Spatial memory was assessed with the Morris water maze and protein palmitoylation quantified. The young xanthohumol-treated mice showed a significant improvement in cognitive flexibility. However, this appeared to be associated with the young control mice, on a defined, phytoestrogen-deficient diet, performing as poorly as the old mice and xanthohumol reversing this effect. The old mice receiving xanthohumol did not significantly improve their learning scores. Xanthohumol treatment was unable to affect the palmitoylation of NMDA receptor subunits and associated proteins assessed in this study. This evidence suggests that xanthohumol may play a role in improving cognitive flexability in young animals, but it appears to be ineffective in adjusting the palmitoylation status of neuronal proteins in aged individuals. PMID:25192637

Zamzow, Daniel R; Elias, Valerie; Legette, LeeCole L; Choi, Jaewoo; Stevens, J Fred; Magnusson, Kathy R

2014-12-15

45

Toward cognitive radio resource management based on multi-agent systems for improvement of  

E-print Network

Toward cognitive radio resource management based on multi-agent systems for improvement of real}@gmail.com, krief@labri.fr Abstract--Cognitive Radio (CR) is a promising technology that can alleviate the spectrum approach which uses CR for improving real-time application performance related to only one cognitive radio

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

46

Using Relaxation, Cognitive Therapy, and Mental Imagery To Reduce Test Anxiety and Improve Performance among Firefighter Trainees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The significant number of firefighter trainees experiencing performance evaluation anxiety during fire training school was addressed by the implementation of anxiety reduction and performance enhancement strategies. Audiotape recordings were chosen as the primary intervention medium to facilitate program effectiveness within an established fire…

Mogen, David S.

47

Individual variation in cognitive performance: developmental and evolutionary perspectives  

PubMed Central

Animal cognition experiments frequently reveal striking individual variation but rarely consider its causes and largely ignore its potential consequences. Studies often focus on a subset of high-performing subjects, sometimes viewing evidence from a single individual as sufficient to demonstrate the cognitive capacity of a species. We argue that the emphasis on demonstrating species-level cognitive capacities detracts from the value of individual variation in understanding cognitive development and evolution. We consider developmental and evolutionary interpretations of individual variation and use meta-analyses of data from published studies to examine predictors of individual performance. We show that reliance on small sample sizes precludes robust conclusions about individual abilities as well as inter- and intraspecific differences. We advocate standardization of experimental protocols and pooling of data between laboratories to improve statistical rigour. Our analyses show that cognitive performance is influenced by age, sex, rearing conditions and previous experience. These effects limit the validity of comparative analyses unless developmental histories are taken into account, and complicate attempts to understand how cognitive traits are expressed and selected under natural conditions. Further understanding of cognitive evolution requires efforts to elucidate the heritability of cognitive traits and establish whether elevated cognitive performance confers fitness advantages in nature. PMID:22927576

Thornton, Alex; Lukas, Dieter

2012-01-01

48

How Performance Improves  

SciTech Connect

Countless articles and books have been written about and numerous programs have been developed to improve performance. Despite this plethora of activity on how to improve performance, we have largely failed to address the more fundamental question of how performance actually improves. To begin exploring this more basic question, we have plotted some 1,200 performance records to date and found that irrespective of venue, industry, or business, there seems to be a fundamental and repeatable set of concepts regarding how performance improves over time. Such gained insights represent both opportunities and challenges to the performance technologist. Differences in performance outcomes may, for example, be as much a function of the life cycle stage of a performance system as the efficacy of the selected improvement method itself. Accordingly, it may be more difficult to compare differing performance improvement methods than previously thought.

Jerry L. Harbour; Julie L. Marble

2005-09-01

49

Embarking on performance improvement.  

PubMed

Healthcare organizations should approach performance improvement as a program, not a project. The program should be led by a guidance team that identifies goals, prioritizes work, and removes barriers to enable clinical improvement teams and work groups to realize performance improvements. A healthcare enterprise data warehouse can provide the initial foundation for the program analytics. Evidence-based best practices can help achieve improved outcomes and reduced costs. PMID:24968632

Brown, Bobbi; Falk, Leslie Hough

2014-06-01

50

Sarcopenia and impairment in cognitive and physical performance  

PubMed Central

Background Whether older adults with sarcopenia who underperform controls on tests of physical performance and cognition also have a higher likelihood of combined cognitive-physical impairment is not clear. We assessed the impact of sarcopenia on impairment in both aspects of functionality and the relative contribution of its components, muscle mass and strength. Methods Two hundred and twenty-three community-dwelling adults aged 40 years and older (mean age =68.1±10.6 years; 65% female) were recruited and underwent physical functionality, anthropometry, and cognitive testing. Participants with low muscle mass were categorized as pre-sarcopenic; those with low muscle mass and muscle strength as sarcopenic; those with higher muscle mass and low muscle strength only were categorized as non-sarcopenic and were compared on risk of cognitive impairment (Montreal Cognitive Assessment <26; Ascertaining Dementia 8 ?2), physical impairment (Mini Physical Performance Test <12), both, or neither by ordinal logistic regression. Results Compared to controls, those with sarcopenia were six times more likely to have combined cognitive impairment/physical impairment with a fully adjusted model showing a three-fold increased odds ratio. The results were consistent across different measures of global cognition (odds ratio =3.46, 95% confidence interval =1.07–11.45 for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment; odds ratio =3.61, 95% confidence interval =1.11–11.72 for Ascertaining Dementia 8). Pre-sarcopenic participants were not different from controls. The effect of sarcopenia on cognition is related to low muscle strength rather than low muscle mass. Conclusion Individuals with sarcopenia are not only more likely to have single but also to have dual impairment in cognitive and physical function. Interventions designed to prevent sarcopenia and improve muscle strength may help reduce the burden of cognitive and physical impairments of functionality in community-dwelling seniors.

Tolea, Magdalena I; Galvin, James E

2015-01-01

51

Performance Improvement Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers from a symposium on performance improvement processes. In "Never the Twain Shall Meet?: A Glimpse into High Performance Work Practices and Downsizing" (Laurie J. Bassi, Mark E. Van Buren) evidence from a national cross-industry of more than 200 establishments is used to demonstrate that high-performance work…

1997

52

Does cognitive function improve with quetiapine in comparison to haloperidol?  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggests that schizophrenia patients taking atypical antipsychotic medications may perform better on some tests of cognitive function than those treated with older antipsychotics. The current study compared the effects of quetiapine and haloperidol on measures of executive function, memory and attention. Subjects were 58 stable outpatients with schizophrenia (DSM III-R) who received a battery of cognitive tests as part of a randomized, double-blind, multi-site clinical efficacy study conducted by AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals. Cognitive assessments were conducted prior to randomization when patients were receiving < or =30 mg haloperidol or equivalent (mean: 9.2mg/day haloperidol equivalents), and again after 24 weeks of fixed-dose treatment with either quetiapine 600 or 300 mg/day or haloperidol 12 mg/day. Analyses of covariance with planned comparisons were used to compare scores on cognitive measures at the end of 24 weeks by treatment group with baseline cognitive function scores used as covariates. Patients receiving quetiapine 600 mg/day improved to a greater extent than patients receiving haloperidol on overall cognitive function (p<0.02). Specific differences were found for executive function (Verbal Fluency Test, p<0.04), attention (Stroop Color Word Test, p<.03) and verbal memory (Paragraph Recall Test, p<0.02). Treatment group differences were not solely due to benztropine use, medication side effects, or changes in symptomatology. Treatment with quetiapine at higher doses (600 mg/day) relative to haloperidol appears to have a positive impact on important domains of cognitive performance that have been found to predict role function and community outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:11738537

Velligan, Dawn I; Newcomer, John; Pultz, Joseph; Csernansky, John; Hoff, Anne L; Mahurin, Roderick; Miller, Alexander L

2002-01-15

53

Review of Human Cognitive Performance in Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human space exploration is inherently hazardous, particularly for lon g duration (LD) missions (22 days or longer). Maintenance of cognitive functioning is essential, but flight environments pose numerous pote ntial risks to the brain and cognitive performance (eg, radiation, to xins, chronic stress, sleep deprivation, hypercarbia, fluid shifts, h ormone imbalances, and injury). There have been persistent anecdotal reports of cognitive deficits during missions, but an up?-to-date rev iew of the evidence for such changes has remained unavailable. Method s: We identified and reviewed English language publications found via electronic searches in PubMed, PsycInfo, Inspec, the NASA Technical Report Server, and the Defense Technical Information Center, plus rec ursive searches of publication bibliographies. Search terms included the word cognition, cognitive, or performance along with spaceflight, flight, mission, or closely related terms. Results: Inter?-study variability precluded meta?-analysis. Some 32 published studies involving cognitive assessment during spaceflight were identified, involving a total of 110 participants (mean: 3.4 participants per study). The lo ngest?-duration study spanned 438 days, with six additional studies i nvolving flight durations of 90 days, and 11 more studies involved fl ight durations exceeding 21 days. The available evidence failed to st rongly support or refute the existence of cognitive deficits in LD sp aceflight, in part due to inadequate power or control conditions. Evi dence of increased variability in cognitive performance during spacef light, both within and between individuals, was common. Discussion: T hese results represent a negative finding based on small numbers of s ubjects for any given cognitive function. The increased variability within and (particularly) between individuals highlights the potential danger of generalizing from case studies. A mismatch therefore remain s between anecdotal reports describing generalized cognitive slowing, attention and memory problems during missions and the experimental e vidence supporting such deficits. Since a major justification for man ned spaceflight rests with the cognitive flexibility of humans, addit ional studies and further analysis of existing operational data appea rs warranted.

Strangman, Gary; Bevan, Gary

2012-01-01

54

Enrichment and Training Improve Cognition in Rats with Cortical Malformations  

PubMed Central

Children with malformations of cortical development (MCD) frequently have associated cognitive impairments which reduce quality of life. We hypothesized that cognitive deficits associated with MCD can be improved with environmental manipulation or additional training. The E17 methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) exposure model bears many anatomical hallmarks seen in human MCDs as well as similar behavioral and cognitive deficits. We divided control and MAM exposed Sprague-Dawley rats into enriched and non-enriched groups and tested performance in the Morris water maze. Another group similarly divided underwent sociability testing and also underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans pre and post enrichment. A third group of control and MAM rats without enrichment were trained until they reached criterion on the place avoidance task. MAM rats had impaired performance on spatial tasks and enrichment improved performance of both control and MAM animals. Although MAM rats did not have a deficit in sociability they showed similar improvement with enrichment as controls. MRI revealed a whole brain volume decrease with MAM exposure, and an increase in both MAM and control enriched volumes in comparison to non-enriched animals. In the place avoidance task, MAM rats required approximately 3 times as long to reach criterion as control animals, but with additional training were able to reach control performance. Environmental manipulation and additional training can improve cognition in a rodent MCD model. We therefore suggest that patients with MCD may benefit from appropriate alterations in educational strategies, social interaction and environment. These factors should be considered in therapeutic strategies. PMID:24358362

Jenks, Kyle R.; Lucas, Marcella M.; Duffy, Ben A.; Robbins, Ashlee A.; Gimi, Barjor; Barry, Jeremy M.; Scott, Rod C.

2013-01-01

55

Cognitive Neuroscience-Based Approaches to Measuring and Improving Treatment Effects on Cognition in Schizophrenia: The CNTRICS Initiative  

E-print Network

Cognitive Neuroscience-Based Approaches to Measuring and Improving Treatment Effects on Cognition for potentially procognitive agents that could be used to enhance cognition and functional outcome, cogni- tive neuroscience-based approach to measuring cognitive function in clinical trials

56

Novel television-based cognitive training improves working memory and executive function.  

PubMed

The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60-87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of "adequate" to "high" system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition. PMID:24992187

Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bureš, Vladimír

2014-01-01

57

Novel Television-Based Cognitive Training Improves Working Memory and Executive Function  

PubMed Central

The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60–87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of “adequate” to “high” system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition. PMID:24992187

Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bureš, Vladimír

2014-01-01

58

Improving CSF Biomarkers’ Performance for Predicting Progression from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer’s Disease by Considering Different Confounding Factors: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers’ performance for predicting conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is still suboptimal. Objective: By considering several confounding factors we aimed to identify in which situations these CSF biomarkers can be useful. Data Sources: A systematic review was conducted on MEDLINE, PreMedline, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane, and CRD (1990–2013). Eligibility Criteria: (1) Prospective studies of CSF biomarkers’ performance for predicting conversion from MCI to AD/dementia; (2) inclusion of A?42 and T-tau and/or p-tau. Several meta-analyses were performed. Results: A?42/p-tau ratio had high capacity to predict conversion to AD in MCI patients younger than 70?years. The p-tau had high capacity to identify MCI cases converting to AD in ?24?months. Conclusions: Explaining how different confounding factors influence CSF biomarkers’ predictive performance is mandatory to elaborate a definitive map of situations, where these CSF biomarkers are useful both in clinics and research. PMID:25360114

Ferreira, Daniel; Rivero-Santana, Amado; Perestelo-Pérez, Lilisbeth; Westman, Eric; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Sarría, Antonio; Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro

2014-01-01

59

Cognitive Correlates of Performance in Advanced Mathematics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Much research has been devoted to understanding cognitive correlates of elementary mathematics performance, but little such research has been done for advanced mathematics (e.g., modern algebra, statistics, and mathematical logic).Aims: To promote mathematical knowledge among college students, it is necessary to understand what factors…

Wei, Wei; Yuan, Hongbo; Chen, Chuansheng; Zhou, Xinlin

2012-01-01

60

Effects of flavonoids on cognitive performance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent studies suggest that nutritional interventions, such as increasing dietary intake of fruits and vegetables, could possibly delay and even reverse age-related declines in brain function such as cognitive and motor performance. Fruits and vegetables rich in flavonoids play a critical role in pr...

61

Reading Comprehension Improvement with Individualized Cognitive Profiles and Metacognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study models improving classroom reading instruction through valid assessment and individualized metacomprehension. Individualized cognitive profiles of Woodcock-Johnson III cognitive abilities correlated with reading comprehension were used during classroom independent reading for judgments of learning, feedback, self-reflection, and comprehension questions. This systematic metacognitive inquiry treatment was based on findings in cognition, metacomprehension, and effective reading instruction. The research was conducted

Kathleen D. Allen; Thomas E. Hancock

2008-01-01

62

Microgravity effects on standardized cognitive performance measures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this experiment, selected to fly on the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2) Spacelab mission, is to determine the effects of microgravity upon the cognitive skills which are critical to successful performance of many tasks on board the Space Shuttle. Six tests from the Unified Tri-service Cognitive Performance Assessment Battery (UTC-PAB) will be administered to the Mission Specialists to fulfill the goals of this experiment. These tests are based upon current theoretical models of human performance and the hypothesized effects of microgravity. The principle objective is the identification of the effects of microgravity upon specific information processing skills affecting performance from those of fatigue and shifts in work/rest cycles. Multiple measures of both short and long term fatigue will be obtained and used as a major independent variable for the analysis of these performance data. Scientific supporting studies will determine optimum practice and performance testing schedules for the astronauts. The same tests will be used post-flight to collect data on the recovery of any cognitive performance impairment compared with pre-flight, baseline levels.

Schiflett, Samuel G.

1992-01-01

63

Ultradian Cognitive Performance Rhythms During Sleep Deprivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultradian rhythms that modulate daytime human behavior and cognitive performance exist. However, their subtleness may make\\u000a them susceptible to masking effects from heightened arousal, attention, and motivation. Experimental designs using sleep attenuation\\u000a and total sleep-deprivation appear to unmask certain ultradian rhythms. This chapter reviews the few studies designed to evaluate\\u000a rhythms in waking EEG and task performances during sleep deprivation.

C. M. LaJambe; F. M. Brown

64

Cognitive Performance in a Subclinical Obsessive-Compulsive Sample 1: Cognitive Functions  

PubMed Central

Individuals who are not clinically diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but still display obsessive-compulsive (OC) tendencies may show cognitive impairments. The present study investigated whether there are subgroups within a healthy group showing characteristic cognitive and emotional performance levels similar to those found in OCD patients and whether they differ from OCD subgroups regarding performance levels. Of interest are those cases showing subclinical symptomatology. The results revealed no impairments in the subclinical OC participants on the neuropsychological tasks, while evidence suggests that there exist high and low scores on two standardised clinical instruments (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Cognitive Assessment Instrument of Obsessions and Compulsions) in a healthy sample. OC symptoms may diminish the quality of life and prolong sustainable return to work. It may be that occupational rehabilitation programmes are more effective in rectifying subclinical OC tendencies compared to the often complex symptoms of diagnosed OCD patients. The relationship between cognitive style and subclinical OC symptoms is discussed in terms of how materials and information might be processed. Although subclinical OC tendencies would not seem to constitute a diagnosis of OCD, the quality of treatment programmes such as cognitive behavioural therapy can be improved based on the current investigation. PMID:24236282

Johansen, Thomas; Dittrich, Winand H.

2013-01-01

65

Cognitive performance in a subclinical obsessive-compulsive sample 1: cognitive functions.  

PubMed

Individuals who are not clinically diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but still display obsessive-compulsive (OC) tendencies may show cognitive impairments. The present study investigated whether there are subgroups within a healthy group showing characteristic cognitive and emotional performance levels similar to those found in OCD patients and whether they differ from OCD subgroups regarding performance levels. Of interest are those cases showing subclinical symptomatology. The results revealed no impairments in the subclinical OC participants on the neuropsychological tasks, while evidence suggests that there exist high and low scores on two standardised clinical instruments (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Cognitive Assessment Instrument of Obsessions and Compulsions) in a healthy sample. OC symptoms may diminish the quality of life and prolong sustainable return to work. It may be that occupational rehabilitation programmes are more effective in rectifying subclinical OC tendencies compared to the often complex symptoms of diagnosed OCD patients. The relationship between cognitive style and subclinical OC symptoms is discussed in terms of how materials and information might be processed. Although subclinical OC tendencies would not seem to constitute a diagnosis of OCD, the quality of treatment programmes such as cognitive behavioural therapy can be improved based on the current investigation. PMID:24236282

Johansen, Thomas; Dittrich, Winand H

2013-01-01

66

Cognitive-behavioral training for college basketball free-throw performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cognitive-behavioral training program was implemented to improve the free-throw performance of three male Division-II college basketball players. A multiple-baseline design across subjects was used, finding percent improvements of 88%, 78.6%, and 50% for subjects 1, 2, and 3. Cognitive changes were measured via a videotape feedback reconstruction process. Significant changes from negative to positive cognitions were found.

Sharon A. Hamilton; William J. Fremouw

1985-01-01

67

Modeling the Impact of Cognitive Moderators on Human Cognition and Performance  

E-print Network

in cognitive processes, including those mediating cognitive appraisal. My research aims to characterizeModeling the Impact of Cognitive Moderators on Human Cognition and Performance Kevin A. Gluck (kevin.gluck@mesa.afmc.af.mil) Glenn Gunzelmann (glenn.gunzelmann@mesa.afmc.af.mil) Air Force Research

Ritter, Frank

68

Effects of simultaneously performed cognitive and physical training in older adults  

PubMed Central

Background While many studies confirm the positive effect of cognitive and physical training on cognitive performance of older adults, only little is known about the effects of simultaneously performed cognitive and physical training. In the current study, older adults simultaneously performed a verbal working memory and a cardiovascular training to improve cognitive and motor-cognitive dual task performance. Twenty training sessions of 30 minutes each were conducted over a period of ten weeks, with a test session before, in the middle, and after the training. Training gains were tested in measures of selective attention, paired-associates learning, executive control, reasoning, memory span, information processing speed, and motor-cognitive dual task performance in the form of walking and simultaneously performing a working memory task. Results Sixty-three participants with a mean age of 71.8?±?4.9 years (range 65 to 84) either performed the simultaneous training (N?=?21), performed a single working memory training (N?=?16), or attended no training at all (N?=?26). The results indicate similar training progress and larger improvements in the executive control task for both training groups when compared to the passive control group. In addition, the simultaneous training resulted in larger improvements compared to the single cognitive training in the paired-associates task and was able to reduce the step-to-step variability during the motor-cognitive dual task when compared to the single cognitive training and the passive control group. Conclusions The simultaneous training of cognitive and physical abilities presents a promising training concept to improve cognitive and motor-cognitive dual task performance, offering greater potential on daily life functioning, which usually involves the recruitment of multiple abilities and resources rather than a single one. PMID:24053148

2013-01-01

69

[Improving functional outcome of schizophrenia with cognitive remediation].  

PubMed

The functional outcome of schizophrenia is partly conditioned by cognitive disorders associated with this disease. The functional outcome of schizophrenia depends not only on psychotropic medications, but also on non-pharmacological measures and in particular on cognitive remediation. All patients suffering from schizophrenia should benefit from a multidisciplinary functional evaluation including neuropsychological assessment. The restitution of the functional evaluation's results values preserved skills rather than deficits. Cognitive remediation should be considered when cognitive disorders have a functional impact. It reduces the impact of the patient's cognitive disorders and improves the success of his/her concrete projects. PMID:25544348

Franck, Nicolas; Demily, Caroline

2015-03-01

70

Exercise therapy and cognitive behavioural therapy to improve fatigue, daily activity performance and quality of life in Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome: the protocol of the FACTS-2-PPS trial  

PubMed Central

Background Postpoliomyelitis Syndrome (PPS) is a complex of late onset neuromuscular symptoms with new or increased muscle weakness and muscle fatigability as key symptoms. Main clinical complaints are severe fatigue, deterioration in functional abilities and health related quality of life. Rehabilitation management is the mainstay of treatment. Two different therapeutic interventions may be prescribed (1) exercise therapy or (2) cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). However, the evidence on the effectiveness of both interventions is limited. The primary aim of the FACTS-2-PPS trial is to study the efficacy of exercise therapy and CBT for reducing fatigue and improving activities and quality of life in patients with PPS. Additionally, the working mechanisms, patients' and therapists' expectations of and experiences with both interventions and cost-effectiveness will be evaluated. Methods/Design A multi-centre, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial will be conducted. A sample of 81 severely fatigued patients with PPS will be recruited from 3 different university hospitals and their affiliate rehabilitation centres. Patients will be randomized to one of three groups i.e. (1) exercise therapy + usual care, (2) CBT + usual care, (3) usual care. At baseline, immediately post-intervention and at 3- and 6-months follow-up, fatigue, activities, quality of life and secondary outcomes will be assessed. Costs will be based on a cost questionnaire, and statistical analyses on GEE (generalized estimated equations). Analysis will also consider mechanisms of change during therapy. A responsive evaluation will be conducted to monitor the implementation process and to investigate the perspectives of patients and therapists on both interventions. Discussion A major strength of the FACTS-2-PPS study is the use of a mixed methods design in which a responsive and economic evaluation runs parallel to the trial. The results of this study will generate new evidence for the rehabilitation treatment of persons with PPS. Trial registration Dutch Trial Register NTR1371. PMID:20082714

2010-01-01

71

Disentangling the Relationship between Hemispheric Asymmetry and Cognitive Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is widely believed that advantages of hemispheric asymmetries originated in better cognitive processing, hence it is often implied that the relationship between hemispheric asymmetry and cognitive performance is linearly positive: the higher the degree of lateralization in a specific cognitive domain, the better the performance in a…

Hirnstein, Marco; Leask, Stuart; Rose, Jonas; Hausmann, Markus

2010-01-01

72

Effect of Vinpocetine (Cognitol™) on Cognitive Performances of a Nigerian Population  

PubMed Central

Background: Chronic medical disorders are often complicated by cognitive impairments, making medical intervention that can alleviate cognitive disturbances desirable. Vinpocetine enhances cerebral utilization of oxygen and glucose and consequently improves cerebral functions including memory. Aim: This study assessed the efficacy of vinpocetine (Cognitol™) in improving memory and concentration in cognitively impaired patients. Subjects and Methods: A prospective analytical study of 56 cognitively impaired patients compared with age, sex and level of education matched 56 controls. Cognitive performance was assessed with the Short Blessed Test, which was pilot-tested. Baseline cognitive performances of the patients and controls were obtained and thereafter cognitive performances of the patients were assessed at 6 and 12 weeks after administration of vinpocetine at a dose of 5 mg twice-a-day. Comparative analysis of their performances at baseline was done using the Student t-test, while the improvement in patients’ performances and effect of disease variables on cognitive performances were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and likelihood ratio analysis respectively. Results: The mean (standard deviation) [SD] ages of the cognitively impaired patients (56/112) and controls (56/112) were 49.5 (18.9) and 53.8 (15.8) years respectively (P = 0.19; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.2-10.8). The pilot study yielded an optimal cut-off error score of 6 with a sensitivity of 71.4%, specificity of 96.4% and accuracy of 83.9%. Patients performed significantly worse than the controls (P < 0.001; 95% CI 6.7-11.4). There were significant improvements in memory and concentration with vinpocetine therapy (P < 0.05). The clinical variables of the patients had no effect on the trend of cognitive performances. Conclusions: Vinpocetine was effective in improving memory and concentration of patients with epilepsy and dementia although the efficacy was minimal in demented patients. PMID:25221724

Ogunrin, AO

2014-01-01

73

Social Priming Improves Cognitive Control in Elderly Adults—Evidence from the Simon Task  

PubMed Central

We examined whether social priming of cognitive states affects the inhibitory process in elderly adults, as aging is related to deficits in inhibitory control. Forty-eight elderly adults and 45 young adults were assigned to three groups and performed a cognitive control task (Simon task), which was followed by 3 different manipulations of social priming (i.e., thinking about an 82 year-old person): 1) negative—characterized by poor cognitive abilities, 2) neutral—characterized by acts irrelevant to cognitive abilities, and 3) positive—excellent cognitive abilities. After the manipulation, the Simon task was performed again. Results showed improvement in cognitive control effects in seniors after the positive manipulation, indicated by a significant decrease in the magnitude of the Simon and interference effects, but not after the neutral and negative manipulations. Furthermore, a healthy pattern of sequential effect (Gratton) that was absent before the manipulation in all 3 groups appeared after the positive manipulation. Namely, the Simon effect was only present after congruent but not after incongruent trials for the positive manipulation group. No influence of manipulations was found in young adults. These meaningful results were replicated in a second experiment and suggest a decrease in conflict interference resulting from positive cognitive state priming. Our study provides evidence that an implicit social concept of a positive cognitive condition in old age can affect the control process of the elderly and improve cognitive abilities. PMID:25635946

Aisenberg, Daniela; Cohen, Noga; Pick, Hadas; Tressman, Iris; Rappaport, Michal; Shenberg, Tal; Henik, Avishai

2015-01-01

74

Reading Comprehension Improvement with Individualized Cognitive Profiles and Metacognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study models improving classroom reading instruction through valid assessment and individualized metacomprehension. Individualized cognitive profiles of Woodcock-Johnson III cognitive abilities correlated with reading comprehension were used during classroom independent reading for judgments of learning, feedback, self-reflection, and…

Allen, Kathleen D.; Hancock, Thomas E.

2008-01-01

75

How Does Exercise Benefit Performance on Cognitive Tests in Primary-School Pupils?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: We have previously demonstrated improved cognitive performance after a classroom-based exercise regime. In this study, we examined the reproducibility of this effect in a more socio-economically diverse sample and also investigated whether cognitive benefits of exercise were moderated by body mass index (BMI) or symptoms of…

Hill, Liam J. B.; Williams, Justin H. G.; Aucott, Lorna; Thomson, Jenny; Mon-Williams, Mark

2011-01-01

76

Aging and Cognitive Performance: Challenges and Implications for Physicians Practicing in the 21st Century  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The demands of physician practice are growing. Some specialties face critical shortages and a significant percentage of physicians are aging. To improve health care it is paramount to understand and address challenges, including cognitive issues, facing aging physicians. In this article, we outline several issues related to cognitive performance

Durning, Steven J.; Artino, Anthony R.; Holmboe, Eric; Beckman, Thomas J.; van der Vleuten, Cees; Schuwirth, Lambert

2010-01-01

77

Please cite this article in press as: Moore, H., et al., Harnessing cognitive neuroscience to develop new treatments for improv-ing cognition in schizophrenia: CNTRICS selected cognitive paradigms for animal models. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (2013),  

E-print Network

to develop new treatments for improv- ing cognition in schizophrenia: CNTRICS selected cognitive paradigms.elsevier.com/locate/neubiorev Editorial Harnessing cognitive neuroscience to develop new treatments for improving cognition Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative was developed. The goal of CNTRICS

2013-01-01

78

Drama is a way to improve emotional and cognitive health.  

E-print Network

the participants were able to develop their confidence and self-esteem. `What was emerging naturally was a trust64 Drama is a way to improve emotional and cognitive health. 64 | THE DNA OF INNOvATION | v

Paxton, Anthony T.

79

On the Performance of Calibration Techniques for Cognitive Radio Systems  

E-print Network

On the Performance of Calibration Techniques for Cognitive Radio Systems Boris Kouassi1, Irfan.ghauri@intel.com, bassem.zayen@eurecom.fr, deneire@i3s.unice.fr Abstract--In Cognitive Radio (CR) systems, primary licensed. Index Terms--Cognitive Radio, reciprocity calibration, MIMO/TDD, beamforming, signal processing, channel

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

80

Multi-hop Performance Analysis of Whisper Cognitive Radio Networks  

E-print Network

1 Multi-hop Performance Analysis of Whisper Cognitive Radio Networks Quanjun Chen, Chun Tung Chou that wireless communications face. Cognitive Radio Networks (CRNs) allow secondary users to opportunistically that the interference at the primary receiver meets a certain threshold. We refer the Cognitive Radio Networks

New South Wales, University of

81

Performance of a Cognitive Radio Network with Tolerable Service Degradation  

E-print Network

Performance of a Cognitive Radio Network with Tolerable Service Degradation Shensheng Tang Dept of a cognitive radio wireless network, where secondary users opportunistically share the radio spectrum spectrum are highly un- derutilized [1], [2]. Cognitive radios have been proposed as a promising approach

Shihada, Basem

82

Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone Differentially Improve Cognition in Aged Female Mice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared with age-matched male mice, female mice experience a more severe age-related cognitive decline (ACD). Since androgens are less abundant in aged female mice compared with aged male mice, androgen supplementation may enhance cognition in aged female mice. To test this, we assessed behavioral performance on a variety of tasks in 22- to…

Benice, Ted S.; Raber, Jacob

2009-01-01

83

Performance Improvement Assuming Complexity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual performers, work teams, and organizations may be considered complex adaptive systems, while most current human performance technologies appear to assume simple determinism. This article explores the apparent mismatch and speculates on future efforts to enhance performance if complexity rather than simplicity is assumed. Included are…

Rowland, Gordon

2007-01-01

84

Cognitive Ability and Variation in Selection Task Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in performance on a variety of selection tasks were examined in three studies employing over 800 participants. Nondeontic tasks were solved disproportionately by individuals of higher cognitive ability. In contrast, responses on two deontic tasks that have shown robust performance facilitation— the Drinking-age Problem and the Sears Problem—were unrelated to cognitive ability. Performance on deontic and nondeontic tasks

Keith E. Stanovich Richard F. West; Richard F. West

1998-01-01

85

Deliberation's blindsight: how cognitive load can improve judgments.  

PubMed

Multitasking poses a major challenge in modern work environments by putting the worker under cognitive load. Performance decrements often occur when people are under high cognitive load because they switch to less demanding--and often less accurate--cognitive strategies. Although cognitive load disturbs performance over a wide range of tasks, it may also carry benefits. In the experiments reported here, we showed that judgment performance can increase under cognitive load. Participants solved a multiple-cue judgment task in which high performance could be achieved by using a similarity-based judgment strategy but not by using a more demanding rule-based judgment strategy. Accordingly, cognitive load induced a shift to a similarity-based judgment strategy, which consequently led to more accurate judgments. By contrast, shifting to a similarity-based strategy harmed judgments in a task best solved by using a rule-based strategy. These results show how important it is to consider the cognitive strategies people rely on to understand how people perform in demanding work environments. PMID:23575598

Hoffmann, Janina A; von Helversen, Bettina; Rieskamp, Jörg

2013-06-01

86

Improved cognition after control of risk factors for multi-infarct dementia  

SciTech Connect

A cohort of 52 patients (30 men and 22 women) with multi-infarct dementia (MID) has been followed up prospectively for a mean interval of 22.2 months. Clinical course has been documented by serial history taking and interviews and neurological, medical, and psychological examinations, and correlated with measurements of cerebral blood flow. The clinical course and cognitive performance have been compared with those of age-matched normal volunteers and patients with Alzheimer's disease. Patients with MID were subdivided into hypertensive and normotensive groups, and also into those displaying stabilized or improved cognition and those whose condition deteriorated. Among hypertensive patients with MID, improved cognition and clinical course correlated with control of systolic blood pressure within upper limits of normalf (135 to 150 mm Hg), but if systolic blood pressure was reduced below this level, patients with MID deteriorated. Among normotensive patients with MID, improved cognition was associated with cessation of smoking cigarettes.

Meyer, J.S.; Judd, B.W.; Tawaklna, T.; Rogers, R.L.; Mortel, K.F.

1986-10-24

87

Age dependent levels of plasma homocysteine and cognitive performance.  

PubMed

Elevated plasma homocysteine (hcy) levels, also known as hyperhomocysteinemia (hhcy), have been associated with cognitive impairment and neurodegenerative disorders. Hhcy has been attributed to deficiency of B vitamins which can adversely affect the brain and result in memory loss and poor attention power. Monitoring hcy levels and the use of vitamin supplementation to treat hhcy may therefore prove advantageous for the prevention and management of cognitive impairment. With this in consideration, we measured plasma hcy, folate and vitamin B12 levels in 639 subjects from different age groups in two sub-regions of India. Cognitive function was also measured using attention span and immediate and delayed memory recall tests. Depression scores were obtained using the Beck Depression Inventory-II and functional impairment was assessed using the functional activities questionnaire (FAQ) score. As hhcy has also been linked to inflammation, plasma levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were also measured. The results demonstrated significant negative correlations between hcy levels and folic acid levels, vitamin B12 levels and cognitive performance (attention span and delayed but not immediate memory recall) along with significant positive correlations between hcy levels and depression scores and hsCRP (but not IL-6) levels. A positive correlation was also observed between hcy levels and FAQ scores, however this was not found to be significant. Based on these results, folic acid and vitamin B12 intervention in people with elevated hcy levels in India could prove to be effective in lowering hcy levels and help maintain or improve cognitive function. PMID:25601573

Agrawal, Aruna; Ilango, K; Singh, Praveen K; Karmakar, Dipankar; Singh, G P I; Kumari, Rinki; Dubey, G P

2015-04-15

88

Performance Improvement [in HRD].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These four papers are from a symposium that was facilitated by Richard J. Torraco at the 1995 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (HRD). "Performance Technology--Isn't It Time We Found Some New Models?" (William J. Rothwell) reviews briefly two classic models, describes criteria for the high performance workplace (HPW), and…

1995

89

QUASAR's QStates cognitive gauge performance in the cognitive state assessment competition 2011.  

PubMed

The Cognitive State Assessment Competition 2011 was organized by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) to compare the performance of real-time cognitive state classification software. This paper presents results for QUASAR's data classification module, QStates, which is a software package for real-time (and off-line) analysis of physiologic data collected during cognitive-specific tasks. The classifier's methodology can be generalized to any particular cognitive state; QStates identifies the most salient features extracted from EEG signals recorded during different cognitive states or loads. PMID:22255838

McDonald, Neil J; Soussou, Walid

2011-01-01

90

Walking and talking therapy: Improving cognitive–motor dual-tasking in neurological illness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using randomized control trial methodology, we evaluated the effectiveness of a 5-week cognitive-motor dual-tasking training program developed to improve performance of a group of people with dual-tasking diffi culties arising from acquired brain injury. Training involved twice-daily practice on exercises involving walking being combined with tasks which increased in cognitive demand over the course of the intervention. A treatment group

JONATHAN J. EVANS; EVE GREENFIELD; BARBARA A. WILSON; ANDREW BATEMAN

2009-01-01

91

Improving Deaerator Performance  

E-print Network

The objectives of deaeration of feedwater are reviewed. A discussion of appropriate test data and methods for assessing deaerator performance are given. Analysis procedures are developed to analyze the test data. Typical problems such as over...

Dyer, D. F.; Maples, G.

92

Optimizing performance through process improvement.  

PubMed

Health care professionals have found traditional problem solving and traditional management have not succeeded in "assuring quality." Organizations are changing the way they do business and are utilizing process improvement methodology to improve performance. Based on important functions, select dimensions of performance for processes are measured, evaluated, redesigned, and improved. Once priorities for improvement activities are determined, improvement projects can be implemented utilizing various process improvement models. The PRIDE (process, relevant, interpret, design, execute) model, designed by the authors, is one approach that can be applied in any setting. PMID:7994066

Keill, P; Johnson, T

1994-10-01

93

Can antipsychotics improve social cognition in patients with schizophrenia?  

PubMed

Social cognition is described as the higher mental processes that are engaged while people store, process, and use social information to make sense of themselves and others. Aspects of social cognition include emotion perception, social cue interpretation, attribution style, and theory of mind, all of which appear disordered in schizophrenia. Such social cognitive deficits are believed to be important predictors of functional outcome in schizophrenia, therefore they may represent a crucial treatment target. Few studies have evaluated the influence of antipsychotic treatment on these deficits. The purpose of this review is to examine the relationship between antipsychotic treatment and social cognition, whether antipsychotics improve social cognitive function, and if so to explore differential medication effects. Comprehensive searches of PsycINFO and MEDLINE/PUBMED were conducted to identify relevant published manuscripts. Fifteen relevant papers published in English were found, describing original studies. On the basis of this review, we have drawn the following conclusions: first, the results do not engender optimism for the possibility that antipsychotic drugs can specifically facilitate social recovery. Second, the actions of antipsychotics on social cognition are inconclusive, due to lack of standardization across research groups, leading to inconsistencies between study designs, methods used, and medication dosages. Third, large-scale longitudinal investigations are needed to explore the unclear relationships between social cognition, symptoms, and functional outcome. Other non-pharmacological treatments focusing on training patients in the social cognitive areas may hold more promise. PMID:23533009

Kucharska-Pietura, Katarzyna; Mortimer, Ann

2013-05-01

94

Improving Accuracy for Identifying Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Deficit measurement is the sine qua non of neuropsychology. The risk, of course, is that we can be so focused on deficit measurement\\u000a – and so focused on describing the nature and severity of a person’s cognitive impairment – that we can underappreciate human\\u000a diversity and overattribute low or unexpected test scores to brain injury or disease. The North American

Grant L. Iverson; Brian L. Brooks

95

Improved quality of life and cognitive stimulation therapy in dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality of life (QoL) is now seen as a key outcome in many aspects of dementia care. In a recent randomized controlled trial of Cognitive Stimulation Therapy (CST) groups, significant improvements in self-reported QoL were identified as well as changes in cognitive function. This further analysis of results from the trial examines whether the changes in these two domains occurred

B. Woods; L. Thorgrimsen; A. Spector; L. Royan; M. Orrell

2006-01-01

96

The Hydration Equation: Update on Water Balance and Cognitive Performance  

PubMed Central

LEARNING OBJECTIVES To become aware of the most practical measures of hydration status.To describe sources of water input and output and the basics of water balance.To understand how hydration status may impact daily cognitive performance. CONDENSED VERSION AND BOTTOM LINE Water is a crucial nutrient and euhydration is necessary for optimal daily functioning. Water balance is precisely regulated within the body and many methods exist for assessing hydration status. Cognitive performance measures an individual’s attentiveness, critical thinking skills, and memory. Traditionally a 2% or more body water deficit was thought to produce cognitive performance decrements; however, recent literature suggests that even mild dehydration – a body water loss of 1–2% – can impair cognitive performance. Counseling clients about their health and wellbeing should include conveying the importance of water for normal body functioning, as well as its effects on physical and cognitive performance. PMID:25346594

Riebl, Shaun K; Davy, Brenda M.

2013-01-01

97

Cognitive Styles, Dynamic Geometry and Measurement Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the outcomes of an empirical study undertaken to investigate the effect of students' cognitive styles on achievement in measurement tasks in a dynamic geometry learning environment, and to explore the ability of dynamic geometry learning in accommodating different cognitive styles and enhancing students' learning. A total of 49…

Pitta-Pantazi, Demetra; Christou, Constantinos

2009-01-01

98

Assessing executive performance during cognitive rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive functioning influences a host of other cognitive processes and people who attend neuropsychological services are more likely to display executive dysfunction than any other cognitive deficit (Stuss & Levine, 2002). Impairment in executive functioning disrupts a person's ability to effectively employ their intact areas of functioning, and undermines effective self-management of other areas of dysfunction, hampering attempts to employ

Mark W. Lewis; Duncan R. Babbage; Janet M. Leathem

2011-01-01

99

Do cognitive interventions improve general cognition in dementia? A meta-analysis and meta-regression  

PubMed Central

Objectives To review the efficacy of cognitive interventions on improving general cognition in dementia. Method Online literature databases and trial registers, previous systematic reviews and leading journals were searched for relevant randomised controlled trials. A systematic review, random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regression were conducted. Cognitive interventions were categorised as: cognitive stimulation (CS), involving a range of social and cognitive activities to stimulate multiple cognitive domains; cognitive training (CT), involving repeated practice of standardised tasks targeting a specific cognitive function; cognitive rehabilitation (CR), which takes a person-centred approach to target impaired function; or mixed  CT and stimulation (MCTS). Separate analyses were conducted for general cognitive outcome measures and for studies using ‘active’ (designed to control for non-specific therapeutic effects) and non-active (minimal or no intervention) control groups. Results 33 studies were included. Significant positive effect sizes (Hedges’ g) were found for CS with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) (g=0.51, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.69; p<0.001) compared to non-active controls and (g=0.35, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.65; p=0.019) compared to active controls. Significant benefit was also seen with the Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale-Cognition (ADAS-Cog) (g=?0.26, 95% CI ?0.445 to ?0.08; p=0.005). There was no evidence that CT or MCTS produced significant improvements on general cognition outcomes and not enough CR studies for meta-analysis. The lowest accepted minimum clinically important difference was reached in 11/17 CS studies for the MMSE, but only 2/9 studies for the ADAS-Cog. Additionally, 95% prediction intervals suggested that although statistically significant, CS may not lead to benefits on the ADAS-Cog in all clinical settings. Conclusions CS improves scores on MMSE and ADAS-Cog in dementia, but benefits on the ADAS-Cog are generally not clinically significant and difficulties with blinding of patients and use of adequate placebo controls make comparison with the results of dementia drug treatments problematic. PMID:25838501

Huntley, J D; Gould, R L; Liu, K; Smith, M; Howard, R J

2015-01-01

100

Improved local spectrum sensing for cognitive radio networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The successful deployment of dynamic spectrum access requires cognitive radio (CR) to more accurately find the unoccupied portion of the spectrum. An accurate spectrum sensing technique can reduce the probability of false alarms and misdetection. Cooperative spectrum sensing is usually employed to achieve accuracy and improve reliability, but at the cost of cooperation overhead among CR users. This overhead can be reduced by improving local spectrum sensing accuracy. Several signal processing techniques for transmitter detection have been proposed in the literature but more sophisticated approaches are needed to enhance sensing efficiency. This article proposes a two-stage local spectrum sensing approach. In the first stage, each CR performs existing spectrum sensing techniques, i.e., energy detection, matched filter detection, and cyclostationary detection. In the second stage, the output from each technique is combined using fuzzy logic in order to deduce the presence or absence of a primary transmitter. Simulation results verify that our proposed technique outperforms existing local spectrum sensing techniques. The proposed approach shows significant improvement in sensing accuracy by exhibiting a higher probability of detection and low false alarms. The mean detection time of the proposed scheme is equivalent to that of cyclostationary detection.

