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Sample records for improve laboratory rearing

  1. Introducing improvements in the mass rearing of the housefly: biological, morphometric and genetic characterization of laboratory strains.

    PubMed

    Pastor, B; Martínez-Sánchez, A S; Ståhls, G A; Rojo, S

    2014-08-01

    Understanding the biology of the housefly (Musca domestica L.) is crucial for the development of mass-rearing protocols in order to use this insect as a degradation agent for livestock waste. In this study, the biological and genetic differences between different laboratory strains of M. domestica were analysed. Additionally, hybrids were obtained by mixing the strains and their biological parameters were also measured. The three strains of M. domestica presented differences in their biological and morphological parameters, the main differences were: size, egg production and developmental time. The strain A (specimens from Central Europe) had the best qualities to be used in mass-rearing conditions: it produced the largest quantities of eggs (5.77±0.38 eggs per female per day), the individuals were larger (12.62±0.22 mg) and its developmental time was shorter (15.22±0.21 days). However, the strain C (specimens from SW Europe) produced the fewest eggs (3.15±0.42 eggs per female per day) and needed 18.16±0.49 days to develop from larva to adult, whilst the females from strain B (from South America) produced 4.25±0.47 eggs per day and needed 17.11±0.36 days to complete its development. Genetic analysis of the original laboratory strains showed four different mtDNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I haplotypes. Statistical parsimony network analysis showed that the SW Europe and South-American strains shared haplotypes, whereas the Central Europe strain did not. Upon hybridizing the strains, variations in egg production and in developmental time were observed in between hybrids and pure strains, and when mixing Central European and South-American strains only males were obtained. PMID:24824066

  2. MASS REARING CODLING MOTHS: IMPROVEMENTS AND MODIFICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modifications of the diet, oviposition cages, rearing containers, diapause induction and adult handling are described for a rearing colony of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), maintained at the USDA-ARS facility in Wapato, Washington (USA), for over 40 years for use in f...

  3. Aggression and feeding of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry in a laboratory flume and a comparison with observations in natural streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, S.C.; Tatara, C.P.; Scheurer, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    We quantified the aggression and feeding of naturally reared steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry stocked into a laboratory flume with naturally reared fry or hatchery-reared fry from conventional and enriched rearing environments at three densities in the presence and absence of predators, and compared the aggression and feeding observed in the flume to that observed in two streams. Steelhead fry attack rate increased with density and was reduced in the presence of predators, but was not affected by rearing treatment. Threat rate appeared to increase with density and was significantly affected by rearing treatment combination, but was not significantly affected by predator presence. Feeding rate was not affected by density or rearing treatment, but was reduced in the presence of predators. The rate of aggression by steelhead fry in two streams was lower than that observed in the laboratory and did not increase with density. Rates of aggression and feeding of hatchery-reared and wild steelhead fry were not significantly different in the streams. Overall, we found no evidence that hatchery rearing environments caused higher aggression in steelhead fry. Laboratory observations of salmonid aggression, particularly at high density, may not reflect aggression levels in the wild. ?? 2005 NRC.

  4. Do laboratory rearing conditions affect auditory and mechanosensory development of zebrafish (Danio rerio)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poling, Kirsten R.; Jaworski, Eva; Fantetti, Kristen R.; Higgs, Dennis M.

    2005-04-01

    The effect of anthropogenic noise on the fish auditory system has become of increasing concern due to possible detrimental effects of intense sounds on auditory function and structures. This is especially problematic when raising fish in laboratory and aquaculture settings using filtration and aeration, which increase sound levels. To assess the effects of laboratory rearing conditions, one group of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos (``controls'') were placed into aerated aquaria in a normal laboratory rearing environment. A second set of embryos (``quiet'') were reared in aquaria with no aeration or filtration in a sound-resistant room. The intensity difference between the two sets of tanks was over 30 dB. Preliminary data show that there was no affect of differential rearing environments on saccular hair cell numbers or on hearing ability in fish up to 25 mm total length. However, rearing environment did affect neuromast number. ``Quiet'' fish had higher numbers of both cephalic and trunk superficial neuromasts, relative to controls. This difference was maintained up to 11 mm total length (the size at which canal formation begins). This suggests that acoustic environments normally found in the laboratory do not affect development of hearing in zebrafish, although laboratory acoustics may affect mechanosensory development.

  5. Rearing and Maintaining Midge Cultures (Chironomus tentans) for Laboratory Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, John; Mahadeva, Madhu N.

    1992-01-01

    The life history of the Chironomus tentans can be observed in easily established and maintained laboratory cultures. Projects for the classroom include observing hydration of an egg mass; embryonic development, hatching and larval feeding; larval activity; and mating activity. (MDH)

  6. LIGHT INTENSITY AFFECTS DISTRIBUTION OF ATTACKING PSEUDACTEON CURVATUS (DIPTERA: PHORIDAE) IN A LABORATORY REARING SYSTEM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distribution of attacking phorid flies (Pseudacteon curvatus Borgmeier) in a laboratory rearing system was tested for dependence on light intensity under 2 different light regimes. Light intensity (range, approx. 220-340 Lux) influenced fly distribution in light regime 1; in the second light regime...

  7. Comparative Studies of Predation Among Feral, Commercially-Purchased, and Laboratory-Reared Predators

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The predatory activities of commercially-purchased Hippodamia convergens Guèrin-Mèneville and two laboratory-reared strains of Geocoris punctipes (Say) were compared with their feral counterparts. In single prey choice feeding tests, commercially-purchased and feral H. convergens were provided copi...

  8. Performance of Wild and Laboratory-Reared Gypsy Moth (Lepidoptera: Erebidae): A Comparison between Foliage and Artificial Diet.

    PubMed

    Grayson, Kristine L; Parry, Dylan; Faske, Trevor M; Hamilton, Audrey; Tobin, Patrick C; Agosta, Salvatore J; Johnson, Derek M

    2015-06-01

    The effects of long-term mass rearing of laboratory insects on ecologically relevant traits is an important consideration when applying research conclusions to wild populations or developing management strategies. Laboratory strains of the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.), an invasive forest pest in North America, have been continuously reared since 1967. Selection on these strains has enhanced a variety of traits, resulting in faster development, shorter diapause, and greater fecundity. As in many mass-reared insects, laboratory strains of the gypsy moth are also reared exclusively on artificial diets that lack much of the phytochemical and nutritional complexity associated with natural foliage. We tested for differences in growth and development of wild gypsy moth populations from across the invasive range in comparison to laboratory strains when reared on artificial diet and a preferred foliage host species, northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.). Overall, caterpillars reared on foliage had higher survival and faster development rates, with smaller differences among populations. When reared on artificial diet, laboratory strains had the highest performance as expected. The response from the wild populations was mixed, with two populations performing poorly on artificial diet and another performing nearly as well as the laboratory strains. Performance on diet was enhanced when larvae received cubed portions changed regularly, as opposed to filled cups. Understanding these relationships between food source and population performance is important for informing studies that examine population comparisons using wild and laboratory-reared strains. PMID:26313993

  9. Effect of phloem thickness on heterozygosity in laboratory-reared mountain pine beetles. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Amman, G.D.; Stock, M.W.

    1995-02-01

    Mountain pine beetles (Dendrocotonus ponderosae Hopkins) were collected from naturally infested trees of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) in northern Utah. Bettles were reared in logs through six generations in a laboratory, and heterozygosity measured. Heterozygosity levels initially decreased when individual pairs of beetles were reared. However, when beetles were allowed to selected mates at random, heterozygosity rose to levels higher than those in the starting population. Heterozygosity was higher in bettles reared in thin than those in thick phloem.

  10. Toxic exposure to ethylene dibromide and mercuric chloride: effects on laboratory-reared octopuses.

    PubMed

    Adams, P M; Hanlon, R T; Forsythe, J W

    1988-01-01

    The effects of acute and chronic exposure to either ethylene dibromide (EDB) or mercuric chloride (MC) were studied in laboratory-reared Octopus joubini, O. maya and O. bimaculoides. The advantages of using octopuses were that the responses were immediate, highly visible and sensitive. All species demonstrated signs of toxicity to acute and chronic exposure to EDB and to MC. A dosage-sensitive relationship for the loss and subsequent recovery of locomotor response and of chromatophore expansion was found for each species after acute exposure. For each species the LC50 for chronic exposure occurred within 12 hr at 100 mg/l for EDB and within 3 hr at 1,000 mg/l for MC. This study demonstrated the potential usefulness of laboratory-reared octopuses in evaluating the toxicity of marine environmental pollutants. PMID:3072470

  11. Evaluating the use of irradiated caribean fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) larvae for laboratory rearing of Doryctobracon areolatus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mass-rearing and augmentative release of hymenopterous parasitoids has been a component of area-wide management programs for several tephritid fruit flies, including pestiferous species of the genus Anastrepha (Cancino and Montoya, in press). Laboratory rearing of Doryctobracon areolatus (Szeplige...

  12. Selectivity of pesticides used on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) to Trichogramma pretiosum reared on two laboratory-reared hosts.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Cristina S; de Almeida, Raul P; Suinaga, Fábio A

    2006-01-01

    The side-effects of pesticides (insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and plant growth regulators) used on cotton were tested on adults and pupae of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley reared in the laboratory on two different hosts, the Angoumois grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella Olivier) and the Mediterranean flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller)). The eggs of the host enclosing the parasitoid pupae received direct pesticide sprays, while the adults of the parasitoid were exposed to the pesticides through contact with residues on sprayed eggs offered to parasitism. Alpha-cypermethrin, carbosulfan, deltamethrin, endosulfan, profenofos and zeta-cypermethrin were highly noxious to the parasitoid, significantly reducing the percentage of emergence and parasitism of T. pretiosum developing in E. kuehniella or S. cerealella eggs. However, the pupal stage of the parasitoid developing in S. cerealella eggs was less susceptible to alpha-cypermethrin and deltamethrin. Lufenuron and metamidophos greatly reduced the percentage of adult emergence from eggs of both hosts, while novaluron only interfered on this variable when the wasps were developing in E. kuehniella eggs. However, lufenuron and monocrotophos had no effect on the parasitoid pupae of T. pretiosum developing in E. kuehniella eggs. Chlorfluazuron, diafenthiuron, diflubenzuron, fentin hydroxide, mepiquat chloride, novaluron, thiacloprid and triflumuron did not affect T. pretiosum emergence when eggs of S. cerealella enclosing pupae of the wasps were surface treated. The pesticides azoxystrobin, carbendazin + thiram, mepiquat chloride and novaluron had no effect on the ability of the wasps to parasitise E. kuehniella eggs. However, only mepiquat chloride did not affect the percentage of F1 wasps emerging from E. kuehniella eggs. The remaining pesticides moderately reduced the percentage of emergence and parasitism of the wasps when they had contact with the chemicals during their pupal or adult stage. Thus there were

  13. Molecular Phylogeny, Laboratory Rearing, and Karyotype of the Bombycid Moth, Trilocha varians

    PubMed Central

    Daimon, Takaaki; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Fujii, Tsuguru; Nakajima, Yumiko; Kokusho, Ryuhei; Abe, Hiroaki; Katsuma, Susumu; Shimada, Toru

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the molecular phylogeny, laboratory rearing, and karyotype of a bombycid moth, Trilocha varians (F. Walker) (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), which feeds on leaves of Ficus spp. (Rosales: Moraceae). The larvae of this species were collected in Taipei city, Taiwan, and the Ryukyu Archipelago (Ishigaki and Okinawa Islands, Japan). Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that T. varians belongs to the subfamily Bombycinae, thus showing a close relationship to the domesticated silkworm Bombyx mori (L.), a lepidopteran model insect. A laboratory method was developed for rearing T. varians and the time required for development from the embryo to adult was determined. From oviposition to adult emergence, the developmental zero was 10.47 °C and total effective temperature was 531.2 day—degrees, i.e., approximately 30 days for one generation when reared at 28 °C. The haploid of T. varians consisted of n = 26 chromosomes. In highly polyploid somatic nuclei, females showed a large heterochromatin body, indicating that the sex chromosome system in T. varians is WZ/ZZ (female/male). The results of the present study should facilitate the utilization of T. varians as a reference species for B. mori, thereby leading to a greater understanding of the ecology and evolution of bombycid moths. PMID:22963522

  14. Dynamics of genetic variability in Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) during adaptation to laboratory rearing conditions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anastrepha fraterculus is one of the most important fruit fly plagues in the American continent and only chemical control is applied in the field to diminish its population densities. A better understanding of the genetic variability during the introduction and adaptation of wild A. fraterculus populations to laboratory conditions is required for the development of stable and vigorous experimental colonies and mass-reared strains in support of successful Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) efforts. Methods The present study aims to analyze the dynamics of changes in genetic variability during the first six generations under artificial rearing conditions in two populations: a) a wild population recently introduced to laboratory culture, named TW and, b) a long-established control line, named CL. Results Results showed a declining tendency of genetic variability in TW. In CL, the relatively high values of genetic variability appear to be maintained across generations and could denote an intrinsic capacity to avoid the loss of genetic diversity in time. Discussion The impact of evolutionary forces on this species during the adaptation process as well as the best approach to choose strategies to introduce experimental and mass-reared A. fraterculus strains for SIT programs are discussed. PMID:25471362

  15. Laboratory maintenance, breeding, rearing, and biomedical research potential of the Yucatan octopus (Octopus maya).

    PubMed

    Van Heukelem, W F

    1977-10-01

    Eggs of the Yucatan octopus, Octopus maya, were collected at Campeche, Mexico, transported to Hawaii, and incubated in glass funnels. Benthic juveniles hatched from the large (17-mm) eggs and were reared on a variety of live and frozen foods. As many as 200 animals were reared for the first month in a 20-liter aquarium. No disease or parasite problems were encountered and nearly all well-fed juveniles survived to sexual maturity. The species was reared through four generations in the laboratory. Animals weighed 0.1 g at hatching and within 8.5 months attained an average weight of 3231 g. Mating was promiscuous and sperm were stored in the oviducts until spawning. Spawning occurred at 8-9 months of age. Up to 5,000 eggs were laid by large females and nearly 100% of fertilized eggs developed to hatching. Females brooded eggs during the 45-day period of development but artificial was as successful as natural incubation by the mother. Pos-reproductive senescent decline of both males and females was rapid and average life span was 300 days from hatching. Areas of biomedical research in which O maya could be a useful model were suggested and included neurobiology, comparative psychology, ontogeny of behavior, immunology, endocrinology, and studies of aging. PMID:592733

  16. Larval development of the subantarctic king crabs Lithodes santolla and Paralomis granulosa reared in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagno, J. A.; Anger, K.; Lovrich, G. A.; Thatje, S.; Kaffenberger, A.

    2004-02-01

    The larval development and survival in the two subantarctic lithodid crabs Lithodes santolla (Jaquinot) and Paralomis granulosa (Molina) from the Argentine Beagle Channel were studied in laboratory cultures. In L. santolla, larval development lasted about 70 days, passing through three zoeal stages and the megalopa stage, with a duration of approximately 4, 7, 11 and 48 days, respectively. The larval development in P. granulosa is more abbreviated, comprising only two zoeal stages and the megalopa stage, with 6, 11 and 43 days' duration, respectively. In both species, we tested for effects of presence versus absence of food (Artemia nauplii) on larval development duration and survival rate. In P. granulosa, we also studied effects of different rearing conditions, such as individual versus mass cultures, as well as aerated versus unaerated cultures. No differences in larval development duration and survival were observed between animals subjected to those different rearing conditions. The lack of response to the presence or absence of potential food confirms, in both species, a complete lecithotrophic mode of larval development. Since lithodid crabs are of high economic importance in the artisanal fishery in the southernmost parts of South America, the knowledge of optimal rearing conditions for lithodid larvae is essential for future attempts at repopulating the collapsing natural stocks off Tierra del Fuego.

  17. Spawning of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and rearing of veligers under laboratory conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, S. Jerrine

    1992-01-01

    The spawning cycle of the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is amenable to laboratory manipulations. Techniques are presented that can be used to initiate spawning and rear veligers from fertilized egg to settlement stage. Spawning can be induced in sexually mature mussels by temperature flucuations or by the addition of ripe gametes. Embryonic survival is excellent until the straight-hinge stage when the first wave of mortality occurs, usually due to improper food. The second critical stage of development occurs just prior to settlement when mortality increases again. Veliger mortality averaged over 90% from egg to settlement. The results indicate that obtaining large numbers of veligers for laboratory experiments to be conducted year-round is difficult.

  18. SIMILARITY IN RESPONSES OF LABORATORY-REARED ANED FIELD-COLLECTED LONE STAR TICK (ACARI:IXODIDAE)NYMPHS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field testing tick repellents intended for use on human skin can be difficult, particularly when multiple concentrations of multiple repellents must be tested. Therefore, laboratory tests using laboratory reared ticks have been important. To address concerns that test results obtained with laborator...

  19. Changes associated with laboratory rearing in antennal sensilla patterns of Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius prolixus, and Rhodnius pallescens (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Catalá, S S; Maida, D M; Caro-Riaño, H; Jaramillo, N; Moreno, J

    2004-02-01

    We examined changes in the array of antennal sensilla of three species of Triatominae (Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius prolixus, and R. pallescens) following their establishment for different periods in laboratory culture. In each case, the laboratory colonies were compared with conspecific samples taken directly from the field, by quantitative analysis of the sensilla arrays on the three distal segments of the antenna in terms of the densities of three types of chemoreceptors (basiconics and thick and thin walled trichoids) and one type of mechanoreceptor (bristles). Sensilla densities were compared by ANOVA or non-parametric tests, and by multivariate discriminant analysis. Strains of the same species reared in different laboratories showed significant differences in their sensilla arrays, especially when compared to field-collected material from the same geographic origin. A Bolivian strain of T. infestans reared in the laboratory for 15 years and fed at monthly intervals, showed greatest differences from its conspecific wild forms, especially in terms of reductions in the number of chemoreceptors. By contrast, an Argentine strain of T. infestans reared for 25 years in the laboratory and fed weekly, showed a relative increase in the density of mechanoreceptors. A Colombian strain of R. prolixus reared for 20 years and fed weekly or fortnightly, showed only modest differences in the sensilla array when compared to its wild populations from the same area. However, a Colombian strain of R. pallescens reared for 12 years and fed fortnightly, did show highly significant reductions in one form of chemoreceptor compared to its conspecific wild populations. For all populations, multivariate analysis clearly discriminated between laboratory and field collected specimens, suggesting that artificial rearing can lead to modifications in the sensory array. This not only supports the idea of morphological plasticity in these species, but also suggests caution in the use of long

  20. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1996-1998 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, Desmond J.

    2001-09-13

    This report covers the 1996-1998 Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research for increasing hatchery salmon postrelease survival and producing fish with more wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology prior to release. Experiments were conducted evaluating automatic subsurface feeders; natural diets; exercise systems; seminatural raceway habitat enriched with cover, structure, and substrate; and predator avoidance conditioning for hatchery salmonids. Automatic subsurface feed delivery systems did not affect chinook salmon depth distribution or vulnerability to avian predators. Live-food diets only marginally improved the ability of chinook salmon to capture prey in stream enclosures. A prototype exercise system that can be retrofitted to raceways was developed, however, initial testing indicated that severe amounts of exercise may increase in culture mortality. Rearing chinook salmon in seminatural raceway habitat with gravel substrate, woody debris structure, and overhead cover improved coloration and postrelease survival without impacting in-culture health or survival. Steelhead fry reared in enriched environments with structure, cover, and point source feeders dominated and outcompeted conventionally reared fish. Exposing chinook salmon to caged predators increased their postrelease survival. Chinook salmon showed an antipredator response to chemical stimuli from injured conspecifics and exhibited acquired predator recognition following exposure to paired predator-prey stimuli. The report also includes the 1997 Natural Rearing System Workshop proceedings.

  1. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskins, Jessica L.; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L.; Duffy, Grant A.

    2015-07-01

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the ‘suctorial’ mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods.

  2. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Jessica L; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L; Duffy, Grant A

    2015-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the 'suctorial' mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods. PMID:26153104

  3. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Jessica L.; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L.; Duffy, Grant A.

    2015-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the ‘suctorial’ mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods. PMID:26153104

  4. The Kibbutz as a Social Experiment as a Child-Rearing Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beit-Hallahmi, Benjamin; Rabin, Albert I.

    1977-01-01

    Reviews the history of the kibbutz movement, kibbutz child-rearing practices, and the results of research in kibbutz socialization. The research indicates that the 'kibbutz personality' is essentially nonpathological and effective. Recent changes in child-rearing patterns in the kibbutz, and a return to traditional family child-rearing, are viewed…

  5. Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) on left rear fuselage of DC-8 Airborne Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A view of the Airborne Synthetic Aperature Radar (AIRSAR) antenna on the left rear fuselage of the DC-8. The AIRSAR captures images of the ground from the side of the aircraft and can provide precision digital elevation mapping capabilities for a variety of studies. The AIRSAR is one of a number of research systems that have been added to the DC-8. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  6. An unusual case of coccidiosis in laboratory-reared pheasants resulting from a breach in biosecurity.

    PubMed

    Gerhold, R W; Williams, S M; Fuller, A L; McDougald, L R

    2010-09-01

    An outbreak of coccidiosis in laboratory-reared Chinese ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) resulted in high morbidity and moderate mortality. The outbreak was associated with a breach in biosecurity caused by the cleaning of a sewer line with a mechanical device, resulting in extensive splattering of fecal material throughout the "clean room" where birds were held prior to use in coccidiosis experiments. Mortality and morbidity in the affected birds were seen exactly 5 days after the incident, after birds had been moved to another room for experimental use, corresponding closely with the known prepatent or preclinical period of Eimeria phasiani and Eimeria colchici. Gross lesions in the affected birds varied from dehydration to intestinal and ventricular hemorrhage. Microscopic examination confirmed a diagnosis of severe intestinal coccidiosis. This report underscores the ease of contamination of experimental birds leading to coccidiosis outbreaks during breaches of management and biosecurity. PMID:20945799

  7. Rearing Africanized honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) brood under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Silva, I C; Message, D; Cruz, C D; Campos, L A O; Sousa-Majer, M J

    2009-01-01

    We developed a method for rearing larvae of Africanized bees under laboratory conditions to determine the amount of diet needed during larval development to obtain a worker bee. We started with larvae 18-24 h old, which were transferred to polyethylene cell cups and fed for five days. We found that the amount of diet needed for successful larval development was: 4, 15, 25, 50, and 70 microl during the first to fifth days, respectively. The survival rate to the adult stage was 88.6% when the larvae received the daily amount of diet divided into two feedings, and 80% when they received only one feeding per day. The adult weight obtained in the laboratory, when the larvae received the daily amount of diet in a single dose, did not differ from those that were developed under field conditions (our control). All adults that we obtained in laboratory appeared to be normal. This technique has the potential to facilitate studies on brood pathogens, resistance mechanisms to diseases and also might be useful to test the impacts of transgenic products on honey bee brood. PMID:19551650

  8. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1991-1995 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, Desmond J.; Flagg, Thomas A.; Mahnken, Conrad V.W.

    1996-08-01

    In this report, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), and the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), presents research findings and guidelines for development and evaluation of innovative culture techniques to increase postrelease survival of hatchery fish. The Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) described in this report is a collection of experimental approaches designed to produce hatchery-reared chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) that exhibit wild-like behavior, physiology, and morphology. The NATURES culture research for salmonids included multiple tests to develop techniques such as: raceways equipped with cover, structure, and natural substrates to promote development of proper body camouflage coloration; feed-delivery systems that condition fish to orient to the bottom rather than the surface of the rearing vessel; predator conditioning of fish to train them to avoid predators; and supplementing diets with natural live foods to improve foraging ability. The underlying assumptions are that NATURES will: (1) promote the development of natural cryptic coloration and antipredator behavior; (2) increase postrelease foraging efficiency; (3) improve fish health and condition by alleviating chronic, artificial rearing habitat-induced stress; and (4) reduce potential genetic selection pressures induced by the conventional salmon culture environment. A goal in using NATURES is to provide quality fish for rebuilding depleted natural runs.

  9. Effect of learning on the oviposition preference of field-collected and laboratory-reared Chilo partellus (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Glas, J J; van den Berg, J; Potting, R P J

    2007-08-01

    Recent studies show that Vetiver grass, (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash), may have potential as a dead-end trap crop in an overall habitat management strategy for the spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae). Vetiver grass is highly preferred for oviposition, in spite of the fact that larval survival is extremely low on this grass. The oviposition behaviour of female Chilo partellus moths was investigated by determining the amount and size of egg batches allocated to maize and Vetiver plants and studying the effect of rearing conditions and oviposition experience on host plant selection. Two-choice preference tests were used to examine the effect of experience of maize (a suitable host plant) and Vetiver plants on the oviposition choice of C. partellus. For both field-collected and laboratory-reared moths, no significant differences were found in the preference distributions between the experienced groups. It is concluded that females do not learn, i.e. that they do not change their preference for Vetiver grass after having experienced oviposition on either maize or this grass, which supports the idea that trap cropping could have potential as a control method for C. partellus. Differences observed between field-collected and laboratory-reared moths in the amount and size of egg batches laid on maize and Vetiver grass indicate that data obtained from experiments with laboratory-reared insects should be treated with caution. PMID:17645823

  10. Larval growth, development, and survival of laboratory-reared Aplysia californica: Effects of diet and veliger density*

    PubMed Central

    Capo, Thomas R.; Bardales, Ana T.; Gillette, Phillip R.; Lara, Monica R.; Schmale, Michael C.; Serafy, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last three decades, the California sea hare, Aplysia californica, has played an increasingly important role as a model organism in the neurosciences. Since 1995, the National Resource for Aplysia has supported a growing research community by providing a consistent supply of laboratory-reared individuals of known age, reproductive status, and environmental history. The purpose of the present study was to resolve the key biological factors necessary for successful culture of large numbers of high quality larval Aplysia. Data from a sequence of five experiments demonstrated that algal diet, food concentration, and veliger density significantly affected growth, attainment of metamorphic competency, and survival of Aplysia larvae. The highest growth and survival were achieved with a mixed algal diet of 1:1 Isochrysis sp (TISO) and Chaetoceros muelleri (CHGRA) at a total concentration of 250 x 103 cells/mL and a larval density of 0.5 – 1.0 per mL. Rapid growth was always correlated with faster attainment of developmental milestones and increased survival, indicating that the more rapidly growing larvae were healthier. Trials conducted with our improved protocol resulted in larval growth rates of >14 μm/d, which yielded metamorphically competent animals within 21 days with survival rates in excess of 90%. These data indicate the important effects of biotic factors on the critical larval growth period in the laboratory and show the advantages of developing optimized protocols for culture of such marine invertebrates. PMID:19000779

  11. Effect of temperature and larval density on Aedes polynesiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) laboratory rearing productivity and male characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hapairai, Limb K; Marie, Jérôme; Sinkins, Steven P; Bossin, Hervé C

    2014-04-01

    Aedes polynesiensis Marks (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae were reared to adulthood in the laboratory under a range of temperatures and larval densities. We studied the effect of these variables on several life table parameters of relevance to male-release-based vector control strategies including: larval survivorship, developmental time to pupation, male to female ratio, male pupae yield, adult male size and survival. The range of tested rearing temperatures (20, 25, 27, and 30 °C) and larval densities (50, 100, 200, and 400 larvae/L) was selected within the conditions allowing larval growth and survival. Larval survivorship was the highest when larvae were reared at 200 larvae/L for all temperatures except 20 °C. Male to female ratio was male biased at all temperatures and densities. Time to pupation decreased with increasing temperatures. Larval density and temperature influenced the proportion of males pupating on first day of pupation with 43-47% of total male pupae produced at 25 °C. No significant differences in mean wing length were observed between male mosquitoes reared in the laboratory (except at 20 and 30 °C for some densities) and field collected males. Altogether, the study allowed the identification of rearing conditions delivering high male yield with essentially no female contamination, adequate adult male size and survival. Ae. polynesiensis thus appears particularly amenable to biological and mechanical sex separation offering good prospects for Ae. polynesiensis population suppression trials that rely on the production and release of large numbers of incompatible or sterile males. PMID:24316237

  12. Daily blood feeding rhythms of laboratory-reared North American Culex pipiens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood feeding by free-living insect vectors of disease is rhythmic and can be used to predict when infectious bites will occur. These daily rhythms can also be targeted by control measures, as in insecticide-treated nets. Culex pipiens form pipiens and C.p. f. molestus are two members of the Culex pipiens assemblage and vectors of West Nile Virus throughout North America. Although Culex species vector human pathogens and parasites, the daily blood feeding rhythms of C.p. f. molestus, to our knowledge, have not been studied. We described and compared the daily blood feeding rhythms of three laboratory-reared populations of Culex pipiens, one of which has confirmed molestus ancestry. We also examined the plasticity of blood feeding time for these three populations. Results For most (>70%) C.p. f. pipiens and C.p. f. molestus collected from metropolitan Chicago, IL, blood feeding took place during scotophase. Peak blood feeding occurred in mid-scotophase, 3-6 hours after lights off. For C.p. f. pipiens originating from Pennsylvania, most mosquitoes (> 90%) blood fed during late photophase and early scotophase. C.p. f. molestus denied a blood meal during scotophase were less likely to blood feed during early photophase (< 20%) than were C.p. f. pipiens from Chicago (> 50%). C.p. f. pipiens from Pennsylvania were capable of feeding readily at any hour of photo- or scotophase. Conclusions Daily blood feeding rhythms of C.p. f. molestus are similar to those of C.p. f. pipiens, particularly when populations originate from the same geographic region. However, the timing of blood feeding is more flexible for C.p. f. pipiens populations relative to C.p. f. molestus. PMID:24450879

  13. Genetic and Environmental Factors Associated with Laboratory Rearing Affect Survival and Assortative Mating but Not Overall Mating Success in Anopheles gambiae Sensu Stricto

    PubMed Central

    Paton, Doug; Touré, Mahamoudou; Sacko, Adama; Coulibaly, Mamadou B.; Traoré, Sékou F.; Tripet, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, the main vector of malaria in Africa, is characterized by its vast geographical range and complex population structure. Assortative mating amongst the reproductively isolated cryptic forms that co-occur in many areas poses unique challenges for programs aiming to decrease malaria incidence via the release of sterile or genetically-modified mosquitoes. Importantly, whether laboratory-rearing affects the ability of An. gambiae individuals of a given cryptic taxa to successfully mate with individuals of their own form in field conditions is still unknown and yet crucial for mosquito-releases. Here, the independent effects of genetic and environmental factors associated with laboratory rearing on male and female survival, mating success and assortative mating were evaluated in the Mopti form of An. gambiae over 2010 and 2011. In semi-field enclosures experiments and despite strong variation between years, the overall survival and mating success of male and female progeny from a laboratory strain was not found to be significantly lower than those of the progeny of field females from the same population. Adult progeny from field-caught females reared at the larval stage in the laboratory and from laboratory females reared outdoors exhibited a significant decrease in survival but not in mating success. Importantly, laboratory individuals reared as larvae indoors were unable to mate assortatively as adults, whilst field progeny reared either outdoors or in the laboratory, as well as laboratory progeny reared outdoors all mated significantly assortatively. These results highlight the importance of genetic and environment interactions for the development of An. gambiae's full mating behavioral repertoire and the challenges this creates for mosquito rearing and release-based control strategies. PMID:24391719

  14. Laboratory rearing of wild Arctic cod Boreogadus saida from egg to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kent, D; Drost, H E; Fisher, J; Oyama, T; Farrell, A P

    2016-03-01

    The techniques and protocols used to successfully capture, transport and breed Arctic cod Boreogadus saida, as well as to rear their larvae through to adulthood are summarized. Breeding B. saida will increase the opportunity to study this fish species, which is a critical part of the Arctic food web. PMID:26832071

  15. Laboratory Rearing of Thitarodes armoricanus and Thitarodes jianchuanensis (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae), Hosts of the Chinese Medicinal Fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae).

    PubMed

    Tao, Zui; Cao, Li; Zhang, Yi; Ye, Yunshou; Han, Richou

    2016-02-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Ophiocordycipitaceae) is an entomopathogenic fungus endemic to the Tibetan Plateau, at elevations ranging between 3,000 and 5,000 m. The fungus-insect complex is useful in healthcare but limited in the field, so there is an urgent need to develop an artificial rearing system of both the fungus and its insect hosts. Large-scale artificial rearing of the Thitarodes insect hosts is crucial. This paper reports results of the artificial cultivation and complete life tables of two host species of O. sinensis, Thitarodes armoricanus and Thitarodes jianchuanensis (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae), under low-altitude laboratory conditions. The larvae were reared on carrots in plastic containers at 9–13°C and 50–80% RH. Both experimental insect species had long and unusual life cycle; it took 263–494 and 443–780 d for T. jianchuanensis and T. armoricanus, respectively, to complete a developmental cycle, including egg, larval instars L1-L9, pupa, and adult. The larvae did develop into pupae from the L7, L8, or L9 instar larvae. Although the total survival rates of both insect species were low (12.0% for T. jianchuanensis and 1.6% for T. armoricanus), the experimental populations successfully developed into the next generation owing to high egg production by fertilized females (averages of 703 and 355 eggs per female in the Yunnan and Sichuan species, respectively). Successful artificial rearing of host insect species for O. sinensis under low temperature conditions will allow the cultivation of this important fungus-insect complex to ensure its protection as a bio-resource and for commercial supply. PMID:26567334

  16. Biology, life history, and laboratory rearing of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Timothy J; Larson, Kristi

    2014-06-01

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij & Strazanac is a recently described parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, in the Russian Far East, and is currently being considered for biocontrol introduction in the United States. Using A. planipennis larvae reared with freshly cut ash (Fraxinus spp.) sticks, we investigated the biology, life cycle, and rearing of S. galinae in the laboratory under normal rearing conditions (25 +/- 1 degrees C, 65 +/- 10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 [L:D] h). Our study showed that S. galinae took approximately 1 mo (29 d) to complete a single generation (from egg to adult) under the laboratory rearing conditions. After eclosion from eggs, larvae of S. galinae molted four times to reach the fifth instar, which then spun cocoons for pupation and development to adults. Adult female wasps had a median survival time of 7 wk with fecundity peaking 3 wk after emergence when reared in groups (of five females and five males) and 2 wk in single pairs. Throughout the life span, a single female S. galinae produced a mean (+/- SE) of 31 (+/- 3.0) progeny when reared in groups, and a mean (+/- SE) of 47 (+/- 5.3) progeny when reared in single pairs. Results from our study also showed that S. galinae could be effectively reared with A. planipennis larvae reared in both green (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) and tropical [Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh] ash sticks. However, the abortion (unemergence) rate of S. galinae progeny was much higher (20%) when reared with host larvae in green ash sticks than that (2.1%) in tropical ash sticks. PMID:25026651

  17. The Effect of Temperature and Laboratory Rearing Conditions on the Development of Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae).

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Noelia I; Visciarelli, Elena C; Centeno, Néstor D

    2016-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the life cycle of Dermestes maculatus and to establish the total developmental time and the developmental time of immature stages, in relation with six different temperatures. We also analyzed the variations in size, morphology, and other indicators of temporal variation during life cycle of D. maculatus, in relation with temperature. One hundred larvae were selected per experiment, reared individually. The remaining larvae were reared to evaluate and establish temporal variations among the instars (length, cephalic width, and dry weight). In all trials, survivorship was greater than 50% and seven larval instars were found. Data of the average developmental time of immature stages and of the total cycle, at different temperatures, are provided. This is of relevance when estimating particularly, a minimum PMI. No relation between morphometric parameters and temperature was found, suggesting that other random factors may have been involved. Thus, this indicates that the method of isomegalen diagrams could not be used for calculating PMI. PMID:26477981

  18. The Rearing and Biology of the Desert Beetle, Microdera punctipennis, Under Laboratory Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Xiaoning; Zhao, Jia; Rexili, Kelaimu; Ma, Ji

    2011-01-01

    Microdera punctipennis Kasz (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is a unique species that lives in the desert region of Central Asia and has adopted a nocturnal habit to survive the desert environment. Female adults are larger in size than male adults. The female/male ratio was 1.04:1. A rearing method using reused plastic bottles was used. The rearing conditions were 30 ± 0.5°C, 30 ± 6% relative humidity (RH), and 16:8 L:D photoperiod. Cabbage was provided as food. Cannibalism was avoided by rearing one larva in a bottle. A complete life cycle was obtained under these conditions. The viability of eggs, larvae, prepupae, pupae, and teneral adults was 93.54%, 83.71%, 84.76%, 87.64%, and 93.59%, respectively. Embryogenesis took 7.35 days on average. The larval duration in each instar was 2.25 days. The mean duration of the larvae, prepupae, pupae, and teneral adult was 49.27, 7.05, 9.95, and 10.12 days, respectively. The coloration of each developmental stage gradually changed from creamy white to light brownish or black. Females commenced oviposition when their body color became black. On average, each female produced 568 eggs. PMID:21529250

  19. Thermal dependency of shell growth, microstructure, and stable isotopes in laboratory-reared Scapharca broughtonii (Mollusca: Bivalvia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Kozue; Suzuki, Atsushi; Isono, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Yuzo; Irie, Takahiro; Nojiri, Yukihiro; Mori, Chiharu; Sato, Mizuho; Sato, Kei; Sasaki, Takenori

    2015-07-01

    We experimentally examined the growth, microstructure, and chemistry of shells of the bloody clam, Scapharca broughtonii (Mollusca: Bivalvia), reared at five temperatures (13, 17, 21, 25, and 29°C) with a constant pCO2 condition (˜450 μatm). In this species, the exterior side of the shell is characterized by a composite prismatic structure; on the interior side, it has a crossed lamellar structure on the interior surface. We previously found a negative correlation between temperature and the relative thickness of the composite prismatic structure in field-collected specimens. In the reared specimens, the relationship curve between temperature and the growth increment of the composite prismatic structure was humped shaped, with a maximum at 17°C, which was compatible with the results obtained in the field-collected specimens. In contrast, the thickness of the crossed lamellar structure was constant over the temperature range tested. These results suggest that the composite prismatic structure principally accounts for the thermal dependency of shell growth, and this inference was supported by the finding that shell growth rates were significantly correlated with the thickness of the composite prismatic structure. We also found a negative relationship between the rearing temperature and δ18O of the shell margin, in close quantitative agreement with previous reports. The findings presented here will contribute to the improved age determination of fossil and recent clams based on seasonal microstructural records.

  20. Viruses in laboratory-reared cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Marti, O.G.; Myers, R.E.; Carpenter, J.E.; Styer, E.L.

    2007-03-15

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae: Phycitinae), is a non-native species threatening a variety of native cacti, particularly endangered species of Opuntia (Zimmerman et al. 2001), on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. Cactoblastis cactorum populations have expanded from Florida northward along the Atlantic coast as far as Charleston, SC, and westward along the Gulf of Mexico to Dauphin Island, south of Mobile, AL. It is feared that further movement to the west will allow C. cactorum to enter the US desert Southwest and Mexico, particularly the latter. Numerous cactus species, especially those of the genera Opuntia and Nopalea, are native to the U.S. and Mexico. Local economies based on agricultural and horticultural uses of cacti could be devastated by C. cactorum (Vigueras and Portillo 2001). A bi-national control program between the US and Mexico is being developed, utilizing the sterile insect technique (SIT). In the SIT program, newly emerged moths are irradiated with a {sup 60}Co source and released to mate with wild individuals. The radiation dose completely sterilizes the females and partially sterilizes the males. When irradiated males mate with wild females, the F1 progeny of these matings are sterile. In order for the SIT program to succeed, large numbers of moths must be reared from egg to adult on artificial diet in a quarantined rearing facility (Carpenter et al. 2001). Irradiated insects must then be released in large numbers at the leading edge of the invasive population and at times which coincide with the presence of wild individuals available for mating. Mortality from disease in the rearing colony disrupts the SIT program by reducing the numbers of insects available for release.

  1. The early phyllosoma stages of spiny lobster Panulirus echinatus Smith, 1869 (Decapoda: Palinuridae) reared in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Abrunhosa, F A; Santiago, A P; Abrunhosa, J P

    2008-02-01

    The early stages of the Panulirus echinatus were hatched and reared in the laboratory. Ovigerous females were captured in their habitat and carefully transported to the laboratory. Larvae were transferred in a recirculation water tank at a density of 10 larvae.L(-1). The larvae were fed on Artemia and gonads of mussel Brachydonts sp. Microalgae Dunaliella viridis was added at a concentration of 150 x 10(4) cell.mL(-1). Larvae and exuviae of each zoeal stage were preserved in an alcohol 70% + glycerin (1:1) solution. The phyllosomas moulted eight times; the intermoulting period of each instar averaged about 7 to 10 days. The main morphological changes of each appendage were described in detail, illustrated and compared with previous reports. PMID:18470395

  2. Behavior of steelhead fry in a laboratory stream is affected by fish density but not rearing environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, Stephen C.; Tatara, Christopher P.; Berejikian, Barry A.; Flagg, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    We quantified the aggression, feeding, dominance, position choice, and territory size of naturally reared steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss fry stocked with two types of hatchery-reared fry (from conventional and enriched rearing environments) at two densities in experimental flumes to determine how rearing environment and fish density affect the behavior of steelhead fry. We found that fry density had a significant effect on most response variables but that rearing treatment did not. The rates of threats and attacks were positively correlated with fry density, but the overall feeding rate was negatively correlated. Naturally reared fry were dominant more often at low densities, and hatchery-reared fry were dominant more often at high densities. There were no significant effects of hatchery rearing treatment on aggression, feeding, dominance, or territory size. The only significant effect of rearing treatment was on the position of naturally reared fry, which occupied more upstream positions when stocked with conventional than with enriched hatchery-reared fry. Overall, rearing environment had relatively little influence on the behavior of steelhead fry. Our results indicate that stocking hatchery-reared steelhead fry at low densities may have effects on similar-size wild fish comparable to an equivalent increase in the density of wild fish. We suggest that releasing hatchery-reared steelhead fry as a supplementation strategy may have few direct negative ecological effects on wild fry.

  3. Development of a Natural Rearing System to Improve Supplemental Fish Quality, 1999-2003 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maynard, Desmond J.

    2003-02-25

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has been conducting Natural Rearing Enhancement System (NATURES) research since the early 1990s. NATURES studies have looked at a variety of mechanisms to enhance production of wild-like salmonids from hatcheries. The goal of NATURES research is to develop fish culture techniques that enable hatcheries to produce salmon with more wild-like characteristics and increased postrelease survival. The development of such techniques is called for in the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. This document is the draft report for the Supplemental Fish Quality Contract DE-AI79-91BP20651 Over the history of the project, the effects of seminatural raceway habitats, automated underwater feeders, exercise current velocities, live food diets, and predator avoidance training have been investigated. The findings of these studies are reported in an earlier contract report (Maynard et al. 1996a). The current report focuses on research that has been conducted between 1999 and 2002. This includes studies on the effect of exercise on salmon and steelhead trout, effects of predator avoid training, integration of NATUES protocols into production hatcheries, and the study of social behavior of steelhead grown in enriched and conventional environments. Traditionally, salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are reared in barren concrete raceways that lack natural substrate, in-stream structure, or overhead cover. The fish are fed in an unnatural manner with artificial feeds mechanically or hand broadcast across the water surface. This traditional approach has increased the egg-to-smolt survival of hatchery-reared fish by an order of magnitude over that experienced by wild-reared salmon. However, once hatchery-reared fish are released into the wild their smolt-to-adult survival is usually much lower than wild-reared salmon. The reduced postrelease survival of hatchery-reared fish may stem from differences in their behavior and morphology compared to wild-reared

  4. Comparing the Use of Laboratory-Reared and Field-Collected Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Larvae for Demonstrating Efficacy of Postharvest Cold Treatments in Citrus Fruit.

    PubMed

    Moore, S D; Kirkman, W; Albertyn, S; Hattingh, V

    2016-08-01

    Some of South Africa's export markets require postharvest cold treatment of citrus fruit for phytosanitary risk mitigation for Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). An alternative to a standalone cold treatment may be a reduced intensity cold treatment as a step in a systems approach. For cold treatment trials, large numbers of larvae are required. Due to recent dramatic improvement of T. leucotreta control in the field, sufficient naturally infested citrus fruit are no longer available. Artificial infestation of fruit is not viable due to rapid decay of the fruit. Consequently, it is necessary to use laboratory-reared T. leucotreta larvae in artificial diet. In trials, field-collected larvae from the Eastern Cape were at least as cold-tolerant as those from other regions. Larvae in Navel oranges showed the median level of susceptibility in a range of citrus types evaluated at 6°C, and their use in trials was considered acceptable due to their greater natural susceptibility to T. leucotreta infestation. We demonstrated that larvae at high density in artificial diet were at least as cold-tolerant as larvae at lower densities. When exposed to 2°C for 18 d or longer, larvae in artificial diet as used in the trials were at least as cold-tolerant as larvae in fruit. Very few surviving larvae from fruit completed development, with no subsequent generation. Consequently, it is considered justifiable to conduct cold-treatment trials with laboratory-reared T. leucotreta larvae in artificial diet without risk of underestimating the effect of cold on feral larvae in citrus fruit. PMID:27341890

  5. An improved Monte-Carlo model of the Varian EPID separating support arm and rear-housing backscatter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monville, M. E.; Kuncic, Z.; Greer, P. B.

    2014-03-01

    Previous investigators of EPID dosimetric properties have ascribed the backscatter, that contaminates dosimetric EPID images, to its supporting arm. Accordingly, Monte-Carlo (MC) EPID models have approximated the backscatter signal from the layers under the detector and the robotic support arm using either uniform or non-uniform solid water slabs, or through convolutions with back-scatter kernels. The aim of this work is to improve the existent MC models by measuring and modelling the separate backscatter contributions of the robotic arm and the rear plastic housing of the EPID. The EPID plastic housing is non-uniform with a 11.9 cm wide indented section that runs across the cross-plane direction in the superior half of the EPID which is 1.75 cm closer to the EPID sensitive layer than the rest of the housing. The thickness of the plastic housing is 0.5 cm. Experiments were performed with and without the housing present by removing all components of the EPID from the housing. The robotic support arm was not present for these measurements. A MC model of the linear accelerator and the EPID was modified to include the rear-housing indentation and results compared to the measurement. The rear housing was found to contribute a maximum of 3% additional signal. The rear housing contribution to the image is non-uniform in the in-plane direction with 2% asymmetry across the central 20 cm of an image irradiating the entire detector. The MC model was able to reproduce this non-uniform contribution. The EPID rear housing contributes a non-uniform backscatter component to the EPID image, which has not been previously characterized. This has been incorporated into an improved MC model of the EPID.

  6. Using near-infrared spectroscopy to resolve the species, gender, age, and the presence of Wolbachia infection in laboratory-reared Drosophila

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of the study was to determine the accuracy of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in determining species, gender, age and the presence of the common endosymbiont Wolbachia in laboratory reared Drosophila. NIRS measures absorption of light by organic molecules. Initially, a calibration model wa...

  7. Long-term efficacy of two cricket and two liver diets for rearing laboratory fire ant colonies (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Solenopsis Invicta)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective diets are necessary for many kinds of laboratory studies of ants. We conducted a year-long study of imported fire ant colonies reared on either chicken liver, beef liver, banded crickets, or domestic crickets all with a sugar water supplement. Fire ant colonies thrived on diets of sugar ...

  8. Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera:Tephritidae): Life history and laboratory rearing methods.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is and agricultural pest established throughout south Florida, where it poses a threat to commercial citrus, guava, and other tropical and subtropical fruit crops. This poster outlines the protocols used at the USDA-ARS laboratory in Miami, FL, fo...

  9. 78 FR 6330 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee (CLIAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... related to improvement in clinical laboratory quality and laboratory medicine practice and specific... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory... laboratory services; revisions to the standards under which clinical laboratories are regulated; the...

  10. 77 FR 41188 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee (CLIAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... related to improvement in clinical laboratory quality and laboratory medicine practice and specific... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory...-centeredness of laboratory services; revisions to the standards under which clinical laboratories are...

  11. Improving the Design of Laboratory Worksheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, E. T.; Wadding, R. E. L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a technique to improve the adaptation, development, and utilization of laboratory worksheets. Two sample worksheets (on decomposition of ethanol and on solubility of potassium chloride) are included. (JN)

  12. NOVEL ASPECTS OF SPOTTED WING DROSOPHILA BIOLOGY AND IMPROVED METHODS OF REARING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii (Mats.) or the spotted wing Drosophila (SWD), is a global pest of soft fruits that can now be reared on a standard Drosophila diet containing the fly's own natural food: soft-skinned berries. The techniques tested here can thwart bacterial and fungal disease that can destroy more ...

  13. Susceptibility of laboratory-reared northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acari: Macronyssidae), to selected acaricides.

    PubMed

    Crystal, M M; DeMilo, A B

    1988-07-01

    Toxicity was determined for 15 acaricides against a laboratory strain of northern fowl mites, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago). Adult females were exposed to residues on filter paper for 24 h. Three organophosphorous compounds (monocrotophos, cythioate, and famphur) were more toxic to the northern fowl mite than was carbaryl, the most commonly used pesticide in the poultry industry. The other tested compounds were less toxic to the mite than was carbaryl. Four of these, not used previously for northern fowl mite control, had low LC50's for northern fowl mites:aldicarb (0.46); pirimiphos-methyl (0.73); exo, exo-2,8-dichloro-4-thiatricyclo[3.2.1.0.]octane-4-oxide (AI3-63182) (0.87); and diazinon (2.48). PMID:3168660

  14. SNPfisher: tools for probing genetic variation in laboratory-reared zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Matthew G.; Iben, James R.; Marsden, Kurt C.; Epstein, Jonathan A.; Granato, Michael; Weinstein, Brant M.

    2015-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the benchmark molecular markers for modern genomics. Until recently, relatively few SNPs were known in the zebrafish genome. The use of next-generation sequencing for the positional cloning of zebrafish mutations has increased the number of known SNP positions dramatically. Still, the identified SNP variants remain under-utilized, owing to scant annotation of strain specificity and allele frequency. To address these limitations, we surveyed SNP variation in three common laboratory zebrafish strains using whole-genome sequencing. This survey identified an average of 5.04 million SNPs per strain compared with the Zv9 reference genome sequence. By comparing the three strains, 2.7 million variants were found to be strain specific, whereas the remaining variants were shared among all (2.3 million) or some of the strains. We also demonstrate the broad usefulness of our identified variants by validating most in independent populations of the same laboratory strains. We have made all of the identified SNPs accessible through ‘SNPfisher’, a searchable online database (snpfisher.nichd.nih.gov). The SNPfisher website includes the SNPfisher Variant Reporter tool, which provides the genomic position, alternate allele read frequency, strain specificity, restriction enzyme recognition site changes and flanking primers for all SNPs and Indels in a user-defined gene or region of the zebrafish genome. The SNPfisher site also contains links to display our SNP data in the UCSC genome browser. The SNPfisher tools will facilitate the use of SNP variation in zebrafish research as well as vertebrate genome evolution. PMID:25813542

  15. Larval development of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis H. Milne-Edwards (Decapoda: Grapsidae) reared in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montú, M.; Anger, K.; de Bakker, C.

    1996-06-01

    Larvae of the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis were reared in the laboratory from the time of hatching and through metamorphosis. Development normally consists of a Prezoea, 5 Zoea stages, and a Megalopa. Occasionally, an additional (stage VI) Zoea and, in one case, an additional Megalopa (transitional to the first crab stage) were observed. Detailed morphological descriptions of all larval and the first two juvenile instars are given, and larval morphology is compared with that of two closely related species, Eriocheir japonicus and Eriocheir rectus, descriptions of which have recently become available. The zoeal stages of these species can be distinguished by their different number of aesthetascs and setae on the antennules, and different setation of maxillipeds 1 and 2. The Megalopa shows differences in the shape of the rostrum and again in the morphology of the antennule. These and other morphological differences (mainly in setation and spinulation of the zoeal carapace) between E. sinensis and E. japonicus larvae suggest that they may be very closely related but separate species; this contradicts a recent study of adult morphometrics and molecular genetics (Li et al., 1993), suggesting that they are only varieties of a single species.

  16. Low anterior counterweights to improve static rear stability of occupied wheelchairs.

    PubMed

    Loane, T D; Kirby, R L

    1986-04-01

    Rear tipping accidents in wheelchairs are a common problem, the likelihood of which may be increased by the combination of a wheelchair with low stability and an occupant with altered body morphology, such as a person with lower limb amputations. This study tests the hypothesis that counterweights on the wheelchair footrests significantly increase static rear stability. In addition to pilot work indicating the amount and positioning of effective counterweights, ten normal subjects were studied on a tilting platform in both lightweight and conventional wheelchairs, with and without a 5-kg weight on the footrests. The angles at which the front casters lifted off the platform increased from a mean of 28.6 (+/- 2.7) degrees to 34.8 (+/- 3) degrees in the conventional wheelchair (p less than 0.01) and from 18.2 (+/- 2.7) degrees to 24.6 (+/- 2.5) degrees (p less than 0.0001) and 15.5 (+/- 2) degrees to 23.4 (+/- 2.2) degrees (p less than 0.0001) in the lightweight chair with the axle in the low-posterior and low-anterior positions, respectively. A 5-kg weight on the footrests increased the average rear stability of lightweight and conventional chairs by 6.2 degrees (31.9%). PMID:3964063

  17. Improvement of survival of the house fly (Musca domestica L.) larvae under mass-rearing conditions.

    PubMed

    Cičková, H; Kozánek, M; Takáč, P

    2013-02-01

    Two new approaches were examined, aimed at increasing survival of the house fly (Musca domestica L.) larvae under mass-rearing conditions of a biodegradation facility: modification of the larval substrate and dispersal of the eggs during inoculation. The two types of pig manure used in this study (manure with sawdust and manure without sawdust) differed in terms of larval survival and nutritional value for the house fly larvae. Larval survival in manure without sawdust in the control treatment was low (46.8 ± 2.1%) and its nutritional value for the larvae were high. Addition of 5.7% of previously biodegraded manure did not significantly affect larval survival (52.3 ± 1.9%), but larval development was faster and the pupae were significantly smaller (14.28 ± 0.4 mg) compared to the control (16.29 ± 0.5 mg). Using alternative substrate for incubation of eggs and first-instar larvae significantly increased larval survival (63.3 ± 3.3%) and decreased the mean weight of produced pupae (14.39 ± 0.71 mg). Overall, the weight of recovered biomass in the alternative substrate treatment increased by 14.3 kg ton-1 of manure compared to the control. Larval survival in manure with sawdust was generally higher than 70%, but its nutritional value for the larvae was lower than in manure without sawdust. Dispersal of eggs over the surface of manure with sawdust significantly affected larval survival and mean weight of pupae. Larval survival was significantly lower (59.2 ± 4.0%) and pupae were significantly heavier (18.45 ± 0.8 mg) when eggs were applied to a small area on the manure surface (spot treatment), as compared to diagonal, Z-line and multiple zig-zag dispersal (72.5 ± 2.4 to 74.6 ± 3.0% and 14.76 ± 0.6 to 15.97 ± 0.6 mg, respectively). No significant differences were observed in larval survival or mean weight of pupae when comparing the diagonal, Z-line and multiple zig-zag dispersal patterns. Implementation of the techniques which

  18. Effects of ambient temperature on egg and larval development of the invasive emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): implications for laboratory rearing.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jian J; Watt, Tim; Taylor, Phil; Larson, Kristi; Lelito, Jonathan P

    2013-10-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, an invasive beetle from Asia causing large scale ash (Fraxinus) mortality in North America, has been extremely difficult to rear in the laboratory because of its long life cycle and cryptic nature of immature stages. This lack of effective laboratory-rearing methods has not only hindered research into its biology and ecology, but also mass production of natural enemies for biological control of this invasive pest. Using sticks from the alternate host plant, Fraxinus uhdei (Wenzig) Lingelsh, we characterized the stage-specific development time and growth rate of both emerald ash borer eggs and larvae at different constant temperatures (12-35 degrees C) for the purpose of developing effective laboratory-rearing methods. Results from our study showed that the median time for egg hatching decreased from 20 d at 20 degrees C to 7 d at 35 degrees C, while no emerald ash borer eggs hatched at 12 degrees C. The developmental time for 50% of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to third, fourth, and J-larval stages at 20 degrees C were 8.3, 9.1, and 12.3 wk, respectively, approximately two times longer than at 30 degrees C for the corresponding instars or stages. In contrast to 30 degrees C, however, the development times of emerald ash borer larvae advancing to later instars (from oviposition) were significantly increased at 35 degrees C, indicating adverse effects of this high temperature. The optimal range of ambient temperature to rear emerald ash borer larvae should be between 25-30 degrees C; however, faster rate of egg and larval development should be expected as temperature increases within this range. PMID:24224252

  19. 76 FR 9578 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory... Additional Information: Nancy Anderson, Chief, Laboratory Practice Standards Branch, Division of Laboratory Science and Standards, Laboratory Science, Policy and Practice Program Office, Office of...

  20. 75 FR 39028 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee (CLIAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory... standards under which clinical laboratories are regulated; the impact on medical and laboratory practice of... laboratory information; and consideration of proposals from the CLIAC proficiency testing workgroup....

  1. 78 FR 44954 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee (CLIAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory... guidance pertain to general issues related to improvement in clinical laboratory quality and laboratory ] medicine practice and specific questions related to possible revision of the CLIA standards....

  2. The North American strain of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus is highly pathogenic for laboratory-reared Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.; Bradley, M.; Elder, N.; Meyers, T.; Batts, W.; Winton, J.

    1997-01-01

    Specific-pathogen-free Pacific herring Clupea pallasi were reared in the laboratory from eggs and then challenged at 5, 9, and 13 months of age by waterborne exposure to low (101.5–2.5 plaque-forming units [PFU] per milliliter), medium (103.5–4.5 PFU/mL), or high (105.5–6.5 PFU/mL) levels of a North American isolate of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). The fish were extremely susceptible to the virus, showing clinical disease, mortality approaching 100%, and only a limited increase in resistance with age. Mortality began 4–6 d after exposure and peaked at approximately day 7 in fish exposed to high levels of virus. Whereas the mean time to death showed a significant dose response (P < 0.001), the percent mortality and virus titers in dead fish were generally high in all groups regardless of initial challenge dose. External signs of disease were usually limited to 1–2-mm hemorrhagic areas on the lower jaw and isthmus and around the eye, but 2 of 130 infected fish exhibited extensive cutaneous hemorrhaging. Histopathologic examination of tissues from moribund fish sampled at 2–8 d after exposure revealed multifocal coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes, diffuse necrosis of interstitial hematopoietic tissues in the kidney, diffuse necrosis of the spleen, epidermis, and subcutis, and occasional necrosis of pancreatic acinar cells. Virus titers in tissues of experimentally infected herring were first detected 48 h after exposure and peaked 6-8 d after exposure at 107.7 PFU/g. Fish began shedding virus at 48 h after exposure with titers in the flow-through aquaria reaching 102.5 PFU/mL at 4–5 d after exposure, just before peak mortality. When the water flow was turned off for 3 h, titers in the water rose to 103.5 PFU/mL, and the amount of virus shed by infected fish (on average, greater than 106.5 PFU/h per fish) appeared sufficient to sustain a natural epizootic among schooling herring. Taken together, these data suggest that VHSV could be a

  3. Quality control tests of lab-reared Cydia pomonella and Cactoblastis cactorum field performance: Comparison of laboratory and field bioassays.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research, operational, and commercial programs which rely on mass-reared insects of high quality and performance, need accurate methods for monitoring quality degradation during each step of production, handling and release. With continued interest in the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) a...

  4. Comparison of laboratory and field bioassays of lab-reared Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) quality and field performance.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maximum production and fitness of insect species that are mass-reared for biological control programs such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) have benefitted from the employment of quality control and quality management. With a growing interest in the use of SIT as a tactic for the suppression/e...

  5. Manipulation of the microbiota of mass-reared Mediterranean fruit flies Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) improves sterile male sexual performance.

    PubMed

    Ben Ami, Eyal; Yuval, Boaz; Jurkevitch, Edouard

    2010-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a method of biological control whereby millions of factory reared sterile male insects are released into the field. This technique is commonly used to combat the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata, Diptera: Tephritidae). Sterile medfly males are less competent in attracting and mating with wild females, a property commonly linked to the irradiation process responsible for the sterilization. As bacteria are important partners in the fly's life cycle, we used molecular analytical methods to study the community structure of the gut microbiota in irradiated male medflies. We find that the sterilizing irradiation procedure affects the gut bacterial community structure of the Mediterranean fruit fly. Although the Enterobacteriaceae family remains the dominant bacterial group present in the gut, the levels of Klebsiella species decreases significantly in the days after sterilization. In addition, we detected substantial differences in some bacterial species between the mass rearing strain Vienna 8 and the wild strain. Most notable among these are the increased levels of the potentially pathogenic species Pseudomonas in the industrial strain. Testing the hypothesis that regenerating the original microbiota community could result in enhanced competitiveness of the sterile flies, we found that the addition of the bacterial species Klebsiella oxytoca to the postirradiation diet enables colonization of these bacteria in the gut while resulting in decreased levels of the Pseudomonas sp. Feeding on diets containing bacteria significantly improved sterile male performance in copulatory tests. Further studies will determine the feasibility of bacterial amelioration in SIT operations. PMID:19617877

  6. Post-release survival of hand-reared and parent-reared Mississippi Sandhill Cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G.F.; Hereford, Scott G.; Olsen, G.H.; Chisolm, T.D.; Nicolich, J.M.; Sullivan, K.A.; Thomas, N.J.; Nagendran, M.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla) reintroduction program is the largest crane reintroduction effort in the world. Here we report on a 4-year experiment in which we compared post-release survival rates of 56 hand-reared and 76 parent-reared Mississippi Sandhill Cranes. First-year survival was 80%. Surprisingly, hand-reared cranes survived better than parent-reared birds, and the highest survival rates were for hand-reared juveniles released in mixed cohorts with parent-reared birds. Mixing improved survival most for parent-reared birds released with hand-reared birds. These results demonstrate that hand-rearing can produce birds which survive at least as well as parent-reared birds and that improved survival results from mixing hand-reared and parent-reared birds.

  7. Post-release survival of hand-reared and parent-reared Mississippi sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G.F.; Hereford, Scott G.; Olsen, G.H.; Chisolm, T.D.; Nicolich, J.M.; Sullivan, K.A.; Thomas, N.J.; Nagendran, M.; Hatfield, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The Mississippi Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis pulla) reintroduction program is the largest crane reintroduction effort in the world. Here we report on a 4-year experiment in which we compared post-release survival rates of 56 hand-reared and 76 parent-reared Mississippi Sandhill Cranes. First-year survival was 80%. Surprisingly, hand-reared cranes survived better than parent-reared birds, and the highest survival rates were for hand-reared juveniles released in mixed cohorts with parent-reared birds. Mixing improved survival most for parent-reared birds released with hand-reared birds. These results demonstrate that hand-rearing can produce birds which survive at least as well as parent-reared birds and that improved survival results from mixing hand-reared and parent-reared birds.

  8. Computer Simulations Improve University Instructional Laboratories1

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory classes are commonplace and essential in biology departments but can sometimes be cumbersome, unreliable, and a drain on time and resources. As university intakes increase, pressure on budgets and staff time can often lead to reduction in practical class provision. Frequently, the ability to use laboratory equipment, mix solutions, and manipulate test animals are essential learning outcomes, and “wet” laboratory classes are thus appropriate. In others, however, interpretation and manipulation of the data are the primary learning outcomes, and here, computer-based simulations can provide a cheaper, easier, and less time- and labor-intensive alternative. We report the evaluation of two computer-based simulations of practical exercises: the first in chromosome analysis, the second in bioinformatics. Simulations can provide significant time savings to students (by a factor of four in our first case study) without affecting learning, as measured by performance in assessment. Moreover, under certain circumstances, performance can be improved by the use of simulations (by 7% in our second case study). We concluded that the introduction of these simulations can significantly enhance student learning where consideration of the learning outcomes indicates that it might be appropriate. In addition, they can offer significant benefits to teaching staff. PMID:15592599

  9. Rearing insects on artificial diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects are reared in the laboratory for various purposes. They may be reared either on their natural food or artificial diets. Developing artificial diets may be difficult and time consuming but once optimized, artificial diets usually are simple to prepare and easy to use. Because they are process...

  10. 76 FR 39879 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee (CLIAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory... to the standards under which clinical laboratories are regulated; the impact on medical and laboratory practice of proposed revisions to the standards; and the modification of the standards...

  11. 76 FR 5379 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee (CLIAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory..., revisions to the standards under which clinical laboratories are regulated; the impact on medical and... Clinical Laboratory Workforce; the National Institutes of Health Genetic Test Registry design and...

  12. Bacterial communities associated with the digestive tract of the predatory ground beetle, Poecilus chalcites, and their response to laboratory rearing and antibiotic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Lehman

    2008-06-01

    Ground beetles such as Poecilus chalcites (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are beneficial insects in agricultural systems where they contribute to the control of insect and weed pests. We assessed the complexity of bacterial communities occurring in the digestive tracts of field-collected P. chalcites using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16S rRNA genes. Bacterial identification was performed by the construction of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and sequence analysis. Intestinal bacteria in field-collected beetles were then compared to those from groups of beetles that were reared in the lab on an artificial diet with and without antibiotics. Direct cell counts estimated 1.5 × 10S bacteria per milliliter of gut. The digestive tract of field-collected P. chalcites produced an average of 4.8 terminal restriction fragments (tRF) for each beetle. The most abundant clones were affiliated with the genus Lactobacillus, followed by the taxa Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridia, and Bacteriodetes. The majority of the sequences recovered were closely related to those reported from other insect gastrointestinal tracts. Lab-reared beetles produced fewer tRF, an average of 3.1 per beetle, and a reduced number of taxa with a higher number of clones from the family Enterobacteriaceae compared to the field-collected beetles. Antibiotic treatment significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the number of tRF per beetle and selected for a less diverse set of bacterial taxa. We conclude that the digestive tract of P. chalcites is colonized by a simple community of bacteria that possess autochthonous characteristics. Laboratory-reared beetles harbored the most common bacteria found in field-collected beetles, and these bacterial communities may be manipulated in the laboratory with the addition of antibiotics to the diet to allow study of functional roles.

  13. A field laboratory for improved oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

  14. Paternity analyses in wild-caught and laboratory-reared Caribbean cricket females reveal the influence of mating environment on post-copulatory sexual selection.

    PubMed

    Oneal, E; Knowles, L L

    2015-12-01

    Polyandry is ubiquitous in insects and provides the conditions necessary for male- and female-driven forms of post-copulatory sexual selection to arise. Populations of Amphiacusta sanctaecrucis exhibit significant divergence in portions of the male genitalia that are inserted directly into the female reproductive tract, suggesting that males may exercise some post-copulatory control over fertilization success. We examine the potential for male-male and male-female post-copulatory interactions to influence paternity in wild-caught females of A. sanctaecrucis and contrast our findings with those obtained from females reared in a high-density laboratory environment. We find that female A. sanctaecrucis exercise control by mating multiple times (females mount males), but that male-male post-copulatory interactions may influence paternity success. Moreover, post-copulatory interactions that affect reproductive success of males are not independent of mating environment: clutches of wild-caught females exhibit higher sire diversity and lower paternity skew than clutches of laboratory-reared females. There was no strong evidence for last male precedence in either case. Most attempts at disentangling the contributions of male-male and male-female interactions towards post-copulatory sexual selection have been undertaken in a laboratory setting and may not capture the full context in which they take place--such as the relationship between premating and post-mating interactions. Our results reinforce the importance of designing studies that can capture the multifaceted nature of sexual selection for elucidating the role of post-copulatory sexual selection in driving the evolution of male and female reproductive traits, especially when different components (e.g. precopulatory and post-copulatory interactions) do not exert independent effects on reproductive outcomes. PMID:26348983

  15. Use of PIT tags to assess individual heterogeneity of laboratory-reared juveniles of the endangered Cumberlandian combshell (Epioblasma brevidens) in a mark–recapture study

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Dan; Jiao, Yan; Neves, Richard; Jones, Jess

    2015-01-01

    The federally endangered Cumberlandian combshell (Epioblasma brevidens) was propagated and reared to taggable size (5–10 mm), and released to the Powell River, Tennessee, to augment a relict population. Methodology using passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags on these mussels greatly facilitated the detection process. The overall mean detection probability and survival rate of released individuals reached 97.8 to 98.4% and 99.7 to 99.9% (per month), respectively, during nine successive recapture occasions in the 2-year study period, regardless of seasonality. Nonhierarchical models and hierarchical models incorporating individual and seasonal variations through a Bayesian approach were compared and resulted in similar performance of prediction for detection probability and survival rate of mussels. This is the first study to apply the mark–recapture method to laboratory-reared mussels using PIT tags and stochastic models. Quantitative analyses for individual heterogeneity allowed examination of demographic variance and effects of heterogeneity on population dynamics, although the individual and seasonal variations were small in this study. Our results provide useful information in implementing conservation strategies of this faunal group and a framework for other species or similar studies. PMID:25798225

  16. Pathogenecity of Ichthyophonus hoferi for laboratory-reared Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) and its early appearance in wild Puget Sound herring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.; Hershberger, P.; Mehl, T.; Elder, N.; Bradley, M.; Wildermuth, D.; Stick, K.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory-reared pathogen-free Pacific herring were exposed to pure cultures of Ichthyophonus hoferi, and reproduced the disease seen in naturally infected fish--thus fulfilling Koch's Postulates. Pathogen-free herring used in this study were reared from artificially spawned eggs incubated in filtered, UV-sterilized seawater, eliminating the variables associated with multiple infections, which are common in wild herring. Wild free-ranging herring were captured monthly from June through October by dip net from 'herring balls' located in the northern Puget Sound. I. hoferi infections were identified in these fish soon after metamorphoses, about 4 mo post-hatch. The prevalence increased from 5 to 6% in 0-yr fish to 24% in 1-yr-old fish to 50 to 70% in fish over 2 yr old, with no associated increase in mortality. The route of natural transmission to wild herring was not determined, but carnivorous fish became infected and died when they were experimentally fed tissues infected with the organism. In vitro culture of tissues was the most sensitive method for identifying both clinical and subclinical infections.

  17. An l-Arginine supplement improves broiler hypertensive response and gut function in broiler chickens reared at high altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajali, Fariborz; Moghaddam, Maryam Heydary; Hassanpour, Hossein

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of supplemental dietary arginine (ARG) on growth, hypertensive response, and gut function in broilers reared at high altitude (2,100 m). A total of 120 day-old male broilers (Cobb 500) were divided equally into two treatment groups. Treatments included a control basal diet composed of corn and soybean meal and an experimental diet to which an l-ARG supplement was added at 10 g/kg. The trial lasted for 42 days. There were no treatment differences with regard to feed intake, body weight gain, or feed conversion ratio. However ARG supplementation did increase the plasma concentration of nitric oxide, a potent vasodilator ( P < 0.05), and attenuated indices of pulmonary hypertension as reflected by reductions in the hematocrit and the right to total ventricular weight ratio ( P < 0.05). Significantly enhanced intestinal mucosal development was observed in broilers receiving ARG supplement when compared with controls ( P < 0.05), suggesting that ARG supplementation increased the absorptive surface area of the jejunum and ileum. In conclusion, broiler diets supplemented with ARG beneficially improved pulmonary hemodynamics and appeared to enhance gut function.

  18. Computer Simulations Improve University Instructional Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Nicola J.; Evans, Chris; Payne, Annette; Shah, Kavita; Griffin, Darren K.

    2004-01-01

    Laboratory classes are commonplace and essential in biology departments but can sometimes be cumbersome, unreliable, and a drain on time and resources. As university intakes increase, pressure on budgets and staff time can often lead to reduction in practical class provision. Frequently, the ability to use laboratory equipment, mix solutions, and…

  19. DAILY GROWTH OF THE JUVENILE FISH (MENIDIA MENIDIA) IN THE NATURAL HABITAT COMPARED WITH JUVENILES REARED IN THE LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Atlantic Silverside (Menidia menidia) is an abundant annual fish in Rhode Island, USA, waters and is being cultured in the Narragansett Laboratory of EPA for use in toxicological bioassays following culture techniques described by Beck (1977). It is desirable for laboratory-r...

  20. New technologies to improve laboratory testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtis, C. A.

    Several core technologies that are having, or will have, an impact on the clinical laboratory are discussed. These include instrument-related technologies such as computer technology, chemometrics, robotics, sensors, and biological technologies such as cell fusion and recombinant DNA.

  1. 76 FR 82299 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee (CLIAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory...), regarding the need for, and the nature of, revisions to the standards under which clinical laboratories are regulated; the impact on medical and laboratory practice of proposed revisions to the standards; and...

  2. Improving Hospital Laboratory Performance: Implications for Healthcare Managers.

    PubMed

    Leaven, Laquanda T

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory services in healthcare delivery systems play a vital role in inpatient care. Studies have shown that laboratory data affects approximately 65% of the most critical decisions on admission, discharge, and medication. Laboratory testing accounts for approximately 10% of hospital billing. Reducing laboratory costs and improving laboratory performance would contribute to reducing total healthcare cost, which is one of the major goals for the U.S. healthcare delivery system. The objective of this paper is to review and analyze the diverse research approaches applied to improve the performance of hospital laboratories in large healthcare delivery systems. The approaches reviewed include: lean, quality control, automation, and simulation modeling. In the conclusion, future research directions are presented, which include additional methods to be investigated to further improve the performance of hospital laboratories. PMID:26185930

  3. Addition of Wheat Germ Oil to a Liquid Larval Diet for Rearing Improved Quality Oriental Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat germ oil was added into a low waste larval liquid diet for rearing Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) to optimize the fruit fly performance. Various concentrations of 0.04, 0.07, 0.15, 0.30, and 0.66 % of wheat germ oil were evaluated. Results showed that the addition of wheat germ oil did not affec...

  4. Performance improvement through quality evaluation of sterile Argentine cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), mass-reared at two insectaries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bi-national program was established by Mexico and the United States to mitigate the threat of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an invasive herbivore from South America, to native Opuntia spp. biodiversity and Opuntia-based industries. Mass-rearing, sterilization, and transpo...

  5. Performance improvement through quality evaluations of sterile cactus moths, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), mass-reared at two insectaries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A bi-national program was established by Mexico and the United States to mitigate the threat of Cactoblastis cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), an invasive herbivore from South America, to native Opuntia spp. biodiversity and Opuntia-based industries. Mass-rearing, sterilization, and transpo...

  6. Anti-predator behaviour of adult red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) tutors improves the defensive responses of farm-reared broods.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, C; Alonso, M E; Tizado, E J; Pérez, J A; Armenteros, J A; Gaudioso, V R

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work was to improve natural anti-predator behaviour of farm-reared gamebirds. We evaluated the anti-predator behaviour of reared red-legged partridge Alectoris rufa chicks kept in brooder houses in large groups (>350 chicks), trained and not trained by parent red-legged partridges acting as experienced tutors. The experiment consisted of two conditioned tests (a raptor model and a human) and two control tests, which were conducted during three consecutive phases of life (1-4, 15-17 and 30-32 d after hatching). The motor anti-predator behaviour, its duration, the intensity of response in chicks and alarm calls elicited by adults were recorded. Tutors elicited aerial alarm calls (76% of tests) and showed prolonged crouching (59% of tests) in response to the raptor model whereas uttering the ground alarm call (73% of tests) and showing vigilance behaviour (78% of tests) was the main pattern during the human test. Trained and not trained chicks showed similar motor behaviour in response to the raptor model (crouching) and the human test (escaping), but frequency of strong responses (all chicks responding) from chicks trained with tutors was double that of chicks trained without them, and chicks trained with tutors showed a higher frequency of long responses (41-60 s). This study indicates that anti-predator training programmes before release may improve behaviour of farm-reared partridges which may confer benefits to survival of birds. PMID:26955894

  7. Pathfinder Rear Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder's rear rover ramp can be seen successfully unfurled in this image, taken at the end of Sol 2 by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP). This ramp was later used for the deployment of the microrover Sojourner, which occurred at the end of Sol 2. Areas of a lander petal and deflated airbag are visible at left. The image helped Pathfinder scientists determine that the rear ramp was the one to use for rover deployment. At upper right is the rock dubbed 'Barnacle Bill,' which Sojourner will later study.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  8. Rear-Sided Passivation by SiNx:H Dielectric Layer for Improved Si/PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yiling; Gao, Pingqi; He, Jian; Zhou, Suqiong; Ying, Zhiqin; Yang, Xi; Xiang, Yong; Ye, Jichun

    2016-06-01

    Silicon/organic hybrid solar cells have recently attracted great attention because they combine the advantages of silicon (Si) and the organic cells. In this study, we added a patterned passivation layer of silicon nitride (SiNx:H) onto the rear surface of the Si substrate in a Si/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hybrid solar cell, enabling an improvement of 0.6 % in the power conversion efficiency (PCE). The addition of the SiNx:H layer boosted the open circuit voltage ( V oc) from 0.523 to 0.557 V, suggesting the well-passivation property of the patterned SiNx:H thin layer that was created by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and lithography processes. The passivation properties that stemmed from front PEDOT:PSS, rear-SiNx:H, front PEDOT:PSS/rear-SiNx:H, etc. are thoroughly investigated, in consideration of the process-related variations.

  9. Complete larval development of Thor amboinensis (De Man, 1888) Decapoda: Thoridae) described from laboratory-reared material
    and identified by DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Bartilotti, Cátia; Salabert, Joana; Santos, Antonina Dos

    2016-01-01

    Of the 12 species of Thor described until present date, only three (25%) have their complete larval development known. Present work describes the complete larval development of Thor amboinensis, based on laboratory-reared material. The spent females were identified through the analysis of the partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA barcode, also used for the reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships within the recently resurrected and recognized family Thoridae Kingsley, 1879. Eight zoeal stages and one decapodid complete this species larval development. In the genus Thor, the number of zoeal stages varies greatly from two (T. dobkini) to eight (T. amboinensis and T. floridanus). The larvae of T. ambionensis and T. floridanus are readily distinguished from each other by the ornamentation of the ventral margin of the carapace and the pereiopods development. The first zoeal stage of T. amboinensis described by Yang & Okuno (2004) and the one described in present study are very similar. A brief discussion on the morphological characters and on the number of zoeal stages of the genus, as well as of the previous larval descriptions is made. The phylogenetic analysis suggest cryptic speciation for geographical separated populations of T. amboinensis, paraphyly of the genus Eualus, and the reassignment of E. cranchii to a different genus. PMID:27395843

  10. Serum Clinical Biochemical and Hematologic Reference Ranges of Laboratory-Reared and Wild-Caught Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sabrina; Felt, Stephen; Torreilles, Stéphanie; Howard, Antwain; Behan, Colleen; Moorhead, Roberta; Green, Sherril

    2011-01-01

    The South African clawed frogs Xenopus laevis and X. tropicalis are fully aquatic amphibians and well-established animal models. Because genetically engineered laboratory Xenopus are now being produced, the establishment of normal reference ranges for serum biochemical and hematologic parameters is essential for phenotyping and as a diagnostic aide. We determined normal reference ranges for hematologic values from 3 populations of X. laevis: wild-caught frogs (n = 43) and frogs from 2 commercial sources (A, n = 166; B, n = 109). For serum biochemistry, we determined normal reference ranges for frogs from source A and wild-caught frogs divided by sex and season. Significant differences across populations were found in WBC and RBC counts, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and mean corpuscular volume. Among serum biochemical analytes, significant differences were found for albumin:globulin ratio, anion gap, and concentrations of albumin, globulin, total protein, lipase, alanine transaminase, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase; creatine phosphokinase; indirect, direct, and total bilirubin; cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein lipase, carbon dioxide, glucose, lactacte dehydrogenase, calcium, chloride, and sodium. We hypothesize that these differences can be attributed to differences in water quality, habitat, ambient temperature, diet, sex, recent transport or shipment, and genetic background. However, testing that hypothesis is beyond the scope of the current study. In addition, clinical chemistry and hematologic reference range values Xenopus laevis are quite distinct from those for other species and are most consistent with the only values published for another fully aquatic amphibian, the Eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis). PMID:22330708

  11. Milwaukee Laboratory System Improvement Program (L-SIP)

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sanjib; Murphy, Amy; Becker, Julie N.; Baker, Bevan K.

    2013-01-01

    The Laboratory System Improvement Program (L-SIP) of the Association of Public Health Laboratories aims to improve state public health laboratory (PHL) system performance through continuous quality improvement. We successfully applied this state assessment tool to a local PHL (LPHL) system by tailoring it to reflect local system needs and created an LPHL system definition explaining how a local system differs from, yet complements, a state system. On November 18, 2010, 75 stakeholders from 40 agencies assessed the Milwaukee, Wisconsin, PHL system, capturing themes, strengths and weaknesses of the system, and scores for each of the 10 Essential Public Health Services. A Laboratory Advisory Committee analyzed assessment results to identify a strategic focus of research and workforce development and define an action plan, which is now being carried out. Milwaukee's L-SIP process is effectively improving LPHL system research and workforce development while raising community awareness of the system. PMID:23997302

  12. Milwaukee Laboratory System Improvement Program (L-SIP).

    PubMed

    Gradus, M Stephen; Bhattacharyya, Sanjib; Murphy, Amy; Becker, Julie N; Baker, Bevan K

    2013-01-01

    The Laboratory System Improvement Program (L-SIP) of the Association of Public Health Laboratories aims to improve state public health laboratory (PHL) system performance through continuous quality improvement. We successfully applied this state assessment tool to a local PHL (LPHL) system by tailoring it to reflect local system needs and created an LPHL system definition explaining how a local system differs from, yet complements, a state system. On November 18, 2010, 75 stakeholders from 40 agencies assessed the Milwaukee, Wisconsin, PHL system, capturing themes, strengths and weaknesses of the system, and scores for each of the 10 Essential Public Health Services. A Laboratory Advisory Committee analyzed assessment results to identify a strategic focus of research and workforce development and define an action plan, which is now being carried out. Milwaukee's L-SIP process is effectively improving LPHL system research and workforce development while raising community awareness of the system. PMID:23997302

  13. A Laboratory Method for Rearing Tea Green Leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda by Using Tea Seedlings as Oviposition Sites and as Food

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosugi, Yukio

    In this study,I have developed a method for rearing tea green leafhopper, Empoasca onukii Matsuda by using tea seedlings. Tea seeds were prepared by incubating tea seeds at 5 ℃ for 30 daysand planted these seeds in agar gel.The germination rate of the seedlings on the 28th postincubation (at 25 ℃) days was 89.5%. When the length of new shoots was 7-8 cm, the seedlings were replanted in a cup containing agar gel. The cups were covered with a plastic cap and used as a rearing case. One adult female was captured from the tea fields and reared on the rearing case. On an average, 34.7 nymphs were found to breed on this rearing case. However, when the number of adult females in the rearing case was increased, the number of nymphs tended to decrease. Rearing of 1-2 adult males and females resulted in the breeding of more than 20 nymphs, ranging from the first to the fifth generation.

  14. Laboratory system strengthening and quality improvement in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Hiwotu, Tilahun M.; Ayana, Gonfa; Mulugeta, Achamyeleh; Kassa, Getachew B.; Kebede, Yenew; Fonjungo, Peter N.; Tibesso, Gudeta; Desale, Adino; Kebede, Adisu; Kassa, Wondwossen; Mekonnen, Tesfaye; Yao, Katy; Luman, Elizabeth T.; Kebede, Amha; Linde, Mary K.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2010, a National Laboratory Strategic Plan was set forth in Ethiopia to strengthen laboratory quality systems and set the stage for laboratory accreditation. As a result, the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) programme was initiated in 45 Ethiopian laboratories. Objectives This article discusses the implementation of the programme, the findings from the evaluation process and key challenges. Methods The 45 laboratories were divided into two consecutive cohorts and staff from each laboratory participated in SLMTA training and improvement projects. The average amount of supportive supervision conducted in the laboratories was 68 hours for cohort I and two hours for cohort II. Baseline and exit audits were conducted in 44 of the laboratories and percent compliance was determined using a checklist with scores divided into zero- to five-star rating levels. Results Improvements, ranging from < 1 to 51 percentage points, were noted in 42 laboratories, whilst decreases were recorded in two. The average scores at the baseline and exit audits were 40% and 58% for cohort I (p < 0.01); and 42% and 53% for cohort II (p < 0.01), respectively. The p-value for difference between cohorts was 0.07. At the exit audit, 61% of the first and 48% of the second cohort laboratories achieved an increase in star rating. Poor awareness, lack of harmonisation with other facility activities and the absence of a quality manual were challenges identified. Conclusion Improvements resulting from SLMTA implementation are encouraging. Continuous advocacy at all levels of the health system is needed to ensure involvement of stakeholders and integration with other improvement initiatives and routine activities. PMID:26753129

  15. 42 CFR 493.2001 - Establishment and function of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Consultations § 493.2001 Establishment and function of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee. (a) HHS will establish a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee to.... (b) The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee will be comprised of individuals...

  16. Improvements in the Child-Rearing Attitudes of Latina Mothers Exposed to Interpersonal Trauma Predict Greater Maternal Sensitivity Toward Their 6-Month-Old Infants.

    PubMed

    Waters, Sara F; Hagan, Melissa J; Rivera, Luisa; Lieberman, Alicia F

    2015-10-01

    The current study investigated maternal sensitivity in a treatment-seeking sample of predominately Latina, low-income pregnant women with histories of interpersonal trauma exposure. Pregnant women (N = 52; M = 27.08 years, SD = 5.66) who enrolled in a study of a perinatal adaptation of child-parent psychotherapy reported on their posttraumatic stress symptoms and child-rearing attitudes at baseline and again at 6-months postpartum. Maternal sensitivity was measured via observational coding of a free-play episode at 6-months postpartum. Two thirds of mothers exhibited healthy levels of maternal sensitivity, M > 4.0 (range = 2.5-7.0). The results of multiple linear regression predicting maternal sensitivity, R(2) = .26, indicated that greater improvements in child-rearing attitudes over the course of treatment predicted higher levels of maternal sensitivity, β = .33, whereas improvements in posttraumatic stress symptoms over the course of treatment did not, β = -.10. Mothers' attitudes regarding parenting during the perinatal period may be a mechanism by which intervention fosters healthy mother-infant relationship dynamics. Thus, parenting attitudes are a worthy target of intervention in vulnerable families. PMID:26418308

  17. Laboratory rearing of bed bugs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The resurgence of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. in the United States and worldwide has resulted in an increase in research by university, government, and industry scientists directed at the biology and control of this blood-sucking pest. A need has subsequently arisen for producing sufficient biolog...

  18. 75 FR 12554 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee: Notice of Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory...-463) of October 6, 1972, that the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee, Centers for..., Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,...

  19. Improving Student Laboratory Performance: How Much Practice Makes Perfect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Warren

    1985-01-01

    Analyzes three approaches (physical, mental, combined practice) to improving freshman chemistry psychomotor laboratory skills. Although no significant differences were found between treatments, there were significant differences when each was compared to the control sections. Mental practice appears to offer an efficient methods for reinforcement…

  20. 75 FR 1063 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee (CLIAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee (CLIAC) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control...

  1. Enriched rearing improves behavioral responses of an animal model for CNV-based autistic-like traits

    PubMed Central

    Lacaria, Melanie; Spencer, Corinne; Gu, Wenli; Paylor, Richard; Lupski, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Potocki–Lupski syndrome (PTLS; MIM #610883), characterized by neurobehavioral abnormalities, intellectual disability and congenital anomalies, is caused by a 3.7-Mb duplication in 17p11.2. Neurobehavioral studies determined that ∼70–90% of PTLS subjects tested positive for autism or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We previously chromosomally engineered a mouse model for PTLS (Dp(11)17/+) with a duplication of a 2-Mb genomic interval syntenic to the PTLS region and identified consistent behavioral abnormalities in this mouse model. We now report extensive phenotyping with behavioral assays established to evaluate core and associated autistic-like traits, including tests for social abnormalities, ultrasonic vocalizations, perseverative and stereotypic behaviors, anxiety, learning and memory deficits and motor defects. Alterations were identified in both core and associated ASD-like traits. Rearing this animal model in an enriched environment mitigated some, and even rescued selected, neurobehavioral abnormalities, suggesting a role for gene-environment interactions in the determination of copy number variation-mediated autism severity. PMID:22492990

  2. Biology, life history and laboratory rearing of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a larval parasitoid of the invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spathius galinae Belokobylskij & Strazajac is a recently described parasitoid of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus plannipennis Fairmaire, in the Russian Far East, and is currently being considered for biocontrol introduction in the US. Using A. planipennis larvae reared with freshly cut ash (Fraxinus ...

  3. Impacts of extended laboratory rearing on female fitness in Florida colonies of the parasitoid spalangia cameroni (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) with an analysis of wolbachia strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spalangia cameroni is used as a biological control agent of filth flies. These parasitoids are reared commercially, but little is known about the impact of colony age on host-seeking and life history parameters. Host-seeking in equine shavings and manure was analyzed with two colony ages established...

  4. Quality of mass-reared codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) after long distance transportation 1. Logistics of shipping procedures and quality parameters as measured in the laboratory.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sterile insect technique is a proven effective control tactic against lepidopteran pests when applied in an area-wide integrated pest management programme. The construction of insect mass-rearing facilities requires considerable investment and moth control strategies that include the use of ster...

  5. View of south rear and east sides, facing northnorthwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south rear and east sides, facing north-northwest - International Longshoremen's & Warehousemen's Union Hall, Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme Road, Port Hueneme, Ventura County, CA

  6. Software process improvement in the NASA software engineering laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, Frank; Pajerski, Rose; Page, Gerald; Waligora, Sharon; Basili, Victor; Zelkowitz, Marvin

    1994-01-01

    The Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) was established in 1976 for the purpose of studying and measuring software processes with the intent of identifying improvements that could be applied to the production of ground support software within the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The SEL has three member organizations: NASA/GSFC, the University of Maryland, and Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC). The concept of process improvement within the SEL focuses on the continual understanding of both process and product as well as goal-driven experimentation and analysis of process change within a production environment.

  7. [Improvement of routine works and quality control in mycobacterial laboratory].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Katsuhiro; Higuchi, Takeshi

    2007-03-01

    Many new methods have been introduced into routine laboratory works in microbiology since 1990. Molecular biology, in particular, opened a new era and promoted a technician's skill much. PCR and hybridization technique have been ordinary one in many laboratories. Since old techniques such as smear and culture are still needed, amount of routine works is increasing gradually. Thus, improving efficiency and keeping quality of routine works are becoming more and more important issues. This symposium focused on such points, and four skilled technicians around Japan presented their own tips. 1. Coexistence of M. tuberculosis and M. avium complex (MAC) in the MGIT culture system: Yasushi WATANABE (Clinical Laboratory Division, NHO Nishi-Niigata Chuo National Hospital). Sputum samples of some tuberculosis patients yielded only MAC in the MGIT culture system. Such co-infected cases presented problems to mislead proper treatment and infection control. The detection rate of MAC was significantly high, and the growth speed of MAC was significantly rapid in the MGIT culture system, compared to those of M. tuberculosis. Additionally, M. tuberculosis was not detected with even more quantity than MAC in the small amount of mixed samples. Higher sensitivity and growth speed of MAC are the important characteristics of the MGIT system. 2. Internal quality control with ordinary examination results: Akio AONO (Department of Clinical Examination, Double-Barred Cross Hospital, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association). Our laboratory utilizes ordinary examination results as the internal quality control for specimen pretreatment, culture, and drug susceptibility testing. The contamination rate of MGIT culture system is useful for the evaluation of the decontamination process. It was 6.3% on average in our laboratory in 2005. The number of drug resistant strains is also useful to assess the performance of drug susceptibility testing. The incidence of each anti-tuberculosis drug resistance

  8. Critical components required to improve deployable laboratory biological hazards identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemeyer, Debra M.

    2004-08-01

    An ever-expanding global military mission necessitates quick and accurate identification of biological hazards, whether naturally occurring or man-made. Coupled with an ever-present threat of biological attack, an expanded U.S. presence in worn-torn locations like Southwest Asia presents unique public health challenges. We must heed modern day "lessons learned" from Operation Desert Shield and the Soviet Afghanistan Campaign and guard against rapid incapacitation of troop strength from endemic disease and biological attack. To minimize readiness impacts, field hygiene is enforced, and research on better medical countermeasures such as antibiotics and vaccines continues. However, there are no preventions or remedies for all military-relevant infectious diseases or biological agents. A deployable, streamlined, self-contained diagnostic and public health surveillance laboratory capability with a reach-back communication is critical to meeting global readiness challenges. Current deployable laboratory packages comprise primarily diagnostic or environmental sample testing capabilities. Discussion will focus on critical components needed to improve existing laboratory assets, and to facilitate deployment of small, specialized packages far forward. The ideal laboratory model described will become an essential tool for the Combatant or Incident Commander to maintain force projection in the expeditionary environment.

  9. On the improvement of blood sample collection at clinical laboratories

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood samples are usually collected daily from different collection points, such hospitals and health centers, and transported to a core laboratory for testing. This paper presents a project to improve the collection routes of two of the largest clinical laboratories in Spain. These routes must be designed in a cost-efficient manner while satisfying two important constraints: (i) two-hour time windows between collection and delivery, and (ii) vehicle capacity. Methods A heuristic method based on a genetic algorithm has been designed to solve the problem of blood sample collection. The user enters the following information for each collection point: postal address, average collecting time, and average demand (in thermal containers). After implementing the algorithm using C programming, this is run and, in few seconds, it obtains optimal (or near-optimal) collection routes that specify the collection sequence for each vehicle. Different scenarios using various types of vehicles have been considered. Unless new collection points are added or problem parameters are changed substantially, routes need to be designed only once. Results The two laboratories in this study previously planned routes manually for 43 and 74 collection points, respectively. These routes were covered by an external carrier company. With the implementation of this algorithm, the number of routes could be reduced from ten to seven in one laboratory and from twelve to nine in the other, which represents significant annual savings in transportation costs. Conclusions The algorithm presented can be easily implemented in other laboratories that face this type of problem, and it is particularly interesting and useful as the number of collection points increases. The method designs blood collection routes with reduced costs that meet the time and capacity constraints of the problem. PMID:24406140

  10. Improvements in nozzle rainfall simulators used in laboratory environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lima, João L. M. P.; Isidoro, Jorge M. G. P.; de Lima, M. Isabel P.; Carvalho, Sílvia C. P.