Ejaz, Waleed; ul Hasan, Najam; Azam, Muhammad Awais; Kim, Hyung Seok

2012-12-01

101

Augmenting team cognition in human-automation teams performing in complex operational environments.  

PubMed

There is a growing reliance on automation (e.g., intelligent agents, semi-autonomous robotic systems) to effectively execute increasingly cognitively complex tasks. Successful team performance for such tasks has become even more dependent on team cognition, addressing both human-human and human-automation teams. Team cognition can be viewed as the binding mechanism that produces coordinated behavior within experienced teams, emerging from the interplay between each team member's individual cognition and team process behaviors (e.g., coordination, communication). In order to better understand team cognition in human-automation teams, team performance models need to address issues surrounding the effect of human-agent and human-robot interaction on critical team processes such as coordination and communication. Toward this end, we present a preliminary theoretical framework illustrating how the design and implementation of automation technology may influence team cognition and team coordination in complex operational environments. Integrating constructs from organizational and cognitive science, our proposed framework outlines how information exchange and updating between humans and automation technology may affect lower-level (e.g., working memory) and higher-level (e.g., sense making) cognitive processes as well as teams' higher-order "metacognitive" processes (e.g., performance monitoring). Issues surrounding human-automation interaction are discussed and implications are presented within the context of designing automation technology to improve task performance in human-automation teams. PMID:17547306

Cuevas, Haydee M; Fiore, Stephen M; Caldwell, Barrett S; Strater, Laura

2007-05-01

102

Priming Ability-Relevant Social Categories Improves Intellectual Test Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that priming affects behavioral tasks; fewer studies, however, have been conducted on how social category primes affect cognitive tasks. The present study aimed to examine the effects of social category primes on math performance and word recall. It was hypothesized that Asian prime words would improve math performance and word…

Lin, Phoebe S.; Kennette, Lynne N.; Van Havermaet, Lisa R.; Frank, Nichole M.; McIntyre, Rusty B.

2012-01-01

103

Stop of loss of cognitive performance during rehabilitation after total hip arthroplasty-prospective controlled study.  

PubMed

Prolonged hospitalization is known to be associated with a loss of cognitive performance. Does playing video games (VGs) developed to improve cognitive properties delay this loss or even lead to an increase in cognitive performance? We performed a 10-day longitudinal study of patients who received total hip arthroplasty. We compared 16 patients (6 male) aged 66 ± 9 years (mean ± standard deviation) who played Dr. Kawashima's Brain Training: How Old Is Your Brain? (Nintendo; Redmond, Washington) on a Nintendo DS handheld console with 16 control patients (6 male) aged 69 ± 14 years. We measured cognitive performance 1 day preoperation, as well as on days 2 and 9 postoperation. With the daily exercise of a specific VG by the play group, the patients' fluid intelligence (median intelligence quotient 99-106), working memory capacity, and rate of information processing significantly improved over the course of 7 postoperative days. The cognitive performance of the control group did not increase. However, the memory spans of both groups did not systematically change. Exercise with VGs can prevent the loss of cognitive performance during prolonged hospitalization. PMID:21174253

Brem, Matthias H; Lehrl, Siegfried; Rein, Anna K; Massute, Sylvia; Schulz-Drost, Stefan; Gelse, Kolja; Schlechtweg, Phillip M; Hennig, Friedrich F; Olk, Alexander; Jacob, Harald J; Gusinde, Johannes

2010-01-01

104

Patients Undergoing Subacute Physical Rehabilitation following an Acute Hospital Admission Demonstrated Improvement in Cognitive Functional Task Independence  

PubMed Central

Objective. This study investigated cognitive functioning among older adults with physical debility not attributable to an acute injury or neurological condition who were receiving subacute inpatient physical rehabilitation. Design. A cohort investigation with assessments at admission and discharge. Setting. Three geriatric rehabilitation hospital wards. Participants. Consecutive rehabilitation admissions (n = 814) following acute hospitalization (study criteria excluded orthopaedic, neurological, or amputation admissions). Intervention. Usual rehabilitation care. Measurements. The Functional Independence Measure (FIM) Cognitive and Motor items. Results. A total of 704 (86.5%) participants (mean age = 76.5 years) completed both assessments. Significant improvement in FIM Cognitive items (Z-score range 3.93–8.74, all P < 0.001) and FIM Cognitive total score (Z-score = 9.12, P < 0.001) occurred, in addition to improvement in FIM Motor performance. A moderate positive correlation existed between change in Motor and Cognitive scores (Spearman's rho = 0.41). Generalized linear modelling indicated that better cognition at admission (coefficient = 0.398, P < 0.001) and younger age (coefficient = ?0.280, P < 0.001) were predictive of improvement in Motor performance. Younger age (coefficient = ?0.049, P < 0.001) was predictive of improvement in FIM Cognitive score. Conclusions. Improvement in cognitive functioning was observed in addition to motor function improvement among this population. Causal links cannot be drawn without further research. PMID:25544961

McPhail, Steven M.; Varghese, Paul N.; Kuys, Suzanne S.

2014-01-01

105

Improving sleep and cognition by hypnotic suggestion in the elderly.  

PubMed

Sleep quality markedly declines across the human lifespan. Particularly the amount of slow-wave sleep (SWS) decreases with age and this decrease is paralleled by a loss of cognitive functioning in the elderly. Here we show in healthy elderly females that the amount of SWS can be extended by a hypnotic suggestion "to sleep deeper" before sleep. In a placebo-controlled cross-over design, participants listened to hypnotic suggestions or a control tape before a midday nap while high density electroencephalography was recorded. After the hypnotic suggestion, we observed a 57% increase in SWS in females suggestible to hypnosis as compared to the control condition. Furthermore, left frontal slow-wave activity (SWA), characteristic for SWS, was significantly increased, followed by a significant improvement in prefrontal cognitive functioning after sleep. Our results suggest that hypnotic suggestions might be a successful alternative for widely-used sleep-enhancing medication to extend SWS and improve cognition in the elderly. PMID:25660206

Cordi, Maren Jasmin; Hirsiger, Sarah; Mérillat, Susan; Rasch, Björn

2015-03-01

106

Practice of Contemporary Dance Improves Cognitive Flexibility in Aging  

PubMed Central

As society ages and frequency of dementia increases exponentially, counteracting cognitive aging decline is a challenging issue for countries of the developed world. Previous studies have suggested that physical fitness based on cardiovascular and strength training helps to improve attentional control in normal aging. However, how motor activity based on motor-skill learning can also benefit attentional control with age has been hitherto a neglected issue. This study examined the impact of contemporary dance (CD) improvisation on attentional control of older adults, as compared to two other motor training programs, fall prevention and Tai Chi Chuan. Participants performed setting, suppressing, and switching attention tasks before and after 5.7-month training in either CD or fall prevention or Tai Chi Chuan. Results indicated that CD improved switching but not setting or suppressing attention. In contrast, neither fall prevention nor Tai Chi Chuan showed any effect. We suggest that CD improvisation works as a training for change, inducing plasticity in flexible attention. PMID:21960971

Coubard, Olivier A.; Duretz, Stéphanie; Lefebvre, Virginie; Lapalus, Pauline; Ferrufino, Lena

2011-01-01

107

The effects of nicotine on cognition are dependent on baseline performance.  

PubMed

Since cholinergic neurotransmission plays a major role in cognition, stimulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor may be a target for cognitive enhancement. While nicotine improves performance on several cognitive domains, results of individual studies vary. A possible explanation for these findings is that the effect of nicotine administration may be dependent on baseline cognitive function, where subjects with a suboptimal cognitive performance may benefit from nicotine, while subjects who already perform optimally may show a decline in performance after nicotinic stimulation. We conducted a double-blind randomised placebo-controlled crossover trial, examining the effects of placebo, 1, and 2mg of nicotine on cognition in young (n=16, age 18-30 years) and healthy elderly (n=16, age 60-75 years) subjects. We hypothesised that the elderly would benefit more from nicotine compared to young subjects, as normal ageing is associated with decreases in cognitive function. Attention, working memory, visual memory, information-processing speed, psychomotor function, stereotypy, and emotion recognition were assessed. Compared to the young volunteers, the elderly performed significantly worse on psychomotor function and emotion recognition in the placebo condition. Nicotine had no effect in the young volunteers and decreased performance on working memory and visual memory in the elderly. Contrary to our hypothesis, the effect of nicotine was dependent on baseline performance in both the groups, with subjects with lower baseline performance benefiting from nicotine administration, while those with higher baseline performance performed worse after nicotine administration. This suggests that subjects with lower cognitive performance, irrespective of age, may benefit from nicotine. PMID:24766971

Niemegeers, Peter; Dumont, Glenn J H; Quisenaerts, Charel; Morrens, Manuel; Boonzaier, Julia; Fransen, Erik; de Bruijn, Ellen R A; Hulstijn, Wouter; Sabbe, Bernard G C

2014-07-01

108

Improving Reading Performance through Hypnosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a study investigating the effects of group hypnosis on the reading performance of university students in a reading and writing center. Discusses study procedures and presents data on pretest scores and gains in vocabulary and comprehension scores. Concludes that regular use of self-hypnosis significantly improved performance. (DMM)

Fillmer, H. Thompson; And Others

1981-01-01

109

Psychological Intervention for Improving Cognitive Function in Cancer Survivors: A Literature Review and Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Although the impact of cancer and associated treatments on cognitive functioning is becoming an increasingly recognized problem, there are few published studies that have investigated psychological interventions to address this issue. A waitlist randomized controlled trial methodology was used to assess the efficacy of a group cognitive rehabilitation intervention (“ReCog”) that successfully targeted cancer-related cognitive decline in previously published pilot research. Participants were 29 cancer survivors who were randomly allocated to either the intervention group or a waitlist group who received the intervention at a later date, and 16 demographically matched community volunteers with no history of cancer (trial registration ACTRN12615000009516, available at http://www.ANZCTR.org.au/ACTRN12615000009516.aspx). The study was the first to include an adapted version of the Traumatic Brain Injury Self-Efficacy Scale to assess cognitive self-efficacy (CSE) in people who have experienced cancer. Results revealed participating in the intervention was associated with significantly faster performance on one objective cognitive task that measures processing speed and visual scanning. Significantly larger improvements for the intervention group were also found on measures of perceived cognitive impairments and CSE. There was some evidence to support the roles of CSE and illness perceptions as potential mechanisms of change for the intervention. Overall, the study provided additional evidence of feasibility and efficacy of group psychological intervention for targeting cancer-related cognitive decline. PMID:25859431

King, Summer; Green, Heather Joy

2015-01-01

110

Arctic cognition: a study of cognitive performance in summer and winter at 69 degrees N  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evidence has accumulated over the past 15 years that affect in humans is cyclical. In winter there is a tendency to depression, with remission in summer, and this effect is stronger at higher latitudes. In order to determine whether human cognition is similarly rhythmical, this study investigated the cognitive processes of 100 participants living at 69 degrees N. Participants were tested in summer and winter on a range of cognitive tasks, including verbal memory, attention and simple reaction time tasks. The seasonally counterbalanced design and the very northerly latitude of this study provide optimal conditions for detecting impaired cognitive performance in winter, and the conclusion is negative: of five tasks with seasonal effects, four had disadvantages in summer. Like the menstrual cycle, the circannual cycle appears to influence mood but not cognition.

Brennen, T.; Martinussen, M.; Hansen, B. O.; Hjemdal, O.

1999-01-01

111

Acai fruit improves motor and cognitive function in aged rats  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aged rats show impaired performance on motor and cognitive tasks that require the use of spatial learning and memory. In previous studies, we have shown the beneficial effects of various berry fruits (blueberries, strawberries, and blackberries) in reversing age-related deficits in behavioral and ne...

112

Targeting Neural Synchrony Deficits is Sufficient to Improve Cognition in a Schizophrenia-Related Neurodevelopmental Model.  

PubMed

Cognitive symptoms are core features of mental disorders but procognitive treatments are limited. We have proposed a "discoordination" hypothesis that cognitive impairment results from aberrant coordination of neural activity. We reported that neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion (NVHL) rats, an established neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia, have abnormal neural synchrony and cognitive deficits in the active place avoidance task. During stillness, we observed that cortical local field potentials sometimes resembled epileptiform spike-wave discharges with higher prevalence in NVHL rats, indicating abnormal neural synchrony due perhaps to imbalanced excitation-inhibition coupling. Here, within the context of the hypothesis, we investigated whether attenuating abnormal neural synchrony will improve cognition in NVHL rats. We report that: (1) inter-hippocampal synchrony in the theta and beta bands is correlated with active place avoidance performance; (2) the anticonvulsant ethosuximide attenuated the abnormal spike-wave activity, improved cognitive control, and reduced hyperlocomotion; (3) ethosuximide not only normalized the task-associated theta and beta synchrony between the two hippocampi but also increased synchrony between the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus above control levels; (4) the antipsychotic olanzapine was less effective at improving cognitive control and normalizing place avoidance-related inter-hippocampal neural synchrony, although it reduced hyperactivity; and (5) olanzapine caused an abnormal pattern of frequency-independent increases in neural synchrony, in both NVHL and control rats. These data suggest that normalizing aberrant neural synchrony can be beneficial and that drugs targeting the pathophysiology of abnormally coordinated neural activities may be a promising theoretical framework and strategy for developing treatments that improve cognition in neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:24592242

Lee, Heekyung; Dvorak, Dino; Fenton, André A

2014-01-01

113

Targeting Neural Synchrony Deficits is Sufficient to Improve Cognition in a Schizophrenia-Related Neurodevelopmental Model  

PubMed Central

Cognitive symptoms are core features of mental disorders but procognitive treatments are limited. We have proposed a “discoordination” hypothesis that cognitive impairment results from aberrant coordination of neural activity. We reported that neonatal ventral hippocampus lesion (NVHL) rats, an established neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia, have abnormal neural synchrony and cognitive deficits in the active place avoidance task. During stillness, we observed that cortical local field potentials sometimes resembled epileptiform spike-wave discharges with higher prevalence in NVHL rats, indicating abnormal neural synchrony due perhaps to imbalanced excitation–inhibition coupling. Here, within the context of the hypothesis, we investigated whether attenuating abnormal neural synchrony will improve cognition in NVHL rats. We report that: (1) inter-hippocampal synchrony in the theta and beta bands is correlated with active place avoidance performance; (2) the anticonvulsant ethosuximide attenuated the abnormal spike-wave activity, improved cognitive control, and reduced hyperlocomotion; (3) ethosuximide not only normalized the task-associated theta and beta synchrony between the two hippocampi but also increased synchrony between the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus above control levels; (4) the antipsychotic olanzapine was less effective at improving cognitive control and normalizing place avoidance-related inter-hippocampal neural synchrony, although it reduced hyperactivity; and (5) olanzapine caused an abnormal pattern of frequency-independent increases in neural synchrony, in both NVHL and control rats. These data suggest that normalizing aberrant neural synchrony can be beneficial and that drugs targeting the pathophysiology of abnormally coordinated neural activities may be a promising theoretical framework and strategy for developing treatments that improve cognition in neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia. PMID:24592242

Lee, Heekyung; Dvorak, Dino; Fenton, André A.

2014-01-01

114

Impaired cognitive performance in patients with chronic burnout syndrome.  

PubMed

Chronic burnout refers to a syndrome caused by chronic stress. Clinical observations indicate that chronic burnout is associated with impaired cognitive functioning. However, there have been no systematic studies of the cognitive performance in chronic burnout patients. We have evaluated general cognitive ability, memory, and attention in 67 female patients treated for chronic burnout. The patients and 15 healthy control subjects were tested with standardized tests of verbal and nonverbal cognitive ability (WAIS), verbal (Claeson-Dahl) and nonverbal (Rey complex figures) memory, and visual and auditory attention (IVA). Significant reductions in nonverbal memory and auditory and visual attention were found for the patient group. These results indicate that patients with chronic burnout have specific cognitive impairments, which should be emphasized in the evaluation of symptoms and treatment regimes in this disorder. PMID:15925030

Sandström, Agneta; Rhodin, Ingalill Nyström; Lundberg, Mattias; Olsson, Tommy; Nyberg, Lars

2005-07-01

115

Similar effects on cognitive performance during high- and low-carbohydrate obesity treatment  

PubMed Central

Objective: Low-carbohydrate (L-CHO) diets are often used for weight loss but their effects on cognitive function are not well understood. The present study compared the effects of a L-CHO and high-carbohydrate (H-CHO) weight-loss diet on cognitive function adults. Design: Participants were randomized to either a L-CHO (n=22) or H-CHO (n=25) weight-loss diet. Cognitive function was evaluated by four computerized cognitive tasks (Stroop Task, Continuous Performance Task, Word Recall and Wisconsin Card Sorting Task) presented in random order before and at 1, 4, 12 and 24 weeks after the initiation of the L-CHO or H-CHO diet. Participants: Forty-seven adults (25 males) with a mean±s.d. age of 47.4±8.7 years and body mass index of 35.3±3.4?kg?m?2. Results: There were no significant differences in weight loss between groups at any time point. There were significant improvements on color Stroop task accuracy over time in both diet groups (P<0.05), but there were no differences in performance between groups on this or any other cognitive task at any time period. Conclusion: These findings suggest that weight loss has neither a positive nor a negative effect on cognitive function and that L-CHO and H-CHO weight-loss diets have similar effects on cognitive performance. PMID:24061557

Makris, A; Darcey, V L; Rosenbaum, D L; Komaroff, E; Vander Veur, S S; Collins, B N; Klein, S; Wyatt, H R; Foster, G D

2013-01-01

116

Improved Behavior, Motor, and Cognition Assessments in Neonatal Piglets  

PubMed Central

Abstract The alterations of animal behavior after traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be subtle, and their quantitative characterization can present significant methodological challenges. Meeting these challenges is a critical need, because quantitative measures are required in studies that compare the efficacy of different clinical interventions. We developed a battery of assessments to quantify behavioral, motor, and cognitive changes in neonatal piglets with good sensitivity and specificity to the detection of persistent deficits that correlate with axonal injury severity after a rapid non-impact head rotation with a diffuse pattern of axonal injury. The battery of measures developed included open field behaviors of sniffing and moving a toy, locomotion measures of Lempel-Ziv complexity and the probability of remaining in the current location, and a novel metric for evaluating motor performance. Our composite porcine disability score was able to detect brain injury with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 85.7% at day +4 post-injury for n=8 injured and n=7 sham piglets and significantly correlated with the percent axonal injury in these animals (day +4: ?=0.76, p=0.0011). A significant improvement over our previous assessments, this new porcine disability score has potential use in a wide variety of porcine disease and injury models. PMID:23758416

Sullivan, Sarah; Friess, Stuart H.; Ralston, Jill; Smith, Colin; Propert, Kathleen J.; Rapp, Paul E.

2013-01-01

117

Hydration effects on cognitive performance during military tasks in temperate and cold environments.  

PubMed

Body water deficits or hypohydration (HYP) may degrade cognitive performance during heat exposure and perhaps temperate conditions. Cold exposure often induces HYP, but the combined effects of cold and HYP on cognitive performance are unknown. This study investigated whether HYP degrades cognitive performance during cold exposure and if physical exercise could mitigate any cold-induced performance decline. On four occasions, eight volunteers completed one hour of militarily-relevant cognitive testing: 30 min of simulated sentry duty/marksmanship, 20 min of a visual vigilance task, a self-report workload assessment, and a mood questionnaire. Testing was conducted in a cold (2 degrees C) or temperate (20 degrees C) environment before and after cycle ergometer (60 min at 60% of VO(2peak)) exercise. Each trial was preceded by 3 h of passive heat stress (45 degrees C) in the early morning with (euhydration, EUH) or without (hypohydration, HYP; 3% body mass) fluid replacement followed by prolonged recovery. HYP did not alter any cognitive, psychomotor, or self-report parameter in either environment before or after exercise. Cold exposure increased (p<0.05) target detection latency in the sentry duty task, adversely affected mood and workload ratings, but had no impact on any other cognitive or psychomotor measure. After completing the exercise bout, there were modest improvements in friend-foe discrimination and total response latency in the sentry duty task, but not on any other performance measures. Moderate HYP had no effect on cognitive and psychomotor performance in either environment, cold exposure produced equivocal effects, and aerobic exercise improved some aspects of military task performance. PMID:18166204

Adam, Gina E; Carter, Robert; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Merullo, Donna J; Castellani, John W; Lieberman, Harris R; Sawka, Michael N

2008-03-18

118

Study Abroad Field Trip Improves Test Performance through Engagement and New Social Networks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although study abroad trips provide an opportunity for affective and cognitive learning, it is largely assumed that they improve learning outcomes. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a study abroad field trip improved cognitive learning by comparing test performance between the study abroad participants (n = 20) and their peers who…

Houser, Chris; Brannstrom, Christian; Quiring, Steven M.; Lemmons, Kelly K.

2011-01-01

119

Prevention of Intellectual Disabilities: Early Interventions to Improve Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a conceptual framework that has guided three randomized, controlled early intervention trials designed to improve cognitive development and social competence in high-risk young children from birth to 3 years of age. Two of the projects (Abecedarian and CARE) enrolled infants from economically and socially low-resource families and the other project (IHDP) was an eight-site randomized controlled trial

Craig T. Ramey; Sharon Landesman Ramey

1998-01-01

120

Infant feeding practice and childhood cognitive performance in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimSeveral studies have suggested a beneficial effect of infant breastfeeding on childhood cognitive function. The main objective was to examine whether duration of breastfeeding and age at introduction of complementary foods are related to cognitive performance in 9- to 10-year-old school-aged children in South India.MethodsThe authors examined 514 children from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort for whom breastfeeding duration (six

Sargoor R Veena; Ghattu V Krishnaveni; Krishnamachari Srinivasan; Andrew K Wills; Jacqueline C Hill; Anura V Kurpad; Sumithra Muthayya; Samuel C Karat; Mahadevu Nalinakshi; Caroline H D Fall

2010-01-01

121

Human cognitive performance in spaceflight and analogue environments.  

PubMed

Maintaining intact cognitive performance is a high priority for space exploration. This review seeks to summarize the cumulative results of existing studies of cognitive performance in spaceflight and analogue environments. We focused on long-duration (>21 d) studies for which no review has previously been conducted. There were 11 published studies identified for long-duration spaceflight (N = 42 subjects) as well as 21 shorter spaceflight studies (N = 70 subjects). Overall, spaceflight cognitive studies ranged from 6-438 d in duration. Some 55 spaceflight analogue studies were also identified, ranging from 6 to 520 d. The diverse nature of experimental procedures and protocols precluded formal meta-analysis. In general, the available evidence fails to strongly support or refute the existence of specific cognitive deficits in low Earth orbit during long-duration spaceflight, which may be due in large part to small numbers of subjects. The studies consistently suggest that novel environments (spaceflight or other) induce variable alterations in cognitive performance across individuals, consistent with known astronaut experiences. This highlights the need to better quantify the magnitude and scope of this interindividual variability, and understand its underlying factors, when predicting in-flight cognitive functioning for extended periods. PMID:25245904

Strangman, Gary E; Sipes, Walter; Beven, Gary

2014-10-01

122

Mineralocorticoid receptor stimulation improves cognitive function and decreases cortisol secretion in depressed patients and healthy individuals.  

PubMed

Memory and executive function are often impaired in patients with major depression, while cortisol secretion is increased. Mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) are abundantly expressed in the hippocampus and in the prefrontal cortex, brain areas critical for memory, executive function, and cortisol inhibition. Here, we investigated whether MR stimulation with fludrocortisone (1) improves memory and executive function and (2) decreases cortisol secretion in depressed patients and healthy individuals. Twenty-four depressed patients without medication and 24 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy participants received fludrocortisone (0.4?mg) or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, within-subject cross-over design. We measured verbal memory, visuospatial memory, executive function, psychomotor speed, and salivary cortisol secretion during cognitive testing between 1400 and 1700 hours. For verbal memory and executive function, we found better performance after fludrocortisone compared with placebo across groups. No treatment effect on other cognitive domains emerged. Depressed patients performed worse than healthy individuals in psychomotor speed and executive function. No group effect or group × treatment interaction emerged on other cognitive domains. Fludrocortisone decreased cortisol secretion across groups and there was a significant correlation between cortisol inhibition and verbal memory performance. Our data suggest a crucial role of MR in verbal memory and executive function and demonstrate the possibility to improve cognition in depressed patients and healthy individuals through MR stimulation. PMID:25035081

Otte, Christian; Wingenfeld, Katja; Kuehl, Linn K; Kaczmarczyk, Michael; Richter, Steffen; Quante, Arnim; Regen, Francesca; Bajbouj, Malek; Zimmermann-Viehoff, Frank; Wiedemann, Klaus; Hinkelmann, Kim

2015-01-01

123

Neuroimaging predictors of cognitive performance across a standardized neurocognitive battery  

PubMed Central

Objective The advent of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enables the identification of brain regions recruited for specific behavioral tasks. Most fMRI studies focus on group effects in single tasks, which limits applicability where assessment of individual differences and multiple brain systems is needed. Method We demonstrate the feasibility of concurrently measuring fMRI activation patterns and performance on a computerized neurocognitive battery (CNB) in 212 healthy individuals at two sites. Cross-validated sparse regression of regional brain amplitude and extent of activation were used to predict concurrent performance on six neurocognitive tasks: abstraction/mental flexibility, attention, emotion processing, and verbal, face and spatial memory. Results Brain activation was task-responsive and domain-specific as reported in previous single-task studies. Prediction of performance was robust for most tasks, particularly for abstraction/mental flexibility and visuo-spatial memory. Conclusions The feasibility of administering a comprehensive neuropsychological battery in the scanner was established, and task-specific brain activation patterns improved prediction beyond demographic information. This benchmark index of performance-associated brain activation can be applied to link brain activation with neurocognitive performance during standardized testing. This first step in standardizing a neurocognitive battery for use in fMRI may enable quantitative assessment of patients with brain disorders across multiple cognitive domains. Such data may facilitate identification of neural dysfunction associated with poor performance, allow for identification of individuals at-risk for brain disorders, and help guide early intervention and rehabilitation of neurocognitive deficits. PMID:24364396

Roalf, David R.; Ruparel, Kosha; Gur, Raquel E.; Bilker, Warren; Gerraty, Raphael; Elliott, Mark A.; Gallagher, R. Sean; Almasy, Laura; Pogue-Geile, Michael F.; Prasad, Konasale; Wood, Joel; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.; Gur, Ruben C.

2014-01-01

124

Improved refractory performance through partnership  

SciTech Connect

From the early designs and construction of Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boilers, many improvements have been made based upon observations of performance. Included in these improvements have been the refractory linings. The early refractory linings were subjected to extreme fluctuations in temperatures as the units experienced up and down conditions. As the designs were improved refractory failures were mostly due to the operating conditions and other mechanical stresses rather than continual shutdowns and startups. More recent problems observed with refractory linings are localized areas of high erosion, corrosion and cracking which result in hot spots and eventual shutdowns for repair. Today the objective of refractory suppliers and installers is to strive towards planned shutdowns rather than emergency shutdowns. This can be accomplished through partnerships between operations, material suppliers and installers. In essence, the concept is a cooperative effort between these groups to solve the variety of refractory problems in order to achieve longer refractory lining performance and less chance for emergency shutdowns. The reliability of the refractory lining is dependent on the successful combination of the material selected, proper design and the installation of the refractory material. Where these three elements combine, the lining has the best chance of performing its intended purpose.

Linck, F.E. [Ahlstrom Pyropower Customer Services, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Peters, D. [Resco Products, Inc., Norristown, PA (United States)

1995-12-31

125

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves cognitive functioning after brain injury  

PubMed Central

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been widely applied and recognized in the treatment of brain injury; however, the correlation between the protective effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and changes of metabolites in the brain remains unclear. To investigate the effect and potential mechanism of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cognitive functioning in rats, we established traumatic brain injury models using Feeney's free falling method. We treated rat models with hyperbaric oxygen therapy at 0.2 MPa for 60 minutes per day. The Morris water maze test for spatial navigation showed that the average escape latency was significantly prolonged and cognitive function decreased in rats with brain injury. After treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy for 1 and 2 weeks, the rats’ spatial learning and memory abilities were improved. Hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis showed that the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased at 1 week, and the N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio was significantly increased at 2 weeks after hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Nissl staining and immunohistochemical staining showed that the number of nerve cells and Nissl bodies in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased, and glial fibrillary acidic protein positive cells were decreased after a 2-week hyperbaric oxygen therapy treatment. Our findings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen therapy significantly improves cognitive functioning in rats with traumatic brain injury, and the potential mechanism is mediated by metabolic changes and nerve cell restoration in the hippocampal CA3 region. PMID:25206655

Liu, Su; Shen, Guangyu; Deng, Shukun; Wang, Xiubin; Wu, Qinfeng; Guo, Aisong

2013-01-01

126

The Influence of Cognitive Load on Self-Presentation: Can Cognitive Busyness Help as Well as Harm Social Performance?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extra cognitive loads can hinder challenging self-presentations by usurping needed cognitive resources but also may sometimes improve them by shifting attention away from negative self-preoccupation. In Study 1, extraverts and introverts participated in an interview in which they presented themselves as either extraverted or introverted. Congruent self-presentations, which should be cognitively nondemanding, were unaffected by a cognitive busyness manipulation (rehearsing

Beth A. Pontari; Barry R. Schlenker

2000-01-01

127

Need for Cognition, Task Difficulty, and the Formation of Performance Expectancies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present article, the authors analyze how performance expectancies are generated and how they affect actual performance. The authors predicted that task difficulty would affect performance expectancies only when cognitive motivation (i.e., need for cognition [NFC]) and cognitive capacity are high. This should be the case because analyzing task difficulty is a process requiring cognitive capacity as well as

Marc-André Reinhard; Oliver Dickhäuser

2009-01-01

128

A Cognitive Framework for Understanding and Improving Interference Resolution in the Brain  

PubMed Central

All of us are familiar with the negative impact of interference on achieving our task goals. We are referring to interference by information, which either impinges on our senses from an external environmental source or is internally generated by our thoughts. Informed by more than a decade of research on the cognitive and neural processing of interference, we have developed a framework for understanding how interference impacts our neural systems and especially how it is regulated and suppressed during efficient on-task performance. Importantly, externally and internally generated interferences have distinct neural signatures, and further, distinct neural processing emerges depending on whether individuals must ignore and suppress the interference, as for distractions, or engage with them in a secondary task, as during multitasking. Here, we elaborate on this cognitive framework and how it changes throughout the human lifespan, focusing mostly on research evidence from younger adults and comparing these findings to data from older adults, children, and cognitively impaired populations. With insights gleaned from our growing understanding, we then describe three novel translational efforts in our lab directed at improving distinct aspects of interference resolution using cognitive training. Critically, these training approaches were specifically developed to target improved interference resolution based on neuroplasticity principles and have shown much success in randomized controlled first version evaluations in healthy aging. Our results show not only on-task training improvements but also robust generalization of benefit to other cognitive control abilities. This research showcases how an in-depth understanding of neural mechanisms can then inform the development of effective deficit-targeted interventions, which can in turn benefit both healthy and cognitively impaired populations. PMID:24309262

Mishra, Jyoti; Anguera, Joaquin A.; Ziegler, David A.; Gazzaley, Adam

2014-01-01

129

Need for Cognition and Cognitive Performance From a Cross-Cultural Perspective: Examples of Academic Success and Solving Anagrams  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cross-cultural validity of the Need for Cognition Scale and its relationship with cognitive performance were investigated in two studies. In the first study, the relationships between the scale and university entrance scores, course grades, study skills, and social desirability were examined. Using the short form of the Turkish version of the Need for Cognition Scale (S. Gülgöz & C.

Sami Gülgöz

2001-01-01

130

The effect of breakfast cereal consumption on adolescents' cognitive performance and mood.  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of breakfast consumption on cognitive performance and mood in adolescents, and any interaction that breakfast consumption might have with cognitive load. The rationale for this approach was that the beneficial effects of any intervention with regard to cognitive function may be more readily apparent when more demands are placed on the system. Furthermore, as skipping breakfast is particularly prevalent within this age group, thus, we focused on adolescents who habitually skip breakfast. Cognitive load was modulated by varying the level of difficulty of a series of cognitive tasks tapping memory, attention, and executive functions. Mood measured with Bond-Lader scales (1974) as well as measures of thirst, hunger, and satiety were recorded at each test session both at baseline and after the completion of each test battery. Forty adolescents (mean age = 14:2) participated in this within-subjects design study. According to treatment, all participants were tested before and after the intake of a low Glycaemic index breakfast (i.e., a 35 g portion of AllBran and 125 ml semi-skimmed milk) and before and after no breakfast consumption. Assessment time had two levels: 8.00 am (baseline) and 10.45 am. The orders of cognitive load tasks were counterbalanced. Overall it appeared that following breakfast participants felt more alert, satiated, and content. Following breakfast consumption, there was evidence for improved cognitive performance across the school morning compared to breakfast omission in some tasks (e.g., Hard Word Recall, Serial 3's and Serial 7's). However, whilst participants performance on the hard version of each cognitive task was significantly poorer compared to the corresponding easy version, there was limited evidence to support the hypothesis that the effect of breakfast was greater in the more demanding versions of the tasks. PMID:24312043

Defeyter, Margaret A; Russo, Riccardo

2013-01-01

131

The effect of breakfast cereal consumption on adolescents' cognitive performance and mood  

PubMed Central

The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of breakfast consumption on cognitive performance and mood in adolescents, and any interaction that breakfast consumption might have with cognitive load. The rationale for this approach was that the beneficial effects of any intervention with regard to cognitive function may be more readily apparent when more demands are placed on the system. Furthermore, as skipping breakfast is particularly prevalent within this age group, thus, we focused on adolescents who habitually skip breakfast. Cognitive load was modulated by varying the level of difficulty of a series of cognitive tasks tapping memory, attention, and executive functions. Mood measured with Bond–Lader scales (1974) as well as measures of thirst, hunger, and satiety were recorded at each test session both at baseline and after the completion of each test battery. Forty adolescents (mean age = 14:2) participated in this within-subjects design study. According to treatment, all participants were tested before and after the intake of a low Glycaemic index breakfast (i.e., a 35 g portion of AllBran and 125 ml semi-skimmed milk) and before and after no breakfast consumption. Assessment time had two levels: 8.00 am (baseline) and 10.45 am. The orders of cognitive load tasks were counterbalanced. Overall it appeared that following breakfast participants felt more alert, satiated, and content. Following breakfast consumption, there was evidence for improved cognitive performance across the school morning compared to breakfast omission in some tasks (e.g., Hard Word Recall, Serial 3's and Serial 7's). However, whilst participants performance on the hard version of each cognitive task was significantly poorer compared to the corresponding easy version, there was limited evidence to support the hypothesis that the effect of breakfast was greater in the more demanding versions of the tasks. PMID:24312043

Defeyter, Margaret A.; Russo, Riccardo

2013-01-01

132

Computational models of performance monitoring and cognitive control  

PubMed Central

The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been the subject of intense interest as a locus of cognitive control. Several computational models have been proposed to account for a range of effects including error detection, conflict monitoring, error likelihood prediction, and numerous other effects observed with single-unit neurophysiology, fMRI, and lesion studies. Here we review the state of computational models of cognitive control and offer a new theoretical synthesis of the mPFC as signaling response-outcome predictions. This new synthesis has two interacting components. The first component learns to predict the various possible outcomes of a planned action, and the second component detects discrepancies between the actual and intended responses; the detected discrepancies in turn update the outcome predictions. This single construct is consistent with a wide array of performance monitoring effects in mPFC and suggests a unifying account of the cognitive role of medial PFC in performance monitoring. PMID:21359126

Alexander, William H.; Brown, Joshua W.

2011-01-01

133

Association of the Apolipoprotein E Genotype With Memory Performance and Executive Functioning in Cognitively Intact Elderly.  

PubMed

Objective: To test for a possible effect of the apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 (APOE ?4) allele on memory performance and executive functioning (EF) in cognitively intact elderly. Method: The authors studied 202 randomly selected and cognitively intact older adults (65+ years) of the Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases Health Care Study. Intact global cognitive functioning was defined using a Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) score ?28. Performance in memory was assessed with the CERAD Word List and Constructional Praxis Recall, performance in EF with the Trail Making Test Part B (TMT-B). Multivariable linear regressions were used to evaluate the association between cognitive performance and APOE status, controlled for covariates. Results: Among the cognitively intact older adults, 21.3% (n = 43) were carriers of the APOE ?4 allele. Carriers did not differ significantly from noncarriers in terms of age, gender, intelligence level, or performance in memory but showed a significantly lower TMT-B performance as a measure of EF (TMT-B M time/SD = 105.6/36.2 vs. 91.9/32.7 s; Mann-Whitney U = 4,313.000; p = .009). The association between lower TMT-B performance and APOE ?4 genotype remained significant in multivariable linear regression analysis. Similar findings were found for the subsample of those 78 elderly, who reached a perfect MMSE-score of 30. Conclusions: A lower EF performance in cognitively intact older APOE ?4 allele carriers might be related to an early Alzheimer's dementia (AD) prodrome. In this case, a stronger focus on first subtle changes in EF may help to improve early AD detection in those being at genetic risk. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25365563

Luck, Tobias; Then, Francisca S; Luppa, Melanie; Schroeter, Matthias L; Arélin, Katrin; Burkhardt, Ralph; Thiery, Joachim; Löffler, Markus; Villringer, Arno; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G

2014-11-01

134

Homocysteine and Cognitive Performance in Elders with Self-Neglect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Elevated plasma homocysteine has been associated with altered cognitive performance in older adults. Elders referred to Adult Protective Services (APS) for self-neglect have been reported to have elevated plasma homocysteine levels and to suffer from cognitive impairment. This study assesses the association, if any, between plasma homocysteine and cognitive performance among elders with self-neglect. Methods: Sixty-five community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 matched controls (matched for age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS), the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Tests (CDT) and a comprehensive nutritional biochemistry panel, which included plasma homocysteine. Student s t tests and Pearson correlations were conducted to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Elders with self-neglect had significantly higher plasma homocysteine levels (M=12.68umol/L, sd=4.4) compared to the controls (M=10.40umol/L, sd=3.61;t=3.21, df=127, p=.002). There were no statistically significant associations between cognitive performance and plasma homocysteine in the self-neglect group, however there was a significant correlation between plasma homocysteine and the CDT among the controls (r=-.296, p=.022). Conclusion: Mean plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in elders with self-neglect, however, they do not appear to be related to cognitive performance, indicating that cognitive impairment in elder self-neglect involve mechanisms other than hyperhomocysteinemia. These findings warrant further investigation

Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

2009-01-01

135

Expert music performance: cognitive, neural, and developmental bases.  

PubMed

In this chapter, we explore what happens in the brain of an expert musician during performance. Understanding expert music performance is interesting to cognitive neuroscientists not only because it tests the limits of human memory and movement, but also because studying expert musicianship can help us understand skilled human behavior in general. In this chapter, we outline important facets of our current understanding of the cognitive and neural basis for music performance, and developmental factors that may underlie musical ability. We address three main questions. (1) What is expert performance? (2) How do musicians achieve expert-level performance? (3) How does expert performance come about? We address the first question by describing musicians' ability to remember, plan, execute, and monitor their performances in order to perform music accurately and expressively. We address the second question by reviewing evidence for possible cognitive and neural mechanisms that may underlie or contribute to expert music performance, including the integration of sound and movement, feedforward and feedback motor control processes, expectancy, and imagery. We further discuss how neural circuits in auditory, motor, parietal, subcortical, and frontal cortex all contribute to different facets of musical expertise. Finally, we address the third question by reviewing evidence for the heritability of musical expertise and for how expertise develops through training and practice. We end by discussing outlooks for future work. PMID:25725910

Brown, Rachel M; Zatorre, Robert J; Penhune, Virginia B

2015-01-01

136

Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Predictors of College Readiness and Performance: Role of Academic Discipline  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifying the best predictors of academic performance is crucial for postsecondary institutions seeking students with the greatest promise. We investigated the relative strength of standardized test scores (ACT), high school GPA, and non-cognitive, college readiness skills in predicting college GPA. College freshmen (505) completed the 108-item…

Komarraju, Meera; Ramsey, Alex; Rinella, Virginia

2013-01-01

137

Working memory training shows immediate and long-term effects on cognitive performance in children  

PubMed Central

Working memory is important for mental reasoning and learning processes. Several studies in adults and school-age children have shown performance improvement in cognitive tests after working memory training. Our aim was to examine not only immediate but also long-term effects of intensive working memory training on cognitive performance tests in children. Fourteen healthy male subjects between 10 and 16 years trained a visuospatial n-back task over 3 weeks (30 min daily), while 15 individuals of the same age range served as a passive control group. Significant differences in immediate (after 3 weeks of training) and long-term effects (after 2-6 months) in an auditory n-back task were observed compared to controls (2.5 fold immediate and 4.7 fold long-term increase in the training group compared to the controls). The improvement was more pronounced in subjects who improved their performance during the training. Other cognitive functions (matrices test and Stroop task) did not change when comparing the training group to the control group. We conclude that visuospatial working memory training in children boosts performance in similar memory tasks such as the auditory n-back task. The sustained performance improvement several months after the training supports the effectiveness of the training. PMID:25671082

Pugin, Fiona; Metz, Andreas J.; Stauffer, Madlaina; Wolf, Martin; Jenni, Oskar G.; Huber, Reto

2014-01-01

138

Individualized Management of Fatigue and Cognitive Performance Impairment Through Biomathematical Modeling  

E-print Network

Individualized Management of Fatigue and Cognitive Performance Impairment Through Biomathematical Modeling HFM-MP-181 28 - 1 Individualized Management of Fatigue and Cognitive Performance Impairment/wake schedules and optimize timing and dosing of fatigue countermeasures to attain peak performance

139

Affective and Cognitive Correlates of Course Performance in Introductory Statistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 278 students enrolled in an introductory statistics course was used to determine which of a set of cognitive and affective variables correlate with course performance. It is suggested that individual diagnostic profiles are useful in establishing prescriptive treatments designed to help students likely to experience difficulty in…

Feinberg, Lawrence B.; Halperin, Silas

1978-01-01

140

Modeling Cognitive Strategies during Complex Task Performing Process  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study is to examine individuals' computer based complex task performing processes and strategies in order to determine the reasons of failure by cognitive task analysis method and cued retrospective think aloud with eye movement data. Study group was five senior students from Computer Education and Instructional Technologies…

Mazman, Sacide Guzin; Altun, Arif

2012-01-01

141

Midsagittal Brain Shape Correlation with Intelligence and Cognitive Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Brain shape might influence cognitive performance because of the relationships between functions, spatial organization, and differential volumetric development of cortical areas. Here we analyze the relationships between midsagittal brain shape variation and a set of basic psychological measures. Coordinates in 2D from 102 MRI-scanned young adult…

Bruner, Emiliano; Martin-Loeches, Manuel; Burgaleta, Miguel; Colom, Roberto

2011-01-01

142

Composition Instruction and Cognitive Performance: Results of a Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a composition program, Composers in Public Schools (CiPS), on cognitive skills essential for academic success. The underlying hypothesis is that composition instruction will promote creative expression and increase performance on music-specific skills such as music reading, as well as foster…

Bugos, Jennifer; Jacobs, Edward

2012-01-01

143

Performance and Cognitive Assessment in 3-D Modeling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate identifiable differences between performance and cognitive assessment scores in a 3-D modeling unit of an engineering drafting course curriculum. The study aimed to provide further investigation of the need of skill-based assessments in engineering/technical graphics courses to potentially increase…

Fahrer, Nolan E.; Ernst, Jeremy V.; Branoff, Theodore J.; Clark, Aaron C.