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall simulators are an important tool in studying soil erosion, which is considered a key process contributing to land degradation. The versatility of rainfall simulators enables their use in the laboratory and in the field, providing controlled conditions of rainfall intensity, kinetic energy, drop characteristics and event duration. Pressurized rainfall simulators have spray nozzles that can be characterized by the nozzle discharge, spray angle and pattern, and drop size distribution. However, the drop's properties and hence the entire simulated event depend on the system operating pressure and respective flow rate and also the nozzle design. The objective of this presentation is to report on recent improvements on rainfall simulators used in laboratory environment at the University of Coimbra, namely the use of pressure control devices upstream of nozzles, incorporation of meshes underneath sprays to change the spatial distribution of the kinetic energy and intensity of the simulated rain and fans to induce wind-driven rain. These improvements aimed at changing the simulated rain characteristics (e.g. intensity, kinetic energy and drop size distribution) and improve the quality and reproducibility of the rainfall simulations (e.g. precise start and stop, invariance in time).

  11. Artificial insemination of pigs reared under smallholder production system in northeastern India: success rate, genetic improvement, and monetary benefit.

    PubMed

    Kadirvel, Govindasamy; Kumaresan, Arumugam; Das, Anubrata; Bujarbaruah, Kamal Malla; Venkatasubramanian, Venkatasamy; Ngachan, Shishom Vanao

    2013-02-01

    The study investigated the success rate, genetic improvement, and monetary benefit of artificial insemination (AI) technology in smallholder backyard pig production system. The pig production system was studied, and performance of nondescript and crossbred pigs under the traditional system was evaluated. Litter size and growth rate of crossbred pig was significantly (P < 0.05) higher compared to the nondescript pigs. Non-availability of superior germplasm to produce crossbred pigs and high mating cost were the major constraints observed in the study in addition to indiscriminate mating and non-availability of breeding boar. For genetic improvement of nondescript local pigs and to produce crossbred pigs, AI delivery mechanism was developed in participatory mode including farmers, village leaders, and key persons in 36 villages. The information system was designed in such a way that AI was carried out at the doorstep of the farmer upon request. A total of 167 estrus sow/gilts were artificially inseminated, and a farrowing rate of 78.44 % was obtained with a mean litter size of 7.86 ± 0.65 following AI, which did not differ significantly from natural service. However, the growth rate of crossbred piglets obtained through AI was significantly higher than the growth rate of piglets born out of natural service. The tribal farmers were benefited by AI in several ways: (1) timely availability of superior germplasm to produce crossbred piglets; (2) saved the mating cost of INR 1,000-1,200 and transport of cost (INR 300-400) of female to the boar premises and (3) controlled mating to prevent inbreeding. The present study clearly demonstrates the feasibility and potential benefit of AI technique to smallholder backyard pig production system in tribal rural areas. In addition to genetic improvement of nondescript local pigs, this technology can help in overcoming breeding constraints in smallholder backyard pig production for increasing productivity. PMID:23065391

  12. Report: NSF Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement Grants in Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-01-01

    The 1996 awards in chemistry under the Instrumentation and Laboratory Improvement Program (ILI) of the Division of Undergraduate Education (DUE) have been announced and are listed below. The ILI program provides matching funds in the range of 5,000 to 100,000 for purchasing equipment for laboratory improvement. Since the recipient institution must provide matching funds equaling or exceeding the NSF award, the supported projects range in cost from 10,000 to over 200,000. The 311 chemistry proposals requesting 13 million constituted 21% of the total number of proposals submitted to the ILI program. A total of 3.9 million was awarded in support of 110 projects in chemistry. The instruments requested most frequently were high field NMRs, GC/MS instruments, computers for data analysis, and FT-IRs; next most commonly requested were UV-vis spectrophotometers, followed by HPLCs, lasers, computers for molecular modeling, AAs, and GCs. In addition, one award was made this year in chemistry within the Leadership in Laboratory Development category. The next deadline for submission of ILI proposals is November 14, 1997. Guidelines for the preparation of proposals are found in the DUE Program Announcement (NSF 96-10), which may be obtained by calling (703) 306-1666 or by e-mail: undergrad@nsf.gov. Other information about DUE programs and activities and abstracts of the funded proposals can be found on the DUE Home Page at http://www.ehr.nsf.gov/EHR/DUE/start.htm. We thank Sandra D. Nelson, Science Education Analyst in DUE, for assistance in data gathering.

  13. Evaluation of strategies to improve village chicken production: controlled field trials to assess effects of Newcastle disease vaccination and altered chick rearing in Myanmar [corrected].

    PubMed

    Henning, J; Morton, J; Pym, R; Hla, T; Meers, J

    2009-07-01

    Previous research identified Newcastle disease and poor management of chicks (birds younger than 6 weeks of age) as major constraints to village chicken production in Myanmar. Based on these findings, controlled trials were conducted in 124 randomly selected households in nine villages in Myanmar over a period of 12 months to evaluate strategies to enhance survival of village chickens. Two intervention strategies were assessed: Newcastle disease vaccination using the thermostable I-2 vaccine and changes to the management of chick rearing (confinement and supplementary feeding). These interventions were applied in two trials: (1) a randomised controlled trial to compare I-2 vaccination, altered chick management and no intervention (apart from placebo treatment) at household level and (2) nested within this trial, a double-blinded controlled trial at bird-level to compare serological titres between I-2 vaccinated and placebo-treated birds both between and within households. Outcomes measured in the first trial were crude incidence rate of mortality, proportional mortality rate for deaths due to disease stratified by age group of birds and mortality attributed to Newcastle disease, number of sales, income from sale of birds, consumption of birds and hatching of birds. Odds of having protective titres two weeks after vaccination were up to 125 times higher in I-2 vaccinated birds and up to 47 times higher in control birds in contact with I-2 vaccinates compared to birds without I-2 contact. Vaccination against Newcastle disease reduced the proportions of mortalities assumed to be caused by disease in growers and chicks. Crude mortality incidence was lower in households that applied management changes to chick rearing. In household-months when birds were sold, numbers sold were higher and income from sale of birds were about 2.50 US dollars per month higher in households allocated to altered chick management. Altered chick management resulted in more households having

  14. 42 CFR 493.2001 - Establishment and function of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee. 493.2001 Section 493.2001 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Improvement Advisory Committee. (a) HHS will establish a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee to.... (b) The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee will be comprised of individuals...

  15. 78 FR 59704 - Medicare, Medicaid, and CLIA Programs; Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 Exemption of Laboratories Licensed by the State of Washington... announces that laboratories located in and licensed by the State of Washington that possess a valid license... requirements of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA) for a period of 6 years....

  16. Personnel neutron dosimetry improvements at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, W.F.; Hoffman, J.M.; Brake, R.J.; Bliss, J.L.

    1992-08-01

    We are investigating methods to improve neutron dosimetry at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) using the track etch dosemeter CR-39. Specifically, use of CR-39 for dynamic environments, typically encountered at the LANL Plutonium Facility, is shown to be a superior method for personnel neutron dosimetry when compared to the currently used TLD system. The results of glovebox experiments simulating hydrogenous shielding used at LANL, temporal variations of neutron correction factors used at the Plutonium Facility, trial implementation at this facility and preliminary neutron spectroscopy measurements are presented and compared to reference dosimetry measurements. Our results confirm that use of a TLD system in a facility implementing hydrogenous shielding requires frequent field re-calibration. When such correction factors are not re-evaluated frequently, or are maintained at pre-shielding levels, significant (i.e., 2- to 3-fold) overestimation of the neutron dose equivalent can occur.

  17. Personnel neutron dosimetry improvements at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, W.F.; Hoffman, J.M.; Brake, R.J. ); Bliss, J.L. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    We are investigating methods to improve neutron dosimetry at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) using the track etch dosemeter CR-39. Specifically, use of CR-39 for dynamic environments, typically encountered at the LANL Plutonium Facility, is shown to be a superior method for personnel neutron dosimetry when compared to the currently used TLD system. The results of glovebox experiments simulating hydrogenous shielding used at LANL, temporal variations of neutron correction factors used at the Plutonium Facility, trial implementation at this facility and preliminary neutron spectroscopy measurements are presented and compared to reference dosimetry measurements. Our results confirm that use of a TLD system in a facility implementing hydrogenous shielding requires frequent field re-calibration. When such correction factors are not re-evaluated frequently, or are maintained at pre-shielding levels, significant (i.e., 2- to 3-fold) overestimation of the neutron dose equivalent can occur.

  18. A field laboratory for improved oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; McDonald, J.; Claridge, E.; Killough, J.

    1992-09-01

    The purpose of Annex III of the Memorandum of Understanding, undertaken by the Houston Petroleum Research Center at the University of Houston, was to develop a field laboratory for research in improved oil recovery using a Gulf Coast reservoir in Texas. The participants: (1) make a field site selection and conducted a high resolution seismic survey in the demonstration field, (2) obtained characteristics of the reservoir (3) developed an evaluation of local flood efficiency in different parts of the demonstration reservoir, (4) used diverse methodology to evaluate the potential recovery of the remaining oil in the test reservoir, (5) developed cross-well seismic tomography, and (6) will transfer the learned technologies to oil operators through publication and workshops. This abstract is an overview of these tasks.

  19. Laboratory and field testing of improved geothermal rock bits

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, R.R.; Jones, A.H.; Winzenried, R.W.; Maish, A.B.

    1980-07-01

    The development and testing of 222 mm (8-3/4 inch) unsealed, insert type, medium hard formation, high-temperature bits are described. The new bits were fabricated by substituting improved materials in critical bit components. These materials were selected on bases of their high temperature properties, machinability, and heat treatment response. Program objectives required that both machining and heat treating could be accomplished with existing rock bit production equipment. Two types of experimental bits were subjected to laboratory air drilling tests at 250/sup 0/C (482/sup 0/F) in cast iron. These tests indicated field testing could be conducted without danger to the hole, and that bearing wear would be substantially reduced. Six additional experimental bits, and eight conventional bits were then subjected to air drilling a 240/sup 0/C (464/sup 0/F) in Francisan Graywacke at The Geysers, CA. The materials selected improved roller wear by 200%, friction-pin wear by 150%, and lug wear by 150%. Geysers drilling performances compared directly to conventional bits indicate that in-gage drilling life was increased by 70%. All bits at The Geysers are subjected to reaming out-of-gage hole prior to drilling. Under these conditions the experimental bits showed a 30% increase in usable hole over the conventional bits. These tests demonstrated a potential well cost reduction of 4 to 8%. Savings of 12% are considered possible with drilling procedures optimized for the experimental bits.

  20. Spawning and rearing Atlantic menhaden

    SciTech Connect

    Hettler, W.F.

    1981-04-01

    Two-year-old Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) held in the laboratory at ambient temperatures and salinities for more than 1 year, were induced to spawn by injecting first human chorionic gonadotropin and then carp pituitary powder. Spawning took place at temperatures of 16 to 20/sup 0/C in a 2100-L indoor tank modified to recover the buoyant fertilized eggs. Larvae were reared to the juvenile stage on a diet of cultured rotifers (Brachionus plicatilus), sieved wild zooplankton (64 to 500 ..mu..m), brine shrimp (Artemia salina) nauplii, and powdered trout food.

  1. 22. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM RECEIVING PLATFORM AT THE REAR (EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM RECEIVING PLATFORM AT THE REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING, SHOWING SOUTH SIDE OF NORTH WING AND SOUTH SIDE OF FOOD PRESERVATION AND SANITATION LABORATORY (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

  2. 14. REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING SHOWING RECEIVING COURT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. REAR (EAST SIDE) OF BUILDING SHOWING RECEIVING COURT AND SOUTH SIDE OF FOOD PRESERVATION AND SANITATION LABORATORY, LOOKING WEST-NORTHWEST (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

  3. NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, Looking southeast down Saturn Boulevard. February, 1998 - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Electrical Substation, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. 8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. Edwards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. SOUTH REAR, SUPERSTRUCTURE. Looking north from deck. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  5. 2. VIEW TO SOUTH, REAR AND SIDE. Vanadium Corporation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW TO SOUTH, REAR AND SIDE. - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Laboratory, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  6. Northeast (rear) and northwest (side) elevations, view to southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Northeast (rear) and northwest (side) elevations, view to southwest - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  7. Southeast (side) and northeast (rear) elevations, view to northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast (side) and northeast (rear) elevations, view to northwest - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  8. 22. DETAIL, TWO LIGHTING TYPES AT REAR OF TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL, TWO LIGHTING TYPES AT REAR OF TEST STAND 1-A. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. CONSUMPTIONS RATES OF SUMMER FLOUNDER LARVAE ON ROTIFER AND BRINE SHRIMP PREY DURING LARVAL REARING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Larval summer flounder Paralichthys dentatus were hatched and reared through metamorphosis in the laboratory. At several points in the rearing cycle, larvae were removed from their rearing chambers and placed in small bowls, where they were fed known quantities of the rotifer Bra...

  10. Costly Nutritious Diets do not Necessarily Translate into Better Performance of Artificially Reared Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Pascacio-Villafán, C; Williams, T; Sivinski, J; Birke, A; Aluja, M

    2015-02-01

    Protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and energy contents of three artificial diets (Xal2, Met1, and Met2) used for laboratory-rearing and mass-rearing the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), for a sterile insect technique program were measured. The larval survival, pupation, pupal weight, adult emergence, sex ratio, and flight capacity of the flies reared on each of these diets were also quantified. The diet with the highest nutrient and energy content was Xal2 followed by Met2 and Met1, but larval recovery and percent pupation was significantly higher in flies reared on either the Met1 or Met2 diets. A. ludens reared on Xal2 exhibited the highest proportion of adults capable of flight. No other response variable differed significantly among the three diets tested. This suggests that a high content of nutrients and multiple sources of protein (dried yeast and wheat germ in the case of the Xal2 diet) do not necessarily improve overall performance or fly quality. We conclude that nutritious diets for A. ludens can be modified to reduce their cost without compromising the performance of artificially reared flies. PMID:26470103

  11. Costly Nutritious Diets do not Necessarily Translate into Better Performance of Artificially Reared Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pascacio-Villafán, C.; Williams, T.; Sivinski, J.; Birke, A.; Aluja, M.

    2015-01-01

    Protein, lipid, carbohydrate, and energy contents of three artificial diets (Xal2, Met1, and Met2) used for laboratory-rearing and mass-rearing the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), for a sterile insect technique program were measured. The larval survival, pupation, pupal weight, adult emergence, sex ratio, and flight capacity of the flies reared on each of these diets were also quantified. The diet with the highest nutrient and energy content was Xal2 followed by Met2 and Met1, but larval recovery and percent pupation was significantly higher in flies reared on either the Met1 or Met2 diets. A. ludens reared on Xal2 exhibited the highest proportion of adults capable of flight. No other response variable differed significantly among the three diets tested. This suggests that a high content of nutrients and multiple sources of protein (dried yeast and wheat germ in the case of the Xal2 diet) do not necessarily improve overall performance or fly quality. We conclude that nutritious diets for A. ludens can be modified to reduce their cost without compromising the performance of artificially reared flies. PMID:26470103

  12. Augmented Reality for the Improvement of Remote Laboratories: An Augmented Remote Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andujar, J. M.; Mejias, A.; Marquez, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) provides huge opportunities for online teaching in science and engineering, as these disciplines place emphasis on practical training and unsuited to completely nonclassroom training. This paper proposes a new concept in virtual and remote laboratories: the augmented remote laboratory (ARL). ARL is being tested in the first…

  13. 43. FIRST FLOOR, REAR HALL: REAR HALLWAY BEHIND CURVED STAIRS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. FIRST FLOOR, REAR HALL: REAR HALLWAY BEHIND CURVED STAIRS LOOKING NORTH TO 19TH CENTURY ADDITION. Arch defines north wall of original house. - George A. Trenholm Mansion, 172 Rutledge Avenue, Charleston, Charleston County, SC

  14. DETAIL OF REAR COURTYARD. SHOWING DOUBLE DOORS AT REAR ENTRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF REAR COURTYARD. SHOWING DOUBLE DOORS AT REAR ENTRY TO SITTING ROOM. VIEW FACING SOUTHWEST. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Officers' Housing Type Z, 19 Worchester Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  15. FACILITY 710, NORTHWEST AND REAR SIDES, SHOWING WINGS IN REAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 710, NORTHWEST AND REAR SIDES, SHOWING WINGS IN REAR, OBLIQUE VIEW FACING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Schofield Barracks Military Reservation, Corner-Entry Single-Family Housing Type, Between Bragg & Grime Streets near Williston Avenue, Wahiawa, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Toward Communal Child Rearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Rosalind M.

    1973-01-01

    Social work's preoccupation with the preservation of the nuclear family has blinded it to the necessity of finding new ways to care for children. This myopia has impeded recognition of the forces in American life that are bringing social change and new forms of child rearing. This article describes some of these phenomena and concludes that…

  17. Single Fathers Rearing Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greif, Geoffrey L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes single fathers rearing children alone following divorce (N=1,136). Findings revealed four primary reasons for the divorce and four broad situations in which the fathers obtained custody. These latter situations often are affected by the mother's desire to relinquish custody. (NRB)

  18. Laboratory technique for coloring titanium abutments to improve esthetics.

    PubMed

    Wadhwani, Chandur P K; O'Brien, Richard; Kattadiyil, Mathew T; Chung, Kwok-Hung

    2016-04-01

    Titanium alloys are used for implant abutments onto which prostheses are attached. One major disadvantage of titanium abutments is their esthetics; the metallic gray color may show through the restorative material or through surrounding tissues. A laboratory technique using readily available household items is described that can alter the abutment color by anodization. PMID:26723096

  19. The Laboratory. Guides for the Improvement of Instruction in Higher Education, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Lawrence T.; And Others

    This guide for the improvement of instruction in higher education is designed to aid the educator in planning and conducting laboratory instruction. The examples used refer primarily to science laboratories. Topics discussed include: deciding whether or not to use the laboratory method (with a discussion of discovery learning or the processes of…

  20. The Future Direction of Regional Educational Laboratories in Contributing to Urban School Improvement. Laboratory Policy Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Floretta Dukes

    This paper examines the current and future roles of organizations such as education laboratories in serving the changing needs of urban education. Concerns for greater effectiveness in support services stem from the growing need to effectively deal with some of the complex, lingering issues which to data have been only marginally addressed. Urban…

  1. Improving mating performance of mass-reared sterile Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) through changes in adult holding conditions: demography and mating competitiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Liedo, P.; Salgado, S.; Oropeza, A.; Toledo, J.

    2007-03-15

    Mass rearing conditions affect the mating behavior of Mediterranean fruit flies (medflies) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). We evaluated the effect of slight changes in the adult holding conditions of adult flies maintained for egg production on their mating performance. Colonization was initiated from wild flies collected as larvae from infested coffee berries (Coffea arabica L.). When pupae were close to adult emergence, they were randomly divided into 3 groups and the emerging adults were reared under the following conditions: (1) Metapa System (MS, control), consisting of 70 x 45 x 15 cm aluminum frame, mesh covered cages, with a density of 2,200 flies per cage and a 1:1 initial sex ratio; (2) Insert System (IS), with the same type of cage, and the same fly density and sex ratio as in the MS treatment, but containing twelve Plexiglas pieces (23 x 8.5 cm) to provide additional horizontal surface areas inside the cage; and (3) Sex-ratio System (SS), same as IS, but in this case the initial male: female ratio was 4:1. Three d later, newly emerged females were introduced, so the ratio became 3:1 and on the 6th d another group of newly emerged females was added to provide a 2:1 final sex ratio, at which the final density reached 1,675 flies per cage. The eggs collected from each of the 3 treatments were reared independently following standard procedures and the adults were held under the same experimental conditions. This process was repeated for over 10 to 13 generations (1 year). The experiment was repeated 3 times in 3 consecutive years, starting each replicate with a new collection of wild flies. Life tables were constructed for each treatment at the parental, 3rd, 6th, and 9th generations. Standard quality control parameters (pupation at 24 h, pupal weight, adult emergence, and flight ability), were estimated for each treatment every third generation in the third year. For the last generation each year, mating competitiveness was evaluated in field cage tests

  2. Rear leit observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, P.; Ferguson, A. J. L.; Walmsley, D. G.

    1982-11-01

    We have observed light emission from the rear of CaF 2-roughened Al-I-Au tunnel sandwiches. Like the forward emitted light, its spectral intensity shows a sharp drop at energies > 2.5 eV. We interpret the results in terms of both emissions being mediated by a common surface or interface plasmon; the plasmon is damped above 2.5 eV by excitation of an interband transition in Au.

  3. Mars Science Laboratory Entry Guidance Improvements for Mars 2018 (DRAFT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Llama, Eduardo; Winski, Richard G.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Ivanov, Mark C.; Grover, Myron R.; Prakash, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    In 2011, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will be launched in a mission to deliver the largest and most capable rover to date to the surface of Mars. A follow on MSL-derived mission, referred to as Mars 2018, is planned for 2018. Mars 2018 goals include performance enhancements of the Entry, Descent and Landing over that of its predecessor MSL mission of 2011. This paper will discuss the main elements of the modified 2018 EDL preliminary design that will increase performance on the entry phase of the mission. In particular, these elements will increase the parachute deploy altitude to allow for more time margin during the subsequent descent and landing phases and reduce the delivery ellipse size at parachute deploy through modifications in the entry reference trajectory design, guidance trigger logic design, and the effect of additional navigation hardware.

  4. The impact of SLMTA in improving laboratory quality systems in the Caribbean Region

    PubMed Central

    Guevara, Giselle; Gordon, Floris; Irving, Yvette; Whyms, Ismae; Parris, Keith; Beckles, Songee; Maruta, Talkmore; Ndlovu, Nqobile; Albalak, Rachel; Alemnji, George

    2016-01-01

    Background Past efforts to improve laboratory quality systems and to achieve accreditation for better patient care in the Caribbean Region have been slow. Objective To describe the impact of the Strengthening of Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) training programme and mentorship amongst five clinical laboratories in the Caribbean after 18 months. Method Five national reference laboratories from four countries participated in the SLMTA programme that incorporated classroom teaching and implementation of improvement projects. Mentors were assigned to the laboratories to guide trainees on their improvement projects and to assist in the development of Quality Management Systems (QMS). Audits were conducted at baseline, six months, exit (at 12 months) and post-SLMTA (at 18 months) using the Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA) checklist to measure changes in implementation of the QMS during the period. At the end of each audit, a comprehensive implementation plan was developed in order to address gaps. Results Baseline audit scores ranged from 19% to 52%, corresponding to 0 stars on the SLIPTA five-star scale. After 18 months, one laboratory reached four stars, two reached three stars and two reached two stars. There was a corresponding decrease in nonconformities and development of over 100 management and technical standard operating procedures in each of the five laboratories. Conclusion The tremendous improvement in these five Caribbean laboratories shows that SLMTA coupled with mentorship is an effective, user-friendly, flexible and customisable approach to the implementation of laboratory QMS. It is recommended that other laboratories in the region consider using the SLMTA training programme as they engage in quality systems improvement and preparation for accreditation. PMID:27066396

  5. Improving consistency in large laboratory courses: a design for a standardized practical exam.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xinnian; Graesser, Donnasue; Sah, Megha

    2015-06-01

    Laboratory courses serve as important gateways to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education. One of the challenges in assessing laboratory learning is to conduct meaningful and standardized practical exams, especially for large multisection laboratory courses. Laboratory practical exams in life sciences courses are frequently administered by asking students to move from station to station to answer questions, apply knowledge gained during laboratory experiments, interpret data, and identify various tissues and organs using various microscopic and gross specimens. This approach puts a stringent time limit on all questions regardless of the level of difficulty and also invariably increases the potential risk of cheating. To avoid potential cheating in laboratory courses with multiple sections, the setup for practical exams is often changed in some way between sections. In laboratory courses with multiple instructors or teaching assistants, practical exams may be handled inconsistently among different laboratory sections, due to differences in background knowledge, perceptions of the laboratory goals, or prior teaching experience. In this article, we describe a design for a laboratory practical exam that aims to align the assessment questions with well-defined laboratory learning objectives and improve the consistency among all laboratory sections. PMID:26031726

  6. Improving Graphing Interpretation Skills and Understanding of Motion Using Microcomputer Based Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svec, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Examines the relative effectiveness of the traditional lab method and the microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) for improving student understanding. Examines three areas of achievement: graphing interpretation skills, and interpreting motion graphs and understanding of motion. Results indicate that MBL laboratories are more effective than…

  7. Performance-Based Assessment: Improving the Value of Laboratory and Skills Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvestrone, Judy M.

    2004-01-01

    Whether in the science or language laboratory, carrying out health care procedures or demonstrating performance arts, faculty can improve skill evaluation through transparency and authenticity in exam construction, format, and grading.

  8. 78 FR 63999 - Notice of Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) Symposium: Tools To Improve Laboratory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Notice of Vitamin D Standardization Program (VDSP) Symposium: Tools To Improve Laboratory Measurement SUMMARY: The National Institutes of Health, Office...

  9. 37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear of powerhouse and car barn, showing the turntable and tracks used to move cars in and out of the building's repair and storage area. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. 5. SOUTH CORNERShowing rear and alley (southeastern) side; the rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTH CORNER--Showing rear and alley (southeastern) side; the rear of the building is obscured by the three-story hotel in the foreground. North - Empire Building, 430 Sixteenth Street, South Corner of Sixteenth Street & Glenarm Place, Denver, Denver County, CO

  11. VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SHADED REAR YARDS AND TERRACING, SHOWING REAR OF 527 BIRCH CIRCLE ON LEFT. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. Confirmation of the absence of tetrodotoxin and its analogues in the juveniles of the Japanese fire-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster, captive-reared from eggs in the laboratory using HILIC-LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Yuta; Chiba, Chikafumi; Konoki, Keiichi; Cho, Yuko; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2015-07-01

    The tetrodotoxin (TTX) contents of the Japanese fire-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster, captive-reared from eggs to metamorphosed juveniles with a non-toxic diet for 70 weeks, as well as wild-caught juvenile newts, were investigated using a high-resolution hydrophilic interaction chromatography-LC-MS. TTX was detected in 0- to 22-week-old captive-reared juvenile newts but was not detected (<15 ng/g) in the 36- to 70-week-old newts, while significant levels of TTX (1.3-14 μg/g) were detected in the wild-caught juveniles. PMID:25986913

  13. 77 FR 14805 - Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the... Improvement Advisory Committee, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Department of Health...

  14. An Optimized Protocol for Rearing Fopius arisanus, a Parasitoid of Tephritid Fruit Flies

    PubMed Central

    Manoukis, Nicholas; Geib, Scott; Seo, Danny; McKenney, Michael; Vargas, Roger; Jang, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Fopius arisanus (Sonan) is an important parasitoid of Tephritid fruit flies for at least two reasons. First, it is the one of only three opiine parasitoids known to infect the host during the egg stage1. Second, it has a wide range of potential fruit fly hosts. Perhaps due to its life history, F. arisanus has been a successfully used for biological control of fruit flies in multiple tropical regions2-4. One impediment to the wide use of F. arisanus for fruit fly control is that it is difficult to establish a stable laboratory colony5-9. Despite this difficulty, in the 1990s USDA researchers developed a reliable method to maintain laboratory populations of F. arisanus10-12. There is significant interest in F. arisanus biology13,14, especially regarding its ability to colonize a wide variety of Tephritid hosts14-17; interest is especially driven by the alarming spread of Bactrocera fruit fly pests to new continents in the last decade18. Further research on F. arisanus and additional deployments of this species as a biological control agent will benefit from optimizations and improvements of rearing methods. In this protocol and associated video article we describe an optimized method for rearing F. arisanus based on a previously described approach12. The method we describe here allows rearing of F. arisanus in a small scale without the use of fruit, using materials available in tropical regions around the world and with relatively low manual labor requirements. PMID:21750493

  15. Improvement of mass-rearing procedures for an olive fruit fly parasitoid – duration of exposure to hosts affects production of Psyttalia lounsburyi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), causes severe economic damage in California. Control of this fly is currently limited to pesticides. The USDA-ARS European Biological Control Laboratory in Montpellier, France established a classical biological control program nearly 15 y...

  16. Rear axle designed in oriented FRP

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    Using techniques of both synthesis and analysis, together with carefully defined goals, a team of investigators devised a major suspension member using oriented fiber reinforced plastic. A weight saving of 57% resulted for an innovative rear axle design estimate to increase cost about /1.20 per kilogram of weight saved. Only durability fell short of expectations, a factor which should improve with further refinements.

  17. Evidence from 617 laboratories in 47 countries for SLMTA-driven improvement in quality management systems

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Katy; Luman, Elizabeth T.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) programme is a large-scale effort to improve the quality of laboratories in resource-limited countries. Objectives This study sought to evaluate the first four years (2010–2013) of SLMTA implementation. Methods Country-level data were submitted by SLMTA programme leads and compiled globally. Performance was measured before (baseline) and after (exit) SLMTA implementation using an audit checklist which results in a percentage score and a rating of zero to five stars. Some laboratories continued to monitor performance in post-exit surveillance audits. We evaluated score improvements using two-tailed t-tests for equal variances and estimated the number of tests performed by SLMTA laboratories based on star level. Results SLMTA was implemented in 617 laboratories in 47 countries in Africa, the Caribbean, Latin America and Southeast Asia. At the baseline audit, the laboratories scored an average of 39% on the checklist and 84% of them were rated below one star. As of December 2013, 302 laboratories had completed the SLMTA programme; mean checklist scores increased from 39% at baseline to 64% at exit (p < 0.001) over an average 16-month programme duration. Ninety-two laboratories conducted a surveillance audit at a median of 11 months after their exit audit; 62% further increased their performance. Six SLMTA laboratories have achieved accreditation status. In total, the 617 SLMTA laboratories conduct an estimated 111 million tests annually. Only 16% of these tests were conducted by laboratories with at least one star at baseline, which increased to 68% of tests after SLMTA training. Thus, approximately 23 million tests are conducted annually by laboratories previously at zero stars that now have one to five stars; this number is projected to increase to 58 million when currently-enrolled laboratories complete the programme. Conclusion SLMTA has transformed the laboratory landscape in

  18. Live births achieved via IVF are increased by improvements in air quality and laboratory environment

    PubMed Central

    Heitmann, Ryan J; Hill, Micah J; James, Aidita N; Schimmel, Tim; Segars, James H; Csokmay, John M; Cohen, Jacques; Payson, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a common disease, which causes many couples to seek treatment with assisted reproduction techniques. Many factors contribute to successful assisted reproduction technique outcomes. One important factor is laboratory environment and air quality. Our facility had the unique opportunity to compare consecutively used, but separate assisted reproduction technique laboratories, as a result of a required move. Environmental conditions were improved by strategic engineering designs. All other aspects of the IVF laboratory, including equipment, physicians, embryologists, nursing staff and protocols, were kept constant between facilities. Air quality testing showed improved air quality at the new IVF site. Embryo implantation (32.4% versus 24.3%; P < 0.01) and live birth (39.3% versus 31.8%, P < 0.05) were significantly increased in the new facility compared with the old facility. More patients met clinical criteria and underwent mandatory single embryo transfer on day 5 leading to both a reduction in multiple gestation pregnancies and increased numbers of vitrified embryos per patient with supernumerary embryos available. Improvements in IVF laboratory conditions and air quality had profound positive effects on laboratory measures and patient outcomes. This study further strengthens the importance of the laboratory environment and air quality in the success of an IVF programme. PMID:26194882

  19. Text Messaging Improves Participation in Laboratory Testing in Adolescent Liver Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Rebecca B.; Berquist, William E.; Foley, Megan A.; Park, KT; Windsheimer, Jered E.; Litt, Iris F.

    2015-01-01

    Background In solid organ transplant patients, non-participation in all aspects of the medical regimen is a prevalent problem associated with adverse consequences particularly in the adolescent and young adult (AYA) age group. This study is the first to evaluate the feasibility, utility and impact of a text messaging (TM) intervention to improve participation in laboratory testing in adolescent liver transplant patients. Methods AYA patients, aged 12 to 21 years, were recruited for a prospective pilot trial evaluating a TM intervention delivered over a 1-year period. The intervention involved automated TM reminders with feedback administered according to a prescribed laboratory testing frequency. Participation rate in laboratory testing after the intervention was compared to the year prior. Patient responses and feedback by text and survey were used to assess feasibility, acceptability and use of the intervention. Results Forty-two patients were recruited and 33 patients remained enrolled for the study duration. Recipients of the TM intervention demonstrated a significant improvement in participation rate in laboratory testing from 58% to 78% (P<.001). This rate was also significantly higher than in non-intervention controls (P=.003). There was a high acceptability, response rate and a significant correlation with reported versus actual completion of laboratory tests by TM. Conclusions TM reminders significantly improved participation in laboratory testing in AYA liver transplant patients. The intervention demonstrated feasibility, acceptability, and use with a high proportion of patients who engaged in and perceived a benefit from using this technology. PMID:26213633

  20. Responses of artificially reared cat fleas Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouché, 1835) to different mammalian bloods.

    PubMed

    Kernif, T; Stafford, K; Coles, G C; Bitam, I; Papa, K; Chiaroni, J; Raoult, D; Parola, P

    2015-06-01

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis (Bouche, 1835) (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), which is found worldwide and which parasitizes many species of wild and domestic animal, is a vector and/or reservoir of bacteria, protozoa and helminths. To aid in the study of the physiology and behaviour of fleas and of their transmission of pathogens, it would be of value to improve the laboratory rearing of pathogen-free fleas. The conditions under which artificially reared fleas at the University of Bristol (U.K.) and the Rickettsial Diseases Institute (France) are maintained were studied, with different ratios of male to female fleas per chamber (25 : 50, 50 : 100, 100 : 100, 200 : 200). The fleas were fed with bovine, ovine, caprine, porcine or human blood containing the anticoagulants sodium citrate or EDTA. Egg production was highest when fleas were kept in chambers with a ratio of 25 males to 100 females. In addition, the use of EDTA as an anticoagulant rather than sodium citrate resulted in a large increase in the number of eggs produced per female; however, the low percentage of eggs developing through to adult fleas was lower with EDTA. The modifications described in our rearing methods will improve the rearing of cat fleas for research. PMID:25604709

  1. Interpretative commenting: a tool for improving the laboratory-clinical interface.

    PubMed

    Plebani, Mario

    2009-06-01

    The clinical interpretation of laboratory results is an integral part of laboratory services. However, while many clinical laboratories provide comments of some form or other in their reports, this provision varies from one country to another, and between laboratories in a single country. Over the last decade, the focus on medical errors and patient safety has spread worldwide, involving all medical disciplines, including laboratory medicine. While available evidence demonstrates that in recent decades an impressive reduction has been achieved in the rates of analytical errors in clinical laboratories, the pre- and post-analytic phases of the testing cycle are still error prone and, even more dramatic, affected by errors that could translate into harm and adverse events for patients. Interest in post-analytic errors, in particular, has increased the identification of problems not only before and during the reporting of laboratory results, but also in the physician's reactions to the transmission of data, their interpretation, and the appropriate action to take for the patient. Therefore, greater efforts should be made to facilitate the review, interpretation and utilization of test results. The continuation and expansion of interpretative commenting, part of a broad strategy to improve the transmission and communication of laboratory results, appear to be favored by several factors, including the introduction of new and complex tests, clinical and regulatory guidelines, data on clinicians' satisfaction and the impact of interpretative comments on patient outcomes. The appropriate training and education of laboratory professionals is a fundamental component in assuring quality and safety of interpretative comments. Moreover, quality assurance programs and an appropriate clinical audit are required to evaluate and improve upon this activity. PMID:19298798

  2. Improvement of Social Science Education via the Development of a Social Science Laboratory. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Jerry W.

    A 3-year project to establish a college-level interdisciplinary computer center/scientific laboratory for the social sciences is described. The purpose of the project was to improve education in empirical and behavioral research methods. The center consists of computing facilities, a survey research facility, a simulation/gaming facility, and a…

  3. Improving Learning Performance in Laboratory Instruction by Means of SMS Messaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Torres, M. R.; Toral, S. L.; Barrero, F.; Gallardo, S.

    2007-01-01

    The study described in this paper outlines an attempt to explore those factors that contribute to learning performance improvement in laboratory instruction. As a case study, the educational methodology involved in a basic microcontroller course was analyzed. Traditional lab sessions based on the control of peripherals with low interactivity have…

  4. Case Study: Improving Laboratory Learning through Group Working and Structured Reflection and Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicol, David J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes how student learning from a series of laboratory practicals was improved using small group methods and a structured learning cycle that encouraged reflection on group performance and investigative techniques. Discussion includes evaluation of learning benefits by means of written records, a questionnaire, observation, and the role of…

  5. Development of a Web-Enabled Learning Platform for Geospatial Laboratories: Improving the Undergraduate Learning Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mui, Amy B.; Nelson, Sarah; Huang, Bruce; He, Yuhong; Wilson, Kathi

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a web-enabled learning platform providing remote access to geospatial software that extends the learning experience outside of the laboratory setting. The platform was piloted in two undergraduate courses, and includes a software server, a data server, and remote student users. The platform was designed to improve the quality…

  6. New Improvements in Magnetic Measurements Laboratory of the ALBA Synchrotron Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campmany, Josep; Marcos, Jordi; Massana, Valentí

    ALBA synchrotron facility has a complete insertion devices (ID) laboratory to characterize and produce magnetic devices needed to satisfy the requirements of ALBA's user community. The laboratory is equipped with a Hall-probe bench working in on-the-fly measurement mode allowing the measurement of field maps of big magnetic structures with high accuracy, both in magnetic field magnitude and position. The whole control system of this bench is based on TANGO. The Hall probe calibration range extends between sub-Gauss to 2 Tesla with an accuracy of 100 ppm. Apart from the Hall probe bench, the ID laboratory has a flipping coil bench dedicated to measuring field integrals and a Helmholtz coil bench specially designed to characterize permanent magnet blocks. Also, a fixed stretched wire bench is used to measure field integrals of magnet sets. This device is specifically dedicated to ID construction. Finally, the laboratory is equipped with a rotating coil bench, specially designed for measuring multipolar devices used in accelerators, such as quadrupoles, sextupoles, etc. Recent improvements of the magnetic measurements laboratory of ALBA synchrotron include the design and manufacturing of very thin 3D Hall probe heads, the design and manufacturing of coil sensors for the Rotating coil bench based on multilayered PCB, and the improvement of calibration methodology in order to improve the accuracy of the measurements. ALBA magnetic measurements laboratory is open for external contracts, and has been widely used by national and international institutes such as CERN, ESRF or CIEMAT, as well as magnet manufacturing companies, such as ANTEC, TESLA and I3 M. In this paper, we will present the main features of the measurement benches as well as improvements made so far.

  7. Development and Leaf Consumption by Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Leaves of Agroenergy Crops.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, M F; Nava, D E; Geissler, L O; Melo, M; Garcia, M S; Krüger, R

    2013-12-01

    Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest that threatens more than 24 species of crop plants including those used for biodiesel production such as Ricinus communis (castor bean), Jatropha curcas (Barbados nut), and Aleurites fordii (tung oil tree). The development and leaf consumption by S. cosmioides reared on leaves of these three species were studied under controlled laboratory conditions. The egg-to-adult development time of S. cosmioides was shortest when reared on castor bean leaves and longest when reared on tung oil tree leaves. Larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves had seven instars, whereas those reared on tung oil tree leaves had eight. Females originating from larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves showed greater fecundity than did females originating from larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves. Insects fed on castor bean leaves had shorter life spans than those fed on tung oil tree and Barbados nut leaves although the oviposition period did not differ significantly. The intrinsic and finite rates of increase were highest for females reared on castor bean leaves. Total leaf consumption was highest for larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves and lowest for those reared on Barbados nut leaves. We conclude that castor bean is a more appropriate host plant for the development of S. cosmioides than are Barbados nut and tung oil tree. PMID:27193276

  8. 3. NORTHEAST REAR, SHOWING CONCRETE ENCASEMENT FOR STAIRWAY LEADING FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. NORTHEAST REAR, SHOWING CONCRETE ENCASEMENT FOR STAIRWAY LEADING FROM INSTRUMENT ROOM TO UNDERGROUND FIRING CONTROL ROOM. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Firing Control Building, Test Area 1-100, northeast end of Test Area 1-100 Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. 3. SOUTHWEST REAR, WITH RAILROAD LINE AT RIGHT. HIGH PRESSURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTHWEST REAR, WITH RAILROAD LINE AT RIGHT. HIGH PRESSURE HELIUM STORAGE TANKS AT LEFT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Helium Compression Plant, Test Area 1-115, intersection of Altair & Saturn Boulevards, Boron, Kern County, CA

  10. 6. Detail view northeast of rear of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail view northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note monitor roof with clerestory windows over central corridor between filtration beds at center right of photograph. Laboratory building is at center right of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  11. 5. View northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View northeast of rear of filtration bed building. Note monitor roof with clerestory windows over central corridor between filtration beds at center right of photograph. Laboratory building is at extreme center right of photograph. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  12. 9. BUILDING 8769, EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE, TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. BUILDING 8769, EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE, TEST STAND AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  13. 7. SOUTH REAR. Looking northwest from corner of the Instrumentation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SOUTH REAR. Looking northwest from corner of the Instrumentation and Control Building (Building 8762). - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  14. 5. BUILDING 8768, SOUTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. BUILDING 8768, SOUTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. TEST STAND 1A AT LEFT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  15. 3. BUILDING 8767, NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, TEST STAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUILDING 8767, NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE, TEST STAND 1-A AT FAR RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  16. 11. OBSERVATION POST NO. 3, NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. OBSERVATION POST NO. 3, NORTH SIDE AND WEST REAR, TEST STAND AT RIGHT. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Observation Bunkers for Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. An Artificial Diet for Rearing Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larvae of the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (Fabricius), feed on carrion and may sometimes cause animal myiasis. They have been reared in the laboratory on various animal tissues to study their growth and development because of their importance in forensic science. We use the secondary...

  18. Effect of Parasitoid: Host Ratio and Group Size on Fitness of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae): Implications for Mass-Rearing.

    PubMed

    Watt, Timothy J; Duan, Jian J; Tallamy, Douglas W; Hough-Goldstein, Judith

    2015-06-01

    Producing insect natural enemies in laboratories or insectaries for biological pest control is often expensive, and developing cost-effective rearing techniques is a goal of many biological control programs. Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a newly described ectoparasitoid of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is currently being evaluated for environmental introduction in the United States to provide biological control of this invasive pest. To improve mass-rearing outcomes for S. galinae, we investigated the effects of parasitoid: host ratio and parasitoid and host group size (density) on parasitoid fitness. Our results showed that when 1 emerald ash borer larva was exposed to 1, 2, 4, or 8 female parasitoids, parasitism rate was positively associated with increasing parasitoid: host ratio, while brood size, sex ratio, and fitness estimates of progeny were not affected. When a constant 1:1 parasitoid: host ratio was used, but group size varied from 1 female parasitoid and 1 host, 5 parasitoids and 5 hosts, 10 of each, and 20 of each in same size rearing cages, parasitism rates were highest when at least 5 females were exposed to 5 host larvae. Moreover, the number of progeny produced per female parasitoid was greatest when group size was 10 parasitoids and 10 hosts. These findings demonstrate that S. galinae may be reared most efficiently in moderately high-density groups (10 parasitoids and hosts) and with a 1:1 parasitoid: host ratio. PMID:26470215

  19. Selection of prey to improve biological parameters of the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Bortoli, S A De; Vacari, A M; Laurentis, V L; Bortoli, C P De; Santos, R F; Otuka, A K

    2016-06-01

    Mass production of predatory stinkbugs in the laboratory is prioritized to release them into the field as part of IPM programs. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the best prey for rearing the predator Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas, 1851) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) among five different species of insect (three of Lepidoptera, one of Coleoptera, and one of Diptera). Second-instar P. nigrispinus nymphs were conditioned in transparent 1000-mL plastic pots, adults were placed in Petri dishes for mating, and both stages were maintained under controlled conditions (25 ± 1°C, 12 hours of photophase, 70 ± 10% RH). Nymphs and adults of P. nigrispinus consumed more Musca domestica (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae than the other tested prey. The consumption of fly larvae was 1.5 larvae/day/nymph and adults 1.7 larvae/day/adult. However, the number of eggs per female was less when the predator consumed M. domestica larvae (407.8 eggs/female) and most when consumed the Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larvae (797.7 eggs/female). Furthermore, the percentage of hatched eggs was greater when the predator females consumed D. saccharalis larvae (90.0%). D. saccharalis larvae is the best prey to rearing P. nigrispinus. PMID:26934159

  20. Antimicrobial drug use and risk factors associated with treatment incidence and mortality in Swiss veal calves reared under improved welfare conditions.

    PubMed

    Lava, M; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Steiner, A; Meylan, M

    2016-04-01

    Ninety-one Swiss veal farms producing under a label with improved welfare standards were visited between August and December 2014 to investigate risk factors related to antimicrobial drug use and mortality. All herds consisted of own and purchased calves, with a median of 77.4% of purchased calves. The calves' mean age was 29±15days at purchasing and the fattening period lasted at average 120±28 days. The mean carcass weight was 125±12kg. A mean of 58±33 calves were fattened per farm and year, and purchased calves were bought from a mean of 20±17 farms of origin. Antimicrobial drug treatment incidence was calculated with the defined daily dose methodology. The mean treatment incidence (TIADD) was 21±15 daily doses per calf and year. The mean mortality risk was 4.1%, calves died at a mean age of 94±50 days, and the main causes of death were bovine respiratory disease (BRD, 50%) and gastro-intestinal disease (33%). Two multivariable models were constructed, for antimicrobial drug treatment incidence (53 farms) and mortality (91 farms). No quarantine, shared air space for several groups of calves, and no clinical examination upon arrival at the farm were associated with increased antimicrobial treatment incidence. Maximum group size and weight differences >100kg within a group were associated with increased mortality risk, while vaccination and beef breed were associated with decreased mortality risk. The majority of antimicrobial treatments (84.6%) were given as group treatments with oral powder fed through an automatic milk feeding system. Combination products containing chlortetracycline with tylosin and sulfadimidine or with spiramycin were used for 54.9%, and amoxicillin for 43.7% of the oral group treatments. The main indication for individual treatment was BRD (73%). The mean age at the time of treatment was 51 days, corresponding to an estimated weight of 80-100kg. Individual treatments were mainly applied through injections (88.5%), and included

  1. Use of Lean Response to Improve Pandemic Influenza Surge in Public Health Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yin; Prystajecky, Natalie; Petric, Martin; Mak, Annie; Abbott, Brendan; Paris, Benjamin; Decker, K.C.; Pittenger, Lauren; Guercio, Steven; Stott, Jeff; Miller, Joseph D.

    2012-01-01

    A novel influenza A (H1N1) virus detected in April 2009 rapidly spread around the world. North American provincial and state laboratories have well-defined roles and responsibilities, including providing accurate, timely test results for patients and information for regional public health and other decision makers. We used the multidisciplinary response and rapid implementation of process changes based on Lean methods at the provincial public health laboratory in British Columbia, Canada, to improve laboratory surge capacity in the 2009 influenza pandemic. Observed and computer simulating evaluation results from rapid processes changes showed that use of Lean tools successfully expanded surge capacity, which enabled response to the 10-fold increase in testing demands. PMID:22257385

  2. Quality assurance testing of an explosives trace analysis laboratory--further improvements to include peroxide explosives.

    PubMed

    Crowson, Andrew; Cawthorne, Richard

    2012-12-01

    The Forensic Explosives Laboratory (FEL) operates within the Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL) which is part of the UK Government Ministry of Defence (MOD). The FEL provides support and advice to the Home Office and UK police forces on matters relating to the criminal misuse of explosives. During 1989 the FEL established a weekly quality assurance testing regime in its explosives trace analysis laboratory. The purpose of the regime is to prevent the accumulation of explosives traces within the laboratory at levels that could, if other precautions failed, result in the contamination of samples and controls. Designated areas within the laboratory are swabbed using cotton wool swabs moistened with ethanol:water mixture, in equal amounts. The swabs are then extracted, cleaned up and analysed using Gas Chromatography with Thermal Energy Analyser detectors or Liquid Chromatography with triple quadrupole Mass Spectrometry. This paper follows on from two previous published papers which described the regime and summarised results from approximately 14years of tests. This paper presents results from the subsequent 7years setting them within the context of previous results. It also discusses further improvements made to the systems and procedures and the inclusion of quality assurance sampling for the peroxide explosives TATP and HMTD. Monitoring samples taken from surfaces within the trace laboratories and trace vehicle examination bay have, with few exceptions, revealed only low levels of contamination, predominantly of RDX. Analysis of the control swabs, processed alongside the monitoring swabs, has demonstrated that in this environment the risk of forensic sample contamination, assuming all the relevant anti-contamination procedures have been followed, is so small that it is considered to be negligible. The monitoring regime has also been valuable in assessing the process of continuous improvement, allowing sources of contamination transfer into the trace

  3. Closing the loop on improvement: Packaging experience in the Software Engineering Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waligora, Sharon R.; Landis, Linda C.; Doland, Jerry T.

    1994-01-01

    As part of its award-winning software process improvement program, the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL) has developed an effective method for packaging organizational best practices based on real project experience into useful handbooks and training courses. This paper shares the SEL's experience over the past 12 years creating and updating software process handbooks and training courses. It provides cost models and guidelines for successful experience packaging derived from SEL experience.

  4. Lane-keeping benefits of practical rear axle steer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Daniel Eugene

    2014-04-01

    The classic two-degree-of-freedom yaw-plane or 'bicycle' vehicle model is augmented with two additional states to describe lane-keeping behaviour and further augmented with an additional control input to steer the rear axle. A simple driver model is hypothesised where the driver closes a loop on a projected lateral lane position. The driver can select the preview distance to compensate driver/vehicle dynamics, consistent with the 'cross-over' model found in the literature. A rear axle steer control law is found to be a function of the front axle steering input and vehicle speed that exhibits stability similar to a positive-real system, while at the same time improving the ability of the driver/vehicle system to track a complex curved lane and improving steady-state manoeuvrability. The theoretically derived control law bears similarity to practical embodiments allowing a deeper understanding of the functional value of steering a rear axle.

  5. Child Rearing on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sam; And Others

    During the second year of a 3-year study involving 112 Iowa farm families, mothers of children aged 4 to 10 years old expressed expectations of independence, responsibility, and hard work from their children during home interviews. The importance of the parent-child relationship together with the lack of sufficient child-rearing research on rural…

  6. Does routine repeat testing of critical laboratory values improve their accuracy?

    PubMed Central

    Baradaran Motie, Pooya; Zare-Mirzaie, Ali; Shayanfar, Nasrin; Kadivar, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Routine repeat testing of critical laboratory values is very common these days to increase their accuracy and to avoid reporting false or infeasible results. We figure that repeat testing of critical laboratory values has any benefits or not. Methods: We examined 2233 repeated critical laboratory values in 13 different hematology and chemistry tests including: hemoglobin, white blood cell, platelet, international normalized ratio, partial thromboplastin time, glucose, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin. The absolute difference and the percentage of change between the two tests for each critical value were calculated and then compared with the College of American Pathologists/Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments allowable error. Results: Repeat testing yielded results that were within the allowable error on 2213 of 2233 specimens (99.1%). There was only one outlier (0.2%) in the white blood cell test category, 9 (2.9%) in the platelet test category, 5 (4%) in the partial thromboplastin time test category, 5 (4.8%) in the international normalized ratio test category and none in other test categories. Conclusion: Routine, repeat testing of critical hemoglobin, white blood cell, platelet, international normalized ratio, partial thromboplastin time, glucose, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, total bilirubin and direct bilirubin results does not have any benefits to increase their accuracy. PMID:26034729

  7. Laboratory animal science: a resource to improve the quality of science.

    PubMed

    Forni, M

    2007-08-01

    The contribution of animal experimentation to biomedical research is of undoubted value, nevertheless the real usefulness of animal models is still being hotly debated. Laboratory Animal Science is a multidisciplinary approach to humane animal experimentation that allows the choice of the correct animal model and the collection of unbiased data. Refinement, Reduction and Replacement, the "3Rs rule", are now widely accepted and have a major influence on animal experimentation procedures. Refinement, namely any decrease in the incidence or severity of inhumane procedures applied to animals, has been today extended to the entire lives of the experimental animals. Reduction of the number of animals used to obtain statistically significant data may be achieved by improving experimental design and statistical analysis of data. Replacement refers to the development of validated alternative methods. A Laboratory Animal Science training program in biomedical degrees can promote the 3Rs and improve the welfare of laboratory animals as well as the quality of science with ethical, scientific and economic advantages complying with the European requirement that "persons who carry out, take part in, or supervise procedures on animals, or take care of animals used in procedures, shall have had appropriate education and training". PMID:17682845

  8. Use of soft hydrothermal processing to improve and recycle bedding for laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, T; Li, Z; Kibushi, T; Yamasaki, N; Kasai, N

    2008-10-01

    Cage bedding for laboratory rodents can influence animal wellbeing and thus the experimental data. In addition, a large amount of used bedding containing excrement is discharged as medical waste from life science institutes and breeding companies. We developed a ground-breaking system to improve fresh bedding and recycle used bedding by applying a soft hydrothermal process with high-temperature and high-pressure dry steam. The system removes both harmful organic components and aromatic hydrocarbons that can affect animals' metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of the improved fresh bedding and the recycled used bedding treated by the system. The results showed that 68-99% of the predominant aromatic hydrocarbons were removed from fresh bedding treated at 0.35 MPa and 140 degrees C for 120 min ('improved bedding'). In addition, 59.4-99.0% of predominant harmful organic compounds derived from excrement were removed from used bedding treated at 0.45 MPa and 150 degrees C for 60 min ('recycled bedding'). The soft hydrothermal treatment increased the number of acidic functional groups on the bedding surface and gave it the high adsorptive efficiency of ammonia gas. Harmful substances such as microorganisms, heavy metals and pesticides decreased below the detection limit. The results clearly showed that the improved and recycled bedding is safer for laboratory rodents and has the potential to ameliorate conditions in primary and secondary enclosures (e.g. cages and animal rooms) used for maintaining laboratory animals. This process may be one of the most advanced techniques in providing an alternative to softwood and other bedding, economizing through the recycling of used bedding and reducing bedding waste from animal facilities. PMID:18782819

  9. United States Supports Distributed Wind Technology Improvements; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Karin

    2015-06-15

    This presentation provides information on the activities conducted through the Competitiveness Improvement Project (CIP), initiated in 2012 by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and executed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support the distributed wind industry. The CIP provides research and development funding and technical support to improve distributed wind turbine technology and increase the competitiveness of U.S. small and midsize wind turbine manufacturers. Through this project, DOE/NREL assists U.S. manufacturers to lower the levelized cost of energy of wind turbines through component improvements, manufacturing process upgrades, and turbine testing. Ultimately, this support is expected to lead to turbine certification through testing to industry-recognized wind turbine performance and safety standards.

  10. Improving newborn screening laboratory test ordering and result reporting using health information exchange.

    PubMed

    Downs, Stephen M; van Dyck, Peter C; Rinaldo, Piero; McDonald, Clement; Howell, R Rodrey; Zuckerman, Alan; Downing, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Capture, coding and communication of newborn screening (NBS) information represent a challenge for public health laboratories, health departments, hospitals, and ambulatory care practices. An increasing number of conditions targeted for screening and the complexity of interpretation contribute to a growing need for integrated information-management strategies. This makes NBS an important test of tools and architecture for electronic health information exchange (HIE) in this convergence of individual patient care and population health activities. For this reason, the American Health Information Community undertook three tasks described in this paper. First, a newborn screening use case was established to facilitate standards harmonization for common terminology and interoperability specifications guiding HIE. Second, newborn screening coding and terminology were developed for integration into electronic HIE activities. Finally, clarification of privacy, security, and clinical laboratory regulatory requirements governing information exchange was provided, serving as a framework to establish pathways for improving screening program timeliness, effectiveness, and efficiency of quality patient care services. PMID:20064796

  11. Improving newborn screening laboratory test ordering and result reporting using health information exchange

    PubMed Central

    van Dyck, Peter C; Rinaldo, Piero; McDonald, Clement; Howell, R Rodrey; Zuckerman, Alan; Downing, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Capture, coding and communication of newborn screening (NBS) information represent a challenge for public health laboratories, health departments, hospitals, and ambulatory care practices. An increasing number of conditions targeted for screening and the complexity of interpretation contribute to a growing need for integrated information-management strategies. This makes NBS an important test of tools and architecture for electronic health information exchange (HIE) in this convergence of individual patient care and population health activities. For this reason, the American Health Information Community undertook three tasks described in this paper. First, a newborn screening use case was established to facilitate standards harmonization for common terminology and interoperability specifications guiding HIE. Second, newborn screening coding and terminology were developed for integration into electronic HIE activities. Finally, clarification of privacy, security, and clinical laboratory regulatory requirements governing information exchange was provided, serving as a framework to establish pathways for improving screening program timeliness, effectiveness, and efficiency of quality patient care services. PMID:20064796

  12. RIPOSTE: a framework for improving the design and analysis of laboratory-based research.

    PubMed

    Masca, Nicholas Gd; Hensor, Elizabeth Ma; Cornelius, Victoria R; Buffa, Francesca M; Marriott, Helen M; Eales, James M; Messenger, Michael P; Anderson, Amy E; Boot, Chris; Bunce, Catey; Goldin, Robert D; Harris, Jessica; Hinchliffe, Rod F; Junaid, Hiba; Kingston, Shaun; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Nelson, Christopher P; Peacock, Janet; Seed, Paul T; Shinkins, Bethany; Staples, Karl J; Toombs, Jamie; Wright, Adam Ka; Teare, M Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Lack of reproducibility is an ongoing problem in some areas of the biomedical sciences. Poor experimental design and a failure to engage with experienced statisticians at key stages in the design and analysis of experiments are two factors that contribute to this problem. The RIPOSTE (Reducing IrreProducibility in labOratory STudiEs) framework has been developed to support early and regular discussions between scientists and statisticians in order to improve the design, conduct and analysis of laboratory studies and, therefore, to reduce irreproducibility. This framework is intended for use during the early stages of a research project, when specific questions or hypotheses are proposed. The essential points within the framework are explained and illustrated using three examples (a medical equipment test, a macrophage study and a gene expression study). Sound study design minimises the possibility of bias being introduced into experiments and leads to higher quality research with more reproducible results. PMID:25951517

  13. Simulated and Virtual Science Laboratory Experiments: Improving Critical Thinking and Higher-Order Learning Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Nicole A.

    Virtual laboratory experiments using interactive computer simulations are not being employed as viable alternatives to laboratory science curriculum at extensive enough rates within higher education. Rote traditional lab experiments are currently the norm and are not addressing inquiry, Critical Thinking, and cognition throughout the laboratory experience, linking with educational technologies (Pyatt & Sims, 2007; 2011; Trundle & Bell, 2010). A causal-comparative quantitative study was conducted with 150 learners enrolled at a two-year community college, to determine the effects of simulation laboratory experiments on Higher-Order Learning, Critical Thinking Skills, and Cognitive Load. The treatment population used simulated experiments, while the non-treatment sections performed traditional expository experiments. A comparison was made using the Revised Two-Factor Study Process survey, Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire, and the Scientific Attitude Inventory survey, using a Repeated Measures ANOVA test for treatment or non-treatment. A main effect of simulated laboratory experiments was found for both Higher-Order Learning, [F (1, 148) = 30.32,p = 0.00, eta2 = 0.12] and Critical Thinking Skills, [F (1, 148) = 14.64,p = 0.00, eta 2 = 0.17] such that simulations showed greater increases than traditional experiments. Post-lab treatment group self-reports indicated increased marginal means (+4.86) in Higher-Order Learning and Critical Thinking Skills, compared to the non-treatment group (+4.71). Simulations also improved the scientific skills and mastery of basic scientific subject matter. It is recommended that additional research recognize that learners' Critical Thinking Skills change due to different instructional methodologies that occur throughout a semester.

  14. Toward Improvements in Inter-laboratory Calibration of Argon Isotope Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemming, S. R.; Deino, A. L.; Heizler, M. T.; Hodges, K. V.; McIntosh, W. C.; Renne, P. R.; Swisher, C. C., III; Turrin, B. D.; Van Soest, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    It is important to continue to develop strategies to improve our ability to compare results between laboratories chronometers. The U-Pb community has significantly reduced inter-laboratory biases with the application of a community tracer solution and the distribution of synthetic zircon solutions. Inevitably sample selection and processing and even biases in interpretations will still lead to some disagreements in the assignment of ages. Accordingly natural samples that are shared will be important for achievement of the highest levels of agreement. Analogous improvements in quality and inter-laboratory agreement of analytical aspects of Ar-Ar can be achieved through development of synthetic age standards in gas canisters with multiple pipettes to deliver various controlled amounts of argon to the mass spectrometer. A preliminary proof-of concept comes from the inter-laboratory calibration experiment for the 40Ar/39Ar community. This portable Argon Pipette Intercalibration System (APIS) consists of three 2.7 L canisters each equipped with three pipettes of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 cc volumes. The currently traveling APIS has the three canisters filled with air and 40Ar*/39Ar of 1.73 and canister 2 has a 40Ar*/39Ar of 40.98 (~ Alder Creek and Fish Canyon in the same irradiation). With these pipettes it is possible to combine them to provide 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 (0.1+0.2), 0.4, 0.5 (0.1+0.4), 0.6 (0.2+0.4), and 0.7 (0.1+0.2+0.4) cc. The configuration allows a simple test for inter-laboratory biases and for volume/pressure dependent mass fractionation on the measured ratios for a gas with a single argon isotope composition. Although not yet tested, it is also possible to mix gas from any one of the three canisters in proportions of these increments, allowing even more tightly controlled calibration of measurements. We suggest that ultimately each EARTHTIME lab should be equipped with such a system permanently, with a community plan for a traveling system to periodically repeat the

  15. Proposed Casey`s Pond Improvement Project, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), evaluating the impacts associated with the proposed Casey`s Pond Improvement Project at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. The improvement project would maximize the efficiency of the Fermilab Industrial Cooling Water (ICW) distribution system, which removes (via evaporation) the thermal load from experimental and other support equipment supporting the high energy physics program at Fermilab. The project would eliminate the risk of overheating during fixed target experiments, ensure that the Illinois Water Quality Standards are consistently achieved and provide needed additional water storage for fire protection. Based on the analysis in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  16. Characterisation of NO production and consumption: new insights by an improved laboratory dynamic chamber technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, T.; Veres, P. R.; Ashuri, F.; Song, G.; Flanz, M.; Mamtimin, B.; Bruse, M.; Williams, J.; Meixner, F. X.

    2014-10-01

    Biogenic NOx emissions from natural and anthropogenically influenced soils are currently estimated to amount to 9 Tg a-1, hence a significant fraction of global NOx emissions (45 Tg a-1). During the last three decades, a large number of field measurements have been performed to quantify biogenic NO emissions. To study biogenic NO emissions as a function of soil moisture, soil temperature, and soil nutrients, several laboratory approaches have been developed to estimate local/regional NO emissions by suitable upscaling. This study presents an improved and automated laboratory dynamic chamber system (consisting of six individual soil chambers) for investigation and quantification of all quantities necessary to characterise biogenic NO release from soil (i.e. net NO release rate, NO production and consumption rate, and respective Q10 values). In contrast to former versions of the laboratory dynamic chamber system, the four experiments for complete characterisation can now be performed on a single soil sample, whereas former studies had to be performed on four sub-samples. This study discovered that the sub-sample variability biased former measurements of net NO release rates tremendously. Furthermore, it was also shown that the previously reported variation of optimum soil moisture (i.e. where a maximum net NO release rates occur) between individual sub-samples is most likely a methodical artefact of former versions of the laboratory dynamic chamber system. A comprehensive and detailed methodical concept description of the improved laboratory dynamic chamber system is provided. Response of all quantities (necessary to characterise net NO release) to soil temperature and NO mixing ratio of the flushing airstream are determined by automatic monitoring of these variables during one single drying-out experiment with one single soil sample only. The method requires precise measurements of NO mixing ratio at the inlet and outlet of each soil chamber; finally, four pairs of

  17. The Henry Ford Production System: LEAN Process Redesign Improves Service in the Molecular Diagnostic Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Cankovic, Milena; Varney, Ruan C.; Whiteley, Lisa; Brown, Ron; D'Angelo, Rita; Chitale, Dhananjay; Zarbo, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Accurate and timely molecular test results play an important role in patient management; consequently, there is a customer expectation of short testing turnaround times. Baseline data analysis revealed that the greatest challenge to timely result generation occurred in the preanalytic phase of specimen collection and transport. Here, we describe our efforts to improve molecular testing turnaround times by focusing primarily on redesign of preanalytic processes using the principles of LEAN production. Our goal was to complete greater than 90% of the molecular tests in less than 3 days. The project required cooperation from different laboratory disciplines as well as individuals outside of the laboratory. The redesigned processes involved defining and standardizing the protocols and approaching blood and tissue specimens as analytes for molecular testing. The LEAN process resulted in fewer steps, approaching the ideal of a one-piece flow for specimens through collection/retrieval, transport, and different aspects of the testing process. The outcome of introducing the LEAN process has been a 44% reduction in molecular test turnaround time for tissue specimens, from an average of 2.7 to 1.5 days. In addition, extending LEAN work principles to the clinician suppliers has resulted in a markedly increased number of properly collected and shipped blood specimens (from 50 to 87%). These continuous quality improvements were accomplished by empowered workers in a blame-free environment and are now being sustained with minimal management involvement. PMID:19661386

  18. Improving Validity of Informed Consent for Biomedical Research in Zambia Using a Laboratory Exposure Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Lisulo, Mpala Mwanza; Besa, Ellen; Kaonga, Patrick; Chisenga, Caroline C.; Chomba, Mumba; Simuyandi, Michelo; Banda, Rosemary; Kelly, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Complex biomedical research can lead to disquiet in communities with limited exposure to scientific discussions, leading to rumours or to high drop-out rates. We set out to test an intervention designed to address apprehensions commonly encountered in a community where literacy is uncommon, and where complex biomedical research has been conducted for over a decade. We aimed to determine if it could improve the validity of consent. Methods Data were collected using focus group discussions, key informant interviews and observations. We designed an intervention that exposed participants to a detailed demonstration of laboratory processes. Each group was interviewed twice in a day, before and after exposure to the intervention in order to assess changes in their views. Results Factors that motivated people to participate in invasive biomedical research included a desire to stay healthy because of the screening during the recruitment process, regular advice from doctors, free medical services, and trust in the researchers. Inhibiting factors were limited knowledge about samples taken from their bodies during endoscopic procedures, the impact of endoscopy on the function of internal organs, and concerns about the use of biomedical samples. The belief that blood can be used for Satanic practices also created insecurities about drawing of blood samples. Further inhibiting factors included a fear of being labelled as HIV positive if known to consult heath workers repeatedly, and gender inequality. Concerns about the use and storage of blood and tissue samples were overcome by a laboratory exposure intervention. Conclusion Selecting a group of members from target community and engaging them in a laboratory exposure intervention could be a useful tool for enhancing specific aspects of consent for biomedical research. Further work is needed to determine the extent to which improved understanding permeates beyond the immediate group participating in the intervention

  19. Facilitating Improvements in Laboratory Report Writing Skills with Less Grading: A Laboratory Report Peer-Review Process†

    PubMed Central

    Brigati, Jennifer R.; Swann, Jerilyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating peer-review steps in the laboratory report writing process provides benefits to students, but it also can create additional work for laboratory instructors. The laboratory report writing process described here allows the instructor to grade only one lab report for every two to four students, while giving the students the benefits of peer review and prompt feedback on their laboratory reports. Here we present the application of this process to a sophomore level genetics course and a freshman level cellular biology course, including information regarding class time spent on student preparation activities, instructor preparation, prerequisite student knowledge, suggested learning outcomes, procedure, materials, student instructions, faculty instructions, assessment tools, and sample data. T-tests comparing individual and group grading of the introductory cell biology lab reports yielded average scores that were not significantly different from each other (p = 0.13, n = 23 for individual grading, n = 6 for group grading). T-tests also demonstrated that average laboratory report grades of students using the peer-review process were not significantly different from those of students working alone (p = 0.98, n = 9 for individual grading, n = 6 for pair grading). While the grading process described here does not lead to statistically significant gains (or reductions) in student learning, it allows student learning to be maintained while decreasing instructor workload. This reduction in workload could allow the instructor time to pursue other high-impact practices that have been shown to increase student learning. Finally, we suggest possible modifications to the procedure for application in a variety of settings. PMID:25949758

  20. The Role of Laboratory Supervision in Improving the Quality of Malaria Diagnosis: A Pilot Study in Huambo, Angola.

    PubMed

    Luckett, Rebecca; Mugizi, Rukaaka; Lopes, Sergio; Etossi, R Cacilda; Allan, Richard

    2016-03-01

    In 2006, the Angolan National Malaria Control Program introduced clinical guidelines for malaria case management, which included diagnostic confirmation of malaria before administration of treatment; however, diagnostic practices were inconsistent and of unknown quality. In 2009, a laboratory supervision program was implemented in Huambo Province, with the goal of assessing and improving diagnosis of malaria within the confines of available in-country resources. Supervisions were carried out from 2009 to 2014 using a standardized supervision tool by national laboratory trainers. Data from the first supervision were compared with that from the final supervision. Over the study period, the number and level of training of laboratory technicians increased, and there was a nonstatistically significant trend toward improved laboratory conditions. There was a significant reduction in false-positive microscopy slide reading (P = 0.0133). Laboratory infrastructural capacity to diagnose other communicable diseases, including syphilis, human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus infections (P = 0.0012, 0.0233 and 0.0026, respectively), also improved significantly. Laboratory supervision for malaria diagnosis found significant areas for improvement, and in combination with concurrent capacity-building activities, it improved the diagnostic capacity for malaria and other diseases. Importantly, this study demonstrates that locally available resources can be used to improve the accuracy of malaria diagnosis. PMID:26711510

  1. Improvements in Target Fabrication for Laboratory Astrophysics Experiments at the University of Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, D. C.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Visco, A. J.; Doss, F. W.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Gillespie, R. S.

    2007-11-01

    Laboratory astrophysics seeks to study astrophysical phenomenon by modeling them in a micro-scale experiment, called a ``target'', which mimics the conditions and behavior of stellar phenomenon. Once built, the targets are transported to the Omega Laser Facility and placed in the laser chamber, where 5kJ of energy is fired onto a pinhead-sized area in order to create the necessary pressure required to launch the experiment. Collected data is then used to better understand the physics behind these various space phenomenon. Due to their extremely small size, targets must be built with a high degree of accuracy; therefore, continuously improving the process of target fabrication is crucial to experimental success. Some advancements in the target build process include more fully utilizing our machining capabilities, which allows for consistently cleaner, more accurately built targets. Another improvement is consolidating multiple functions into a single piece. This reduces the number of additional components, which reduces opportunities for error, as well as the overall build time. These changes have already been shown to improve our ability to collect successful data. *This research was sponsored by the NNSA through DOE Research Grants DE-FG52-07NA28058, DE-FG52-04NA00064, and other grants and contracts.

  2. Energy reallocation to breeding performance through improved nest building in laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Gaskill, Brianna N; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R; Gordon, Christopher J; Pajor, Edmond A; Lucas, Jeffrey R; Davis, Jerry K; Garner, Joseph P

    2013-01-01

    Mice are housed at temperatures (20-26 °C) that increase their basal metabolic rates and impose high energy demands to maintain core temperatures. Therefore, energy must be reallocated from other biological processes to increase heat production to offset heat loss. Supplying laboratory mice with nesting material may provide sufficient insulation to reduce heat loss and improve both feed conversion and breeding performance. Naïve C57BL/6, BALB/c, and CD-1 breeding pairs were provided with bedding alone, or bedding supplemented with either 8 g of Enviro-Dri, 8 g of Nestlets, for 6 months. Mice provided with either nesting material built more dome-like nests than controls. Nesting material improved feed efficiency per pup weaned as well as pup weaning weight. The breeding index (pups weaned/dam/week) was higher when either nesting material was provided. Thus, the sparing of energy for thermoregulation of mice given additional nesting material may have been responsible for the improved breeding and growth of offspring. PMID:24040193

  3. RIPOSTE: a framework for improving the design and analysis of laboratory-based research

    PubMed Central

    Masca, Nicholas GD; Hensor, Elizabeth MA; Cornelius, Victoria R; Buffa, Francesca M; Marriott, Helen M; Eales, James M; Messenger, Michael P; Anderson, Amy E; Boot, Chris; Bunce, Catey; Goldin, Robert D; Harris, Jessica; Hinchliffe, Rod F; Junaid, Hiba; Kingston, Shaun; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Nelson, Christopher P; Peacock, Janet; Seed, Paul T; Shinkins, Bethany; Staples, Karl J; Toombs, Jamie; Wright, Adam KA; Teare, M Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Lack of reproducibility is an ongoing problem in some areas of the biomedical sciences. Poor experimental design and a failure to engage with experienced statisticians at key stages in the design and analysis of experiments are two factors that contribute to this problem. The RIPOSTE (Reducing IrreProducibility in labOratory STudiEs) framework has been developed to support early and regular discussions between scientists and statisticians in order to improve the design, conduct and analysis of laboratory studies and, therefore, to reduce irreproducibility. This framework is intended for use during the early stages of a research project, when specific questions or hypotheses are proposed. The essential points within the framework are explained and illustrated using three examples (a medical equipment test, a macrophage study and a gene expression study). Sound study design minimises the possibility of bias being introduced into experiments and leads to higher quality research with more reproducible results. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05519.001 PMID:25951517

  4. Using checklists in a gross anatomy laboratory improves learning outcomes and dissection quality.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Ryan Engebretson; Nikolaus, O Brant; Pawlina, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    Checklists have been widely used in the aviation industry ever since aircraft operations became more complex than any single pilot could reasonably remember. More recently, checklists have found their way into medicine, where cognitive function can be compromised by stress and fatigue. The use of checklists in medical education has rarely been reported, especially in the basic sciences. We explored whether the use of a checklist in the gross anatomy laboratory would improve learning outcomes, dissection quality, and students' satisfaction in the first-year Human Structure didactic block at Mayo Medical School. During the second half of a seven-week anatomy course, dissection teams were each day given a hardcopy checklist of the structures to be identified during that day's dissection. The first half of the course was considered the control, as students did not receive any checklists to utilize during dissection. The measured outcomes were scored on four practice practical examinations and four dissection quality assessments, two each from the first half (control) and second half of the course. A student satisfaction survey was distributed at the end of the course. Examination and dissection scores were analyzed for correlations between practice practical examination score and checklist use. Our data suggest that a daily hardcopy list of anatomical structures for active use in the gross anatomy laboratory increases practice practical examination scores and dissection quality. Students recommend the use of these checklists in future anatomy courses. PMID:21786427

  5. Improving patient safety via automated laboratory-based adverse event grading.

    PubMed

    Niland, Joyce C; Stiller, Tracey; Neat, Jennifer; Londrc, Adina; Johnson, Dina; Pannoni, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The identification and grading of adverse events (AEs) during the conduct of clinical trials is a labor-intensive and error-prone process. This paper describes and evaluates a software tool developed by City of Hope to automate complex algorithms to assess laboratory results and identify and grade AEs. We compared AEs identified by the automated system with those previously assessed manually, to evaluate missed/misgraded AEs. We also conducted a prospective paired time assessment of automated versus manual AE assessment. We found a substantial improvement in accuracy/completeness with the automated grading tool, which identified an additional 17% of severe grade 3-4 AEs that had been missed/misgraded manually. The automated system also provided an average time saving of 5.5 min per treatment course. With 400 ongoing treatment trials at City of Hope and an average of 1800 laboratory results requiring assessment per study, the implications of these findings for patient safety are enormous. PMID:22084201

  6. Engaging Students Through Classroom Connection Webinars to Improve Their Understanding of the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, Paige V.; Achilles, Cherie

    2013-01-01

    Planetary exploration missions to other worlds, like Mars, can generate a lot of excitement and wonder for the public. The Mars Science Laboratory Mission is one of the latest planetary missions that has intrigued the public perhaps more than most. How can scientists and educational specialists capitalize on the allure of this mission and involve students and teachers in a way that not only shares the story of the mission, but actively engages classrooms with scientists and improves their understanding of the science? The Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) Program [1], facilitated by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate Education Program at the NASA Johnson Space Center achieves this by facilitating MSL mission focused classroom connection webinars. Five MSL-focused webinars facilitated through EEAB during the 2012 fall semester engaged almost 3000 students and teachers. Involved STEM experts/role models helped translate the science behind the Mars Science Laboratory mission in a comprehensive, exciting, and engaging manner. These virtual events captured participants attention while increasing their science awareness and understanding of the MSL mission.

  7. Development of a Laboratory for Improving Communication between Air Traffic Controllers and Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brammer, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    Runway incursions and other surface incidents are known to be significant threats to aviation safety and efficiency. Though the number of near mid-air collisions in U.S. air space has remained unchanged during the last five years, the number of runway incursions has increased and they are almost all due to human error. The three most common factors contributing to air traffic controller and pilot error in airport operations include two that involve failed auditory communication. This project addressed the problems of auditory communication in air traffic control from an acoustical standpoint, by establishing an acoustics laboratory designed for this purpose and initiating research into selected topics that show promise for improving voice communications between air traffic controllers and pilots.

  8. An improved 8 GeV beam transport system for the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, M.J.

    1987-06-01

    A new 8 GeV beam transport system between the Booster and Main Ring synchrotrons at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is presented. The system was developed in an effort to improve the transverse phase space area occupied by the proton beam upon injection into the Main Ring accelerator. Problems with the original system are described and general methods of beamline design are formulated. Errors in the transverse properties of a beamline at the injection point of the second synchrotron and their effects on the region in transverse phase space occupied by a beam of particles are discussed. Results from the commissioning phase of the project are presented as well as measurements of the degree of phase space dilution generated by the transfer of 8 GeV protons from the Booster synchrotron to the Main Ring synchrotron.

  9. Improving Scientific Communication and Publication Output in a Multidisciplinary Laboratory: Changing Culture Through Staff Development Workshops

    SciTech Connect

    Noonan, Christine F.; Stratton, Kelly G.

    2015-07-13

    Communication plays a fundamental role in science and engineering disciplines. However, many higher education programs provide little, if any, technical communication coursework. Without strong communication skills scientists and engineers have less opportunity to publish, obtain competitive research funds, or grow their careers. This article describes the role of scientific communication training as an innovative staff development program in a learning-intensive workplace – a national scientific research and development laboratory. The findings show that involvement in the workshop has increased overall participating staff annual publications by an average of 61 percent compared to their pre-workshop publishing performance as well as confidence level in their ability to write and publish peer-reviewed literature. Secondary benefits include improved information literacy skills and the development of informal communities of practice. This work provides insight into adult education in the workplace.

  10. Improving Consistency in Large Laboratory Courses: A Design for a Standardized Practical Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinnian; Graesser, Donnasue; Sah, Megha

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory courses serve as important gateways to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education. One of the challenges in assessing laboratory learning is to conduct meaningful and standardized practical exams, especially for large multisection laboratory courses. Laboratory practical exams in life sciences courses are frequently…

  11. Improved Sepsis Alert With a Telephone Call From the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory: A Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Bunsow, Eleonora; González-Del Vecchio, Marcela; Sanchez, Carlos; Muñoz, Patricia; Burillo, Almudena; Bouza, Emilio

    2015-09-01

    Early sepsis attention is a standard of care in many institutions and the role of different specialists is well recognized. However, the impact of a telephone call from a specialist in Clinical Microbiology upon blood cultures request has not been assessed to the best of our knowledge. We performed telephone calls followed by an interview with physicians and nurses in charge of adult patients (> 18 years old) whose blood cultures had just been received in the Microbiology Laboratory in a tertiary hospital. Patients were randomly classified in 2 different groups: group A (telephone call performed) and group B (no telephone call). At the end of the telephonic intervention, recommendations on the use of microbiology and biochemical tests as well as on the management and antibiotic therapy of sepsis were made if required. We included 300 patients. Of those fulfilling standard criteria of sepsis, 30.3% of the nurses and 50% of the physicians immediately recognized it. Advice to optimize the use of biochemical and microbiological tests was provided in 36% of the cases and to improve antimicrobial therapy in 57.6%. The median number of days of antibiotic use in groups A and B were, respectively, 6 days (IQR: 2-12) vs 9 days (IQR: 4-16) P = 0.008 and the median number of prescribed daily doses of antimicrobials (6 [IQR: 3-17] vs 10 [IQR: 5-22] P = 0.016) were lower in group A. We estimate a reduction, only in the use of antibiotic, of 1.8 million Euros per year. A telephone call with management advice, immediately after the arrival of blood cultures in the Microbiology Laboratory improves the recognition of sepsis and the use of diagnostic resources and reduces antimicrobial consumption and expenses. PMID:26426609

  12. Improved Sepsis Alert With a Telephone Call From the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Bunsow, Eleonora; Vecchio, Marcela González-Del; Sanchez, Carlos; Muñoz, Patricia; Burillo, Almudena; Bouza, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Early sepsis attention is a standard of care in many institutions and the role of different specialists is well recognized. However, the impact of a telephone call from a specialist in Clinical Microbiology upon blood cultures request has not been assessed to the best of our knowledge. We performed telephone calls followed by an interview with physicians and nurses in charge of adult patients (> 18 years old) whose blood cultures had just been received in the Microbiology Laboratory in a tertiary hospital. Patients were randomly classified in 2 different groups: group A (telephone call performed) and group B (no telephone call). At the end of the telephonic intervention, recommendations on the use of microbiology and biochemical tests as well as on the management and antibiotic therapy of sepsis were made if required. We included 300 patients. Of those fulfilling standard criteria of sepsis, 30.3% of the nurses and 50% of the physicians immediately recognized it. Advice to optimize the use of biochemical and microbiological tests was provided in 36% of the cases and to improve antimicrobial therapy in 57.6%. The median number of days of antibiotic use in groups A and B were, respectively, 6 days (IQR: 2–12) vs 9 days (IQR: 4–16) P = 0.008 and the median number of prescribed daily doses of antimicrobials (6 [IQR: 3–17] vs 10 [IQR: 5–22] P = 0.016) were lower in group A. We estimate a reduction, only in the use of antibiotic, of 1.8 million Euros per year. A telephone call with management advice, immediately after the arrival of blood cultures in the Microbiology Laboratory improves the recognition of sepsis and the use of diagnostic resources and reduces antimicrobial consumption and expenses. PMID:26426609

  13. Rear wheel suspension and steering system

    SciTech Connect

    Ewen, J.G.

    1990-07-17

    This patent describes an improvement in a rear wheel support and driving system. The system comprises a rack-type dead axle adapted to support a vehicle body thereupon through suitable spring means, a pair of wheels rotatably supported upon the dead axle, a differential drive mechanism adapted to be supported upon the vehicle body movable with the body relative to the dead axle, the differential mechanism including a power input shaft and power output shafts, a pair of live axles drivingly connecting the output shafts with the wheels. The dead axle being generally rectilinear in shape and having a first pair of longitudinal beams respectively transversely spaced outboard of the differential mechanism, a second pair of cross beams respectively spaced fore and aft of the differential mechanism and secured to the first pair of beams.

  14. Analysis of factors associated with seatbelt wearing among rear passengers in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Norlen; Mohd Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli; Isah, Noradrenalina; Othman, Ihamah; Syed Rahim, Sharifah-Allyana; Paiman, Noorfaradilla

    2011-03-01

    A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among 793 rear passengers in Malaysia. Logistic regression was performed to analyse the association of rear seatbelt wearing with 12 independent variables. Seven factors were significantly associated with rear seatbelt wearing. Experience of being stopped by an enforcement officer for not wearing rear seatbelt yielded the highest odds ratio 2.3 (p = 0.002) followed by self-consciousness (odds ratio 1.7; p = 0.004), attitude (odds ratio 1.5, p = 0.001), and knowledge (odds ratio 1.4, p = 0.004). Age of participants and their perception of being caught by an enforcement officer were also significantly associated with rear seatbelt wearing, odds ratios were 1.03 (p = 0.004) and 1.1 (p = 0.004), respectively. In contrast, level of education was negatively associated with rear seatbelt wearing (odds ratio 0.59, p = 0.003). It was concluded that enforcement activities, knowledge and attitude on seatbelt wearing play a very important role in improving the rate of rear seatbelt wearing. Thus, efforts to increase these factors should be the special focus in designing education and social marketing activities to advocate rear seatbelt wearing. PMID:20496187

  15. 5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. 1890 first rear addition; partial north rear elevation of c. 1900 side ell addition; and north rear and west side elevation of final rear addition of c. 1940. - Vaughn Chevrolet Building, 101-109 East Main Street, Monongahela, Washington County, PA

  16. Use of bar code readers and programmable keypads to improve the speed and accuracy of manual data entry in the clinical microbiology laboratory: experience of two laboratories.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, R; Coia, J E; Michie, J

    1999-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effect of the use of bar code readers and programmable keypads for entry of specimen details and results in two microbiology laboratories. METHODS: The solutions selected in each laboratory are described. The benefits resulting from the implementation were measured in two ways. The speed of data entry and error reduction were measured by observation. A questionnaire was completed by users of bar codes. RESULTS: There were savings in time and in reduced data entry errors. Average time to enter a report by keyboard was 21.1 s v 14.1 s for bar coded results entry. There were no observed errors with the bar code readers but 55 errors with keystroke entries. The laboratory staff of all grades found the system fast, easy to use, and less stressful than conventional keyboard entry. CONCLUSIONS: Indirect time savings should accrue from the observed reduction in incorrectly entered data. Any microbiology laboratory seeking to improve the accuracy and efficiency of data entry into their laboratory information systems should consider the adoption of this technology which can be readily interfaced to existing terminals. PMID:10343613

  17. Improving Ventilation and Saving Energy: Laboratory Study in aModular Classroom Test Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, Michael G.; Buchanan, Ian S.; Faulkner, David; Fisk,William J.; Lai, Chi-Ming; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P.

    2005-08-01

    The primary goals of this research effort were to develop, evaluate, and demonstrate a practical HVAC system for classrooms that consistently provides classrooms with the quantity of ventilation in current minimum standards, while saving energy, and reducing HVAC-related noise levels. This research was motivated by several factors, including the public benefits of energy efficiency, evidence that many classrooms are under-ventilated, and public concerns about indoor environmental quality in classrooms. This project involved the installation and verification of the performance of an Improved Heat Pump Air Conditioning (IHPAC) system, and its comparison, a standard HVAC system having an efficiency of 10 SEER. The project included the verification of the physical characteristics suitable for direct replacement of existing 10 SEER systems, quantitative demonstration of improved energy efficiency, reduced acoustic noise levels, quantitative demonstration of improved ventilation control, and verification that the system would meet temperature control demands necessary for the thermal comfort of the occupants. Results showed that the IHPAC met these goals. The IHPAC was found to be a direct bolt-on replacement for the 10 SEER system. Calculated energy efficiency improvements based on many days of classroom cooling or heating showed that the IHPAC system is about 44% more efficient during cooling and 38% more efficient during heating than the 10 SEER system. Noise reduction was dramatic, with measured A-weighed sound level for fan only operation conditions of 34.3 dB(A), a reduction of 19 dB(A) compared to the 10 SEER system. Similarly, the IHPAC stage-1 and stage-2 compressor plus fan sound levels were 40.8 dB(A) and 42.7 dB(A), reductions of 14 and 13 dB(A), respectively. Thus, the IHPAC is 20 to 35 times quieter than the 10 SEER systems depending upon the operation mode. The IHPAC system met the ventilation requirements and was able to provide consistent outside air

  18. The Demise of Child-Rearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winik, Lyric Wallwork

    2000-01-01

    Discusses child rearing and parenting in the US, suggesting that children are becoming more and more unseen and unheard while their parents go off to be entertained. The paper examines root causes and revolutionary changes; Locke's 17th-century child rearing beliefs; Wesley's tough love philosophy; Rousseau's natural goodness beliefs; other…

  19. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  20. Parents and the Dynamics of Child Rearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, George W.

    This book, designed for advanced courses on parent-child relationships, examines scientific evidence concerning parents' effect on children's development. Chapter 1, "The Development of Child-Rearing Research: From Mere Beliefs to a More Dynamic Perspective," discusses the beginnings of and current trends in child rearing research and introduces a…

  1. Family Rearing Antecedents of Pubertal Timing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belsky, Jay; Steinberg, Laurence D.; Houts, Renate M.; Friedman, Sarah L.; DeHart, Ganie; Cauffman, Elizabeth; Roisman, Glenn I.; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.; Susman, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Two general evolutionary hypotheses were tested on 756 White children (397 girls) studied longitudinally: (1) rearing experiences would predict pubertal timing; and (2) children would prove differentially susceptible to rearing. Analysis of pubertal measurements, including some based on repeated physical assessments, showed that mothering and…

  2. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... spinal cord of the child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, neck, and back of the child causing less injury. Therefore, the rear-facing position is recommended for as long as possible for ...

  3. Using performance tasks employing IOM patient safety competencies to introduce quality improvement processes in medical laboratory science education.

    PubMed

    Golemboski, Karen; Otto, Catherine N; Morris, Susan

    2013-01-01

    In order to contribute to improved healthcare quality through patient-centered care, laboratory professionals at all levels of practice must be able to recognize the connection between non-analytical factors and laboratory analysis, in the context of patient outcomes and quality improvement. These practices require qualities such as critical thinking (CT), teamwork skills, and familiarity with the quality improvement process, which will be essential for the development of evidence-based laboratory science practice. Performance tasks (PT) are an educational strategy which can be used to teach and assess CT and teamwork, while introducing Medical Laboratory Science (MLS) students at both baccalaureate and advanced-practice levels to the concepts of quality improvement processes and patient outcomes research. PT presents students with complex, realistic scenarios which require the incorporation of subject-specific knowledge with competencies such as effective team communication, patient-centered care, and successful use of information technology. A PT with assessment rubric was designed for use in a baccalaureate-level MLS program to teach and assess CT and teamwork competency. The results indicated that, even when students were able to integrate subject-specific knowledge in creative ways, their understanding of teamwork and quality improvement was limited. This indicates the need to intentionally teach skills such as collaboration and quality system design. PT represent one of many strategies that may be used in MLS education to develop essential professional competencies, encourage expert practice, and facilitate quality improvement. PMID:24432515

  4. Health evaluation of free-ranging and hand-reared macaws (Ara spp.) in Peru.

    PubMed

    Karesh, W B; del Campo, A; Braselton, W E; Puche, H; Cook, R A

    1997-12-01

    As part of ongoing ecological studies and reproduction enhancement efforts for macaws in southwestern Peru, a health survey of parent- and hand-reared scarlet macaws (Ara macao) and blue and gold macaws (Ara ararauna) was conducted in 1994. Thirty-three birds were examined during handling procedures, and blood samples were collected from 27 (9 parent reared, 18 hand reared) for laboratory analysis. All but one bird appeared to be in good condition, with no abnormality noted during physical examination. Hematology, plasma chemistries, and plasma vitamin and mineral levels were studied and correlated with the results of bacterial and viral serology. Positive antibody titers for Salmonella and psittacine herpesvirus were found. These diseases have the potential to affect wildlife population dynamics, and Salmonella may have public health significance. Serological tests for avian influenza, infectious laryngotracheitis, paramyxovirus-1, -2, -3, polyoma virus, chlamydiosis, and aspergillosis were negative. Differences in disease prevalence were found between rearing situations. PMID:9523629

  5. Pre-PCR processing in bioterrorism preparedness: improved diagnostic capabilities for laboratory response networks.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Johannes; Knutsson, Rickard; Ansell, Ricky; Rådström, Peter; Rasmusson, Birgitta

    2013-09-01

    Diagnostic DNA analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become a valuable tool for rapid detection of biothreat agents. However, analysis is often challenging because of the limited size, quality, and purity of the biological target. Pre-PCR processing is an integrated concept in which the issues of analytical limit of detection and simplicity for automation are addressed in all steps leading up to PCR amplification--that is, sampling, sample treatment, and the chemical composition of PCR. The sampling method should maximize target uptake and minimize uptake of extraneous substances that could impair the analysis--so-called PCR inhibitors. In sample treatment, there is a trade-off between yield and purity, as extensive purification leads to DNA loss. A cornerstone of pre-PCR processing is to apply DNA polymerase-buffer systems that are tolerant to specific sample impurities, thereby lowering the need for expensive purification steps and maximizing DNA recovery. Improved awareness among Laboratory Response Networks (LRNs) regarding pre-PCR processing is important, as ineffective sample processing leads to increased cost and possibly false-negative or ambiguous results, hindering the decision-making process in a bioterrorism crisis. This article covers the nature and mechanisms of PCR-inhibitory substances relevant for agroterrorism and bioterrorism preparedness, methods for quality control of PCR reactions, and applications of pre-PCR processing to optimize and simplify the analysis of various biothreat agents. Knowledge about pre-PCR processing will improve diagnostic capabilities of LRNs involved in the response to bioterrorism incidents. PMID:23971826

  6. Recent Improvements to the Acoustical Testing Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Devin M.; Mirecki, Julius H.; Walker, Bruce E.; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    The Acoustical Testing Laboratory (ATL) consists of a 27 by 23 by 20 ft (height) convertible hemi/anechoic chamber and separate sound-attenuating test support enclosure. Absorptive fiberglass wedges in the test chamber provide an anechoic environment down to 100 Hz. A spring-isolated floor system affords vibration isolation above 3 Hz. These specifications, along with very low design background levels, enable the acquisition of accurate and repeatable acoustical measurements on test articles that produce very low sound pressures. Removable floor wedges allow the test chamber to operate in either a hemi-anechoic or anechoic configuration, depending on the size of the test article and the specific test being conducted. The test support enclosure functions as a control room during normal operations. Recently improvements were accomplished in support of continued usage of the ATL by NASA programs including an analysis of the ultra-sonic characteristics. A 3 dimensional traverse system inside the chamber was utilized for acquiring acoustic data for these tests. The traverse system drives a linear array of 13, 1/4"-microphones spaced 3" apart (36" span). An updated data acquisition system was also incorporated into the facility.