2011-01-01

144

HYDRATION STATUS AND COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG ADULTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Adequate hydration levels are important for both mental and physical functioning. Research conducted in young adults suggests that mild levels of dehydration (2%-4%) can negatively influence cognitive performance in a variety of tasks, but these data are inconsistent. Dehydration may be relatively...

145

Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Relations between Performance on the Social Attribution Task and Cognitive and Behavioral Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Williams syndrome (WS) is a developmental disorder of genetic origin, with characteristic cognitive and personality profiles. Studies of WS point to an outgoing and gregarious personality style, often contrasted with autism spectrum disorders; however, recent research has uncovered underlying social reciprocity difficulties in people with WS. Social information processing difficulties that underlie these social reciprocity difficulties have been sparsely examined. Participants in the current study included 24 children with WS ages 8 through 15. A lab-based measure of social perception and social cognition was administered (Social Attribution Test), as well as an intellectual functioning measure (KBIT-II) and parent reports of communication and reciprocal social skills (Social Communication Questionnaire, Social Responsiveness Scale). Relations between social cognition, cognitive abilities, and social-communication were examined. Results demonstrated relations between parent-reported social reciprocity and the typicality of the responses provided in the lab-based measure, even once variability in intellectual functioning was taken into account. Specifically, those individuals who produced narratives in response to the social attribution task (SAT) that were more similar to those described in previous studies of typically developing individuals were also reported to have fewer social reciprocity difficulties in the real world setting as reported by parents. In addition, a significant improvement in performance on the SAT was seen with added scaffolding, particularly for participants with stronger intellectual functioning. These findings indicate that difficulties interpreting the social dynamics between others in ambiguous situations may contribute to the social relationship difficulties observed in people with WS, above and beyond the role of intellectual functioning. Exploratory analyses indicated that performance by individuals with stronger intellectual functioning is improved with additional structure to a greater degree than for those with weaker intellectual functioning. Interventions that specifically target these social information processing of individuals with WS would likely be beneficial. PMID:22737137

van der Fluit, Faye; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Klein-Tasman, Bonita P.

2012-01-01

146

Caffeine and Placebo Expectation: Effects on Vigilance, Cognitive Performance, Heart Rate, and Blood Pressure During 28 Hours of Sleep Deprivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeine placebo expectation seems to improve vigilance and cognitive performance. This study investigated the effect of caffeine and placebo expectation on vigilance and cognitive performance during 28 h sleep deprivation. Ten healthy males volunteered to take part in the double-blind, cross-over study, which required participants to complete five treatment periods of 28 h separated by 1-week wash-out intervals. The treatments

Yunfeng Sun; Yinling Zhang; Ning He; Xufeng Liu; Danmin Miao

2007-01-01

147

EEG Analysis of the Effects of Therapeutic Cooling on the Cognitive Performance of Multiple Sclerosis Patients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this project was to determine whether a controlled period of head and torso cooling would enhance the cognitive performance of multiple sclerosis patients. Nineteen MS patients (11 men and 8 women) participated in the study. Control data were taken from nineteen healthy volunteers (12 men and 7 women). All but six of nineteen MS patients tested improved their cognitive performance, as measured by their scores on the Rao test battery. A second objective was to gain insight into the neurological effects of cooling. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) stimulated by a reversing checkerboard pattern were recorded before and after cooling. We found that cooling selectively benefited the cognitive performance of those MS patients whose pre-cooling VEPs were abnormally shaped (which is an indication of visual pathway impairment due to demyelinization). Moreover, for female MS patients, the degree of cognitive performance improvement following cooling was correlated with a change in the shape of their VEPs toward a more normal shape following cooling.

Montgomery, Leslie D.; Montgomery, Richard W.; Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Luna, Bernadette; Lee, Hank C.; Kliss, Mark; Webbon, Bruce; Mead, Susan C. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

148

Cognitive performance in depressed patients after chronic use of antidepressants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Depressive disorders are conditions that often require continuous treatment, and it is therefore important to evaluate the\\u000a consequences of prolonged administration. There are few studies assessing cognitive functions of depressed patients after\\u000a long-term use of antidepressants.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  This study evaluated the cognitive performance of depressed patients treated with antidepressants for at least 6 months.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Patients with major depression (DSM-IV) using imipramine for

Clarice Gorenstein; Stefania Caldeira de Carvalho; Rinaldo Artes; Ricardo Alberto Moreno; Tania Marcourakis

2006-01-01

149

Rapid cognitive improvement in Alzheimer's disease following perispinal etanercept administration  

PubMed Central

Substantial basic science and clinical evidence suggests that excess tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is centrally involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In addition to its pro-inflammatory functions, TNF-alpha has recently been recognized to be a gliotransmitter that regulates synaptic function in neural networks. TNF-alpha has also recently been shown to mediate the disruption in synaptic memory mechanisms, which is caused by beta-amyloid and beta-amyloid oligomers. The efficacy of etanercept, a biologic antagonist of TNF-alpha, delivered by perispinal administration, for treatment of Alzheimer's disease over a period of six months has been previously reported in a pilot study. This report details rapid cognitive improvement, beginning within minutes, using this same anti-TNF treatment modality, in a patient with late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Rapid cognitive improvement following perispinal etanercept may be related to amelioration of the effects of excess TNF-alpha on synaptic mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease and provides a promising area for additional investigation and therapeutic intervention. PMID:18184433

Tobinick, Edward L; Gross, Hyman

2008-01-01

150

Rapid cognitive improvement in Alzheimer's disease following perispinal etanercept administration.  

PubMed

Substantial basic science and clinical evidence suggests that excess tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is centrally involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. In addition to its pro-inflammatory functions, TNF-alpha has recently been recognized to be a gliotransmitter that regulates synaptic function in neural networks. TNF-alpha has also recently been shown to mediate the disruption in synaptic memory mechanisms, which is caused by beta-amyloid and beta-amyloid oligomers. The efficacy of etanercept, a biologic antagonist of TNF-alpha, delivered by perispinal administration, for treatment of Alzheimer's disease over a period of six months has been previously reported in a pilot study. This report details rapid cognitive improvement, beginning within minutes, using this same anti-TNF treatment modality, in a patient with late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Rapid cognitive improvement following perispinal etanercept may be related to amelioration of the effects of excess TNF-alpha on synaptic mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease and provides a promising area for additional investigation and therapeutic intervention. PMID:18184433

Tobinick, Edward L; Gross, Hyman

2008-01-01

151

Obovatol improves cognitive functions in animal models for Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is obscure, but neuroinflammation and accumulation of ?-amyloid (A?) are implicated in pathogenesis of AD. We have shown anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic properties of obovatol, a biphenolic compound isolated from Magnolia obovata. In this study, we examined the effect of obovatol on cognitive deficits in two separate AD models: (i) mice that received intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of A?(1-42) (2.0 ?g/mouse) and (ii) Tg2576 mice-expressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein (K670N, M671L). Injection of A?(1-42) into lateral ventricle caused memory impairments in the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tasks, being associated with neuroinflammation. A?(1-42) -induced abnormality was significantly attenuated by administration of obovatol. When we analyzed with Tg2576 mice, long-term treatment of obovatol (1 mg/kg/day for 3 months) significantly improved cognitive function. In parallel with the improvement, treatment suppressed astroglial activation, BACE1 expression and NF-?B activity in the transgenic mice. Furthermore, obovatol potently inhibited fibrillation of A?in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by Thioflavin T fluorescence and electron microscopic analysis. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that obovatol prevented memory impairments in experimental AD models, which could be attributable to amelioration of neuroinflammation and amyloidogenesis by inhibition of NF-?B signaling pathway and anti-fibrillogenic activity of obovatol. PMID:22212065

Choi, Dong-Young; Lee, Jae Woong; Peng, Jin; Lee, Young Jung; Han, Jin-Yi; Lee, Yeon Hee; Choi, Im Seop; Han, Sang Bae; Jung, Jae Kyung; Lee, Woong Soo; Lee, Seung-Ho; Kwon, Byoung-Mog; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hong, Jin Tae

2012-03-01

152

Common genetic variation and performance on standardized cognitive tests.  

PubMed

One surprising feature of the recently completed waves of genome-wide association studies is the limited impact of common genetic variation in individually detectable polymorphisms on many human traits. This has been particularly pronounced for studies on psychiatric conditions, which have failed to produce clear, replicable associations for common variants. One popular explanation for these negative findings is that many of these traits may be genetically heterogeneous, leading to the idea that relevant endophenotypes may be more genetically tractable. Aspects of cognition may be the most important endophenotypes for psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, leading many researchers to pursue large-scale studies on the genetic contributors of cognitive performance in the normal population as a surrogate for aspects of liability to disease. Here, we perform a genome-wide association study with two tests of executive function, Digit Symbol and Stroop Color-Word, in 1086 healthy volunteers and with an expanded cognitive battery in 514 of these volunteers. We show that, consistent with published studies of the psychiatric conditions themselves, no single common variant has a large effect (explaining >4-8% of the population variation) on the performance of healthy individuals on standardized cognitive tests. Given that these are important endophenotypes, our work is consistent with the idea that identifying rare genetic causes of psychiatric conditions may be more important for future research than identifying genetically homogenous endophenotypes. PMID:20125193

Cirulli, Elizabeth T; Kasperavici?te, Dalia; Attix, Deborah K; Need, Anna C; Ge, Dongliang; Gibson, Greg; Goldstein, David B

2010-07-01

153

Common genetic variation and performance on standardized cognitive tests  

PubMed Central

One surprising feature of the recently completed waves of genome-wide association studies is the limited impact of common genetic variation in individually detectable polymorphisms on many human traits. This has been particularly pronounced for studies on psychiatric conditions, which have failed to produce clear, replicable associations for common variants. One popular explanation for these negative findings is that many of these traits may be genetically heterogeneous, leading to the idea that relevant endophenotypes may be more genetically tractable. Aspects of cognition may be the most important endophenotypes for psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia, leading many researchers to pursue large-scale studies on the genetic contributors of cognitive performance in the normal population as a surrogate for aspects of liability to disease. Here, we perform a genome-wide association study with two tests of executive function, Digit Symbol and Stroop Color-Word, in 1086 healthy volunteers and with an expanded cognitive battery in 514 of these volunteers. We show that, consistent with published studies of the psychiatric conditions themselves, no single common variant has a large effect (explaining >4–8% of the population variation) on the performance of healthy individuals on standardized cognitive tests. Given that these are important endophenotypes, our work is consistent with the idea that identifying rare genetic causes of psychiatric conditions may be more important for future research than identifying genetically homogenous endophenotypes. PMID:20125193

Cirulli, Elizabeth T; Kasperavi?i?t?, Dalia; Attix, Deborah K; Need, Anna C; Ge, Dongliang; Gibson, Greg; Goldstein, David B

2010-01-01

154

Perceived cognitive difficulties and cognitive test performance as predictors of employment outcomes in people with multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Perceived cognitive difficulties and cognitive impairment are important determinants of employment in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). However, it is not clear how they are related to adverse work outcomes and whether the relationship is influenced by depressive symptoms. Thus, this study examined perceived and actual general cognitive and prospective memory function, and cognitive appraisal accuracy, in relation to adverse work outcomes. The possible mediating and/or moderating role of depression was also examined. A cross-sectional community-based sample of 111 participants (33 males, 78 females) completed the Multiple Sclerosis Work Difficulties Questionnaire (MSWDQ), Beck Depression Inventory - Fast Screen (BDI-FS), and questions related to their current or past employment. They then underwent cognitive testing using the Screening Examination for Cognitive Impairment, Auditory Consonant Trigrams test, Zoo Map Test, and Cambridge Prospective Memory Test. Perceived general cognitive and prospective memory difficulties in the workplace and performance on the respective cognitive tests were found to predict unemployment and reduced work hours since MS diagnosis due to MS. Depression was also related to reduced work hours, but it did not explain the relationship between perceived cognitive difficulties and the work outcomes. Nor was it related to cognitive test performance. The results highlight a need to address the perceptions of cognitive difficulties together with cognitive impairment and levels of depression in vocational rehabilitation programs in pwMS. (JINS, 2015, 21, 156-168). PMID:25727930

Honan, Cynthia A; Brown, Rhonda F; Batchelor, Jennifer

2015-02-01

155

Fail or flourish? Cognitive appraisal moderates the effect of solo status on performance.  

PubMed

When everyone in a group shares a common social identity except one individual, the one who is different from the majority has solo status. Solo status increases one's visibility and performance pressure, which may result in stress. Stress has divergent effects on performance, and individuals' response to stressful situations is predicted by their cognitive appraisal (challenge or threat) of the situation. Two experiments test the hypothesis that cognitive appraisal moderates the effect of solo status on performance. Experiment 1 finds that at relatively high appraisal levels (resources exceed demands), solo status improves men's and women's performance; at relatively low appraisal levels, solo status hurts performance. Experiment 2 replicates this effect for solo status based on minimal group assignment. Results suggest that for individuals who feel challenged and not threatened by their work, it may help to be a solo. PMID:18678859

White, Judith B

2008-09-01

156

Hair cortisol and cognitive performance in healthy older people.  

PubMed

Worse cognitive performance in older people has been associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation (in particular, higher cortisol levels). Analysis of hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) is a novel method to measure long-term cortisol exposure, and its relationship with cognition in healthy older people has not yet been studied. We investigated whether HCC (measured in hair scalp) and diurnal salivary cortisol levels (awakening, 30min after awakening, and evening, across two days) were related to cognitive performance (assessed with the Trail-making Test A and B, Digit Span Forward and Backward, word list-RAVLT and Stories subtest of the Rivermead) in 57 healthy older people (mean age=64.75 years, SD=4.17). Results showed that lower HCC were consistently related to worse working memory, learning, short-term verbal memory (RAVLT first trial and immediate recall) and long-term verbal memory. In contrast, higher mean levels and higher diurnal area under the curve of diurnal salivary cortisol were related to worse attention and short-term verbal memory (immediate story recall), respectively. Interestingly, a higher ratio of mean levels of diurnal salivary cortisol over HCC were related to worse performance on working memory and short-term verbal memory, suggesting that those individuals with lower long-term cortisol exposure might be more vulnerable to the negative effect of HPA-axis dysregulation on these cognitive processes. Our findings suggest that both low long-term cortisol exposure and a possible dysregulation of the diurnal rhythm of the HPA-axis may account, at least in part, for the inter-individual variability in cognitive performance in healthy older people. PMID:24767624

Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia

2014-06-01

157

Improve Relationships to Improve Student Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to raise student performance have focused primarily on either relationships between adults in the system or formal curriculum. Relatively ignored has been a focus on what sociologists believe is the primary relationship of consequence for student outcomes--authority relationships between students and educators. Successful school reform is…

Arum, Richard

2011-01-01

158

Improving Video Conferencing Application Quality for a Mobile Terminal through Cognitive Radio  

E-print Network

Improving Video Conferencing Application Quality for a Mobile Terminal through Cognitive Radio Asma {amraoui.asma, wassila.bag, badr.benmammar}@gmail.com Abstract--Cognitive radio (CR) is a form of wireless for a cognitive radio mobile terminal (CRMT). We also show through experimentation the interest of our approach

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

159

Improved Processing Speed: Online Computer-Based Cognitive Training in Older Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an increasingly aging population, a number of adults are concerned about declines in their cognitive abilities. Online computer-based cognitive training programs have been proposed as an accessible means by which the elderly may improve their cognitive abilities; yet, more research is needed in order to assess the efficacy of these programs. In…

Simpson, Tamara; Camfield, David; Pipingas, Andrew; Macpherson, Helen; Stough, Con

2012-01-01

160

Effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive performance and individual psychopathology in depressive and schizophrenia patients.  

PubMed

Cognitive deficits are core symptoms in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) and major depressive disorder (MDD), but specific and approved treatments for cognitive deterioration are scarce. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that aerobic exercise may help to reduce psychopathological symptoms and support cognitive performance, but this has not yet been systematically investigated. In the current study, we examined the effects of aerobic training on cognitive performance and symptom severity in psychiatric inpatients. To our knowledge, to date, no studies have been published that directly compare the effects of exercise across disease groups in order to acquire a better understanding of disease-specific versus general or overlapping effects of physical training intervention. Two disease groups (n=22 MDD patients, n=29 SZ patients) that were matched for age, gender, duration of disease and years of education received cognitive training combined either with aerobic physical exercise or with mental relaxation training. The interventions included 12 sessions (3 times a week) over a time period of 4 weeks, lasting each for 75 min (30 min of cognitive training+45 min of cardio training/mental relaxation training). Cognitive parameters and psychopathology scores of all participants were tested in pre- and post-testing sessions and were then compared with a waiting control group. In the total group of patients, the results indicate an increase in cognitive performance in the domains visual learning, working memory and speed of processing, a decrease in state anxiety and an increase in subjective quality of life between pre- and post-testing. The effects in SZ patients compared with MDD patients were stronger for cognitive performance, whereas there were stronger effects in MDD patients compared with SZ patients in individual psychopathology values. MDD patients showed a significant reduction in depressive symptoms and state anxiety values after the intervention period. SZ patients reduced their negative symptoms severity from pre- to post-testing. In sum, the effects for the combined training were superior to the other forms of treatment. Physical exercise may help to reduce psychopathological symptoms and improve cognitive skills. The intervention routines employed in this study promise to add the current psychopathological and medical treatment options and could aid the transition to a multidisciplinary approach. However, a limitation of the current study is the short time interval for interventions (6 weeks including pre- and post-testing). PMID:24487666

Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Mehler, Pia; Thiel, Christian; Steinbrecher, Kristina; Malchow, Berend; Tesky, Valentina; Ademmer, Karin; Prvulovic, David; Banzer, Winfried; Zopf, Yurdagül; Schmitt, Andrea; Hänsel, Frank

2014-10-01

161

Electrophysiological correlates of cognition improve with nap during sleep deprivation.  

PubMed

The efficacy of a 30-min nap as a countermeasure in the reduction of cognitive decline following 24 h of sleep deprivation (SD) on subjective sleepiness scales, event-related potential (ERP) P300, and contingent negative variation (CNV) was evaluated. The experiment was performed in three sessions on different days between 7 and 8 a.m. on nine normal, healthy males, of age 25-30 years: Session 1. Baseline recordings; Session 2, after one night's total sleep deprivation, and; Session 3, after 1 week of Session 1, following one night's sleep deprivation along with a 30-min nap opportunity between 1.00 and 3.00 a.m. Subjective sleepiness scores increased after SD as compared to baseline, but reduced significantly after nap (P < 0.05). There was an increase in P3 peak latency of ERP following SD (16%, P < 0.01), which was reduced with nap (10.7%, P < 0.05).There was an increase in CNV M1 peak latency after SD (18%) which decreased with the use of nap (12.5%) (P < 0.01). The CNV reaction time increased following SD (39.3%) and decreased with the use of nap (24%) (P < 0.01). No significant effects on ERP N1, P1, N2 latencies, P2 and P3 amplitudes and CNV N1, P3, M2 peak latencies and M1, and M2 amplitudes were observed. It was concluded that a 30-min nap, between 1.00 and 3.00 a.m. during night SD, reduces the cognitive decline following 24 h of SD in terms of its electro-physiological correlates. The study is of applied value in optimization of cognitive performance in professions demanding night work schedules. PMID:19865829

Panjwani, Usha; Ray, Koushik; Chatterjee, Abhirup; Bhaumik, Sangeet; Kumar, Sanjeev

2010-02-01

162

Improvement and decline of cognitive function in schizophrenia over one year: a longitudinal investigation using latent growth modelling  

PubMed Central

Background Long-term follow-up studies of people with schizophrenia report stability of cognitive performance; less is known about any shorter-term changes in cognitive function. Methods This longitudinal study aimed to establish whether there was stability, improvement or decline in memory and executive functions over four assessments undertaken prospectively in one year. Cognitive performance was assessed during randomized controlled trials of first- and second-generation antipsychotic medication. Analyses used a latent growth modeling approach, so that individuals who missed some testing occasions could be included and trajectories of cognitive change explored despite missing data. Results Over the year there was significant decline in spatial recognition but no change in pattern recognition or motor speed. Improvement was seen in planning and spatial working memory tasks; this may reflect improved strategy use with practice. There were significant individual differences in the initial level of performance on all tasks but not in rate of change; the latter may have been due to sample size limitations. Age, sex, premorbid IQ and drug class allocation explained significant variation in level of performance but could not predict change. Patients randomized to first-generation drugs improved more quickly than other groups on the planning task. Conclusion We conclude that cognitive change is present in schizophrenia but the magnitude of change is small when compared with the large differences in cognitive function that exist between patients. Analyses that retain patients who drop out of longitudinal studies, as well as those who complete testing protocols, are important to our understanding of cognition in schizophrenia. PMID:17490472

Barnett, Jennifer H; Croudace, Tim J; Jaycock, Sue; Blackwell, Candice; Hynes, Fiona; Sahakian, Barbara J; Joyce, Eileen M; Jones, Peter B

2007-01-01

163

Alcohol consumption and cognitive performance: a Mendelian randomization study  

PubMed Central

Aims To use Mendelian randomization to assess whether alcohol intake was causally associated with cognitive function. Design Mendelian randomization using a genetic variant related to alcohol intake (ADH1B rs1229984) was used to obtain unbiased estimates of the association between alcohol intake and cognitive performance. Setting Europe. Participants More than 34?000 adults. Measurements Any versus no alcohol intake and units of intake in the previous week was measured by questionnaire. Cognitive function was assessed in terms of immediate and delayed word recall, verbal fluency and processing speed. Findings Having consumed any versus no alcohol was associated with higher scores by 0.17 standard deviations (SD) [95% confidence interval (CI)?=?0.15, 0.20] for immediate recall, 0.17 SD (95% CI?=?0.14, 0.19) for delayed recall, 0.17 SD (95% CI?=?0.14, 0.19) for verbal fluency and 0.12 SD (95% CI?=?0.09, 0.15) for processing speed. The minor allele of rs1229984 was associated with reduced odds of consuming any alcohol (odds ratio?=?0.87; 95% CI?=?0.80, 0.95; P?=?0.001; R2?=?0.1%; F-statistic?=?47). In Mendelian randomization analysis, the minor allele was not associated with any cognitive test score, and instrumental variable analysis suggested no causal association between alcohol consumption and cognition: ?0.74 SD (95% CI?=??1.88, 0.41) for immediate recall, ?1.09 SD (95% CI?=??2.38, 0.21) for delayed recall, ?0.63 SD (95% CI?=??1.78, 0.53) for verbal fluency and ?0.16 SD (95% CI?=??1.29, 0.97) for processing speed. Conclusions The Mendelian randomization analysis did not provide strong evidence of a causal association between alcohol consumption and cognitive ability. PMID:24716453

Kumari, Meena; Holmes, Michael V; Dale, Caroline E; Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Palmer, Tom M; Pikhart, Hynek; Peasey, Anne; Britton, Annie; Horvat, Pia; Kubinova, Ruzena; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Shankar, Aparna; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Voevoda, Mikhail; Kivimaki, Mika; Hingorani, Aroon D; Marmot, Michael G; Casas, Juan P; Bobak, Martin

2014-01-01

164

Selective GABAA ?5 Positive Allosteric Modulators Improve Cognitive Function in Aged Rats with Memory Impairment  

PubMed Central

A condition of excess activity in the hippocampal formation is observed in the aging brain and in conditions that confer additional risk during aging for Alzheimer’s disease. Compounds that act as positive allosteric modulators at GABAA ?5 receptors might be useful in targeting this condition because GABAA ?5 receptors mediate tonic inhibition of principal neurons in the affected network. While agents to improve cognitive function in the past focused on inverse agonists, which are negative allosteric modulators at GABAA ?5 receptors, research supporting that approach used only young animals and predated current evidence for excessive hippocampal activity in age-related conditions of cognitive impairment. Here, we used two compounds, Compound 44 [6,6-dimethyl-3-(3-hydroxypropyl)thio-1-(thiazol-2-yl)-6,7-dihydro-2-benzothiophen-4(5H)-one] and Compound 6 [methyl 3,5-diphenylpyridazine-4-carboxylate], with functional activity as potentiators of ?-aminobutyric acid at GABAA ?5 receptors, to test their ability to improve hippocampal-dependent memory in aged rats with identified cognitive impairment. Improvement was obtained in aged rats across protocols differing in motivational and performance demands and across varying retention intervals. Significant memory improvement occurred after either intracereboventricular infusion with Compound 44 (100 ?g) in a water maze task or systemic administration with Compound 6 (3 mg/kg) in a radial arm maze task. Furthermore, systemic administration improved behavioral performance at dosing shown to provide drug exposure in the brain and in vivo receptor occupancy in the hippocampus. These data suggest a novel approach to improve neural network function in clinical conditions of excess hippocampal activity. PMID:22732440

Koh, Ming Teng; Rosenzweig-Lipson, Sharon; Gallagher, Michela

2012-01-01

165

Verbal Prompting To Improve Everyday Cognition in MCI and Unimpaired Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective This study investigated the effect of verbal prompting on elders’ 10-year longitudinal change in everyday cognition. Differential effects of prompting associated with impaired cognitive status were also examined. Method At baseline, 2,802 participants (mean age=73.6 years, mean education=13.5 years) from the ACTIVE clinical trial were classified as unimpaired, having amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or non-amnestic MCI based on psychometric algorithm. Participants were given the Observed Tasks of Daily Living (OTDL; a behavioral measure with tasks involving medication management/finances/telephone use) at baseline and at 1-, 2-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year follow-ups. When participants said “I don’t know” or did not respond to an item, they received a standardized verbal prompt. At each occasion, Unprompted (sum of items correct without prompting) and Prompted (sum of items correct including both prompted and unprompted) scores were derived for each participant. Multi-level modeling, adjusting for demographics/health/training group, was used to determine the trajectories of OTDL performance. Results In general, persons with MCI performed at lower levels than those who were unimpaired (amnesticperformance exceeded unprompted in all years. There was differential performance of the prompting conditions over time; prompted performance, unlike unprompted, was relatively protected from age-related decline, and persons with MCI experienced greater improvement due to prompting. Conclusion Very simple prompting appears to enhance and maintain performance on a task of everyday cognition over 10 years for both unimpaired and mildly-impaired older adults. PMID:24219613

Thomas, Kelsey R.; Marsiske, Michael

2014-01-01

166

Imaging of neuro-cognitive performance in extreme Environments—A (p)review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Living in extreme environments is accompanied by a number of stressors, which can be classified either as physiological stressors (e.g. microgravity, missing sunlight) or psychological stressors (e.g. confinement). From earth bound studies a negative impact of stress on mental health and cognitive performance is well known and both factors might impair mission success and mission safety during longer inhabitation of space. Accordingly there is the need to identify adequate countermeasures. Nevertheless causal research of neuro-cognitive impairments in space remains speculative due to missing possibilities of brain imaging. Furthermore the reliability of current psychological tests used to assess and monitor cognitive performance in extreme environments seems to be vulnerable due to a lack of compliance. With on-going plans of international space agencies to send people to moon and/or mars, this manuscript aims to summarize and review research attempts of the past two decades and to identify methodological shortcomings. Finally, following the guideline that research has no legacy for its own but must serve the self-concept and well-being of man, this manuscript presents a number of recommendations to enhance future neuro-cognitive research in extreme environments. A deeper insight into neuro-cognitive coherence is not only desirable to understand the effects of stress on mental health, which seems to be a major issue for our current society, and to develop adequate countermeasures but will also help to maintain and improve mission success and mission safety in manned space flight.

Schneider, Stefan; Bubeev, Juri A.; Choukèr, Alexander; Morukov, Boris; Johannes, Bernd; Strüder, Heiko K.

2012-12-01

167

Cyclocreatine treatment improves cognition in mice with creatine transporter deficiency  

PubMed Central

The second-largest cause of X-linked mental retardation is a deficiency in creatine transporter (CRT; encoded by SLC6A8), which leads to speech and language disorders with severe cognitive impairment. This syndrome, caused by the absence of creatine in the brain, is currently untreatable because CRT is required for creatine entry into brain cells. Here, we developed a brain-specific Slc6a8 knockout mouse (Slc6a8–/y) as an animal model of human CRT deficiency in order to explore potential therapies for this syndrome. The phenotype of the Slc6a8–/y mouse was comparable to that of human patients. We successfully treated the Slc6a8–/y mice with the creatine analog cyclocreatine. Brain cyclocreatine and cyclocreatine phosphate were detected after 9 weeks of cyclocreatine treatment in Slc6a8–/y mice, in contrast to the same mice treated with creatine or placebo. Cyclocreatine-treated Slc6a8–/y mice also exhibited a profound improvement in cognitive abilities, as seen with novel object recognition as well as spatial learning and memory tests. Thus, cyclocreatine appears promising as a potential therapy for CRT deficiency. PMID:22751104

Kurosawa, Yuko; DeGrauw, Ton J.; Lindquist, Diana M.; Blanco, Victor M.; Pyne-Geithman, Gail J.; Daikoku, Takiko; Chambers, James B.; Benoit, Stephen C.; Clark, Joseph F.

2012-01-01

168

Sustaining Performance Improvements in Energy Intensive Industries  

E-print Network

Experience has shown that significant opportunity for performance improvements exists in energy intensive operations. Often, efforts to improve efficiency focus on vendor-led initiatives to improve operations of particular equipment. This approach...

Moore, D. A.

2005-01-01

169

The Effect of S-Adenosylmethionine on Cognitive Performance in Mice: An Animal Model Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequently diagnosed form of dementia resulting in cognitive impairment. Many AD mouse studies, using the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), report improved cognitive ability, but conflicting results between and within studies currently exist. To address this, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of SAM on cognitive ability as measured by Y maze performance. As supporting evidence, we include further discussion of improvements in cognitive ability, by SAM, as measured by the Morris water maze (MWM). Methods We conducted a comprehensive literature review up to April 2014 based on searches querying MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and Proquest Theses and Dissertation databases. We identified three studies containing a total of 12 experiments that met our inclusion criteria and one study for qualitative review. The data from these studies were used to evaluate the effect of SAM on cognitive performance according to two scenarios: 1. SAM supplemented folate deficient (SFD) diet compared to a folate deficient (FD) diet and 2. SFD diet compared to a nutrient complete (NC) diet. Hedge's g was used to calculate effect sizes and mixed effects model meta-regression was used to evaluate moderating factors. Results Our findings showed that the SFD diet was associated with improvements in cognitive performance. SFD diet mice also had superior cognitive performance compared to mice on an NC diet. Further to this, meta-regression analyses indicated a significant positive effect of study quality score and treatment duration on the effect size estimate for both the FD vs SFD analysis and the SFD vs NC analysis. Conclusion The findings of this meta-analysis demonstrate efficacy of SAM in acting as a cognitive performance-enhancing agent. As a corollary, SAM may be useful in improving spatial memory in patients suffering from many dementia forms including AD. PMID:25347725

Montgomery, Sarah E.; Sepehry, Amir A.; Wangsgaard, John D.; Koenig, Jeremy E.

2014-01-01

170

Bidirectional interactions between circadian entrainment and cognitive performance  

PubMed Central

Circadian rhythms influence a variety of physiological and behavioral processes; however, little is known about how circadian rhythms interact with the organisms' ability to acquire and retain information about their environment. These experiments tested whether rats trained outside their endogenous active period demonstrate the same rate of acquisition, daily performance, and remote memory ability as their nocturnally trained counterparts in tasks of sustained attention and spatial memory. Furthermore, we explored how daily task training influenced circadian patterns of activity. We found that rats demonstrate better acquisition and performance on an operant task requiring attentional effort when trained during the dark-phase. Time of day did not affect acquisition or performance on the Morris water maze; however, when animals were retested 2 wk after their last day of training, they showed better remote memory if training originally occurred during the dark-phase. Finally, attentional, but not spatial, task performance during the light-phase promotes a shift toward diurnality and the synchronization of activity to the time of daily training; this shift was most robust when the demands on the cognitive control of attention were highest. Our findings support a theory of bidirectional interactions between cognitive performance and circadian processes and are consistent with the view that the circadian abnormalities associated with shift-work, aging, and neuropsychiatric illnesses may contribute to the deleterious effects on cognition often present in these populations. Furthermore, these findings suggest that time of day should be an important consideration for a variety of cognitive tasks principally used in psychological and neuroscience research. PMID:22383380

Gritton, Howard J.; Kantorowski, Ana; Sarter, Martin; Lee, Theresa M.

2012-01-01

171

Varenicline Improves Mood and Cognition during Smoking Abstinence  

PubMed Central

Background Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are a key target in medication development efforts for a range of neuropsychiatric disorders, including nicotine dependence. Varenicline, a partial agonist at the ?4?2 nAChRs, is a new efficacious medication for nicotine dependence. Its effects on the affective and cognitive dimensions of nicotine withdrawal have yet to be well characterized. Methods Sixty-seven treatment-seeking smokers were administered varenicline (× 21 days) and placebo (× 21 days) in a double-blind within-subject cross-over design. Following the medication run-up phase (days 1–10), there was a 3-day mandatory smoking abstinence phase (days 11–13) during which subjective symptoms and cognitive performance were assessed. Participants were re-exposed to a scheduled smoking lapse (day 14) and followed for days to lapse (days 15–21) in each medication period. Results In the varenicline period, compared to placebo, withdrawal symptoms (p=.04), smoking urges (p<.001), and negative affect (p=.01) were significantly reduced, and levels of positive affect (p=.046), sustained attention (p=.018) and working memory (p=.001) were significantly greater during mandatory abstinence. Varenicline also significantly reduced the subjective rewarding effects of the scheduled smoking lapse (e.g., satisfaction, relief, liking) (p=.003). Medication effects on days to lapse following the scheduled smoking lapse were dependent on treatment order (p=.001); among participants who received placebo in the first period, varenicline increased days of abstinence in the follow-up period. Conclusions These data identify novel affective and cognitive effects of varenicline, and may have implications for medication development for other neuropsychiatric conditions. PMID:18842256

Patterson, Freda; Jepson, Christopher; Strasser, Andrew A.; Loughead, James; Perkins, Kenneth A.; Gur, Ruben C.; Frey, Joseph M.; Siegel, Steven; Lerman, Caryn

2009-01-01

172

Caffeine and alcohol intakes and overall nutrient adequacy are associated with longitudinal cognitive performance among U.S. adults.  

PubMed

Among modifiable lifestyle factors, diet may affect cognitive health. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations may exist between dietary exposures [e.g., caffeine (mg/d), alcohol (g/d), and nutrient adequacy] and cognitive performance and change over time. This was a prospective cohort study, the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (n = 628-1305 persons depending on the cognitive outcome; ?2 visits/person). Outcomes included 10 cognitive scores, spanning various domains of cognition. Caffeine and alcohol intakes and a nutrient adequacy score (NAS) were estimated from 7-d food diaries. Among key findings, caffeine intake was associated with better baseline global cognition among participants with a baseline age (Agebase) of ?70 y. A higher NAS was associated with better baseline global cognition performance (overall, women, Agebase <70 y), better baseline verbal memory (immediate and delayed recall, Agebase ?70 y), and slower rate of decline or faster improvement in the attention domain (women). For an Agebase of <70 y, alcohol consumption was associated with slower improvement on letter fluency and global cognition over time. Conversely, for an Agebase of ?70 y and among women, alcohol intake was related to better baseline attention and working memory. In sum, patterns of diet and cognition associations indicate stratum-specific associations by sex and baseline age. The general observed trend was that of putative beneficial effects of caffeine intake and nutrient adequacy on domains of global cognition, verbal memory, and attention, and mixed effects of alcohol on domains of letter fluency, attention, and working memory. Further longitudinal studies conducted on larger samples of adults are needed to determine whether dietary factors individually or in combination are modifiers of cognitive trajectories among adults. PMID:24744319

Beydoun, May A; Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Beydoun, Hind A; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tucker, Katherine L; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B

2014-06-01

173

Differential effect of motivational features on training improvements in school-based cognitive training  

PubMed Central

Cognitive training often utilizes game-like motivational features to keep participants engaged. It is unclear how these elements, such as feedback, reward, and theming impact player performance during training. Recent research suggests that motivation and engagement are closely related to improvements following cognitive training. We hypothesized that training paradigms featuring game-like motivational elements would be more effective than a version with no motivational elements. Five distinct motivational features were chosen for examination: a real-time scoring system, theme changes, prizes, end-of-session certificates, and scaffolding to explain the lives and leveling system included in the game. One version of the game was created with all these motivational elements included, and one was created with all of them removed. Other versions removed a single element at a time. Seven versions of a game-like n-back working memory task were then created and administered to 128 students in second through eight grade at school-based summer camps in southeastern Michigan. The inclusion of real-time scoring during play, a popular motivational component in both entertainment games and cognitive training, was found to negatively impact training improvements over the three day period. Surprisingly, scaffolding to explain lives and levels also negatively impacted training gains. The other game adjustments did not significantly impact training improvement compared to the original version of the game with all features included. These findings are preliminary and are limited by both the small sample size and the brevity of the intervention. Nonetheless, these findings suggest that certain motivational elements may distract from the core cognitive training task, reducing task improvement, especially at the initial stage of learning. PMID:24795603

Katz, Benjamin; Jaeggi, Susanne; Buschkuehl, Martin; Stegman, Alyse; Shah, Priti

2014-01-01

174

Improving Performance in a Nuclear Cardiology Department  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Improving performance in the medical industry is an area that is ideally suited for the tools advocated by the International Society of Performance Improvement (ISPI). This paper describes an application of the tools that have been developed by Dale Brethower and Geary Rummler, two pillars of the performance improvement industry. It allows the…

LaFleur, Doug; Smalley, Karolyn; Austin, John

2005-01-01

175

Gender differences in premorbid cognitive performance in a national cohort of schizophrenic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite significant research, there are still inconsistent findings regarding gender differences in cognitive performance in individuals already diagnosed with schizophrenia; studies have found that males suffering from schizophrenia are more, less or equally impaired compared with females. Gender differences in cognitive performance in individuals suffering from schizophrenia may be influenced by gender differences in premorbid cognitive performance; the very few

Mark Weiser; Abraham Reichenberg; Jonathan Rabinowitz; Zeev Kaplan; Mordechai Mark; Daniella Nahon; Michael Davidson

2000-01-01

176

Agility improvement through cooperative diversity in cognitive radio  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we illustrate the benefits of cooperation in cognitive radio. Cognitive (unlicensed) users need to continuously monitor spectrum for the presence of primary (licensed) users. We show that by allowing the cognitive radios operating in the same band to cooperate we can reduce the detection time and thus increase the overall agility. We first consider the case of

Ghurumuruhan Ganesan; Ye Li

2005-01-01

177

Cognitive-Behavioral–Based Physical Therapy to Improve Surgical Spine Outcomes: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Fear of movement is a risk factor for poor postoperative outcomes in patients following spine surgery. The purposes of this case series were: (1) to describe the effects of a cognitive-behavioral–based physical therapy (CBPT) intervention in patients with high fear of movement following lumbar spine surgery and (2) to assess the feasibility of physical therapists delivering cognitive-behavioral techniques over the telephone. Case Description Eight patients who underwent surgery for a lumbar degenerative condition completed the 6-session CBPT intervention. The intervention included empirically supported behavioral self-management, problem solving, and cognitive restructuring and relaxation strategies and was conducted in person and then weekly over the phone. Patient-reported outcomes of pain and disability were assessed at baseline (6 weeks after surgery), postintervention (3 months after surgery), and at follow-up (6 months after surgery). Performance-based outcomes were tested at baseline and postintervention. The outcome measures were the Brief Pain Inventory, Oswestry Disability Index, 5-Chair Stand Test, and 10-Meter Walk Test. Outcomes Seven of the patients demonstrated a clinically significant reduction in pain, and all 8 of the patients had a clinically significant reduction in disability at 6-month follow-up. Improvement on the performance-based tests also was noted postintervention, with 5 patients demonstrating clinically meaningful change on the 10-Meter Walk Test. Discussion The findings suggest that physical therapists can feasibly implement cognitive-behavioral skills over the telephone and may positively affect outcomes after spine surgery. However, a randomized clinical trial is needed to confirm the results of this case series and the efficacy of the CBPT intervention. Clinical implications include broadening the availability of well-accepted cognitive-behavioral strategies by expanding implementation to physical therapists and through a telephone delivery model. PMID:23599351

Motzny, Nicole; Abraham, Christine M.; Yaffe, Donna; Seebach, Caryn L.; Devin, Clinton J.; Spengler, Dan M.; McGirt, Matthew J.; Aaronson, Oran S.; Cheng, Joseph S.; Wegener, Stephen T.