  7. Recent Improvements to the Acoustical Testing Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Devin M.; Mirecki, Julius H.; Walker, Bruce E.; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    The Acoustical Testing Laboratory (ATL) consists of a 27- by 23- by 20-ft (height) convertible hemi/anechoic chamber and separate sound-attenuating test support enclosure. Absorptive fiberglass wedges in the test chamber provide an anechoic environment down to 100 Hz. A spring-isolated floor system affords vibration isolation above 3 Hz. These specifications, along with very low design background levels, enable the acquisition of accurate and repeatable acoustical measurements on test articles that produce very low sound pressures. Removable floor wedges allow the test chamber to operate in either a hemi-anechoic or anechoic configuration, depending on the size of the test article and the specific test being conducted. The test support enclosure functions as a control room during normal operations. Recently improvements were accomplished in support of continued usage of the ATL by NASA programs including an analysis of the ultra-sonic characteristics. A 3-D traverse system inside the chamber was utilized for acquiring acoustic data for these tests. The traverse system drives a linear array of 13, 1/4 in.-microphones spaced 3 in. apart (36 in. span). An updated data acquisition system was also incorporated into the facility.

  8. Hand rearing affects emotional responses but not basic cognitive performance in European starlings☆

    PubMed Central

    Feenders, Gesa; Bateson, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Hand rearing is a common procedure in behavioural research on birds. While likely to produce tamer experimental animals, there is a risk that it could induce pathological changes in brain and behaviour similar to those seen in mammals that have experienced maternal separation. We explored the effects of hand rearing on the cognitive and behavioural development of European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, to assess the generality of results obtained from hand-reared animals. Two groups of age-matched birds were created from the same wild population: one hand-reared from 10 days posthatch and one brought into the laboratory as independent juveniles. These groups were compared on a battery of neuropsychological tasks designed to probe different aspects of cognitive function including learning, perseverative cognition, interval timing, neophobia and impulsivity. There was no evidence for cognitive impairment in the hand-reared birds. They did not have reduced learning speed, impairments in accuracy or precision of interval timing or pathological perseverative cognition compared to the wild-caught birds. Additionally, there was no evidence that birds that developed stereotypies in laboratory cages (predominantly the wild-caught birds) had any cognitive impairments, although this may be because no birds had severe, crystallized stereotypies. There was some evidence that hand-reared birds were less neophobic and less impulsive than wild-caught birds, suggesting that hand rearing might alter emotionally mediated decision making in a direction usually associated with reduced developmental stress in mammals. This study therefore supports the use of hand rearing as an experimental procedure in behavioural research on passerine birds. PMID:23888084

  9. Hand rearing affects emotional responses but not basic cognitive performance in European starlings.

    PubMed

    Feenders, Gesa; Bateson, Melissa

    2013-07-01

    Hand rearing is a common procedure in behavioural research on birds. While likely to produce tamer experimental animals, there is a risk that it could induce pathological changes in brain and behaviour similar to those seen in mammals that have experienced maternal separation. We explored the effects of hand rearing on the cognitive and behavioural development of European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, to assess the generality of results obtained from hand-reared animals. Two groups of age-matched birds were created from the same wild population: one hand-reared from 10 days posthatch and one brought into the laboratory as independent juveniles. These groups were compared on a battery of neuropsychological tasks designed to probe different aspects of cognitive function including learning, perseverative cognition, interval timing, neophobia and impulsivity. There was no evidence for cognitive impairment in the hand-reared birds. They did not have reduced learning speed, impairments in accuracy or precision of interval timing or pathological perseverative cognition compared to the wild-caught birds. Additionally, there was no evidence that birds that developed stereotypies in laboratory cages (predominantly the wild-caught birds) had any cognitive impairments, although this may be because no birds had severe, crystallized stereotypies. There was some evidence that hand-reared birds were less neophobic and less impulsive than wild-caught birds, suggesting that hand rearing might alter emotionally mediated decision making in a direction usually associated with reduced developmental stress in mammals. This study therefore supports the use of hand rearing as an experimental procedure in behavioural research on passerine birds. PMID:23888084

  10. Production and quality assurance in the SIT Africa Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) rearing facility in South Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, B.; Rosenberg, S.; Arnolds, L.; Johnson, J.

    2007-03-15

    A mass-rearing facility for Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) was commissioned in Stellenbosch in 1999 to produce sterile male fruit flies for a sterile insect technique (SIT) project in commercial fruit orchards and vineyards in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The mass-rearing procedure was largely based on systems developed by the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf, Austria. A number of genetic sexing strains were used to produce only males for release. Initial cramped rearing and quality management conditions were alleviated in 2001 with the construction of a new adult rearing room and quality control laboratory. In 2002 a comprehensive Quality Management System was implemented, and in 2003 an improved genetic sexing strain, VIENNA 8, was supplied by the FAO/IAEA Laboratory in Seibersdorf. For most of the first 3 years the facility was unable to supply the required number of sterile male Mediterranean fruit flies for the SIT program without importing sterile male pupae from another facility. From mid-2002, after the quality management system was implemented, both production and quality improved but remained below optimum. After the introduction of the VIENNA 8 genetic sexing strain, and together with an improvement in the climate control equipment, production stability, and quality assurance parameters improved substantially. The critical factors influencing production and quality were an inadequate rearing infrastructure, problems with the quality of the larval diet, and the initial absence of a quality management system. The results highlight the importance of effective quality management, the value of a stable and productive genetic sexing strain, and the necessity for a sound funding base for the mass-rearing facility. (author) [Spanish] La facilidad para criar en masa la mosca mediterranea de la fruta, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) fue comisionada en Stellenbosch en 1999 para producir machos

  11. A review on laboratory tests’ utilization: A trigger for cutting costs and quality improvement in health care settings

    PubMed Central

    Meidani, Zahra; Farzandipour, Mehrdad; Farrokhian, Alireza; Haghighat, Masomeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Considering the role of laboratory tests as a central part of controlling health expenditure, this study intends to investigate laboratory tests overutilization in Iran to pave the way for future interventions. Methods: Inappropriate laboratory utilization was reviewed in a cross-sectional survey through the retrospective analysis of 384 medical records at a tertiary center. To pave the way for future intervention, overutilization tests were classified into two categories, inappropriate and inefficient, and then they were analyzed. Frequency analysis was used to analysis patient’s age, gender, hospital wards, length of stay, and diagnosis as well as inappropriate test and inefficient tests. Results: A total of 143 (1.50 %) of the tests were inefficient and was ordered due to laboratory errors including hemolysis, inefficient sampling, or absurd results. 2522 (26.40%) of the tests were inappropriate and stem from failure to meet medical/clinical appropriateness criteria. Conclusion: Whereas, inappropriate test ordering was more frequent than inefficient tests, the initial improvement strategy should focus on physicians’ test ordering behavior through conducting proper teaching strategies, ongoing audit and educational feedback, implementing health information technology tools and employing laboratory practice guidelines (LPGs) and testing algorithms. Conducting continuous quality improvement cycle for laboratory services and training of personnel involved in blood sampling is recommended for inefficient tests. PMID:27493909

  12. Simulated and Virtual Science Laboratory Experiments: Improving Critical Thinking and Higher-Order Learning Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Nicole A.

    2013-01-01

    Virtual laboratory experiments using interactive computer simulations are not being employed as viable alternatives to laboratory science curriculum at extensive enough rates within higher education. Rote traditional lab experiments are currently the norm and are not addressing inquiry, Critical Thinking, and cognition throughout the laboratory…

  13. 42 CFR 493.2001 - Establishment and function of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Establishment and function of the Clinical... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Consultations § 493.2001 Establishment and function of the Clinical Laboratory... standards; (4) Facility administration and quality systems standards. (5) Proficiency testing standards;...

  14. 42 CFR 493.2001 - Establishment and function of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Establishment and function of the Clinical... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Consultations § 493.2001 Establishment and function of the Clinical Laboratory... standards; (4) Facility administration and quality systems standards. (5) Proficiency testing standards;...

  15. 42 CFR 493.2001 - Establishment and function of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Establishment and function of the Clinical... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Consultations § 493.2001 Establishment and function of the Clinical Laboratory... standards; (4) Facility administration and quality systems standards. (5) Proficiency testing standards;...

  16. Regional Educational Laboratories 2002 Annual Report: Improving the Lives of Children through Education Research & Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast and Islands Regional Educational Lab. at Brown Univ., Providence, RI.

    This report, the second annual report of the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) system's current 5-year contract, shows the progress laboratories have made in meeting regional challenges and establishing national leadership in critical areas. The report also illustrates who the labs are using research and development to gain knowledge about how…

  17. Improving the Efficacy of On-Campus Laboratory Experiences Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Kim K.; Wilson, Martha A.

    1994-01-01

    Preservice teachers worked in groups containing diverse personalities and participated in laboratory experiences that applied classroom knowledge. Surveys indicated students considered the laboratory activities more valuable and influential than field experiences in many ways. The most diverse cohorts reported stronger, more positive feelings…

  18. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. First topical report, Results of laboratory screening of additives

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-04-16

    Several tasks have been completed in a program to evaluate additives to improve fine particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Screening tests and laboratory evaluations of additives are summarized in this report. Over 20 additives were evaluated; four were found to improve flyash precipitation rates. The Insitec particle analyzer was also evaluated; test results show that the analyzer will provide accurate sizing and counting information for particles in the size range of {le} 10 {mu}m dia.

  19. Methodical aspects of rearing decapod larvae, Pagurus bernhardus (Paguridae) and Carcinus maenas (Portunidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawirs, R. R.

    1982-12-01

    Improved methods for experimental rearing of Pagurus bernhardus and Carcinus maenas larvae are presented. Isolated maintenance was found essential for reliable statistical evaluation of results obtained from stages older than zoea-1. Only by isolated rearing is it possible to calculate mean values ±95% confidence intervals of stage duration. Mean values (without confidence intervals) can only be given for group-reared larvae if mortality is zero. Compared to group rearing, isolated rearing led to better survival, shorter periods of development and stimulated growth. Due to different swimming behavior P. bernhardus zoeae needed larger water volumes than Carcinus maenas larvae. P. bernhardus zoeae were reared with best results when isolated in Petri dishes (ca. 50 ml). They fed on newly hatched brine shrimp nauplii ( Artemia spp.). P. bernhardus megalopa did not require any gastropod shell or substratum; it developed best in glass vials without any food. C. maenas larvae could be reared most sucessfully in glass vials (ca 20 ml) under a simulated day-night regime (LD 16:8); constant darkness had a detrimental effect on development, leading to prolonged stage-duration times. C. maenas larvae were fed a mixture of newly hatched brine shrimp naupli and rotifers ( Brachionus plicatilis).

  20. Transcriptomic responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to environmental enrichment during juvenile rearing.

    PubMed

    Evans, Melissa L; Hori, Tiago S; Rise, Matthew L; Fleming, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    Captive rearing programs (hatcheries) are often used in conservation and management efforts for at-risk salmonid fish populations. However, hatcheries typically rear juveniles in environments that contrast starkly with natural conditions, which may lead to phenotypic and/or genetic changes that adversely affect the performance of juveniles upon their release to the wild. Environmental enrichment has been proposed as a mechanism to improve the efficacy of population restoration efforts from captive-rearing programs; in this study, we examine the influence of environmental enrichment during embryo and yolk-sac larval rearing on the transcriptome of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Full siblings were reared in either a hatchery environment devoid of structure or an environment enriched with gravel substrate. At the end of endogenous feeding by juveniles, we examined patterns of gene transcript abundance in head tissues using the cGRASP-designed Agilent 4×44K microarray. Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) indicated that 808 genes were differentially transcribed between the rearing environments and a total of 184 gene ontological (GO) terms were over- or under-represented in this gene list, several associated with mitosis/cell cycle and muscle and heart development. There were also pronounced differences among families in the degree of transcriptional response to rearing environment enrichment, suggesting that gene-by-environment effects, possibly related to parental origin, could influence the efficacy of enrichment interventions. PMID:25742646

  1. Environmental effects on behavioural development consequences for fitness of captive-reared fishes in the wild.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, J I; Brockmark, S; Näslund, J

    2014-12-01

    Why do captive-reared fishes generally have lower fitness in natural environments than wild conspecifics, even when the hatchery fishes are derived from wild parents from the local population? A thorough understanding of this question is the key to design artificial rearing environments that optimize post-release performance, as well as to recognize the limitations of what can be achieved by modifying hatchery rearing methods. Fishes are generally very plastic in their development and through gene-environment interactions, epigenetic and maternal effects their phenotypes will develop differently depending on their rearing environment. This suggests that there is scope for modifying conventional rearing environments to better prepare fishes for release into the wild. The complexity of the natural environment is impossible to mimic in full-scale rearing facilities. So, in reality, the challenge is to identify key modifications of the artificial rearing environment that are practically and economically feasible and that efficiently promote development towards a more wild-like phenotype. Do such key modifications really exist? Here, attempts to use physical enrichment and density reduction to improve the performance of hatchery fishes are discussed and evaluated. These manipulations show potential to increase the fitness of hatchery fishes released into natural environments, but the success is strongly dependent on adequately adapting methods to species and life stage-specific conditions. PMID:25469953

  2. Improving Students' Inquiry Skills and Self-Efficacy through Research-Inspired Modules in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkelmann, Kurt; Baloga, Monica; Marcinkowski, Tom; Giannoulis, Christos; Anquandah, George; Cohen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Research projects conducted by faculty in STEM departments served as the inspiration for a new curriculum of inquiry-based, multiweek laboratory modules in the general chemistry 1 course. The purpose of this curriculum redesign was to improve students' attitudes about chemistry as well as their self-efficacy and skills in performing inquiry…

  3. Novel In vitro Procedures for Rearing a Root-Feeding Pest (Heteronychus arator) of Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Hiltpold, Ivan; Moore, Ben D.; Johnson, Scott N.

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing plant protection against insect herbivory relies on testing plant defense mechanisms and how the insect response to these defensive strategies. Such experiments benefit from using insects generated from standardized rearing protocols since this reduces stochastic variation. Such protocols can be challenging to devise, however, especially for root herbivores. These insects generally have complex and long life cycles, which are often only poorly described. Moreover, using field-captured root herbivores is often suboptimal because it involves extensive excavation from sites selected by chance (their location is not obvious) and larval stages are frequently indistinguishable beyond the family level. We investigated in vitro procedures to improve the availability of the African Black Beetle (ABB) Heteronychus arator, an invasive alien pest in both Australia and New Zealand. Native to Africa, this scarab beetle has established in Australian and New Zealand grasslands, pastures, and crops. Adults feed on the stem of young plants just beneath the soil surface. During the mating season, gravid females lay eggs in the soil, giving rise to larvae feeding on grass roots, causing severe damage, and impairing plant growth. Here, we propose laboratory approaches to collect eggs from field-captured adult beetles, to hatch eggs, and to rear neonate larvae to adults. We propose that these methods will provide plant scientists and entomologists with a better and more controlled supply of ABB larvae for laboratory and field assays. In turn, this will assist with the collection of important information for the management of this insect pest and enhanced protection of plants in crop and grassland ecosystems. PMID:27625673

  4. Novel In vitro Procedures for Rearing a Root-Feeding Pest (Heteronychus arator) of Grasslands.

    PubMed

    Hiltpold, Ivan; Moore, Ben D; Johnson, Scott N

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing plant protection against insect herbivory relies on testing plant defense mechanisms and how the insect response to these defensive strategies. Such experiments benefit from using insects generated from standardized rearing protocols since this reduces stochastic variation. Such protocols can be challenging to devise, however, especially for root herbivores. These insects generally have complex and long life cycles, which are often only poorly described. Moreover, using field-captured root herbivores is often suboptimal because it involves extensive excavation from sites selected by chance (their location is not obvious) and larval stages are frequently indistinguishable beyond the family level. We investigated in vitro procedures to improve the availability of the African Black Beetle (ABB) Heteronychus arator, an invasive alien pest in both Australia and New Zealand. Native to Africa, this scarab beetle has established in Australian and New Zealand grasslands, pastures, and crops. Adults feed on the stem of young plants just beneath the soil surface. During the mating season, gravid females lay eggs in the soil, giving rise to larvae feeding on grass roots, causing severe damage, and impairing plant growth. Here, we propose laboratory approaches to collect eggs from field-captured adult beetles, to hatch eggs, and to rear neonate larvae to adults. We propose that these methods will provide plant scientists and entomologists with a better and more controlled supply of ABB larvae for laboratory and field assays. In turn, this will assist with the collection of important information for the management of this insect pest and enhanced protection of plants in crop and grassland ecosystems. PMID:27625673

  5. Predicting patient volume in cardiac catheterization laboratory to improve resource management.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianhua; Santangelo, Jennifer; James, Randy; Watters, Coyt D; Orsini, Anthony; Mekhjian, Hagop; Kamal, Jyoti

    2008-01-01

    Using historical data within the Information Warehouse of the Ohio State University Medical Center, prediction on daily patient volume to catheterization laboratory was attempted to facilitate resource management and planning. PMID:18998829

  6. An Improved Dielectric Constant Cell for Use in Student and Research Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, H. Bradford.; Walmsley, Judith A.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the latest stage in the design of an economical dielectric constant cell, tested in both instructional and research applications, that is suitable for student laboratories and for precision research measurements. (BT)

  7. Using the Science Writing Heuristic in the General Chemistry Laboratory to Improve Students' Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poock, Jason R.; Burke, K. A.; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Hand, Brian M.

    2007-01-01

    The analysis describes the effects of using the science writing heuristic (SWH) in the general chemistry laboratory on the students' academic performance. The technique has found to be extremely important factor in a student's learning process and achievement in science.

  8. Do hatchery-reared sea urchins pose a threat to genetic diversity in wild populations?

    PubMed

    Segovia-Viadero, M; Serrão, E A; Canteras-Jordana, J C; Gonzalez-Wangüemert, M

    2016-04-01

    In salmonids, the release of hatchery-reared fish has been shown to cause irreversible genetic impacts on wild populations. However, although responsible practices for producing and releasing genetically diverse, hatchery-reared juveniles have been published widely, they are rarely implemented. Here, we investigated genetic differences between wild and early-generation hatchery-reared populations of the purple sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (a commercially important species in Europe) to assess whether hatcheries were able to maintain natural levels of genetic diversity. To test the hypothesis that hatchery rearing would cause bottleneck effects (that is, a substantial reduction in genetic diversity and differentiation from wild populations), we compared the levels and patterns of genetic variation between two hatcheries and four nearby wild populations, using samples from both Spain and Ireland. We found that hatchery-reared populations were less diverse and had diverged significantly from the wild populations, with a very small effective population size and a high degree of relatedness between individuals. These results raise a number of concerns about the genetic impacts of their release into wild populations, particularly when such a degree of differentiation can occur in a single generation of hatchery rearing. Consequently, we suggest that caution should be taken when using hatchery-reared individuals to augment fisheries, even for marine species with high dispersal capacity, and we provide some recommendations to improve hatchery rearing and release practices. Our results further highlight the need to consider the genetic risks of releasing hatchery-reared juveniles into the wild during the establishment of restocking, stock enhancement and sea ranching programs. PMID:26758187

  9. Surveillance of Infectious Diseases by the Sentinel Laboratory Network in Belgium: 30 Years of Continuous Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Muyldermans, Gaëtan; Ducoffre, Geneviève; Leroy, Mathias; Dupont, Yves; Quolin, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In 1983 the sentinel laboratory network was established because of the need to describe the epidemiological evolution of infectious diseases. During the study period of 30 years (1983–2013), microbiology laboratories reported on weekly basis the laboratory diagnosed cases for a selection of infectious diseases. This resulted in a large longitudinal laboratory based database allowing to provide trends over time and distribution by person and place. During this period, adaptations to data collection were made due to changes in diagnostic methods and public health priorities, introduction and application of digital revolution, and multiple reorganizations of the laboratories. Since the surveillance network is dynamic, it necessitates a continuous evaluation to ensure that, over time, it continues to be representative of the general epidemiological trends in the country. Secondly the aim is to examine the robustness and stability of this surveillance system. Here we demonstrated that the flexibility of the data collection methodology by the sentinel laboratory network is unique and that adaptations do not affect the capacity of the system to follow trends. Therefore, the surveillance by this network is representative of the current epidemiological situation in Belgium. To our knowledge, no such surveillance network with such a long-term follow-up and demonstrated stability for multiple infectious diseases in the general population was earlier described. Furthermore, expected trends due to the implementation of vaccination or other events were accurately detected. The collected data obtained from this network allows interesting comparisons with other national and international information sources. PMID:27571203

  10. Surveillance of Infectious Diseases by the Sentinel Laboratory Network in Belgium: 30 Years of Continuous Improvement.

    PubMed

    Muyldermans, Gaëtan; Ducoffre, Geneviève; Leroy, Mathias; Dupont, Yves; Quolin, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In 1983 the sentinel laboratory network was established because of the need to describe the epidemiological evolution of infectious diseases. During the study period of 30 years (1983-2013), microbiology laboratories reported on weekly basis the laboratory diagnosed cases for a selection of infectious diseases. This resulted in a large longitudinal laboratory based database allowing to provide trends over time and distribution by person and place. During this period, adaptations to data collection were made due to changes in diagnostic methods and public health priorities, introduction and application of digital revolution, and multiple reorganizations of the laboratories. Since the surveillance network is dynamic, it necessitates a continuous evaluation to ensure that, over time, it continues to be representative of the general epidemiological trends in the country. Secondly the aim is to examine the robustness and stability of this surveillance system. Here we demonstrated that the flexibility of the data collection methodology by the sentinel laboratory network is unique and that adaptations do not affect the capacity of the system to follow trends. Therefore, the surveillance by this network is representative of the current epidemiological situation in Belgium. To our knowledge, no such surveillance network with such a long-term follow-up and demonstrated stability for multiple infectious diseases in the general population was earlier described. Furthermore, expected trends due to the implementation of vaccination or other events were accurately detected. The collected data obtained from this network allows interesting comparisons with other national and international information sources. PMID:27571203

  11. An optimized approach to germ-free rearing in the jewel wasp Nasonia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Development of a Nasonia in vitrogerm-free rearing system in 2012 enabled investigation of Nasonia-microbiota interactions and real-time visualization of parasitoid metamorphosis. However, the use of antibiotics, bleach, and fetal bovine serum introduced artifacts relative to conventional rearing of Nasonia. Here, we optimize the germ-free rearing procedure by using filter sterilization in lieu of antibiotics and by removing residual bleach and fetal bovine serum. Comparison of these methods reveals no influence on larval survival or growth, and a 52% improvement in adult production. Additionally, adult males produced in the new germ-free system are similar in size to conventionally reared males. Experimental implications of these changes are discussed. PMID:27602283

  12. An optimized approach to germ-free rearing in the jewel wasp Nasonia.

    PubMed

    Shropshire, J Dylan; van Opstal, Edward J; Bordenstein, Seth R

    2016-01-01

    Development of a Nasonia in vitrogerm-free rearing system in 2012 enabled investigation of Nasonia-microbiota interactions and real-time visualization of parasitoid metamorphosis. However, the use of antibiotics, bleach, and fetal bovine serum introduced artifacts relative to conventional rearing of Nasonia. Here, we optimize the germ-free rearing procedure by using filter sterilization in lieu of antibiotics and by removing residual bleach and fetal bovine serum. Comparison of these methods reveals no influence on larval survival or growth, and a 52% improvement in adult production. Additionally, adult males produced in the new germ-free system are similar in size to conventionally reared males. Experimental implications of these changes are discussed. PMID:27602283

  13. Laboratory QA/QC improvements for small drinking water systems at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.D.

    1995-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), a 310 square mile facility located near Aiken, S.C., is operated by Westinghouse Savannah River Company for the US Department of Energy. SRS has 28 separate drinking water systems with average daily demands ranging from 0.0002 to 0.5 MGD. All systems utilize treated groundwater. Until recently, the water laboratories for each system operated independently. As a result, equipment, reagents, chemicals, procedures, personnel, and quality control practices differed from location to location. Due to this inconsistency, and a lack of extensive laboratory OA/QC practices at some locations, SRS auditors were not confident in the accuracy of daily water quality analyses results. The Site`s Water Services Department addressed these concerns by developing and implementing a practical laboratory QA/QC program. Basic changes were made which can be readily adopted by most small drinking water systems. Key features of the program include: Standardized and upgraded laboratory instrumentation and equipment; standardized analytical procedures based on vendor manuals and site requirements; periodic accuracy checks for all instrumentation; creation of a centralized laboratory to perform metals digestions and chlorine colorimeter accuracy checks; off-site and on-site operator training; proper storage, inventory and shelf life monitoring for reagents and chemicals. This program has enhanced the credibility and accuracy of SRS drinking water system analyses results.

  14. Simulation information regarding Sandia National Laboratories%3CU%2B2019%3E trinity capability improvement metric.

    SciTech Connect

    Agelastos, Anthony Michael; Lin, Paul T.

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory each selected a representative simulation code to be used as a performance benchmark for the Trinity Capability Improvement Metric. Sandia selected SIERRA Low Mach Module: Nalu, which is a uid dynamics code that solves many variable-density, acoustically incompressible problems of interest spanning from laminar to turbulent ow regimes, since it is fairly representative of implicit codes that have been developed under ASC. The simulations for this metric were performed on the Cielo Cray XE6 platform during dedicated application time and the chosen case utilized 131,072 Cielo cores to perform a canonical turbulent open jet simulation within an approximately 9-billion-elementunstructured- hexahedral computational mesh. This report will document some of the results from these simulations as well as provide instructions to perform these simulations for comparison.

  15. A comparison of rearing Creontiades signatus distant on green bean pods or pea plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A laboratory procedure for mass rearing Creontiades signatus Distant, a relatively new plant bug pest of south Texas cotton, was compared using green bean pods versus whole cowpea plants to determine which would provide for the easiest most efficient method for producing the insect in culture. The n...

  16. Long-Term Cognitive Deficits in Chimpanzees Associated with Early Impoverished Rearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Richard K.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    According to transfer index testing, chimpanzees who had been reared in restricted laboratory environments for the first two years of life were inferior in cognitive skills to wild born control subjects. Findings are discussed in terms of the role of early experience in cognitive development. (DP)

  17. Rearing optimization of two races of the Fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda feeding natural host plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two ecological races of the Fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda were raised under laboratory conditions feeding on natural host plants (corn and bermuda grass). Three rearing containers were used: a plastic container and a vertical cylinder to test fitness when feeding gregariously, and individual ...

  18. Generalized nonlinear models for rear-end crash risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Lao, Yunteng; Zhang, Guohui; Wang, Yinhai; Milton, John

    2014-01-01

    A generalized nonlinear model (GNM)-based approach for modeling highway rear-end crash risk is formulated using Washington State traffic safety data. Previous studies majorly focused on causal factor identification and crash risk modeling using Generalized linear Models (GLMs), such as Poisson regression, Logistic regression, etc. However, their basic assumption of a generalized linear relationship between the dependent variable (for example, crash rate) and independent variables (for example, contribute factors to crashes) established via a link function can be often violated in reality. Consequently, the GLM-based modeling results could provide biased findings and conclusions. In this research, a GNM-based approach is developed to utilize a nonlinear regression function to better elaborate non-monotonic relationships between the independent and dependent variables using the rear end accident data collected from 10 highway routes from 2002 through 2006. The results show for example that truck percentage and grade have a parabolic impact: they increase crash risks initially, but decrease them after the certain thresholds. Such non-monotonic relationships cannot be captured by regular GLMs which further demonstrate the flexibility of GNM-based approaches in the nonlinear relationship among data and providing more reasonable explanations. The superior GNM-based model interpretations help better understand the parabolic impacts of some specific contributing factors for selecting and evaluating rear-end crash safety improvement plans. PMID:24125803

  19. Programme of the Community Network of Reference Laboratories for Human Influenza to improve Influenza Surveillance in Europe.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Adam; Brown, Caroline; Hungnes, Olav; Schweiger, Brunhilde; Valette, Martine; van der Werf, Sylvie; Zambon, Maria

    2006-11-10

    All laboratories participating in the Community Network of Reference Laboratories for Human Influenza in Europe (CNRL) co-ordinated by the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS) should be able to perform a range of influenza diagnostics. This includes direct detection, culture, typing, subtyping and strain characterisation of influenza viruses, diagnostic serology and the creation of archives for clinical specimens and virus isolates. To improve the capacity and quality of the laboratories of the CNRL and to increase the consistency in performance among all 25 European Union countries plus Norway, Romania, and Switzerland, five task groups were set up in February 2005. These task groups developed work programmes in the areas of virus isolation, antibodies, molecular virology, quality control assessment and antiviral susceptibility testing. This report outlines the programmes and the results achieved in the first half-year of operation of the task groups. The action plans are challenging and it is expected that these efforts will lead to considerable improvements in the performance of the laboratories and in the standardisation of methods employed in Europe with regard to routine influenza surveillance and early warning for emerging viruses. PMID:16782242

  20. Incrementally Approaching an Inquiry Lab Curriculum: Can Changing a Single Laboratory Experiment Improve Student Performance in General Chemistry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Sevian, Hannah

    2009-04-01

    Many institutions are responding to current research about how students learn science by transforming their general chemistry laboratory curricula to be inquiry-oriented. We present a comparison study of student performance after completing either a traditional or an inquiry stoichiometry experiment. This single laboratory experience was the only difference between two comparison groups enrolled in the same general chemistry course with otherwise traditional labs. Measures used to assess student performance included an open-response question, and ACS multiple-choice test items at various points in the course, as well as observations of students in the laboratory, and interviews. Statistical analysis of data used an ANOVA model, including a covariate to control for students' prior knowledge and skills. Students who completed the inquiry experiment significantly outperformed students who did the traditional experiment on stoichiometry content problems and experimental design tasks. No difference in performance between the groups was found on problems not directly related to the content of the experiment. These results provide evidence that student learning of chemistry content and skills is enhanced by a single inquiry laboratory experience, and suggest that increasing the number and variety of inquiry experiments may lead to greater improvements in performance. This study is part of a larger study examining the impact on student performance of incrementally shifting toward more inquiry experiments in the laboratory portion of general chemistry.

  1. Use of R&D Laboratory Services and Products for School Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttram, Joan L.; And Others

    The effectiveness of four technical assistance-oriented services/products of one regional educational laboratory was studied. The services/products studied included a thinking skills activities workbook for classroom teachers, a videotape for rural educators on exemplary software for developing the thinking skills of at-risk students, a research…

  2. Can an Inquiry Approach Improve College Student Learning in a Teaching Laboratory?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rissing, Steven W.; Cogan, John G.

    2009-01-01

    We present an inquiry-based, hands-on laboratory exercise on enzyme activity for an introductory college biology course for science majors. We measure student performance on a series of objective and subjective questions before and after completion of this exercise; we also measure performance of a similar cohort of students before and after…

  3. Interacting as Experimenting. The Integration of Interaction Laboratory Functions for Lecture Improvement: Four Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinzing, Hans Gerhard

    This paper examines four studies, integrated into regular courses for the preparation of secondary school teachers at the University of Tuebingen (Germany), that assessed the effectiveness of an interaction laboratory to enhance social competence, as well as lecturing skills. The program involved formal instruction; symbolic modeling and…

  4. Importance of Temperature Calibration for Sunset Laboratory Carbon Analyzer: NIOSH and IMPROVE Temperature Protocols

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Sunset Laboratory Dual-Optical Carbonaceous Analyzer that simultaneously measures transmission and reflectance signals is widely used in thermal-optical analysis of particulate matter samples. Most often it is used to measure total carbon (TC), organic carbon (OC), and eleme...

  5. Improved mouse cage provides versatility and ease in handling laboratory mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, N. D.

    1969-01-01

    Mouse cage system provides versatility and ease in handling laboratory mice, cleaning their cages, and collecting uncontaminated metabolic test specimens. The cage, compact and free standing, contains a screened bottom and funnel channel to collect waste. The feed is in the cage top and thereby separates the food and waste.

  6. Improving estimations of field soil water capacity from laboratory-measured soil properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different recommendations exist world-wide on which, if any, pressure heads should be used in laboratory measurements to approximate the 'field capacity' (FC) of the soil. Literature often deems any such pressure heads to be inadequate to approximate FC for soils of all textures. We used a data coll...

  7. Improved Student Linkage of Mendelian and Molecular Genetic Concepts through a Yeast-Based Laboratory Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolyniak, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    A study of modern genetics requires students to successfully unite the principles of Mendelian genetics with the functions of DNA. Traditional means of teaching genetics are often successful in teaching Mendelian and molecular ideas but not in allowing students to see how the two subjects relate. The laboratory module presented here attempts to…

  8. Coding and Analysing Behaviour Strategies of Instructors in University Science Laboratories to Improve Science Teachers Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ajaja, Patrick Osawaru

    2013-01-01

    The intention of this study was to determine how science instructors in the university laboratories spend time on instruction. The study, was guided by three research questions and two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study employed a non-participant observation case study design. 48 instructors teaching lower and higher levels…

  9. Toward improving estimates of field soil water capacity from laboratory-measured soil properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Different recommendations exist world-wide on which – if any - pressure head should be used in laboratory measurements to approximate the ‘field capacity’ (FC) of the soil. Literature often deems any such pressure heads to be inadequate to approximate FC for soils of all textures. We used a data col...

  10. Physiological consequences of laboratory rearing of Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several aspects of the basic biology of the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight, are poorly known despite of the economic importance of this species. Among these are the factors regulating the adult diapause. Recent studies questioned the validity of earlier reports of diapause in L...

  11. Traceability as a unique tool to improve standardization in laboratory medicine.

    PubMed

    Panteghini, Mauro

    2009-03-01

    The standardization of measurements is of high priority in Laboratory Medicine, its purpose being to achieve closer comparability of results obtained using routine analytical systems. In order to achieve standardization, an approach is required that provides reliable transfer of the measurement values from the highest hierarchical level to methods which are routinely used in the clinical laboratories. Such a structure is presented by the reference measurement system (RS), based on the concepts of metrological traceability. Key elements of a comprehensive RS are the reference measurement procedure and reference materials. Other essential elements include the definition of the measurand in regards to the intended clinical use and the reference laboratories that may collaborate in a network. At present, there is international cooperation in developing RS for analytes of clinical significance. Thanks to the work of the Joint Committee on Traceability in Laboratory Medicine (JCTLM), a list of higher order reference materials and reference methods is now publicly available. JCTLM has also published the list of reference laboratories that are able to deliver a reference measurement service. As soon as a new RS is implemented, clinical validation of the correctly calibrated routine methods (the IVD products sold onto the market) should take place. Other important issues concerning the implementation of a metrologically-correct approach for result standardization are: 1) the clear definition of the clinically allowable error of measurements and 2) the post-market surveillance of the performance of IVD products. These are tasks of our profession through the organization of appropriate External Quality Assessment programs. PMID:19863912

  12. Does Rearing Laying Hens in Aviaries Adversely Affect Long-Term Welfare following Transfer to Furnished Cages?

    PubMed Central

    Tahamtani, Fernanda M.; Hansen, Tone Beate; Orritt, Rachel; Nicol, Christine; Moe, Randi O.; Janczak, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that hens that are reared in aviaries but produce in furnished cages experience poorer welfare in production than hens reared in caged systems. This hypothesis is based on the suggestion that the spatial restriction associated with the transfer from aviaries to cages results in frustration or stress for the aviary reared birds. To assess the difference in welfare between aviary and cage reared hens in production, non-beak trimmed white leghorn birds from both rearing backgrounds were filmed at a commercial farm that used furnished cage housing. The videos were taken at 19 and 21 weeks of age, following the birds' transition to the production environment at 16 weeks. Videos were analysed in terms of the performance of aversion-related behaviour in undisturbed birds, comfort behaviour in undisturbed birds, and alert behaviour directed to a novel object in the home cage. A decrease in the performance of the former behaviour and increase in the performance of the latter two behaviours indicates improved welfare. The results showed that aviary reared birds performed more alert behaviour near to the object than did cage reared birds at 19 but not at 21 weeks of age (P = 0.03). Blood glucose concentrations did not differ between the treatments (P>0.10). There was a significant difference in mortality between treatments (P = 0.000), with more death in aviary reared birds (5.52%) compared to cage birds (2.48%). The higher mortality of aviary-reared birds indicates a negative effect of aviary rearing on bird welfare, whereas the higher duration of alert behavior suggests a positive effect of aviary rearing. PMID:25229879

  13. OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS AVAILABILITY AND IMPROVEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, Roy I; Peplov, Vladimir V; Wezensky, Mark W; Norris, Kevin Paul; Barnett, William E; Hicks, Jim; Weaver, Joey T; Moss, John; Rust, Kenneth R; Mize, Jeffery J; Anderson, David E

    2011-01-01

    SNS electrical systems have been operational for 4 years. System availability statistics and improvements are presented for AC electrical systems, DC and pulsed power supplies and klystron modulators.

  14. Potential for improved radiation thermometry measurement uncertainty through implementing a primary scale in an industrial laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmott, Jon R.; Lowe, David; Broughton, Mick; White, Ben S.; Machin, Graham

    2016-09-01

    A primary temperature scale requires realising a unit in terms of its definition. For high temperature radiation thermometry in terms of the International Temperature Scale of 1990 this means extrapolating from the signal measured at the freezing temperature of gold, silver or copper using Planck’s radiation law. The difficulty in doing this means that primary scales above 1000 °C require specialist equipment and careful characterisation in order to achieve the extrapolation with sufficient accuracy. As such, maintenance of the scale at high temperatures is usually only practicable for National Metrology Institutes, and calibration laboratories have to rely on a scale calibrated against transfer standards. At lower temperatures it is practicable for an industrial calibration laboratory to have its own primary temperature scale, which reduces the number of steps between the primary scale and end user. Proposed changes to the SI that will introduce internationally accepted high temperature reference standards might make it practicable to have a primary high temperature scale in a calibration laboratory. In this study such a scale was established by calibrating radiation thermometers directly to high temperature reference standards. The possible reduction in uncertainty to an end user as a result of the reduced calibration chain was evaluated.

  15. An improved method for field extraction and laboratory analysis of large, intact soil cores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tindall, J.A.; Hemmen, K.; Dowd, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Various methods have been proposed for the extraction of large, undisturbed soil cores and for subsequent analysis of fluid movement within the cores. The major problems associated with these methods are expense, cumbersome field extraction, and inadequate simulation of unsaturated flow conditions. A field and laboratory procedure is presented that is economical, convenient, and simulates unsaturated and saturated flow without interface flow problems and can be used on a variety of soil types. In the field, a stainless steel core barrel is hydraulically pressed into the soil (30-cm diam. and 38 cm high), the barrel and core are extracted from the soil, and after the barrel is removed from the core, the core is then wrapped securely with flexible sheet metal and a stainless mesh screen is attached to the bottom of the core for support. In the laboratory the soil core is set atop a porous ceramic plate over which a soil-diatomaceous earth slurry has been poured to assure good contact between plate and core. A cardboard cylinder (mold) is fastened around the core and the empty space filled with paraffin wax. Soil cores were tested under saturated and unsaturated conditions using a hanging water column for potentials ???0. Breakthrough curves indicated that no interface flow occurred along the edge of the core. This procedure proved to be reliable for field extraction of large, intact soil cores and for laboratory analysis of solute transport.

  16. Improvement of analytical capabilities of neutron activation analysis laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrado, G.; Cañón, Y.; Peña, M.; Sierra, O.; Porras, A.; Alonso, D.; Herrera, D. C.; Orozco, J.

    2016-07-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey has developed a technique for multi-elemental analysis of soil and plant matrices, based on Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) using the comparator method. In order to evaluate the analytical capabilities of the technique, the laboratory has been participating in inter-comparison tests organized by Wepal (Wageningen Evaluating Programs for Analytical Laboratories). In this work, the experimental procedure and results for the multi-elemental analysis of four soil and four plant samples during participation in the first round on 2015 of Wepal proficiency test are presented. Only elements with radioactive isotopes with medium and long half-lives have been evaluated, 15 elements for soils (As, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Th, U and Zn) and 7 elements for plants (Br, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Na and Zn). The performance assessment by Wepal based on Z-score distributions showed that most results obtained |Z-scores| ≤ 3.

  17. An Inquiry-Based Biology Laboratory Improves Preservice Elementary Teachers' Attitudes about Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessier, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Inquiry-based instruction is gaining favor in college classrooms because it improves scientific skills as well as critical thinking. As we seek ways to improve science education, elementary school is increasingly becoming an embattled component because of decreased time spent on science during those years. The approach that elementary educators…

  18. Review of rearing-related factors affecting the welfare of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Janczak, Andrew M.; Riber, Anja B.

    2015-01-01

    Laying hens may face a number of welfare problems including: acute and chronic pain caused by beak trimming; exaggerated fearfulness that may cause stress and suffocation; difficulties in locating resources, resulting potentially in emaciation and dehydration; frustration and boredom, caused by an environment that is barren; feather pecking; cannibalism; foot lesions; and bone fractures. In Europe, a greater proportion of laying hens are housed in non-cage systems compared to the rest of the world. The extent of the different welfare problems may therefore vary between countries as the type of housing system influences the risk of suffering. More generally, many of these welfare problems are influenced by the rearing environment of the pullets. This article therefore focuses on welfare problems in laying hens that can be traced back to rearing. Factors that have been studied in relation to their effects on bird welfare include beak trimming, housing type, furnishing, enrichment, feeding, stocking density, flock size, sound and light levels, concentration of gasses, age at transfer from rearing to production facilities, similarity between rearing and production facilities, competence of staff, and interactions between bird strain and environment. The present review aims to summarize rearing-related risk factors of poor welfare in adult laying hens housed according to European Union legislation. It aims to identify gaps in current knowledge, and suggests strategies for improving bird welfare by improving rearing conditions. Two main conclusions of this work are that attempts should be made to use appropriate genetic material and that beak trimming should be limited where possible. In addition to this, the rearing system should provide constant access to appropriate substrates, perches, and mashed feed, and should be as similar as possible to the housing system used for the adult birds. Finally, young birds (pullets) should be moved to the production facilities before

  19. Review of rearing-related factors affecting the welfare of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Janczak, Andrew M; Riber, Anja B

    2015-07-01

    Laying hens may face a number of welfare problems including: acute and chronic pain caused by beak trimming; exaggerated fearfulness that may cause stress and suffocation; difficulties in locating resources, resulting potentially in emaciation and dehydration; frustration and boredom, caused by an environment that is barren; feather pecking; cannibalism; foot lesions; and bone fractures. In Europe, a greater proportion of laying hens are housed in non-cage systems compared to the rest of the world. The extent of the different welfare problems may therefore vary between countries as the type of housing system influences the risk of suffering. More generally, many of these welfare problems are influenced by the rearing environment of the pullets. This article therefore focuses on welfare problems in laying hens that can be traced back to rearing. Factors that have been studied in relation to their effects on bird welfare include beak trimming, housing type, furnishing, enrichment, feeding, stocking density, flock size, sound and light levels, concentration of gasses, age at transfer from rearing to production facilities, similarity between rearing and production facilities, competence of staff, and interactions between bird strain and environment. The present review aims to summarize rearing-related risk factors of poor welfare in adult laying hens housed according to European Union legislation. It aims to identify gaps in current knowledge, and suggests strategies for improving bird welfare by improving rearing conditions. Two main conclusions of this work are that attempts should be made to use appropriate genetic material and that beak trimming should be limited where possible. In addition to this, the rearing system should provide constant access to appropriate substrates, perches, and mashed feed, and should be as similar as possible to the housing system used for the adult birds. Finally, young birds (pullets) should be moved to the production facilities before

  20. Total Automation for the Core Laboratory: Improving the Turnaround Time Helps to Reduce the Volume of Ordered STAT Tests.

    PubMed

    Ialongo, Cristiano; Porzio, Ottavia; Giambini, Ilio; Bernardini, Sergio

    2016-06-01

    The transition to total automation represents the greatest leap for a clinical laboratory, characterized by a totally new philosophy of process management. We have investigated the impact of total automation on core laboratory efficiency and its effects on the clinical services related to STAT tests. For this purpose, a 47-month retrospective study based on the analysis of 44,212 records of STAT cardiac troponin I (CTNI) tests was performed. The core laboratory reached a new efficiency level 3 months after the implementation of total automation. Median turnaround time (TAT) was reduced by 14.9±1.5 min for the emergency department (p < 0.01), reaching 41.6±1.2 min. In non-emergency departments, median TAT was reduced by 19.8±2.2 min (p < 0.01), reaching 52±1.3 min. There was no change in the volume of ordered STAT CTNI tests by the emergency department (p = 0.811), whereas for non-emergency departments there was a reduction of 115.7±50 monthly requests on average (p = 0.026). The volume of ordered tests decreased only in time frames of the regular shift following the morning round. Thus, total automation significantly improves the core laboratory efficiency in terms of TAT. As a consequence, the volume of STAT tests ordered by hospital departments (except for the emergency department) decreased due to reduced duplicated requests. PMID:25882188

  1. Hand-Rearing Reduces Fear of Humans in European Starlings, Sturnus vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Feenders, Gesa; Bateson, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Pending changes in European legislation ban the use of wild-caught animals in research. This change is partly justified on the assumption that captive-breeding (or hand-rearing) increases welfare of captive animals because these practices result in animals with reduced fear of humans. However, there are few actual data on the long-term behavioural effects of captive-breeding in non-domestic species, and these are urgently needed in order to understand the welfare and scientific consequences of adopting this practice. We compared the response of hand-reared and wild-caught starlings to the presence of a human in the laboratory. During human presence, all birds increased their general locomotor activity but the wild-caught birds moved away from the human and were less active than the hand-reared birds. After the human departed, the wild-caught birds were slower to decrease their activity back towards baseline levels, and showed a dramatic increase in time at the periphery of the cage compared with the hand-reared birds. We interpret these data as showing evidence of a greater fear response in wild-caught birds with initial withdrawal followed by a subsequent rebound of prolonged attempts to escape the cage. We found no effects of environmental enrichment. However, birds in cages on low shelves were less active than birds on upper shelves, and showed a greater increase in the time spent at the periphery of their cages after the human departed, perhaps indicating that the lower cages were more stressful. In demonstrating reduced fear of humans in hand-reared birds, our results support one of the proposed welfare benefits of this practice, but without further data on the possible welfare costs of hand-rearing, it is not yet possible to reach a general conclusion about its net welfare impact. However, our results confirm a clear scientific impact of both hand-rearing and cage position at the behavioural level. PMID:21364770

  2. Composition of the Spruce Budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) Midgut Microbiota as Affected by Rearing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Mathieu; Comeau, André M.; Derome, Nicolas; Cusson, Michel; Levesque, Roger C.

    2015-01-01

    The eastern spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana) is one of the most destructive forest insect pests in Canada. Little is known about its intestinal microbiota, which could play a role in digestion, immune protection, communication and/or development. The present study was designed to provide a first characterization of the effects of rearing conditions on the taxonomic diversity and structure of the C. fumiferana midgut microbiota, using a culture-independent approach. Three diets and insect sources were examined: larvae from a laboratory colony reared on a synthetic diet and field-collected larvae reared on balsam fir or black spruce foliage. Bacterial DNA from the larval midguts was extracted to amplify and sequence the V6-V8 region of the 16S rRNA gene, using the Roche 454 GS-FLX technology. Our results showed a dominance of Proteobacteria, mainly Pseudomonas spp., in the spruce budworm midgut, irrespective of treatment group. Taxonomic diversity of the midgut microbiota was greater for larvae reared on synthetic diet than for those collected and reared on host plants, a difference that is likely accounted for by several factors. A greater proportion of bacteria from the phylum Bacteroidetes in insects fed artificial diet constituted the main difference between this group and those reared on foliage; within the phylum Proteobacteria, the presence of the genus Bradyrhizobium was also unique to insects reared on artificial diet. Strikingly, a Bray-Curtis analysis showed important differences in microbial diversity among the treatment groups, pointing to the importance of diet and environment in defining the spruce budworm midgut microbiota. PMID:26636571

  3. Growth and social behavior in a cichlid fish are affected by social rearing environment and kinship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesse, Saskia; Thünken, Timo

    2014-04-01

    Living in groups is a widespread phenomenon in many animal taxa. The reduction of predation risk is thought to be an important cause for the formation of groups. Consequently, grouping behavior is particularly pronounced during vulnerable life stages, i.e., as juveniles. However, group living does not only provide benefits but also imposes costs on group members, e.g., increased competition for food. Thus, benefits of grouping behavior might not be evident when predation risk is absent. The adaptive significance of living and also developing in a group independent from predation risk has received relatively little attention although this might have important implications on the evolution and maintenance of group living. The first aim of the present study was to examine whether the social environment affects juvenile performance in the cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus and, secondly, whether kinship affects social behavior. Kin selection theory predicts benefits from grouping with kin. Here, we demonstrate that juveniles reared in a group grow on average faster compared to juveniles reared in isolation under standardized laboratory conditions without predation risk. Furthermore, we found significant differences in social behavior between juveniles reared in a group and reared in isolation. Fish reared in isolation were significantly more aggressive and less willing to shoal than group-reared fish. As expected, genetic relatedness influenced social behavior in group-reared fish as well: dyads of juveniles consisting of kin showed increased group cohesiveness compared to non-kin dyads. We discuss the potential benefits of group living in general and living with kin in particular.

  4. Improved measurement for volatile particles: vapor-particle separator design and laboratory tests.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn; Allman, Steve E

    2011-12-01

    Sampling and measurement of volatile particles is a challenging task. It has been hampered by lack of a reliable technique capable of accurately capturing the phase-partition process of the pollutants without generating bias and artifacts in the data. The objective of this research is to design a new vapor-particle separation technique for performing the phase separation on-line (the sampling aspect), which, simultaneously, enables characterization of the vapors and particles. The new vapor-particle separator (VPS) consists of a thin metallic microporous membrane for (1) extraction of vapor molecules that are thermally desorbed from the condensed particulate phases and (2) collection of the vapors for subsequent chemical analysis. We evaluated this new separator using synthetic particles made of nonvolatile and or semi-volatile chemicals, and reported the laboratory test results in this paper. The laboratory particle test results showed reasonably high particle transmission efficiency across all particle sizes. The thermal dynamics of nanoparticles was succinctly observed on-line. The results successfully demonstrated the ability of VPS to separate particles and vapors thus enabling a faithful observation of the thermal behavior. We believe the new technology will make a great contribution to the measurement of volatile particles. PMID:22225248

  5. BOOSTER MAIN MAGNET POWER SUPPLY IMPROVEMENTS FOR NASA SPACE RADIATION LABORATORY AT BNL

    SciTech Connect

    MARNERIS,I.BROWN,K.A.GLENN,J.W.MCNERNEY,A., MORRIS, J., SANDBERG,J., SAVATTERI, S.

    2003-05-12

    The NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory, under contract from NASA, is a new experimental facility, taking advantage of heavy-ion beams from the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) Booster accelerator, to study radiation effect on humans, for prolonged space missions beyond the protective terrestrial magnetosphere. This paper describes the modifications and operation of the Booster Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) for NSRL applications. The requirement is to run up to 1 sec flattops as high as 5000 Amps with 25% duly cycle. The controls for the Main Magnet Power Supply were modified, including the Booster Main Magnet application program, to enable flattop operation with low ripple and spill control. An active filter (AF) consisting of a {+-}120 volts, {+-}700 Amps power supply transformer coupled through a filter choke, in series with the Main Magnet voltage, was added to the system to enable further ripple reduction during the flattops. We will describe the spill servo system, designed to provide a uniform beam current, during the flattop. Results from system commissioning will be presented.

  6. Carbo-Iron as improvement of the nanoiron technology: From laboratory design to the field test.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, Katrin; Bleyl, Steffen; Kopinke, Frank-Dieter; Doose, Heidi; Bruns, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    In a first pilot-scale field test the use of Carbo-Iron® was successfully demonstrated. Carbo-Iron was developed with the goal to overcome significant shortcomings of nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) for in-situ groundwater remediation. The composite material of colloidal activated carbon and embedded nanoiron structures has been tested for the remediation of a tetrachloroethene (PCE) contaminated field site in Lower Saxony, Germany. The results of the two-step field test confirmed the properties intended by its design and the particle performance achieved in the laboratory experiments. The material showed transport lengths of several metres in the field and fast PCE decomposition with no vinyl chloride formation. Extended longevity of the PCE decrease in the treated area and evidence for microbiological participation were found. Carbo-Iron is now under study in the framework of the EU-project NanoREM where its performance is being further optimized at various scales from laboratory via large-scale tank to field testing. Targeted property adjustment was successful for Carbo-Iron performance in both directions: plume treatment and source attack. PMID:26299641

  7. Teaching Laboratory Rodent Research Techniques under the Tenets of Situated Learning Improves Student Confidence and Promotes Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Whitcomb, Tiffany L; Taylor, Edward W

    2014-01-01

    A targeted needs assessment at our institution revealed that the online system used to train researchers on performing techniques with animals did not provide opportunities to practice skills, introduce learners to animal care staff, nor satisfactorily support researchers’ needs to become comfortable with laboratory animal species. To correct these deficiencies, a series of hands-on training sessions, framed theoretically in situated learning, was developed. This theoretical framework asserts that learning for everyday living (in this case, performing laboratory animal techniques) happens when people interact within the community while using the ‘tools at hand’ (that is, the instruments and jargon of the field). From this perspective, the students work alongside the instructor as apprentices. The instructor creates increasingly challenging learning opportunities as students work toward independently performing techniques. To test our hypothesis that teaching from this perspective improves comfort levels with laboratory animals and promotes collaborative relationships between animal care and research personnel, a mixed-method design involving online surveys (first survey, n = 45; second survey, n = 35) and semistructured interviews (n = 10) was used. Quantitative results revealed that students became more comfortable with laboratory animals and were more likely to contact animal care personnel due to participating in the training program. The qualitative arm of the study identified specific features of the training program that improved comfort levels for students (seeing then doing, working in small groups, learning within a comfortable environment, and building collegial relationships). These results support teaching rodent research techniques from the practical and theoretical approach of situated learning. PMID:25199092

  8. Team-based learning in the gross anatomy laboratory improves academic performance and students' attitudes toward teamwork.

    PubMed

    Huitt, Tiffany W; Killins, Anita; Brooks, William S

    2015-01-01

    As the healthcare climate shifts toward increased interdisciplinary patient care, it is essential that students become accomplished at group problem solving and develop positive attitudes toward teamwork. Team-based learning (TBL) has become a popular approach to medical education because of its ability to promote active learning, problem-solving skills, communication, and teamwork. However, its documented use in the laboratory setting and physical therapy education is limited. We used TBL as a substitute for one-third of cadaveric dissections in the gross anatomy laboratories at two Doctor of Physical Therapy programs to study its effect on both students' perceptions and academic performance. We surveyed students at the beginning and completion of their anatomy course as well as students who had previously completed a traditional anatomy course to measure the impact of TBL on students' perceptions of teamwork. We found that the inclusion of TBL in the anatomy laboratory improves students' attitudes toward working with peers (P < 0.01). Non-TBL students had significantly lower attitudes toward teamwork (P < 0.01). Comparison of academic performance between TBL and non-TBL students revealed that students who participated in TBL scored significantly higher on their first anatomy practical examination and on their head/neck written examination (P < 0.001). When asked to rate their role in a team, a 10.5% increase in the mean rank score for Problem Solver resulted after the completion of the TBL-based anatomy course. Our data indicate that TBL is an effective supplement to cadaveric dissection in the laboratory portion of gross anatomy, improving both students' grades and perceptions of teamwork. PMID:24799448

  9. The Role of the National Laboratory in Improving Secondary Science Education

    SciTech Connect

    White,K.; Morris, M.; Stegman, M.

    2008-10-20

    While the role of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) teachers in our education system is obvious, their role in our economic and national security system is less so. Our nation relies upon innovation and creativity applied in a way that generates new technologies for industry, health care, and the protection of our national assets and citizens. Often, it is our science teachers who generate the excitement that leads students to pursue science careers. While academia provides these teachers with the tools to educate, the rigors of a science and technology curriculum, coupled with the requisite teaching courses, often limit teacher exposure to an authentic research environment. As the single largest funding agency for the physical sciences, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science plays an important role in filling this void. For STEM teachers, the DOE Academies Creating Teacher Scientists program (ACTS) bridges the worlds of research and education. The ACTS program at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), one of several across the country, exemplifies the value of this program for participating teachers. Outcomes of the work at BNL as evidenced by the balance of this report, include the following: (1) Teachers have developed long-term relationships with the Laboratory through participation in ongoing research, and this experience has both built enthusiasm for and enriched the content knowledge of the participants. (2) Teachers have modified the way they teach and are more likely to engage students in authentic research and include more inquiry-based activities. (3) Teachers have reported their students are more interested in becoming involved in science through classes, extra-curricular clubs, and community involvement. (4) Teachers have established leadership roles within their peer groups, both in their own districts and in the broader teaching community. National laboratories are making an important contribution to the science

  10. Multi-physics Modeling for Improving Li-Ion Battery Safety; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.; Kim, G.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Yang, C.

    2015-04-21

    Battery performance, cost, and safety must be further improved for larger market share of HEVs/PEVs and penetration into the grid. Significant investment is being made to develop new materials, fine tune existing ones, improve cell and pack designs, and enhance manufacturing processes to increase performance, reduce cost, and make batteries safer. Modeling, simulation, and design tools can play an important role by providing insight on how to address issues, reducing the number of build-test-break prototypes, and accelerating the development cycle of generating products.

  11. Enhancing and Customizing Laboratory Information Systems to Improve/Enhance Pathologist Workflow.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Douglas J

    2016-03-01

    Optimizing pathologist workflow can be difficult because it is affected by many variables. Surgical pathologists must complete many tasks that culminate in a final pathology report. Several software systems can be used to enhance/improve pathologist workflow. These include voice recognition software, pre-sign-out quality assurance, image utilization, and computerized provider order entry. Recent changes in the diagnostic coding and the more prominent role of centralized electronic health records represent potential areas for increased ways to enhance/improve the workflow for surgical pathologists. Additional unforeseen changes to the pathologist workflow may accompany the introduction of whole-slide imaging technology to the routine diagnostic work. PMID:26851662

  12. CRISPR Typing and Subtyping for Improved Laboratory Surveillance of Salmonella Infections

    PubMed Central

    Fabre, Laëtitia; Zhang, Jian; Guigon, Ghislaine; Le Hello, Simon; Guibert, Véronique; Accou-Demartin, Marie; de Romans, Saïana; Lim, Catherine; Roux, Chrystelle; Passet, Virginie; Diancourt, Laure; Guibourdenche, Martine; Issenhuth-Jeanjean, Sylvie; Achtman, Mark; Brisse, Sylvain; Sola, Christophe; Weill, François-Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory surveillance systems for salmonellosis should ideally be based on the rapid serotyping and subtyping of isolates. However, current typing methods are limited in both speed and precision. Using 783 strains and isolates belonging to 130 serotypes, we show here that a new family of DNA repeats named CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) is highly polymorphic in Salmonella. We found that CRISPR polymorphism was strongly correlated with both serotype and multilocus sequence type. Furthermore, spacer microevolution discriminated between subtypes within prevalent serotypes, making it possible to carry out typing and subtyping in a single step. We developed a high-throughput subtyping assay for the most prevalent serotype, Typhimurium. An open web-accessible database was set up, providing a serotype/spacer dictionary and an international tool for strain tracking based on this innovative, powerful typing and subtyping tool. PMID:22623967

  13. Automatic laboratory-based strategy to improve the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Maria; López-Garrigós, Maite; Flores, Emilio; Leiva-Salinas, Maria; Lugo, Javier; Pomares, Francisco J; Asencio, Alberto; Ahumada, Miguel; Leiva-Salinas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To study the pre-design and success of a strategy based on the addition of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in the blood samples of certain primary care patients to detect new cases of type 2 diabetes. Materials and methods In a first step, we retrospectively calculated the number of HbA1c that would have been measured in one year if HbA1c would have been processed, according to the guidelines of the American Diabetes Association (ADA). Based on those results we decided to prospectively measure HbA1c in every primary care patient above 45 years, with no HbA1c in the previous 3 years, and glucose concentration between 5.6-6.9 mmol/L, during an 18 months period. We calculated the number of HbA1c that were automatically added by the LIS based on our strategy, we evaluated the medical record of such subjects to confirm whether type 2 diabetes was finally confirmed, and we calculated the cost of our intervention. Results In a first stage, according to the guidelines, Hb1Ac should have been added to the blood samples of 13,085 patients, resulting in a cost of 14,973€. In the prospective study, the laboratory added Hb1Ac to 2092 patients, leading to an expense of 2393€. 314 patients had an HbA1c value ≥ 6.5% (48 mmol/mol). 82 were finally diagnosed as type 2 diabetes; 28 thanks to our strategy, with an individual cost of 85.4€; and 54 due to the request of HbA1c by the general practitioners (GPs), with a cost of 47.5€. Conclusion The automatic laboratory-based strategy detected patients with type 2 diabetes in primary care, at a cost of 85.4€ per new case. PMID:26981026

  14. Improved monitoring of subsurface CO2 storage using novel electrical and seismic measurements: scaled laboratory studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, R.; Kirichek, A.; Draganov, D.; Heller, K.

    2013-05-01

    For monitoring CO2 stored in appropriate geological settings like depleted oil or gas reservoirs, deep saline aquifers and deep unminable coalbeds, geophysical methods e.g., seismic, electromagnetics, gravity, and surface deformation studies serve as remote sensing techniques which generally provide a large coverage but a low spatial resolution. It has been concluded that of the various approaches, seismic methods have the broadest applicability for stored CO2 monitoring in various geologic settings. As a result, advanced and dedicated seismic monitoring techniques have been developed. However, three major issues that remain unresolved are: 1) to remove accurately the effect of the overburden layers in order to capture the change in seismic properties in the reservoir and thereby obtain reliable estimates of temporal and spatial changes of the rock-physical properties like pressure and saturation, 2) the difficulty to minimize the source-related variation in time-lapse seismic, and 3) the inability to monitor the changes in phase (supercritical, liquid or gaseous) of the stored CO2 in time and space. In order to address these crucial issues, we have concentrated on scaled laboratory tests mimicking realistic storage conditions, and have tested novel approaches involving analysis of complex electrical impedance coupled with seismic-interferometric characterization. A new laboratory experimental facility for simultaneous, multichannel seismic and AC electrical measurements has been developed. We have found that electrical permittivity is a very sensitive parameter to monitor the phase of the stored CO2. Secondly, a novel approach has been developed, which takes advantage of the nonphysical reflections retrieved by seismic interferometry to estimate reliable values of seismic wave velocity and attenuation in the CO2 reservoir, efficiently minimizing the effect of the overburden and removing the detrimental effect of the source-related irreproducibility. Finally, new

  15. Approaches for improving present laboratory and field methodology for evaluation efficacy of transgenic technologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessing the efficacy of transgenic plants under new environmental and management regimes is of prime importance to the companies which produce new or improved existing transgenic products, breeders which create different varieties stacked with Bt endotoxins, and growers who use them for production...

  16. A Rationale for Improving Student Recorder Controls in Language Laboratories of the Level III Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theuma, Jean R.

    1968-01-01

    This article describes a typical audio-active-record student control panel and operational requirements, which, due to inefficiently designed controls, may have a negative influence on student attitudes and performance. A model panel, developed at the University of Hawaii, incorporating student needs illustrates improvements in technical design.…

  17. NEW MEDIA TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT TO ENHANCE AND IMPROVE COMMUNICATIONS AT USEPA'S NATIONAL RISK MANAGEMENT RESEARCH LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    New media technology (NT) interactive applications are currently being developed in house at ORD/NRMRL to enhance and improve communication of NRMRL's 1) research projects, 2) workshops/conferences and 3) specialized training. NT is an exciting mix of cutting-edge information tec...

  18. Teaching search patterns to medical trainees in an educational laboratory to improve perception of pulmonary nodules.

    PubMed

    Auffermann, William F; Little, Brent P; Tridandapani, Srini

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research is to demonstrate that teaching healthcare trainees a formal search or scan pattern for evaluation of the lungs improves their ability to identify pulmonary nodules on chest radiographs (CXRs). A group of physician assistant trainees were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups. Each group was shown two sets of CXRs, each set with a nodule prevalence of approximately 50%. The experimental group received search pattern training between case sets, whereas the control group did not. Both groups were asked to mark nodules when present and indicate their diagnostic confidence. Subject performance at nodule detection was quantified using changes in area under the localization receiver operating characteristic curve ([Formula: see text]). There was no significant improvement in performance between case sets for the control group. There was a significant improvement in subject performance after training for the experimental group, [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]. These results demonstrate that teaching a search pattern to trainees improves their ability to identify nodules and decreases the number of perceptual errors in nodule identification, and suggest that our knowledge of medical image perception may be used to develop rational tools for the education of healthcare trainees. PMID:26870749

  19. The USDA Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory: A century old and just getting started

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1908, USDA's Bureau of Animal Industry began national organization of regional cow testing associations, which led to the development of national Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA). Data recording and progeny testing were closely connected, and early USDA work helped introduce and advance ...

  20. The Role of Socio-Communicative Rearing Environments on the Development of Social and Physical Cognition in Apes

    PubMed Central

    Russell, J. L.; Lyn, H.; Schaeffer, J. A.; Hopkins, W. D.

    2011-01-01

    The cultural intelligence hypothesis (CIH) claims that humans' advanced cognition is a direct result of human culture and that children are uniquely specialized to absorb and utilize this cultural experience (Tomasello, 2000). Comparative data demonstrating that 2.5 year old human children outperform apes on measures of social cognition but not on measures of physical cognition support this claim (E. Herrmann, J. Call, M. V. Hernandez-Lloreda, B. Hare, & M. Tomasello, 2007). However, the previous study failed to control for rearing when comparing these two species. Specifically, the human children were raised in a human culture whereas the apes were raised in standard sanctuary settings. To further explore the CIH, here we compared the performance on multiple measures of social and physical cognition in a group of standard reared apes raised in conditions typical of zoo and biomedical laboratory settings to that of apes reared in an enculturated socio-communicatively rich environment. Overall, the enculturated apes significantly outperformed their standard reared counterparts on the cognitive tasks and this was particularly true for measures of communication. Furthermore, the performance of the enculturated apes was very similar to previously reported data from 2.5 year old children. We conclude that apes who are reared in a human-like socio-communicatively rich environment develop superior communicative abilities compared to apes reared in standard laboratory settings, which supports some assumptions of the cultural intelligence hypothesis. PMID:22010903

  1. Urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine analysis by an improved ELISA: An inter-laboratory comparison study.

    PubMed

    Rossner, Pavel; Orhan, Hilmi; Koppen, Gudrun; Sakai, Kazuo; Santella, Regina M; Ambroz, Antonin; Rossnerova, Andrea; Sram, Radim J; Ciganek, Miroslav; Neca, Jiri; Arzuk, Ege; Mutlu, Neliye; Cooke, Marcus S

    2016-06-01

    ELISA is commonly used for the detection of urinary 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a marker of whole body oxidative stress. However, the method has been criticized for high inter-laboratory variability and poor agreement with chromatographic techniques. We performed an inter-laboratory comparison of 8-oxodG assessed in 30 urine samples and a urine spiked with four different concentrations of 8-oxodG by ELISA using standardized experimental conditions, including: sample pre-treatment with solid-phase extraction (SPE), performing analysis using a commercial kit from a single manufacturer and strict temperature control during the assay. We further compared the ELISA results with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and performed tentative identification of compounds that may contribute to the discrepancy between both methods. For all but one participating laboratory (Data 1) we observed consistent ELISA results lying mostly within 1SD of the mean 8-oxodG concentration. Mean 8-oxodG levels assessed by ELISA correlated with the data obtained by HPLC-MS/MS (R=0.679, p<0.001). The correlation improved when Data 1 were excluded from the analysis (R=0.749, p<0.001). We identified three outlying urine samples; one with an ELISA 8-oxodG concentration lower, and two with 8-oxodG levels higher, than those measured by HPLC-MS/MS. Omitting these samples further improved inter-methodology agreement (R=0.869, p<0.001). In the outliers with high 8-oxodG estimates various aromatic and heterocyclic compounds were tentatively identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Application of authentic standards revealed the presence of saccharides, including d-glucose and d-galactose as putative interfering substances. In summary, assay standardization improved ELISA inter-laboratory agreement, although some variability is still observed. There are still compounds contributing to overestimation of 8-oxodG by ELISA, but

  2. Rearing methods for the black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae).

    PubMed

    Sheppard, D Craig; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Joyce, John A; Kiser, Barbara C; Sumner, Sonya M

    2002-07-01

    The black soldier fly, Heretia illucens (L.), is a nonpest tropical and warm-temperate region insect that is useful for managing large concentrations of animal manure and other biosolids. Manure management relying on wild fly oviposition has been successful in several studies. However, confidence in this robust natural system was low and biological studies were hampered by the lack of a dependable source of eggs and larvae. Larvae had been reared easily by earlier investigators, but achieving mating had been problematic. We achieved mating reliably in a 2 by 2 by 4-m screen cage in a 7 by 9 by 5-m greenhouse where sunlight and adequate space for aerial mating were available. Mating occurred during the shortest days of winter if the sun was not obscured by clouds. Adults were provided with water, but no food was required. Techniques for egg collection and larval rearing are given. Larvae were fed a moist mixture of wheat bran, corn meal, and alfalfa meal. This culture has been maintained for 3 yr. Maintainance of a black soldier fly laboratory colony will allow for development of manure management systems in fully enclosed animal housing and in colder regions. PMID:12144307

  3. PARENT ATTITUDES IN REARING MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEICHMAN, NATHAN S.; WILLENBERG, ERNEST P.

    POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ASPECTS OF REARING MENTAL RETARDATES WERE IDENTIFIED AND MEASURED DURING THIS STUDY BY EXAMINATIONS OF PARENTAL ATTITUDES AND HOW THESE ATTITUDES OFTEN AFFECT THE DAILY BEHAVIOR AND LEARNING READINESS OF CHILDREN WHILE IN SCHOOL. BEHAVIORAL FACTORS OF THE INDIVIDUAL CHILD WERE ANALYZED AND COMPARED WITH STATISTICS COVERING…

  4. Inbreeding Effects in Families of Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): Larval Development in Laboratory Bioassays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inbreeding depression of laboratory-reared insects has the potential to affect their larval performance and reproductive output. Two studies of laboratory-reared colonies of Ostrinia nubilalis (Hubner) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) were conducted to assess whether inbreeding affected a laboratory bioass...

  5. TRACES OF ORIGINAL PARTITIONS AT JUNCTURE OF FRONT ROOM, REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRACES OF ORIGINAL PARTITIONS AT JUNCTURE OF FRONT ROOM, REAR ROOM AND HALL, SECOND FLOOR. ALSO SHOWS ORIGINAL STUCCO CORNICE OF FRONT AND REAR ROOMS (LEFT) AND HALL (RIGHT) - Kid-Chandler House, 323 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. REAR OF CAR BARN DURING RECONSTRUCTION: Photocopy of July 1908 photograph showing west rear of powerhouse and car barn. View from the north. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. EVAPORATOR FLOOR, CELL ONE IN FOREGROUND, CRYSTALLIZER MEZZANINE TO REAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EVAPORATOR FLOOR, CELL ONE IN FOREGROUND, CRYSTALLIZER MEZZANINE TO REAR, OLIVER MUD FILTER WING TO RIGHT REAR. VIEW FROM NORTHEAST - Lihue Plantation Company, Sugar Mill Building, Haleko Road, Lihue, Kauai County, HI

  8. 53. REAR OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. 2: View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. REAR OF MOTOR AND REDUCTION GEAR NO. 2: View towards northwest showing rear of Motor and Reduction Gear No. 2, installed in 1926. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. 4. NORTH ELEVATION, SHOWING ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES AT LEFT REAR, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH ELEVATION, SHOWING ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICES AT LEFT REAR, AND SWITCH RACK AT RIGHT REAR. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE WEST (REAR) AND SOUTH FACADES, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE WEST (REAR) AND SOUTH FACADES, SHOWING THE REAR LOADING DOCK, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Eglin Air Force Base, Motor Repair Shop, Northwest of Flager Road, Chisk Lane & southern edge of Weekly Bayou, Valparaiso, Okaloosa County, FL

  11. Detail of ump that is attached to rectangular rearing tanks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of ump that is attached to rectangular rearing tanks (pair). Pump located on the north end of rearing tank. View to the northwest. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

  12. Improving the Laboratory Experience for Introductory Geology Students Using Active Learning and Evidence-Based Reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oien, R. P.; Anders, A. M.; Long, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present the initial results of transitioning laboratory activities in an introductory physical geology course from passive to active learning. Educational research demonstrates that student-driven investigations promote increased engagement and better retention of material. Surveys of students in introductory physical geology helped us identify lab activities which do not engage students. We designed new lab activities to be more collaborative, open-ended and "hands-on". Student feedback was most negative for lab activities which are computer-based. In response, we have removed computers from the lab space and increased the length and number of activities involving physical manipulation of samples and models. These changes required investment in lab equipment and supplies. New lab activities also include student-driven exploration of data with open-ended responses. Student-evaluations of the new lab activities will be compiled during Fall 2014 and Spring 2015 to allow us to measure the impact of the changes on student satisfaction and we will report on our findings to date. Modification of this course has been sponsored by NSF's Widening Implementation & Demonstration of Evidence Based Reforms (WIDER) program through grant #1347722 to the University of Illinois. The overall goal of the grant is to increase retention and satisfaction of STEM students in introductory courses.

  13. A laboratory modification to testicular sperm preparation technique improves spermatogenic cell yield

    PubMed Central

    Ozkavukcu, Sinan; Ibis, Ebru; Kizil, Sule; Isbacar, Suheyla; Aydos, Kaan

    2014-01-01

    Testicular sperm extraction is a common procedure used to find spermatogenic cells in men with nonobstructive azoospermia. The laboratory processing of biopsied testicular tissues needs to be performed meticulously to acquire a high yield of cells. In this study, the effectiveness of mincing the tissues after testicular biopsy was assessed using histological evaluation, as was the possible adverse effect of residual tissue on the migration of spermatogenic cells during density gradient centrifugation. Our results indicate that testicular residual tissue, when laid on the density gradient medium along with the sperm wash, hinders the spermatogenic cells’ forming a pellet during centrifugation, and therefore impairs the intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedure. Whereas the mean number of recovered cells from the sperm wash medium (SWM) with residual tissue is 39.435 ± 24.849, it was notably higher (60.189 ± 28.214 cells) in the SWM without minced tissues. The remaining tissue contained no functional seminiferous tubules or spermatogenic cells in histological sections. In conclusion, the remaining residual tissue after mincing biopsied testicular tissue does not add any functional or cellular contribution to spermatogenic cell retrieval; in fact, it may block the cellular elements in the accompanying cell suspension from migrating through the gradient layers to form a pellet during centrifugation and cause loss of spermatogenic cells. PMID:25038178

  14. Strain improvement of Chlorella sp. for phenol biodegradation by adaptive laboratory evolution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Libo; Xue, Chuizhao; Wang, Liang; Zhao, Quanyu; Wei, Wei; Sun, Yuhan

    2016-04-01

    Microalgae are highly efficient photosynthesis cell factories for CO2 capture, biofuel productions and wastewater treatment. Phenol is a typical environmental contaminant. Microalgae normally have a low tolerance for, and a low degradation rate to, high concentration of phenol. Adaptive laboratory evolution was performed for phenolic wastewater treatment by Chlorella sp. The resulting strain was obtained after 31 cycles (about 95d) under 500mg/L phenol as environmental stress. It could grow under 500mg/L and 700mg/L phenol without significant inhibition. The maximal biomass concentrations of the resulting strain at day 8 were 3.40g/L under 500mg/L phenol and 2.70g/L under 700mg/L phenol, respectively. They were more than two times of those of the original strain. In addition, 500mg/L phenol was fully removed by the resulting strain in 7d when the initial cell density was 0.6g/L. PMID:26803904

  15. Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.; Yee, S.; Baker, J.

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, natural gas provided 54% of total residential space heating energy the U.S. on a source basis, or 3.5 Quadrillion Btu. Natural gas burned in furnaces accounted for 92% of that total, and boilers and other equipment made up the remainder. A better understanding of installed furnace performance is a key to energy savings for this significant energy usage. In this project, the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit examined the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces over the life of the product, as measured by steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. The team identified 12 furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines, Iowa, metropolitan area and worked with a local heating, ventilation, and air conditioning contractor to retrieve furnaces and test them at the Gas Technology Institute laboratory for steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace as installed in the house.

  16. A laboratory modification to testicular sperm preparation technique improves spermatogenic cell yield.

    PubMed

    Ozkavukcu, Sinan; Ibis, Ebru; Kizil, Sule; Isbacar, Suheyla; Aydos, Kaan

    2014-01-01

    Testicular sperm extraction is a common procedure used to find spermatogenic cells in men with nonobstructive azoospermia. The laboratory processing of biopsied testicular tissues needs to be performed meticulously to acquire a high yield of cells. In this study, the effectiveness of mincing the tissues after testicular biopsy was assessed using histological evaluation, as was the possible adverse effect of residual tissue on the migration of spermatogenic cells during density gradient centrifugation. Our results indicate that testicular residual tissue, when laid on the density gradient medium along with the sperm wash, hinders the spermatogenic cells' forming a pellet during centrifugation, and therefore impairs the intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedure. Whereas the mean number of recovered cells from the sperm wash medium (SWM) with residual tissue is 39.435 ± 24.849, it was notably higher (60.189 ± 28.214 cells) in the SWM without minced tissues. The remaining tissue contained no functional seminiferous tubules or spermatogenic cells in histological sections. In conclusion, the remaining residual tissue after mincing biopsied testicular tissue does not add any functional or cellular contribution to spermatogenic cell retrieval; in fact, it may block the cellular elements in the accompanying cell suspension from migrating through the gradient layers to form a pellet during centrifugation and cause loss of spermatogenic cells. PMID:25038178

  17. Mass rearing history negatively affects mating success of male Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae) reared for sterile insect technique programs.

    PubMed

    Rull, Juan; Brunel, Odette; Mendez, Maria Elena

    2005-10-01

    Mating competitiveness and sterility induction into cohorts of wild Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae) was compared among wild and laboratory flies reared for use in the sterile insect technique Mexican program. Laboratory flies stemming from an 11-yr-old bisexual strain were either not irradiated, irradiated at 3 krad (low dose), or irradiated at 8 krad. In 30 by 30 by 30-cm Plexiglas cages, where a cohort of laboratory flies (male and female) irradiated at different doses (0, 3, and 8 krad) was introduced with a cohort of wild flies, males and females of each type mated randomly among themselves. Compared with nonirradiated laboratory and wild males, irradiated males, irrespective of dose (3 or 8 krad), induced shorter refractory periods and greater mating frequency in wild females. Nevertheless, laboratory flies irradiated at a low dose induced greater sterility into cohorts of wild flies than laboratory flies irradiated at a high dose. In a 3 by 3 by 3-m walk-in cage, wild males gained significantly more matings with wild females than nonirradiated and irradiated laboratory males a finding that revealed a strong effect of strain on mating performance. Mating incompatibility of the laboratory strain might have obscured the effect of reduced irradiation doses on male mating performance in the walk-in cage. Our results highlight an urgent need to replace the A. ludens strain currently used by the Mexican fruit fly eradication campaign and at least suggest that reducing irradiation doses result in an increase in sterility induction in wild populations. PMID:16334318

  18. Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life

    SciTech Connect

    Brand, L.; Yee, S.; Baker, J.

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, natural gas provided 54% of total residential space heating energy the U.S. on a source basis, or 3.5 Quadrillion Btu. Natural gas burned in furnaces accounted for 92% of that total, and boilers and other equipment made up the remainder. A better understanding of installed furnace performance is a key to energy savings for this significant energy usage. Natural gas furnace performance can be measured in many ways. The annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) rating provides a fixed value under specified conditions, akin to the EPA miles per gallon rating for new vehicles. The AFUE rating is provided by the manufacturer to the consumer and is a way to choose between models tested on the same basis. This value is commonly used in energy modeling calculations. ASHRAE 103 is a consensus furnace testing standard developed by the engineering community. The procedure provided in the standard covers heat-up, cool down, condensate heat loss, and steady-state conditions and an imposed oversize factor. The procedure can be used to evaluate furnace performance with specified conditions or with some variation chosen by the tester. In this report the ASHRAE 103 test result will be referred to as Annualized Efficiency (AE) to avoid confusion, and any non-standard test conditions will be noted. Aside from these two laboratory tests, steady state or flue loss efficiency can be measured in the field under many conditions; typically as found or tuned to the manufacturers recommended settings. In this report, AE and steady-state efficiency will be used as measures of furnace performance.

  19. Laboratory and initial clinical studies of nifedipine, a calcium antagonist for improved myocardial preservation.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R E; Christlieb, I Y; Ferguson, T B; Weldon, C S; Marbarger, J P; Sobel, B E; Roberts, R; Henry, P D; Ludbrook, P A; Biello, D; Clark, B K

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes five years of laboratory investigations and the initial six-month clinical experience with a calcium antagonist, nifedipine, added to a cold hyperkalemic cardioplegic solution for enhancement of myocardial protection. Regional ischemia was created in 112 dogs and global ischemia in 98 dogs, under normothermic and two hyperthermic states. Control solutions, two clinical cardioplegic solutions, and nifedipine solutions were compared. Infusion of nifedipine during regional ischemia and reperfusion intervals resulted in a two-to-threefold reduction in injury volume and maintenance of normal left ventricular function in contrast infusion of nitroprusside. Nifedipine solutions (0.2 microgram/ml) provided superior preservation of left ventricular function in comparison to the two cardioplegic solutions after one hour of global ischemia at 37 degrees C and two hours at 18 C. In a clinical trial of nifedipine in cold potassium cardioplegia, 38 high risk patients with poor ventricular function have been treated; 22 of which were intensively studied serially with radionuclide ventriculography and pyrophosphate scans, myocardial isoenzyme determinations, 24 hour EKG recordings and intra- and postoperative hemodynamic studies. Of the 35 patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), 33 have survived. Stroke work and cardiac indices return promptly to near normal levels after operation. The time-isoenzyme activity curves are low and radionuclide determined ejection fractions show no change for the study group. Death from acute postischemic cardiac failure did not occur in treated patients and the usage of intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) has decreased threefold in comparison with 40 similar high risk patients treated concurrently with cardioplegic solution alone. It is concluded that nifedipine is a potent adjunct to cold hyperkalemic cardioplegic solution in high risk patients. PMID:7018425

  20. 13. Dairy barn, west side, rear stall wing to left, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Dairy barn, west side, rear stall wing to left, rear yard at center, and rear yard wall to right - A. I. Du Pont Estate, Blue Ball Dairy Barn, Junction of U.S. Route 202 & Rockland Road, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  1. 24. REAR ELEVATION, HULETT ORE UNLOADERS. TRACKS CARRYING THE FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. REAR ELEVATION, HULETT ORE UNLOADERS. TRACKS CARRYING THE FRONT END AND REAR LEGS OF THE HULETT UNLOADERS ARE LAID ON THE DOCK AND REAR WALLS, RESPECTIVELY; BOTH WALLS ARE MADE OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SUPPORTED ON CONCRETE PILES. - Pennsylvania Railway Ore Dock, Lake Erie at Whiskey Island, approximately 1.5 miles west of Public Square, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  2. 6. Partial view of rear elevations of shops building and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Partial view of rear elevations of shops building and Hangar 1301 with rear elevation of corridor (behind power plant) connecting the hangar and shops building. Side elevations of shops and hangar as well as upper rear story of power plant and stack are visible, looking south southwest - Dover Air Force Base, Hangar No. 1301, Dover, Kent County, DE

  3. GARAGE EXTERIOR EAST SIDE AND REAR SHOWING PIER SUPPORTS UNDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GARAGE EXTERIOR EAST SIDE AND REAR SHOWING PIER SUPPORTS UNDER SHED-ROOFED REAR STORAGE COMPARTMENT, ASBESTOS SIDING OVER ORIGINAL WOOD SIDING, AND SINGLE CASEMENT WINDOW OVER REAR STORAGE COMPARTMENT. VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Big Creek Town, Operator House Garage, Orchard Avenue south of Huntington Lake Road, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  4. New artificial diet for continuous rearing of the bean pod borer, Maruca vitrata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Lu, Peng-Fei; Zheng, Xia-Lin; Chen, Li-Zhen; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The bean pod borer, Maruca vitrata Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), is a serious pantropical pest of grain legumes. A suitable artificial diet is desirable for producing uniform insects for commercial purposes or research. Three previously described artificial diets, 1 newly-developed artificial diet, and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabales: Fabaceae)), the natural hostplant of M. vitrata, were used for rearing M. vitrata, and the life parameters were examined. The results indicated that insects completed a full life cycle only when the larvae were fed cowpea or the diet reported by Onyango and Ochieng'-Odero ( 1993 ), called the "D-OO diet." However, the rearing efficiency (i.e., larval and pupal survival, longevity of adults, and fecundity) on the D-OO diet was inferior to the rearing efficiency on cowpea. Subsequently, a new artificial diet was formulated based on soybean powder, Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabales: Fabaceae), and wheat germ, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae). The egg production, egg hatching, larval developmental duration, and pupal survival of the M. vitrata reared on the new artificial diet were found to be significantly improved relative to the D-OO diet, but were not significantly better than on the host-plant cowpea. The optimum rearing density was 15-25 larvae per box. There were no significant changes in reproductive potential after 8 successive generations of rearing on the new diet. These results indicated that the newly developed diet could serve as a viable alternative to cowpea plant for continuous rearing of M. vitrata. PMID:24785903

  5. Improving the Laboratory Add-On Process and Increasing Housestaff Satisfaction with an EMR Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Shahnazarian, Vahe; Mehta, Parag

    2016-01-01

    At a community hospital in Brooklyn, New York, the process for ordering add-on testing to drawn blood tubes involved filling out a paper sheet, then faxing and bulleting that sheet to the lab. It was a very inefficient, cumbersome, and unsatisfactory way of completing the process. In light of this, an EMR intervention was implemented in which the add-on order was placed as an EMR order. The study spanned over almost five years, over a year of which was post-intervention. There was a statistically significant increase in the number of add-on orders being placed as a result of the intervention. This has greatly improved housestaff satisfaction with the overall process. In conclusion, the project was a great success and met its goals of simplifying a difficult and cumbersome process while increasing user satisfaction. PMID:27239309

  6. Exploiting Laboratory Insights to Improve Outcomes of Pediatric Central Nervous System Tumors.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Giles W; Witt, Hendrik; Resnick, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Over a relatively short period of time, owing to improvements in biotechnology, our ability to identify the molecular mechanisms within pediatric brain tumors has dramatically increased. These findings have reshaped the way that we describe these diseases and have provided insights into how to better treat these often devastating diseases. Although still far from reaching the full therapeutic potential these advancements hold, the impact of these findings is steadily taking hold of pediatric brain tumor management. In this article, we summarize the major discoveries within three common pediatric brain tumor categories; medulloblastoma, ependymoma, and low-grade glioma. We discuss the current impact of these findings on treatment and the direction these findings may take the field of pediatric neuro-oncology. PMID:27249765

  7. Improving Catalyst Efficiency in Bio-Based Hydrocarbon Fuels; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This article investigates upgrading biomass pyrolysis vapors to form hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals using catalysts with different concentrations of acid sites. It shows that greater separation of acid sites makes catalysts more efficient at producing hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. The conversion of biomass into liquid transportation fuels has attracted significant attention because of depleting fossil fuel reserves and environmental concerns resulting from the use of fossil fuels. Biomass is a renewable resource, which is abundant worldwide and can potentially be exploited to produce transportation fuels that are less damaging to the environment. This renewable resource consists of cellulose (40–50%), hemicellulose (25–35%), and lignin (16–33%) biopolymers in addition to smaller quantities of inorganic materials such as silica and alkali and alkaline earth metals (calcium and potassium). Fast pyrolysis is an attractive thermochemical technology for converting biomass into precursors for hydrocarbon fuels because it produces up to 75 wt% bio-oil,1 which can be upgraded to feedstocks and/or blendstocks for further refining to finished fuels. Bio-oil that has not been upgraded has limited applications because of the presence of oxygen-containing functional groups, derived from cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, which gives rise to high acidity, high viscosity, low heating value, immiscibility with hydrocarbons and aging during storage. Ex situ catalytic vapor phase upgrading is a promising approach for improving the properties of bio-oil. The goal of this process is to reject oxygen and produce a bio-oil with improved properties for subsequent downstream conversion to hydrocarbons.

  8. Being, becoming, and belonging: Improving science fluency during laboratory activities in urban education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, Wesley

    The research presented in this dissertation uses authentic ethnography, augmented by video and conversational analysis, to investigate the teaching and learning of chemistry across boundaries of difference in an urban high school. A coordinated set of theoretical lenses from cultural sociology and sociology of emotion is used to deploy and analyze these methods. All four students highlighted in this study are Black and/or Latino females from working class income families. They identify as second-generation Americans either of African American of Caribbean heritage or Latina of Latin American or Caribbean heritage. The students achieved mild to moderate success in a tenth-grade level chemistry class. Their chemistry teacher is a first-generation immigrant middle-aged male who would ethnically be considered Filipino-American. The focal fields of this research occur in Regents chemistry laboratory classes in a small secondary inner city high school in the Bronx, New York City, and associated cogenerative dialogues. One of the major premises of this study is that learning is a form of cultural enactment (i.e., production, reproduction, and transformation). Culture (schema and practices) enacted by students and teachers in one field can be enacted successfully in another field because fields are surrounded by porous boundaries. Accordingly, participants use resources to meet their goals (e.g., learn chemistry), in so doing, create interstitial culture that becomes part of the structure of the field and resources for learning. A priority was to examine how learning and teaching of science is enacted when students and their teachers are able to coparticipate in culturally adaptive ways and use their capital successfully. A key implication is the need for teachers and students to be aware of cultural encounters that afford positive emotional energy and solidarity. The important point here is to minimize encounters that create negative emotional energy. What we learned from

  9. Early rearing interacts with temperament and housing to influence the risk for motor stereotypy in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Vandeleest, Jessica J; McCowan, Brenda; Capitanio, John P

    2011-06-01

    Laboratory and zoo housed non-human primates sometimes exhibit abnormal behaviors that are thought to reflect reduced wellbeing. Previous research attempted to identify risk factors to aid in the prevention and treatment of these behaviors, and focused on demographic (e.g. sex or age) and experience-related (e.g. single housing or nursery rearing) factors. However, not all animals that display abnormal behavior possess these risk factors and some individuals that possess a risk factor do not show behavioral abnormalities. We hypothesized that other aspects of early experience and individual characteristics might identify animals that were more likely to display one specific abnormal behavior, motor stereotypy (MS). Using logistic regression we explored the influence of early rearing (involving four different types of rearing conditions), and variation in temperament, on likelihood of displaying MS while controlling for previously identified risk factors. Analyses indicated that having a greater proportion of life lived indoors, a greater proportion of life-indoors singly-housed, and a greater number of anesthesias and blood draws significantly increased the risk of displaying MS (P < 0.001). Rearing condition failed to independently predict the display of MS; however significant interactions indicated that single housing had a greater impact on risk for indoor-reared animals versus outdoor-reared animals, and for indoor mother-reared animals versus nursery-reared animals. There were no main effects of temperament, although interactions with rearing were evident: scoring high on Gentle or Nervous was a risk factor for indoor-reared animals but not outdoor-reared animals. The final model accounted for approximately 69.3 % of the variance in the display of MS, and correctly classified 90.6% of animals. These results indicate that previously identified risk factors may impact animals differently depending on the individual's early rearing condition. These results are

  10. Cardiac Electrophysiology Laboratories: A Potential Target for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Quality Improvement?

    PubMed

    Branch-Elliman, Westyn; Stanislawski, Maggie; Strymish, Judith; Barón, Anna E; Gupta, Kalpana; Varosy, Paul D; Gold, Howard S; Ho, P Michael

    2016-09-01

    BACKGROUND Infections following cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) procedures, including pacemaker and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, are devastating and costly. Preimplantation prophylactic antimicrobials are effective for reducing postprocedural infections. However, routine postprocedural antimicrobials are not associated with improved outcomes, and they may be harmful. Thus, we sought to characterize antimicrobial use patterns following CIED procedures. DESIGN All patients who underwent CIED procedures from October 1, 2007 to September 30, 2013 and had procedural information entered into the VA Clinical Assessment Reporting and Tracking (CART) software program were included in this study. All antibiotic prescriptions lasting more than 24 hours following device implantation or revision were identified using pharmacy databases, and postprocedural antibiotic use lasting more than 24 hours was characterized. RESULTS In total, 3,712 CIED procedures were performed at 34 VA facilities on 3,570 patients with a mean age of 71.7 years (standard deviation [SD], 11.1 years), 98.4% of whom were male. Postprocedural antibiotics >24 hours were prescribed following 1,579 of 3,712 CIED procedures (42.5%). The median duration of therapy was 5 days (interquartile range [IQR], 3-7 days). The most commonly prescribed antibiotic was cephalexin (1,152 of 1,579; 72.9%), followed by doxycycline (118 of 1,579; 7.47%) and ciprofloxacin (93 of 1,579; 5.9%). Vancomycin was used in 73 of 1,579 prescriptions (4.62%). Among the highest quartile of procedural volume, prescribing practices varied considerably, ranging from 3.2% to 77.6%. CONCLUSIONS Nearly 1 in 2 patients received prolonged postprocedural antimicrobial therapy following CIED procedures, and the rate of postprocedural antimicrobial therapy use varied considerably by facility. Given the lack of demonstrated benefit of routine prolonged antimicrobial therapy following CIED procedures, antimicrobial use

  11. Algal Pretreatment Improves Biofuels Yield and Value; Highlights in Science, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-15

    One of the major challenges associated with algal biofuels production in a biorefinery-type setting is improving biomass utilization in its entirety, increasing the process energetic yields and providing economically viable and scalable co-product concepts. We demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel, integrated technology based on moderate temperatures and low pH to convert the carbohydrates in wet algal biomass to soluble sugars for fermentation, while making lipids more accessible for downstream extraction and leaving a protein-enriched fraction behind. This research has been highlighted in the Green Chemistry journal article mentioned above and a milestone report, and is based on the work the researchers are doing for the AOP projects Algal Biomass Conversion and Algal Biofuels Techno-economic Analysis. That work has demonstrated an advanced process for algal biofuel production that captures the value of both the algal lipids and carbohydrates for conversion to biofuels.  With this process, as much as 150 GGE/ton of biomass can be produced, 2-3X more than can be produced by terrestrial feedstocks.  This can also reduce the cost of biofuel production by as much as 40%. This also represents the first ever design case for the algal lipid upgrading pathway.