2013-01-01

178

The effects of glucose ingestion and glucose regulation on memory performance in older adults with mild cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:Previous research investigating the impact of glucose ingestion and\\/or improvements in glucose regulation has found selective cognitive facilitation on episodic memory tasks in successful ageing and dementia. The present study aimed to extend this research to mild cognitive impairment (MCI).Subjects\\/Methods:In a repeated-measures design, 24 older adults with and 24 older adults without MCI performed a battery of memory and attention

L M Riby; A Marriott; R Bullock; J Hancock; J Smallwood; J McLaughlin

2009-01-01

179

Relationship between physical performance and cognitive performance measures among community-dwelling older adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose Cognitive impairment is correlated with physical function. However, the results in the literature are inconsistent with cognitive and physical performance measures. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the association between cognitive performance and physical function among older adults. Methods A total of 164 older adults aged ?60 years and residing in low-cost housing areas in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia participated in this study. Cognitive performance was measured using the Mini Mental State Examination, clock drawing test, Rey auditory verbal learning test, digit symbol test, digit span test, matrix reasoning test, and block design test. Physical performance measures were assessed using the ten step test for agility, short physical performance battery test for an overall physical function, static balance test using a Pro.Balance board, and dynamic balance using the functional reach test. Results There was a negative and significant correlation between agility and the digit symbol test (r=?0.355), clock drawing test (r=?0.441), matrix reasoning test (r=?0.315), and block design test (r=?0.045). A significant positive correlation was found between dynamic balance, digit symbol test (r=0.301), and matrix reasoning test (r=0.251). The agility test appeared as a significant (R2=0.183, R2=0.407, R2=0.299, P<0.05) predictor of some cognitive performance measures, including the digit span test, clock drawing test, and Mini Mental State Examination. Conclusion These results suggest that a decline in most cognitive performance measures can be predicted by poor execution of a more demanding physical performance measure such as the ten step test for agility. It is imperative to use a more complex and cognitively demanding physical performance measure to identify the presence of an overall cognitive impairment among community-dwelling older adults. It may also be beneficial to promote more complex and cognitively challenging exercises and activities among older adults for optimal physical and cognitive function. PMID:25328418

Won, Huiloo; Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit; Din, Normah Che; Badrasawi, Manal; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Tan, Sin Thien; Tai, Chu Chiau; Shahar, Suzana

2014-01-01

180

Social hierarchies and emotions: cortical prefrontal activity, facial feedback (EMG), and cognitive performance in a dynamic interaction.  

PubMed

In the present research, we manipulated the perceived superior/inferior status during a competitive cognitive task. In two experiments, we created an explicit and strongly reinforced social hierarchy based on incidental rating on an attentional task. Based on our hypotheses, social rank may influence nonverbal cues (such as facial mimic related to emotional response), cortical lateralized activity in frontal areas (brain oscillations), and cognitive outcomes in response to rank modulation. Thus, the facial mimic (corrugators vs. zygomatic muscle activity), frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta), and real cognitive performance [(error rate (ER); response times (RTs)] were considered. Specifically, a peer-group comparison was enrolled and an improved (experiment 1, N = 29) or decreased (experiment 2, N = 31) performance was artificially manipulated by the experimenter. Results showed a significant improved cognitive performance (decreased ER and RTs), an increased zygomatic activity (positive emotions), and a more prefrontal left-lateralized cortical response in the case of a perceived increased social ranking. On the contrary, a significant decreased cognitive performance (increased ER and RTs), an increased corrugators activity (negative emotions), and a less left-lateralized cortical response were observed as a consequence of a perceived decreased social ranking. Moreover, the correlational values revealed a consistent trend between behavioral (RTs) and EMG and EEG measures for both experiments. The present results suggest that social status not only guides social behavior, but it also influences cognitive processes and subjects' performance. PMID:25372808

Balconi, Michela; Pagani, Silvia

2015-04-01

181

Using the Cognitive Apprenticeship Web-based Argumentation System to Improve Argumentation Instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated how the instruction of argumentation skills could be promoted by using an online argumentation system. This system entitled `Cognitive Apprenticeship Web-based Argumentation' (CAWA) system was based on cognitive apprenticeship model. One hundred eighty-nine fifth grade students took part in this study. A quasi-experimental design was adopted and qualitative and quantitative analyses were used to evaluate the effectiveness of this online system in measuring students' progress in learning argumentation. The results of this study showed that different teaching strategies had effects on students' use of argumentation in the topics of daily life and the concept of `vision.' When the CAWA system was employed during the instruction and practice of argumentation on these two topics, the students' argumentation performance improved. Suggestions on how the CAWA system could be used to enhance the instruction of argumentation skills in science education were also discussed.

Tsai, Chun-Yen; Jack, Brady Michael; Huang, Tai-Chu; Yang, Jin-Tan

2012-08-01

182

FGF-23 and cognitive performance in hemodialysis patients.  

PubMed

Although cognitive impairment is common in hemodialysis patients, the etiology of and risk factors for its development remain unclear. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) levels are elevated in hemodialysis patients and are associated with increased mortality and left ventricular hypertrophy. Despite FGF-23 being found within the brain, there are no prior studies assessing whether FGF-23 levels are associated with cognitive performance. We measured FGF-23 in 263 prevalent hemodialysis patients in whom comprehensive neurocognitive testing was also performed. The cross-sectional association between patient characteristics and FGF-23 levels was assessed. Principal factor analysis was used to derive two factors from cognitive test scores, representing memory and executive function, which carried a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1. Multivariable linear regression adjusting for age, sex, education status, and other relevant covariates was used to explore the relationship between FGF-23 and each factor. Mean age was 63 years, 46% were women and 22% were African American. The median FGF-23 level was 3098 RU/mL. Younger age, lower prevalence of diabetes, longer dialysis vintage, and higher calcium and phosphorus were independently associated with higher FGF-23 levels. Higher FGF-23 was independently associated with a lower memory score (per doubling of FGF-23, ??=?-0.08 SD [95% confidence interval, CI: -0.16, -0.01]) and highest quartile vs. lowest quartile (??=?-0.42 SD [-0.82, -0.02]). There was no definite association of FGF 23 with executive function when examined as a continuous variable (??=?-0.03 SD [-0.10, 0.04]); however, there was a trend in the quartile analysis (??=?-0.28 SD [-0.63, 0.07], P?=?0.13, for 4th quartile vs. 1st quartile). FGF-23 was associated with worse performance on a composite memory score, including after adjustment for measures of mineral metabolism. High FGF-23 levels in hemodialysis patients may contribute to cognitive impairment. PMID:24164913

Drew, David A; Tighiouart, Hocine; Scott, Tammy M; Lou, Kristina V; Fan, Li; Shaffi, Kamran; Weiner, Daniel E; Sarnak, Mark J

2014-01-01

183

Infant feeding practice and childhood cognitive performance in South India  

PubMed Central

Aim Several studies have suggested a beneficial effect of infant breast-feeding on childhood cognitive function. Our main objective was to examine whether duration of breast-feeding and age at introduction of complementary foods are related to cognitive performance in 9-10 year old school going children in South-India. Methods We examined 514 children from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort for whom breast-feeding duration (6 categories from <3 to ?18 months) and age at introduction of complementary foods (4 categories from <4 to ?6 months) were collected at the 1st, 2nd and 3rd year annual follow-up visits. Their cognitive function was assessed at a mean age of 9.7 years using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children and additional tests measuring long-term retrieval/storage, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. Results All the children were initially breast-fed. The mode for duration of breast-feeding was 12-17 months (45.7%) and for age at introduction of complementary foods 4 months (37.1%). There were no associations between longer duration of breast-feeding, or age of introduction of complementary foods, and cognitive function at 9-10 years, either unadjusted or after adjustment for age, sex, gestation, birth size, maternal age, parity, socio-economic status, parents’ attained schooling, and rural/urban residence. Conclusions Within this cohort, in which prolonged breast-feeding was the norm (90% breast-fed ?6 months and 65% breast-fed for ?12 months), there was no evidence suggesting a beneficial effect of longer duration of breast-feeding on later cognitive ability. PMID:19946010

Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Wills, Andrew K; Hill, Jacqueline C; Kurpad, Anura V; Muthayya, Sumithra; Karat, Samuel C; Nalinakshi, Mahadevu; Fall, Caroline HD

2012-01-01

184

Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and optimization of cognitive performance.  

PubMed

Low consumption of the omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenonic acids, is linked to delayed brain development and, in late life, increased risk for Alzheimer's disease. The current review focuses on cognitive functioning during midlife and summarizes available scientific evidence relevant to the hypothesis that adequate dietary consumption of the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids is necessary for optimal cognitive performance. Taken together, the findings suggest that raising the currently low consumption among healthy adults may improve some aspects of cognitive performance. Nonetheless, evidence from randomized clinical trials is comparatively sparse and leaves unclear: (a) whether such effects are clinically significant, (b) whether effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and DHA differ, (c) which dimensions of cognitive function are affected, (d) the dose-response relationships, or (e) the time course of the response. Clarification of these issues through both laboratory and clinical investigations is a priority given the broad implications for public health, as well as for military personnel and other positions of high performance demand and responsibility. PMID:25373092

Muldoon, Matthew F; Ryan, Christopher M; Yao, Jeffrey K; Conklin, Sarah M; Manuck, Stephen B

2014-11-01

185

A systematic review of the effect of breakfast on the cognitive performance of children and adolescents.  

PubMed

Breakfast is recommended as part of a healthy diet because it is associated with healthier macro- and micronutrient intakes, BMI and lifestyle. Breakfast is also widely promoted to improve cognitive function and academic performance, leading to the provision of breakfast initiatives by public health bodies. Despite this positive and intuitive perception of cognitive benefits, there has been no systematic review of the evidence. Systematic review methodology was employed to evaluate the effects of breakfast on cognitive performance in well-nourished children and nutritionally at-risk or stunted children. Acute experimental studies, school feeding programmes and studies of habitual breakfast intake are reviewed. Comparisons of breakfast v. no breakfast and breakfasts differing in energy and macronutrient composition are discussed. Included are forty-five studies described in forty-one papers published between 1950 and 2008. The evidence indicates that breakfast consumption is more beneficial than skipping breakfast, but this effect is more apparent in children whose nutritional status is compromised. There is a lack of research comparing breakfast type, precluding recommendations for the size and composition of an optimal breakfast for children's cognitive function. Few studies examined adolescents. Studies of school breakfast programmes suggest that such interventions can have positive effects on academic performance, but this may be in part explained by the increased school attendance that programmes encourage. The present systematic review considers methodological issues in this field and makes recommendations for future research design and policy priorities. PMID:19930787

Hoyland, Alexa; Dye, Louise; Lawton, Clare L

2009-12-01

186

Identifying Cognitive Mechanisms Targeted for Treatment Development in Schizophrenia: An Overview of the First Meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) Initiative  

PubMed Central

This overview describes the generation and development of the ideas that led to the Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (CNTRICS) initiative. It also describes the organization, process and products of the first meeting. The CNTRICS initiative involves a series of three conferences that will systematically address barriers to translating paradigms developed in the basic animal and human cognitive neuroscience fields for use in translational research aimed at developing novel treatments for cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. The articles in this special section report on the results of the first conference, which used a criterion based consensus-building process to develop a set of cognitive constructs to be targeted for translation efforts. PMID:18466880

Carter, Cameron S.; Barch, Deanna M.; Buchanan, Robert W.; Bullmore, Ed; Krystal, John H.; Cohen, Jonathan; Geyer, Mark; Green, Michael; Nuechterlein, Keith H.; Robbins, Trevor; Silverstein, Steven; Smith, Edward E.; Strauss, Milton; Wykes, Til; Heinssen, Robert

2008-01-01

187

Cognitive dysfunction in psychiatric disorders: characteristics, causes and the quest for improved therapy.  

PubMed

Studies of psychiatric disorders have traditionally focused on emotional symptoms such as depression, anxiety and hallucinations. However, poorly controlled cognitive deficits are equally prominent and severely compromise quality of life, including social and professional integration. Consequently, intensive efforts are being made to characterize the cellular and cerebral circuits underpinning cognitive function, define the nature and causes of cognitive impairment in psychiatric disorders and identify more effective treatments. Successful development will depend on rigorous validation in animal models as well as in patients, including measures of real-world cognitive functioning. This article critically discusses these issues, highlighting the challenges and opportunities for improving cognition in individuals suffering from psychiatric disorders. PMID:22293568

Millan, Mark J; Agid, Yves; Brüne, Martin; Bullmore, Edward T; Carter, Cameron S; Clayton, Nicola S; Connor, Richard; Davis, Sabrina; Deakin, Bill; DeRubeis, Robert J; Dubois, Bruno; Geyer, Mark A; Goodwin, Guy M; Gorwood, Philip; Jay, Thérèse M; Joëls, Marian; Mansuy, Isabelle M; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Murphy, Declan; Rolls, Edmund; Saletu, Bernd; Spedding, Michael; Sweeney, John; Whittington, Miles; Young, Larry J

2012-02-01

188

Generalized and Specific Cognitive Performance in Clinical High-Risk Cohorts: A Review Highlighting Potential Vulnerability Markers for Psychosis  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits are a core feature of established psychotic illnesses. However, the association between cognition and emerging psychosis is less understood. While there is some evidence that cognitive deficits are present prior to the onset of psychosis, findings are not consistent. In this article we provide an overview of the more general cognitive findings available from genetic high-risk studies, retrospective studies, and birth cohort studies. We then focus the review on neuropsychological performance in clinically “at-risk” groups. Overall, general cognitive ability as assessed by established batteries appears to remain relatively intact in these ultra-high risk cohorts and is a poor predictor close to illness onset relative to other vulnerability factors. Further decline may occur with illness progression, more consistent with state relative to trait factors. In addition, most established cognitive tasks involve several relatively discrete cognitive subprocesses, where findings from general batteries of subtests may mask specific deficits. In this context, our review suggests that relatively specific olfactory identification and spatial working memory deficits exist prior to illness onset and may be more potent trait markers for psychosis than cognitively dense tasks such as verbal memory. Suggestions for further research address the importance of standardization of inclusion criteria and the maintenance of basic neuropsychological assessment to allow better comparison of findings across centers. Further, in order to better understand the aetiopathology of cognitive dysfunction in psychosis, more experimental, hypothesis-driven measures of discrete cognitive processes are required. Delineation of the relationship between specific cognitive ability and symptoms from data-driven approaches may improve our understanding of the role of cognition during psychosis onset. PMID:16782759

Brewer, Warrick J.; Wood, Stephen J.; Phillips, Lisa J.; Francey, Shona M.; Pantelis, Christos; Yung, Alison R.; Cornblatt, Barbara; McGorry, Patrick D.

2006-01-01

189

Cognitive Load Theory: An Empirical Study of Anxiety and Task Performance in Language Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: This study explores the relationship among three variables--cognitive load, foreign language anxiety, and task performance. Cognitive load refers to the load imposed on working memory while performing a particular task. The authors hypothesized that anxiety consumes the resources of working memory, leaving less capacity for cognitive

Chen, I-Jung; Chang, Chi-Cheng

2009-01-01

190

Predicting Graph Reading Performance: A Cognitive Approach Weidong Huang, Seok-Hee Hong, and Peter Eades  

E-print Network

for visualization effectiveness and efficiency assessment. A model of user performance, mental effort and cognitive provides us new insights and practical guidance in visualization assessment. 2) an- alyzing human cognitivePredicting Graph Reading Performance: A Cognitive Approach Weidong Huang, Seok-Hee Hong, and Peter

Hong,Seokhee

191

n-3 LCPUFA improves cognition: the young, the old and the sick.  

PubMed

Due to the implication of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, neurite outgrowth and to its high incorporation into the brain, this n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) is considered as crucial in the development and maintenance of the learning memory performance throughout life. In the present chapter we aimed at reviewing data investigating the relation between DHA and cognition during the perinatal period, young adult- and adulthood and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD). In Humans, dietary DHA supplementation from the perinatal period to adulthood does not reveal a clear and consistent memory improvement whereas it is the case in animal studies. The positive effects observed in animal models may have been enhanced by using n-3 PUFA deficient animal models as controls. In animal models of AD, a general consensus on the beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA in attenuating cognitive impairment was established. These studies make DHA a potential suitable micronutrient for the maintenance of cognitive performance at all periods of life. PMID:24908517

Joffre, C; Nadjar, A; Lebbadi, M; Calon, F; Laye, S

2014-01-01

192

Aerobic exercise improves cognition for older adults with glucose intolerance, a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Impaired glucose regulation is a defining characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathology and has been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Although the benefits of aerobic exercise for physical health are well-documented, exercise effects on cognition have not been examined for older adults with poor glucose regulation associated with prediabetes and early T2DM. Using a randomized controlled design, twenty-eight adults (57-83 y old) meeting 2-h tolerance test criteria for glucose intolerance completed 6 months of aerobic exercise or stretching, which served as the control. The primary cognitive outcomes included measures of executive function (Trails B, Task Switching, Stroop, Self-ordered Pointing Test, and Verbal Fluency). Other outcomes included memory performance (Story Recall, List Learning), measures of cardiorespiratory fitness obtained via maximal-graded exercise treadmill test, glucose disposal during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, body fat, and fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, amyloid-? (A?40 and A?42). Six months of aerobic exercise improved executive function (MANCOVA, p=0.04), cardiorespiratory fitness (MANOVA, p=0.03), and insulin sensitivity (p=0.05). Across all subjects, 6-month changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and insulin sensitivity were positively correlated (p=0.01). For A?42, plasma levels tended to decrease for the aerobic group relative to controls (p=0.07). The results of our study using rigorous controlled methodology suggest a cognition-enhancing effect of aerobic exercise for older glucose intolerant adults. Although replication in a larger sample is needed, our findings potentially have important therapeutic implications for a growing number of adults at increased risk of cognitive decline. PMID:20847403

Baker, Laura D; Frank, Laura L; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Green, Pattie S; Wilkinson, Charles W; McTiernan, Anne; Cholerton, Brenna A; Plymate, Stephen R; Fishel, Mark A; Watson, G Stennis; Duncan, Glen E; Mehta, Pankaj D; Craft, Suzanne

2010-01-01

193

Alcohol-Impaired Speed and Accuracy of Cognitive Functions: A Review of Acute Tolerance and Recovery of Cognitive Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research on the effects of a dose of alcohol has shown that motor skills recover from impairment as blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) decline and that acute tolerance to alcohol impairment can develop during the course of the dose. Comparable alcohol research on cognitive performance is sparse but has increased with the development of computerized cognitive tasks. This article reviews

Tom A. Schweizer; Muriel Vogel-Sprott

2008-01-01

194

A cog in cognition: how the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is geared towards improving cognitive deficits.  

PubMed

Cognition, memory, and attention and arousal have been linked to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Thus it is not surprising that nAChRs have been strongly implicated as therapeutic targets for treating cognitive deficits in disorders such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In particular the alpha7 (alpha7) nAChR has been closely linked with normalization of P50 auditory evoked potential (AEP) gating deficits, and to a lesser extent improvements in pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response. These two brain phenomena can be considered as pre-attentive, occurring while sensory information is being processed, and are important endophenotypes in schizophrenia with deficits likely contributing to the cognitive fragmentation associated with the disease. In addition alpha7 nAChRs have been implicated in attention, in particular under high attentional demand, and in more demanding working memory tasks such as long delays in delayed matching tasks. Efficacy of alpha7 nAChR agonists across a range of cognitive processes ranging from pre-attentive to attentive states and working and recognition memory provides a solid basis for their pro-cognitive effects. This review will focus on the recent work highlighting the role of alpha7 in cognition and cognitive processes. PMID:19351547

Leiser, Steven C; Bowlby, Mark R; Comery, Thomas A; Dunlop, John

2009-06-01

195

How does distraction affect cognitive performance? In everyday life, we repeatedly perform multiple tasks simul-  

E-print Network

listening to the radio, and, in some instances, we have cell phone conversations while we drive cars to vehicles in front and braking harder, whereas drivers conversing on a cell phone showed delayed brakingHow does distraction affect cognitive performance? In everyday life, we repeatedly perform multiple

196

Performance Pay Path to Improvement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary goal of performance pay for the past decade has been higher test scores, and the most prominent strategy has been to increase teacher performance through financial incentives. If teachers are rewarded for success, according to this logic, they will try harder. If they try harder, more children will achieve higher test scores. The…

Gratz, Donald B.

2011-01-01

197

Procedures for Improving Pyrgeometer Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The actual performance of an Eppley pyrgeometer is compared to the desired theoretical performance. The three most significant errors identified are due to (1) battery voltage uncertainties, (2) nonlinearity of circuitry at extreme temperature and (3) differential heating of the instrument. Pyrgeometer measurements made from aircraft are shown to have potential errors as large as 60 W\\/sq m. These errors,

B. Albrecht; S. K. Cox

1977-01-01

198

The Cognitive Environment Simulation as a tool for modeling human performance and reliability  

SciTech Connect

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a program to develop improved methods to model the cognitive behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel. A tool called Cognitive Environment Simulation (CES) was developed for simulating how people form intentions to act in NPP emergencies. CES provides an analytic tool for exploring plausible human response in emergency situations. In addition a methodology called Cognitive Reliability Assessment Technique (CREATE) was developed that describes how CES can be used to provide input to human reliability analyses (HRA) in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies. This report describes the results of three activities that were performed to evaluate CES/CREATE: (1) A technical review was conducted by a panel of experts in cognitive modeling, PRA and HRA; (2) CES was exercised on steam generator tube rupture incidents for which data on operator performance exist; (3) a workshop with HRA practitioners was held to analyze a worked example'' of the CREATE methodology. The results of all three evaluations indicate that CES/CREATE is a promising approach for modeling intention formation. This document, Volume 1 provides a summary of the results. Volume 2 provides details on three evaluations, including the CES computer outputs for the tube rupture events. 14 refs., 3 figs.

Woods, D.D. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA). Cognitive Systems Engineering Lab.); Pople, H.E. Jr. (Seer Systems (USA)); Roth, E.M. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Science and Technology Center)

1990-06-01

199

The Cognitive Environment Simulation as a tool for modeling human performance and reliability  

SciTech Connect

The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring a program to develop improved methods to model the cognitive behavior of nuclear power plant (NPP) personnel. A tool called Cognitive Environment Simulation (CES) was developed for simulating how people form intentions to act in NPP emergencies. CES provides an analytic tool for exploring plausible human responses in emergency situations. In addition a methodology called Cognitive Reliability Assessment Technique (CREATE) was developed that describes how CES can be used to provide input to human reliability analyses (HRA) in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) studies. This report describes the results of three activities that were performed to evaluate CES/CREATE: (1) A technical review was conducted by a panel of experts in cognitive modeling, PRA and HRA; (2) CES was exercised on steam generator tube rupture incidents for which data on operator performance exist; (3) a workshop with HRA practitioners was held to analyze a worked example'' of the CREATE methodology. The results of all three evaluations indicate that CES/CREATE is a promising approach for modeling intention formation. Volume 1 provides a summary of the results. This document, Volume 2, provides details on the three evaluations, including the CES computer outputs for the tube rupture events. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

Woods, D.D. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA). Cognitive Systems Engineering Lab.); Pople, H.E. Jr. (Seer Systems (USA)); Roth, E.M. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Science and Technology Center)

1990-06-01

200

The influence of exercise on prefrontal cortex activity and cognitive performance during a simulated space flight to Mars (MARS500).  

PubMed

With respect to the plans of national and internationals space agencies to send people to Mars or Moon, long-term isolation studies are performed to learn about the psycho-physiological and psycho-social limitations of such missions. From June 3rd 2010 to November 4th 2011 six participants lived under totally isolated and confined conditions in the MARS500 habitat located in Moscow. Despite the possibility to mimic the condition of space travel, this study allowed for experimental conditions under very reliable and traceable conditions. As exercise is widely discussed to have a positive impact on neuro-cognitive performance, this study aimed to test the effect of different exercise protocol (endurance/strength orientated) on brain cortical activity and cognitive performance. Brain cortical activity was recorded using a 16 channel EEG before and after exercise across the 520 days of confinement. Cognitive performance was assessed using three commercially available brain games. Following the theory of transient hypofrontality, results show a significant decrease of frontal brain cortical activity after exercise (p<.05) which was most expressed after endurance orientated protocols. Cognitive performance was improved following running sessions on an active treadmill (p<.05). Results let us assume that not exercise per se acts as a neuro-enhancer. It is more likely that a general defocusing caused by an immersion into exercise is necessary to improve cognitive performance. PMID:22944515

Schneider, Stefan; Abeln, Vera; Popova, Julia; Fomina, Elena; Jacubowski, Amrei; Meeusen, Romain; Strüder, Heiko K

2013-01-01

201

Security management performance improvement 2001.  

PubMed

The author discusses how a large healthcare facility has improved security management practices and increased security presence. He provides the results of a survey report, relates how the recommendations were prioritized and implemented, and also provides a progress summary. PMID:11951387

Leibfried, Chris

2002-01-01

202

Gas-turbine performance improvements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of gas turbines is increasing for producing electricity, operating airplanes and for various industrial applications. In the last three decades, improvements in gas turbines have shown their success in increasing the amount of energy output from power stations. This is because of advances in metallurgical science and especially the materials used in gas turbines, so that it is

Omar Othman Badran

1999-01-01

203

Alcohol-impaired speed and accuracy of cognitive functions: a review of acute tolerance and recovery of cognitive performance.  

PubMed

Much research on the effects of a dose of alcohol has shown that motor skills recover from impairment as blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) decline and that acute tolerance to alcohol impairment can develop during the course of the dose. Comparable alcohol research on cognitive performance is sparse but has increased with the development of computerized cognitive tasks. This article reviews the results of recent research using these tasks to test the development of acute tolerance in cognitive performance and recovery from impairment during declining BACs. Results show that speed and accuracy do not necessarily agree in detecting cognitive impairment, and this mismatch most frequently occurs during declining BACs. Speed of cognitive performance usually recovers from impairment to drug-free levels during declining BACs, whereas alcohol-increased errors fail to diminish. As a consequence, speed of cognitive processing tends to develop acute tolerance, but no such tendency is shown in accuracy. This "acute protracted error" phenomenon has not previously been documented. The findings pose a challenge to the theory of alcohol tolerance on the basis of physiological adaptation and raise new research questions concerning the independence of speed and accuracy of cognitive processes, as well as hemispheric lateralization of alcohol effects. The occurrence of alcohol-induced protracted cognitive errors long after speed returned to normal is identified as a potential threat to the safety of social drinkers that requires urgent investigation. PMID:18540784

Schweizer, Tom A; Vogel-Sprott, Muriel

2008-06-01

204

Cognition and procedure representational requirements for predictive human performance models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Models and modeling environments for human performance are becoming significant contributors to early system design and analysis procedures. Issues of levels of automation, physical environment, informational environment, and manning requirements are being addressed by such man/machine analysis systems. The research reported here investigates the close interaction between models of human cognition and models that described procedural performance. We describe a methodology for the decomposition of aircrew procedures that supports interaction with models of cognition on the basis of procedures observed; that serves to identify cockpit/avionics information sources and crew information requirements; and that provides the structure to support methods for function allocation among crew and aiding systems. Our approach is to develop an object-oriented, modular, executable software representation of the aircrew, the aircraft, and the procedures necessary to satisfy flight-phase goals. We then encode in a time-based language, taxonomies of the conceptual, relational, and procedural constraints among the cockpit avionics and control system and the aircrew. We have designed and implemented a goals/procedures hierarchic representation sufficient to describe procedural flow in the cockpit. We then execute the procedural representation in simulation software and calculate the values of the flight instruments, aircraft state variables and crew resources using the constraints available from the relationship taxonomies. The system provides a flexible, extensible, manipulative and executable representation of aircrew and procedures that is generally applicable to crew/procedure task-analysis. The representation supports developed methods of intent inference, and is extensible to include issues of information requirements and functional allocation. We are attempting to link the procedural representation to models of cognitive functions to establish several intent inference methods including procedural backtracking with concurrent search, temporal reasoning, and constraint checking for partial ordering of procedures. Finally, the representation is being linked to models of human decision making processes that include heuristic, propositional and prescriptive judgement models that are sensitive to the procedural content in which the valuative functions are being performed.

Corker, K.

1992-01-01

205

Sleep problems, fatigue, and cognitive performance in Chinese kindergarten children  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine sleep problems and fatigue and their associations with cognitive performance in Chinese kindergarten children. Study design A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from Jintan Child Cohort Study was conducted, which includes a cohort of 1,656 kindergarten children in Jintan City, Jiangsu Province, China. The sample used in the current study consisted of 1,385 children (44.8% girls, mean age 5.72 (SD=0.42) years) for whom data on sleep problems or cognitive performance were available. Child Behavior Checklist was used to measure child sleep problems and fatigue, and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence – Revised was used to assess child intelligence quotient (IQ). Results Sleep problems were prevalent, ranging from 8.9% for difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS) to 70.5% for unwilling to sleep alone. Other reported sleep problems were difficulty initiating sleep (39.4%), nightmares (31.6%), sleep talking (28%), sleeping less (24.7%), and sleep resistance (23.4%). Fatigue was also prevalent, with 29.6% of children reported to be overtired and 12.6% lack of energy. Children with DMS, sleep talking, sleep resistance, or nightmares scored 2-3 points lower in full IQ than children without sleep problems. Children reported to have fatigue scored 3-6 points lower in full IQ than those children without fatigue. Conclusions Sleep problems and fatigue are prevalent in Chinese kindergarten children. Furthermore, sleep problems and fatigue are associated with poor cognitive performance. PMID:22521112

Liu, Jianghong; Zhou, Guoping; Wang, Yingjie; Ai, Yuexian; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Liu, Xianchen

2012-01-01

206

Effects of isradipine on cocaine-induced changes in cognitive performance in recently abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals.  

PubMed

Recently abstinent cocaine-dependent individuals, compared with healthy controls, appear more likely to exhibit deficits in cognitive performance and attention. Individuals with such cognitive deficits might be less able to avail themselves of rehabilitative or relapse-prevention efforts. Pharmacotherapy that reduces the impairment in cognitive performance among cocaine-dependent individuals would be a useful clinical tool. Preclinical and human studies suggest that the dihydropyridine-class calcium-channel antagonist, isradipine, can enhance neurocognitive function in some neuropsychiatric disorders. Isradipine, presumably by increasing cerebral blood flow and its actions at various neurotransmitter systems, might, therefore, ameliorate the impairment in cognitive performance and attention seen in cocaine addicts and enhance the expected modest improvement in performance during acute cocaine-taking in these same individuals. Among 12 male and female cocaine-dependent individuals, we examined the effects of low and high doses of intravenous cocaine (0, 0.325, and 0.650 mg/kg) on cognitive performance and attention in both the presence and absence of isradipine (0 or 30 mg sustained release each evening prior to testing, plus 0 or 15 mg immediate release each morning 2 h before the cocaine or placebo cocaine infusion and on the day of testing). Intravenous cocaine produced a modest increase in cognitive performance and attention. Isradipine, both with and without cocaine, had no effect on these same parameters. Hence, cocaine-taking by cocaine-dependent individuals produces little improvement in cognitive performance and attention in either the presence or absence of isradipine. PMID:15916717

Johnson, Bankole A; Roache, John D; Ait-Daoud, Nassima; Wallace, Christopher L; Wells, Lynda T; Wang, Yanmei; Dawes, Michael A

2005-12-01

207

Dietary tyrosine benefits cognitive and psychomotor performance during body cooling.  

PubMed

Supplemental tyrosine is effective at limiting cold-induced decreases in working memory, presumably by augmenting brain catecholamine levels, since tyrosine is a precursor for catecholamine synthesis. The effectiveness of tyrosine for preventing cold-induced decreases in physical performance has not been examined. This study evaluated the effect of tyrosine supplementation on cognitive, psychomotor, and physical performance following a cold water immersion protocol that lowered body core temperature. Fifteen subjects completed a control trial (CON) in warm (35 degrees C) water and two cold water trials, each spaced a week apart. Subjects ingested an energy bar during each trial; on one cold trial (TYR) the bar contained tyrosine (300 mg/kg body weight), and on the other cold trial (PLB) and on CON the bar contained no tyrosine. Following each water immersion, subjects completed a battery of performance tasks in a cold air (10 degrees C) chamber. Core temperature was lower (p=0.0001) on PLB and TYR (both 35.5+/-0.6 degrees C) than CON (37.1+/-0.3 degrees C). On PLB, performance on a Match-to-Sample task decreased 18% (p=0.02) and marksmanship performance decreased 14% (p=0.002), compared to CON, but there was no difference between TYR and CON. Step test performance decreased by 11% (p=0.0001) on both cold trials, compared to CON. These data support previous findings that dietary tyrosine supplementation is effective for mitigating cold-induced cognitive performance such as working memory, even with reduced core temperature, and extends those findings to include the psychomotor task of marksmanship. PMID:17078981

O'Brien, Catherine; Mahoney, Caroline; Tharion, William J; Sils, Ingrid V; Castellani, John W

2007-02-28

208

Using Cognitive Traits for Improving the Detection of Learning Styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

While providing online courses that fit students' learning styles has high potential to make learning easier for students, it requires knowing students' learning styles first. This paper demonstrates how the consideration of cognitive traits such as working memory capacity (WMC) can help in detecting learning styles. Previous studies have identified a relationship between learning styles and cognitive traits. In this

Sabine Graf; K. Kinshuk

2010-01-01

209

Human performance cognitive-behavioral modeling: a benefit for occupational safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human Performance Modeling (HPM) is a computer-aided job analysis software methodology used to generate predictions of complex human-automation integration and system flow patterns with the goal of improving operator and system safety. The use of HPM tools has recently been increasing due to reductions in computational cost, augmentations in the tools' fidelity, and usefulness in the generated output. An examination of an Air Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (Air MIDAS) model evaluating complex human-automation integration currently underway at NASA Ames Research Center will highlight the importance to occupational safety of considering both cognitive and physical aspects of performance when researching human error.

Gore, Brian F.

2002-01-01

210

Improvements in Iron Status and Cognitive Function in Young Women Consuming Beef or Non-Beef Lunches  

PubMed Central

Iron status is associated with cognitive performance and intervention trials show that iron supplementation improves mental function in iron-deficient adults. However, no studies have tested the efficacy of naturally iron-rich food in this context. This investigation measured the hematologic and cognitive responses to moderate beef consumption in young women. Participants (n = 43; age 21.1 ± 0.4 years) were randomly assigned to a beef or non-beef protein lunch group [3-oz (85 g), 3 times weekly] for 16 weeks. Blood was sampled at baseline, and weeks 8 and 16, and cognitive performance was measured at baseline and week 16. Body iron increased in both lunch groups (p < 0.0001), with greater improvement demonstrated in women with lower baseline body iron (p < 0.0001). Body iron had significant beneficial effects on spatial working memory and planning speed (p < 0.05), and ferritin responders (n = 17) vs. non-responders (n = 26) showed significantly greater improvements in planning speed, spatial working memory strategy, and attention (p < 0.05). Lunch group had neither significant interactions with iron status nor consistent main effects on test performance. These findings support a relationship between iron status and cognition, but do not show a particular benefit of beef over non-beef protein consumption on either measure in young women. PMID:24379009

Blanton, Cynthia

2013-01-01

211

COGNITIVE MODELING AS A TOOL FOR IMPROVING RUNWAY SAFETY Michael J. Schoelles  

E-print Network

complex combinations of cognitive and environmental factors, which can have deadly consequences. However of a system can lead to large changes in human performance, imagine the potential changes that could occur of such events. A possible path forward is the use of high-fidelity cognitive models to predict pilot performance

Gray, Wayne

212

Performance Improvement of MDD Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

From first to mature versions of Model-Driven Development (MDD) tools, there is a gap, as for any other software applications. All functional requirements must be met, including qualities of services, at the risk of seeing MDD tools rejected by users. In this paper, we focus on performance, especially for large-scale developments. After an overview of methodological elements, we give a

Benoît Langlois; Daniel Exertier; Stéphane Bonnet

2006-01-01

213

The interacting effect of cognitive and motor task demands on performance of gait, balance and cognition in young adults.  

PubMed

Mobility limitations and cognitive impairments, each common with aging, reduce levels of physical and mental activity, are prognostic of future adverse health events, and are associated with an increased fall risk. The purpose of this study was to examine whether divided attention during walking at a constant speed would decrease locomotor rhythm, stability, and cognitive performance. Young healthy participants (n=20) performed a visuo-spatial cognitive task in sitting and while treadmill walking at 2 speeds (0.7 and 1.0 m/s).Treadmill speed had a significant effect on temporal gait variables and ML-COP excursion. Cognitive load did not have a significant effect on average temporal gait variables or COP excursion, but variation of gait variables increased during dual-task walking. ML and AP trunk motion was found to decrease during dual-task walking. There was a significant decrease in cognitive performance (success rate, response time and movement time) while walking, but no effect due to treadmill speed. In conclusion walking speed is an important variable to be controlled in studies that are designed to examine effects of concurrent cognitive tasks on locomotor rhythm, pacing and stability. Divided attention during walking at a constant speed did result in decreased performance of a visuo-spatial cognitive task and an increased variability in locomotor rhythm. PMID:23477841

Szturm, Tony; Maharjan, Pramila; Marotta, Jonathan J; Shay, Barbara; Shrestha, Shiva; Sakhalkar, Vedant

2013-09-01

214

Improving Silicon Carbide Transistor Performance  

E-print Network

(Auburn University) G O A L To improve electron mobility at the SiO2 /SiC interfaces in high power, high the number of interfacial traps. K E Y A C C O M P L I S H M E N T S Reduced the carbon and oxygen diffusion the electron mobility at the SiO2 /SiC interfaces. R E F E R E N C E Relationship between 4H-SiC/SiO2

215

Effect of Age of Treatment on Cognitive Performance in Patients with Cystinosis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether early treatment with cysteamine affects cognitive functioning in patients with nephropathic cystinosis. Study design Individuals (n = 46, ages 3–18 years) with cystinosis underwent cognitive testing to determine intelligence, visual spatial abilities, and visual motor skills. An age-matched control group (n = 85, age range 2–22 years) received the same tests. Age at diagnosis and age at treatment onset with cysteamine were recorded at the time of testing. Results Patients with cystinosis treated at or after 2 years of age (late-treatment patients) scored significantly lower on verbal, performance, and full-scale IQ measures, as well as on a test of visual spatial skills when compared to early treatment patients (treatment onset <2years old) and to controls. Regardless of the age of treatment, both groups of subjects with cystinosis showed impairment in visual motor skills compared with controls; early-treatment patients showed no advantage in this area. Conclusion Early treatment with cysteamine appears to improve intellectual function in nephropathic cystinosis. However, the fact that visual motor function was not improved with early cysteamine treatment suggests that the mechanisms underlying visual motor performance may be different from other areas of cognition in this disorder. PMID:23462307

Viltz, Lisa; Trauner, Doris A.

2013-01-01

216

Yizhi Xingnao prescription improves the cognitive function of patients after a transient ischemic attack?  

PubMed Central

Patients with mild cognitive impairment after a transient ischemic attack were included in this study. They were treated with Yizhi Xingnao prescription, ergoloid mesylates or aspirin for 60 days. Evaluation using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale showed that cognitive function was significantly improved in all patients, especially after the combined treatment of Yizhi Xingnao and aspirin. The scores from the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale were improved overall and the effective treatment rate was as high as 79%, which was higher than patients treated with a combination of ergoloid mesylates and aspirin, or aspirin alone. Our experimental findings indicate that Yizhi Xingnao prescription can improve mild cognitive impairment after a transient ischemic attack, and that it is more effective than ergoloid mesylates.

Jiang, Donglin; Chu, Xing; Hu, Lingling; Jiang, Shengyang; Hu, Feng; Sun, Junming; Li, Chengwan

2012-01-01

217

The Emotional Side of Performance Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of performance improvement focuses on the effect of emotions on performance. Topics include the emotional intelligence of the performers; how people deal with emotional demands and the stress of their performance; and emotional states that affect attention, focus, perception, and time on task. (LRW)

Gerson, Richard F.

2000-01-01

218

Improving VPN Performance over Multiple Access Links  

E-print Network

Improving VPN Performance over Multiple Access Links Jack Brassil, Rick McGeer, Raj Rajagopalan, HP University, Stephen Schwab, Sparta Inc. Abstract-- To improve the performance of VPN con- nections we bandwidth, packet loss rate). To maximize VPN throughput we have constructed a system that combines two

Singh, Jaswinder Pal

219

Alterations in cognitive performance during passive hyperthermia are task dependent.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to (1) assess the effect of passive heating upon attention and memory task performance, and (2) evaluate the effectiveness of the application of cold packs to the head on preserving these functions. Using a counter-balance design 16 subjects underwent three trials: a control (CON, 20°C, 40% rH), hot (HOT, 50°C, 50% rH) and hot with the head kept cool (HHC). In each condition, three attention tests and two memory tests were performed. Mean core, forehead and tympanic temperatures were all significantly higher (p?cognitive function with passive hyperthermia and the beneficial effect of head cooling are task dependent and suggests that exposure to a hot environment is a competing variable to the cognitive processes. PMID:21070137

Gaoua, Nadia; Racinais, Sebastien; Grantham, Justin; El Massioui, Farid

2011-01-01

220

Social Cognitive Career Theory, Conscientiousness, and Work Performance: A Meta-Analytic Path Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We performed a meta-analytic path analysis of an abbreviated version of social cognitive career theory's (SCCT) model of work performance (Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994). The model we tested included the central cognitive predictors of performance (ability, self-efficacy, performance goals), with the exception of outcome expectations. Results…

Brown, Steven D.; Lent, Robert W.; Telander, Kyle; Tramayne, Selena

2011-01-01

221

Cognitive Performance by Humans During a Smoked Cocaine Binge-Abstinence Cycle  

E-print Network

Cognitive Performance by Humans During a Smoked Cocaine Binge-Abstinence Cycle Edward F. Pace York, USA 3 Cognitive Drug Research, Ltd., Oxon, United Kingdom Abstract: Five cocaine in the afternoon. Data suggest that abstinence can unmask cognitive deficits induced by chronic cocaine use

Walker, Matthew P.

222

The Relationship between the Need for Cognition, Metacognition, and Intellectual Task Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between the need for cognition, defined as the tendency to engage in effortful cognitive activity, and metacognition which is one's thinking about thinking and how these variables relate to intellectual task performance. Participants completed measures of need for cognition, metacognition, and problem-solved…

Coutinho, Savia A.

2006-01-01

223

Effects of Cognitive Styles on 2D Drafting and Design Performance in Digital Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the interactions between design students' cognitive styles, as measured by Riding's Cognitive Styles Analysis, and performance in 2D drafting and design tasks in digital media. An empirical research revealed that Imager students outperformed Verbalisers in both drafting and creativity scores. Wholist-Analytic cognitive

Pektas, Sule Tasli

2010-01-01

224

Cognitive Transmission and Performance Analysis for Amplify-and-Forward Two-Way Relay Networks  

E-print Network

Cognitive Transmission and Performance Analysis for Amplify-and-Forward Two-Way Relay Networks, Canada Abstract--In this paper, we propose a cognitive transmission scheme for Amplify-and-Forward (AF- ability of the cognitive TWRN over Rayleigh fading channels. Furthermore, based on these probabilities

Tellambura, Chintha

225

Evaluation of Title I ESEA Projects, 1971-1972. Volume III, Instructional Practices and Student Cognitive Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this volume, ESEA Title I projects related to instructional practices and student cognitive performance, carried out in Philadelphia during 1971-1972, are evaluated. The six projects in this cluster are: Class for Mentally Retarded/Emotionally Distrubed Children; English as a Second Language; Improvement of Reading Skills (Reading Skills…

Prusso, Kenneth W.; And Others

226

Does Duloxetine Improve Cognitive Function Independently of Its Antidepressant Effect in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder and Subjective Reports of Cognitive Dysfunction?  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Cognitive deficits are commonly reported by patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Duloxetine, a dual serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, may improve cognitive deficits in MDD. It is unclear if cognitive improvements occur independently of antidepressant effects with standard antidepressant medications. Methods. Thirty participants with MDD who endorsed cognitive deficits at screening received 12-week duloxetine treatment. Twenty-one participants completed treatment and baseline and posttreatment cognitive testing. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery was used to assess the following cognitive domains: attention, visual memory, executive function/set shifting and working memory, executive function/spatial planning, decision making and response control, and verbal learning and memory. Results. Completers showed significant cognitive improvements across several domains on tasks assessing psychomotor function and mental processing speed, with additional improvements in visual and verbal learning and memory, and affective decision making and response control. Overall significance tests for executive function tasks were also significant, although individual tasks were not, perhaps due to the small sample size. Most notably, cognitive improvements were observed independently of symptom reduction on all domains except verbal learning and memory. Conclusions. Patients reporting baseline cognitive deficits achieved cognitive improvements with duloxetine treatment, most of which were independent of symptomatic improvement. This trial is registered with NCT00933439. PMID:24563781

Greer, Tracy L.; Sunderajan, Prabha; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Kurian, Benji T.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.

2014-01-01

227

Describing the interplay between anxiety and cognition: From impaired performance under low cognitive load to reduced anxiety under high load  

PubMed Central

Anxiety impairs the ability to think and concentrate, suggesting that the interaction between emotion and cognition may elucidate the debilitating nature of pathological anxiety. Using a verbal n-back task that parametrically modulated cognitive load, we explored the effect of experimentally-induced anxiety on task performance and the startle reflex. Findings suggest there is a crucial inflection point between moderate and high cognitive load, where resources shift from anxious apprehension to focus on task demands. Specifically, we demonstrate that anxiety impairs performance under low-load, but is reduced when subjects engage in a difficult task that occupies executive resources. We propose a two-component model of anxiety that describes a cognitive mechanism behind performance impairment and an automatic response that supports sustained anxiety-potentiated startle. Implications for therapeutic interventions and emotional pathology are discussed. PMID:22332819

Vytal, Katherine; Cornwell, Brian; Arkin, Nicole; Grillon, Christian

2012-01-01

228

Effect of standardized aqueous extract of Withania somnifera on tests of cognitive and psychomotor performance in healthy human participants  

PubMed Central

Background: Withania somnifera is an herbal medicine that has been known to possess memory-enhancing properties. The current study involved an assessment of cognitive and psychomotor effects of Withania somnifera extract in healthy human participants. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, double-blind, multi-dose, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 20 healthy male participants were randomized to receive 250 mg two capsules twice daily of an encapsulated dried aqueous extract of roots and leaves of Withania somnifera or a matching placebo for a period of 14 days. Cognitive and psychomotor performance was assessed pre-dose (day 1) and at 3 hrs post-dose on day 15 using a battery of computerized psychometric tests. After a washout period of 14 days, the subjects crossed-over to receive the other treatment for a further period of 14 days as per prior randomization schedule. Same battery of test procedures were performed to assess cognitive and psychomotor performance. Results: Significant improvements were observed in reaction times with simple reaction, choice discrimination, digit symbol substitution, digit vigilance, and card sorting tests with Withania somnifera extract compared to placebo. However, no effect can be seen with the finger tapping test. Conclusion: These results suggest that Withania somnifera extract can improve cognitive and psychomotor performance and may, therefore, be a valuable adjunct in the treatment of diseases associated with cognitive impairment. PMID:24497737

Pingali, Usharani; Pilli, Raveendranadh; Fatima, Nishat

2014-01-01

229

Li Anode Technology for Improved Performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A novel, low-cost approach to stabilization of Li metal anodes for high-performance rechargeable batteries was developed. Electrolyte additives are selected and used in Li cell electrolyte systems, promoting formation of a protective coating on Li metal anodes for improved cycle and safety performance. Li batteries developed from the new system will show significantly improved battery performance characteristics, including energy/power density, cycle/ calendar life, cost, and safety.

Chen, Tuqiang

2011-01-01

230

Beyond the Purely Cognitive: Metacognition and Social Cognition as Driving Forces in Intellectual Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The dimensions of the broad social-cognitive and metacognitive matrix within which pure cognitions reside are examined. Tangible cognitive actions are the cross products of beliefs held about a task, the social environment within which the task takes place, and the problem solvers' perceptions of self and their relation to the task and…

Schoenfeld, Alan H.

231

Longitudinal Associations between Physical and Cognitive Performance among Community-Dwelling Older Adults  

PubMed Central

To assess the directionality of the association between physical and cognitive decline in later life, we compared patterns of decline in performance across groups defined by baseline presence of cognitive and/or physical impairment [none (n = 217); physical only (n = 169); cognitive only (n = 158), or both (n = 220)] in a large sample of participants in a cognitive aging study at the Knight Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center at Washington University in St. Louis who were followed for up to 8 years (3,079 observations). Rates of decline reached 20% for physical performance and varied across cognitive tests (global, memory, speed, executive function, and visuospatial skills). We found that physical decline was better predicted by baseline cognitive impairment (slope = -1.22, p<0.001), with baseline physical impairment not contributing to further decline in physical performance (slope = -0.25, p = 0.294). In turn, baseline physical impairment was only marginally associated with rate of cognitive decline across various cognitive domains. The cognitive-functional association is likely to operate in the direction of cognitive impairment to physical decline although physical impairment may also play a role in cognitive decline/dementia. Interventions to prevent further functional decline and development of disability and complete dependence may benefit if targeted to individuals with cognitive impairment who are at increased risk. PMID:25875165

Tolea, Magdalena I.; Morris, John C.; Galvin, James E.

2015-01-01

232

Striatal Volume Increases in Active Methamphetamine-Dependent Individuals and Correlation with Cognitive Performance  

PubMed Central

The effect of methamphetamine (MA) dependence on the structure of the human brain has not been extensively studied, especially in active users. Previous studies reported cortical deficits and striatal gains in grey matter (GM) volume of abstinent MA abusers compared with control participants. This study aimed to investigate structural GM changes in the brains of 17 active MA-dependent participants compared with 20 control participants aged 18–46 years using voxel-based morphometry and region of interest volumetric analysis of structural magnetic resonance imaging data, and whether these changes might be associated with cognitive performance. Significant volume increases were observed in the right and left putamen and left nucleus accumbens of MA-dependent compared to control participants. The volumetric gain in the right putamen remained significant after Bonferroni correction, and was inversely correlated with the number of errors (standardised z-scores) on the Go/No-go task. MA-dependent participants exhibited cortical GM deficits in the left superior frontal and precentral gyri in comparison to control participants, although these findings did not survive correction for multiple comparisons. In conclusion, consistent with findings from previous studies of abstinent users, active chronic MA-dependent participants showed significant striatal enlargement which was associated with improved performance on the Go/No-go, a cognitive task of response inhibition and impulsivity. Striatal enlargement may reflect the involvement of neurotrophic effects, inflammation or microgliosis. However, since it was associated with improved cognitive function, it is likely to reflect a compensatory response to MA-induced neurotoxicity in the striatum, in order to maintain cognitive function. Follow-up studies are recommended to ascertain whether this effect continues to be present following abstinence. Several factors may have contributed to the lack of more substantial cortical and subcortical GM changes amongst MA-dependent participants, including variability in MA exposure variables and difference in abstinence status from previous studies. PMID:24961260

Jan, Reem K.; Lin, Joanne C.; Miles, Sylvester W.; Kydd, Rob R.; Russell, Bruce R.

2012-01-01

233

Gear Performance Improved by Coating  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gears, bearings, and other mechanical elements transmit loads through contacting surfaces. Even if properly designed, manufactured, installed, and maintained, gears and bearings will eventually fail because of the fatigue of the working surfaces. Economical means for extending the fatigue lives of gears and bearings are highly desired, and coatings offer the opportunity to engineer surfaces to extend the fatigue lives of mechanical components. A tungsten-containing diamondlike-carbon coating exhibiting high hardness, low friction, and good toughness was evaluated for application to spur gears. Fatigue testing was done at the NASA Glenn Research Center on both uncoated and coated spur gears. The results showed that the coating extended the surface fatigue lives of the gears by a factor of about 5 relative to the uncoated gears. For the experiments, a lot of spur test gears made from AISI 9310 gear steel were case-carburized and ground to aerospace specifications. The geometries of the 28-tooth, 8-pitch gears were verified as meeting American Gear Manufacturing Association (AGMA) quality class 12. One-half of the gears were randomly selected for coating. The method of coating was selected to achieve desired adherence, toughness, hardness, and low-friction characteristics. First the gears to be coated were prepared by blasting (vapor honing) with Al2O3 particles and cleaning. Then, the gears were provided with a thin adhesion layer of elemental chromium followed by magnetron sputtering of the outer coating consisting of carbon (70 at.%), hydrogen (15 at.%), tungsten (12 at.%), and nickel (3 at.%) (atomic percent at the surface). In total, the coating thickness was about 2.5 to 3 microns. As compared with the steel substrate, the coated surface was harder by a factor of about 2 and had a smaller elastic modulus. All gears were tested using a 5-centistoke synthetic oil, a 10,000-rpm rotation speed, and a hertzian contact stress of at least 1.7 GPa (250 ksi). Tests were run until either surface fatigue occurred or 300 million stress cycles were completed. Tests were run using either a pair of uncoated gears or a pair of coated gears (coated gears mated with uncoated gears were not evaluated). The fatigue test results, shown on Weibull coordinates in the graph, demonstrate that the coating provided substantially longer fatigue lives even though some of the coated gears endured larger stresses. The increase in fatigue life was a factor of about 5 and the statistical confidence for the improvement is high (greater than 99 percent). Examination of the tested gears revealed substantial reductions of total wear for coated gears in comparison to uncoated gears. The coated gear surface topography changed with running, with localized areas of the tooth surface becoming smoother with running. Theories explaining how coatings can extend gear fatigue lives are research topics for coating, tribology, and fatigue specialists. This work was done as a partnership between NASA, the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, United Technologies Research Corporation, and Sikorsky Aircraft.

Krantz, Timothy L.

2004-01-01

234

Effect of age and glucoregulation on cognitive performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 2 diabetes has been associated with a number of physiological consequences including neuropathy, retinopathy, and incidence of vascular disease. Less is known about the effect on cognition of prediabetes, a period when glucose regulation is abnormal. It is not clear which aspect of impaired glucoregulation is most predictive of cognitive deterioration. In the present experiment, we measured cognitive function

Claude Messier; Maria Tsiakas; Michèle Gagnon; Alain Desrochers

2010-01-01

235

Alcohol Consumption and Cognitive Performance in the Framingham Heart Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have indicated that moderate alcohol intake may be beneficial to cognitive functioning in women, although not necessarily in men. Data from the Framingham Heart Study, a large, prospective study of cardiovascular disease in Framingham, Massachusetts, were used to examine the relation between alcohol consumption and cognitive ability. The major research question was whether a different alcohol-cognition relation would

Penelope K. Elias; Merrill F. Elias; Ralph B. D'Agostino; Halit Silbershatz; Philip A. Wolf

236

Heritability in Cognitive Performance: Evidence Using Computer-Based Testing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is overwhelming evidence of genetic influence on cognition. The effect is seen in general cognitive ability, as well as in specific cognitive domains. A conventional assessment approach using face-to-face paper and pencil testing is difficult for large-scale studies. Computerized neurocognitive testing is a suitable alternative. A total of…

Hervey, Aaron S.; Greenfield, Kathryn; Gualtieri, C. Thomas

2012-01-01

237

Does Mandatory Attendance Improve Student Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous empirical literature indicates that student performance is inversely correlated with absenteeism. The author investigates the impact of enforcing an attendance policy on absenteeism and student performance. The evidence suggests that an enforced mandatory attendance policy significantly reduces absenteeism and improves exam performance.

Marburger, Daniel R.

2006-01-01

238

Cognitive ability, personality, and experience: evidence for differential impact on job performance factors  

E-print Network

, for lower levels of conscientiousness, task performance diverged for those of different cognitive abilities when task experience was high. The impact and limitations of these results are discussed....

Slaughter, Andrew Joseph

2005-08-29

239

Phenomenological and biological correlates of improved cognitive function in hospitalized elderly medical inpatients.  

PubMed

Deterioration of cognitive ability is a recognized outcome following acute illness in older patients. Levels of circulating cytokines and APOE genotype have both been linked with acute illness-related cognitive decline. In this observational longitudinal study, consecutive admissions to an elderly medical unit of patients aged ?70 years were assessed within 3 days and re-assessed twice weekly with a range of scales assessing cognitive function, functional status and illness severity. Cytokines and APOE genotype were measured in a subsample. Improvement was defined as either a 20% or three points increase in mini mental state examination (MMSE). From the 142 participants 55 (39%) experienced cognitive improvement, of which 30 (54.5%) had delirium while 25 had non-delirious acute cognitive disorder. Using bivariate statistics, subjects with more severe acute illness, lower insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels and more severe delirium were more likely to experience a ?20% improvement in MMSE scores. When the criterion of cognitive improvement was a 3 point improvement in MMSE, those with more severe delirium, females and older were more likely to be improved. Longitudinal analysis using any criterion of improvement indicated that improvement was significantly (p<.05) predicted by higher levels of IGF-I, lower levels of IL-1 (alpha and beta), lack of APOE epsilon 4 allele, and female gender. In conclusion, cognitive recovery during admission is not exclusively linked to delirium status, but reflects a range of factors. The character and relevance of non-delirious acute cognitive disorder warrants further study. PMID:25189345

Adamis, Dimitrios; Meagher, David; Treloar, Adrian; Dunne, Colum; Larvin, Michael; Martin, Finbarr C; Macdonald, Alastair J D

2014-01-01

240

Listen to the Noise: Noise Is Beneficial for Cognitive Performance in ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Noise is typically conceived of as being detrimental to cognitive performance. However, given the mechanism of stochastic resonance, a certain amount of noise can benefit performance. We investigate cognitive performance in noisy environments in relation to a neurocomputational model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

Soderlund, Goran; Sikstrom, Sverker; Smart, Andrew

2007-01-01

241

Amantadine improves cognitive outcome and increases neuronal survival after fluid percussion traumatic brain injury in rats.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effects of clinically relevant concentrations of amantadine (AMT) on cognitive outcome and hippocampal cell survival in adult rats after lateral fluid percussion traumatic brain injury (TBI). AMT is an antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptor, increases dopamine release, blocks dopamine reuptake, and has an inhibitory effect on microglial activation and neuroinflammation. Currently, AMT is clinically used as an antiparkinsonian drug. Amantadine or saline control was administered intraperitoneally, starting at 1?h after TBI followed by dosing three times daily for 16 consecutive days at 15, 45, and 135?mg/kg/day. Terminal blood draws were obtained from TBI rats at the time of euthanasia at varying time points after the last amantadine dose. Pharmacokinetics analysis confirmed that the doses of AMT achieved serum concentrations similar to those observed in humans receiving therapeutic doses (100-400?mg/day). Acquisition of spatial learning and memory retention was assessed using the Morris water maze (MWM) on days 12-16 after TBI. Brain tissues were collected and stained with Cresyl-violet for long-term cell survival analysis. Treatment with 135mg/kg/day of AMT improved acquisition of learning and terminal cognitive performance on MWM. The 135-mg/kg/day dosing of AMT increased the numbers of surviving CA2-CA3 pyramidal neurons at day 16 post-TBI. Overall, the data showed that clinically relevant dosing schedules of AMT affords neuroprotection and significantly improves cognitive outcome after experimental TBI, suggesting that it has the potential to be developed as a novel treatment of human TBI. PMID:23574258

Wang, Tao; Huang, Xian-Jian; Van, Ken C; Went, Gregory T; Nguyen, Jack T; Lyeth, Bruce G

2014-02-15

242

Measurement-to-measurement blood pressure variability is related to cognitive performance: the Maine Syracuse study.  

PubMed

The objective was to investigate the association between variability in blood pressure (BP) and cognitive function for sitting, standing, and reclining BP values and variability derived from all 15 measures. In previous studies, only sitting BP values have been examined, and only a few cognitive measures have been used. A secondary objective was to examine associations between BP variability and cognitive performance in hypertensive individuals stratified by treatment success. Cross-sectional analyses were performed on 972 participants of the Maine Syracuse Study for whom 15 serial BP clinic measures (5 sitting, 5 recumbent, and 5 standing) were obtained before testing of cognitive performance. Using all 15 measures, higher variability in systolic and diastolic BP was associated with poorer performance on multiple measures of cognitive performance, independent of demographic factors, cardiovascular risk factors, and pulse pressure. When sitting, reclining, and standing systolic BP values were compared, only variability in standing BP was related to measures of cognitive performance. However, for diastolic BP, variability in all 3 positions was related to cognitive performance. Mean BP values were weaker predictors of cognition. Furthermore, higher overall variability in both systolic and diastolic BP was associated with poorer cognitive performance in unsuccessfully treated hypertensive individuals (with BP ?140/90 mm Hg), but these associations were not evident in those with controlled hypertension. PMID:25156168

Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Dore, Gregory A; Torres, Rachael V; Robbins, Michael A

2014-11-01

243

Linkages of biomarkers of zinc with cognitive performance and taste acuity in adolescent girls.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional study (n?=?403) was conducted to examine the relationship of plasma zinc (PZ) and erythrocyte zinc (EZ) levels with cognitive performance and taste acuity for salt in Indian adolescent girls. PZ, EZ and hemoglobin were estimated in schoolgirls (10-16 years). Cognitive performance was assessed by simple-reaction-time (SRT), recognition-reaction-time (RRT), visual-memory, Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test. Taste acuity was determined by recognition-thresholds-for-salt (RTS) using 10 different salt concentrations. Low PZ (<0.7?mg/l) and EZ (<8?µg/g of packed cells) were observed in 72% and 23.6% of girls, respectively. PZ and EZ were negatively associated with SRT (r?=?-0.41, -0.34), RRT (r?=?-0.49, -0.4), and positively with Memory (r?=?0.43, 0.34) and RPM (r?=?0.39, 0.31; p?cognition and taste function implying need for improving their dietary zinc intakes. PMID:24490852

Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Kawade, Rama

2014-06-01

244

Galanthamine Plus Estradiol Treatment Enhances Cognitive Performance in Aged Ovariectomized Rats  

PubMed Central

We hypothesize that beneficial effects of estradiol on cognitive performance diminish with age and time following menopause due to a progressive decline in basal forebrain cholinergic function. This study tested whether galanthamine, a cholinesterase inhibitor used to treat memory impairment associated with Alzheimer’s disease, could enhance or restore estradiol effects on cognitive performance in aged rats that had been ovariectomized in middle-age. Rats were ovariectomized at 16–17 months of age. At 21–22 months of age rats began receiving daily injections of galanthamine (5 mg/day) or vehicle. After one week, half of each group also received 17ß-estradiol administered subcutaneously. Rats were then trained on a delayed matching to position (DMP) T-maze task, followed by an operant stimulus discrimination/reversal learning task. Treatment with galanthamine + estradiol significantly enhanced the rate of DMP acquisition and improved short-term delay-dependent spatial memory performance. Treatment with galanthamine or estradiol alone were without significant effect. Effects were task-specific in that galanthamine + estradiol treatment did not significantly improve performance on the stimulus discrimination/reversal learning task. In fact, estradiol was associated with a significant increase in incorrect responses on this task after reversal of the stimulus contingency. In addition, treatments did not significantly affect hippocampal choline acetyltransferase activity or acetylcholine release. This may be an effect of age, or possibly is related to compensatory changes associated with long-term cholinesterase inhibitor treatment. The data suggest that treating with a cholinesterase inhibitor can enhance the effects of estradiol on acquisition of a DMP task by old rats following a long period of hormone deprivation. This could be of particular benefit to older women who have not used hormone therapy for many years and are beginning to show signs of mild cognitive impairment. Potential mechanisms for these effects are discussed. PMID:21889940

Gibbs, R.B.; Chipman, A.M.; Hammond, R.; Nelson, D.

2011-01-01

245

The effects of verbalisation on cognitive performance in schizophrenia: a pilot study using tasks from the Delis Kaplan Executive Function System.  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment is common in schizophrenia, and has adverse effects on functional outcome. Cognitive remediation strategies in which people with schizophrenia speak aloud (verbalise) during task performance have demonstrated some success in improving performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. This study extends previous research by assessing whether verbalisation also improves performance on tasks selected from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS). Twenty two subjects with schizophrenia participated in the study. We used a within subjects design to compare performance on the D-KEFS Tower Test and Trail Making Test when participants (a) produced concurrent verbalisation, or (b) remained silent. Results demonstrated selective benefits of verbalisation on a neuropsychological task requiring multiple executive functions (number-letter switching task), while performance on tasks requiring simpler single-component cognitive functions (visual scanning and motor speed tasks) was adversely affected. The effects of verbalisation on the cognitive task performance of patients with schizophrenia differ depending on the nature of the task. Benefits are seen in tests of executive skills but performance worsens in single component cognitive tasks. When developing cognitive remediation strategies for people with schizophrenia, consideration should be given to the nature and cognitive demands of each task before recommending verbalisation strategies. PMID:19255911

Harvey, Kirsty E; Galletly, Cherrie A; Field, Colin; Proeve, Michael

2009-10-01

246

Notice of Improvement Needed Unsatisfactory Performance  

E-print Network

Notice of Improvement Needed Unsatisfactory Performance Note: An employee who receives at least: Supervisor's Name (Print) Supervisor's Signature Employee ID Date REVIEWER'S COMMENTS Reviewer's Name (Print) Reviewer's Signature Employee ID Date EMPLOYEE'S COMMENTS Employee's Name

Acton, Scott

247

Effectiveness of a cognitive strategy intervention in improving arithmetic computation based on the PASS theory.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine if an instruction designed to facilitate planning, given by teachers to their class as a group, would have differential effects depending on the specific Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive (PASS) cognitive characteristics of each child. A cognitive strategy instruction that encouraged planning was provided to the group of 19 students with learning disabilities and mild mental impairments. All students completed math worksheets during 7 baseline and 14 intervention sessions. During the intervention phase, students engaged in self-reflection and verbalization of strategies about how the arithmetic computation worksheets should be completed. The sample was sorted into one experimental and four contrast groups after the experiment was completed. There were four groups with a cognitive weakness in each PASS scale from the Cognitive Assessment System and one group with no cognitive weakness. The results showed that children with a cognitive weakness in Planning improved considerably (large effect size of 1.4), in contrast to those with a cognitive weakness in Attention (small effect size of 0.3), Simultaneous weakness (a slight deterioration and effect size of -0.2), Successive weakness (medium effect size of 0.4), and no cognitive weakness (small effect size of .2). These data showed that children with a Planning weakness benefitted from the instruction designed to help them be more plaful. Those children who received the planning-based instruction who were not low inplanning did not show the same level of improvement. PMID:15495400

Naglieri, J A; Johnson, D

2000-01-01

248

Seven practical principles for improving patient education: Evidence-based ideas from cognition science  

PubMed Central

An important role of the paediatrician is that of a teacher – every clinician is an educator to patients and their families. This education, however, often occurs under difficult or time-pressured learning conditions. The authors present principles derived from three basic theories of human cognition that may help to guide clinicians’ instruction of parents and patients. Cognitive load theory holds that an individual’s capacity to process information is finite. By controlling information flow rate, decreasing reliance on working memory and removing extraneous cognitive load, learning is improved. Dual code theory suggests that humans have separate cognitive ‘channels’ for text/audio information versus visual information. By constructing educational messages that take advantage of both channels simultaneously, information uptake may be improved. Multimedia theory is based on the notion that there is an optimal blend of media to accomplish a given learning objective. The authors suggest seven practical strategies that clinicians may use to improve patient education. PMID:24665218

Pusic, Martin V; Ching, Kevin; Yin, Hsiang Shonna; Kessler, David

2014-01-01

249

Recombinant human growth hormone improves cognitive capacity in a pain patient exposed to chronic opioids  

PubMed Central

During recent decades, the increasing use of opioids for chronic non-cancer pain has raised concerns regarding tolerance, addiction, and importantly cognitive dysfunction. Current research suggests that the somatotrophic axis could play an important role in cognitive function. Administration of growth hormone (GH) to GH-deficient humans and experimental animals has been shown to result in significant improvements in cognitive capacity. In this report, a patient with cognitive disabilities resulting from chronic treatment with opioids for neuropathic pain received recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) replacement therapy. A 61-year-old man presented with severe cognitive dysfunction after long-term methadone treatment for intercostal neuralgia and was diagnosed with GH insufficiency by GH releasing hormone-arginine testing. The effect of rhGH replacement therapy on his cognitive capacity and quality of life was investigated. The hippocampal volume was measured using magnetic resonance imaging, and the ratios of the major metabolites were calculated using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Cognitive testing revealed significant improvements in visuospatial cognitive function after rhGH. The hippocampal volume remained unchanged. In the right hippocampus, the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio (reflecting nerve cell function) was initially low but increased significantly during rhGH treatment, as did subjective cognitive, physical and emotional functioning. This case report indicates that rhGH replacement therapy could improve cognitive behaviour and well-being, as well as hippocampal metabolism and functioning in opioid-treated patients with chronic pain. The idea that GH could affect brain function and repair disabilities induced by long-term exposure to opioid analgesia is supported. PMID:24712862

Rhodin, A; von Ehren, M; Skottheim, B; Grönbladh, A; Ortiz-Nieto, F; Raininko, R; Gordh, T; Nyberg, F

2014-01-01

250

Recombinant human growth hormone improves cognitive capacity in a pain patient exposed to chronic opioids.  

PubMed

During recent decades, the increasing use of opioids for chronic non-cancer pain has raised concerns regarding tolerance, addiction, and importantly cognitive dysfunction. Current research suggests that the somatotrophic axis could play an important role in cognitive function. Administration of growth hormone (GH) to GH-deficient humans and experimental animals has been shown to result in significant improvements in cognitive capacity. In this report, a patient with cognitive disabilities resulting from chronic treatment with opioids for neuropathic pain received recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) replacement therapy. A 61-year-old man presented with severe cognitive dysfunction after long-term methadone treatment for intercostal neuralgia and was diagnosed with GH insufficiency by GH releasing hormone-arginine testing. The effect of rhGH replacement therapy on his cognitive capacity and quality of life was investigated. The hippocampal volume was measured using magnetic resonance imaging, and the ratios of the major metabolites were calculated using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Cognitive testing revealed significant improvements in visuospatial cognitive function after rhGH. The hippocampal volume remained unchanged. In the right hippocampus, the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio (reflecting nerve cell function) was initially low but increased significantly during rhGH treatment, as did subjective cognitive, physical and emotional functioning. This case report indicates that rhGH replacement therapy could improve cognitive behaviour and well-being, as well as hippocampal metabolism and functioning in opioid-treated patients with chronic pain. The idea that GH could affect brain function and repair disabilities induced by long-term exposure to opioid analgesia is supported. PMID:24712862

Rhodin, A; von Ehren, M; Skottheim, B; Grönbladh, A; Ortiz-Nieto, F; Raininko, R; Gordh, T; Nyberg, F

2014-07-01

251

Cognitive performance and informant reports in the diagnosis of cognitive impairment and dementia in African Americans and whites  

PubMed Central

Background The diagnosis of cognitive impairment and dementia must reflect an increasingly diverse and aging United States population. This study compared direct testing and informant reports of cognition with clinical diagnoses of cognitive impairment and dementia between African Americans and whites. Methods Participants in the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study completed in-person dementia evaluations, and were assigned clinical diagnoses (by a consensus panel of dementia experts) of normal; cognitive impairment, not demented (CIND); and dementia. The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD) total score and the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) were used to assess cognitive performance and reported cognitive decline. Results A higher CERAD total score was associated with lower odds of CIND and dementia, at comparable ratios between African Americans and whites. Higher IQCODE scores were associated with increased odds of dementia in both African Americans and whites. Higher IQCODE scores were associated with increased odds of CIND among whites, but not among African Americans. Conclusions Cultural differences may influence informant reports of prevalent CIND and dementia. Our findings also highlight the need for more comparative research to establish the cultural validity of measures used to diagnose these conditions. PMID:19896583

Potter, Guy G.; Plassman, Brenda L.; Burke, James R.; Kabeto, Mohammed U.; Langa, Kenneth M.; Llewellyn, David J.; Rogers, Mary A. M.; Steffens, David C.

2009-01-01

252

Meat Supplementation Improves Growth, Cognitive, and Behavioral Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized, controlled school feeding study was conducted in rural Embu District, Kenya to test for a causal link between animal-source food intake and changes in micronutrient nutrition and growth, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes. Twelve primary schools were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups. Children in Standard I classes received the local plant-based dish githeri as a midmorning school

Charlotte G. Neumann; Suzanne P. Murphy; Connie Gewa; Monika Grillenberger; Nimrod O. Bwibo

253

A Cognitive Training Program Based on Principles of Brain Plasticity: Results from the Improvement in Memory with Plasticity-based Adaptive Cognitive Training (IMPACT) Study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To investigate the efficacy of a novel brain plasticity–based computerized cognitive training program in older adults and to evaluate the effect on untrained measures of memory and attention and participant-reported outcomes. DESIGN Multisite randomized controlled double-blind trial with two treatment groups. SETTING Communities in northern and southern California and Minnesota. PARTICIPANTS Community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older (N = 487) without a diagnosis of clinically significant cognitive impairment. INTERVENTION Participants were randomized to receive a broadly-available brain plasticity–based computerized cognitive training program (intervention) or a novelty- and intensity-matched general cognitive stimulation program modeling treatment as usual (active control). Duration of training was 1 hour per day, 5 days per week, for 8 weeks, for a total of 40 hours. MEASUREMENTS The primary outcome was a composite score calculated from six subtests of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status that use the auditory modality (RBANS Auditory Memory/Attention). Secondary measures were derived from performance on the experimental program, standardized neuropsychological assessments of memory and attention, and participant-reported outcomes. RESULTS RBANS Auditory Memory/Attention improvement was significantly greater (P = .02) in the experimental group (3.9 points, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.7–5.1) than in the control group (1.8 points, 95% CI = 0.6–3.0). Multiple secondary measures of memory and attention showed significantly greater improvements in the experimental group (word list total score, word list delayed recall, digits backwards, letter–number sequencing; P < .05), as did the participant-reported outcome measure (P = .001). No advantage for the experimental group was seen in narrative memory. CONCLUSION The experimental program improved generalized measures of memory and attention more than an active control program. PMID:19220558

Smith, Glenn E.; Housen, Patricia; Yaffe, Kristine; Ruff, Ronald; Kennison, Robert F.; Mahncke, Henry W.; Zelinski, Elizabeth M.

2014-01-01

254

Effects of tyrosine, phentermine, caffeine D-amphetamine, and placebo on cognitive and motor performance deficits during sleep deprivation.  

PubMed

Cognitive and motor performance are critical in many circumstances and are impaired by sleep deprivation. We administered placebo, tyrosine 150 mg/kg, caffeine 300 mg/70 kg, phentermine 37.5 mg and D-amphetamine 20 mg at 15.30 h following overnight sleep deprivation and compare their effects on cognitive and motor performance in healthy young men. Tests of visual scanning, running memory, logical reasoning, mathematical processing, the Stroop task, four-choice serial reaction time, time wall take, pursuit tracking, visual vigilance, Trails (B) task and long-term memory were evaluated at standardized intervals before, during and after sleep deprivation and drugs. Performance decrements with sleep deprivation occurred in visual scanning, running memory, logical reasoning, mathematical processing, the Stroop test, the time wall test, tracking and visual vigilance. Interestingly, with sleep deprivation some tests improved and others did not deteriorate. Improvements with medication following sleep deprivation were seen in running memory, logical reasoning, mathematical processing, tracking and visual vigilance. Although less effective than D-amphetamine, tyrosine improved performance on several tests. We conclude that all drugs tested improved at least some aspects of cognitive and motor performance after sleep deprivation. As a naturally occurring amino acid, and thus amenable to nutritional strategies, tyrosine may deserve further testing. PMID:12887140

Magill, Richard A; Waters, William F; Bray, George A; Volaufova, Julia; Smith, Steven R; Lieberman, Harris R; McNevin, Nancy; Ryan, Donna H

2003-08-01

255

The neurobiology of modafinil as an enhancer of cognitive performance and a potential treatment for substance use disorders  

PubMed Central

Rationale and Objectives Modafinil (MOD) and its R-enantiomer (R-MOD) are approved medications for narcolepsy and other sleep disorders. They have also been used, off label, as cognitive enhancers in populations of patients with mental disorders, including substance abusers that demonstrate impaired cognitive function. A debated non-medical use of MOD in healthy individuals to improve intellectual performance is raising questions about its potential abuse liability in this population. Results and Conclusions MOD has low micromolar affinity for the dopamine transporter (DAT). Inhibition of dopamine (DA) reuptake via the DAT explains the enhancement of DA levels in several brain areas, an effect shared with psychostimulants like cocaine, methylphenidate and the amphetamines. However, its neurochemical effects and anatomical pattern of brain area activation differ from typical psychostimulants and are consistent with its beneficial effects on cognitive performance processes such as attention, learning, and memory. At variance with typical psychostimulants, MOD shows very low, if any, abuse liability, in spite of its use as a cognitive enhancer by otherwise healthy individuals. Finally, recent clinical studies have focused on the potential use of MOD as a medication for treatment of drug abuse, but have not shown consistent outcomes. However, positive trends in several result measures suggest that medications that improve cognitive function, like MOD or R-MOD, may be beneficial for treatment of substance use disorders in certain patient populations. PMID:23934211

Mereu, Maddalena; Bonci, Antonello; Newman, Amy Hauck; Tanda, Gianluigi

2013-01-01

256

Reduced Cardiac Vagal Modulation Impacts on Cognitive Performance in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive difficulties and autonomic dysfunction have been reported separately in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). A role for heart rate variability (HRV) in cognitive flexibility has been demonstrated in healthy individuals, but this relationship has not as yet been examined in CFS. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between HRV and cognitive performance in patients with CFS. Methods Participants were 30 patients with CFS and 40 healthy controls; the groups were matched for age, sex, education, body mass index, and hours of moderate exercise/week. Questionnaires were used to obtain relevant medical and demographic information, and assess current symptoms and functional impairment. Electrocardiograms, perceived fatigue/effort and performance data were recorded during cognitive tasks. Between–group differences in autonomic reactivity and associations with cognitive performance were analysed. Results Patients with CFS showed no deficits in performance accuracy, but were significantly slower than healthy controls. CFS was further characterized by low and unresponsive HRV; greater heart rate (HR) reactivity and prolonged HR-recovery after cognitive challenge. Fatigue levels, perceived effort and distress did not affect cognitive performance. HRV was consistently associated with performance indices and significantly predicted variance in cognitive outcomes. Conclusions These findings reveal for the first time an association between reduced cardiac vagal tone and cognitive impairment in CFS and confirm previous reports of diminished vagal activity. PMID:23166694

Beaumont, Alison; Burton, Alexander R.; Lemon, Jim; Bennett, Barbara K.; Lloyd, Andrew; Vollmer-Conna, Uté

2012-01-01

257

Mindfulness training improves working memory capacity and GRE performance while reducing mind wandering.  

PubMed

Given that the ability to attend to a task without distraction underlies performance in a wide variety of contexts, training one's ability to stay on task should result in a similarly broad enhancement of performance. In a randomized controlled investigation, we examined whether a 2-week mindfulness-training course would decrease mind wandering and improve cognitive performance. Mindfulness training improved both GRE reading-comprehension scores and working memory capacity while simultaneously reducing the occurrence of distracting thoughts during completion of the GRE and the measure of working memory. Improvements in performance following mindfulness training were mediated by reduced mind wandering among participants who were prone to distraction at pretesting. Our results suggest that cultivating mindfulness is an effective and efficient technique for improving cognitive function, with wide-reaching consequences. PMID:23538911

Mrazek, Michael D; Franklin, Michael S; Phillips, Dawa Tarchin; Baird, Benjamin; Schooler, Jonathan W

2013-05-01

258

Performance, Productivity and Continuous Improvement. Symposium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers from a symposium on performance, productivity, and continuous improvement. "Investigating the Association between Productivity and Quality Performance in Two Manufacturing Settings" (Constantine Kontoghiorghes, Robert Gudgel) summarizes a study that identified the following quality management variables as the…

2002

259

Method for improved CMP pad conditioning performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new pad conditioning arm design enables the use of closed-loop control (CLC) to improve conditioning performance throughout the life of a pad and disk pair. Measured pad conditioner torque is used to monitor and control the conditioning and polish processes in situ and in real time. The CLC system maintains process performance throughout pad life by adjusting the conditioner

G. E. Menk; S. Dhandapani; C. C. Garretson; S. S. Chang; J. G. Fung; S. Tsai

2010-01-01

260

Improving dementia care: The role of screening and detection of cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

The value of screening for cognitive impairment, including dementia and Alzheimer's disease, has been debated for decades. Recent research on causes of and treatments for cognitive impairment has converged to challenge previous thinking about screening for cognitive impairment. Consequently, changes have occurred in health care policies and priorities, including the establishment of the annual wellness visit, which requires detection of any cognitive impairment for Medicare enrollees. In response to these changes, the Alzheimer's Foundation of America and the Alzheimer's Drug Discovery Foundation convened a workgroup to review evidence for screening implementation and to evaluate the implications of routine dementia detection for health care redesign. The primary domains reviewed were consideration of the benefits, harms, and impact of cognitive screening on health care quality. In conference, the workgroup developed 10 recommendations for realizing the national policy goals of early detection as the first step in improving clinical care and ensuring proactive, patient-centered management of dementia. PMID:23375564

Borson, Soo; Frank, Lori; Bayley, Peter J.; Boustani, Malaz; Dean, Marge; Lin, Pei-Jung; McCarten, J. Riley; Morris, John C.; Salmon, David P.; Schmitt, Frederick A.; Stefanacci, Richard G.; Mendiondo, Marta S.; Peschin, Susan; Hall, Eric J.; Fillit, Howard; Ashford, J. Wesson

2014-01-01

261

Effectively Managing Nuclear Risk Through Human Performance Improvement  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. commercial nuclear industry has just completed an outstanding decade of plant performance. Safety levels and electric production are at unprecedented high levels and continue to exceed even high industry goals. Nuclear energy continues to keep the highest priority on performance improvement programs and highly trained and qualified people that maintain its record setting safety and reliability of operations. While the industry has maintained a high level of performance, the advent of deregulation and the consolidation of nuclear power plant ownership, as well as the current climate for concern about both rising energy costs and the availability of power, have raised the standard for nuclear energy's level of competitiveness in today's market place. The resulting challenge is how to more effectively manage risk and to improve performance even further in a generally high-performing industry. One of the most effective ways to develop this culture is to apply the principles of Hum an Performance Technology, or HPT. HPT is a relatively new field. Its principles are derived from the research and practice of behavioral and cognitive psychologists, instructional technologists, training designers, organizational developers, and various human resource specialists. Using the principles of HPT can help the nuclear industry successfully meet ever-changing environmental and business demands.

Coe, Richard [Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, Somers Point, NJ (US); Lake, Patricia [Louisiana Pacific Corporation, Portland, OR (US)

2003-09-01

262

Performance of Children with Autism on Selected Measures of Reading Achievement and Cognitive-Linguistic Ability  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the performance of children with autism on selected measures of reading achievement and cognitive-linguistic ability. How children with autism performed on three reading achievement measures, Letter-Word Identification, Passage Comprehension, and Oral Reading Fluency, and two cognitive-linguistic measures, Rapid Letter Naming…

Turner, Vicky

2010-01-01

263

Dimensions of Manic Symptoms in Youth: Psychosocial Impairment and Cognitive Performance in the IMAGEN Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: It has been reported that mania may be associated with superior cognitive performance. In this study, we test the hypothesis that manic symptoms in youth separate along two correlated dimensions and that a symptom constellation of high energy and cheerfulness is associated with superior cognitive performance. Method: We studied 1755…

Stringaris, Argyris; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J.; Bokde, Arun L.; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Juergen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Itterman, Bernd; Lawrence, Claire; Nees, Frauke; Paillere-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N.; Schumann, Gunter; Goodman, Robert; Conrod, Patricia

2014-01-01

264

Marital Conflict, Allostatic Load, and the Development of Children's Fluid Cognitive Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relations between marital conflict, children's respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and fluid cognitive performance were examined over 3 years to assess allostatic processes. Participants were 251 children reporting on marital conflict, baseline RSA, and RSA reactivity (RSA-R) to a lab challenge were recorded, and fluid cognitive performance

Hinnant, J. Benjamin; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keiley, Margaret; Buckhalt, Joseph A.

2013-01-01

265

Chronic Treatment with Anesthetic Propofol Improves Cognitive Function and Attenuates Caspase Activation in Both Aged and Alzheimer's Disease Transgenic Mice  

PubMed Central

There is a need to seek new treatment(s) for Alzheimer's disease (AD). A recent study showed that AD patients may have decreased levels of functional GABA receptors. Propofol, a commonly used anesthetic, is a GABA receptor agonist. We therefore set out to perform a proof of concept study to determine whether chronic treatment with propofol (50 mg/kg/week) can improve cognitive function in both aged wild-type (WT) and AD transgenic (Tg) mice. Propofol was administrated to the WT and AD Tg mice once a week for 8 or 12 weeks, respectively. Morris water maze was used to assess the cognitive function of the mice following the propofol treatment. Activation of caspase-3, caspase-9, and caspase-8 was investigated using western blot analysis at the end of the propofol treatment. In the mechanistic studies, effects of propofol, amyloid-? protein (A?), and GABA receptor antagonist flumazenil on caspase-3 activation and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore were assessed in H4 human neuroglioma and mouse neuroblastoma cells by western blot analysis and flow cytometry. Here we showed that the propofol treatment improved cognitive function and attenuated brain caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation in both aged WT and AD Tg mice. Propofol attenuated A?-induced caspase-3 activation and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in the cells, and flumazenil inhibited the propofol's effects. These results suggested that propofol might improve cognitive function via attenuating the A?-induced mitochondria dysfunction and caspase activation, which explored the potential that anesthetic propofol could improve cognitive function in elderly and AD patients. PMID:24643139

Dong, Yuanlin; Yu, Buwei; Xia, Weiming; Xie, Zhongcong

2014-01-01

266

Chronic treatment with anesthetic propofol improves cognitive function and attenuates caspase activation in both aged and Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice.  

PubMed

There is a need to seek new treatment(s) for Alzheimer's disease (AD). A recent study showed that AD patients may have decreased levels of functional GABA receptors. Propofol, a commonly used anesthetic, is a GABA receptor agonist. We therefore set out to perform a proof of concept study to determine whether chronic treatment with propofol (50 mg/kg/week) can improve cognitive function in both aged wild-type (WT) and AD transgenic (Tg) mice. Propofol was administrated to the WT and AD Tg mice once a week for 8 or 12 weeks, respectively. Morris water maze was used to assess the cognitive function of the mice following the propofol treatment. Activation of caspase-3, caspase-9, and caspase-8 was investigated using western blot analysis at the end of the propofol treatment. In the mechanistic studies, effects of propofol, amyloid-? protein (A?), and GABA receptor antagonist flumazenil on caspase-3 activation and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore were assessed in H4 human neuroglioma and mouse neuroblastoma cells by western blot analysis and flow cytometry. Here we showed that the propofol treatment improved cognitive function and attenuated brain caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation in both aged WT and AD Tg mice. Propofol attenuated A?-induced caspase-3 activation and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in the cells, and flumazenil inhibited the propofol's effects. These results suggested that propofol might improve cognitive function via attenuating the A?-induced mitochondria dysfunction and caspase activation, which explored the potential that anesthetic propofol could improve cognitive function in elderly and AD patients. PMID:24643139

Shao, Haijun; Zhang, Yiying; Dong, Yuanlin; Yu, Buwei; Xia, Weiming; Xie, Zhongcong

2014-01-01

267

The kidney disease quality of life cognitive function subscale and cognitive performance maintenance hemodialysis patients  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Cognitive impairment is common but often undiagnosed in patients with end-stage renal disease, in part reflecting limited validated and easily administered tools to assess cognitive function in dialysis patients. Accordingly, we assessed the utility of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life ...

268

The acute effect of local homicides on children's cognitive performance  

PubMed Central

This study estimates the acute effect of exposure to a local homicide on the cognitive performance of children across a community. Data are from a sample of children age 5–17 y in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. The effect of local homicides on vocabulary and reading assessments is identified by exploiting exogenous variation in the relative timing of homicides and interview assessments among children in the same neighborhood but assessed at different times. Among African-Americans, the strongest results show that exposure to a homicide in the block group that occurs less than a week before the assessment reduces performance on vocabulary and reading assessments by between ?0.5 and ?0.66 SD, respectively. Main results are replicated using a second independent dataset from Chicago. Findings suggest the need for broader recognition of the impact that extreme acts of violence have on children across a neighborhood, regardless of whether the violence is witnessed directly. PMID:20547862

Sharkey, Patrick

2010-01-01

269

A Framework for Designing Scaffolds That Improve Motivation and Cognition  

PubMed Central

A problematic, yet common, assumption among educational researchers is that when teachers provide authentic, problem-based experiences, students will automatically be engaged. Evidence indicates that this is often not the case. In this article, we discuss (a) problems with ignoring motivation in the design of learning environments, (b) problem-based learning and scaffolding as one way to help, (c) how scaffolding has strayed from what was originally equal parts motivational and cognitive support, and (d) a conceptual framework for the design of scaffolds that can enhance motivation as well as cognitive outcomes. We propose guidelines for the design of computer-based scaffolds to promote motivation and engagement while students are solving authentic problems. Remaining questions and suggestions for future research are then discussed. PMID:24273351

Belland, Brian R.; Kim, ChanMin; Hannafin, Michael J.

2013-01-01

270

Reducing dysfunctional beliefs about sleep does not significantly improve insomnia in cognitive behavioral therapy.  

PubMed

The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals' scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia. PMID:25025164

Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi

2014-01-01

271

Reducing Dysfunctional Beliefs about Sleep Does Not Significantly Improve Insomnia in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy  

PubMed Central

The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals’ scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia. PMID:25025164

Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi

2014-01-01

272

A Cognitive Framework for Improving Coexistence Among Heterogeneous Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—The proliferation of wireless systems requires that the coexistence between heterogeneous technologies be addressed. This paper presents a cognitive framework in which sensing- based resource management of an infrastructure system ef- fectively suppresses interference to close-by ad-hoc or peer-to- peer links. By utilizing its superior communication resources the infrastructure system estimates interference conditions and judiciously allocates transmission power such as

Stefan Geirhofer; Lang Tong; Brian M. Sadler

2008-01-01

273

Cognitive improvement during Tolcapone treatment in Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Tolcapone, a reversible, selective inhibitor of catechol-O-methyltransferase, on the cognitive functions of eight patients with advanced Parkinson's disease. They underwent neuropsychological and motor assessment at baseline and were reevaluated after 6 months. During this period, they received Tolcapone three times daily, while the L-dopa dosage was progressively reduced.

M. Gasparini; E. Fabrizio; V. Bonifati; G. Meco

1997-01-01

274

Assessment of cognitive performance using CNS vital signs after electroconvulsive treatment of schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Little is known how electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) affects cognitive functions in subjects with schizophrenia. Assessment of cognitive functions in subjects with schizophrenia treated with ECT was performed using CNS Vital Signs computerized battery of tests. Thirteen patients treated with ECT plus antipsychotics were assessed before and after 12 to 15 bilateral ECT sessions. We did not find any important changes between pre-ECT and post-ECT cognitive performance. We also found that CNS Vital Signs is a useful computerized battery test for assessing cognitive functions of subjects treated with ECT. PMID:24080543

Wysoki?ski, Adam; Dzienniak, Ma?gorzata; K?oszewska, Iwona

2014-03-01

275

Improved Serum Leptin and Ghrelin Following Bariatric Surgery Predict Better Postoperative Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Bariatric surgery is associated with improved cognitive function, but the mechanisms underlying these gains remain poorly understood. Disturbed leptin and ghrelin systems are common in obese individuals and are associated with impaired cognitive function in other samples. Bariatric surgery has been shown to improve serum leptin and ghrelin levels, and these changes may underlie postoperative cognitive improvements. Methods Eighty-four patients completed a computerized cognitive test battery prior to bariatric surgery and at 12 months postoperatively. Participants also submitted to an 8-hour fasting blood draw to quantify serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations at these same time points. Results Baseline cognitive impairments and disturbed leptin and ghrelin levels improved at the 12-month follow-up compared to presurgery. Higher leptin levels were associated with worse attention/executive function at baseline; no such findings emerged for ghrelin. Regression analyses controlling for baseline factors and demographic characteristics showed that both decreased leptin and increased ghrelin following surgery was associated with better attention/executive function at the 12-month follow-up. These effects diminished after controlling for the postoperative change in body mass index (BMI); however, BMI change did not predict 12-month cognitive function. Conclusions Improvements in leptin and ghrelin levels following bariatric surgery appear to contribute to postoperative cognitive benefits. These gains may involve multiple mechanisms, such as reduced inflammation and improved glycemic control. Future studies that employ neuroimaging are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms and determine whether the effects of bariatric surgery on leptin and ghrelin levels can attenuate adverse brain changes and/or risk of dementia in severely obese individuals. PMID:25628737

Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, James E.

2015-01-01

276

What Cognitive Abilities Are Involved in Trail-Making Performance?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cognitive abilities involved in the Connections (Salthouse, et al., 2000) version of the trail making test were investigated by administering the test, along with a battery of cognitive tests and tests of complex span and updating conceptualizations of working memory, to a sample of over 3600 adults. The results indicate that this variant of…

Salthouse, Timothy A.

2011-01-01

277

Effect of age and glucoregulation on cognitive performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) has been associated with a number of physiological consequences including neuropathy, retinopathy and incidence of vascular disease. Recently, several authors reviewed studies that suggested that NIDDM is associated with cognitive impairments leading to a higher incidence of dementia. In the present experiment, we measured cognitive function in 57 healthy male and female non-diabetic older participants

Claude Messier; Maria Tsiakas; Michèle Gagnon; Alain Desrochers; Nesrine Awad

2003-01-01

278

Potential role of the combination of galantamine and memantine to improve cognition in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) and Treatment Units for Research on Neurocognition and Schizophrenia projects were designed to facilitate the development of new drugs for the treatment of cognitive impairments in people with schizophrenia. The MATRICS project identified three drug mechanisms of particular interest: dopaminergic, cholinergic, and glutamatergic. As a group, while people with schizophrenia have moderate cognitive impairment, it is the best predictor of long-term outcome. Unfortunately, there are no approved medications for cognitive impairment in this population. Hence, the development of new pharmacological approaches is critical for reducing illness-related disability. The combination of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (AChEI) and memantine is more effective than either medication alone to improve cognition in Alzheimer's dementia. Galantamine is not only an AChEI, but also a positive allosteric modulator of the ?4?2 and ?7 nicotinic receptors. Hypofunction of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been implicated in the pathophysiology of cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia and hence memantine may positively impact cognition. Memantine decreases the tonic NMDA current and galantamine enhances the action potential mediated by a postsynaptic NMDA current. This results in an increased signal transmission; therefore, a greater signal-to-noise ratio occurs with the combination than memantine alone. Galantamine improves the ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazol-propionate (AMPA)-mediated signaling which could be neuroprotective and may improve memory coding. The combination of galantamine and memantine may be particularly effective in schizophrenia in order to increase the selective cognition enhancement produced by either medication alone. In the future, multitarget-directed ligands may play a role in the treatment of complex diseases like schizophrenia. PMID:24878431

Koola, Maju Mathew; Buchanan, Robert W; Pillai, Anilkumar; Aitchison, Katherine J; Weinberger, Daniel R; Aaronson, Scott T; Dickerson, Faith B

2014-08-01

279

Classification of Cognitive Load from Task Performance & Multichannel Physiology during Affective Changes  

E-print Network

Classification of Cognitive Load from Task Performance & Multichannel Physiology during Affective and physiological changes are some of the indicators of CL. However, affective factors which occur naturally machine learning techniques for detecting CL levels from task performance and physiological channels

Calvo, Rafael A.

280

Mind over Matter: Reappraising Arousal Improves Cardiovascular and Cognitive Responses to Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Researchers have theorized that changing the way we think about our bodily responses can improve our physiological and cognitive reactions to stressful events. However, the underlying processes through which mental states improve downstream outcomes are not well understood. To this end, we examined whether reappraising stress-induced arousal could…

Jamieson, Jeremy P.; Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

2012-01-01

281

Cognition Improvement in Taekwondo Novices Over 40. Results from the SEKWONDO Study  

PubMed Central

Age-related cognitive decline is associated with increased risk of disability, dementia, and death. Recent studies suggest improvement in cognitive speed, attention, and executive functioning with physical activity. However, whether such improvements are activity specific is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to study the effect of 1?year age-adapted Taekwondo training on several cognitive functions, including reaction/motor time, information processing speed, and working and executive memory, in 24 healthy volunteers over 40. Reaction and motor time decreased with 41.2 and 18.4?s (p?=?0.004, p?=?0.015), respectively. Digit symbol coding task improved with a mean of 3.7 digits (p?=?0.017). Digit span, letter fluency, and trail making test task-completion-time all improved, but not statistically significant. The questionnaire reported “better” reaction time in 10 and “unchanged” in 9 of the 19 study compliers. In conclusion, our data suggest that age-adapted Taekwondo training improves various aspects of cognitive function in people over 40, which may, therefore, offer a cheap, safe, and enjoyable way to mitigate age-related cognitive decline. PMID:24273512

Pons van Dijk, Gaby; Huijts, Marjolein; Lodder, Jan

2013-01-01

282

Cognition Improvement in Taekwondo Novices Over 40. Results from the SEKWONDO Study.  

PubMed

Age-related cognitive decline is associated with increased risk of disability, dementia, and death. Recent studies suggest improvement in cognitive speed, attention, and executive functioning with physical activity. However, whether such improvements are activity specific is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to study the effect of 1?year age-adapted Taekwondo training on several cognitive functions, including reaction/motor time, information processing speed, and working and executive memory, in 24 healthy volunteers over 40. Reaction and motor time decreased with 41.2 and 18.4?s (p?=?0.004, p?=?0.015), respectively. Digit symbol coding task improved with a mean of 3.7 digits (p?=?0.017). Digit span, letter fluency, and trail making test task-completion-time all improved, but not statistically significant. The questionnaire reported "better" reaction time in 10 and "unchanged" in 9 of the 19 study compliers. In conclusion, our data suggest that age-adapted Taekwondo training improves various aspects of cognitive function in people over 40, which may, therefore, offer a cheap, safe, and enjoyable way to mitigate age-related cognitive decline. PMID:24273512

Pons van Dijk, Gaby; Huijts, Marjolein; Lodder, Jan

2013-01-01

283

Improved performance lead iodide nuclear radiation detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melt-grown lead iodide single crystals with an improved transport of positive charge carriers (holes) have been developed. It is shown that an energy resolution of about 3% can be obtained for gamma-radiation at 60 keV (241Am isotope source). Improvement of the spectrometric performance of lead iodide detectors at lower gamma-ray energies has been achieved as well due to better purification

V. Deich; M. Roth

1996-01-01

284

Neuropsychological Test Performance and Cognitive Reserve in Healthy Aging and the Alzheimer’s Disease Spectrum: A Theoretically-Driven Factor Analysis  

PubMed Central

Accurate measurement of cognitive function is critical for understanding the disease course of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Detecting cognitive change over time can be confounded by level of premorbid intellectual function or cognitive reserve and lead to under or over diagnosis of cognitive impairment and AD. Statistical models of cognitive performance that include cognitive reserve can improve sensitivity to change and clinical efficacy. We used confirmatory factor analysis to test a four-factor model comprised of memory/language, processing speed/executive function, attention, and cognitive reserve factors in a group of cognitively healthy older adults and a group of participants along the spectrum of amnestic mild cognitive impairment to AD (aMCI-AD). The model showed excellent fit for the control group (?2 = 100, df = 78, CFI = .962, RMSEA = .049) and adequate fit for the aMCI-AD group (?2 = 1750, df = 78, CFI = .932, RMSEA = .085). Though strict invariance criteria were not met, invariance testing to determine if factor structures are similar across groups yielded acceptable absolute model fits and provide evidence in support of configural, metric, and scalar invariance. These results provide further support for the construct validity of cognitive reserve in healthy and memory impaired older adults. PMID:23039909

Mitchell, Meghan B.; Shaughnessy, Lynn W.; Shirk, Steven D.; Yang, Frances M.; Atri, Alireza

2013-01-01

285

Poor performance on cognitive tasks in depression: Doing too much or not enough?  

PubMed Central

Depressed people perform poorly on cognitive tasks – it is unclear whether these deficits are due to decreased devotion of task-related resources or increased attention to non-task-related information. We examined the degree to which depressed and healthy adults displayed pupillary motility which varied at the frequency of presented stimuli on a cognitive task, which we interpreted as task-related processing, and at other frequencies which we interpreted as reflecting intrinsic processing. Depressed participants made more consecutive errors compared to controls. More pupillary motility at other frequencies was associated with poorer performance whereas more pupillary motility at the frequency of presented stimuli was associated with better performance. Depressed participants had more pupillary motility at other frequencies which partially mediated observed deficits in cognitive performance. These findings support the hypothesis that allocating cognitive resources to intrinsic processing, contributes to observed cognitive deficits in depression. PMID:20233961

Jones, Neil P.; Siegle, Greg J.; Muelly, Emilie R.; Haggerty, Agnes; Ghinassi, Frank

2010-01-01

286

Low-Level Laser Light Therapy Improves Cognitive Deficits and Inhibits Microglial Activation after Controlled Cortical Impact in Mice  

PubMed Central

Abstract Low-level laser light therapy (LLLT) exerts beneficial effects on motor and histopathological outcomes after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI), and coherent near-infrared light has been reported to improve cognitive function in patients with chronic TBI. However, the effects of LLLT on cognitive recovery in experimental TBI are unknown. We hypothesized that LLLT administered after controlled cortical impact (CCI) would improve post-injury Morris water maze (MWM) performance. Low-level laser light (800?nm) was applied directly to the contused parenchyma or transcranially in mice beginning 60–80?min after CCI. Injured mice treated with 60?J/cm2 (500?mW/cm2×2?min) either transcranially or via an open craniotomy had modestly improved latency to the hidden platform (p<0.05 for group), and probe trial performance (p<0.01) compared to non-treated controls. The beneficial effects of LLLT in open craniotomy mice were associated with reduced microgliosis at 48?h (21.8±2.3 versus 39.2±4.2 IbA-1+ cells/200×field, p<0.05). Little or no effect of LLLT on post-injury cognitive function was observed using the other doses, a 4-h administration time point and 7-day administration of 60?J/cm2. No effect of LLLT (60?J/cm2 open craniotomy) was observed on post-injury motor function (days 1–7), brain edema (24?h), nitrosative stress (24?h), or lesion volume (14 days). Although further dose optimization and mechanism studies are needed, the data suggest that LLLT might be a therapeutic option to improve cognitive recovery and limit inflammation after TBI. PMID:21851183

Khuman, Jugta; Zhang, Jimmy; Park, Juyeon; Carroll, James D.; Donahue, Chad

2012-01-01

287

Performance evaluation of an improved street sweeper  

SciTech Connect

The paper gives results of an evaluation of the performance of an improved street sweeper (ISS) and conventional sweepers. Dust emissions from paved roads are a major source of urban airborne particles. These emissions can be controlled by street cleaning, but commonly used sweepers were not designed for fine particle collection. A sweeper was modified to improve its ability to remove fine particles from streets and to contain its dust dispersions. Performance was measured by sampling street solids with a vacuum system before and after sweeping. Sieve analyses were made on these samples. During sampling, cascade impactor subsamples were collected to measure the finer particles. Also, dust dispersions were measured.

Duncan, M.W.; Jain, R.C.; Yung, S.C.; Patterson, R.G.

1985-10-01

288

Cognitive performance-altering effects of electronic medical records: An application of the human factors paradigm for patient safety.  

PubMed

According to the human factors paradigm for patient safety, health care work systems and innovations such as electronic medical records do not have direct effects on patient safety. Instead, their effects are contingent on how the clinical work system, whether computerized or not, shapes health care providers' performance of cognitive work processes. An application of the human factors paradigm to interview data from two hospitals in the Midwest United States yielded numerous examples of the performance-altering effects of electronic medical records, electronic clinical documentation, and computerized provider order entry. Findings describe both improvements and decrements in the ease and quality of cognitive performance, both for interviewed clinicians and for their colleagues and patients. Changes in cognitive performance appear to have desirable and undesirable implications for patient safety as well as for quality of care and other important outcomes. Cognitive performance can also be traced to interactions between work system elements, including new technology, allowing for the discovery of problems with "fit" to be addressed through design interventions. PMID:21479125

Holden, Richard J

2011-03-01

289

The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities III's Cognitive Performance Model: Empirical Support for Intermediate Factors within CHC Theory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Cognitive Ability Third Edition is developed using the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) measurement-theory test design as the instrument's theoretical blueprint. The instrument provides users with cognitive scores based on the Cognitive Performance Model (CPM); however, the CPM is not a part of CHC theory. Within the…

Taub, Gordon E.; McGrew, Kevin S.

2014-01-01

290

Improved Neurobehavioral Performance during the Wake Maintenance Zone  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Although impairment of daytime functioning is a symptom of many sleep disorders, there are limited data on their nature for some patient groups. The role of the circadian system on impaired functioning, specifically the wake maintenance zone (WMZ)—a ?3-h window of reduced sleep propensity that occurs shortly before the onset of melatonin synthesis—has received little attention. The study examined the influence of the WMZ on neurobehavioral performance under normal conditions and following sleep deprivation. Methods: Thirty-one adults (8 F; 18-29 y) completed an in-patient protocol including a baseline day (8-h sleep:16-h wake) and a ?50-h constant routine (CR), including regular assessment of plasma melatonin and neurobehavioral performance (i.e., auditory and visual psychomotor vigilance tests [aPVT, vPVT], Digit Symbol Substitution Test [DSST], and subjective sleepiness). Results: Performance in the 3 hours before the onset of melatonin secretion (i.e., the expected WMZ) was significantly improved compared to performance during a 3-hour block earlier in the biological day, despite a longer time awake. The improvement during WMZ was most prominent after extended wakefulness (i.e., day 2 of the CR). Conclusions: These results suggest that alignment of circa-dian phase with respect to sleep-wake timing may affect cognitive performance, particularly when homeostatic sleep pressure is high, and especially when performance is assessed in the evening, near the predicted WMZ. The potential contribution of the WMZ to sleep-onset insomnia complaints should be assessed further, using objective neurobehavioral testing and simultaneous circadian phase measurement. Citation: Shekleton JA; Rajaratnam SMW; Gooley JJ; Van Reen E; Czeisler CA; Lockley SW. Improved neurobehavioral performance during the wake maintenance zone. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(4):353-362. PMID:23585751

Shekleton, Julia A.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.; Gooley, Joshua J.; Van Reen, Eliza; Czeisler, Charles A.; Lockley, Steven W.

2013-01-01

291

Performance Improvement of High Speed Jet Fan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a numerical study has been carried out to investigate the influence of jet fan design variables on the performance of a jet fan. In order to achieve an optimum jet fan design and to explain the interactions between the different geometric configurations in the jet fan, three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and the Design of Experiments method have been applied. Several geometric variables, i.e., hub-tip ratio, meridional shape, rotor stagger angle, number of rotor-stator blades and stator geometry respectively, were employed to improve the performance of the jet fan. The objective functions of the jet fan are defined as the exit velocity and total efficiency at the operating condition. Based on the results of computational analyses, the performance of the jet fan was significantly improved. The performance degradations when the jet fan is operated in the reverse direction are also discussed.

Choi, Young-Seok; Kim, Joon-Hyung; Lee, Kyoung-Yong; Yang, Sang-Ho

2010-06-01

292

Aerobic endurance training improves soccer performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

HELGERUD, J., L. C. ENGEN, U. WISLØFF, and J. HOFF. Aerobic endurance training improves soccer performance.Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 33, No. 11, 2001, pp. 1925-1931. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to study the effects of aerobic training on performance during soccer match and soccer specific tests. Methods: Nineteen male elite junior soccer players, age 18.1 0.8

JAN HELGERUD; LARS CHRISTIAN ENGEN; JAN HOFF

2001-01-01

293

Drill bit benchmarking improves drilling performance  

SciTech Connect

A practical method for standardizing drill bit selection reduced drilling costs by $5.5 million on the North Slope of Alaska. Shared Services Drilling (SSD), a consortium of BP Exploration Alaska and ARCO Alaska Inc., developed a benchmarking system that improved drilling performance across the Prudhoe Bay Unit (PBU). The process involved input from drill bit manufacturers, rig crews, and the operator. The paper discusses well configurations, bit standardization, benchmarking strategy, bit performance, PDC bits, and results.

Brown, L.A. Jr. [Hughes Christensen Co., The Woodlands, TX (United States); Stoltz, D.S. [ARCO Alaska Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States); Nims, D.G. [BP Exploration Alaska, Anchorage, AK (United States)

1997-06-02

294

Six months of dance intervention enhances postural, sensorimotor, and cognitive performance in elderly without affecting cardio-respiratory functions  

PubMed Central

During aging, sensorimotor, cognitive and physical performance decline, but can improve by training and exercise indicating that age-related changes are treatable. Dancing is increasingly used as an intervention because it combines many diverse features making it a promising neuroplasticity-inducing tool. We here investigated the effects of a 6-month dance class (1 h/week) on a group of healthy elderly individuals compared to a matched control group (CG). We performed a broad assessment covering cognition, intelligence, attention, reaction time, motor, tactile, and postural performance, as well as subjective well-being and cardio-respiratory performance. After 6 months, in the CG no changes, or further degradation of performance was found. In the dance group, beneficial effects were found for dance-related parameters such as posture and reaction times, but also for cognitive, tactile, motor performance, and subjective well-being. These effects developed without alterations in the cardio-respiratory performance. Correlation of baseline performance with the improvement following intervention revealed that those individuals, who benefitted most from the intervention, were those who showed the lowest performance prior to the intervention. Our findings corroborate previous observations that dancing evokes widespread positive effects. The pre-post design used in the present study implies that the efficacy of dance is most likely not based on a selection bias of particularly gifted individuals. The lack of changes of cardio-respiratory fitness indicates that even moderate levels of physical activity can in combination with rich sensorimotor, cognitive, social, and emotional challenges act to ameliorate a wide spectrum of age-related decline. PMID:23447455

Kattenstroth, Jan-Christoph; Kalisch, Tobias; Holt, Stephan; Tegenthoff, Martin; Dinse, Hubert R.

2013-01-01

295

Training-Induced Improvement of Response Selection and Error Detection in Aging Assessed by Task Switching: Effects of Cognitive, Physical, and Relaxation Training  

PubMed Central

Cognitive control functions decline with increasing age. The present study examines if different types of group-based and trainer-guided training effectively enhance performance of older adults in a task switching task, and how this expected enhancement is reflected in changes of cognitive functions, as measured in electrophysiological brain activity (event-related potentials). One hundred forty-one healthy participants aged 65?years and older were randomly assigned to one of four groups: physical training (combined aerobic and strength training), cognitive training (paper–pencil and computer-aided), relaxation and wellness (social control group), and a control group that did not receive any intervention. Training sessions took place twice a week for 90?min for a period of 4?months. The results showed a greater improvement of performance for attendants of the cognitive training group compared to the other groups. This improvement was evident in a reduction of mixing costs in accuracy and intraindividual variability of speed, indexing improved maintenance of multiple task sets in working memory, and an enhanced coherence of neuronal processing. These findings were supported by event-related brain potentials which showed higher amplitudes in a number of potentials associated with response selection (N2), allocation of cognitive resources (P3b), and error detection (Ne). Taken together, our findings suggest neurocognitive plasticity of aging brains which can be stimulated by broad and multilayered cognitive training and assessed in detail by electrophysiological methods. PMID:22593740

Gajewski, Patrick D.; Falkenstein, Michael

2012-01-01

296

A Paradigm Shift to Improve Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A shift to computer skills for improving academic performances was investigated. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 increased the amount of high school dropouts after the Act was enacted. At-risk students were included in this research study. Several models described using teachers for core subjects and mentors to built citizenship skills, along…

Rulloda, Rudolfo B.

2009-01-01

297

Improving Reproductive Performance: Long and Short Term  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improvements in reproductive performance for beef herds can be classified as short term (current year) or long term (lifetime production) and can be applied to and measured in individual animals or the entire herd. In other species, results show that rearing young animals under caloric restriction ...

298

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN IMPROVED STREET SWEEPER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an extensive evaluation of the Improved Street Sweeper (ISS) in Bellevue, WA, and in San Diego, CA. The cleaning performance of the ISS was compared with that of broom sweepers and a vacuum sweeper. The ISS cleaned streets better than the other sweeper...

299

Electrolysis Performance Improvement and Validation Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Viewgraphs on electrolysis performance improvement and validation experiment are presented. Topics covered include: water electrolysis: an ever increasing need/role for space missions; static feed electrolysis (SFE) technology: a concept developed for space applications; experiment objectives: why test in microgravity environment; and experiment description: approach, hardware description, test sequence and schedule.

Schubert, Franz H.

1992-01-01

300

Improved perceptual-motor performance measurement system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Battery of tests determines the primary dimensions of perceptual-motor performance. Eighteen basic measures range from simple tests to sophisticated electronic devices. Improved system has one unit for the subject containing test display and response elements, and one for the experimenter where test setups, programming, and scoring are accomplished.

Parker, J. F., Jr.; Reilly, R. E.

1969-01-01

301

Building procurement — Key to improved performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Professor Colin Davidson of the University of Montreal, as corresponding author and Rashid Mohsini of the School of Architecture and Planning, State University of New York in Buffalo, discuss the key to improved performance in building procurement and describe the investigations into the selection process.

Rashid Mohsini; Colin H. Davidson

1991-01-01

302

Improving performance of the Star Bottle  

E-print Network

i Improving performance of the Star Bottle production line A case study at Heineken Author: Daan of the Star Bottles, introduced at HEINEKEN in 2013. Production line 11 produces Star Bottles and differs from is compared with the alternative solution. Situation Output In bottles Production balance Difference on CPLs

Vellekoop, Michel

303

Improving the performance of hospitality firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this article is to identify company characteristics which are linked to improved performance in hospitality firms. It compares the levels of market orientation and other company characteristics, including corporate culture, innovation procedures, use of information technology and ethical policies of hospitality firms with the most highly market-oriented service firms from other sectors which took part in a

Brendan J. Gray; Sheelagh M. Matear; Philip K. Matheson

2000-01-01

304

Children's Sleep, Sleepiness, and Performance on Cognitive Tasks.  

PubMed

While causal connections between sleep deprivation and attention, learning, and memory have been well established in adults, much less research has been done with children. Relations between the amount and quality of sleep and daytime sleepiness have been found for a number of cognitive and academic tasks in several groups of children. These relations have been found for children who have sleep disorders, for children with disorders involving cognitive impairment, and for typically developing children with no known disorders. The research is reviewed here with a focus on the types of cognitive and academic tasks that have been related to insufficient sleep. A series of studies is described that relates sleep parameters to the Woodcock-Johnson® III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and other, similar measures. Implications for educators and psychologists who work with children are discussed. PMID:25279390

Buckhalt, Joseph A

2011-01-01

305

Children's Sleep, Sleepiness, and Performance on Cognitive Tasks  

PubMed Central

While causal connections between sleep deprivation and attention, learning, and memory have been well established in adults, much less research has been done with children. Relations between the amount and quality of sleep and daytime sleepiness have been found for a number of cognitive and academic tasks in several groups of children. These relations have been found for children who have sleep disorders, for children with disorders involving cognitive impairment, and for typically developing children with no known disorders. The research is reviewed here with a focus on the types of cognitive and academic tasks that have been related to insufficient sleep. A series of studies is described that relates sleep parameters to the Woodcock-Johnson® III Tests of Cognitive Abilities and other, similar measures. Implications for educators and psychologists who work with children are discussed. PMID:25279390

Buckhalt, Joseph A.

2012-01-01

306

A Framework for Cognitive Interventions Targeting Everyday Memory Performance and Memory Self-efficacy  

PubMed Central

The human brain has the potential for self-renewal through adult neurogenesis, which is the birth of new neurons. Neural plasticity implies that the nervous system can change and grow. This understanding has created new possibilities for cognitive enhancement and rehabilitation. However, as individuals age, they have decreased confidence, or memory self-efficacy, which is directly related to their everyday memory performance. In this article, a developmental account of studies about memory self-efficacy and nonpharmacologic cognitive intervention models is presented and a cognitive intervention model, called the cognitive behavioral model of everyday memory, is proposed. PMID:19065089

McDougall, Graham J.

2009-01-01

307

Chronic oleoylethanolamide treatment improves spatial cognitive deficits through enhancing hippocampal neurogenesis after transient focal cerebral ischemia.  

PubMed

Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) has been shown to have neuroprotective effects after acute cerebral ischemic injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic OEA treatment on ischemia-induced spatial cognitive impairments, electrophysiology behavior and hippocampal neurogenesis. Daily treatments of 30mg/kg OEA significantly ameliorated spatial cognitive deficits and attenuated the inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat model. Moreover, OEA administration improved cognitive function in a manner associated with enhanced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Further study demonstrated that treatment with OEA markedly increased the expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? (PPAR?). Our data suggest that chronic OEA treatment can exert functional recovery of cognitive impairments and neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemic insult in rats via triggering of neurogenesis in the hippocampus, which supports the therapeutic use of OEA for cerebral ischemia. PMID:25748831

Yang, Li-Chao; Guo, Han; Zhou, Hao; Suo, Da-Qin; Li, Wen-Jun; Zhou, Yu; Zhao, Yun; Yang, Wu-Shuang; Jin, Xin

2015-04-15

308

Frequency of and risk factors for poor cognitive performance in hemodialysis patients  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are few detailed data on cognition in patients undergoing dialysis. We evaluated the frequency of and risk factors for poor cognitive performance using detailed neurocognitive testing. In this cross-sectional cohort study, 314 hemodialysis patients from 6 Boston-area hemodialysis units underwe...

309

Physical Fitness Performance of Young Adults with and without Cognitive Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the physical fitness performance of young adults with and without cognitive impairments. Participants were 75 young adults, including 41 without disabilities (23 females, 18 males; M of age = 21.88) and 34 with mild cognitive impairments (14 females, 20 males; M of age = 21.79). They received…

Zhang, Jiabei; Piwowar, Nathan; Reilly, Coleen Jennifer

2009-01-01

310

Digital Game-Based Learning Supports Student Motivation, Cognitive Success, and Performance Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traditional multimedia learning is primarily based on the cognitive load concept of information processing theory. Recent digital game-based learning (DGBL) studies have focused on exploring content support for learning motivation and related game characteristics. Motivation, volition, and performance (MVP) theory indicates that cognitive load and…

Woo, Jeng-Chung

2014-01-01

311

A bivariate genetic analysis of cerebral white matter hyperintensities and cognitive performance in elderly male twins  

E-print Network

)] participants in the 4th exam of the NHLBI Twin Study. Biometric genetic modeling was used to estimate. Keywords: White matter hyperintensities; Cognition; Genetics; Twins; Elderly 1. Introduction White matterA bivariate genetic analysis of cerebral white matter hyperintensities and cognitive performance

California at Davis, University of

312

Age-Specific Associations Between Emotional Responses to Separation and Cognitive Performance in Infancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associations between emotional responses to maternal separation and cognitive performance were expected to change with cognitive development over the first year. In this longitudinal study of 39 infants, measures of separation and reunion distress at 2, 6, and 10 months were interleaved with measures of sensorimotor coordination at 4, 8, and 13 months. Separation distress at 2 months predicted lower

Marc D. Lewis; Chris Koroshegyi; Lori Douglas; Kristina Kampe

1997-01-01

313

Relationship between Poor Sleep and Daytime Cognitive Performance in Young Adults with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Poor sleep is a common feature in autism even though patients themselves do not necessarily complain. The impact of poor sleep on daytime cognitive functioning in autism is not well-known and we therefore investigated whether sleep in autism correlates with daytime cognitive performance. A battery of non-verbal tasks was administered, in the…

Limoges, Elyse; Bolduc, Christianne; Berthiaume, Claude; Mottron, Laurent; Godbout, Roger

2013-01-01

314

THE IMPACT OF COGNITIVE STYLES AND EDUCATIONAL COMPUTER ENVIRONMENTS ON LEARNING PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of three treatments Text, CD-ROM, Web site and student Cognitive Styles on learning performance was investigated. Prior to the commencement of the course the students completed the following psychometric tests: the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) Witkin (1971), Kirton's Adaptive-Innovator Inventory (KAI) Kirton (1976) and Cognitive Styles Analysis (CSA) (Riding 1991). The Group Embedded Figures Test measures the

Adrian Parkinson; James A. Redmond

315

Retrospective lifetime dietary patterns predict cognitive performance in community-dwelling older Australians.  

PubMed

Dietary intake is a modifiable exposure that may have an impact on cognitive outcomes in older age. The long-term aetiology of cognitive decline and dementia, however, suggests that the relevance of dietary intake extends across the lifetime. In the present study, we tested whether retrospective dietary patterns from the life periods of childhood, early adulthood, adulthood and middle age predicted cognitive performance in a cognitively healthy sample of 352 older Australian adults >65 years. Participants completed the Lifetime Diet Questionnaire and a battery of cognitive tests designed to comprehensively assess multiple cognitive domains. In separate regression models, lifetime dietary patterns were the predictors of cognitive factor scores representing ten constructs derived by confirmatory factor analysis of the cognitive test battery. All regression models were progressively adjusted for the potential confounders of current diet, age, sex, years of education, English as native language, smoking history, income level, apoE ?4 status, physical activity, other past dietary patterns and health-related variables. In the adjusted models, lifetime dietary patterns predicted cognitive performance in this sample of older adults. In models additionally adjusted for intake from the other life periods and mechanistic health-related variables, dietary patterns from the childhood period alone reached significance. Higher consumption of the 'coffee and high-sugar, high-fat extras' pattern predicted poorer performance on simple/choice reaction time, working memory, retrieval fluency, short-term memory and reasoning. The 'vegetable and non-processed' pattern negatively predicted simple/choice reaction time, and the 'traditional Australian' pattern positively predicted perceptual speed and retrieval fluency. Identifying early-life dietary antecedents of older-age cognitive performance contributes to formulating strategies for delaying or preventing cognitive decline. PMID:24709049

Hosking, Diane E; Nettelbeck, Ted; Wilson, Carlene; Danthiir, Vanessa

2014-07-01

316

Cultural Factors Affecting the Differential Performance of Israeli and Palestinian Children on the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive performance is essential for children's functioning and may also predict school readiness. The suitability of Western standardized assessments for cognitive performance among children from different cultures needs to be elaborated. This study referred to the existence of differences in cognitive performance between and within children…

Josman, Naomi; Abdallah, Taisir M.; Engel-Yeger, Batya

2010-01-01

317

Metabolic Agents that Enhance ATP can Improve Cognitive Functioning: A Review of the Evidence for Glucose, Oxygen, Pyruvate, Creatine, and L-Carnitine  

PubMed Central

Over the past four or five decades, there has been increasing interest in the neurochemical regulation of cognition. This field received considerable attention in the 1980s, with the identification of possible cognition enhancing agents or “smart drugs”. Even though many of the optimistic claims for some agents have proven premature, evidence suggests that several metabolic agents may prove to be effective in improving and preserving cognitive performance and may lead to better cognitive aging through the lifespan. Aging is characterized by a progressive deterioration in physiological functions and metabolic processes. There are a number of agents with the potential to improve metabolic activity. Research is now beginning to identify these various agents and delineate their potential usefulness for improving cognition in health and disease. This review provides a brief overview of the metabolic agents glucose, oxygen, pyruvate, creatine, and L-carnitine and their beneficial effects on cognitive function. These agents are directly responsible for generating ATP (adenosine triphosphate) the main cellular currency of energy. The brain is the most metabolically active organ in the body and as such is particularly vulnerable to disruption of energy resources. Therefore interventions that sustain adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels may have importance for improving neuronal dysfunction and loss. Moreover, recently, it has been observed that environmental conditions and diet can affect transgenerational gene expression via epigenetic mechanisms. Metabolic agents might play a role in regulation of nutritional epigenetic effects. In summary, the reviewed metabolic agents represent a promising strategy for improving cognitive function and possibly slowing or preventing cognitive decline. PMID:22254121

Owen, Lauren; Sunram-Lea, Sandra I.

2011-01-01

318

Characterizing and explaining differences in cognitive test performance between African American and European American older adults  

PubMed Central

The present study examined differences in cognitive performance of African American and European American older adults on cognitive and intellectual measures, and the extent to which literacy status or reading level was useful in explaining these group differences. African American elders performed more poorly than European American elders on twelve of thirteen cognitive tests administered, p < .05. After controlling for reading level achievement, differences in performance became non-significant for five of these twelve tests. Nonetheless, some differences persisted, suggesting that other potential mediators of race differences remain to be explored in future research. PMID:18189169

Morgan, Adrienne T. Aiken; Marsiske, Michael; Whitfield, Keith E.

2007-01-01

319

Effector memory CD4+ T cells are associated with cognitive performance in a senior population  

PubMed Central

Objective: Immunosenescence and cognitive decline are common markers of the aging process. Taking into consideration the heterogeneity observed in aging processes and the recently described link between lymphocytes and cognition, we herein explored the possibility of an association between alterations in lymphocytic populations and cognitive performance. Methods: In a cohort of cognitively healthy adults (n = 114), previously characterized by diverse neurocognitive/psychological performance patterns, detailed peripheral blood immunophenotyping of both the innate and adaptive immune systems was performed by flow cytometry. Results: Better cognitive performance was associated with lower numbers of effector memory CD4+ T cells and higher numbers of naive CD8+ T cells and B cells. Furthermore, effector memory CD4+ T cells were found to be predictors of general and executive function and memory, even when factors known to influence cognitive performance in older individuals (e.g., age, sex, education, and mood) were taken into account. Conclusions: This is the first study in humans associating specific phenotypes of the immune system with distinct cognitive performance in healthy aging. PMID:25566544

Serre-Miranda, Cláudia; Roque, Susana; Santos, Nadine Correia; Portugal-Nunes, Carlos; Costa, Patrício; Palha, Joana Almeida; Sousa, Nuno

2014-01-01

320

Interrelationships between pain processing, cortisol and cognitive performance in chronic whiplash-associated disorders.  

PubMed

The present study aims at studying interactions between cognitive performance and conditioned pain modulation in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) and healthy controls. In addition, the relation between cortisol concentrations and cognitive performance will be studied in patients with chronic WAD. Thirty-one subjects, 16 healthy subjects and 15 patients with chronic WAD, were enrolled and subjected to several self-report and physiological measures. Self-report measures encompassed pain rating during a procedure evaluating conditioned pain modulation. Afterward, they were subjected to physiological measures, which are cognitive tests (Stroop task, psychomotor vigilance task, and operation span task) preceded and followed by salivary cortisol concentration measurements. Chronic WAD patients performed worse in recall at the operation span task and presented longer reaction times at the psychomotor vigilance task and at the Stroop task when sleep-related words were shown (p??.05). Only in the healthy subjects, conditioned pain modulation and baseline cortisol concentrations were correlated to cognitive performance (p?cognitive performance in chronic WAD. We did not reveal impaired pain inhibition but did reveal cognitive dysfunctions in patients with chronic WAD. In healthy subjects, pain inhibition was related to cognitive performance but not in the patient group. PMID:24337691

Meeus, Mira; Van Oosterwijck, Jessica; Ickmans, Kelly; Baert, Isabel; Coppieters, Iris; Roussel, Nathalie; Struyf, Filip; Pattyn, Nathalie; Nijs, Jo

2015-03-01

321

Dissociative Effects of Methylphenidate in Nonhuman Primates: Trade-offs between Cognitive and Behavioral Performance  

PubMed Central

Low doses of methylphenidate reduce hyperactivity and improve attention in individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as in healthy humans and animals. Despite its extensive use, relatively little is known about its mechanisms of action. This study investigated the effects of methylphenidate on working memory performance, impulsivity, response accuracy and precision, and the ability to stay on task in rhesus monkeys using an oculomotor delayed response task. Methylphenidate affected task performance in an inverted-U manner in all three subjects tested. The improvements resulted from a reduction in premature responses and, importantly, not from improvement in the memory of target location. The length of time subjects participated in each session was also affected dose dependently. However, the dose at which the length of participation was maximally increased significantly impaired performance on the working memory task. This dissociation of effects has implications for the treatment of ADHD, for the non-prescription use of methylphenidate for cognitive enhancement, and for furthering the basic understanding of the neural substrate underlying these processes. PMID:22401288

Rajala, Abigail Z.; Henriques, Jeffrey B.; Populin, Luis C.

2012-01-01

322

Brain antioxidant markers, cognitive performance and acetylcholinesterase activity of rats: efficiency of Sonchus asper  

PubMed Central

Background Sonchus asper (SA) is traditionally used as a folk medicine to treat mental disorders in Pakistan. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of polyphenolic rich methanolic fraction of SA on cognitive performance, brain antioxidant activities and acetylcholinesterase activity in male rats. Methods 30 male Sprague–Dawley rats were equally divided into three groups in this study. Animals of group I (control) received saline (vehicle), group II received SA (50 mg/kg) body weight (b.w.), and group III treated with SA (100 mg/kg b.w.,) orally in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) for 7 days. The effect of SA was checked on rat cognitive performance, brain antioxidatant and acetylcholinesterase activities. Evaluation of learning and memory was assessed by a step-through a passive avoidance test on day 6 after two habituation trials and an initial acquisition trial on day 5. Antioxidant potential was determined by measuring activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) in whole-brain homogenates. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was determined by the colorimetric method. Results Results showed that 100 mg/kg b.w., SA treated rats exhibited a significant improvement in learning and memory (step-through latency time). SA administration reduced lipid peroxidation products and elevated glutathione levels in the SA100-treated group. Furthermore, salt and detergent soluble AChE activity was significantly decreased in both SA-treated groups. Short-term orally supplementation of SA showed significant cognitive enhancement as well as elevated brain antioxidant enzymes and inhibited AChE activity. Conclusion These findings stress the critical impact of Sonchus asper bioactive components on brain function. PMID:22591917

2012-01-01

323

Performance improvement using methodology: case study.  

PubMed

The department of radiology at St. Luke's Regional Medical Center in Sioux City, IA implemented meaningful workflow changes for reducing patient wait times and, at the same time, improved customer and employee satisfaction scores. Lean methodology and the 7 Deadly Wastes, along with small group interaction, was used to evaluate and change the process of a patient waiting for an exam in the radiology department. The most important key to the success of a performance improvement project is the involvement of staff. PMID:18953987

Harmelink, Stacy

2008-01-01

324

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Trichostatin A, Improves Learning and Memory in High-Fat Diet-Induced Cognitive Deficits in Mice.  

PubMed

Metabolic syndrome is increasingly recognized for its effects on cognitive health. Recent studies have highlighted the role of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in metabolic syndrome and cognitive functions. The present study was designed to investigate the possible therapeutic role of a HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), in cognitive impairment associated with metabolic syndrome. To ascertain the mechanisms involved, we fed mice with high-fat diet (HFD) for 4 weeks and examined changes in behavioral and biochemical/oxidative stress markers. Mice subjected to HFD exhibited characteristic features of metabolic disorder, viz., hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. Moreover, these mice showed severe deficits in learning and memory as assessed by the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tasks along with elevated oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in brain homogenates. The observed changes occurred concurrently with reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In contrast, the mice treated with the HDAC inhibitor, TSA (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.), showed a significant and dose-dependent reduction in serum glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol along with improvement in HDL-cholesterol levels and learning and memory performance. TSA treatment also results in alleviation of oxidative stress and neuroinflammatory markers. Moreover, TSA significantly augmented the BDNF levels in HFD-fed mice. Thus, based upon these observations, it may be suggested that HDAC inhibition could be a novel therapeutic strategy to combat cognitive impairment associated with metabolic syndrome. PMID:25391764

Sharma, Sorabh; Taliyan, Rajeev; Ramagiri, Shruti

2014-11-14

325

Using the Virtual Reality-Cognitive Rehabilitation Approach to Improve Contextual Processing in Children with Autism  

PubMed Central

Background. This pilot study investigated the efficacy of a novel virtual reality-cognitive rehabilitation (VR-CR) intervention to improve contextual processing of objects in children with autism. Previous research supports that children with autism show deficits in contextual processing, as well as deficits in its elementary components: abstraction and cognitive flexibility. Methods. Four children with autism participated in a multiple-baseline, single-subject study. The children were taught how to see objects in context by reinforcing attention to pivotal contextual information. Results. All children demonstrated statistically significant improvements in contextual processing and cognitive flexibility. Mixed results were found on the control test and changes in context-related behaviours. Conclusions. Larger-scale studies are warranted to determine the effectiveness and usability in comprehensive educational programs. PMID:24324379

Reid, Denise

2013-01-01

326

Physical and Cognitive Performance of Patients with Acute Lung Injury 1 Year after Initial Trophic versus Full Enteral Feeding. EDEN Trial Follow-up  

PubMed Central

Rationale: We hypothesized that providing patients with acute lung injury two different protein/calorie nutritional strategies in the intensive care unit may affect longer-term physical and cognitive performance. Objectives: To assess physical and cognitive performance 6 and 12 months after acute lung injury, and to evaluate the effect of trophic versus full enteral feeding, provided for the first 6 days of mechanical ventilation, on 6-minute-walk distance, cognitive impairment, and secondary outcomes. Methods: A prospective, longitudinal ancillary study of the ARDS Network EDEN trial evaluating 174 consecutive survivors from 5 of 12 centers. Blinded assessments of patients’ arm anthropometrics, strength, pulmonary function, 6-minute-walk distance, and cognitive status (executive function, language, memory, verbal reasoning/concept formation, and attention) were performed. Measurements and Main Results: At 6 and 12 months, respectively, the mean (SD) percent predicted for 6-minute-walk distance was 64% (22%) and 66% (25%) (P = 0.011 for difference between assessments), and 36 and 25% of survivors had cognitive impairment (P = 0.001). Patients performed below predicted values for secondary physical tests with small improvement from 6 to 12 months. There was no significant effect of initial trophic versus full feeding for the first 6 days after randomization on survivors’ percent predicted for 6-minute-walk distance, cognitive impairment status, and all secondary outcomes. Conclusions: EDEN trial survivors performed below predicted values for physical and cognitive performance at 6 and 12 months, with some improvement over time. Initial trophic versus full enteral feeding for the first 6 days after randomization did not affect physical and cognitive performance. PMID:23805899

Dinglas, Victor D.; Morris, Peter E.; Jackson, James C.; Hough, Catherine L.; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Wozniak, Amy W.; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Ely, E. Wesley; Rice, Todd W.; Hopkins, Ramona O.

2013-01-01

327

Improving performance via mini-applications.  

SciTech Connect

Application performance is determined by a combination of many choices: hardware platform, runtime environment, languages and compilers used, algorithm choice and implementation, and more. In this complicated environment, we find that the use of mini-applications - small self-contained proxies for real applications - is an excellent approach for rapidly exploring the parameter space of all these choices. Furthermore, use of mini-applications enriches the interaction between application, library and computer system developers by providing explicit functioning software and concrete performance results that lead to detailed, focused discussions of design trade-offs, algorithm choices and runtime performance issues. In this paper we discuss a collection of mini-applications and demonstrate how we use them to analyze and improve application performance on new and future computer platforms.

Crozier, Paul Stewart; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Numrich, Robert W. (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Williams, Alan B.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Keiter, Eric Richard; Rajan, Mahesh; Willenbring, James M.; Doerfler, Douglas W.; Heroux, Michael Allen

2009-09-01

328

Improving performance through self-assessment.  

PubMed

Wakefield and Pontefract Community Health NHS Trust uses the European Business Excellence Model self-assessment for continuous improvement. An outline of the key aspects of the model, an approach to TQM, is presented. This article sets out the context that led to the adoption of the model in the Trust and describes the approach that has been taken to completing self-assessments. Use of the model to secure continuous improvement is reviewed against Bhopal and Thomson's Audit Cycle and consideration is given to lessons learned. The article concludes with a discussion on applicability of the model to health care organisations. It is concluded that, after an initial learning curve, the model has facilitated integration of a range of quality initiatives, and progress with continuous improvement. Critical to this was the linking of self-assessment to business planning and performance management systems. PMID:10537856

Pitt, D J

1999-01-01

329

Improved performance of coded digital FM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of convolutionally encoded narrow-band digital FM with Viterbi decoding was considered in some detail by Simon (1983) for a noncoherent limiter\\/discriminator (L\\/D) with integrate and dump (I&D) bit detection. Employing a new threshold receiver which averages the output of the I&D detector with the output of a sample and hold (S&H) detector, a 3-dB improvement over Simon's results

R. F. Pawula

1999-01-01

330

Improved Building Performance Through Effective Communication & Training  

E-print Network

IMPROVED BUILDING PERFORMANCE THROUGH EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION & TRAINING Rick Bates Project Manager Environmental Education Foundation Gilbert, AZ ABSTRACT This paper describes the procedures involved in the development of a...) PNC Multi-Family Capital Pure Air Control ESL-IC-10/05-51 4 RickBates.net The HVAC Source The National Air Quality Institute, LLC Thomas Rutherfoord Inc. Trade-Winds Environmental Restoration Vesar, Inc. XL...

Bates, R.

2005-01-01

331

Training creative cognition: adolescence as a flexible period for improving creativity  

PubMed Central

Creativity commonly refers to the ability to generate ideas, solutions, or insights that are novel yet feasible. The ability to generate creative ideas appears to develop and change from childhood to adulthood. Prior research, although inconsistent, generally indicates that adults perform better than adolescents on the alternative uses task (AUT), a commonly used index of creative ideation. The focus of this study was whether performance could be improved by practicing alternative uses generation. We examined the effectiveness of creative ideation training in adolescents (13–16 years, N = 71) and adults (23–30 years, N = 61). Participants followed one of three types of training, each comprising eight 20-min practice sessions within 2 week time: (1) alternative uses generation (experimental condition: creative ideation); (2) object characteristic generation (control condition: general ideation); (3) rule-switching (control condition: rule-switching). Progression in fluency, flexibility, originality of creative ideation was compared between age-groups and training conditions. Participants improved in creative ideation and cognitive flexibility, but not in general ideation. Participants in all three training conditions became better in fluency and originality on the AUT. With regard to originality, adolescents benefitted more from training than adults, although this was not specific for the creative ideation training condition. These results are interpreted in relation to (a) the different underlying processes targeted in the three conditions and (b) developmental differences in brain plasticity with increased sensitivity to training in adolescents. In sum, the results show that improvement can be made in creative ideation and supports the hypothesis that adolescence is a developmental stage of increased flexibility optimized for learning and explorative behavior. PMID:25400565

Stevenson, Claire E.; Kleibeuker, Sietske W.; de Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Crone, Eveline A.

2014-01-01

332

The diurnal cortisol cycle and cognitive performance in the healthy old.  

PubMed

Associations between cognitive performance and cortisol have variously been reported for measures of both cortisol level and change, and for some domains of cognitive functioning more than others. In this study, associations between cortisol secretion measures and cognitive performance were examined in 50 healthy older people (mean age 74 years; 34 F /16 M). Participants provided 16 accurately timed saliva samples over 2 consecutive days to determine diurnal profiles of cortisol secretion. Overall cognitive performance (OCP) was measured as the principal component of a comprehensive battery of cognitive tests. Across a 30 year age range, there was a strong inverse correlation between age and OCP. Age and poorer OCP were also associated with an attenuated cortisol awakening response (CAR), defined as the rise from 0-30 min after awakening, and a subsequent less steep fall in cortisol level over the rest of the day. Partialling analyses, suggested that the correlation between fall in cortisol over the day and OCP was independent of age. Both older age and less cortisol change were particularly related to poorer performance on tests of declarative memory and executive functioning. Our conclusions are that during the short post-awakening period, an exception exists to the generally pertaining association between higher levels of cortisol and poorer cognitive performance. Consequentially dynamic measures reflecting the rise (CAR) and fall from the post-awakening peak may be particularly salient in helping to explain links between cortisol and cognitive performance. Finally our pattern of results across different cognitive tests suggests an association between cortisol and those domains of cognitive functioning which depend crucially on the integrity of the hippocampus and pre-frontal cortex. PMID:21185883

Evans, P D; Fredhoi, C; Loveday, C; Hucklebridge, F; Aitchison, E; Forte, D; Clow, A

2011-03-01

333

Hypnotherapy and Test Anxiety: Two Cognitive-Behavioral Constructs. The Effects of Hypnosis in Reducing Test Anxiety and Improving Academic Achievement in College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A two-group randomized multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to investigate the effects of cognitive-behavioral hypnosis in reducing test anxiety and improving academic performance in comparison to a Hawthorne control group. Subjects were enrolled in a rigorous introductory psychology course which covered an entire text in one…

Sapp, Marty

334

[Do practices of learning activities improve the cognitive functioning of healthy elderly adults? From the viewpoint of a transfer effect].  

PubMed

The present study examined influences of reading aloud and performing simple calculation on the cognitive functioning of healthy elderly adults, based on the findings that these tasks activated the prefrontal lobe. The elderly adults' memory and inhibitory functions were assesed by Short-Term memory, CST, Stroop, and SRC tasks, before and after intervention for 18 months. The study found that the learning group had significant improvement from the pre- to the post-test for the short-term memory, STM, CST, and Stroop tasks. On the other hand, there was significant decline over the 18 months in the control group which was given only the assessment tasks. These results are discussed in terms of the effectiveness of cognitive training. PMID:25016833

Yoshida, Hajime; Sun, Qin; Tsuchida, Noriaki; Ohkawa, Ichiro

2014-06-01

335

Cognitive Performance in Rhesus Monkeys Varies by Sex and Prenatal Androgen Exposure  

PubMed Central

Men and women differ on performance and strategy on several spatial tasks. Rodents display similar sex differences, and manipulations of early hormone exposure alter the direction of these differences. However, most cognitive testing of nonhuman primates has utilized sample sizes too small to investigate sexually-differentiated behaviors. This study presents an investigation of sex differences and the effects of prenatal androgen on spatial memory and strategy use in rhesus monkeys. Monkeys prenatally exposed to vehicle, testosterone, or the androgen receptor blocker flutamide performed a search task in which 5 of 12 goal boxes contained food rewards. Spatial consistency and the presence of local landmarks were varied. Performance when both spatial and marker cues were available did not differ by sex or prenatal treatment. Contrary to predictions, females easily solved the task when local markers were removed, and their performance outscored males. Although eliminating spatial consistency and requiring subjects to use local markers impaired performance by all monkeys, females continued to locate correct goal boxes at higher than chance levels and scored better than males. Blocking prenatal androgen exposure in males improved use of local markers. These findings suggest that the tendency to attend to landmarks and to use them in solving spatial problems is typical of females across many species, including rodents, humans, and rhesus monkeys. In rhesus monkeys and rodents, developmental androgen eliminates this specialization. However, these results are the only known example of better performance of females than males when salient markers are removed. PMID:17335823

Herman, Rebecca A.; Wallen, Kim

2007-01-01

336

Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to improve cognitive dysfunction and functional ability in clinical depression--a systematic review.  

PubMed

Cognitive dysfunction is of clinical significance and exerts longstanding implication on patients? function. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments of cognitive dysfunction are emerging. This review evaluates pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments of cognitive impairment primarily in the domains of memory, attention, processing speed and executive function in clinical depression. A total of 35 studies were retrieved from Pubmed, PsycInfo and Scopus after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results show that various classes of antidepressants exert improving effects on cognitive function across several cognitive domains. Specifically, studies suggest that SSRIs, the SSRE tianeptine, the SNRI duloxetine, vortioxetine and other antidepressants such as bupropion and moclobemide may exert certain improving effects on cognitive function in depression, such as in learning and memory and executive function. Class-specific cognitive domains or specific dose-response relationships were not identified yet. The few non-pharmacological studies conducted employing cognitive orientated treatments and cognitive remediation therapy show promising results for the improvement of cognitive impairment in depression. However, several methodological constraints of studies limit generalizability of the results and caution the interpretation. Future direction should consider the development of a neuropsychological consensus cognitive battery to support the discovery, clinical assessment, comparison of studies and registration of new agents in clinical depression. PMID:24863864

Baune, Bernhard T; Renger, Lisa

2014-09-30

337

The cognitive performance of patients with multiple sclerosis during periods of high and low fatigue.  

E-print Network

The objective of this study was to examine whether multiple sclerosis (MS)-related fatigue affects patients' cognitive performance. Thirty patients who had substantial fatigue in conjunction with MS and who reported marked diurnal variability...

Parmenter, Brett A.; Denney, Douglas R.; Lynch, Sharon G.

2003-03-01

338

Semantic fluency: cognitive basis and diagnostic performance in focal dementias and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Semantic fluency is widely used both as a clinical test and as a basic tool for understanding how humans extract information from the semantic store. Recently, major efforts have been made to devise fine-grained scoring procedures to measure the multiple cognitive processes underlying fluency performance. Nevertheless, it is still unclear how many and which independent components are necessary to thoroughly describe performance on the fluency task. Furthermore, whether a combination of multiple indices can improve the diagnostic performance of the test should be assessed. In this study, we extracted multiple indices of performance on the semantic fluency test from a large sample of healthy controls (n = 307) and patients (n = 145) suffering from three types of focal dementia or Alzheimer's Disease (AD). We found that five independent components underlie semantic fluency performance. We argue that these components functionally map onto the generation and application of a search strategy (component 2), to the monitoring of the overall sequence to avoid repetitions (component 3) and out-of-category items (component 4), and to the full integrity of the semantic store (component 5). The integrated and effective work of all these components would relate to a "general effectiveness" component (component 1). Importantly, while all the focal dementia groups were equally impaired on general effectiveness measures, they showed differential patterns of failure in the other components. This finding suggests that the cognitive deficit that impairs fluency differs among the three focal dementia groups: a semantic store deficit in the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (sv-PPA), a strategy deficit in the non-fluent variant of primary progressive aphasia (nfv-PPA), and an initiation deficit in the behavioural variant of fronto-temporal dementia (bv-FTD). Finally, we showed that the concurrent use of multiple fluency indices improves the diagnostic accuracy of semantic fluency both for focal dementias and for AD. More generally, our study suggests that a formal evaluation of fine-grained patterns of performance would improve the diagnostic accuracy of neuropsychological tests. PMID:24681692

Reverberi, Carlo; Cherubini, Paolo; Baldinelli, Sara; Luzzi, Simona

2014-05-01

339

Cognitive Improvement Associated with Tricyclic Antidepressant Treatment of Childhood Major Depressive Illness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the results of detailed neuropsychological testing done before and during drug-induced remission of depressive illness in 11 children (ages 6-13 years), demonstrating significant improvement in cognitive function, especially that of the right hemisphere and frontal lobes. (Author/SJL)

Staton, R. Dennis; And Others

1981-01-01

340

Assessing Cognitive Load Theory to Improve Student Learning for Mechanical Engineers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A computer programming class for students of mechanical engineering was redesigned and assessed: Cognitive Load Theory was used to redesign the content; online technologies were used to redesign the delivery. Student learning improved and the dropout rate was reduced. This article reports on both attitudinal and objective assessment: comparing…

Impelluso, Thomas J.

2009-01-01

341

Sleep Duration and Age-Related Changes in Brain Structure and Cognitive Performance  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate the contribution of sleep duration and quality to age-related changes in brain structure and cognitive performance in relatively healthy older adults. Design: Community-based longitudinal brain and cognitive aging study using a convenience sample. Setting: Participants were studied in a research laboratory. Participants: Relatively healthy adults aged 55 y and older at study commencement. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological assessment every 2 y. Subjective assessments of sleep duration and quality and blood samples were obtained. Each hour of reduced sleep duration at baseline augmented the annual expansion rate of the ventricles by 0.59% (P = 0.007) and the annual decline rate in global cognitive performance by 0.67% (P = 0.050) in the subsequent 2 y after controlling for the effects of age, sex, education, and body mass index. In contrast, global sleep quality at baseline did not modulate either brain or cognitive aging. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, a marker of systemic inflammation, showed no correlation with baseline sleep duration, brain structure, or cognitive performance. Conclusions: In healthy older adults, short sleep duration is associated with greater age-related brain atrophy and cognitive decline. These associations are not associated with elevated inflammatory responses among short sleepers. Citation: Lo JC, Loh KK, Zheng H, Sim SK, Chee MW. Sleep duration and age-related changes in brain structure and cognitive performance. SLEEP 2014;37(7):1171-1178. PMID:25061245

Lo, June C.; Loh, Kep Kee; Zheng, Hui; Sim, Sam K.Y.; Chee, Michael W.L.

2014-01-01

342

Whole beetroot consumption acutely improves running performance.  

PubMed

Nitrate ingestion improves exercise performance; however, it has also been linked to adverse health effects, except when consumed in the form of vegetables. The purpose of this study was to determine, in a double-blind crossover study, whether whole beetroot consumption, as a means for increasing nitrate intake, improves endurance exercise performance. Eleven recreationally fit men and women were studied in a double-blind placebo controlled crossover trial performed in 2010. Participants underwent two 5-km treadmill time trials in random sequence, once 75 minutes after consuming baked beetroot (200 g with ?500 mg nitrate) and once 75 minutes after consuming cranberry relish as a eucaloric placebo. Based on paired t tests, mean running velocity during the 5-km run tended to be faster after beetroot consumption (12.3±2.7 vs 11.9±2.6 km/hour; P=0.06). During the last 1.1 miles (1.8 km) of the 5-km run, running velocity was 5% faster (12.7±3.0 vs 12.1±2.8 km/hour; P=0.02) in the beetroot trial, with no differences in velocity (P?0.25) in the earlier portions of the 5-km run. No differences in exercise heart rate were observed between trials; however, at 1.8 km into the 5-km run, rating of perceived exertion was lower with beetroot (13.0±2.1 vs 13.7±1.9; P=0.04). Consumption of nitrate-rich, whole beetroot improves running performance in healthy adults. Because whole vegetables have been shown to have health benefits, whereas nitrates from other sources may have detrimental health effects, it would be prudent for individuals seeking performance benefits to obtain nitrates from whole vegetables, such as beetroot. PMID:22709704

Murphy, Margaret; Eliot, Katie; Heuertz, Rita M; Weiss, Edward

2012-04-01

343

Oligonol improves memory and cognition under an amyloid ?(25-35)-induced Alzheimer's mouse model.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease is an age-dependent progressive neurodegenerative disorder that results in impairments of memory and cognitive function. It is hypothesized that oligonol has ameliorative effects on memory impairment and reduced cognitive functions in mice with Alzheimer's disease induced by amyloid ?(25-35) (A?(25-35)) injection. The protective effect of an oligonol against A?(25-35)-induced memory impairment was investigated in an in vivo Alzheimer's mouse model. The aggregation of A?25-35 was induced by incubation at 37°C for 3 days before injection into mice brains (5 nmol/mouse), and then oligonol was orally administered at 100 and 200 mg/kg of body weight for 2 weeks. Memory and cognition were observed in T-maze, object recognition, and Morris water maze tests. The group injected with A?(25-35) showed impairments in both recognition and memory. However, novel object recognition and new route awareness abilities were dose dependently improved by the oral administration of oligonol. In addition, the results of the Morris water maze test indicated that oligonol exerted protective activity against cognitive impairment induced by A?(25-35). Furthermore, nitric oxide formation and lipid peroxidation were significantly elevated by A?(25-35), whereas oligonol treatment significantly decreased nitric oxide formation and lipid peroxidation in the brain, liver, and kidneys. The present results suggest that oligonol improves A?(25-35)-induced memory deficit and cognition impairment. PMID:25150118

Choi, Yoon Young; Maeda, Takahiro; Fujii, Hajime; Yokozawa, Takako; Kim, Hyun Young; Cho, Eun Ju; Shibamoto, Takayuki

2014-07-01

344

Improving cognitive outcome in cerebral malaria: insights from clinical and experimental research.  

PubMed

Cerebral Malaria (CM) is a clinical syndrome defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a potentially reversible diffuse encephalopathy characterized mainly by coma and the presence of asexual forms of Plasmodium falciparum parasites in peripheral blood smears in the absence of other causes of encephalopathy. A wide range of clinical manifestations follows the disease including cognitive, behavioral and motor dysfunctions, seizures and coma. The underlying mechanisms of CM pathogenesis remain incompletely understood although vascular, immunological and metabolic changes have been described. The classical treatment of CM is based on the administration of antimalarial drugs, especially chloroquine and artemisinin derivates as artesunate. Even with treatment, 15 to 20% of children with CM die and approximately 10 to 17% of those who survive remain with significant long-term cognitive impairment. In this context, neuroprotective and adjuvant therapies have been recently investigated in clinical and experimental studies of CM in an attempt to improve cognitive outcome. A poor understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms, properties of compounds used and patient selection have contributed to the lack of success of these interventions. This review discusses clinical aspects of cognitive sequelae, possible mechanisms involved in the brain injury, perspectives and limitations regarding the pharmacological strategies to improve cognitive outcome in CM. PMID:22300229

de Miranda, Aline Silva; Brant, Fátima; Machado, Fabiana Simão; Rachid, Milene Alvarenga; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio

2011-12-01

345

Does consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA enhance cognitive performance in healthy school-aged children and throughout adulthood? Evidence from clinical trials.  

PubMed

Long-chain (LC) omega-3 PUFA derived from marine sources may play an important role in cognitive performance throughout all life stages. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the dominant omega-3 in the brain, is a major component of neuronal cell membranes and affects various neurological pathways and processess. Despite its critical role in brain function, human's capacity to synthesize DHA de novo is limited and its consumption through the diet is important. However, many individuals do not or rarely consume seafood. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the current evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) in healthy school-aged children, younger and older adults to determine whether consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA improves cognitive performance and to make recommendations for future research. Current evidence suggests that consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA, particularly DHA, may enhance cognitive performance relating to learning, cognitive development, memory and speed of performing cognitive tasks. Those who habitually consume diets low in DHA, children with low literacy ability and malnourished and older adults with age-related cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment seem to benefit most. However, study design limitations in many RCTs hamper firm conclusions. The measurement of a uniform biomarker, e.g., % DHA in red blood cells, is essential to establish baseline DHA-status, to determine targets for cognitive performance and to facilitate dosage recommendations. It is recommended that future studies be at least 16 weeks in duration, account for potential interaction effects of gender, age and apolipoprotein E genotype, include vegan/vegetarian populations, include measures of speed of cognitive performance and include brain imaging technologies as supportive information on working mechanisms of LC omega-3 PUFA. PMID:25054550

Stonehouse, Welma

2014-07-01

346

Does Consumption of LC Omega-3 PUFA Enhance Cognitive Performance in Healthy School-Aged Children and throughout Adulthood? Evidence from Clinical Trials  

PubMed Central

Long-chain (LC) omega-3 PUFA derived from marine sources may play an important role in cognitive performance throughout all life stages. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), the dominant omega-3 in the brain, is a major component of neuronal cell membranes and affects various neurological pathways and processess. Despite its critical role in brain function, human’s capacity to synthesize DHA de novo is limited and its consumption through the diet is important. However, many individuals do not or rarely consume seafood. The aim of this review is to critically evaluate the current evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCT) in healthy school-aged children, younger and older adults to determine whether consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA improves cognitive performance and to make recommendations for future research. Current evidence suggests that consumption of LC omega-3 PUFA, particularly DHA, may enhance cognitive performance relating to learning, cognitive development, memory and speed of performing cognitive tasks. Those who habitually consume diets low in DHA, children with low literacy ability and malnourished and older adults with age-related cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment seem to benefit most. However, study design limitations in many RCTs hamper firm conclusions. The measurement of a uniform biomarker, e.g., % DHA in red blood cells, is essential to establish baseline DHA-status, to determine targets for cognitive performance and to facilitate dosage recommendations. It is recommended that future studies be at least 16 weeks in duration, account for potential interaction effects of gender, age and apolipoprotein E genotype, include vegan/vegetarian populations, include measures of speed of cognitive performance and include brain imaging technologies as supportive information on working mechanisms of LC omega-3 PUFA. PMID:25054550

Stonehouse, Welma

2014-01-01

347

Effect of 30% Oxygen Administration on Verbal Cognitive Performance, Blood Oxygen Saturation and Heart Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of 30% oxygen administration on verbal cognitive performance, blood oxygen saturation, and heart rate. Five male (24.6(±0.9) years) and five female (22.2(±1.9) years) college students were selected as the subjects for this study. Two psychological tests were developed to measure the performance level of verbal cognition. The experiment consisted of two runs: one was a

Soon-Cheol Chung; Sunao Iwaki; Gye-Rae Tack; Jeong-Han Yi; Ji-Hye You; Ji-Hun Kwon

2006-01-01

348

Male cognitive performance declines in the absence of sexual selection  

PubMed Central

Sexual selection is responsible for the evolution of male ornaments and armaments, but its role in the evolution of cognition—the ability to process, retain and use information—is largely unexplored. Because successful courtship is likely to involve processing information in complex, competitive sexual environments, we hypothesized that sexual selection contributes to the evolution and maintenance of cognitive abilities in males. To test this, we removed mate choice and mate competition from experimental populations of Drosophila melanogaster by enforcing monogamy for over 100 generations. Males evolved under monogamy became less proficient than polygamous control males at relatively complex cognitive tasks. When faced with one receptive and several unreceptive females, polygamous males quickly focused on receptive females, whereas monogamous males continued to direct substantial courtship effort towards unreceptive females. As a result, monogamous males were less successful in this complex setting, despite being as quick to mate as their polygamous counterparts with only one receptive female. This diminished ability to use past information was not limited to the courtship context: monogamous males (but not females) also showed reduced aversive olfactory learning ability. Our results provide direct experimental evidence that the intensity of sexual selection is an important factor in the evolution of male cognitive ability. PMID:24573848

Hollis, Brian; Kawecki, Tadeusz J.

2014-01-01

349

Teacher Aptitude and Cognitive Style: Their Relation to Pupil Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This conference paper suggests a promising model, based on a study of elementary school teachers in California, to investigate the relationship between the cognitive characteristics of teachers, their teaching behavior, and the academic success of their pupils. In the research model, two major components which affect student achievement were…

Ekstrom, Ruth B.

350

Cluster analysis of cognitive performance in elderly and demented subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

48 elderly normals, 14 demented subjects and 76 young controls were tested for basic cognitive functions. All the tests were quantified and could therefore be subjected to statistical analysis. The results show a difference in the speed of information processing and in memory load between the young controls and elderly normals but the age groups differed in quantitative terms only.

S. Giaquinto; G. Nolfe; M. Calvani

1985-01-01

351

Factors Affecting Physician Performance: Implications for Performance Improvement and Governance  

PubMed Central

Background: A physician's personal and professional characteristics constitute only one, and not necessarily the most important, determining factor of clinical performance. Our study assessed how physician, organizational and systemic factors affect family physicians' performance. Method: Our study examined 532 family practitioners who were randomly selected for peer assessment by the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ontario. A series of multivariate regression analyses examined the impact of physician factors (e.g., demographics, certification) on performance scores in five clinical areas: acute care, chronic conditions, continuity of care and referrals, well care and records. A second series of regressions examined the simultaneous effects of physician, organizational (e.g., practice volume, hours worked, solo practice) and systemic factors (e.g., northern practice location, community size, physician-to-population ratio). Results: Our study had three key findings: (a) physician factors significantly influence performance but do not appear to be nearly as important as previously thought; (b) organizational and systemic factors have significant effects on performance after the effects of physician factors are controlled; and (c) physician, organizational and systemic factors have varying effects across different dimensions of clinical performance. Conclusions: We discuss the implications of our results for performance improvement and physician governance insofar as both need to consider the broader environmental context of medical practice. PMID:21037818

Wenghofer, Elizabeth F.; Williams, A. Paul; Klass, Daniel J.

2009-01-01

352

Improving Access to Foundational Energy Performance Data  

SciTech Connect

Access to foundational energy performance data is key to improving the efficiency of the built environment. However, stakeholders often lack access to what they perceive as credible energy performance data. Therefore, even if a stakeholder determines that a product would increase efficiency, they often have difficulty convincing their management to move forward. Even when credible data do exist, such data are not always sufficient to support detailed energy performance analyses, or the development of robust business cases. One reason for this is that the data parameters that are provided are generally based on the respective industry norms. Thus, for mature industries with extensive testing standards, the data made available are often quite detailed. But for emerging technologies, or for industries with less well-developed testing standards, available data are generally insufficient to support robust analysis. However, even for mature technologies, there is no guarantee that the data being supplied are the same data needed to accurately evaluate a product?s energy performance. To address these challenges, the U.S. Department of Energy funded development of a free, publically accessible Web-based portal, the Technology Performance Exchange(TM), to facilitate the transparent identification, storage, and sharing of foundational energy performance data. The Technology Performance Exchange identifies the intrinsic, technology-specific parameters necessary for a user to perform a credible energy analysis and includes a robust database to store these data. End users can leverage stored data to evaluate the site-specific performance of various technologies, support financial analyses with greater confidence, and make better informed procurement decisions.

Studer, D.; Livingood, W.; Torcellini, P.

2014-08-01

353

Occupational therapy interventions to improve driving performance in older adults: a systematic review.  

PubMed

This systematic review synthesizes the research on interventions used by occupational therapy practitioners to address cognitive and visual function, motor function, driving skills, self-regulation and self-awareness, and the role of passengers and family involvement in the driving ability, performance, and safety of older adults. After a comprehensive search of the research literature, 29 studies were reviewed and synthesized into five themes: (1) educational interventions including family education, (2) cognitive-perceptual training, (3) interventions addressing physical fitness, (4) simulator training, and (5) behind-the-wheel training. Outcome measures used in the studies included changes in knowledge through speed of processing, physical and cognitive skills predicted to reduce crash risk, simulated driving, and real-world driving. The studies demonstrated low to moderate positive effects for interventions used by occupational therapy practitioners to improve older driver performance. PMID:25397761

Golisz, Kathleen

2014-01-01

354

The Use of Bayesian Latent Class Cluster Models to Classify Patterns of Cognitive Performance in Healthy Ageing  

PubMed Central

The main focus of this study is to illustrate the applicability of latent class analysis in the assessment of cognitive performance profiles during ageing. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to detect main cognitive dimensions (based on the neurocognitive test variables) and Bayesian latent class analysis (LCA) models (without constraints) were used to explore patterns of cognitive performance among community-dwelling older individuals. Gender, age and number of school years were explored as variables. Three cognitive dimensions were identified: general cognition (MMSE), memory (MEM) and executive (EXEC) function. Based on these, three latent classes of cognitive performance profiles (LC1 to LC3) were identified among the older adults. These classes corresponded to stronger to weaker performance patterns (LC1>LC2>LC3) across all dimensions; each latent class denoted the same hierarchy in the proportion of males, age and number of school years. Bayesian LCA provided a powerful tool to explore cognitive typologies among healthy cognitive agers. PMID:23977183

Cunha, Pedro; Palha, Joana Almeida; Sousa, Nuno

2013-01-01

355

Comment: Performance improvement with computer training in Parkinson disease.  

PubMed

Computer-based memory and attention training methods improve episodic recall in older adults who have amnestic mild cognitive impairment.(1,2) Memory and attention are highly interactive and interdependent processes due to their shared circuitry. The cognitive benefits of computer-based memory training appear to persist for at least 6 months.(1) Traditional cognitive training programs are administered by professionals and may cost as much as $15 to $100 an hour, depending on the educational level of the staff member who delivers the training.(2) More cost-effective methods of computer-based memory training are needed. In the study by Zimmermann et al.(3) on patients with Parkinson disease (PD), 2 types of computer training were compared: a specific cognitive training method (CogniPlus) and a nonspecific method, Nintendo Wii, a game console. PMID:24623844

Hershey, Linda A

2014-04-01

356

Effect of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation on dual-task cognitive and motor performance in isolated dystonia  

PubMed Central

Objective Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) can improve motor complications of Parkinson's disease (PD) but may worsen specific cognitive functions. The effect of STN DBS on cognitive function in dystonia patients is less clear. Previous reports indicate that bilateral STN stimulation in patients with PD amplifies the decrement in cognitive-motor dual-task performance seen when moving from a single-task to dual-task paradigm. We aimed to determine if the effect of bilateral STN DBS on dual-task performance in isolated patients with dystonia, who have less cognitive impairment and no dementia, is similar to that seen in PD. Methods Eight isolated predominantly cervical patients with dystonia treated with bilateral STN DBS, with average dystonia duration of 10.5?years and Montreal Cognitive Assessment score of 26.5, completed working memory (n-back) and motor (forced-maintenance) tests under single-task and dual-task conditions while on and off DBS. Results A multivariate, repeated-measures analysis of variance showed no effect of stimulation status (On vs Off) on working memory (F=0.75, p=0.39) or motor function (F=0.22, p=0.69) when performed under single-task conditions, though as working memory task difficulty increased, stimulation disrupted the accuracy of force-tracking. There was a very small worsening in working memory performance (F=9.14, p=0.019) when moving from single-task to dual-tasks when using the ‘dual-task loss’ analysis. Conclusions This study suggests the effect of STN DBS on working memory and attention may be much less consequential in patients with dystonia than has been reported in PD. PMID:25012202

Mills, Kelly A; Markun, Leslie C; Luciano, Marta San; Rizk, Rami; Allen, I Elaine; Racine, Caroline A; Starr, Philip A; Alberts, Jay L; Ostrem, Jill L

2015-01-01

357

Residual Negative Symptoms Differentiate Cognitive Performance in Clinically Stable Patients with Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

Cognitive deficits in various domains have been shown in patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The purpose of the present study was to examine if residual psychopathology explained the difference in cognitive function between clinically stable patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We compared the performance on tests of attention, visual and verbal memory, and executive function of 25 patients with schizophrenia in remission and 25 euthymic bipolar disorder patients with that of 25 healthy controls. Mediation analysis was used to see if residual psychopathology could explain the difference in cognitive function between the patient groups. Both patient groups performed significantly worse than healthy controls on most cognitive tests. Patients with bipolar disorder displayed cognitive deficits that were milder but qualitatively similar to those of patients with schizophrenia. Residual negative symptoms mediated the difference in performance on cognitive tests between the two groups. Neither residual general psychotic symptoms nor greater antipsychotic doses explained this relationship. The shared variance explained by the residual negative and cognitive deficits that the difference between patient groups may be explained by greater frontal cortical neurophysiological deficits in patients with schizophrenia, compared to bipolar disorder. Further longitudinal work may provide insight into pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie these deficits. PMID:25024847

Ramanathan, Seethalakshmi; Wong, Eugene; Nayak, Ajita; Moore, Brian

2014-01-01

358

Relationship of cognitive strategy use to prospective memory performance in a diverse sample of nondemented older adults with varying degrees of cognitive complaints and impairment.  

PubMed

Although older adults typically have better performance on prospective memory (PM) tasks carried out in naturalistic settings, a paucity of research directly assesses older adults' use of compensatory strategies on such tasks. The current study investigates external memory strategy use during performance of a clinical PM test that features both short-term (in laboratory) and long-term (out of laboratory) subtasks (i.e., the Royal Prince Alfred Prospective Memory Test - RPA-ProMem. Nondemented, community-dwelling older adults (n = 214; mean age = 80.5; 68.2% female; 39.7% non-white) with mild cognitive impairment, subjective cognitive decline, and healthy controls completed the RPA-ProMem while external strategy use was permitted and recorded. Overall, participants utilized external strategies 41% of the time on the RPA-ProMem. Increased utilization of external memory strategies was significantly associated with better PM performance. Additionally, better performance on executive functioning tasks was associated with increased use of external memory strategies. Results are discussed in relation to how memory strategy use can be enhanced to improve everyday memory ability in older adults at risk for dementia. PMID:25471537

Aronov, Avner; Rabin, Laura A; Fogel, Joshua; Chi, Susan Y; Kann, Sarah J; Abdelhak, Nachama; Zimmerman, Molly E

2015-07-01

359

Aerobic Exercise Improves Cognition for Older Adults with Glucose Intolerance, A Risk Factor for Alzheimer’s Disease  

PubMed Central

Impaired glucose regulation is a defining characteristic of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathology and has been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Although the benefits of aerobic exercise for physical health are well-documented, exercise effects on cognition have not been examined for older adults with poor glucose regulation associated with prediabetes and early T2DM. Using a randomized controlled design, twenty-eight adults (57–83 y old) meeting 2-h tolerance test criteria for glucose intolerance completed 6 months of aerobic exercise or stretching, which served as the control. The primary cognitive outcomes included measures of executive function (Trails B, Task Switching, Stroop, Self-ordered Pointing Test, and Verbal Fluency). Other outcomes included memory performance (Story Recall, List Learning), measures of cardiorespiratory fitness obtained via maximal-graded exercise treadmill test, glucose disposal during hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, body fat, and fasting plasma levels of insulin, cortisol, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, insulin-like growth factor-1, amyloid-? (A?40 and A?42). Six months of aerobic exercise improved executive function (MANCOVA, p = 0.04), cardiorespiratory fitness (MANOVA, p = 0.03), and insulin sensitivity (p = 0.05). Across all subjects, 6-month changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and insulin sensitivity were positively correlated (p = 0.01). For A?42, plasma levels tended to decrease for the aerobic group relative to controls (p = 0.07). The results of our study using rigorous controlled methodology suggest a cognition-enhancing effect of aerobic exercise for older glucose intolerant adults. Although replication in a larger sample is needed, our findings potentially have important therapeutic implications for a growing number of adults at increased risk of cognitive decline. PMID:20847403

Baker, Laura D.; Frank, Laura L.; Foster-Schubert, Karen; Green, Pattie S; Wilkinson, Charles W.; McTiernan, Anne; Cholerton, Brenna A.; Plymate, Stephen R.; Fishel, Mark A.; Watson, G. Stennis; Duncan, Glen E.; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Craft, Suzanne

2011-01-01

360

Houttuynia cordata Improves Cognitive Deficits in Cholinergic Dysfunction Alzheimer’s Disease-Like Models  

PubMed Central

Cognitive impairment is a result of dementia of diverse causes, such as cholinergic dysfunction and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (Saururaceae) has long been used as a traditional herbal medicine. It has biological activities including protective effects against amyloid beta (A?) toxicity, via regulation of calcium homeostasis, in rat hippocampal cells. To extend previous reports, we investigated the effects of water extracts of H. cordata herb (HCW) on tauopathies, also involving calcium influx. We then confirmed the effects of HCW in improving memory impairment and neuronal damage in mice with A?-induced neurotoxicity. We also investigated the effects of HCW against scopolamine-induced cholinergic dysfunction in mice. In primary neuronal cells, HCW inhibited the phosphorylation of tau by regulating p25/p35 expression in A?-induced neurotoxicity. In mice with A?-induced neurotoxicity, HCW improved cognitive impairment, as assessed with behavioral tasks, such as novel object recognition, Y-maze, and passive avoidance tasks. HCW also inhibited the degeneration of neurons in the CA3 region of the hippocampus in A?-induced neurotoxicity. Moreover, HCW, which had an IC50 value of 79.7 ?g/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibition, ameliorated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment significantly in Y-maze and passive avoidance tasks. These results indicate that HCW improved cognitive impairment, due to cholinergic dysfunction, with inhibitory effects against tauopathies and cholinergic antagonists, suggesting that HCW may be an interesting candidate to investigate for the treatment of AD. PMID:25009697

Huh, Eugene; Kim, Hyo Geun; Park, Hanbyeol; Kang, Min Seo; Lee, Bongyong; Oh, Myung Sook

2014-01-01

361

Improving E85-Engine Performance and Efficiency  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

E85 is an important alternative fuel with 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline. However, it is widely reported that E85 vehicles have difficulties to start in winter. There are also complains about the E85 engine performance. Here we report that with proper application of electrorheology, we can solve these issues and improve the engine performance. E85 vehicles all have port injected engines. The fuel is injected into cylinders as droplets. Before the ignition, the fuel evaporates. Because E85 is more viscous than gasoline, the injected E85 droplet size is not small. Especially, in the winter the cold weather makes the viscosity even higher, leading the E85 droplets even bigger. Since evaporation starts from the droplet surfaces, large droplets are difficult to be evaporated before the ignition comes. When there is no enough fuel vapor, the engine cannot start. To solve this problem, we introduce a small device just before the fuel injection, which produces a strong electric field to reduce the fuel viscosity, leading to much smaller fuel droplets in atomization. The evaporation is much faster and the engine is easier to start. After the engine is started, the warm metal surfaces help evaporate the fuel and the engine operates fairly well. As the small fuel droplets produced by our device make the combustion fast and timely, engine efficiency and performance are also improved.

Huang, K.; Tao, R.

2010-03-01

362

Dynamic classifiers improve pulverizer performance and more  

SciTech Connect

Keeping coal-fired steam plants running efficiently and cleanly is a daily struggle. An article in the February 2007 issue of Power explained that one way to improve the combustion and emissions performance of a plant is to optimize the performance of its coal pulverizers. By adding a dynamic classifier to the pulverizers, you can better control coal particle sizing and fineness, and increase pulverizer capacity to boot. A dynamic classifier has an inner rotating cage and outer stationary vanes which, acting in concert, provide centrifugal or impinging classification. Replacing or upgrading a pulverizer's classifier from static to dynamic improves grinding performance reducing the level of unburned carbon in the coal in the process. The article describes the project at E.ON's Ratcliffe-on-Soar Power station in the UK to retrofit Loesche LSKS dynamic classifiers. It also mentions other successful projects at Scholven Power Station in Germany, Tilbury Power Station in the UK and J.B. Sims Power Plant in Michigan, USA. 8 figs.

Sommerlad, R.E.; Dugdale, K.L. [Loesche Energy Systems (United States)

2007-07-15

363

Acute effects of dietary constituents on motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes.  

PubMed

Performance in many sports is at least partially dependent on motor control, coordination, decision-making, and other cognitive tasks. This review summarizes available evidence about the ingestion of selected nutrients or isolated compounds (dietary constituents) and potential acute effects on motor skill and/or cognitive performance in athletes. Dietary constituents discussed include branched-chain amino acids, caffeine, carbohydrate, cocoa flavanols, Gingko biloba, ginseng, guarana, Rhodiola rosea, sage, L-theanine, theobromine, and tyrosine. Although this is not an exhaustive list, these are perhaps the most researched dietary constituents. Caffeine and carbohydrate have the greatest number of published reports supporting their ability to enhance acute motor skill and cognitive performance in athletes. At this time, there is insufficient published evidence to substantiate the use of any other dietary constituents to benefit sports-related motor skill or cognitive performance. The optimal dose and timing of caffeine and carbohydrate intake promoting enhanced motor skill and cognitive performance remain to be identified. Valid, reliable, and sensitive batteries of motor skills and cognitive tests should be developed for use in future efficacy studies. PMID:25400063

Baker, Lindsay B; Nuccio, Ryan P; Jeukendrup, Asker E

2014-12-01

364

Perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport: some considerations when applying the expert performance approach.  

PubMed

The number of researchers studying perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport is increasing. The intention in this paper is to review the currently accepted framework for studying expert performance and to consider implications for undertaking research work in the area of perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport. The expert performance approach presents a descriptive and inductive approach for the systematic study of expert performance. The nature of expert performance is initially captured in the laboratory using representative tasks that identify reliably superior performance. Process-tracing measures are employed to determine the mechanisms that mediate expert performance on the task. Finally, the specific types of activities that lead to the acquisition and development of these mediating mechanisms are identified. General principles and mechanisms may be discovered and then validated by more traditional experimental designs. The relevance of this approach to the study of perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport is discussed and suggestions for future work highlighted. PMID:16095739

Williams, A Mark; Ericsson, K Anders

2005-06-01

365

Longitudinal change in neuropsychological performance using latent growth models: a study of mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

The goal of the current study was to examine cognitive change in both healthy controls (n?=?229) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n?=?397) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). We applied latent growth modeling to examine baseline and longitudinal change over 36 months in five cognitive factors derived from the ADNI neuropsychological test battery (memory, executive function/processing speed, language, attention and visuospatial). At baseline, MCI patients demonstrated lower performance on all of the five cognitive factors when compared to controls. Both controls and MCI patients declined on memory over 36 months; however, the MCI patients declined at a significantly faster rate than controls. The MCI patients also declined over 36 months on the remaining four cognitive factors. In contrast, the controls did not exhibit significant change over 36 months on the non-memory cognitive factors. Within the MCI group, executive function declined faster than memory, while the other factor scores changed slower than memory over time. These findings suggest different patterns of cognitive change in healthy older adults and MCI patients. The findings also suggest that, when compared with memory, executive function declines faster than other cognitive factors in patients with MCI. Thus, decline in non-memory domains may be an important feature for distinguishing healthy older adults and persons with MCI. PMID:22562439

Johnson, Julene K; Gross, Alden L; Pa, Judy; McLaren, Donald G; Park, Lovingly Quitania; Manly, Jennifer J

2012-12-01

366

Improving Learning Performance Through Rational Resource Allocation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This article shows how rational analysis can be used to minimize learning cost for a general class of statistical learning problems. We discuss the factors that influence learning cost and show that the problem of efficient learning can be cast as a resource optimization problem. Solutions found in this way can be significantly more efficient than the best solutions that do not account for these factors. We introduce a heuristic learning algorithm that approximately solves this optimization problem and document its performance improvements on synthetic and real-world problems.

Gratch, J.; Chien, S.; DeJong, G.

1994-01-01

367

Methods and apparatus for improving sensor performance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Methods and apparatus for improving performance of a sensor having a sensor proof mass elastically suspended at an initial equilibrium position by a suspension force, provide a tunable force opposing that suspension force and preset the proof mass with that tunable force to a second equilibrium position less stable than the initial equilibrium position. The sensor is then operated from that preset second equilibrium position of the proof mass short of instability. The spring constant of the elastic suspension may be continually monitored, and such continually monitored spring constant may be continually adjusted to maintain the sensor at a substantially constant sensitivity during its operation.

Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor); Reynolds, Joseph K. (Inventor); Van Zandt, Thomas R. (Inventor); Waltman, Steven B. (Inventor)

1993-01-01

368

Children's mathematical performance: Five cognitive tasks across five grades.  

PubMed

Children in elementary school, along with college adults, were tested on a battery of basic mathematical tasks, including digit naming, number comparison, dot enumeration, and simple addition or subtraction. Beyond cataloguing performance to these standard tasks in Grades 1 to 5, we also examined relationships among the tasks, including previously reported results on a number line estimation task. Accuracy and latency improved across grades for all tasks, and classic interaction patterns were found, for example, a speed-up of subitizing and counting, increasingly shallow slopes in number comparison, and progressive speeding of responses especially to larger addition and subtraction problems. Surprisingly, digit naming was faster than subitizing at all ages, arguing against a pre-attentive processing explanation for subitizing. Estimation accuracy and speed were strong predictors of children's addition and subtraction performance. Children who gave exponential responses on the number line estimation task were slower at counting in the dot enumeration task and had longer latencies on addition and subtraction problems. The results provided further support for the importance of estimation as an indicator of children's current and future mathematical expertise. PMID:25814266

Moore, Alex M; Ashcraft, Mark H

2015-07-01

369

Cognitive-behaviour therapy and skilled motor performance in adults with chronic tic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first aim of the present study was to compare performance of people with tic disorders (TD) and controls on executive function and a range of skilled motor tests requiring complex performance, guided movements, hand co-ordination, and fine control of steadiness. The second aim was to investigate the effect of cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) on motor performance. A total of

Kieron P. Oconnor; Marc E. Lavoie; Emmanuel Stip; François Borgeat; Anick Laverdure

2008-01-01

370

Neurocognitive monitors: toward the prevention of cognitive performance decrements and catastrophic failures in the operational environment.  

PubMed

Network-centric doctrine and the proposed C41SR (command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance) distributions to the individual warfighter require that the cognitive performance, judgment, and decision making of warfighters must be sustained and effectively managed in the forward operating environment, where various physiological and psychological stressors abound, in order to reduce human errors and catastrophic failures. The U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC) established the Cognitive Performance, Judgment, and Decision-Making Research Program (CPJDRP) in 2004 to direct research to this issue. A Neurophysiological Measures and Cognition Focus Team (NMFCT) was formed to work with augmented cognition investigators and to specifically address the development of neurophysiological measures as potential monitors of alertness-cognitive state in warfighters. The USAM-RMC approach complemented the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Augmented Cognition approach, which focused on the detection of workload-related impaired cognitive state, and subsequent modification of information flow through automation. In this preface, the premise for neurophysiological measures as neurocognitive monitors is explained using an example of a neurophysiological index: the oculomotor measure, saccadic velocity. The progress of the NMFCT on the development of a neurocognitive monitor is described, as well as the recommendations of a 2005 USAMRMC/Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC)-sponsored workshop. Awareness of neurocognitive monitoring is discussed, as are future endeavors related to operational testing and fieldability. Four papers are summarized in this Neurophysiological Monitoring and Augmented Cognition section involving technologies to enhance cognitive performance in the operational environment: one on dynamic cortical electroencephalography, two on oculometrics, and one on a spatial orientation enhancement system. PMID:17547315

Thomas, Maria L; Russo, Michael B

2007-05-01

371

PERFORMANCE OF A COMPUTER-BASED ASSESSMENT OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION MEASURES IN TWO COHORTS OF SENIORS  

PubMed Central

Background Computer-administered assessment of cognitive function is being increasingly incorporated in clinical trials, however its performance in these settings has not been systematically evaluated. Design The Seniors Health and Activity Research Program (SHARP) pilot trial (N=73) developed a computer-based tool for assessing memory performance and executive functioning. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Seniors (LIFE) investigators incorporated this battery in a full scale multicenter clinical trial (N=1635). We describe relationships that test scores have with those from interviewer-administered cognitive function tests and risk factors for cognitive deficits and describe performance measures (completeness, intra-class correlations). Results Computer-based assessments of cognitive function had consistent relationships across the pilot and full scale trial cohorts with interviewer-administered assessments of cognitive function, age, and a measure of physical function. In the LIFE cohort, their external validity was further demonstrated by associations with other risk factors for cognitive dysfunction: education, hypertension, diabetes, and physical function. Acceptable levels of data completeness (>83%) were achieved on all computer-based measures, however rates of missing data were higher among older participants (odds ratio=1.06 for each additional year; p<0.001) and those who reported no current computer use (odds ratio=2.71; p<0.001). Intra-class correlations among clinics were at least as low (ICC?0.013) as for interviewer measures (ICC?0.023), reflecting good standardization. All cognitive measures loaded onto the first principal component (global cognitive function), which accounted for 40% of the overall variance. Conclusion Our results support the use of computer-based tools for assessing cognitive function in multicenter clinical trials of older individuals. PMID:23589390

Espeland, Mark A.; Katula, Jeffrey A.; Rushing, Julia; Kramer, Arthur F.; Jennings, Janine M.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Nadkarni, Neelesh K.; Reid, Kieran F.; Castro, Cynthia M.; Church, Timothy; Kerwin, Diana R.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Marottoli, Richard A.; Rushing, Scott; Marsiske, Michael; Rapp, Stephen R.

2013-01-01

372

Monitoring and predicting cognitive state and performance via physiological correlates of neuronal signals.  

PubMed

Judgment, decision making, and situational awareness are higher-order mental abilities critically important to operational cognitive performance. Higher-order mental abilities rely on intact functioning of multiple brain regions, including the prefrontal, thalamus, and parietal areas. Real-time monitoring of individuals for cognitive performance capacity via an approach based on sampling multiple neurophysiologic signals and integrating those signals with performance prediction models potentially provides a method of supporting warfighters' and commanders' decision making and other operationally relevant mental processes and is consistent with the goals of augmented cognition. Cognitive neurophysiological assessments that directly measure brain function and subsequent cognition include positron emission tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, mass spectroscopy, near-infrared spectroscopy, magnetoencephalography, and electroencephalography (EEG); however, most direct measures are not practical to use in operational environments. More practical, albeit indirect measures that are generated by, but removed from the actual neural sources, are movement activity, oculometrics, heart rate, and voice stress signals. The goal of the papers in this section is to describe advances in selected direct and indirect cognitive neurophysiologic monitoring techniques as applied for the ultimate purpose of preventing operational performance failures. These papers present data acquired in a wide variety of environments, including laboratory, simulator, and clinical arenas. The papers discuss cognitive neurophysiologic measures such as digital signal processing wrist-mounted actigraphy; oculometrics including blinks, saccadic eye movements, pupillary movements, the pupil light reflex; and high-frequency EEG. These neurophysiological indices are related to cognitive performance as measured through standard test batteries and simulators with conditions including sleep loss, time on task, and aviation flight-induced fatigue. PMID:16018331

Russo, Michael B; Stetz, Melba C; Thomas, Maria L

2005-07-01

373

Does Methylphenidate Improve Inhibition and Other Cognitive Abilities in Adults with Childhood-Onset ADHD?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of methylphenidate (Mph) on inhibition and several other cognitive abilities in 43 adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by use of Conners’ Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and the Change Task (ChT), an extension of the Stop Signal Test (SST). In a double blind, cross-over, placebo controlled study with Mph, tests were administered during the third

A. Marije Boonstra; J. J. Sandra Kooij; Jaap Oosterlaan; Joseph A. Sergeant; Jan K. Buitelaar

2005-01-01

374

Ginger improves cognitive function via NGF-induced ERK/CREB activation in the hippocampus of the mouse.  

PubMed

Ginger (the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) has been used worldwide for many centuries in cooking and for treatment of several diseases. The main pharmacological properties of ginger include anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, antiarthritic, antiemetic and neuroprotective actions. Recent studies demonstrated that ginger significantly enhances cognitive function in various cognitive disorders as well as in healthy brain. However, the biochemical mechanisms underlying the ginger-mediated enhancement of cognition have not yet been studied in normal or diseased brain. In the present study, we assessed the memory-enhancing effects of dried ginger extract (GE) in a model of scopolamine-induced memory deficits and in normal animals by performing a novel object recognition test. We found that GE administration significantly improved the ability of mice to recognize novel objects, indicating improvements in learning and memory. Furthermore, to elucidate the mechanisms of GE-mediated cognitive enhancement, we focused on nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced signaling pathways. NGF enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis revealed that GE administration led to elevated NGF levels in both the mouse hippocampus and rat glioma C6 cells. GE administration also resulted in phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), as revealed by Western blotting analysis. Neutralization of NGF with a specific NGF antibody inhibited GE-triggered activation of ERK and CREB in the hippocampus. Also, GE treatment significantly increased pre- and postsynaptic markers, synaptophysin and PSD-95, which are related to synapse formation in the brain. These data suggest that GE has a synaptogenic effect via NGF-induced ERK/CREB activation, resulting in memory enhancement. PMID:25049196

Lim, Soonmin; Moon, Minho; Oh, Hyein; Kim, Hyo Geun; Kim, Sun Yeou; Oh, Myung Sook

2014-10-01

375

Cognitive skills, student achievement tests, and schools.  

PubMed

Cognitive skills predict academic performance, so schools that improve academic performance might also improve cognitive skills. To investigate the impact schools have on both academic performance and cognitive skills, we related standardized achievement-test scores to measures of cognitive skills in a large sample (N = 1,367) of eighth-grade students attending traditional, exam, and charter public schools. Test scores and gains in test scores over time correlated with measures of cognitive skills. Despite wide variation in test scores across schools, differences in cognitive skills across schools were negligible after we controlled for fourth-grade test scores. Random offers of enrollment to oversubscribed charter schools resulted in positive impacts of such school attendance on math achievement but had no impact on cognitive skills. These findings suggest that schools that improve standardized achievement-test scores do so primarily through channels other than improving cognitive skills. PMID:24434238

Finn, Amy S; Kraft, Matthew A; West, Martin R; Leonard, Julia A; Bish, Crystal E; Martin, Rebecca E; Sheridan, Margaret A; Gabrieli, Christopher F O; Gabrieli, John D E

2014-03-01

376

Security-reliability performance of cognitive AF relay-based wireless communication system with channel estimation error  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, both the security and the reliability performance of the cognitive amplify-and-forward (AF) relay system are analyzed in the presence of the channel estimation error. The security and the reliability performance are represented by the outage probability and the intercept probability, respectively. Instead of perfect channel state information (CSI) predominantly assumed in the literature, a certain channel estimation algorithm and the influence of the corresponding channel estimation error are considered in this study. Specifically, linear minimum mean square error estimation (LMMSE) is utilized by the destination node and the eavesdropper node to obtain the CSI, and the closed form for the outage probability and that for the intercept probability are derived with the channel estimation error. It is shown that the transmission security (reliability) can be improved by loosening the reliability (security) requirement. Moreover, we compare the security and reliability performance of this relay-based cognitive radio system with those of the direct communication system without relay. Interestingly, it is found that the AF relay-based system has less reliability performance than the direct cognitive radio system; however, it can lower the sum of the outage probability and the intercept probability than the direct communication system. It is also found that there exists an optimal training number to minimize the sum of the outage probability and the intercept probability.

Gu, Qi; Wang, Gongpu; Gao, Li; Peng, Mugen

2014-12-01

377

Improved multimodal biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment diagnosis: data from ADNI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) confers many clinical research and patient care benefits. Studies have shown that multimodal biomarkers provide better diagnosis accuracy of AD and MCI than unimodal biomarkers, but their construction has been based on traditional statistical approaches. The objective of this work was the creation of accurate AD and MCI diagnostic multimodal biomarkers using advanced bioinformatics tools. The biomarkers were created by exploring multimodal combinations of features using machine learning techniques. Data was obtained from the ADNI database. The baseline information (e.g. MRI analyses, PET analyses and laboratory essays) from AD, MCI and healthy control (HC) subjects with available diagnosis up to June 2012 was mined for case/controls candidates. The data mining yielded 47 HC, 83 MCI and 43 AD subjects for biomarker creation. Each subject was characterized by at least 980 ADNI features. A genetic algorithm feature selection strategy was used to obtain compact and accurate cross-validated nearest centroid biomarkers. The biomarkers achieved training classification accuracies of 0.983, 0.871 and 0.917 for HC vs. AD, HC vs. MCI and MCI vs. AD respectively. The constructed biomarkers were relatively compact: from 5 to 11 features. Those multimodal biomarkers included several widely accepted univariate biomarkers and novel image and biochemical features. Multimodal biomarkers constructed from previously and non-previously AD associated features showed improved diagnostic performance when compared to those based solely on previously AD associated features.

Martinez-Torteya, Antonio; Treviño-Alvarado, Víctor; Tamez-Peña, José

2013-02-01

378

Differential cognitive effects of energy drink ingredients: Caffeine, taurine, and glucose  

E-print Network

Differential cognitive effects of energy drink ingredients: Caffeine, taurine, and glucose Grace E online 20 July 2012 Keywords: Caffeine Taurine Glucose Cognition Mood Cortisol Heart rate Energy drinks containing caffeine, taurine, and glucose may improve mood and cognitive performance. However

Patel, Aniruddh D.

379

The Effect of Art Therapy on Cognitive Performance of Hispanic\\/Latino Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of a pilot study investigating the efficacy of art therapy to enhance cognitive performance in a sample of 24 elderly Hispanic\\/Latino members of a community center who participated in a weekly structured thematic therapeutic arts program. A 12-week, quasiexperimental, pretest\\/posttest, nonrandomized, controlled design evaluated outcomes using the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) and the Cognitive Failures

Amanda Alders; Linda Levine-Madori

2010-01-01

380

The Neurosteroids DHEA and DHEAS May Influence Cognitive Performance by Altering Affective State  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester, Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) on performance in various cognitive and affective tasks were investigated. Ovariectomized rats (n = 48) received 0.0, 3.0, or 7.5 mg\\/kg s.c. of DHEA or DHEAS suspended in 10% ethanol\\/sesame oil v\\/v. For the cognitive tasks (water maze, Y-maze, passive avoidance, and object recognition), subjects were injected after

Cheryl A Frye; Elizabeth H Lacey

1999-01-01

381

Erythropoietin Improved Cognitive Function and Decreased Hippocampal Caspase Activity in Rat Pups after Traumatic Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of acquired neurologic disability in children. Erythropoietin (EPO), an anti-apoptotic cytokine, improved cognitive outcome in adult rats after TBI. To our knowledge, EPO has not been studied in a developmental TBI model. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that EPO would improve cognitive outcome and increase neuron fraction in the hippocampus in 17-day-old (P17) rat pups after controlled cortical impact (CCI). Methods: EPO or vehicle was given at 1, 24, and 48?h after CCI and at post injury day (PID) 7. Cognitive outcome at PID14 was assessed using Novel Object Recognition (NOR). Hippocampal EPO levels, caspase activity, and mRNA levels of the apoptosis factors Bcl2, Bax, Bcl-xL, and Bad were measured during the first 14 days after injury. Neuron fraction and caspase activation in CA1, CA3, and DG were studied at PID2. Results: EPO normalized recognition memory after CCI. EPO blunted the increased hippocampal caspase activity induced by CCI at PID1, but not at PID2. EPO increased neuron fraction in CA3 at PID2. Brain levels of exogenous EPO appeared low relative to endogenous. Timing of EPO administration was associated with temporal changes in hippocampal mRNA levels of EPO and pro-apoptotic factors. Conclusion/Speculation: EPO improved recognition memory, increased regional hippocampal neuron fraction, and decreased caspase activity in P17 rats after CCI. We speculate that EPO improved cognitive outcome in rat pups after CCI as a result of improved neuronal survival via inhibition of caspase-dependent apoptosis early after injury. PMID:23972011

Requena, Daniela F.; Block, Benjamin; Davis, Lizeth J.; Rodesch, Christopher; Casper, T. Charles; Juul, Sandra E.; Kesner, Raymond P.; Lane, Robert H.

2014-01-01

382

PIMM: A Performance Improvement Measurement Methodology  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a Performance Improvement Measurement Methodology (PIMM) for measuring and reporting the mission performance for organizational elements of the U.S. Department of Energy to comply with the Chief Financial Officer`s Act (CFOA) of 1990 and the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) of 1993. The PIMM is illustrated by application to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), a Research, Development and Demonstration (RD&D) field center of the Office of Fossil Energy, along with limited applications to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Office and the Office of Fossil Energy. METC is now implementing the first year of a pilot project under GPRA using the PIMM. The PIMM process is applicable to all elements of the Department; organizations may customize measurements to their specific missions. The PIMM has four aspects: (1) an achievement measurement that applies to any organizational element, (2) key indicators that apply to institutional elements, (3) a risk reduction measurement that applies to all RD&D elements and to elements with long-term activities leading to risk-associated outcomes, and (4) a cost performance evaluation. Key Indicators show how close the institution is to attaining long range goals. Risk reduction analysis is especially relevant to RD&D. Product risk is defined as the chance that the product of new technology will not meet the requirements of the customer. RD&D is conducted to reduce technology risks to acceptable levels. The PIMM provides a profile to track risk reduction as RD&D proceeds. Cost performance evaluations provide a measurement of the expected costs of outcomes relative to their actual costs.

Not Available

1994-05-15

383

Sleep and cognitive performance: the role of income and respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity.  

PubMed

A health disparities view suggests that low family income status acts as a risk factor for poor cognitive functioning. A biosystems view suggests that poor sleep and poor stress response system functioning are also risk factors. These views are rarely integrated to test multiplicative risk or protective effects from social-cultural and biological variables. We investigated interactions among familial income, children's sleep and respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity (RSA reactivity, indexing parasympathetic nervous system reactivity) in the prediction of cognitive performance of school-aged children. Participants were 282 children (146 boys; 35% African American and 65% European American; M age?=?9.42 years, SD?=?.71). Mothers reported on family income. Children's sleep quality (efficiency) and duration (minutes) were assessed via a week of actigraphy. Children's RSA reactivity to an attention demanding and frustrating star tracing challenge was assessed in the lab. Children completed standardized cognitive assessments examining attention, processing speed, and crystallized cognitive functioning. Findings show that more optimal sleep efficiency and RSA reactivity interact to confer protection against poor cognitive performance, particularly for children from lower income homes. Results build on the literature and suggest that interactions between biological systems and socioeconomic variables are key for understanding children's cognitive performance. PMID:25130163

Staton, Lori; Hinnant, J Benjamin; Buckhalt, Joseph; El-Sheikh, Mona

2014-11-01

384

Tofu intake is associated with poor cognitive performance among community-dwelling elderly in China.  

PubMed

Tofu is a soy product which is commonly consumed in Asian countries, such as China and Indonesia. Several studies found negative associations of high tofu consumption with cognitive function in older Asian populations. However, the effect of tofu on cognitive function remains disputed as it was not found in Western populations. In the present study, the effect of weekly tofu intake on cognitive performance was investigated in an observational cross sectional study of 517 Chinese elderly from Shanghai. Similar to earlier studies, results showed that a higher weekly intake of tofu was associated with worse memory performance using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (? = -0.10, p = 0.01) after controlling for age, gender, education, being vegetarian, and weekly intake of fruit/juice, green vegetables, and orange/red vegetables. Furthermore, among older elderly (?68 years of age), high tofu intake increased the risk of cognitive impairment indicative of dementia (OR = 1.27, 95% CI = 0.99-1.64, p = 0.04), after adjusting for all covariates. Consumption of meat and green vegetables independently also reduced risk of dementia. To conclude, high intake of tofu was negatively related to cognitive performance among community-dwelling elderly in China. Similar findings were reported in Indonesia and in Japanese Americans in the US. These findings suggest that the effect of tofu on cognition in elderly should be further investigated. PMID:25114086

Xu, Xin; Xiao, Shifu; Rahardjo, Tri Budi; Hogervorst, Eef

2015-01-01

385

Acute sleep deprivation: the effects of the AMPAKINE compound CX717 on human cognitive performance, alertness and recovery sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

AMPA receptor modulation is a potential novel approach to enhance cognitive performance. CX717 is a positive allosteric modulator of the AMPA receptor that has shown efficacy in rodent and primate cognition models. CX717 (100 mg, 300 mg and 1000 mg) and placebo were studied in 16 healthy male volunteers (18–45 years) in a randomized, crossover study. Cognitive function, arousal and

Julia Boyle; Neil Stanley; Lynette M James; Nicola Wright; Sigurd Johnsen; Emma L Arbon; Derk-Jan Dijk

2012-01-01

386

Cognitive behaviour therapy for improving social recovery in psychosis: a report from the ISREP MRC Trial Platform study (Improving Social Recovery in Early Psychosis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. This study reports on a preliminary evaluation of a cognitive behavioural intervention to improve social recovery among young people in the early stages of psychosis showing persistent signs of poor social functioning and unemployment. The study was a single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) with two arms, 35 participants receiving cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) plus treatment as usual (TAU), and

D. Fowler; J. Hodgekins; T. Reilly; C. Crane; I. Macmillan; M. Mugford; T. Croudace; P. B. Jones

2009-01-01

387

CF6 Jet Engine Performance Improvement Program: High Pressure Turbine Aerodynamic Performance Improvement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The improved single shank high pressure turbine design was evaluated in component tests consisting of performance, heat transfer and mechanical tests, and in core engine tests. The instrumented core engine test verified the thermal, mechanical, and aeromechanical characteristics of the improved turbine design. An endurance test subjected the improved single shank turbine to 1000 simulated flight cycles, the equivalent of approximately 3000 hours of typical airline service. Initial back-to-back engine tests demonstrated an improvement in cruise sfc of 1.3% and a reduction in exhaust gas temperature of 10 C. An additional improvement of 0.3% in cruise sfc and 6 C in EGT is projected for long service engines.

Fasching, W. A.

1980-01-01

388

Implications for studying team cognition and team performance in network-centric warfare paradigms.  

PubMed

Network-centric warfare's (NCW) information-rich systems involving sophisticated sensors, tracking systems, smart weapons, and enhanced digital communications threaten to overload combatants with voluminous amounts of data. It is unclear whether warfighters will perceive such extensive data as actionable information to which they will respond accurately in a timely enough manner. Members of small teams in command and control centers, operating in crew-served vehicles, or simply "grunting it out" as ground-pounding infantrymen, may be disparately separated by space, but will communicate and be connected by electronic linkages, e.g., radio, text messages, situation displays, or global positioning data. However, team members will also have to remember shared mental models of tasks at hand, pay attention to and share common situation awareness in complex operational environments, perform team cognition and team coordination, and integrate both lower and higher cognitive processes with those of team behaviors. Such exceptional capabilities are required more now than ever before; such capabilities today are far from assured. After two workshops to establish performance metrics for assessing cognitive performance of military personnel in NCW, this preface introduces five manuscripts addressing team cognition and team performance from both a theoretical and a practical perspective. The authors of this preface question if NCW, and perhaps the politico-social ramifications of modern warfare, have already outstripped behavioral scientists' approach to researching team cognition and team performance-expertise that is so crucially needed for combatants on the rapidly changing 21st-century battlegrounds. PMID:17547305

Krueger, Gerald P; Banderet, Louis E

2007-05-01

389

Reduced maintenance costs via improved intake performance  

SciTech Connect

Power Plants across the country have experienced Operation and Maintenance (O and M) costs due to sediment accumulation at intake structures and in plant equipment. This paper will outline solution steps which can reduce such O and M costs, and describe two case studies where O and M costs have been significantly reduced by installing a Sedimentation Management System. These case studies demonstrate that total solution implementation cost is recovered within 2--3 years, and subsequent annual O and M cost savings range from $160,000 to $260,000. The solution approach is passive and uses the energy from the river as the driving force. This methodology is cost-effective, is considered environmentally superior by groups such as the Army Corps of Engineers, and improves the performance of plant systems which use intake water.

Netzel, C.E.; Carr, R.G. [VECTRA Technologies, Inc., Naperville, IL (United States)

1995-10-01

390

Cocoa flavanol consumption improves cognitive function, blood pressure control, and metabolic profile in elderly subjects: the Cocoa, Cognition, and Aging (CoCoA) Study—a randomized controlled trial1234  

PubMed Central

Background: Recent evidence has indicated that flavanol consumption may have many health benefits in humans, including improved cognitive activities. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect of flavanol consumption on cognitive performance in cognitively intact elderly subjects. Design: This was a double-blind, controlled, parallel-arm study conducted in 90 elderly individuals without clinical evidence of cognitive dysfunction who were randomly assigned to consume daily for 8 wk a drink containing 993 mg [high flavanol (HF)], 520 mg [intermediate flavanol (IF)], or 48 mg [low flavanol (LF)] cocoa flavanols (CFs). Cognitive function was assessed at baseline and after 8 wk by using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Trail Making Test (TMT) A and B, and the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT). Results: The changes in MMSE score in response to the 3 different treatments were not different. In contrast, there was a positive impact of the intervention on specific aspects of cognitive function. Mean changes (±SEs) in the time required to complete the TMT A and B after consumption of the HF (?8.6 ± 0.4 and ?16.5 ± 0.8 s, respectively) and IF (?6.7 ± 0.5 and ?14.2 ± 0.5 s, respectively) drinks significantly (P < 0.0001) differed from that after consumption of the LF drinks (?0.8 ± 1.6 and ?1.1 ± 0.7 s, respectively). Similarly, VFT scores significantly improved among all treatment groups, but the magnitude of improvement in the VFT score was significantly (P < 0.0001) greater in the HF group (7.7 ± 1.1 words/60 s) than in the IF (3.6 ± 1.2 words/60 s) and LF (1.3 ± 0.5 words/60 s) groups. Significantly different improvements in insulin resistance (P < 0.0001), blood pressure (P < 0.0001), and lipid peroxidation (P = 0.001) were also observed for the HF and IF groups in comparison with the LF group. Changes in insulin resistance explained ?17% of changes in composite z score (partial r2 = 0.1703, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: This dietary intervention study provides evidence that regular CF consumption can reduce some measures of age-related cognitive dysfunction, possibly through an improvement in insulin sensitivity. These data suggest that the habitual intake of flavanols can support healthy cognitive function with age. This trial was registered at www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN68970511. PMID:25733639

Mastroiacovo, Daniela; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Grassi, Davide; Necozione, Stefano; Raffaele, Angelo; Pistacchio, Luana; Righetti, Roberta; Bocale, Raffaella; Lechiara, Maria Carmela; Marini, Carmine; Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista

2015-01-01

391

Statins enhance cognitive performance in object location test in albino Swiss mice: Involvement of beta-adrenoceptors.  

PubMed

Statins are inhibitors of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase, thereby inhibiting cell synthesis of cholesterol and isoprenoids. Moreover, several studies have been evaluating pleiotropic effects of statins, mainly because they present neuroprotective effects in various pathological conditions. However, knowledge about behavioral effects of statins per se is relatively scarce. Considering these facts, we aimed to analyze behavioral responses of atorvastatin or simvastatin-treated mice in the open field test, elevated plus maze and object location test. Atorvastatin treatment for 7 consecutive days at 1mg/kg or 10mg/kg (v.o.) or simvastatin 10mg/kg or 20mg/kg enhanced cognitive performance in object location test when compared to control group (saline-treated mice). Simvastatin effects on mice performance in the object location test was abolished by post-training infusion of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol. Atorvastatin and simvastatin did not change the behavioral response in open field and elevated plus-maze (EPM) tests in any of the used doses. These data demonstrate the positive effects of both statins in cognitive processes in mice, without any alteration in locomotor parameters in the open field test or anxiolytic-like behavior in EPM. In conclusion, we demonstrate that atorvastatin and simvastatin per se improve the cognitive performance in a rodent model of spatial memory and this effect is related to beta-adrenergic receptors modulation. PMID:25700896

Vandresen-Filho, Samuel; França, Lucas Moreira; Alcantara-Junior, José; Nogueira, Lucas Caixeta; de Brito, Thiago Marques; Lopes, Lousã; Junior, Fernando Mesquita; Vanzeler, Maria Luzinete; Bertoldo, Daniela Bohn; Dias, Paula Gomes; Colla, André R S; Hoeller, Alexandre; Duzzioni, Marcelo; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; de Lima, Thereza C M; Tasca, Carla Inês; Viola, Giordano Gubert

2015-05-01

392

Breakfast consumption and exercise interact to affect cognitive performance and mood later in the day. A randomized controlled trial.  

PubMed

The current study assessed the interactive effect of breakfast and exercise on cognition and mood. Twelve active males completed four trials; no breakfast-rest, breakfast-rest, no breakfast-exercise or breakfast-exercise in a randomized, cross-over design. The trials consisted of; breakfast or fast, a 2h rest, exercise (treadmill run) or equivalent rest, a chocolate milk drink, a 90 min rest and an ad libitum lunch. Cognitive performance and mood were recorded frequently throughout each trial. Data was analysed as pre-exercise/rest, during and immediately post exercise/rest and post-drink. No effects were found prior to consumption of the drink. Post-drink, fasting before exercise increased mental fatigue compared to consuming breakfast before exercise and fasting before rest. Tension increased when breakfast was consumed at rest and when exercise was undertaken fasted compared to omitting breakfast before rest. Breakfast before rest decreased rapid visual information processing task speed and impaired Stroop performance. Breakfast omission improved Four Choice Reaction Time performance. To conclude, breakfast before exercise appeared beneficial for post-exercise mood even when a post-exercise snack was consumed. Exercise reversed post-breakfast cognitive impairment in active males. PMID:23608698

Veasey, R C; Gonzalez, J T; Kennedy, D O; Haskell, C F; Stevenson, E J

2013-09-01

393

Invited Plenary Speech, Second International Conference on Cognitive Science. July 2730, 1999. Japan. 1 Artificial Intelligence for Improving Children's Thinking  

E-print Network

. Japan. 1 Artificial Intelligence for Improving Children's Thinking Charles X. Ling Department intelligence tests. 2 Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science Cognitive science studies how the human@csd.uwo.ca Extended Abstract 1 Human Intelligence There is no universally accepted definition for intelli­ gence among

Ling, Charles X.

394

rHuEPO treatment improves brain and cognitive function of anemic dialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

rHuEPO treatment improves brain and cognitive function of anemic dialysis patients. Twenty-four patients with chronic renal failure, stabilized on hemodialysis, were treated with recombinant human erythropoietin. Before treatment, all patients were anemic (mean Hct = 23.7%). Hematocrits reached normal levels (36.5%) after three months of treatment. Brain event-related potentials and neuropyschological tests were used to assess changes in brain and

James T Marsh; Warren S Brown; Deane Wolcott; Clifford R Carr; Rebecca Harper; Suzanne V Schweitzer; Allen R Nissenson

1991-01-01

395

Impact of an integrated mindfulness and cognitive behavioural treatment for provoked vestibulodynia (IMPROVED): a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Provoked Vestibulodynia (PVD) is a chronic pain condition involving sharp pain to the vulvar vestibule. Because of compelling outcomes using mindfulness-based approaches in the treatment of chronic pain, we developed and tested a four-session mindfulness and cognitive behavioural therapy tailored to women with PVD (called “IMPROVED”). Here we report on the experiences of 14 women (mean age 39.6 years) following

Lori A. Brotto; Rosemary Basson; Marie Carlson; Cici Zhu

2012-01-01

396

Improving the learning of clinical reasoning through computer-based cognitive representation  

PubMed Central

Objective Clinical reasoning is usually taught using a problem-solving approach, which is widely adopted in medical education. However, learning through problem solving is difficult as a result of the contextualization and dynamic aspects of actual problems. Moreover, knowledge acquired from problem-solving practice tends to be inert and fragmented. This study proposed a computer-based cognitive representation approach that externalizes and facilitates the complex processes in learning clinical reasoning. The approach is operationalized in a computer-based cognitive representation tool that involves argument mapping to externalize the problem-solving process and concept mapping to reveal the knowledge constructed from the problems. Methods Twenty-nine Year 3 or higher students from a medical school in east China participated in the study. Participants used the proposed approach implemented in an e-learning system to complete four learning cases in 4 weeks on an individual basis. For each case, students interacted with the problem to capture critical data, generate and justify hypotheses, make a diagnosis, recall relevant knowledge, and update their conceptual understanding of the problem domain. Meanwhile, students used the computer-based cognitive representation tool to articulate and represent the key elements and their interactions in the learning process. Results A significant improvement was found in students’ learning products from the beginning to the end of the study, consistent with students’ report of close-to-moderate progress in developing problem-solving and knowledge-construction abilities. No significant differences were found between the pretest and posttest scores with the 4-week period. The cognitive representation approach was found to provide more formative assessment. Conclusions The computer-based cognitive representation approach improved the learning of clinical reasoning in both problem solving and knowledge construction. PMID:25518871

Wu, Bian; Wang, Minhong; Johnson, Janice M.; Grotzer, Tina A.

2014-01-01

397

Can Gender-Adapted Instruction Improve Mathematics Performance and Attitudes?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper presents the results of a study investigating whether adapting instruction to gender preferences can improve the attitudes of students and their performance in mathematics. The study found that there was no effect on performance based on gender preferences. However, there was improved student performance across all conditions which suggests that "dynamic worked-example mathematics instruction" improves students' performance.

Derry, Sharon J.

398

A biomathematical model of the restoring effects of caffeine on cognitive performance during sleep deprivation  

E-print Network

A biomathematical model of the restoring effects of caffeine on cognitive performance during sleep Spring, MD 20910, USA H I G H L I G H T S c We model the restoring effects of caffeine on sleep-deprived individuals. c Caffeine effects were modeled as a multiplying factor on caffeine-free performance. c

399

Examination of Cognitive and Instrumental Functional Performance as Indicators for Driving Cessation Risk across 3 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine the role of cognitive and instrumental functional performance in driving cessation while simultaneously accounting for any contributions of demographics, vision, physical performance, and health among a sample of older adults without dementia. Design and Methods: Included in the…

Ackerman, Michelle L.; Edwards, Jerri D.; Ross, Lesley A.; Ball, Karlene K.; Lunsman, Melissa

2008-01-01

400

The Influence of Distracting Familiar Vocal Music on Cognitive Performance of Introverts and Extraverts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effect of familiar musical distractors on the cognitive performance of introverts and extraverts. Participants completed a verbal, numerical and logic test in three music conditions: vocal music, instrumental music and silence. It was predicted that introverts would perform worse with vocal music, better with…

Avila, Christina; Furnham, Adrian; McClelland, Alastair

2012-01-01

401

Effects of caffeine and caffeine withdrawal on mood and cognitive performance degraded by sleep restriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: It has been suggested that caffeine is most likely to benefit mood and performance when alert- ness is low. Objectives: To measure the effects of caffeine on psychomotor and cognitive performance, mood, blood pressure and heart rate in sleep-restricted participants. To do this in a group of participants who had also been pre- viously deprived of caffeine for 3

Peter J. Rogers; Susan V. Heatherley; Robert C. Hayward; Helen E. Seers; Joanne Hill; Marian Kane

2005-01-01

402

Social Class, Sex Differences and Performance on Cognitive Tasks Among Two-Year-Old Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of the present study was to investigate the relation between sex, social class as indexed by parental education level, and performance on three different types of cognitive tasks among two year old children. It was expected that social class would be related positively to superior performance on all the tasks for girls but unrelated for…

Reppucci, N. Dickon

403

Performance Assessment in CTE: Focusing on the Cognitive, Psychomotor ...and Affective Domains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When a student is performing in the psychomotor domain, the authors believe the student is also performing in the cognitive domain (sequencing steps, evaluating the situation) and in the affective domain (appreciating a job well done, quality control, safety). As Dabney Doty, former instructor at the University of Central Missouri, stated, "There…

Washer, Bart; Cochran, Lori

2012-01-01

404

Psychol Med . Author manuscript The association of cognitive performance with mental health and physical  

E-print Network

performance has been associated with mental and physical health, but it is unknown whether the strength whether cognitive performance predicted mental and physical health from midlife to early old age. Methods and 2006. The age range included over the follow-up was from 40 to 75 years. Mental health and physical

Paris-Sud XI, Université de