  12. New instruments for soil physics class: Improving the laboratory and field seminars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klipa, Vladimir; Jankovec, Jakub; Snehota, Michal

    2014-05-01

    Teaching soil science and soil physics is an important part of the curriculum of many programs with focus on technical and natural sciences. Courses of soil science and namely soil physics have a long tradition at the faculty of Civil Engineering of the Czech Technical University in Prague. Students receive the theoretical foundations about soil classification, soil physics, soil chemistry and soil hydraulic characteristics in the course. In practical seminars students perform measurements of physical, hydraulic and chemical characteristics of soils, thus a comprehensive survey of soil is done in the given site. So far, students had the opportunity to use old, manually operated instrumentation. The project aims to improve the attractiveness of soil physics course and to extend the practical skills of students by introducing new tasks and by involving modern automated equipment. New instruments were purchased with the support of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic under the project FRVS No. 1162/2013 G1. Specifically, two tensiometers T8 with multi-functional handheld read-out unit (UMS, GmbH) and manual Mini Disk Infiltrometer (Decagon Devices, Inc.) were purchased and incorporated into the course. In addition, newly designed MultiDisk the automated mini disk Infiltrometer (CTU in Prague) and combined temperature and soil moisture TDT sensor TMS 2 (TOMST®, s.r.o.), were made freely available for soil physics classes and included into the courses. Online tutorials and instructional videos were developed. Detailed multimedia teaching materials were introduced so that students are able to work more independently. Students will practice operating the digital tensiometer T8 with integrated temperature sensor and manual Mini Disk Infiltrometer (diameter disk: 4.4 cm, suction range: 0.5 to 7.0 cm of suction) and MultiDisk the automated mini disk Infiltrometer (see Klipa et al., EGU2014-7230) and combined temperature and soil moisture TDT

  13. Fiber containment for improved laboratory handling and uniform nanocoating of milligram quantities of carbon nanotubes by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Devine, Christina K; Oldham, Christopher J; Jur, Jesse S; Gong, Bo; Parsons, Gregory N

    2011-12-01

    The presence of nanostructured materials in the workplace is bringing attention to the importance of safe practices for nanomaterial handling. We explored novel fiber containment methods to improve the handling of carbon nanotube (CNT) powders in the laboratory while simultaneously allowing highly uniform and controlled atomic layer deposition (ALD) coatings on the nanotubes, down to less than 4 nm on some CNT materials. Moreover, the procedure yields uniform coatings on milligram quantities of nanotubes using a conventional viscous flow reactor system, circumventing the need for specialized fluidized bed or rotary ALD reactors for laboratory-scale studies. We explored both fiber bundles and fiber baskets as possible containment methods and conclude that the baskets are more suitable for coating studies. An extended precursor and reactant dose and soak periods allowed the gases to diffuse through the fiber containment, and the ALD coating thickness scaled linearly with the number of ALD cycles. The extended dose period produced thicker coatings compared to typical doses on CNT controls not encased in the fibers, suggesting some effects due to the extended reactant dose. Film growth was compared on a range of single-walled NTs, double-walled NTs, and acid-functionalized multiwalled NTs, and we found that ultrathin coatings were most readily controlled on the multiwalled NTs. PMID:22070742

  14. Improved Techniques Used at Brookhaven National Laboratory to Package and Dispose of Radioisotope Production Waste Lowers Worker Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.

    2003-02-24

    This paper describes the operations that generate Radioisotope Production Waste at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and the improved techniques used to handle and dispose of this waste. Historically, these wastes have produced high worker exposure during processing, packaging and disposal. The waste is made up of accelerator-produced nuclides of short to mid-length half-lives with a few longer-lived nuclides. However, because radiopharmaceutical research and treatment requires a constant supply of radioisotopes, the waste must be processed and disposed of in a timely manner. Since the waste cannot be stored for long periods of time to allow for adequate decay, engineering processes were implemented to safely handle the waste routinely and with ALARA principles in mind.

  15. The role biomedical science laboratories can play in improving science knowledge and promoting first-year nursing academic success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arneson, Pam

    The Role Biomedical Science Laboratories Can Play In Improving Science Knowledge and Promoting First-Year Nursing Academic Success The need for additional nursing and health care professionals is expected to increase dramatically over the next 20 years. With this in mind, students must have strong biomedical science knowledge to be competent in their field. Some studies have shown that participation in bioscience laboratories can enhance science knowledge. If this is true, an analysis of the role bioscience labs have in first-year nursing academic success is apposite. In response, this study sought to determine whether concurrent enrollment in anatomy and microbiology lecture and lab courses improved final lecture course grades. The investigation was expanded to include a comparison of first-year nursing GPA and prerequisite bioscience concurrent lecture/lab enrollment. Additionally, research has indicated that learning is affected by student perception of the course, instructor, content, and environment. To gain an insight regarding students' perspectives of laboratory courses, almost 100 students completed a 20-statement perception survey to understand how lab participation affects learning. Data analyses involved comparing anatomy and microbiology final lecture course grades between students who concurrently enrolled in the lecture and lab courses and students who completed the lecture course alone. Independent t test analyses revealed that there was no significant difference between the groups for anatomy, t(285) = .11, p = .912, but for microbiology, the lab course provided a significant educational benefit, t(256) = 4.47, p = .000. However, when concurrent prerequisite bioscience lecture/lab enrollment was compared to non-concurrent enrollment for first-year nursing GPA using independent t test analyses, no significant difference was found for South Dakota State University, t(37) = -1.57, p = .125, or for the University of South Dakota, t(38) = -0.46, p

  16. Lyophilized artificial diet for rearing the Neotropical Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Agustín C; da Rocha, Aline C P; Parra, José R P

    2016-01-01

    An artificial diet to mass-rear Euschistus heros (F. 1798) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) was developed in the laboratory. Biological studies were conducted under controlled conditions of temperature (25 ± 2 °C), RH: 60 ± 10%, and photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. Out of 13 diets tested, 2 diets (D9 and D11) were the most suitable. The artificial diets selected had the same composition (green beans, peanuts, sucrose, water, Nipagin, and sorbic acid) except for different antimicrobial agents (D11 has tetracycline, and D9 doesn't). The 68% viability for the egg-adult period of insects reared on these lyophilized artificial diets (LAD) was almost twice as high as the 38% viability obtained with the natural diet. Although adults reared on LAD weighed 17% less than those reared on the natural diet, mean fecundity was higher than on the natural diet (282 eggs/female), reaching 430 eggs/female. The net reproductive rate (Ro) increased over the generations for the diets with lyophilized material and antimicrobial agents. The opposite occurred with the diet of lyophilized material without antimicrobial agents, showing that the insects either adapted or degenerated through generations. Lyophilized diets supported the production of E. heros through at least 10 generations, with no degeneration. PMID:27126964

  17. A statistical model including age to predict passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles.

    PubMed

    Park, Jangwoon; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P; Hallman, Jason J

    2016-06-01

    Few statistical models of rear seat passenger posture have been published, and none has taken into account the effects of occupant age. This study developed new statistical models for predicting passenger postures in the rear seats of automobiles. Postures of 89 adults with a wide range of age and body size were measured in a laboratory mock-up in seven seat configurations. Posture-prediction models for female and male passengers were separately developed by stepwise regression using age, body dimensions, seat configurations and two-way interactions as potential predictors. Passenger posture was significantly associated with age and the effects of other two-way interaction variables depended on age. A set of posture-prediction models are presented for women and men, and the prediction results are compared with previously published models. This study is the first study of passenger posture to include a large cohort of older passengers and the first to report a significant effect of age for adults. The presented models can be used to position computational and physical human models for vehicle design and assessment. Practitioner Summary: The significant effects of age, body dimensions and seat configuration on rear seat passenger posture were identified. The models can be used to accurately position computational human models or crash test dummies for older passengers in known rear seat configurations. PMID:26328769

  18. Lyophilized artificial diet for rearing the Neotropical Euschistus heros (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Agustín C.; da Rocha, Aline C. P.

    2016-01-01

    An artificial diet to mass-rear Euschistus heros (F. 1798) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) was developed in the laboratory. Biological studies were conducted under controlled conditions of temperature (25 ± 2°C), RH: 60 ± 10%, and photoperiod of 14:10 (L:D) h. Out of 13 diets tested, 2 diets (D9 and D11) were the most suitable. The artificial diets selected had the same composition (green beans, peanuts, sucrose, water, Nipagin, and sorbic acid) except for different antimicrobial agents (D11 has tetracycline, and D9 doesn’t). The 68% viability for the egg–adult period of insects reared on these lyophilized artificial diets (LAD) was almost twice as high as the 38% viability obtained with the natural diet. Although adults reared on LAD weighed 17% less than those reared on the natural diet, mean fecundity was higher than on the natural diet (282 eggs/female), reaching 430 eggs/female. The net reproductive rate (Ro) increased over the generations for the diets with lyophilized material and antimicrobial agents. The opposite occurred with the diet of lyophilized material without antimicrobial agents, showing that the insects either adapted or degenerated through generations. Lyophilized diets supported the production of E. heros through at least 10 generations, with no degeneration. PMID:27126964

  19. Point-Counterpoint: Reflex Cultures Reduce Laboratory Workload and Improve Antimicrobial Stewardship in Patients Suspected of Having Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Romney M; Dien Bard, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are frequent and lead to a large number of clinical encounters. A common management strategy for patients suspected of having a urinary tract infection is to test for pyuria and bacteria by urine analysis (UA) of midstream urine, with initiation of antibiotic therapy and urine culture if one or both tests are positive. Although this practice was first used in an outpatient setting with midstream urine samples, some institutions allow its use in the management of catheterized patients. The ideas behind the reflex urine culture are to limit laboratory workload by not performing culture on negative specimens and to improve antimicrobial stewardship by not giving antimicrobials to patients with negative UA results. The questions are, first, whether reflex urine culture reduces workloads significantly and, second, whether it improves antimicrobial stewardship in the era of increasing numbers of urinary tract infections due to extensively drug-resistant Gram-negative bacilli. Romney Humphries from UCLA supports the idea that reflex urine cultures are of value and describes what reflex parameters are most useful, while Jennifer Dien Bard of Children's Hospital Los Angeles discusses their limitations. PMID:26659213

  20. Performance of Psyttalia humilis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) reared from irradiated host on olive fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid Psytallia humilis (Silvestri) was reared on Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), larvae irradiated at different doses from 0-70 Gy at the USDA, APHIS, PPQ, Moscamed biological control laboratory in San Miguel Petapa, Guatemala and shipped to the USDA, ARS, Parlier,...

  1. Procedures to mititgate the impact of Solenopsis invicta Virus 3 in fire ant (Hymenoptera:Formicidae) rearing facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the initial characterization of Solenopsis invicta virus 3 (SINV-3), virus-infected fire ant colonies were retrieved from the field and maintained in the laboratory rearing facility at the USDA, Gainesville, FL. During this time, all S. invicta colonies housed in the facility contracted SINV...

  2. Alternative diets for maintaining and rearing cephalopods in captivity.

    PubMed

    DeRusha, R H; Forsythe, J W; DiMarco, F P; Hanlon, R T

    1989-07-01

    The requirement of live marine prey for cephalopod mariculture has restricted its practicality for inland research laboratories, commercial enterprises and home aquarists. We evaluated acceptability and resultant growth on: (a) frozen marine shrimps, (b) live and frozen marine polychaete worms, (c) live and frozen marine crabs, (d) frozen marine fishes, (e) live adult brine shrimp, (f) live freshwater fish and (g) live freshwater crayfish. The diets were presented for periods of 2 to 11 weeks to octopuses, cuttlefishes or squids and in most trials the results were compared to animals fed control diets of live marine shrimps, crabs or fish. Overall, frozen marine shrimp proved to be the best alternative diet tested. Adult Octopus maya on frozen marine shrimp diets grew as well as those on control diets at 2.8% body weight per day (%/d) compared to 2.0%/d on live freshwater crayfish, 1.4%/d on live marine polychaete worms and 0.8%/d on live freshwater fish (Tilapia sp.). Juvenile Octopus maya and Octopus bimaculoides also grew comparably to controls when fed frozen marine shrimps; growth rates ranged from near 3.0%/d at 3 months of age to nearly 2.5%/d at 6 months of age. Thus, these alternatives are acceptable as the octopuses end their exponential growth phase at an age of 3 - 5 months. Attempts to rear O. maya hatchlings and juveniles (up to 1 month of age) on dead foods resulted in high mortality and slow or negative growth. No live or dead alternative diet has been found yet that will promote good growth and survival in hatchling octopuses. Hatchling F3 generation Sepia officinalis (the European cuttlefish) were reared for 6 weeks exclusively on adult brine shrimp (Artemia salina).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2761235

  3. Shell disease in eastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica, reared in France.

    PubMed

    Renault, T; Chollet, B; Cochennec, N; Gerard, A

    2002-01-01

    Progeny of eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, introduced into France in 1992, were reared in IFREMER facilities to test their growth performances. During the summer of 1993, sporadic mass mortalities (80-90%) occurred among C. virginica spat reared in the IFREMER laboratories in La Tremblade (Charente Maritime, France) and Bouin (Vendée, France). Affected oysters presented mantle retraction and deposition of an anomalous conchiolin layer on the inner surface of the shell. The incidence of oysters with gross signs exceeded 80%. No obvious pathogen was identified in soft tissues by histology and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). However, histological examination showed the presence of anomalous basophilic round structures, 0.5-1 microm in diameter, in gill and mantle connective tissues. These extracellular Feulgen-negative structures reacted positively with the von Kossa stain. TEM examination on mantle and gill samples in diseased spat showed that the basophilic bodies consisted of concentric deposits of an amorphous substance interpreted as containing calcium. These observations may indicate that the mineralization process in spat shells was disturbed without exact determination of the cause. Based on the similarities of the gross signs to those reported in juvenile eastern oysters in the United States, we believe that the cause of the mortalities observed in France was probably the Juvenile Oyster Disease. Moreover, we report for the first time the detection of anomalous amorphous structures in gill and mantle connective tissues associated with mortalities and deposition of an anomalous conchioloin layer on the inner shell surface in C. virginica spat. PMID:12054781

  4. Viscosity-Modification to Improve Remediation Efficiencies within Heterogeneous Contaminated Groundwater Aquifers: Laboratory and Field-Scale Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, J. A.; Crimi, M.

    2013-12-01

    A key challenge in in situ groundwater remediation practice is achieving efficient contact between the injected remedial fluid and the target contamination in the presence of subsurface permeability heterogeneities. Even apparently small permeability contrasts can affect the delivery and subsurface distribution of injected remedial fluids, as a result of preferential flows, and reduce treatment effectiveness as a result of bypassing of contaminated media of lower permeability. Viscosity-modification is a technique that can be used to mitigate the effects of permeability heterogeneity and improve the delivery and distribution of remediation fluids during subsurface injection. Viscosity-modification involves increasing the viscosity of the injected fluid, and modifying the fluids rheological character in some cases. The increased viscosity provides a reduced fluid mobility condition within higher permeability media that, in turn, enhances the penetration of fluids into adjacent lower permeability media, improving the overall sweep efficiency within heterogeneous geomedia. Herein, we present the results of laboratory (two-dimensional flow tank) and numerical experiments that were designed to critically evaluate the utility of viscosity-modification for groundwater remediation application. Specifically, we will address the benefits and limitations of the approach and highlight the effect of system variables on the degree sweep efficiency improvement achievable. We also present the results of a recently completed Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) technology validation project in which viscosity-modification was applied to permanganate in situ chemical oxidation. Site selection criteria, implementation design considerations, and the long-term effects of viscosity-modified fluid treatments will be discussed.

  5. Assessing juvenile salmon rearing habitat and associated predation risk in a lower Snake River reservoir

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Hatten, James R.; Trachtenbarg, David A

    2015-01-01

    Subyearling fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River basin exhibit a transient rearing strategy and depend on connected shoreline habitats during freshwater rearing. Impoundment has greatly reduced the amount of shallow-water rearing habitat that is exacerbated by the steep topography of reservoirs. Periodic dredging creates opportunities to strategically place spoils to increase the amount of shallow-water habitat for subyearlings while at the same time reducing the amount of unsuitable area that is often preferred by predators. We assessed the amount and spatial arrangement of subyearling rearing habitat in Lower Granite Reservoir on the Snake River to guide future habitat improvement efforts. A spatially explicit habitat assessment was conducted using physical habitat data, two-dimensional hydrodynamic modelling and a statistical habitat model in a geographic information system framework. We used field collections of subyearlings and a common predator [smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu)] to draw inferences about predation risk within specific habitat types. Most of the high-probability rearing habitat was located in the upper half of the reservoir where gently sloping landforms created low lateral bed slopes and shallow-water habitats. Only 29% of shorelines were predicted to be suitable (probability >0.5) for subyearlings, and the occurrence of these shorelines decreased in a downstream direction. The remaining, less suitable areas were composed of low-probability habitats in unmodified (25%) and riprapped shorelines (46%). As expected, most subyearlings were found in high-probability habitat, while most smallmouth bass were found in low-probability locations. However, some subyearlings were found in low-probability habitats, such as riprap, where predation risk could be high. Given their transient rearing strategy and dependence on shoreline habitats, subyearlings could benefit from habitat creation efforts in the lower

  6. Closeup of rear of LASRE pod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This rear view of the Linear Aerospike SR Experiment (LASRE) pod shows the business end of the linear aerospike rocket engine prior to the experiment's fit-check on Feb. 15, 1996, at Lockheed Martin Skunkworks in Palmdale, California. One of the differences between linear aerospike and traditional rocket engines is that the linear aerospike utilizes the airflow around the engine to form the outer 'nozzle.' There is no bell-shaped nozzle as is commonly seen on most rocket engines. The engine is made of a high strength copper alloy called NARloy-Z. The white curved ramps next to the copper area pictured act as the inner half of the engine's 'nozzle.' There are four thrusters (copper area) on each side of the engine for a total of eight which combine the fuel, oxidizer, and ignition source for the engine. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The

  7. Lean Six Sigma Application in Rear Combination Automotive Lighting Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodkomkham, Thanwarhat; Chutima, Parames

    2016-05-01

    The case study company produces various front and rear lightings for automobiles and motorcycles. Currently, it faces two problems, i.e. high defective rate and high inventory. Lean Six Sigma was applied as a tool to solve the first problem, whereas the other problem was managed by changing the production concept from push to pull. The results showed that after applying all new settings to the process, the defect rate was reduced from 36,361 DPPM to 3,029 DPPM. In addition, after the implementation of the Kanban system, the company achieved substantial improvement in lead time reduction by 44%, in-process inventory reduction by 42%, finished good inventory reduction by 50%, and finished good area increased by 16%.

  8. Optimisation of Mesh Enclosures for Nursery Rearing of Juvenile Sea Cucumbers

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Steven W.; Agudo, Natacha S.

    2013-01-01

    Mariculture of tropical sea cucumbers is promising, but the nursery rearing of juveniles is a bottleneck for farming and sea ranching. We conducted four medium-scale experiments lasting 3–6 weeks, using thousands of cultured juvenile sandfish Holothuria scabra, to optimise nursery rearing in mesh enclosures in earthen seawater ponds and to test rearing in enclosures in the sea. In one experiment, survival in fine-mesh enclosures (1 m3; 660-µm mesh) related nonlinearly to juvenile size, revealing a threshold body length of 5–8 mm for initial transfer from hatchery tanks. Survival in enclosures within ponds in the other experiments ranged from 78–97%, and differences in growth rates among experiments were explained largely by seasonal differences in seawater temperatures in ponds. Stripped shadecloth units within fine-mesh enclosures increased feeding surfaces and improved growth rates by >15%. On the other hand, shading over the enclosures may lower growth rates. Following the rearing in fine-mesh enclosures, small juveniles (0.5 to 1 g) were grown to stocking size (3–10 g) in coarse-mesh enclosures of 1-mm mesh. Sand or mud added to coarse-mesh enclosures did not significantly improve growth compared to controls without sediment. Survival of sandfish juveniles in coarse-mesh enclosures set on the benthos within seagrass beds differed between two sheltered bays and growth was slow compared to groups within the same type of enclosures in an earthen pond. Our findings should lead to significant improvement in the cost-effectiveness of rearing sandfish juveniles to a stocking size compared to established methods and highlight the need for further research into nursery systems in the sea. PMID:23717542

  9. Laboratory-based clinical audit as a tool for continual improvement: an example from CSF chemistry turnaround time audit in a South-African teaching hospital

    PubMed Central

    Imoh, Lucius C; Mutale, Mubanga; Parker, Christopher T; Erasmus, Rajiv T; Zemlin, Annalise E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Timeliness of laboratory results is crucial to patient care and outcome. Monitoring turnaround times (TAT), especially for emergency tests, is important to measure the effectiveness and efficiency of laboratory services. Laboratory-based clinical audits reveal opportunities for improving quality. Our aim was to identify the most critical steps causing a high TAT for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) chemistry analysis in our laboratory. Materials and methods A 6-month retrospective audit was performed. The duration of each operational phase across the laboratory work flow was examined. A process-mapping audit trail of 60 randomly selected requests with a high TAT was conducted and reasons for high TAT were tested for significance. Results A total of 1505 CSF chemistry requests were analysed. Transport of samples to the laboratory was primarily responsible for the high average TAT (median TAT = 170 minutes). Labelling accounted for most delays within the laboratory (median TAT = 71 minutes) with most delays occurring after regular work hours (P < 0.05). CSF chemistry requests without the appropriate number of CSF sample tubes were significantly associated with delays in movement of samples from the labelling area to the technologist’s work station (caused by a preference for microbiological testing prior to CSF chemistry). Conclusion A laboratory-based clinical audit identified sample transportation, work shift periods and use of inappropriate CSF sample tubes as drivers of high TAT for CSF chemistry in our laboratory. The results of this audit will be used to change pre-analytical practices in our laboratory with the aim of improving TAT and customer satisfaction. PMID:27346964

  10. Distant view of rear and side (east) of building 256, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Distant view of rear and side (east) of building 256, along with the rear of building 257 (obstructed by truck), and side and rear of building 255. In the distance, the upper floors of the hospital, building 500, is visible. Camera station is next to building 264, looking south. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Building 256, North side of East O'Niell Avenue, between Tenth & Twelfth Streets, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  11. 49 CFR 393.86 - Rear impact guards and rear end protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... rear impact guard that meets the requirements of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 223 (49 CFR... (49 CFR 571.224) in effect at the time the vehicle was manufactured. The requirements of paragraph (a... required by FMVSS No. 223 (49 CFR 571.223, S5.3). The label must be on the forward-facing surface of...

  12. 49 CFR 393.86 - Rear impact guards and rear end protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... rear impact guard that meets the requirements of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 223 (49 CFR... (49 CFR 571.224) in effect at the time the vehicle was manufactured. The requirements of paragraph (a... required by FMVSS No. 223 (49 CFR 571.223, S5.3). The label must be on the forward-facing surface of...

  13. Investigation of different contact geometries for partial rear metal contact of high-efficiency silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Suchismita; Ghosh, Hemanta; Saha, Hiranmay; Datta, Swapan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the dependence of the parameters of partial rear metal contact (PRC) solar cells on two commonly used geometrical configurations, viz. grid contact and square contact. It is demonstrated that while the geometry of rear metallic contact having the same fractional coverage changes the base spreading resistance significantly, rear surface passivation and back reflectance depend only on the fractional coverage of the real metal contact and are independent of the geometry of the contact. The performed analysis indicates that the base spreading resistance is much higher for square contact cells compared to that of grid contact cells having the same fractional coverage. While open-circuit voltage and short-circuit current are found to be essentially independent of the contact geometry, the fill factor is significantly affected by the geometry, indicating that the design of high-efficiency cells with partial rear grid contact is less critical in comparison to that of square contact cells for optimized performance. Results indicate that for a 180 μm cell, an efficiency enhancement of 14% is possible for  <10% fractional rear metallization over the baseline efficiency of about 19% for solar cells having full-area rear metallization. For 50 μm thin cells, the corresponding improvement in efficiency is 17%, leading to 22% efficiency solar cells.

  14. GARAGE, SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST Irvine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GARAGE, SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST SIDE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Irvine Ranch Agricultural Headquarters, Carillo Tenant House, Southwest of Intersection of San Diego & Santa Ana Freeways, Irvine, Orange County, CA

  15. 7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR, VIEW FROM ENTRANCE TOWARD ENCLOSED STAIRS AND REAR DOOR - Mulliken-Spragins Tenant House, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. BLDG 1 REAR (EAST) AND NORTH END Naval Magazine ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 1 REAR (EAST) AND NORTH END - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Administration Building, Between Constitution & Constellation Streets, east side of main quad, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. 4. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING REAR WING OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. GENERAL EXTERIOR VIEW LOOKING WEST, SHOWING REAR WING OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. - Bonneville Project, Administration Building, South side of main entrance, Bonneville Project, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  18. OBLIQUE VIEW, REAR ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHEAST Mountain Home Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW, REAR ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Mountain Home Air Force Base 1958 Senior Officers' Housing, General's Residence, Rabeni Street (originally Ivy Street), Mountain Home, Elmore County, ID

  19. 7. SOUTHEAST REAR DETAIL, SHOWING WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SOUTHEAST REAR DETAIL, SHOWING WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Key City Electric Street Railroad, Powerhouse & Storage Barn, Eighth & Washington Streets, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  20. Use of a common laboratory glassware detergent improves recovery of Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis from lettuce, herbs and raspberries.

    PubMed

    Shields, Joan M; Lee, Michelle Minjung; Murphy, Helen R

    2012-02-01

    The success of any protocol designed to detect parasitic protozoa on produce must begin with an efficient initial wash step. Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts were seeded onto herbs, lettuces and raspberries, eluted with one of four wash solutions and the recovered number of oocysts determined via fluorescent microscopy. Recovery rates for fluorescein thiosemicarbazide labeled C. parvum oocysts seeded onto spinach and raspberries and washed with de-ionized water were 38.4 ± 10.1% and 34.9 ± 6.2%, respectively. Two alternative wash solutions viz. 1M glycine, pH 5.5 and a detachment solution were tested also using labeled C. parvum seeded spinach and raspberries. No statistically significant difference was noted in the recovery rates. However, a wash solution containing 0.1% Alconox, a laboratory glassware detergent, resulted in a significant improvement in oocyst recovery. 72.6 ± 6.6% C. parvum oocysts were recovered from basil when washed with 0.1% Alconox compared to 47.9 ± 5.8% using detachment solution. Also, C. cayetanensis oocysts were seeded onto lettuces, herbs and raspberries and the recovery using de-ionized water were compared to 0.1% Alconox wash: basil 17.5 ± 5.0% to 76.1 ± 14.0%, lollo rosso lettuce 38.3 ± 5.5% to 72.5 ± 8.1%, Tango leaf lettuce 45.9 ± 5.4% to 71.1 ± 7.8% and spring mix (mesclun) 39.8 ± 0.7% to 80.2 ± 11.3%, respectively. These results suggest that the use of Alconox in a wash solution significantly improves recovery resulting in the detection of these parasitic protozoa on high risk foods. PMID:22094179

  1. Fibrous Containment for Improved Laboratory Handling and Uniform Nanocoating of Milligram Quantities of Carbon Nanotubes by Atomic Layer Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Devine, Christina K.; Oldham, Christopher J.; Jur, Jesse S.; Gong, Bo; Parsons, Gregory N.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of nanostructured materials in the work place is bringing attention to the importance of safe practices for nanomaterial handling. We explored novel fiber containment methods to improve the handling of carbon nanotube (CNT) powders in the laboratory, while simultaneously allowing highly uniform and controlled atomic layer deposition (ALD) coatings on the nanotubes, down to less than 4 nm on some CNT materials. Moreover, the procedure yields uniform coatings on milligram quantities of nanotubes using a conventional viscous flow reactor system, circumventing the need for specialized fluidized bed or rotary ALD reactors for lab-scale studies. We explored both fiber bundles and fiber baskets as possible containment methods and conclude that the baskets are more suitable for coating studies. An extended precursor and reactant dose and soak periods allowed the gases to diffuse through the fiber containment, and the ALD coating thickness scaled linearly with the number of ALD cycles. The extended dose period produced thicker coatings compared with typical doses onto CNT controls not encased in the fibers, suggesting some effects due to the extended reactant dose. Film growth was compared on a range of single wall NTs, double wall NTs, and acid functionalized multiwall NTs and we found that ultrathin coatings were most readily controlled on the multi-walled NTs. PMID:22070742

  2. Non-matrix Matched Glass Disk Calibration Standards Improve XRF Micronutrient Analysis of Wheat Grain across Five Laboratories in India.

    PubMed

    Guild, Georgia E; Stangoulis, James C R

    2016-01-01

    Within the HarvestPlus program there are many collaborators currently using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy to measure Fe and Zn in their target crops. In India, five HarvestPlus wheat collaborators have laboratories that conduct this analysis and their throughput has increased significantly. The benefits of using XRF are its ease of use, minimal sample preparation and high throughput analysis. The lack of commercially available calibration standards has led to a need for alternative calibration arrangements for many of the instruments. Consequently, the majority of instruments have either been installed with an electronic transfer of an original grain calibration set developed by a preferred lab, or a locally supplied calibration. Unfortunately, neither of these methods has been entirely successful. The electronic transfer is unable to account for small variations between the instruments, whereas the use of a locally provided calibration set is heavily reliant on the accuracy of the reference analysis method, which is particularly difficult to achieve when analyzing low levels of micronutrient. Consequently, we have developed a calibration method that uses non-matrix matched glass disks. Here we present the validation of this method and show this calibration approach can improve the reproducibility and accuracy of whole grain wheat analysis on 5 different XRF instruments across the HarvestPlus breeding program. PMID:27375644

  3. Non-matrix Matched Glass Disk Calibration Standards Improve XRF Micronutrient Analysis of Wheat Grain across Five Laboratories in India

    PubMed Central

    Guild, Georgia E.; Stangoulis, James C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Within the HarvestPlus program there are many collaborators currently using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy to measure Fe and Zn in their target crops. In India, five HarvestPlus wheat collaborators have laboratories that conduct this analysis and their throughput has increased significantly. The benefits of using XRF are its ease of use, minimal sample preparation and high throughput analysis. The lack of commercially available calibration standards has led to a need for alternative calibration arrangements for many of the instruments. Consequently, the majority of instruments have either been installed with an electronic transfer of an original grain calibration set developed by a preferred lab, or a locally supplied calibration. Unfortunately, neither of these methods has been entirely successful. The electronic transfer is unable to account for small variations between the instruments, whereas the use of a locally provided calibration set is heavily reliant on the accuracy of the reference analysis method, which is particularly difficult to achieve when analyzing low levels of micronutrient. Consequently, we have developed a calibration method that uses non-matrix matched glass disks. Here we present the validation of this method and show this calibration approach can improve the reproducibility and accuracy of whole grain wheat analysis on 5 different XRF instruments across the HarvestPlus breeding program. PMID:27375644

  4. Audiotactile interactions in front and rear space.

    PubMed

    Occelli, Valeria; Spence, Charles; Zampini, Massimiliano

    2011-01-01

    The last few years have seen a growing interest in the assessment of audiotactile interactions in information processing in peripersonal space. In particular, these studies have focused on investigating peri-hand space [corrected] and, more recently, on the functional differences that have been demonstrated between the space close to front and back of the head (i.e., the peri-head space). In this review, the issue of how audiotactile interactions vary as a function of the region of space in which stimuli are presented (i.e., front vs. rear, peripersonal vs. extra-personal) will be described. We review evidence from both monkey and human studies. This evidence, providing insight into the differential attributes qualifying the frontal and the rear regions of space, sheds light on an until now neglected research topic and may help to contribute to the formulation of new rehabilitative approaches to disorders of spatial representation. A tentative explanation of the evolutionary reasons underlying these particular patterns of results, as well as suggestions for possible future developments, are also provided. PMID:20621120

  5. Gnotobiotic pigs-derivation and rearing.

    PubMed Central

    Miniats, O P; Jol, D

    1978-01-01

    The procurement, rearing, nutrition and microbiological monitoring of gnotobiotic pigs and a method for conditioning of primary, colostrum-deprived, specific pathogen free pigs is described. As compared to the established hysterectomy and closed hysterotomy methods for the derivation of gnotobiotic piglets an alternative approach, open caesarian section with the sow maintained under general halothane-nitrous oxide anaesthesia and the introduction of each fetus into the sterile isolator via a liquid germicidal trap, was found to be more efficient and equally successful in providing viable and microbiologically sterile piglets. Two sterile commercially available milk diets, a special formula for orphan animals and condensed cow's milk, when the latter was supplemented with injectable vitamin E, selenium and iron, proved adequate for satisfactory health of the animals. Two types of pelleted starter rations, sterilized by 4.5 megarads of gamma irradiation, provided adequately for the nutritional needs of older gnotobiotic pigs. Results of microbiological monitoring indicated that the surgical and rearing methods employed were capable of preventing contamination of the animals with bacteria, mycoplasma, yeasts, molds, protozoa and helminths but probably could not exclude occasional vertically transmitted viral infections. Exposure of the animals for four weeks to selected strains of lactobacilli, fecal streptococci and Escherichia coli did not result in visible disease while they were maintained in isolators and conditioned them for transfer into a conventional microbial environment. PMID:154359

  6. Effect of Parasitoid: Host Ratio and Parasitoid and Host Group Size on Fitness of Spathius galinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a Parasitoid of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae): Implications for Mass-Rearing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producing insect natural enemies in laboratories or insectaries for biological pest control is often expensive, and developing cost-effective rearing techniques is a goal of many biological control programs. Spathius galinae Belokobylskij and Strazenac (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a recently described...

  7. Minimum survival rates for Mississippi sandhill cranes: a comparison of hand-rearing and parent-rearing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, D.H.; Gee, G.F.; Olsen, G.H.; Hereford, Scott G.; Nicolich, J.M.; Thomas, N.J.; Nagendran, M.

    2001-01-01

    Hand-reared (56) and parent-reared (76) juvenile Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) were produced at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (Patuxent), Laurel, Maryland over a 4-year period (1989-92) and released at the Mississippi Sandhill Crane National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge), Gautier, Mississippi in a controlled experiment. Hand-reared survival rates proved higher than for parent-reared survival for each time category: 6 months, 86% versus 75%; 1 year, 77% versus 68%; 2 years 66% versus 53%; 3 years, 55% versus 43%: partial data for fourth and filth years were 57% versus 31% and 48% versus 37%.

  8. Water Efficiency Improvements at Various Environmental Protection Agency Sites: Best Management Practice Case Study #12 - Laboratory/Medical Equipment (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Blakley, H.

    2011-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) built a successful water conservation program and reduced potable water use through a series of initiatives at EPA laboratories. The projects highlighted in this case study demonstrate EPA's ability to reduce water use in laboratory and medical equipment by implementing vacuum pump and steam sterilizer replacements and retrofits. Due to the success of the initial vacuum pump and steam sterilizer projects described here, EPA is implementing similar projects at several laboratories throughout the nation.

  9. Hand-rearing and sex determination tool for the Taveta golden weaver (Ploceus castaneiceps).

    PubMed

    Breeding, Shawnlei; Ferrie, Gina M; Schutz, Paul; Leighty, Katherine A; Plassé, Chelle

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in the ability to hand-rear birds in captivity have aided zoological institutions in the sustainable management of these species, and have provided opportunities to examine their physical growth in varying conditions. Monitoring the weight gain and development of chicks is an important aspect of developing a hand-rearing protocol. In this paper we provide the institutional history for a colonial species of passerine, the Taveta golden weaver, at Disney's Animal Kingdom®, in order to demonstrate the methods of establishing a successful breeding program which largely incorporates hand-rearing in management of the population. We also tested if we could accurately predict sex of chicks using weights collected on Day 14 during the hand-rearing process. Using this tool, we were able to correctly determine sex before fledging in more than 83% of chicks. Early sex determination is important in captive species for genetic management and husbandry purposes. While genetic sexing can be expensive, we found that using growth curves to determine sex can be a reliable and cost-effective tool for population management of a colonial passerine. PMID:22588723

  10. Exposure to ginger root oil enhances mating success of irradiated, mass-reared males of Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Shelly, T E; McInnis, D O

    2001-12-01

    Previous research revealed that exposure to ginger root oil, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, containing the known male attractant (a-copaene) increased the mating success of male Mediterranean fruit flies, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), from a newly established laboratory colony. The goal of the current study was to determine whether exposure to ginger root oil likewise enhanced the mating competitiveness of irradiated C. capitata males from a 5-yr-old mass-reared strain. Mating tests were conducted in field cages containing guava trees (Psidium guajava L.) to monitor the mating frequency of irradiated, mass-reared and wild males competing for wild females. In the absence of chemical exposure, wild males outcompeted the mass-reared males and obtained 74% of all matings. However, following exposure to ginger root oil (20 microl for 6 h), the mating frequencies were reversed. Whether exposed as mature (3-d-old) or immature (1-d-old) adults, mass-reared males achieved approximately 75% of all matings in tests conducted 2 or 4 d following exposure, respectively. Irradiated, mass-reared males prevented from contacting the oil directly (i.e., exposed to the odor only for 6 h) still exhibited a mating advantage over wild males. In an additional study, signaling levels and female arrivals were compared between males exposed to ginger root oil and nonexposed males, but no significant differences were detected. The implications of these findings for the sterile insect technique are discussed. PMID:11777043

  11. Mutation-Based Learning to Improve Student Autonomy and Scientific Inquiry Skills in a Large Genetics Laboratory Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Jinlu

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory education can play a vital role in developing a learner's autonomy and scientific inquiry skills. In an innovative, mutation-based learning (MBL) approach, students were instructed to redesign a teacher-designed standard experimental protocol by a "mutation" method in a molecular genetics laboratory course. Students could…

  12. Improving Pre-Service Elementary Teachers' Education via a Laboratory Course on Air Pollution: One University's Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandrikas, Achilleas; Parkosidis, Ioannis; Psomiadis, Ploutarchos; Stoumpa, Artemisia; Chalkidis, Anthimos; Mavrikaki, Evangelia; Skordoulis, Constantine

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the structure of the "Air Pollution Course", an environmental science laboratory course developed at the Science Education Laboratory of the Faculty of Primary Education, University of Athens, as well as the findings resulting from its implementation by pre-service elementary teachers. The course proposed in this study deals…

  13. Incrementally Approaching an Inquiry Lab Curriculum: Can Changing a Single Laboratory Experiment Improve Student Performance in General Chemistry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacciatore, Kristen L.; Sevian, Hannah

    2009-01-01

    Many institutions are responding to current research about how students learn science by transforming their general chemistry laboratory curricula to be inquiry-oriented. We present a comparison study of student performance after completing either a traditional or an inquiry stoichiometry experiment. This single laboratory experience was the only…

  14. The IMSI Procedure Improves Laboratory and Clinical Outcomes Without Compromising the Aneuploidy Rate When Compared to the Classical ICSI Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Daniel; Hilario, Roly; Dueñas-Chacón, Julio; Romero, Rocío; Zavala, Patricia; Villegas, Lucy; García-Ferreyra, Javier

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) procedure has been associated with better laboratory and clinical outcomes in assisted reproduction technologies. Less information is available regarding the relationship between embryo aneuploidy rate and the IMSI procedure. The aim of this study is to compare the clinical outcomes and chromosomal status of IMSI-derived embryos with those obtained from intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in order to establish a clearer view of the benefits of IMSI in infertile patients. METHODS We retrospectively analyzed a total of 11 cycles of IMSI and 20 cycles of ICSI with preimplantation genetic diagnosis. The fertilization rate, cleavage rate, embryo quality, blastocyst development, aneuploidy rate, pregnancy rate, implantation rate, and miscarriage rate were compared between the groups. RESULTS Similar rates of fertilization (70% and 73%), cleavage (98% and 100%), and aneuploidy (76.9% and 70.9%) were observed in the IMSI and ICSI groups, respectively. The IMSI group had significantly more good quality embryos at day 3 (95% vs 73%), higher blastocyst development rates (33% vs 19%), and greater number of hatching blastocysts (43% vs 28%), cycles with at least one blastocyst at day 5 (55% vs 35%), and blastocysts with good trophoectoderm morphology (21% vs 6%) compared with the ICSI group (P < 0.001). Significantly higher implantation rates were observed in the IMSI group compared with the ICSI group (57% vs 27%; P < 0.05). Pregnancy and miscarriage rates were similar in both groups (80% vs 50% and 0% vs 33%, respectively). CONCLUSION The IMSI procedure significantly improves the embryo quality/development by increasing the implantation rates without affecting the chromosomal status of embryos. There is a tendency for the IMSI procedure to enhance the pregnancy rates and lower the miscarriage rates when compared with ICSI. PMID:26609251

  15. North rear, oblique view to the southeast, showing the east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North rear, oblique view to the southeast, showing the east wing and rear wall construction. Note the outline of the former windows beneath the current small aluminum-frame windows - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Building No. 16 A-B (Duplex), 30652 & 30654 Wellton-Mohawk Drive, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  16. 2. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF GUARDLOCK (LEFT REAR), DUNDEE DAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW LOOKING NORTH OF GUARDLOCK (LEFT REAR), DUNDEE DAM (RIGHT-CENTER REAR), AND REMOVED SITE OF TOWPATH (FOREGROUND) DURING HYDROPOWER FACILITY INSTALLATION - Dundee Canal, Headgates, Guardlock & Uppermost Section, 250 feet northeast of Randolph Avenue, opposite & in line with East Clifton Avenue, Clifton, Passaic County, NJ

  17. Passive solar system for maintaining and rearing marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Yuschak, P.; Richards, F.M.

    1987-04-01

    A solar-heated facility for maintaining and rearing marine organisms is described. Water from a shallow tidal bay is moved by a tide-regulated pumping system into settling tanks for removal of suspended silt and clay, from which the water drains by gravity flow to circular rearing tanks.

  18. Cross-Cultural Child Rearing Practices: Implications for School Psychologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escovar, Peggy L.; Lazarus, Philip J.

    The knowledge of cross-cultural child-rearing practices to aid school psychologists is illustrated in this paper. A literature review of child-rearing practices is provided, focusing on: (1) children's social, cultural, and psychological development; (2) the school psychologist's identification of culturally bound aspects of child development; and…

  19. View of Corto Square. Building No. 32 at center rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Corto Square. Building No. 32 at center rear and Building No. 31 at right rear. Rolled curb design of sidewalk on left, looking southeast - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  20. Artificially reared mice exhibit anxiety-like behavior in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Hidemi; Harauma, Akiko; Kato, Maki; Ootomo, Yuki; Hatanaka, Erisa; Moriguchi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    It is important to establish experimental animal techniques that are applicable to the newborn and infant phases for nutrition and pharmacological studies. Breeding technology using the artificial suckling method without breast milk is very effective for the study of newborn nutrition. Using this method, we separated newborn mice from dams within 48 h of birth and provided them with artificial milk. We evaluated mouse anxiety levels after early postnatal maternal separation. Artificially reared mice were subjected to elevated plus-maze tests to assess emotional behavior at 9 weeks of age. Artificially reared mice showed a significantly lower frequency of entries and dipping into the open arms of the maze compared with dam-reared mice. This result indicates that the anxiety level of artificially reared mice was higher than that of dam-reared mice. Moreover, the concentration of monoamines in the brain was determined after the behavioral experiment. The hippocampal norepinephrine, serotonin, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels in the artificially reared mice were significantly higher than those of the dam-reared mice. These results suggest that maternal-offspring interactions are extremely important for the emotional development of newborn infants during the lactation period. In future studies, it is necessary to consider the environmental factors and conditions that minimize the influence of artificial rearing on emotional behavior. PMID:26948536

  1. Aerial view west from center of square showing rear walls ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view west from center of square showing rear walls and roofs of rear ells of 515 Eleventh Street, 517 Eleventh Street, 519 Eleventh Street, and Eleventh Street - Square 347 (Commercial Buildings), Tenth, Eleventh, E, & F Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  2. DOORS AT REAR KITCHEN WALL, LOOKING SOUTH; LEFT DOOR LEADS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DOORS AT REAR KITCHEN WALL, LOOKING SOUTH; LEFT DOOR LEADS TO SMALL PANTRY, EAST DOOR AND DINING ROOM; 2ND LEFT DOOR LEADS TO BASEMENT; 3RD LEFT DOOR LEADS TO 2ND FLOOR VIA REAR STAIRS; RIGHT DOOR LEADS TO PANTRY, DINING ROOM - Fort Leavenworth, Building No. 18, 16-18 Sumner Place, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  3. Review of Brucellosis Cases from Laboratory Exposures in the United States in 2008 to 2011 and Improved Strategies for Disease Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, M. A.; Morrow, M. G.; Haupt, T.; Morrison, J.; Saah, J. R.; Smith, C. G.; Williams, C.; Fleischauer, A. T.; Lee, P. A.; Stanek, D.; Trevino-Garrison, I.; Franklin, P.; Oakes, P.; Hand, S.; Shadomy, S. V.; Blaney, D. D.; Lehman, M. W.; Benoit, T. J.; Stoddard, R. A.; Tiller, R. V.; De, B. K.; Bower, W.; Smith, T. L.

    2013-01-01

    Five laboratory-acquired brucellosis (LAB) cases that occurred in the United States between 2008 and 2011 are presented. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reviewed the recommendations published in 2008 and the published literature to identify strategies to further prevent LAB. The improved prevention strategies are described. PMID:23824776

  4. Argument-Driven Inquiry: Using the Laboratory to Improve Undergraduates' Science Writing Skills through Meaningful Science Writing, Peer-Review, and Revision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Joi Phelps; Sampson, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary evidence supporting the use of peer review in undergraduate science as a means to improve student writing and to alleviate barriers, such as lost class time, by incorporation of the peer-review process into the laboratory component of the course. The study was conducted in a single section of an undergraduate…

  5. Improved standardization and potential for shortened time to results with BD Kiestra™ total laboratory automation of early urine cultures: A prospective comparison with manual processing.

    PubMed

    Graham, Maryza; Tilson, Leanne; Streitberg, Richard; Hamblin, John; Korman, Tony M

    2016-09-01

    We compared the results of 505 urine specimens prospectively processed by both conventional manual processing (MP) with 16-24h incubation to BD Kiestra™ Total Laboratory Automation (TLA) system with a shortened incubation of 14h: 97% of culture results were clinically concordant. TLA processing was associated with improved standardization of time of first culture reading and total incubation time. PMID:27422083

  6. Use of Web-based training for quality improvement between a field immunohistochemistry laboratory in Nigeria and its United States-based partner institution.

    PubMed

    Oluwasola, Abideen O; Malaka, David; Khramtsov, Andrey Ilyich; Ikpatt, Offiong Francis; Odetunde, Abayomi; Adeyanju, Oyinlolu Olorunsogo; Sveen, Walmy Elisabeth; Falusi, Adeyinka Gloria; Huo, Dezheng; Olopade, Olufunmilayo Ibironke

    2013-12-01

    The importance of hormone receptor status in assigning treatment and the potential use of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-targeted therapy have made it beneficial for laboratories to improve detection techniques. Because interlaboratory variability in immunohistochemistry (IHC) tests may also affect studies of breast cancer subtypes in different countries, we undertook a Web-based quality improvement training and a comparative study of accuracy of immunohistochemical tests of breast cancer biomarkers between a well-established laboratory in the United States (University of Chicago) and a field laboratory in Ibadan, Nigeria. Two hundred and thirty-two breast tumor blocks were evaluated for estrogen receptors (ERs), progesterone receptors (PRs), and HER2 status at both laboratories using tissue microarray technique. Initially, concordance analysis revealed κ scores of 0.42 (moderate agreement) for ER, 0.41 (moderate agreement) for PR, and 0.39 (fair agreement) for HER2 between the 2 laboratories. Antigen retrieval techniques and scoring methods were identified as important reasons for discrepancy. Web-based conferences using Web conferencing tools such as Skype and WebEx were then held periodically to discuss IHC staining protocols and standard scoring systems and to resolve discrepant cases. After quality assurance and training, the agreement improved to 0.64 (substantial agreement) for ER, 0.60 (moderate agreement) for PR, and 0.75 (substantial agreement) for HER2. We found Web-based conferences and digital microscopy useful and cost-effective tools for quality assurance of IHC, consultation, and collaboration between distant laboratories. Quality improvement exercises in testing of tumor biomarkers will reduce misclassification in epidemiologic studies of breast cancer subtypes and provide much needed capacity building in resource-poor countries. PMID:24095629

  7. Magma Differentiation Processes That Develop an "Enriched" Signature in the Izu Bonin Rear Arc: Evidence from Drilling at IODP Site U1437

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heywood, L. J.; DeBari, S. M.; Schindlbeck, J. C.; Escobar-Burciaga, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Izu Bonin rear arc represents a unique laboratory to study the development of continental crust precursors at an intraoceanic subduction zone., Volcanic output in the Izu Bonin rear arc is compositionally distinct from the Izu Bonin main volcanic front, with med- to high-K and LREE-enrichment similar to the average composition of the continental crust. Drilling at IODP Expedition 350 Site U1437 in the Izu Bonin rear arc obtained volcaniclastic material that was deposited from at least 13.5 Ma to present. IODP Expedition 350 represents the first drilling mission in the Izu Bonin rear arc region. This study presents fresh glass and mineral compositions (obtained via EMP and LA-ICP-MS) from unaltered tephra layers in mud/mudstone (Lithostratigraphic Unit I) and lapillistone (Lithostratigraphic Unit II) <4.5 Ma to examine the geochemical signature of Izu Bonin rear arc magmas. Unit II samples are coarse-grained tephras that are mainly rhyolitic in composition (72.1-77.5 wt. % SiO2, 3.2-3.9 wt. % K2O and average Mg# 24) and LREE-enriched. These rear-arc rhyolites have an average La/Sm of 2.6 with flat HREEs, average Th/La of 0.15, and Zr/Y of 4.86. Rear-arc rhyolite trace element signature is distinct from felsic eruptive products from the Izu Bonin main volcanic front, which have lower La/Sm and Th/La as well as significantly lower incompatible element concentrations. Rear arc rhyolites have similar trace element ratios to rhyolites from the adjacent but younger backarc knolls and actively-extending rift regions, but the latter is typified by lower K2O, as well as a smaller degree of enrichment in incompatible elements. Given these unique characteristics, we explore models for felsic magma formation and intracrustal differentiation in the Izu Bonin rear arc.

  8. A Novel Method for Rearing Zebrafish by Using Freshwater Rotifers (Brachionus calyciflorus)

    PubMed Central

    Aoyama, Yuta; Moriya, Natsumi; Tanaka, Shingo; Taniguchi, Tomoko; Hosokawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become a powerful model organism for studying developmental processes and genetic diseases. However, there remain several problems in previous rearing methods. In this study, we demonstrate a novel method for rearing zebrafish larvae by using a new first food, freshwater rotifers (Brachionus calyciflorus). Feeding experiments indicated that freshwater rotifers are suitable as the first food for newly hatched larval fish. In addition, we revisited and improved a feeding schedule from 5 to 40 days postfertilization. Our feeding method using freshwater rotifers accelerated larval growth. At 49 dpf, one pair out of 10 pairs successfully produced six fertilized eggs. At 56, 63, and 71 dpf, 6 out of the 10 pairs constantly produced normal embryos. Our method will improve the husbandry of the zebrafish. PMID:25938499

  9. Colonisation and mass rearing: learning from others

    PubMed Central

    Benedict, Mark Q; Knols, Bart GJ; Bossin, Hervé C; Howell, Paul I; Mialhe, Eric; Caceres, Carlos; Robinson, Alan S

    2009-01-01

    Mosquitoes, just as other insects produced for the sterile insect technique (SIT), are subjected to several unnatural processes including laboratory colonisation and large-scale factory production. After these processes, sterile male mosquitoes must perform the natural task of locating and mating with wild females. Therefore, the colonisation and production processes must preserve characters necessary for these functions. Fortunately, in contrast to natural selection which favours a suite of characteristics that improve overall fitness, colonisation and production practices for SIT strive to maximize only the few qualities that are necessary to effectively control populations. However, there is considerable uncertainty about some of the appropriate characteristics due to the lack of data. Development of biological products for other applications suggest that it is possible to identify and modify competitiveness characteristics in order to produce competitive mass produced sterile mosquitoes. This goal has been pursued - and sometimes achieved - by mosquito colonisation, production, and studies that have linked these characteristics to field performance. Parallels are drawn to studies in other insect SIT programmes and aquaculture which serve as vital technical reference points for mass-production of mosquitoes, most of whose development occurs - and characteristics of which are determined - in an aquatic environment. Poorly understood areas that require further study are numerous: diet, mass handling and genetic and physiological factors that influence mating competitiveness. Compromises in such traits due to demands to increase numbers or reduce costs, should be carefully considered in light of the desired field performance. PMID:19917074

  10. Colonisation and mass rearing: learning from others.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Mark Q; Knols, Bart G J; Bossin, Hervé C; Howell, Paul I; Mialhe, Eric; Caceres, Carlos; Robinson, Alan S

    2009-01-01

    Mosquitoes, just as other insects produced for the sterile insect technique (SIT), are subjected to several unnatural processes including laboratory colonisation and large-scale factory production. After these processes, sterile male mosquitoes must perform the natural task of locating and mating with wild females. Therefore, the colonisation and production processes must preserve characters necessary for these functions. Fortunately, in contrast to natural selection which favours a suite of characteristics that improve overall fitness, colonisation and production practices for SIT strive to maximize only the few qualities that are necessary to effectively control populations. However, there is considerable uncertainty about some of the appropriate characteristics due to the lack of data. Development of biological products for other applications suggest that it is possible to identify and modify competitiveness characteristics in order to produce competitive mass produced sterile mosquitoes. This goal has been pursued--and sometimes achieved--by mosquito colonisation, production, and studies that have linked these characteristics to field performance. Parallels are drawn to studies in other insect SIT programmes and aquaculture which serve as vital technical reference points for mass-production of mosquitoes, most of whose development occurs--and characteristics of which are determined--in an aquatic environment. Poorly understood areas that require further study are numerous: diet, mass handling and genetic and physiological factors that influence mating competitiveness. Compromises in such traits due to demands to increase numbers or reduce costs, should be carefully considered in light of the desired field performance. PMID:19917074

  11. Genetic and environmental influences on eating behavior - a study of twin pairs reared apart or reared together

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the relative influence of genetic versus environmental factors on specific aspects of eating behavior. Adult monozygotic twins (22 pairs and 3 singleton reared apart, 38 pairs and 9 singleton reared together, age 18-76 years, BMI 17-43 kg/m2) completed the Three Factor Eating Que...

  12. Autonomy, Educational Plans, and Self-Esteem in Institution-Reared and Home-Reared Teenagers in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulviste, Tiia

    2011-01-01

    The study examines autonomy, self-esteem, and educational plans for the future of 109 institution-reared and 106 home-reared teenagers (15-19 years). Teenagers were asked to complete the Teen Timetable Scale (Feldman & Rosenthal), two Emotional Autonomy Scales (Steinberg & Silverberg), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and answer questions about…

  13. Environmental Assessment for Proposed Access Control and Traffic Improvements at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-08-23

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has assigned a continuing role to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in carrying out NNSA's national security mission. It is imperative that LANL continue this enduring responsibility and that NNSA adequately safeguard LANL capabilities. NNSA has identified the need to restrict vehicular access to certain areas within LANL for the purpose of permanently enhancing the physical security environment at LANL. It has also identified the need to change certain traffic flow patterns for the purpose of enhancing physical safety at LANL. The Proposed Action would include the construction of eastern and western bypass roads around the LANL Technical Area (TA) 3 area and the installation of vehicle access controls and related improvements to enhance security along Pajarito Road and in the LANL core area. This Proposed Action would modify the current roadway network and traffic patterns. It would also result in traversing Areas of Environmental Interest identified in the LANL Habitat Management Plan, demolition of part of an historic structure at Building 3-40, and traversing several potential release sites and part of the Los Alamos County landfill. The No Action Alternative was also considered. Under this alternative NNSA would not construct the eastern or western bypass roads, any access-control stations, or related improvements. Diamond Drive would continue to serve as the primary conduit for most vehicle traffic within the LANL core area regardless of actual trip destinations. The No Action Alternative does not meet NNSA's purpose and need for action. The proposed bypass road corridors traverse both developed and undeveloped areas. Several potential release sites are present. These would either be sampled and remediated in accordance with New Mexico Environment Department requirements before construction or avoided to allow for future remediation. In some cases, contaminant levels may fall below remediation thresholds

  14. Dissolved organic matter dynamics during storm events: combining in-situ and laboratory optical measurements to improve understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khamis, Kieran; Bradley, Chris; Hannah, David; Stevens, Rob

    2015-04-01

    Despite the crucial role of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in catchment biogeochemistry; DOM fluxes from watersheds still remains poorly characterized. Recently, the mobilization and transport of DOM during storm events has received increased attention; with significant changes in DOM quality and quantity reported for forested and agricultural catchments. However, for urban systems, our understanding of the extent to which storms drive changes in DOM concentration and composition remains limited, particularly with regards to intra/inter-seasonal variability. In this study, we address this research gap by characterizing a number of storm events on a small urban stream (Bournbrook, Birmingham, U.K) during the winter and summer of 2014. An in-situ submersible fluorometer (Cyclops 7, Turner Inc.) was integrated with a traditional water quality sonde (Manta 2, Eureka) to obtain a continuous record of tryptophan-like fluorescence (TLF: BOD surrogate), turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), water temperature (Tw) and stage. River water samples were collected using an automatic pump sampler at ≤ 1hr intervals and returned to the lab for a suite of analyses (total carbon quantification, absorbance and excitation emission spectrofluorometry). The flow regime was typical of an urban/suburban catchment with river stage extremely responsive to rainfall with lag times of <3 hrs. Both winter and summer storm events exhibited first flush responses with peak turbidity either on the rising limb or at peak discharge for all events (max. turbidity = 400NTU). Field and lab data highlighted systematic overestimation of in-situ TLF during base flow and high flow. Robust correction factors were developed and significantly improved the relationship between field and filtered lab measurements (R2> 0.8). The highest TLF values (in-situ and lab) were recorded during summer events, with corresponding winter events consistently displaying lower TLF concentrations. Antecedent hydro

  15. The GEO Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories - GSNL 2.0: improving societal benefits of Geohazard science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvi, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    The Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories initiative began with the "Frascati declaration" at the conclusion of the 3rd International Geohazards workshop of GEO held in November 2007 in Frascati, Italy. The recommendation of the workshop was "to stimulate an international and intergovernmental effort to monitor and study selected reference sites by establishing open access to relevant datasets according to GEO principles, to foster the collaboration between all various partners and end-users". This recommendation was later formalized in the GEO Work Plan as Component 2 of the GEO task DI-01, part of the GEO Disasters Societal Benefit Area. Today GSNL has grown to a voluntary collaboration among monitoring agencies, scientific community and the CEOS space agencies, working to improve the scientific understanding of earthquake and volcanic phenomena and enable better risk assessment and emergency management. According to its principles, actions in GSNL are focused on specific areas of the world, the Supersites, for which large amounts of in situ and satellite data are made openly available to all scientists. These areas are selected based on the importance of the scientific problems, as well as on the amount of population at risk, and should be evenly distributed among developed and less developed countries. Seven Supersites have been established to date, six of which on volcanic areas (Hawaii, US; Icelandic volcanoes; Mt. Etna, IT; Campi Flegrei, IT; Ecuadorian volcanoes, Taupo, NZ), and one on a seismic area (Western North Anatolian fault, TR). One more proposals is being evaluated: the Corinth Gulf in Greece. The Supersites have succeeded in promoting new scientific developments by providing a framework for an easier access to EO and in situ data. Coordination among researchers at the global scale has been achieved only where the Supersite activities were sustained through well established projects. For some Supersites a close coordination between

  16. Protein-sparing effect of carbohydrate in diets for juvenile turbot Scophthalmus maximus reared at different salinities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Lin; Lei, Jilin; Ai, Chunxiang; Hong, Wanshu; Liu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protein-sparing effect of carbohydrate in diets for juvenile turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) reared at five salinities (12, 18, 24, 30, and 36). The fish were fed three isocaloric and isolipidic diets for 60 days. The results show that specific growth rate (SGR) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) were higher in fish reared at salinities of 18 and 36, but lower at 12. Fish fed with diet C25P40 (25% carbohydrate and 40% protein) had lower SGR and FCE values compared with those fed with the C5P52 (5% carbohydrate and 52% protein) and C15P46 (15% carbohydrate and 46% protein) diets; however, there was no statistical difference between diet C5P52 and C15P46. SGR and FCE values were unaffected by diet composition in fish reared at salinity 36. Hepatic lipogenic enzyme activities were higher in fish reared at 18 and 36, but lower at 12, while glucokinase (GK) activity was higher in fish reared at 12, and lower at 18 and 36. Dietary starch enhanced GK activity while depressing lipogenic enzyme activity. However, lipogenic enzyme activity increased with increasing dietary starch in fish reared at 36. It is recommended that salinity should be maintained >12 in the farming of juvenile turbot. In addition, an increase in gelatinized starch from 5% to 15% could spare 6% dietary protein in fish reared at salinities of 18-30, while higher salinity (36) could improve dietary carbohydrate use and enhance the protein-sparing effect, which is linked with the induction of lipogenic capacities.

  17. [Probiotics in broilers' rearing: A strategy for intensive production models].

    PubMed

    Blajman, Jesica E; Zbrun, María V; Astesana, Diego M; Berisvil, Ayelén P; Romero Scharpen, Analía; Fusari, Marcia L; Soto, Lorena P; Signorini, Marcelo L; Rosmini, Marcelo R; Frizzo, Laureano S

    2015-01-01

    The broiler industry has become an important economic activity in Argentina. Global production of broiler meat has been growing in Argentina faster than for any other meats, possibly due to declining poultry prices and increasing incomes. Modern rearing systems can produce broilers ready to slaughter in 50 days, with the required 2.7kg of weight and a feed conversion of about 1.6kg feed/kg of meat. Nevertheless, broilers raised under these intensive conditions are exposed to various stressors every day. For many years, feed supplementation with antibiotics was widely used to stabilize the gut flora, improve general parameters and prevent avian diseases. However, the utility of antibiotics has been questioned because of the emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in meat. Therefore, there is a renewed interest in finding viable alternatives to antibiotics. One potential method is the supplementation of broiler diets with probiotics. This review provides an updated summary of the use of probiotics to improve sanitary conditions and enhance performance in broilers, demonstrating the role of probiotics as a reliable option to replace antimicrobial growth promoters. PMID:26614253

  18. Effects of Temperature on Development and Survival of Orthopygia glaucinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Reared on Platycarya strobilacea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Feng; Yang, Mao-Fa; Hu, Ji-Feng; Han, Chang

    2015-04-01

    The larvae of Orthopygia glaucinalis (L.) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) are used to produce insect tea in Guizhou, China. We investigated the development and survival of O. glaucinalis reared on dried leaves of Platycarya strobilacea under laboratory conditions at 19, 22, 25, 28, 31, 34, and 37°C. The duration of development from egg deposition to adult emergence decreased significantly with increasing temperature from 19 to 31°C, whereas the duration of egg and overall development significantly increased at 34°C. Based on the extreme-value distribution function, the optimal temperature for survival of overall development was 24.89°C, and the larval stage was most susceptible to temperature extremes. The common linear model and the Ikemoto and Takai linear model were used to determine the relationship between temperature and the developmental rate, and estimated the low-temperature threshold (11.44 and 11.62°C, respectively) and the threshold constant (1220.70 and 1203.58 degree-days, respectively) of O. glaucinalis. Nonlinear models were used to assess in fitting the experiment data and to estimate the high temperature thresholds (34.00 to 39.08°C) and optimal temperatures (31.61 to 33.45°C). An intrinsic optimal temperature of 24.18°C was estimated for overall development using the Sharpe-Schoolfield-Ikemoto (SSI) model. Model-averaged parameter estimates and the unconditional standard error were also estimated for the temperature thresholds. Based on the biological parameters and model selection, we concluded that common linear, Lactin-1, and SSI models performed better for predicting the temperature-dependent development of O. glaucinalis. Our findings enable breeders to optimize the developmental rate of O. glaucinalis and improve the yield of insect tea. PMID:26470161

  19. Rearing Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleptera: Tenebrionidae) in the "Lunar Palace 1" during a 105-day multi-crew closed integrative BLSS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Leyuan; Xie, Beizhen; Dong, Chen; Hu, Dawei; Wang, Minjuan; Liu, Guanghui; Liu, Hong

    2015-11-01

    Yellow mealworm (Tenebrio molitor L.) is one of the animal candidates for space bioregenerative life support systems. In this study, T. molitor was involved in a 105-day multi-crew closed integrative BLSS experiment for a tentative rearing study. The results showed that the overall bioconversion rate (ratio of T. molitor gained to the total feed consumed) of T. molitor reared in the closed system was 8.13%, while 78.43% of the feed was excreted as frass. T. molitor reared in the closed system had a good nutritional composition. The eight essential amino acids (EAAs) in T. molitor larvae accounted for 41.30% of its total amino acids, and most EAA contents were higher than the suggested amino acid pattern recommended by the FAO/WHO. T. molitor sample obtained in this work was high in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and low in saturated fatty acids, indicating that the composition of fatty acids was beneficial to human health. In the open environment outside the experimental system, we simultaneously reared three parallel groups of larval T. molitor using the same feeding regime and temperature condition. Compared with T. molitor reared in the open environment, larvae reared in the closed system grew slower. With the course of time t, the growth rate of T. molitor in the open environment was 0.839e0.017t times that of larvae in the closed system. This paper can provide data for future design and improvement of BLSS containing a T. molitor rearing unit.

  20. Cooperative fish-rearing programs in Hanford Site excess facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Herborn, D.I.; Anderson, B.N.

    1994-05-01

    In, 1993, two successful fish-rearing pilot projects were conducted in Hanford Site 100 K Area water treatment pools (K Pools) that are excess to the US Department of Energy needs. Beginning this spring, two larger cooperative fish programs will be undertaken in the K Pools. One program will involve the Yakama Indian Nation, which will rear, acclimate, and release 500,000 fall chinook salmon. The other program involves the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, which will rear warm-water specie (walleye and channel catfish) for planting in state lakes. Renewed economic vitality is the goal expected from these and follow-on fish programs.

  1. Effect of different types of litter material for rearing broilers.

    PubMed

    Swain, B K; Sundaram, R N

    2000-07-01

    1. Coir dust was evaluated as broiler litter in comparison with sawdust and rice husk using 135 commercial broilers. Forty-five broiler chicks were reared to 42 d on a 50 mm layer of each of these litters. 2. Birds reared on coir dust showed no difference in food consumption, body weight gain, food conversion efficiency production number and survivability in comparison to those reared on saw dust and rice husk. 3. It was concluded that coir dust is suitable as broiler litter when cheaply available. PMID:11081418

  2. Color-specificity to enhance identification of rear lights.

    PubMed

    Cameron, D L

    1995-06-01

    30 male and 13 female licensed drivers were given a static reaction-time test for Donders Type B reactions to the onset of automotive rear lights. The lights were displayed as by conventional systems and by a new color-specific method referred to as the "Red Light Means Stop approach." When subjects were instructed to regard all red colored light as brake-signal light, both incidence of identification error and reaction time decreased. Results support the hypothesis that addition of color specificity to rear lighting might prevent some rear-end collisions which occur under adverse driving circumstances. PMID:7567393

  3. A multinomial logit model-Bayesian network hybrid approach for driver injury severity analyses in rear-end crashes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cong; Zhang, Guohui; Tarefder, Rafiqul; Ma, Jianming; Wei, Heng; Guan, Hongzhi

    2015-07-01

    Rear-end crash is one of the most common types of traffic crashes in the U.S. A good understanding of its characteristics and contributing factors is of practical importance. Previously, both multinomial Logit models and Bayesian network methods have been used in crash modeling and analysis, respectively, although each of them has its own application restrictions and limitations. In this study, a hybrid approach is developed to combine multinomial logit models and Bayesian network methods for comprehensively analyzing driver injury severities in rear-end crashes based on state-wide crash data collected in New Mexico from 2010 to 2011. A multinomial logit model is developed to investigate and identify significant contributing factors for rear-end crash driver injury severities classified into three categories: no injury, injury, and fatality. Then, the identified significant factors are utilized to establish a Bayesian network to explicitly formulate statistical associations between injury severity outcomes and explanatory attributes, including driver behavior, demographic features, vehicle factors, geometric and environmental characteristics, etc. The test results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid approach performs reasonably well. The Bayesian network reference analyses indicate that the factors including truck-involvement, inferior lighting conditions, windy weather conditions, the number of vehicles involved, etc. could significantly increase driver injury severities in rear-end crashes. The developed methodology and estimation results provide insights for developing effective countermeasures to reduce rear-end crash injury severities and improve traffic system safety performance. PMID:25888994

  4. Comparison of hydraulics and particle removal efficiencies in a mixed cell raceway and burrows pond rearing system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared the hydrodynamics of replicate experimental mixed cell and replicate standard Burrows pond rearing systems at the Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, ID, in an effort to identify methods for improved solids removal. We measured and compared the hydraulic residence time, particle removal eff...

  5. Comparison of hydraulics and particle removal efficiencies in a mixed cell raceway and Burrows pond rearing system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared the hydrodynamics of replicate experimental mixed cell and replicate standard Burrows pond rearing systems at the Dworshak National Fish Hatchery, ID, in an effort to identify methods for improved solids removal. We measured and compared the hydraulic residence time, particle removal eff...

  6. Efficient proton acceleration and focusing by an ultraintense laser interacting with a parabolic double concave target with an extended rear

    SciTech Connect

    Bake, Muhammad Ali; Xie, Bai-Song; Aimidula, Aimierding; Wang, Hong-Yu

    2013-07-15

    A new scheme for acceleration and focusing of protons via an improved parabolic double concave target irradiated by an ultraintense laser pulse is proposed. When an intense laser pulse illuminates a concave target, the hot electrons are concentrated on the focal region of the rear cavity and they form a strong space-charge-separation field, which accelerates the protons. For a simple concave target, the proton energy spectrum becomes very broad outside the rear cavity because of transverse divergence of the electromagnetic fields. However, particle-in-cell simulations show that, when the concave target has an extended rear, the hot electrons along the wall surface induce a transverse focusing sheath field, resulting in a clear enhancement of proton focusing, which makes the lower proton energy spread, while, leads to a little reduction of the proton bunch peak energy.

  7. Efficient proton acceleration and focusing by an ultraintense laser interacting with a parabolic double concave target with an extended rear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bake, Muhammad Ali; Xie, Bai-Song; Aimidula, Aimierding; Wang, Hong-Yu

    2013-07-01

    A new scheme for acceleration and focusing of protons via an improved parabolic double concave target irradiated by an ultraintense laser pulse is proposed. When an intense laser pulse illuminates a concave target, the hot electrons are concentrated on the focal region of the rear cavity and they form a strong space-charge-separation field, which accelerates the protons. For a simple concave target, the proton energy spectrum becomes very broad outside the rear cavity because of transverse divergence of the electromagnetic fields. However, particle-in-cell simulations show that, when the concave target has an extended rear, the hot electrons along the wall surface induce a transverse focusing sheath field, resulting in a clear enhancement of proton focusing, which makes the lower proton energy spread, while, leads to a little reduction of the proton bunch peak energy.

  8. Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics analysis, advanced simulation technology, and full-scale laboratory investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Michael S. Bruno

    2005-12-31

    This report summarizes the research efforts on the DOE supported research project Percussion Drilling (DE-FC26-03NT41999), which is to significantly advance the fundamental understandings of the physical mechanisms involved in combined percussion and rotary drilling, and thereby facilitate more efficient and lower cost drilling and exploration of hard-rock reservoirs. The project has been divided into multiple tasks: literature reviews, analytical and numerical modeling, full scale laboratory testing and model validation, and final report delivery. Literature reviews document the history, pros and cons, and rock failure physics of percussion drilling in oil and gas industries. Based on the current understandings, a conceptual drilling model is proposed for modeling efforts. Both analytical and numerical approaches are deployed to investigate drilling processes such as drillbit penetration with compression, rotation and percussion, rock response with stress propagation, damage accumulation and failure, and debris transportation inside the annulus after disintegrated from rock. For rock mechanics modeling, a dynamic numerical tool has been developed to describe rock damage and failure, including rock crushing by compressive bit load, rock fracturing by both shearing and tensile forces, and rock weakening by repetitive compression-tension loading. Besides multiple failure criteria, the tool also includes a damping algorithm to dissipate oscillation energy and a fatigue/damage algorithm to update rock properties during each impact. From the model, Rate of Penetration (ROP) and rock failure history can be estimated. For cuttings transport in annulus, a 3D numerical particle flowing model has been developed with aid of analytical approaches. The tool can simulate cuttings movement at particle scale under laminar or turbulent fluid flow conditions and evaluate the efficiency of cutting removal. To calibrate the modeling efforts, a series of full-scale fluid hammer

  9. The Role Biomedical Science Laboratories Can Play in Improving Science Knowledge and Promoting First-Year Nursing Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arneson, Pam

    2011-01-01

    The need for additional nursing and health care professionals is expected to increase dramatically over the next 20 years. With this in mind, students must have strong biomedical science knowledge to be competent in their field. Some studies have shown that participation in bioscience laboratories can enhance science knowledge. If this is true, an…

  10. Automatic Vacuum Flushing Technology for Combined Sewer Solids: Laboratory Testing and Proposed Improvements (WERF Report INFR7SG09)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research study included an extensive literature review on existing sewer sediment flushing technologies. An innovative vacuum flush system previously developed by the U.S. EPA was tested under laboratory conditions. The tests revealed a strong correlation between the strengt...

  11. From the Laboratory to the Field and Back Again: Morningside Academy's 32 Years of Improving Students' Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kent; Street, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Morningside Academy is a third-level scientifically driven service organization (Johnston, 1996) consisting of a laboratory school and outreach to schools and agencies throughout the United States and Canada through its partnership with Morningside Teachers' Academy. The approach blends together a number of empirically validated practices to…

  12. Changing the First-Year Chemistry Laboratory Manual to Implement a Problem-Based Approach that Improves Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laredo, Thamara

    2013-01-01

    For students who are not science majors, problem-based (PB) laboratories for first-year chemistry provide a more comprehensive experience than conventional expository ones. Implementing PB labs is reasonably easy, as the lab experiments may not need to change; what changes is the way the lab manual is set up and how the actual session is carried…

  13. MAGAZINE 242, REAR VIEW WITH MAGAZINE 243 IN BACKGROUND ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MAGAZINE 242, REAR VIEW WITH MAGAZINE 243 IN BACKGROUND ON RIGHT. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, West Loch Branch, Magazine Type 2, Fourth Place, Seventh & Eighth Streets, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. 18. POWERHOUSE FOREMAN'S BUNGALOW. VIEW FROM REAR OF ENTRANCE HALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. POWERHOUSE FOREMAN'S BUNGALOW. VIEW FROM REAR OF ENTRANCE HALL TO BEDROOMS. VIEW TO SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - Thompson Falls Hydroelectric Project, Power Foreman's Bungalow, On island between Forebay Channel & ClarkFord River, Thompson Falls, Sanders County, MT

  15. VIEW OF NORTH REAR, BUILDING 13 TO RIGHT, FACING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTH REAR, BUILDING 13 TO RIGHT, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR, FACING SOUTHWEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST SIDE AND NORTH REAR, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Wing & Fuselage Assembly Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 4. West rear and south side of building. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. West rear and south side of building. View to northeast. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, Immigration & Naturalization Service Residence, 45 feet southwest of Main Port Building, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

  18. Rear (northeast side) of gateway with building 9 on the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Rear (northeast side) of gateway with building 9 on the left and building 10 on the right - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Entrance Gateway, East Colfax Avenue & Peoria Street, Northeast Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  19. 11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior view of communications compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. 9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view of electronics compartment. View toward rear of aircraft. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  1. 3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  2. 54. POWDER MAGAZINE, VENTILATION PASSAGE ALONG REAR. NOTE STONE RUBBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. POWDER MAGAZINE, VENTILATION PASSAGE ALONG REAR. NOTE STONE RUBBLE CONSTRUCTION TO LEFT (SOUTHWEST); ENTRANCE TO A MAGAZINE TO THE RIGHT. VIEW IS NORTHWEST TO SOUTHEAST. - Fort Monroe, Fortress, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  3. 4. WEST REAR ELEVATION OF BUILDING 260 (STORAGE STRUCTURE A) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WEST REAR ELEVATION OF BUILDING 260 (STORAGE STRUCTURE A) IN STORAGE AREA. - Loring Air Force Base, Weapons Storage Area, Northeastern corner of base at northern end of Maine Road, Limestone, Aroostook County, ME

  4. Detail, rear door types, building 242, oblique view to southwest, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, rear door types, building 242, oblique view to southwest, 90 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Building, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  5. View east, showing Northwest Wing (Wing 5) and rear elevations ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east, showing Northwest Wing (Wing 5) and rear elevations of facade and tis flaking wings (Wings 1 and 2) - Hospital for Sick Children, 1731 Bunker Hill Road, Northeast, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  6. 6. VIEW OF CONNECTING WALL BETWEEN FRONT AND REAR ROOMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF CONNECTING WALL BETWEEN FRONT AND REAR ROOMS ON FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING ODDLY PROPORTIONED CLASSIC REVIVAL MANTLE IN FRONT ROOM; LOOKING WEST. - Manlius Thomas House, 125 North Mulberry Street, Georgetown, Scott County, KY

  7. 3. MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, REAR SIDE, LOOKING NORTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, REAR SIDE, LOOKING NORTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Missile Test & Assembly Building, South end of launch area, northeast of Generator Building No. 3, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  8. 6. MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, REAR AND LEFT SIDES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. MISSILE TEST AND ASSEMBLY BUILDING, REAR AND LEFT SIDES, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Missile Test & Assembly Building, South end of launch area, northeast of Generator Building No. 3, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  9. FACILITY 89. OBLIQUE OF SIDE AND REAR. VIEW FACING SOUTH. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACILITY 89. OBLIQUE OF SIDE AND REAR. VIEW FACING SOUTH. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Naval Housing Area Makalapa, Junior Officers' Quarters Type K, Makin Place, & Halawa, Makalapa, & Midway Drives, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  10. 17. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING OPEN FIVEPANELED DOOR TO REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN SHOWING OPEN FIVE-PANELED DOOR TO REAR BEDROOM AND OPEN ENTRY TO LIVING ROOM. VIEW TO EAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  11. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-6 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIRST FLOOR REAR ROOM. SECOND FLOOR HAS BEEN REMOVED-- NOTE PRESENCE OF SECOND FLOOR WINDOWS AT LEFT. See also PA-1436 B-13 - Kid-Physick House, 325 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 2. EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE OF FIRE STATION. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE OF FIRE STATION. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Fire Station, 80 feet North of December Seventh Avenue; 120 feet East of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  14. 2. D Street facade and rear (east) blank wall of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. D Street facade and rear (east) blank wall of parking garage. Farther east is 408 8th Street (National Art And Frame Company). - PMI Parking Garage, 403-407 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  15. 15. City parking lot, and rear of the commercial buildings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. City parking lot, and rear of the commercial buildings on the east side of State Street. - Lockport Historic District, Bounded by Eighth, Hamilton & Eleventh Streets & Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lockport, Will County, IL

  16. 6. VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END OF WHARF REAR FROM LANDSLIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW SHOWING NORTHEAST END OF WHARF REAR FROM LANDSLIDE - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Berthing Wharf S378, Beckoning Point, Southeast of Cowpens Street, Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. 2. BUILDING 0521, SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE. Looking to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BUILDING 0521, SOUTH REAR AND EAST SIDE. Looking to northwest from access road. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Earth Covered Bunker Types, North of Sled Track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 3. MESS HALL, REAR SIDE, LOOKING NORTH. NIKE Missile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. MESS HALL, REAR SIDE, LOOKING NORTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Mess Hall, East central portion of base, southeast of Barracks No. 2, northwest of Administration Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  19. 5. MESS HALL, RIGHT AND REAR SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. MESS HALL, RIGHT AND REAR SIDES, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Mess Hall, East central portion of base, southeast of Barracks No. 2, northwest of Administration Building, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  20. East rear, north part. Original power inlet is visible to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East rear, north part. Original power inlet is visible to the right of the current power inlet - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  1. 3. Rear (north) and east elevations of converted chicken house, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Rear (north) and east elevations of converted chicken house, with smokehouse, cooling (well) house, and residence in background - Henry E. Williams Farmstead, Converted Chicken House, East of Residence & Smokehouse, Cedar Point, Chase County, KS

  2. SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Small Arms Range System, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  3. SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH (REAR) AND EAST (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  4. WEST (SIDE) AND SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST (SIDE) AND SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Combined Arms Training Maintenance Building, Off Perimeter Road in Firearms Training Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  5. 6. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST TO REAR OF HOUSES FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. GENERAL VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST TO REAR OF HOUSES FROM SOUTH OF 432-436 SOUTH CONVENT AVE. TO OTHER SIDE OF BLOCK. - Barrio Libre, West Kennedy & West Seventeenth Streets, Meyer & Convent Avenues, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  6. View of the rear of the electrical department & boiler ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the rear of the electrical department & boiler house, behind the upper shops - Johnson Steel Street Rail Company, Electrical Department & Boiler House, 525 Central Avenue, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  7. 4. NORTH REAR, CONTROL TOWER AND CONTROL HOUSE, SHOWING INTAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH REAR, CONTROL TOWER AND CONTROL HOUSE, SHOWING INTAKE STRUCTURE TRASH RACKS BELOW. - Prado Dam, Outlet Works, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  8. East rear, northern part, looking west across the lawn near ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East rear, northern part, looking west across the lawn near the Greek theater. - San Bernardino Valley College, Classics Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  9. 7. VIEW OF CONNECTING WALL BETWEEN FRONT AND REAR ROOMS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF CONNECTING WALL BETWEEN FRONT AND REAR ROOMS OF SECOND FLOOR, SHOWING SIMPLE GREEK REVIVAL MANTLE. LOOKING WEST; TAKEN FROM FRONT ROOM. - Manlius Thomas House, 125 North Mulberry Street, Georgetown, Scott County, KY

  10. Looking Southwest to Dry and Wet Exterior Scrubbers at Rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking Southwest to Dry and Wet Exterior Scrubbers at Rear of Oxide Building - Hematite Fuel Fabrication Facility, Oxide Building & Oxide Loading Dock, 3300 State Road P, Festus, Jefferson County, MO

  11. 6. INTERIOR OF REAR SECTION OF BUILDING 431. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR OF REAR SECTION OF BUILDING 431. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Ethylene Dryer-Compressor Refrigeration Building, December Seventh Avenue & D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. 5. CLOSE UP OF FLAME DEFLECTOR, COUNTERFORT VISIBLE AT REAR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. CLOSE UP OF FLAME DEFLECTOR, COUNTERFORT VISIBLE AT REAR, VIEW TOWARDS SOUTHEAST. - Glenn L. Martin Company, Titan Missile Test Facilities, Captive Test Stand D-1, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  13. View of corredera supports and rear (southwest) of house, including ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of corredera supports and rear (southwest) of house, including attachment of rails to la casa, view towards the east - Finca Thillett, Casa, Highway 139, Kilometer 11.6, Maraguez, Ponce Municipio, PR

  14. 3. West rear and north side of building. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. West rear and north side of building. View to southeast. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, U.S. Customs Service Residence, 45 feet northwest of Main Port Building, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

  15. 4. West rear and south side of building. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. West rear and south side of building. View to northeast. - U.S. Customs Service Port of Roosville, U.S. Customs Service Residence, 45 feet northwest of Main Port Building, Eureka, Lincoln County, MT

  16. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTH SIDE OF BUILDING 477 FACING NORTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waterfront Transit Shed, Corner of Astoria Avenue & Gaffney Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BUILDING 471 FACING NORTHEAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Waterfront Transit Shed, Corner of Northampton Avenue & Simms Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. 28. Rear lot of the Adelman Block. The collapsed truss ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Rear lot of the Adelman Block. The collapsed truss roof (ca. 1932) originally sheltered an automobile sales garage - Lockport Historic District, Bounded by Eighth, Hamilton & Eleventh Streets & Illinois & Michigan Canal, Lockport, Will County, IL

  19. Contextual view including south (rear) of building 925, exercise in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view including south (rear) of building 925, exercise in foreground, and modern buildings in background. Facing northwest. - Travis Air Force Base, Building No. 925, W Street, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  20. 2. Exterior, general view of rear and end, from west. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Exterior, general view of rear and end, from west. Sept. 12, 1940. Photo by Stanly P. Mixon. - Upper Swedish Log Cabin, Darby Creek vicinity, Clifton Heights (Upper Darby Township), Darby, Delaware County, PA

  1. VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTHWEST SIDE OF BUILDING 823, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE REAR AND SOUTHWEST SIDE OF BUILDING 823, FACING NORTH - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Special Hull Treatment Plant, West corner of Third Street & Avenue G, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. 4. REAR VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 93 FACING SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. REAR VIEW OF BUILDING NO. 93 FACING SOUTHWEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Alcohol Rehabilitation Center, Nimitz Spur between Sixth Street & Naval Station North Road, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. 11. SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATION OF THE PHILADELPHIA SAVING FUND SOCIETY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. SOUTH (REAR) ELEVATION OF THE PHILADELPHIA SAVING FUND SOCIETY (PSFS) BUILDING WITH MEETING HOUSE CORNICE IN FOREGROUND. - Twelfth Street Meeting House, 20 South Twelfth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. REAR ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR ELEVATION OF MEMORIAL TO SOLDIERS WHO DIED FOR THIS COUNTRY (OBELISK), SECTION 43A, LOOKING SOUTH ALONG EAST OBELISK ROAD. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Leavenworth National Cemetery, 150 Muncie Road, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  5. BLDG F101, NORTH END AND REAR (EAST) SIDE. Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG F101, NORTH END AND REAR (EAST) SIDE. - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Ammo Rework-Overhall Building Types, Eighteenth Street & Fence Road near Hastings Street intersection, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 7. BASEMENT, REAR WALL OF FRONT HOUSE, DETAIL SHOWING MARBLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. BASEMENT, REAR WALL OF FRONT HOUSE, DETAIL SHOWING MARBLE SILL AND HEADED JAMB OF FORMER BASEMENT WINDOW. Photo by Theodore F. Dillon, August 1960 - Captain James Abercrombie House, 268-270 South Second Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. Use of four types of litter for rearing broilers.

    PubMed

    Anisuzzaman, M; Chowdhury, S D

    1996-07-01

    1. One hundred and forty four Shaver broiler chicks (Starbro 15) were reared from 4 d to 56 d of age on 4 types of litter: sawdust, paddy straw, sand and rice husk each spread to a depth of 75 mm. 2. Birds reared on rice husk litter showed the greatest food consumption, greatest weight gain, best food conversion efficiency and scored highest in production number. 3. Survivability was also highest with rice husk group (94.4%) but differences in this variable were not thought to be attributable to types of litter. 4. Breast blisters were found only in birds reared on sand (8.3%). 5. It was concluded that rice husk is a suitable litter for rearing broilers on the floor, particularly in paddy-growing countries. PMID:8842460

  8. 3. REAR VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. REAR VIEW, AUTOMATIC BLOCK SIGNAL, EASTBOUND ON CATENARY BRIDGE 486 - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  9. 4. View south of rear of filtration bed building. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View south of rear of filtration bed building. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  10. SOUTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTH. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Fire Station, Off Alabama Avenue, between Arkansas Street & Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  11. NORTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Fire Station, Off Alabama Avenue, between Arkansas Street & Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  12. OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST (REAR) AND NORTH FACADES, WITH BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAST (REAR) AND NORTH FACADES, WITH BUILDING 792 VISIBLE IN BACKGROUND RIGHT, LOOKING WEST - Eglin Air Force Base, Storehouse & Company Administration, Southeast of Flager Road, Nassau Lane, & southern edge of Weekly Bayou, Valparaiso, Okaloosa County, FL

  13. OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE WEST (REAR) AND SOUTH FACADES, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW OF THE WEST (REAR) AND SOUTH FACADES, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Eglin Air Force Base, Motor Repair Shop, Northwest of Flager Road, Chisk Lane & southern edge of Weekly Bayou, Valparaiso, Okaloosa County, FL

  14. DETAILS, EAVES AND WINDOWS OF THE EAST (REAR) FACADE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAILS, EAVES AND WINDOWS OF THE EAST (REAR) FACADE, LOOKING NORTH - Eglin Air Force Base, Storehouse & Company Administration, Southeast of Flager Road, Nassau Lane, & southern edge of Weekly Bayou, Valparaiso, Okaloosa County, FL

  15. 15. Detail, cracks evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail, cracks evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to southwest, 90mm lens. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  16. 12. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters open, northeast rear, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters open, northeast rear, view to southwest, 135mm lens. Note cracks evidencing structural failure. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  17. 13. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters closed, northeast rear, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail, typical window with fireproof shutters closed, northeast rear, view to southwest, 135mm lens. Note cracks evidencing structural failure. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  18. 14. Detail, crack evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Detail, crack evidencing structural failure, northeast rear, view to southwest, 90mm lens. Note failure of sandstone lintel above window. - Benicia Arsenal, Powder Magazine No. 5, Junction of Interstate Highways 680 & 780, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  19. 98. 181721 WEST MUHAMMAD ALI BOULEVARD, PART OF SOUTH REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. 1817-21 WEST MUHAMMAD ALI BOULEVARD, PART OF SOUTH REAR ON LEFT, TOWARD SOUTHWEST AND SOUTH NINETEENTH STREET - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  20. 75. SACRED HEART SCHOOL, 1324 ELLIS STREET SOUTH (REAR ELEVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    75. SACRED HEART SCHOOL, 1324 ELLIS STREET SOUTH (REAR ELEVATION FROM GREENE STREET 56/61A - Greene Street Historic District, Greene Street, Gordon Highway to Augusta Canal Bridge, Augusta, Richmond County, GA

  1. 20. Mill River and rear of the 1860 armory building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Mill River and rear of the 1860 armory building, c. 1930. Photocopied from a print of a film negative, NHCHSL. View from the south. - Eli Whitney Armory, West of Whitney Avenue, Armory Street Vicinity, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  2. 3. Northwest side and southwest rear of addition. View to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Northwest side and southwest rear of addition. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Aerospace Ground Equipment (AGE) Storage Facility, Far Northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. 14. VEHICLE STORAGE BUILDING NORTHWEST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VEHICLE STORAGE BUILDING NORTHWEST SIDE AND NORTHEAST REAR. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  4. 4. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING NORTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING NORTH SIDE AND EAST REAR. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  5. 21. INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. INTERIOR OF SOUTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  6. 19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUMFRAME SLIDING GLASS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST REAR BEDROOM SHOWING ALUMINUM-FRAME SLIDING GLASS WINDOWS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Bishop Creek Hydroelectric System, Plant 4, Worker Cottage, Bishop Creek, Bishop, Inyo County, CA

  7. 8. PART OF NORTH SIDE AND REAR OF FRONT (WEST) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. PART OF NORTH SIDE AND REAR OF FRONT (WEST) PORTION OF BUILDING, SHOWING CONNECTING NORTH WING, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHWEST (Harms) - Dairy Industry Building, Iowa State University campus, Ames, Story County, IA

  8. 2. REAR VIEW SHOWING SPLIT SHAKE EXTERIOR AND HEXAHEDRAL PLAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. REAR VIEW SHOWING SPLIT SHAKE EXTERIOR AND HEXAHEDRAL PLAN AND DENSE LANDSCAPE - Camp Cleawox, Adirondack Sleeping Shelter, Oregon Dunes National Recreation Area, Siuslaw National Forest, Florence, Lane County, OR

  9. View of rear of Childs Powerhosue. Rockwork on east end ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of rear of Childs Powerhosue. Rockwork on east end was recently replaced following a flood. Looking south-southwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  10. View of east and south (rear) walls, water wheels and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of east and south (rear) walls, water wheels and generators, interior of Childs Powerhouse. Looking southeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Childs Powerhouse, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  11. 4. View looking northwest, showing rear (south) elevation of blacksmith ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View looking northwest, showing rear (south) elevation of blacksmith shop/garage, lower level, and porches - Lamprey Blacksmith Shop, South side of Dover Road, 0.05 miles east of Goboro Road, Epsom, Merrimack County, NH

  12. 5. View looking northwest, showing rear (south) elevation of blacksmith ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View looking northwest, showing rear (south) elevation of blacksmith shop/garage, residential garage and house - Lamprey Blacksmith Shop, South side of Dover Road, 0.05 miles east of Goboro Road, Epsom, Merrimack County, NH

  13. VIEW OF THE REAR OF WATERSIDE MALL Southwest Washington, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF THE REAR OF WATERSIDE MALL - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. WEST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST (REAR) AND NORTH (SIDE) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO EAST. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  15. SOUTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH (SIDE) AND WEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. view TO NORTH. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Target Intelligence Training Building-Combat Center, Off Connecticut Road, east of Idaho Avenue, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  16. 3. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF REAR OF INSPECTION STATION AND RESIDENCES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF REAR OF INSPECTION STATION AND RESIDENCES, WITH COMMUNICATIONS TOWER AND PUMPHOUSE (LEFT FOREGROUND), VIEW TO SOUTHEAST - U.S. Border Inspection Station, West side of State Route 95, Eastport, Boundary County, ID

  17. 15. INSIDE THEATER PROPER. GROUND FLOOR, UNDER BALCONY, AT REAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INSIDE THEATER PROPER. GROUND FLOOR, UNDER BALCONY, AT REAR OF SEATING AREA (SOUTH END) LOOKING EAST. VIEW OF DECORATIVE CEILING COVE. - Granada Theatre, 6425-6441 North Sheridan Road, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  18. NORTHEAST (SIDE) AND NORTHWEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHEAST (SIDE) AND NORTHWEST (REAR) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTH - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Industrial Wastewater Treatment & Disposal Facility, Off LeMay Road, outside SAC Alert Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  19. Deck view, looking west from rear side of Lincoln Memorial. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Deck view, looking west from rear side of Lincoln Memorial. Hemi circle in background below Custis-Lee Mansion. - Arlington Memorial Bridge, Spanning Potomac River between Lincoln Memorial & Arlington National Cemetery, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  20. 1. Northwest end and southwest rear. View to east. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Northwest end and southwest rear. View to east. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Squadron Operations Building, At southwestern-most boundary of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE