These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Motion corrected LV quantification based on 3D modelling for improved functional assessment in cardiac MRI.  

PubMed

Cine MRI is a clinical reference standard for the quantitative assessment of cardiac function, but reproducibility is confounded by motion artefacts. We explore the feasibility of a motion corrected 3D left ventricle (LV) quantification method, incorporating multislice image registration into the 3D model reconstruction, to improve reproducibility of 3D LV functional quantification. Multi-breath-hold short-axis and radial long-axis images were acquired from 10 patients and 10 healthy subjects. The proposed framework reduced misalignment between slices to subpixel accuracy (2.88 to 1.21?mm), and improved interstudy reproducibility for 5 important clinical functional measures, i.e. end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, ejection fraction, myocardial mass and 3D-sphericity index, as reflected in a reduction in the sample size required to detect statistically significant cardiac changes: a reduction of 21-66%. Our investigation on the optimum registration parameters, including both cardiac time frames and number of long-axis (LA) slices, suggested that a single time frame is adequate for motion correction whereas integrating more LA slices can improve registration and model reconstruction accuracy for improved functional quantification especially on datasets with severe motion artefacts. PMID:25768708

Liew, Y M; McLaughlin, R A; Chan, B T; Aziz, Y F Abdul; Chee, K H; Ung, N M; Tan, L K; Lai, K W; Ng, S; Lim, E

2015-04-01

2

Motion corrected LV quantification based on 3D modelling for improved functional assessment in cardiac MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cine MRI is a clinical reference standard for the quantitative assessment of cardiac function, but reproducibility is confounded by motion artefacts. We explore the feasibility of a motion corrected 3D left ventricle (LV) quantification method, incorporating multislice image registration into the 3D model reconstruction, to improve reproducibility of 3D LV functional quantification. Multi-breath-hold short-axis and radial long-axis images were acquired from 10 patients and 10 healthy subjects. The proposed framework reduced misalignment between slices to subpixel accuracy (2.88 to 1.21?mm), and improved interstudy reproducibility for 5 important clinical functional measures, i.e. end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, ejection fraction, myocardial mass and 3D-sphericity index, as reflected in a reduction in the sample size required to detect statistically significant cardiac changes: a reduction of 21–66%. Our investigation on the optimum registration parameters, including both cardiac time frames and number of long-axis (LA) slices, suggested that a single time frame is adequate for motion correction whereas integrating more LA slices can improve registration and model reconstruction accuracy for improved functional quantification especially on datasets with severe motion artefacts.

Liew, Y. M.; McLaughlin, R. A.; Chan, B. T.; Aziz, Y. F. Abdul; Chee, K. H.; Ung, N. M.; Tan, L. K.; Lai, K. W.; Ng, S.; Lim, E.

2015-04-01

3

Magnetic resonance cardiac tagging: visualization of LV function parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) tissue tagging allows the non-invasive placement of magnetic markers into the myocardium. These tags appear as black lines and remain visible on the myocardium during the cardiac cycle. A semi-automatic segmentation tool is used to delineate the tags. A tagging analysis program calculates from these time-varying tag coordinates several LV functional parameters: e.g. radius of curvature,

P. Plets; F. Rademakers; J. Van Cleynenbreugel; J. Bogaert; P. Suetens; G. Marchal

1996-01-01

4

A Targeted Mutation within the Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) Envelope Protein Immunosuppressive Domain To Improve a Canarypox Virus-Vectored FeLV Vaccine  

PubMed Central

We previously delineated a highly conserved immunosuppressive (IS) domain within murine and primate retroviral envelope proteins that is critical for virus propagation in vivo. The envelope-mediated immunosuppression was assessed by the ability of the proteins, when expressed by allogeneic tumor cells normally rejected by engrafted mice, to allow these cells to escape, at least transiently, immune rejection. Using this approach, we identified key residues whose mutation (i) specifically abolishes immunosuppressive activity without affecting the “mechanical” function of the envelope protein and (ii) significantly enhances humoral and cellular immune responses elicited against the virus. The objective of this work was to study the immunosuppressive activity of the envelope protein (p15E) of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and evaluate the effect of its abolition on the efficacy of a vaccine against FeLV. Here we demonstrate that the FeLV envelope protein is immunosuppressive in vivo and that this immunosuppressive activity can be “switched off” by targeted mutation of a specific amino acid. As a result of the introduction of the mutated envelope sequence into a previously well characterized canarypox virus-vectored vaccine (ALVAC-FeLV), the frequency of vaccine-induced FeLV-specific gamma interferon (IFN-?)-producing cells was increased, whereas conversely, the frequency of vaccine-induced FeLV-specific interleukin-10 (IL-10)-producing cells was reduced. This shift in the IFN-?/IL-10 response was associated with a higher efficacy of ALVAC-FeLV against FeLV infection. This study demonstrates that FeLV p15E is immunosuppressive in vivo, that the immunosuppressive domain of p15E can modulate the FeLV-specific immune response, and that the efficacy of FeLV vaccines can be enhanced by inhibiting the immunosuppressive activity of the IS domain through an appropriate mutation. PMID:24198407

Schlecht-Louf, Géraldine; Mangeney, Marianne; El-Garch, Hanane; Lacombe, Valérie; Poulet, Hervé

2014-01-01

5

Left ventricular torsional dynamics post exercise for LV diastolic function assessment  

PubMed Central

Aims 2D speckle tracking echocardiography allows for assessment of left ventricular (LV) torsional deformation as a composite function of the radial, longitudinal and circumferential fibres. We test the hypothesis that post-exercise LV torsional dynamics are more sensitive markers for myocardial dysfunction than resting measures, and better predictors for exercise capacity compared to post-exercise LV diastolic filling pressure (E/e’). Methods We studied 88 patients referred for stress echocardiogram. Treadmill exercise was performed using Bruce protocol, and echo images were acquired using GE Vivid 7. LV rotational dynamics were analysed by speckle tracking method using the GE ECHOPAC software. Tertiles were defined according to exercise capacity measured by the achieved metabolic equivalents (METS) adjusted for age and gender. Comparison was made between LV torsional dynamics and E/e’ to correlate with METS to predict exercise capacity. Results Mean age of the study population was 58 years, 48% females. Patients with systolic dysfunction or evidence of ischaemia were excluded from the analysis. No significant correlation was found between METS and LV torsion measures at rest. There was statistically significant correlation between METS and post-exercise LV torsion (r=0.34, p=0.001), twist velocity increase (r=0.27, p=0.01), and incremental change in torsion (r=0.22, p<0.05). In addition, a correlation was also shown between post-exercise E/e’ and METS (r=-0.33, p=0.002). Conclusion Post-exercise LV torsional dynamics correlate with exercise capacity and may be a useful tool for assessing LV myocardial function in subjects with normal LVEF. PMID:24529199

2014-01-01

6

Development of a multifrequency conductance catheter-based system to determine LV function in mice.  

PubMed

Transgenic mice offer a valuable way to relate gene products to phenotype, but the ability to assess the cardiovascular phenotype with pressure-volume analysis has lagged. Conductance measurement offers a method to generate an instantaneous left ventricular (LV) volume signal in the mouse but has been limited by the volume signal being a combination of blood and LV muscle. We hypothesized that by developing a mouse conductance system that operates at several simultaneous frequencies, we could identify and correct for the myocardial contribution to the instantaneous volume signal. This hypothesis is based on the assumption that mouse myocardial conductivity will vary with frequency, whereas mouse blood conductivity will not. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrated that at higher excitation frequency, greater end-diastolic and end-systolic conductance are detected, as well as a smaller difference between the two. We then empirically solved for LV blood volume using two frequencies. We combined measured resistivity of mouse myocardium with an analytic approach and extracted an estimate of LV blood volume from the raw conductance signal. Development of a multifrequency catheter-based system to determine LV function could be a tool to assess cardiovascular phenotype in transgenic mice. PMID:10993809

Feldman, M D; Mao, Y; Valvano, J W; Pearce, J A; Freeman, G L

2000-09-01

7

Hypertension in heart failure patients with normal LVEF is characterized by decreased atrial ejection function and two distinct patterns of abnormal LV filling in addition to LVH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertension (HTN) is associated with LVH, abnormal LV diastolic function and congestive heart failure (CHF) often with normal systolic function. Although LV size and function has been characterized in this group, left atrial (LA) volumes and function have not been well studied. Therefore, we characterized LA volumes and function in a group of hypertensive patients (HT) with acute CHF and

Ioannis A. Stathopoulos; Icilma V. Fergus; David Scott; Debashish Roychoudry; Frank C. Messineo

2002-01-01

8

Chronic Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Infusion Sustains LV Systolic Function and Prolongs Survival in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure Prone Rat  

PubMed Central

Background GLP-1 treatment leads to short term improvements in myocardial function in ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. It is unknown whether GLP-1 improves survival when administered over a longer time period. Spontaneously hypertensive, heart failure prone rats (SHHF) progress to advanced heart failure and death over a 15 month period. We sought to determine whether a continuous infusion of GLP-1 would reduce mortality in this model. Methods and Results At 9 months of age, 50 SHHF rats were randomized to receive a 3-month continuous infusion of either GLP-1 or saline. Metabolic parameters were measured and cardiac ultrasounds performed at study initiation and completion of treatment. Surviving rats were euthanized at 12 months. Hearts were perfused in an isolated, isovolumic heart preparation and Tunel staining of myocardial samples was performed. Baseline metabolic and cardiac functional parameters were comparable. GLP-1 treated SHHF had greater survival (72% vs. 44%, p =0.008) at 12 months of age. In addition, GLP-1 treatment led to higher plasma insulin, lower plasma triglycerides, and preserved LV function. GLP-1 treated rats demonstrated decreased myocyte apoptosis by Tunel staining, as well as reduced caspase-3 activation. No increase in p-BAD expression was seen. In isolated hearts, the LV systolic pressure and developed pressure were greater in the GLP-1 group. Myocardial glucose uptake was also increased in GLP-1 treated SHHF. Conclusions Chronic GLP-1 treatment prolongs survival in obese, hypertensive SHHF. This is associated with preserved LV function and LV mass index, increased myocardial glucose uptake and reduced myocyte apoptosis. PMID:19727407

Poornima, Indu; Brown, Suzanne B.; Bhashyam, Siva; Parikh, Pratik; Bolukoglu, Hakki; Shannon, Richard P.

2009-01-01

9

Hyperinsulinemia improves ischemic LV function in insulin resistant subjects  

E-print Network

by insulin of myocardial glucose and fatty acid metabolism in the conscious dog. J Clin Invest 1984, 74:1073-1079. 34. Garland PB, Randle PJ: Regulation of glucose uptake by muscles. 10. Effects of alloxan-diabetes, starvation, hypophysectomy... metabolism and efficiency in young women. Circulation 2004, 109:2191-2196. 41. Abel ED: Myocardial insulin resistance and cardiac complications of diabetes. Curr Drug Targets Immune Endocr Metabol Disord 2005, 5:219-226. 42. Ahmed SS, Jaferi GA, Narang...

Heck, Patrick M; Hoole, Stephen P; Khan, Sadia N; Dutka, David P

2010-06-24

10

B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) and Left Ventricular (LV) Function in Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI)  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Background: After acute myocardial infarction (AMI), left ventricular (LV) function is a well-established prognostic marker. Recent studies indicate that serum levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) also represent an prognostic marker in this setting but so far without a precise cut-off value. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of BNP serum levels for LV function assessed by echocardiography in STEMI patients undergoing revascularization. Methods: We prospectively studied a cohort of 88 consecutive patients (mean age 51.6 years, 88.6% males) hospitalized in our clinic for STEMI in Killip class I (50% anterior infarction), who underwent reperfusion therapy. Serum BNP levels were measured on admission, at 24h and at 30 days after reperfusion. Detailed echocardiography was performed at baseline, at 24 hours after reperfusion, on discharge and at follow-up at 1 month. Left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction were defined by LVEF < 45% and E/A ratio respectively. Results: ROC curve analysis showed that BNP measurements on admission and at 24 hours after revascularization have no predictive value neighter for diastolic LV dysfunction in anteior or inferior AMI patients, nor for systolic LV dysfunction in inferior AMI patients. Only BNP levels at 24 hours after revascularization can predict systolic LV dysfunction in anterior AMI patients with a 90.3% sensitivity and a 60% false positive rate at a cutt off value of 90pg/ml. Conclusions: Early measurement of BNP levels may allow early prediction of anterior STEMI patients at risk of developing systolic LV dysfunction after revascularization therapy. PMID:21977165

Dorobantu, Maria; Fruntelata, Ana-Gabriela; Scafa-Udriste, Alexandru; Tautu, Oana-Florentina

2010-01-01

11

A EUKARYOTIC GENE IS FUNCTIONALLY EXPRESSED ri\\i E.COLI Kevin Struhl and Rona1d lV. Davis  

E-print Network

A EUKARYOTIC GENE IS FUNCTIONALLY EXPRESSED ri\\i E.COLI Kevin Struhl and Rona1d lV. Davis expression of this eukaryotic DNA in E. coli ap- proaches the arnount resulting frorn the analogous E.- goli gene. This cloning of such a eukaryotic gene in E. coli represents a good rnodel systern ior synthesis

12

Improvement of cardiac function by increasing stimulus strength during left ventricular pacing in cardiac resynchronization therapy.  

PubMed

Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established therapy in patients with severe heart failure due to left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony. Increasing stimulus strength (SS) of LV pacing could capture an enlarged myocardial area and provide rapid electrical conduction. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether increasing SS of LV pacing improves LV mechanical dyssynchrony and cardiac function in patients treated with CRT.We enrolled 26 patients with CRT and changed the SS of LV pacing: 2.5 V (standard SS) and 5 V (high SS). Electrocardiography and echocardiography were performed to assess QRS duration, LV mechanical dyssynchrony, and cardiac function under each condition.The QRS duration (138.6 ± 21.4 ms versus 126.8 ± 23.1 ms, P < 0.001), septal-posterior wall motion delay (126.5 ± 42.7 ms versus 111.4 ± 55.3 ms, P = 0.012), standard deviation of time from QRS (69.6 ± 21.8 ms versus 55.6 ± 19.4 ms, P < 0.001), LV ejection fraction (29.4 ± 10.6% versus 33.4 ± 11.6%, P = 0.005), and LV stroke volume (50.7 ± 15.5 mL versus 63.8 ± 18.3 mL, P < 0.001) improved significantly in high SS compared with standard SS.Increasing SS of LV pacing in CRT improves LV mechanical dyssynchrony and cardiac function. The capture of an enlarged myocardial area by increasing SS of LV pacing might offer an acute hemodynamic benefit to patients treated with CRT. PMID:25503657

Ishibashi, Kohei; Kubo, Takashi; Kitabata, Hironori; Takarada, Shigeho; Shimamura, Kunihiro; Tanimoto, Takashi; Orii, Makoto; Shiono, Yasutsugu; Yamano, Takashi; Ino, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Kumiko; Tanaka, Atsushi; Imanishi, Toshio; Akasaka, Takashi

2015-01-21

13

Rest and redistribution thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy to predict improvement in left ventricular function after coronary arterial bypass grafting  

SciTech Connect

To examine the value of rest and redistribution thallium-201 imaging in predicting improvement in left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 26 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and abnormal LV function were studied. Nineteen patients had pathologic Q waves preoperatively. Rest and redistribution thallium-201 images and radionuclide ventriculograms were obtained before and after CABG, and the thallium scintigrams were evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively. The patients were divided according to the preoperative thallium scintigrams into 2 groups: Group I (16 patients) had either normal resting thallium-201 images or reversible resting perfusion defects, and Group II (10 patients) had fixed resting perfusion defects. The resting EF was less than 50% preoperatively in all patients. Fourteen patients (54%) showed improvement in EF postoperatively. Three patients (2 in Group I and 1 in Group II) showed new postoperative perfusion defects, and none of the 3 showed improvement in LV function. Of the remaining 14 patients in Group I, 12 (86%) showed improvement in LV function, compared with 2 of 9 patients in Group II (p less than 0.01). Improvement in LV function was observed in 8 of the 19 patients (42%) with abnormal Q waves. Nitroglycerin intervention radionuclide ventriculograms were obtained in 20 patients before CABG. Of the 6 patients who showed improvement in LV function with nitroglycerin, 4 also showed improvement postoperatively. Postoperative improvement in LV function was also observed in 6 of the 14 patients who did not improve with nitroglycerin.

Iskandrian, A.S.; Hakki, A.H.; Kane, S.A.; Goel, I.P.; Mundth, E.D.; Hakki, A.H.; Segal, B.L.

1983-05-01

14

Three-dimensional CFD/MRI modeling reveals that ventricular surgical restoration improves ventricular function by modifying intraventricular blood flow.  

PubMed

Surgical ventricular restoration (SVR) is designed to normalize distorted ventricular shape and size in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and akinetic and dyskinetic segments. This study is aimed to quantify the characteristics of LV as a pump for a case before and after SVR, which is followed by coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We hypothesize that SVR+CABG improves heart flow. A patient with heart failure had magnetic resonance (MR) scans before and 4 months after SVR. LV endocardial geometries were semi-automated segmented and reconstructed using our customized algorithm. The arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation of Navier-Stokes equations was solved to derive the flow patterns and calculate pressure differences in LV. After SVR, LV ejection fraction increased from 34% to 48% in patient but was still lower than normal (70%). Second, LV vortices were stronger than pre-surgery but still weaker than normal. The maximum pressure differences between ventricular base and apex increased from 180 to 400?Pa during diastole, from 252 to 560?Pa during systole, respectively. As anticipated, SVR reduced LV volumes and augmented LV ejection fraction. Three-dimensional CFD/MRI modeling suggests that improved diastolic and systolic ventricular function after SVR is associated with changes in intraventricular blood flow. PMID:24753501

Khalafvand, S S; Zhong, L; Ng, E Y K

2014-10-01

15

Intra-Myocardial Injection of Both Growth Factors and Heart Derived Sca-1+/CD31? Cells Attenuates Post-MI LV Remodeling More Than Does Cell Transplantation Alone: Neither Intervention Enhances Functionally Significant Cardiomyocyte Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are two potent cell survival and regenerative factors in response to myocardial injury (MI). We hypothesized that simultaneous delivery of IGF+HGF combined with Sca-1+/CD31? cells would improve the outcome of transplantation therapy in response to the altered hostile microenvironment post MI. One million adenovirus nuclear LacZ-labeled Sca-1+/CD31? cells were injected into the peri-infarction area after left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) ligation in mice. Recombinant mouse IGF-1+HGF was added to the cell suspension prior to the injection. The left ventricular (LV) function was assessed by echocardiography 4 weeks after the transplantation. The cell engraftment, differentiation and cardiomyocyte regeneration were evaluated by histological analysis. Sca-1+/CD31? cells formed viable grafts and improved LV ejection fraction (EF) (Control, 54.5+/?2.4; MI, 17.6+/?3.1; Cell, 28.2+/?4.2, n?=?9, P<0.01). IGF+HGF significantly enhanced the benefits of cell transplantation as evidenced by increased EF (38.8+/?2.2; n?=?9, P<0.01) and attenuated adverse structural remodeling. Furthermore, IGF+HGF supplementation increased the cell engraftment rate, promoted the transplanted cell survival, enhanced angiogenesis, and minimally stimulated endogenous cardiomyocyte regeneration in vivo. The in vitro experiments showed that IGF+HGF treatment stimulated Sca-1+/CD31? cell proliferation and inhibited serum free medium induced apoptosis. Supperarray profiling of Sca-1+/CD31? cells revealed that Sca-1+/CD31? cells highly expressed various trophic factor mRNAs and IGF+HGF treatment altered the mRNAs expression patterns of these cells. These data indicate that IGF-1+HGF could serve as an adjuvant to cell transplantation for myocardial repair by stimulating donor cell and endogenous cardiac stem cell survival, regeneration and promoting angiogenesis. PMID:24919180

Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Qinglu; Hu, Qingsong; Suntharalingam, Piradeep; From, Arthur H. L.; Zhang, Jianyi

2014-01-01

16

Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus in children: Immediate and short-term changes in left ventricular systolic and diastolic function  

PubMed Central

Objective: To evaluate the effect of percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) on left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function in children. Background: Limited studies are available on alteration in LV hemodynamics, especially diastolic function, after PDA closure. Methods: Thirty-two consecutive children with isolated PDA treated by trans-catheter closure were studied. The LV systolic and diastolic function were assessed by two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging 1 day before the PDA closure, on day 1, and on follow-up. Results: At baseline, none of the patients had LV systolic dysfunction. On day 1 post-PDA closure, 8 (25%) children developed LV systolic dysfunction. The baseline LV ejection fraction (LVEF), LV end-systolic dimension (LVESD), and PDA diastolic gradient predicted the post-closure LVEF. Patients who developed post-closure LV systolic dysfunction had poorer LV diastolic function than those who did not. LV diastolic properties improved after PDA closure; however, the improvement in LV diastolic properties lagged behind the improvement in the LV systolic function. All children were asymptomatic and had normal LVEF on follow up of >3 months. Conclusions: Percutaneous closure of PDA is associated with the reversible LV systolic dysfunction. Improvement in the LV diastolic function lags behind that in the LV systolic function. PMID:21976873

Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Krishnamoorthy, KM; Tharakan, Jaganmohan A; Sivasankaran, S; Sanjay, G; Bijulal, S; Anees, T

2011-01-01

17

Predictors of improved left ventricular systolic function in an urban cardiomyopathy program.  

PubMed

After long-term therapy, some patients with systolic heart failure (HF) display improved left ventricular (LV) function over time, a response that is associated with improved long-term outcomes. To investigate predictors of improved LV function in an ethnically diverse HF cohort, we selected 71 patients with HF who had baseline ejection fractions (EF) <40%, follow-up EFs > or =50%, and >20% increases on follow-up echocardiography performed > or =6 months later. Their clinical features were compared with 142 age- and gender-matched control patients with baseline EFs <40% and no change or worse EFs on follow-up echocardiography. The baseline EFs were similar between patients and controls. Compared with controls, patients had a lower prevalence of diabetes mellitus (19.7% vs 36.6%, p = 0.01), a lower prevalence of an ischemic cause of disease (8.4% vs 35.2%, p <0.001), but a higher prevalence of a hypertensive cause of cardiomyopathy (29.6% vs 12%, p <0.001). Fewer patients than controls used aspirin (p = 0.04) or statins (p = 0.001) or had previous cardiac procedures (p = 0.009). In a multivariate conditional logistic regression model adjusting for age, gender, disease cause, statin use, cardiac procedures, change in heart rate, and follow-up time, hypertensive etiology was most strongly associated with improved LV function (adjusted odds ratio 9.73, 95% confidence interval 1.44 to 52.76, p = 0.02). In conclusion, patients with hypertensive causes of HF are more likely to demonstrate improved LV function over time than patients with ischemic causes of HF. Because long-term prognosis and indication for defibrillator implantation may be affected by changes in LV function, the present study provides additional support for the importance of evaluating the cause of HF to guide management. PMID:17145222

Sam, Flora; Halickman, Isaac; Vita, Joseph A; Levitzky, Yamini; Cupples, L Adrienne; Loscalzo, Joseph; Allensworth-Davies, Donald

2006-12-15

18

Relationship between early diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients, an index of elastic recoil, and improvements in systolic and diastolic function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Early diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients (IVPGs) have been proposed to relate to left ventricular (LV) elastic recoil and early ventricular "suction." Animal studies have demonstrated relationships between IVPGs and systolic and diastolic indices during acute ischemia. However, data on the effects of improvements in LV function in humans and the relationship to IVPGs are lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight patients undergoing CABG and/or infarct exclusion surgery had a triple-sensor high-fidelity catheter placed across the mitral valve intraoperatively for simultaneous recording of left atrial (LA), basal LV, and apical LV pressures. Hemodynamic data obtained before bypass were compared with those with similar LA pressures and heart rates obtained after bypass. From each LV waveform, the time constant of LV relaxation (tau), +dP/dt(max), and -dP/dt(max) were determined. Transesophageal echocardiography was used to determined end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes and ejection fractions (EF). At similar LA pressures and heart rates, IVPG increased after bypass (before bypass 1.64+/-0.79 mm Hg; after bypass 2.67+/-1.25 mm Hg; P<0.01). Significant improvements were observed in ESV, as well as in apical and basal +dP/dt(max), -dP/dt(max), and tau (each P<0.05). Overall, IVPGs correlated inversely with both ESV (IVPG=-0.027[ESV]+3.46, r=-0.64) and EDV (IVPG=-0.027[EDV]+4.30, r=-0.70). Improvements in IVPGs correlated with improvements in apical tau (Deltatau =5.93[DeltaIVPG]+4.76, r=0.91) and basal tau (Deltatau =2.41[DeltaIVPG]+5.13, r=-0.67). Relative changes in IVPGs correlated with changes in ESV (DeltaESV=-0.97[%DeltaIVPG]+23.34, r=-0.79), EDV (DeltaEDV=-1.16[%DeltaIVPG]+34.92, r=-0.84), and EF (DeltaEF=0.38[%DeltaIVPG]-8.39, r=0.85). CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in LV function also increase IVPGs. These changes in IVPGs, suggestive of increases in LV suction and elastic recoil, correlate directly with improvements in LV relaxation and ESV.

Firstenberg, M. S.; Smedira, N. G.; Greenberg, N. L.; Prior, D. L.; McCarthy, P. M.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.

2001-01-01

19

Enhanced external counterpulsation improves endothelial function and exercise capacity in patients with ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction.  

PubMed

Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) therapy decreases angina episodes and improves quality of life in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (LVD). However, studies have not elucidated the mechanisms of action and overall effects of EECP in patients with LVD. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of EECP on endothelial function in peripheral conduit arteries and exercise capacity (peak Vo2 ) in patients with LVD. Patients with ischaemic LVD (ejection fraction (EF) 34.5 ± 4.2%; n = 9) and patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) and preserved LV function (EF 53.5 ± 6.6%; n = 15) were studied before and after 35 sessions (1 h) of EECP. Brachial and femoral artery flow-mediated dilation (bFMD and fFMD, respectively) were evaluated using high-resolution ultrasound. Enhanced external counterpulsation elicited similar significant improvements in the following FMD parameters in the CAD and LVD groups (P ? 0.05 between groups for all): absolute bFMD (+53% and +70%, respectively), relative bFMD (+50% and +74%, respectively), bFMD normalized for shear rate (+70% and +61%, respectively), absolute fFMD (+33% and +21%, respectively) and relative fFMD (+32% and +17%, respectively). In addition, EECP significantly improved plasma levels of nitrate/nitrite (+55% and +28%) and prostacyclin (+50% and +70%), as well as peak Vo2 (+36% and +21%), similarly in both the CAD and LVD groups (P ? 0.05 between groups for all). Despite reduced LV function, EECP therapy significantly improves peripheral vascular function and functional capacity in CAD patients with ischaemic LVD to a similar degree to that seen in CAD patients with preserved LV function. PMID:24862172

Beck, Darren T; Martin, Jeffrey S; Casey, Darren P; Avery, Joseph C; Sardina, Paloma D; Braith, Randy W

2014-09-01

20

Nicorandil improves myocardial function by regulating plasma nitric oxide and endothelin-1 in coronary slow flow  

PubMed Central

Background Coronary slow flow (CSF) is a special coronary microvascular disorder. The pathogenesis and effective therapeutics of CSF remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the global and regional functions of the left ventricle (LV) and investigate the efficacy of nicorandil in patients with CSF. Patients and methods Thirty-six patients with CSF in the left anterior descending (LAD) branch and 20 patients with normal coronary arteries were included. Global and regional functions of the LV supplied by LAD were measured using conventional Doppler echocardiography and two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, respectively, within 24?h after coronary angiography. Concentrations of plasma nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were detected using colorimetry and radioimmunoassay, respectively. The function of the LV and the levels of NO and ET-1 were also investigated before and 90 days after treatment with 15?mg/day of nicorandil. Results Compared with the control group, the early diastolic peak velocity (E), E/A ratio, and plasma NO levels were lower, whereas the late diastolic peak flow velocity (A) and plasma ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the CSF group (P<0.05). The longitudinal strain rate peak of the LV was reduced significantly in CSF patients (P<0.001). After treatment, 75% (27/36) of CSF patients were free of chest pain. The values of E peak, E/A ratio, longitudinal strain rate peak, and plasma NO level were increased (P<0.001), whereas the ET-1 level was decreased in CSF patients (P<0.001). Conclusion Nicorandil may improve chest pain symptoms and the impaired function of the LV, possibly by increasing plasma NO and reducing ET-1 in CSF. PMID:25325437

Chen, Xiuhua; Li, Shan; Huo, Xuezhen; Fu, Xiuxiu; Dong, Xiaonan

2015-01-01

21

IMPROVING CARDIAC FUNCTION WITH NEW GENERATION PLASMA VOLUME EXPANDERS  

PubMed Central

Background Plasma expander (PE) based on polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugated to albumin has shown positive results maintaining blood volume (BV) during hemodilution and restoring BV during resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock. PEG conjugation to human serum albumin (HSA), PEG-HSA, increasing size, weigh and colloidal osmotic pressure (COP), with minor effects on solution viscosity. Methods This study was designed to test the hypothesis that PEG-HSA (2 g/dL) produced by direct PEGylation chemistry improves cardiac function during two experimental models, i) moderate hemodilution and ii) resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock, compared to a conventional colloidal plasma expander (dextran 70 kDa, D×70, 6 g/dL). Cardiac function was studied using a miniaturized pressure volume (PV) conductance catheter implanted in the left ventricle (LV) and evaluated in terms of cardiac indices derived from the PV measurements. Results PEG-HSA increased cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV) and stroke work (SW), and decreased systemic vascular resistance (SVR) compared to D×70, in both experimental models. The improvements induced by PEG-HSA in cardiac function were sustained over the observation time. PEG-HSA cardiac mechanoenergetics changes are the result of increased energy transferred per stroke, and decreased resistance of the vasculature connecting the heart. In summary, PEG-HSA decreased LV ejection impedance. Conclusion Ejection of blood diluted with PEG-HSA presented a reduced load to the heart, increased contractile function, and lowered the energy consumed per unit volume compared to D×70. Our results emphasize the importance of heart function as a parameter to be included in the evaluation changes induced by new PEs. PMID:22867830

Chatpun, Surapong; Nacharaju, Parimala; Cabrales, Pedro

2012-01-01

22

Utility of NT-proBNP for Identifying LV Failure in Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis  

PubMed Central

Background NT-proBNP has been widely regarded as a useful tool for diagnosis or exclusion of heart failure (HF) in many settings. However, in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB), its roles have not been well described. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of NT-proBNP for identifying left ventricular (LV) failure in such patients. Methods and Results 311 AECB patients and 102 stable chronic bronchitis patients with no history of HF were enrolled. Plasma NT-proBNP concentrations were measured using Roche Elecsys. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) diagnostic principles were adopted to identify HF and the diagnostic performance of NT-proBNP was evaluated by ROC. Our results showed, the median NT-proBNP level in patients with LV failure [4828.4 (2044.4–9203.6) ng/L] was significantly higher than that in those without LV failure [519.2 (179.1–1409.8) ng/L, p<0.001] and stable controls [207.5 (186.5–318.2) ng/L, p<0.001]. LV failure, renal function, atrial fibrillation and systolic pulmonary artery pressure were independent predictors of NT-proBNP levels (all p<0.05). The area under ROC curve (AUC) of NT-proBNP for identifying LV failure was 0.884, significantly superior to clinical judgment alone (AUC 0.835, p?=?0.0294). At the optimal cutoff value of 935.0 ng/L, NT-proBNP yielded sensitivity 94.4%, specificity 68.2%, accuracy 74.3% and negative predictive value 97.6%. Adding the results of NT-proBNP to those of clinical judgment improved the diagnostic accuracy for LV failure. Conclusion As a tool for diagnosis or exclusion of HF, NT-proBNP can help physicians identify LV failure in patients with AECB. PMID:23341901

Wang, Xue-dong; Gu, Juan; Wen, Li-min; Mao, Li-ming; Shan, Ping-nan; Tang, Ai-guo

2013-01-01

23

ENHANCED EXTERNAL COUNTERPULSATION IMPROVES ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION AND EXERCISE CAPACITY IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC LEFT VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION  

PubMed Central

Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) therapy decreases angina episodes and improves quality of life in patients with left ventricular dysfunction (LVD). However, studies have not elucidated the mechanisms of action and overall effects of EECP in patients with LVD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of EECP on endothelial function in peripheral conduit arteries and exercise capacity (peak VO2) in patients with LVD. Patients with ischemic LVD (EF 34.5±4.2%; n=9), and patients with symptomatic CAD and preserved LV function (EF 53.5±6.6%; n=15), were studied before and after 35 1-hr sessions of EECP. Brachial (bFMD) and femoral (fFMD) artery flow-mediated dilation were evaluated using high-resolution ultrasound. EECP elicited similar significant improvements in the following FMD parameters amongst the CAD and LVD groups, respectively: absolute bFMD (+53% and +70%); relative bFMD (+50% and +74 %); bFMD normalized for shear rate (+70% and +61%); absolute fFMD (+33% and +21%); and relative fFMD (+32% and +17%) (P?0.05 between groups). EECP significantly improved plasma levels of nitrate/nitrite (NOx) (+55% and +28%; ?mol/L) and prostacyclin (6-keto-PGF1?) (+50% and +70%); and improved peak VO2 (+36% and +21%), similarly in both the CAD and LVD groups, respectively; (P?0.05 between groups). Despite reduced LV function, EECP therapy significantly improved peripheral vascular function and functional capacity similar in magnitude to that observed in CAD patients with preserved LV function. PMID:24862172

Beck, DT; Martin, JS; Casey, DP; Avery, JC; Sardina, PD; Braith, RW

2014-01-01

24

Right ventricular pacing improves right heart function in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension: a study in the isolated heart.  

PubMed

Right heart failure in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH) is associated with mechanical ventricular dyssynchrony, which leads to impaired right ventricular (RV) function and, by adverse diastolic interaction, to impaired left ventricular (LV) function as well. However, therapies aiming to restore synchrony by pacing are currently not available. In this proof-of-principle study, we determined the acute effects of RV pacing on ventricular dyssynchrony in PH. Chronic PH with right heart failure was induced in rats by injection of monocrotaline (80 mg/kg). To validate for PH-related ventricular dyssynchrony, rats (6 PH, 6 controls) were examined by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (9.4 T), 23 days after monocrotaline or sham injection. In a second group (10 PH, 4 controls), the effects of RV pacing were studied in detail, using Langendorff-perfused heart preparations. In PH, septum bulging was observed, coinciding with a reversal of the transseptal pressure gradient, as observed in clinical PH. RV pacing improved RV systolic function, compared with unpaced condition (maximal first derivative of RV pressure: +8.5 + or - 1.3%, P < 0.001). In addition, RV pacing markedly decreased the pressure-time integral of the transseptal pressure gradient when RV pressure exceeds LV pressure, an index of adverse diastolic interaction (-24 + or - 9%, P < 0.01), and RV pacing was able to resynchronize time of RV and LV peak pressure (unpaced: 9.8 + or - 1.2 ms vs. paced: 1.7 + or - 2.0 ms, P < 0.001). Finally, RV pacing had no detrimental effects on LV function or coronary perfusion, and no LV preexcitation occurred. Taken together, we demonstrate that, in experimental PH, RV pacing improves RV function and diminishes adverse diastolic interaction. These findings provide a strong rationale for further in vivo explorations. PMID:19734361

Handoko, M Louis; Lamberts, Regis R; Redout, Everaldo M; de Man, Frances S; Boer, Christa; Simonides, Warner S; Paulus, Walter J; Westerhof, Nico; Allaart, Cornelis P; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton

2009-11-01

25

Olfactory function improves following hemodialysis.  

PubMed

Olfactory function has been shown to be affected in chronic kidney disease; however, studies are contradictory and little is known on the effects of dialysis. To resolve these issues we tested olfactory function in 24 healthy controls and in 28 patients with chronic kidney disease receiving hemodialysis (20 patients) or peritoneal dialysis (the other 8). As assays for olfactory function we measured smell identification, n-butanol and acetic acid thresholds, Kt/V urea, percentage reduced urea, and weights before and after dialysis. Olfactory function was also self-rated by the participants. Compared to healthy controls, predialysis olfactory function was moderately but significantly decreased in the two dialysis groups, with hemodialysis patients being more affected. Patients self-rated olfactory function similar to that of healthy controls, suggesting that patients are unaware of the olfactory decrease. Olfactory function was significantly improved by one hemodialysis session. Neither body mass index, total volume loss, nor any other dialysis parameter correlated with olfactory function or its restitution following hemodialysis. The observed pattern of improvement suggests underlying mixed peripheral and central mechanisms. Thus, olfactory dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease is readily reversible by hemodialysis. PMID:21697812

Landis, Basile N; Marangon, Nicola; Saudan, Patrick; Hugentobler, Marianne; Giger, Roland; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Lacroix, Jean-Silvain

2011-10-01

26

Effect of coronary artery bypass grafting on left ventricular systolic function at rest: evidence for preoperative subclinical myocardial ischemia  

SciTech Connect

Successful coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) improves exercise-induced left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), but its potential for improving resting LV function remains controversial. To assess the influence of CABG on LV function at rest, 31 CAD patients without previous myocardial infarction were studied before and 6 months after CABG by radionuclide angiography after all cardiac medicines were withdrawn. No patient had angina or ischemic electrocardiographic changes at rest. In 27 patients with patent bypass grafts, CABG significantly increased LV ejection fraction during exercise (47 +/- 11% before to 63 +/- 9% after operation, p less than 0.001), indicating reduction in exercise-induced LV ischemia. Moreover, LV ejection fraction at rest also increased (55 +/- 9 to 60 +/- 8%, p less than 0.001), with 20 of 27 patients manifesting an increase compared with preoperative values. Eleven of these 20 patients had apparently normal LV function at rest (ejection fraction and regional wall motion) before CABG. LV regional ejection fraction was computed by dividing the LV region of interest into 20 sectors. Regional analysis indicated that improved ejection fraction at rest after CABG occurred in regions developing ischemia during exercise before CABG. In 4 patients with occluded grafts, the ejection fraction at rest was unchanged by CABG globally (59 +/- 8 to 58 +/- 9%, difference not significant) and regionally. Thus, LV global and regional function at rest improved after successful CABG, even in patients with normal global LV ejection fraction and no visually detectable wall motion abnormality before surgery.

Dilsizian, V.; Bonow, R.O.; Cannon, R.O. 3d.; Tracy, C.M.; Vitale, D.F.; McIntosh, C.L.; Clark, R.E.; Bacharach, S.L.; Green, M.V.

1988-06-01

27

Improvement in pump function with endocardial biventricular pacing increases with activation time at the left ventricular pacing site in failing canine hearts  

PubMed Central

Recently, attention has been focused on comparing left ventricular (LV) endocardial (ENDO) with epicardial (EPI) pacing for cardiac resynchronization therapy. However, the effects of ENDO and EPI lead placement at multiple sites have not been studied in failing hearts. We hypothesized that differences in the improvement of ventricular function due to ENDO vs. EPI pacing in dyssynchronous (DYSS) heart failure may depend on the position of the LV lead in relation to the original activation pattern. In six nonfailing and six failing dogs, electrical DYSS was created by atrioventricular sequential pacing of the right ventricular apex. ENDO was compared with EPI biventricular pacing at five LV sites. In failing hearts, increases in the maximum rate of LV pressure change (dP/dt; r = 0.64), ejection fraction (r = 0.49), and minimum dP/dt (r = 0.51), relative to DYSS, were positively correlated (P < 0.01) with activation time at the LV pacing site during ENDO but not EPI pacing. ENDO pacing at sites with longer activation delays led to greater improvements in hemodynamic parameters and was associated with an overall reduction in electrical DYSS compared with EPI pacing (P < 0.05). These findings were qualitatively similar for nonfailing hearts. Improvement in hemodynamic function increased with activation time at the LV pacing site during ENDO but not EPI pacing. At the anterolateral wall, end-systolic transmural function was greater with local ENDO compared with EPI pacing. ENDO pacing and intrinsic activation delay may have important implications for management of DYSS heart failure. PMID:21784986

Howard, Elliot J.; Covell, James W.; Mulligan, Lawrence J.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Kerckhoffs, Roy C. P.

2011-01-01

28

LvDJ-1 plays an important role in resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

DJ-1 was first identified as an oncogene that transformed mouse NIH3T3 cells in cooperation with activated Ras. It has since exhibited a variety of functions in a range of organisms. In this study, the DJ-1 gene in Litopenaeus vannamei (LvDJ-1) was identified and characterized. A recombinant protein LvDJ-1 was produced in Pichia pastoris. LvDJ-1 expression in vivo was knocked down by dsRNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi), which led to significantly decreased levels of LvDJ-1 mRNA and protein. When the L. vannamei were challenged with RNAi and Vibrio alginolyticus, the transcription and expression of copper zinc superoxide dismutase (LvCZSOD) in the hepatopancreas were dramatically lower in shrimp with knocked down LvDJ-1 than in controls. Transcription and expression of P53 (LvP53) were significantly higher in shrimp lacking LvDJ-1 than in controls. Hepatopancreas samples were analyzed using real time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Moreover, blood samples from the shrimp, assessed with flow cytometry, showed significant increases in respiratory burst and apoptosis in those lacking LvDJ-1 compared to the controls. Cumulative mortality in the shrimp lacking LvDJ-1 was significantly different from that in the control group after challenge with V. alginolyticus. Altogether, the results prove that LvDJ-1 regulates apoptosis and antioxidant activity, and that these functions play an important role in L. vannamei resistance against V. alginolyticus. PMID:25703712

Huang, Mingzhu; Liu, Yuan; Xie, Chenying; Wang, Wei-Na

2015-05-01

29

LV software support for supersonic flow analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During 1991, the software developed allowed an operator to configure and checkout the TSI, Inc. laser velocimeter (LV) system prior to a run. This setup procedure established the operating conditions for the TSI MI-990 multichannel interface and the RMR-1989 rotating machinery resolver. In addition to initializing the instruments, the software package provides a means of specifying LV calibration constants, controlling the sampling process, and identifying the test parameters.

Bell, William A.

1991-01-01

30

Prediction of Improvement of Contractile Function in Patients With Ischemic Ventricular Dysfunction After Revascularization by Fluorine18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. We evaluated the use of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to predict improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after revascularization.Background. FDG SPECT has recently been proposed for assessment of myocardial viability. However, FDG SPECT still awaits validation in terms of predicting improvement of contractile function after revascularization in patients with poor left ventricular (LV)

Jeroen J. Bax; Jan H. Cornel; Frans C. Visser; Paolo M. Fioretti; Arthur van Lingen; Johannes M. Huitink; Otto Kamp; Francisca Nijland; Jos R. T. C. Roelandt; Cees A. Visser

1997-01-01

31

Olfactory function improves following hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Olfactory function has been shown to be affected in chronic kidney disease; however, studies are contradictory and little is known on the effects of dialysis. To resolve these issues we tested olfactory function in 24 healthy controls and in 28 patients with chronic kidney disease receiving hemodialysis (20 patients) or peritoneal dialysis (the other 8). As assays for olfactory function

Basile N Landis; Nicola Marangon; Patrick Saudan; Marianne Hugentobler; Roland Giger; Pierre-Yves Martin; Jean-Silvain Lacroix

2011-01-01

32

Early and late improvement of global and regional left ventricular function after transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients with severe aortic stenosis: an echocardiographic study  

PubMed Central

The recent development of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for severe aortic stenosis (AS) treatment offers a viable option for high-risk patient categories. Our aim is to evaluate whether 2D strain and strain rate can detect subtle improvement in global and regional LV systolic function immediately after TAVI. 2D conventional and 2D strain (speckle analysis) echocardiography was performed before, at discharge and after three months in thirty three patients with severe AS. After TAVI, we assessed by conventional echocardiography an immediate reduction of transaortic peak pressure gradient (p<0.0001), of mean pressure gradient (p<0.0001) and a concomitant increase in aortic valve area (AVA: 1.08±0.31 cm2/m2; p<0.0001). 2D longitudinal systolic strain showed a significant improvement in all patients, both at septal and lateral level, as early as 72 h after procedure (septal: -14.2±5.1 vs -16.7±3.7%, p<0.001; lateral: -9.4±3.9 vs -13.1±4.5%, p<0.001; respectively) and continued at 3 months follow-up (septal: -18.1±4.6%, p<0.0001; lateral: -14.8±4.4%, p<0.0001; respectively). Conventional echocardiography after TAVI proved a significant reduction of LV end-systolic volume and of LV mass with a mild improvement of LV ejection fraction (EF) (51.2±11.8 vs 52.9±6.4%; p<0.02) only after three months. 2D strain seems to be able to detect subtle changes in LV systolic function occurring early and late after TAVI in severe AS, while all conventional echo parameters seem to be less effective for this purpose. Further investigations are needed to prove the real prognostic impact of these echocardiographic findings. PMID:22254204

Giannini, Cristina; Petronio, Anna Sonia; Talini, Enrica; De Carlo, Marco; Guarracino, Fabio; Grazia, Maria; Donne, Delle; Nardi, Carmela; Conte, Lorenzo; Barletta, Valentina; Marzilli, Mario; Di Bello, Vitantonio

2011-01-01

33

Early and late improvement of global and regional left ventricular function after transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients with severe aortic stenosis: an echocardiographic study.  

PubMed

The recent development of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for severe aortic stenosis (AS) treatment offers a viable option for high-risk patient categories. Our aim is to evaluate whether 2D strain and strain rate can detect subtle improvement in global and regional LV systolic function immediately after TAVI. 2D conventional and 2D strain (speckle analysis) echocardiography was performed before, at discharge and after three months in thirty three patients with severe AS. After TAVI, we assessed by conventional echocardiography an immediate reduction of transaortic peak pressure gradient (p<0.0001), of mean pressure gradient (p<0.0001) and a concomitant increase in aortic valve area (AVA: 1.08±0.31 cm(2)/m(2); p<0.0001). 2D longitudinal systolic strain showed a significant improvement in all patients, both at septal and lateral level, as early as 72 h after procedure (septal: -14.2±5.1 vs -16.7±3.7%, p<0.001; lateral: -9.4±3.9 vs -13.1±4.5%, p<0.001; respectively) and continued at 3 months follow-up (septal: -18.1±4.6%, p<0.0001; lateral: -14.8±4.4%, p<0.0001; respectively). Conventional echocardiography after TAVI proved a significant reduction of LV end-systolic volume and of LV mass with a mild improvement of LV ejection fraction (EF) (51.2±11.8 vs 52.9±6.4%; p<0.02) only after three months. 2D strain seems to be able to detect subtle changes in LV systolic function occurring early and late after TAVI in severe AS, while all conventional echo parameters seem to be less effective for this purpose. Further investigations are needed to prove the real prognostic impact of these echocardiographic findings. PMID:22254204

Giannini, Cristina; Petronio, Anna Sonia; Talini, Enrica; De Carlo, Marco; Guarracino, Fabio; Grazia, Maria; Donne, Delle; Nardi, Carmela; Conte, Lorenzo; Barletta, Valentina; Marzilli, Mario; Di Bello, Vitantonio

2011-01-01

34

Left Ventricle: Fully Automated Segmentation Based on Spatiotemporal Continuity and Myocardium Information in Cine Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (LV-FAST)  

PubMed Central

CMR quantification of LV chamber volumes typically and manually defines the basal-most LV, which adds processing time and user-dependence. This study developed an LV segmentation method that is fully automated based on the spatiotemporal continuity of the LV (LV-FAST). An iteratively decreasing threshold region growing approach was used first from the midventricle to the apex, until the LV area and shape discontinued, and then from midventricle to the base, until less than 50% of the myocardium circumference was observable. Region growth was constrained by LV spatiotemporal continuity to improve robustness of apical and basal segmentations. The LV-FAST method was compared with manual tracing on cardiac cine MRI data of 45 consecutive patients. Of the 45 patients, LV-FAST and manual selection identified the same apical slices at both ED and ES and the same basal slices at both ED and ES in 38, 38, 38, and 41 cases, respectively, and their measurements agreed within ?1.6 ± 8.7?mL, ?1.4 ± 7.8?mL, and 1.0 ± 5.8% for EDV, ESV, and EF, respectively. LV-FAST allowed LV volume-time course quantitatively measured within 3 seconds on a standard desktop computer, which is fast and accurate for processing the cine volumetric cardiac MRI data, and enables LV filling course quantification over the cardiac cycle. PMID:25738153

Wang, Lijia; Pei, Mengchao; Codella, Noel C. F.; Kochar, Minisha; Weinsaft, Jonathan W.; Li, Jianqi; Prince, Martin R.

2015-01-01

35

Cardiac Resynchronization Induces Major Structural and Functional Reverse Remodeling in Patients With New York  

E-print Network

failure cardiac resynchronization therapy echocardiography Doppler echocardiography ventricular remodelingCardiac Resynchronization Induces Major Structural and Functional Reverse Remodeling in Patients) Study Group Background--Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves LV structure, function

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

36

Cardiomyogenic differentiation-independent improvement of cardiac function by human cardiomyocyte progenitor cell injection in ischaemic mouse hearts  

PubMed Central

Abstract We previously showed that human cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (hCMPCs) injected after myocardial infarction (MI) had differentiated into cardiomyocytes in vivo 3 months after MI. Here, we investigated the short-term (2 weeks) effects of hCMPCs on the infarcted mouse myocardium. MI was induced in immunocompromised (NOD/scid) mice, immediately followed by intramyocardial injection of hCMPCs labelled with enhanced green fluorescent protein (hCMPC group) or vehicle only (control group). Sham-operated mice served as reference. Cardiac performance was measured 2 and 14 days after MI by magnetic resonance imaging at 9.4 T. Left ventricular (LV) pressure–volume measurements were performed at day 15 followed by extensive immunohistological analysis. Animals injected with hCMPCs demonstrated a higher LV ejection fraction, lower LV end-systolic volume and smaller relaxation time constant than control animals 14 days after MI. hCMPCs engrafted in the infarcted myocardium, did not differentiate into cardiomyocytes, but increased vascular density and proliferation rate in the infarcted and border zone area of the hCMPC group. Injected hCMPCs engraft into murine infarcted myocardium where they improve LV systolic function and attenuate the ventricular remodelling process 2 weeks after MI. Since no cardiac differentiation of hCMPCs was evident after 2 weeks, the observed beneficial effects were most likely mediated by paracrine factors, targeting amongst others vascular homeostasis. These results demonstrate that hCMPCs can be applied to repair infarcted myocardium without the need to undergo differentiation into cardiomyocytes. PMID:22003890

den Haan, Melina C; Grauss, Robert W; Smits, Anke M; Winter, Elizabeth M; van Tuyn, John; Pijnappels, Daniël A; Steendijk, Paul; Gittenberger-De Groot, Adriana C; van der Laarse, Arnoud; Fibbe, Willem E; de Vries, Antoine A F; Schalij, Martin J; Doevendans, Pieter A; Goumans, Marie-José; Atsma, Douwe E

2012-01-01

37

Long-term functional improvement and gene expression changes after bone marrow-derived multipotent progenitor cell transplantation in myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

The study examined the long-term outcome of cardiac stem cell transplantation in hearts with postinfarction left ventricular (LV) remodeling. Myocardial infarction (MI) was created by ligating the first and second diagonal branches of the left anterior descending coronary artery in miniature swines. Intramyocardial injections of 50 million LacZ-labeled bone marrow-derived multipotent progenitor cells (MPC) were performed in the periscar region (Cell, n = 7) immediately after MI, whereas, in control animals (Cont, n = 7), saline was injected. Functional outcome was assessed monthly for 4 mo with MRI and 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Engraftment was studied on histology, and gene chip (Affymetrix) array analysis was used to study differential expression of genes in the two groups. MPC treatment resulted in improvement of ejection fraction as early as 10 days after MI (Cell, 43.4 ± 5.1% vs. Cont, 32.2 ± 5.5%; P < 0.05). This improvement was seen each month and persisted to 4 mo (Cell, 51.2 ± 4.8% vs. Cont, 35.7 ± 5.0%; P < 0.05). PCr-to-ATP ratio (PCr/ATP) improved with MPC transplantation, which was most pronounced at high cardiac work states (subendocardial PCr/ATP was 1.70 ± 0.10 vs. 1.34 ± 0.14, P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in scar size (scar/LV area ? 100) at 10 days postinfarction. However, at 4 mo, there was a significant decrease in scar size in the Cell group (Cell, 4.6 ± 1.0% vs. Cont, 8.6 ± 2.4%; P < 0.05). No significant engraftment of MPC was observed. MPC transplantation was associated with a downregulation of mitochondrial oxidative enzymes and increased levels of myocyte enhancer factor 2a and zinc finger protein 91. In conclusion, MPC transplantation leads to long-term functional and bioenergetic improvement in a porcine model of postinfarction LV remodeling, despite no significant engraftment of stem cells in the heart. MPC transplantation reduces regional wall stresses and infarct size and mitigates the adverse effects of LV remodeling, as seen by a reduction in LV hypertrophy and LV dilatation, and is associated with differential expression of genes relating to metabolism and apoptosis. PMID:20173039

Jameel, Mohammad Nurulqadr; Li, Qinglu; Mansoor, Abdul; Qiang, Xiong; Sarver, Aaron; Wang, Xiaohong; Swingen, Cory

2010-01-01

38

The complete nucleotide sequence and genomic organization of Citrus Leprosis associated Virus, Cytoplasmatic type (CiLV-C).  

PubMed

The Citrus leprosis disease (CiL) is associated to a virus (CiLV) transmitted by Brevipalpus spp. mites (Acari: Tenuipalpidae). CiL is endemic in Brazil and its recently spreading to Central America represents a threat to citrus industry in the USA. Electron microscopy images show two forms of CiLV: a rare nuclear form, characterized by rod-shaped naked particle (CiLV-N) and a common cytoplasmic form (CiLV-C) associated with bacilliform-enveloped particle and cytoplasmic viroplasm. Due to this morphological feature, CiLV-C has been treated as Rhabdovirus-like. In this paper we present the complete nucleotide sequence and genomic organization of CiLV-C. It is a bipartite virus with sequence similarity to ssRNA positive plant virus. RNA1 encodes a putative replicase polyprotein and an ORF with no known function. RNA2 encodes 4 ORFs. pl5, p24 and p61 have no significant similarity to any known proteins and p32 encodes a protein with similarity to a viral movement protein. The CiLV-C sequences are associated with typical symptoms of CiL by RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that CiLV-C is probably a member of a new family of plant virus evolutionarily related to Tobamovirus. PMID:16732481

Pascon, Renata C; Kitajima, João Paulo; Breton, Michèle C; Assumpção, Laura; Greggio, Christian; Zanca, Almir S; Okura, Vagner Katsumi; Alegria, Marcos C; Camargo, Maria E; Silva, Giovana G C; Cardozo, Jussara C; Vallim, Marcelo A; Franco, Sulamita F; Silva, Vitor H; Jordão, Hamilton; Oliveira, Fernanda; Giachetto, Poliana F; Ferrari, Fernanda; Aguilar-Vildoso, Carlos I; Franchiscini, Fabrício J B; Silva, José M F; Arruda, Paulo; Ferro, Jesus A; Reinach, Fernando; da Silva, Ana Cláudia Rasera

2006-06-01

39

Topology improves phylogenetic motif functional site predictions.  

PubMed

Prediction of protein functional sites from sequence-derived data remains an open bioinformatics problem. We have developed a phylogenetic motif (PM) functional site prediction approach that identifies functional sites from alignment fragments that parallel the evolutionary patterns of the family. In our approach, PMs are identified by comparing tree topologies of each alignment fragment to that of the complete phylogeny. Herein, we bypass the phylogenetic reconstruction step and identify PMs directly from distance matrix comparisons. In order to optimize the new algorithm, we consider three different distance matrices and 13 different matrix similarity scores. We assess the performance of the various approaches on a structurally nonredundant data set that includes three types of functional site definitions. Without exception, the predictive power of the original approach outperforms the distance matrix variants. While the distance matrix methods fail to improve upon the original approach, our results are important because they clearly demonstrate that the improved predictive power is based on the topological comparisons. Meaning that phylogenetic trees are a straightforward, yet powerful way to improve functional site prediction accuracy. While complementary studies have shown that topology improves predictions of protein-protein interactions, this report represents the first demonstration that trees improve functional site predictions as well. PMID:21071810

Kc, Dukka B; Livesay, Dennis R

2011-01-01

40

Chronic vagus nerve stimulation improves left ventricular function in a canine model of chronic mitral regurgitation.  

PubMed

BackgroundAutonomic dysfunction, characterized by sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal, contributes to the progression of heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that chronic vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) could prevent left ventricular (LV) remodeling and dysfunction in a canine HF model induced by chronic mitral regurgitation (MR).Methods and resultsAfter the MR inducing procedure, 12 survived canines were randomly divided into the control (n¿=¿6) and the VNS (n¿=¿6) groups. At month 2, a VNS stimulator system was implanted in all canines. From month 3 to month 6, VNS therapy was applied in the VNS group but not in the control group. At month 6, compared with the control group, the canines in VNS group had significantly higher cardiac output (2.3¿±¿0.3 versus 2.9¿±¿0.4 L/min, P¿<¿0.05 , LV forward stroke volume (20.1¿±¿3.7 versus 24.8¿±¿3.9 ml, P¿<¿0.05), and end-systolic stiffness constant (2.2¿±¿0.3 versus 2.7¿±¿0.3, P¿<¿0.05). NT-proBNP and C-reactive protein were decreased significantly in the VNS group. However, no statistical difference was found in LV ejection fraction, LV end-diastolic dimension, LV end-diastolic volume, myocyte cross-sectional area, or collagen volume fraction between two groups.ConclusionsChronic VNS therapy may ameliorate MR-induced LV contractile dysfunction and improve the expression of biomarkers, but has less effect in improving LV chamber remodeling. PMID:25366939

Yu, Haiwen; Tang, Min; Yu, Jun; Zhou, Xiaohong; Zeng, Lepeng; Zhang, Shu

2014-11-01

41

Treatment with a copper-selective chelator causes substantive improvement in cardiac function of diabetic rats with left-ventricular impairment  

PubMed Central

Background Defective copper regulation is implicated as a causative mechanism of organ damage in diabetes. Treatment with trientine, a divalent-copper-selective chelator, improves arterial and renal structure/function in diabetes, wherein it also ameliorates left-ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. However, direct in vivo evidence that trientine can improve cardiac function in heart failure has hitherto been lacking. Methods To determine whether trientine treatment could improve in vivo outcome, we measured cardiac function in groups of trientine-treated diabetic (TETA-DIA), non-drug-treated diabetic (DIA) and sham-treated control (SHAM) rats, by using in vivo high-field cardiac magnetic-resonance imaging (cMRI) and an ex vivo isolated-perfused working heart method. Forty age-matched animals underwent a cMRI scan after which 12 were randomized to the SHAM group and 28 underwent streptozotocin-injection; of these, 25 developed stable diabetes, and 12 were then randomized to receive no treatment for 16 weeks (DIA) and the other 13 to undergo 8-weeks’ untreated diabetes followed by 8-weeks’ drug treatment (TETA-DIA). Animals were studied again by cMRI at 8 and 16 weeks following disease induction, and finally by measurement of ex vivo cardiac function. Results After eight weeks diabetes, rats (DIA/TETA-DIA) had developed significant impairment of LV function, as judged by impairment of ejection fraction (LVEF), cardiac output (CO), and LV mass (LVM)/body-mass (all P?functional indexes. LVEF, CO (both P?improved cardiac function by elevating LVEF and CO (both P?improved in TETA-DIA animals (P?improved cardiac function in diabetic rats with substantive LV impairment. These results implicate impaired copper regulation in the pathogenesis of impaired cardiac function caused by diabetic cardiomyopathy, and support ongoing studies of trientine treatment in patients with heart failure. PMID:23368770

2013-01-01

42

Biofeedback improves functional outcome after sphincteroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary treatment for obstetric sphincter injury is overlapping sphincteroplasty. However, despite restoration of the anatomy, only 65 percent of patients are fully continent. PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to determine if postoperative biofeedback improved continence in patients with poor functional outcomes after sphincteroplasty. METHOD: Outcomes of 28 patients who underwent electromyographic biofeedback training after sphincteroplasty for obstetric sphincter injury

L. L. Jensen; A. C. Lowry

1997-01-01

43

Estrogen Therapy, Independent of Timing, Improves Cardiac Structure and Function in Oophorectomized mRen2.Lewis Rats  

PubMed Central

Objective mRen2.Lewis Rats exhibit exacerbated increases in blood pressure, left ventricular (LV) remodeling, and diastolic impairment following the loss of estrogens. In this same model, depletion of estrogens has marked effects on the cardiac biopterin profile concomitant with suppressed nitric oxide (NO) release. With respect to the establishment of overt systolic hypertension after oophorectomy (OVX), we assessed the effects of timing chronic 17 ?-estradiol (E2) therapy on myocardial function, structure, and the cardiac NO system. Methods Oophrectomy (OVX; n=24) or sham-operation (Sham; n=13) was performed in 4-week-old, female mRen2.Lewis rats. Following randomization, OVX rats received E2 immediately (OVX + early E2; n=7), E2 at 11 weeks of age (OVX + late E2 N=8), or no E2 at all (OVX N=9). Results Early E2 was associated with lower body weight, less hypertension-related cardiac remodeling, and decreased LV filling pressure compared to OVX rats without E2 supplementation. Late E2 similarly attenuated the adverse effects of ovarian hormone loss on tissue-Doppler derived LV filling pressures and perivascular fibrosis, and significantly improved myocardial relaxation, or mitral annular velocity (e?). Early and late exposure to E2 decreased dihydrobiopterin, but only late E2 yielded significant increases in cardiac nitrite concentrations. Conclusions Although there were some similarities between early and late E2 treatment on preservation of diastolic function and cardiac structure after OVX, the lusitropic potential of E2 was most consistent with late supplementation. The cardioprotective effects of late E2 were independent of blood pressure and may have occurred through regulation of cardiac biopterins and NO production. PMID:23481117

Jessup, Jewell A.; Wang, Hao; MacNamara, Lindsay M.; Presley, Tennille D.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Alex F.; Groban, Leanne

2013-01-01

44

Myocardial Oxygen Consumption Change Predicts Left Ventricular Relaxation Improvement in Obese Humans After Weight Loss  

PubMed Central

Obesity adversely affects myocardial metabolism, efficiency, and diastolic function. Our objective was to determine if weight loss can ameliorate obesity-related myocardial metabolism and efficiency derangements and that these improvements directly relate to improved diastolic function in humans. We studied 30 obese (body mass index [BMI]>30kg/m2) subjects with positron emission tomography (myocardial metabolism, blood flow) and echocardiography (structure, function) before and after marked weight loss from gastric bypass surgery (N=10) or moderate weight loss from diet (N=20). Baseline BMI, insulin resistance, hemodynamics, left ventricular (LV) mass, systolic function, myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2), and fatty acid (FA) metabolism were similar between the groups. MVO2/gram decreased after diet-induced weight loss (P=0.009). Total MVO2 decreased after dietary (P=0.02) and surgical weight loss (P=0.0006) and was related to decreased BMI (P=0.006). Total myocardial FA utilization decreased (P=0.03), and FA oxidation trended lower (P=0.06) only after surgery. FA esterification and LV efficiency were unchanged. After surgical weight loss, LV mass decreased by 23%, (Doppler-derived) E/E’ by 33%, and relaxation increased (improved) by 28%, and. Improved LV relaxation related significantly to decreased BMI, insulin resistance, total MVO2, and LV mass but not FA utilization. Decreased total MVO2 predicted LV relaxation improvement independent of BMI change (P=0.02). Weight loss can ameliorate the obesity-related derangements in myocardial metabolism and LV structure and diastolic function. Decreased total MVO2 independently predicted improved LV relaxation, suggesting that myocardial oxygen metabolism may be mechanistically important in determining cardiac relaxation. PMID:21738241

Lin, C. H.; Kurup, Suraj; Herrero, Pilar; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Eagon, J. Christopher; Klein, Samuel; Dávila-Román, Víctor G.; Stein, Richard I.; Dorn, Gerald W.; Gropler, Robert J.; Waggoner, Alan D.; Peterson, Linda R.

2011-01-01

45

TRANSPLANTATION OF EXPANDED BONE MARROW-DERIVED VERY SMALL EMBRYONIC-LIKE STEM CELLS (VSEL-SCs) IMPROVES LEFT VENTRICULAR FUNCTION AND REMODELING AFTER MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION  

PubMed Central

Adult bone marrow-derived very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSEL-SCs) exhibit a Sca-1+/Lin-/CD45- phenotype and can differentiate into various cell types, including cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. We have previously reported that transplantation of a small number (1×106) of freshly isolated, non-expanded VSEL-SCs into infarcted mouse hearts resulted in improved left ventricular (LV) function and anatomy. Clinical translation, however, will require large numbers of cells. Because the frequency of VSEL-SCs in the marrow is very low, we examined whether VSEL-SCs can be expanded in culture without loss of therapeutic efficacy. Mice underwent a 30-min coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion and, 48 h later, received an intramyocardial injection of vehicle (group I, n=11), 1×105 EGFP-labeled expanded untreated VSEL-SCs (group II, n=7), or 1×105 EGFP-labeled expanded VSEL-SCs preincubated in a cardiogenic medium (group III, n=8). At 35 d after MI, mice treated with preincubated VSEL-SCs exhibited better global and regional LV systolic function and less LV hypertrophy compared with vehicle-treated controls. In contrast, transplantation of expanded but untreated VSEL-SCs did not produce appreciable reparative benefits. Scattered EGFP+ cells expressing ?-sarcomeric actin, PECAM-1, or von Willebrand factor were present in VSEL-SC-treated mice, but their numbers were very small. No tumor formation was observed. We conclude that VSEL-SCs expanded in culture retain the ability to alleviate LV dysfunction and remodeling after a reperfused MI provided that they are exposed to a combination of cardiomyogenic growth factors and cytokines prior to transplantation. Counter intuitively, the mechanism whereby such preincubation confers therapeutic efficacy does not involve differentiation into new cardiac cells. These results support the potential therapeutic utility of VSEL-SCs for cardiac repair. PMID:20629987

Zuba-Surma, Ewa K.; Guo, Yiru; Taher, Hisham; Sanganalmath, Santosh K.; Hunt, Greg; Vincent, Robert J.; Kucia, Magda; Abdel-Latif, Ahmed; Tang, Xian-Liang; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z.; Dawn, Buddhadeb; Bolli, Roberto

2010-01-01

46

Optimal dose-setting study of curcumin for improvement of left ventricular systolic function after myocardial infarction in rats.  

PubMed

A natural p300-specific histone acetyltransferase inhibitor, curcumin, may have a therapeutic potential for heart failure. However, a study of curcumin to identify an appropriate dose for heart failure has yet to be performed. Rats were subjected to a left coronary artery ligation. One week later, rats with a moderate severity of myocardial infarction (MI) were randomly assigned to 4 groups receiving the following: a solvent as a control, a low dose of curcumin (0.5 mg?kg(-1)?day(-1)), a medium dose of curcumin (5 mg?kg(-1)?day(-1)), or a high dose of curcumin (50 mg?kg(-1)?day(-1)). Daily oral treatment was continued for 6 weeks. After treatment, left ventricular (LV) fractional shortening was dose-dependently improved in the high-dose (25.2% ± 1.6%, P < 0.001 vs. vehicle) and medium-dose (19.6% ± 2.4%) groups, but not in the low-dose group (15.5% ± 1.4%) compared with the vehicle group (15.1% ± 0.8%). The histological cardiomyocyte diameter and perivascular fibrosis as well as echocardiographic LV posterior wall thickness dose-dependently decreased in the groups receiving high and medium doses. The beneficial effects of oral curcumin on the post-MI LV systolic function are lower at 5 compared to 50 mg?kg(-1)?day(-1) and disappear at 0.5 mg?kg(-1)?day(-1). To clinically apply curcumin therapy for heart failure patients, a precise, optimal dose-setting study is required. PMID:25409899

Sunagawa, Yoichi; Sono, Shogo; Katanasaka, Yasufumi; Funamoto, Masafumi; Hirano, Sae; Miyazaki, Yusuke; Hojo, Yuya; Suzuki, Hidetoshi; Morimoto, Eriko; Marui, Akira; Sakata, Ryuzo; Ueno, Morio; Kakeya, Hideaki; Wada, Hiromichi; Hasegawa, Koji; Morimoto, Tatsuya

2014-01-01

47

Effect of Microvascular Obstruction and Intramyocardial Hemorrhage by CMR on LV Remodeling and Outcomes After Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

The goal of this systematic analysis is to provide a comprehensive review of the current cardiac magnetic resonance data on microvascular obstruction (MVO) and intramyocardial hemorrhage (IMH). Data related to the association of MVO and IMH in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) with left ventricular (LV) function, volumes, adverse LV remodeling, and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were critically analyzed. MVO is associated with a lower ejection fraction, increased ventricular volumes and infarct size, and a greater risk of MACE. Late MVO is shown to be a stronger prognostic marker for MACE and cardiac death, recurrent MI, congestive heart failure/heart failure hospitalization, and follow-up LV end-systolic volumes than early MVO. IMH is associated with LV remodeling and MACE on pooled analysis, but because of limited data and heterogeneity in study methodology, the effects of IMH on remodeling require further investigation. PMID:25212800

Hamirani, Yasmin S.; Wong, Andrew; Kramer, Christopher M.; Salerno, Michael

2015-01-01

48

Diacerein Improves Left Ventricular Remodeling and Cardiac Function by Reducing the Inflammatory Response after Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Background The inflammatory response has been implicated in the pathogenesis of left ventricular (LV) remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). An anthraquinone compound with anti-inflammatory properties, diacerein inhibits the synthesis and activity of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukins 1 and 6. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of diacerein on ventricular remodeling in vivo. Methods and Results Ligation of the left anterior descending artery was used to induce MI in an experimental rat model. Rats were divided into two groups: a control group that received saline solution (n = 16) and a group that received diacerein (80 mg/kg) daily (n = 10). After 4 weeks, the LV volume, cellular signaling, caspase 3 activity, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) transcription were compared between the two groups. After 4 weeks, end-diastolic and end-systolic LV volumes were reduced in the treatment group compared to the control group (p < .01 and p < .01, respectively). Compared to control rats, diacerein-treated rats exhibited less fibrosis in the LV (14.65%± 7.27% vs. 22.57%± 8.94%; p < .01), lower levels of caspase-3 activity, and lower levels of NF-?B p65 transcription. Conclusions Treatment with diacerein once a day for 4 weeks after MI improved ventricular remodeling by promoting lower end-systolic and end-diastolic LV volumes. Diacerein also reduced fibrosis in the LV. These effects might be associated with partial blockage of the NF-?B pathway. PMID:25816098

Torina, Anali Galluce; Reichert, Karla; Lima, Fany; de Souza Vilarinho, Karlos Alexandre; de Oliveira, Pedro Paulo Martins; do Carmo, Helison Rafael Pereira; de Carvalho, Daniela Diógenes; Saad, Mário José Abdalla; Sposito, Andrei Carvalho; Petrucci, Orlando

2015-01-01

49

Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators improve survival after coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with severely impaired left ventricular function  

PubMed Central

Objective Patients with severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction have a poor long term survival despite complete surgical revascularization. Recent data suggests that the use of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (ICD) improves survival in patients with severe LV dysfunction. We compared the survival impact of ICD implantation in patients with severe LV dysfunction who underwent CABG. Methods Between January 1996 and August 2004, 305 patients with LV ejection fraction (EF) ?25% had CABG surgery at our institution. Demographics of patients who had received an ICD (ICD+) in the post -operative period was compared to those without ICD (ICD-). Survival was evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Of the entire group, 35 (11.5%) patients received an ICD with a median of 2 (+/-2) years after CABG. Indication for ICD implantation was clinical evidence of non sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT). There were no differences between the 2 groups with respect to age, gender, NYHA classification, number of bypasses, or other co-morbidities. Survival at 1, 3 and 5 years was 88%, 79%, and 67% for the ICD- group compared to 94%, 89% and 83% for the ICD+ group, respectively (figure, p < 0.05). Conclusion Implantation of ICD after CABG confers improved short and long term survival benefit to patients with severe LV dysfunction. Prophylactic ICD implantation in the setting of severe LV dysfunction and CABG surgery should be considered. PMID:17222353

Al-Dadah, Ashraf S; Voeller, Rochus K; Rahgozar, Paymon; Lawton, Jennifer S; Moon, Marc R; Pasque, Michael K; Damiano, Ralph J; Moazami, Nader

2007-01-01

50

Virtual reality training improves balance function  

PubMed Central

Virtual reality is a new technology that simulates a three-dimensional virtual world on a computer and enables the generation of visual, audio, and haptic feedback for the full immersion of users. Users can interact with and observe objects in three-dimensional visual space without limitation. At present, virtual reality training has been widely used in rehabilitation therapy for balance dysfunction. This paper summarizes related articles and other articles suggesting that virtual reality training can improve balance dysfunction in patients after neurological diseases. When patients perform virtual reality training, the prefrontal, parietal cortical areas and other motor cortical networks are activated. These activations may be involved in the reconstruction of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Growing evidence from clinical studies reveals that virtual reality training improves the neurological function of patients with spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy and other neurological impairments. These findings suggest that virtual reality training can activate the cerebral cortex and improve the spatial orientation capacity of patients, thus facilitating the cortex to control balance and increase motion function. PMID:25368651

Mao, Yurong; Chen, Peiming; Li, Le; Huang, Dongfeng

2014-01-01

51

Nutraceutical Intervention Improves Older Adults' Cognitive Functioning  

PubMed Central

Abstract Interventions to improve the cognitive health of older adults are of critical importance. In the current study, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using a pill-based nutraceutical (NT-020) that contained a proprietary formulation of blueberry, carnosine, green tea, vitamin D3, and Biovin to evaluate the impact on changes in multiple domains of cognitive functioning. One hundred and five cognitively intact adults aged 65–85 years of age (M=73.6 years) were randomized to receive NT-020 (n=52) or a placebo (n=53). Participants were tested with a battery of cognitive performance tests that were classified into six broad domains—episodic memory, processing speed, verbal ability, working memory, executive functioning, and complex speed at baseline and 2 months later. The results indicated that persons taking NT-020 improved significantly on two measures of processing speed across the 2-month test period in contrast to persons on the placebo whose performance did not change. None of the other cognitive ability measures were related to intervention group. The results also indicated that the NT-020 was well tolerated by older adults, and the presence of adverse events or symptoms did not differ between the NT-020 and placebo groups. Overall, the results of the current study were promising and suggest the potential for interventions like these to improve the cognitive health of older adults. PMID:24134194

Rawson, Kerri S.; Martin, Christina; Eisel, Sarah L.; Sanberg, Cyndy D.; McEvoy, Cathy L.; Sanberg, Paul R.; Shytle, R. Douglas; Tan, Jun; Bickford, Paula C.

2014-01-01

52

Successful weight reduction improves left ventricular diastolic function and physical performance in severe obesity.  

PubMed

Obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are risk factors for left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). However, little is known about the impact of successful weight reduction (WR) on diastolic function and physical performance.Obese subjects (øBMI 40.2 ± 8.6 kg/m(2)) underwent a 1-year WR program comprising diet and lifestyle components. Echocardiography and exercise capacity (6-minute walk) were performed at baseline and after 1 year. The distribution of weight reduction was split at the sample median and subjects were dichotomized in "successful WR" (% WR ? median, corresponding to a weight loss of 8%) and "failed-WR" (% WR < median).From a total of 188 obese subjects, 71 had LVDD at baseline. Obese patients with successful WR improved their MetS alterations, including fasting glucose, insulin, lipids, adipokines, blood pressure levels, and epicardial fat thickness. The same was not true for obesity with failed WR. Subjects with successful WR demonstrated significant improvement in echocardiographic LVDD parameters (median [interquartile range]): ?e' (2,5 [-1.0, 4.7], P < 0.01), ?e'/a' (0.34 [0.07, 079], P < 0.01), ?E/e' (-1.14 [-2.72, -0.54], P < 0.05), ?E/A (0.08 [-0.04, 0.26], P < 0.05), ?Ard-Ad (-28 [-54, -4], P < 0.01), and 6-minute walk distance (65 [19, 135], P < 0.01). Improvement of ? 2 LVDD criteria was accomplished in 30% of subjects with WR versus 10% without (P = 0.009). Using multivariable regression analysis, reduction of epicardial fat thickness was particularly predictive for the improvement of diastolic function.In summary, in severe obesity, successful long-term WR was associated with improved LV diastolic function and exercise capacity. PMID:25740581

Fenk, Sabine; Fischer, Marcus; Strack, Christina; Schmitz, Gerd; Loew, Thomas; Lahmann, Claas; Baessler, Andrea

2015-03-20

53

Improved wave functions for quantum Monte Carlo  

E-print Network

Improved wave functions for quantum Monte Carlo Priyanka Seth Corpus Christi College, Cambridge Dissertation submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at the University of Cambridge August 2012 To mum, dad, ìÉìÉ and the memory of êÉ. Preface... been published or is to be published: Chapter 3: P. Seth, P. Lo´pez R?´os and R. J. Needs, “Quantum Monte Carlo study of the first-row atoms and ions”, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 084105 (2011). Chapter 4: P. Lo´pez R´?os, P. Seth, N. D. Drummond and R. J...

Seth, Priyanka

2013-02-05

54

Treatment of hypertension with perindopril reduces plasma atrial natriuretic peptide levels, left ventricular mass, and improves echocardiographic parameters of diastolic function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major independent risk factor for cardiac deaths, and diastolic dysfunction is a usual finding during the course of this disease. HYPOTHESIS: This study was designed to investigate the effects of chronic therapy with perindopril on left ventricular (LV) mass, left atrial size, diastolic function, and plasma level of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in patients with hypertension. METHODS: Twenty four patients who had not been previously taking any antihypertensive medication and without prior history of angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, dysrhythmias, valvular heart disease, or systemic illnesses received 4-8 mg/day of perindopril orally. Echocardiographic studies were acquired at baseline and 6 months after the initiation of therapy. RESULTS: Systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased from 174 +/- 19.7 and 107.5 +/- 7.8 mmHg to 134 +/- 10.6 and 82 +/- 6.7 mmHg, respectively (p < 0.001). Left ventricular mass decreased from 252.4 +/- 8.3 to 205.7 +/- 7.08 g and left atrial volume from 20.4 +/- 5.1 to 17.6 +/- 5.2 ml, respectively (p < 0.001). Transmitral Doppler early and atrial filling velocity ratio (E/A) increased from 0.69 +/- 0.06 to 0.92 +/- 0.05 m/s and plasma ANP level decreased from 71.9 +/- 11.7 to 35.3 +/- 7.8 pg/ml (p < 0.001). Reduction of LV mass correlated positively with a reduction in ANP levels (r = 0.66, p < 0.0005). CONCLUSIONS: Perindopril caused a significant reduction of LV mass, left atrial volume, and plasma ANP levels, as well as improvement in Doppler parameters of LV filling in this group of patients with hypertension.

Yalcin, F.; Aksoy, F. G.; Muderrisoglu, H.; Sabah, I.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.

2000-01-01

55

Matrine pretreatment improves cardiac function in rats with diabetic cardiomyopathy via suppressing ROS/TLR-4 signaling pathway  

PubMed Central

Aim: Matrine is an alkaloid from Sophora alopecuroides L, which has shown a variety of pharmacological activities and potential therapeutic value in cardiovascular diseases. In this study we examined the protective effects of matrine against diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) in rats. Methods: Male SD rats were injected with streptozotocin (STZ) to induce DCM. One group of DCM rats was pretreated with matrine (200 mg·kg?1·d?1, po) for 10 consecutive days before STZ injection. Left ventricular function was evaluated using invasive hemodynamic examination, and myocardiac apoptosis was assessed. Primary rat myocytes were used for in vitro experiments. Intracellular ROS generation, MDA content and GPx activity were determined. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to detect the expression of relevant mRNAs and proteins. Results: DCM rats exhibited abnormally elevated non-fasting blood glucose levels at 4 weeks after STZ injection, and LV function impairment at 16 weeks. The cardiac tissues of DCM rats showed markedly increased apoptosis, excessive ROS production, and activation of TLR-4/MyD-88/caspase-8/caspase-3 signaling. Pretreatment with matrine significantly decreased non-fasting blood glucose levels and improved LV function in DCM rats, which were associated with reducing apoptosis and ROS production, and suppressing TLR-4/MyD-88/caspase-8/caspase-3 signaling in cardiac tissues. Incubation in a high-glucose medium induced oxidative stress and activation of TLR-4/MyD-88 signaling in cultured myocytes in vitro, which were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine. Conclusion: Excessive ROS production in DCM activates the TLR-4/MyD-88 signaling, resulting in cardiomyocyte apoptosis, whereas pretreatment with matrine improves cardiac function via suppressing ROS/TLR-4 signaling pathway. PMID:25619390

Liu, Zhong-wei; Wang, Jun-kui; Qiu, Chuan; Guan, Gong-chang; Liu, Xin-hong; Li, Shang-jian; Deng, Zheng-rong

2015-01-01

56

Nitroglycerin improves left ventricular relaxation by changing systolic loading sequence in patients with excessive arterial load.  

PubMed

Nitroglycerin abbreviates left ventricular (LV) relaxation through improved hemodynamics as well as by direct actions on the myocardium. The aim of this study was to examine whether the changing systolic loading sequence during nitroglycerin administration affects LV relaxation in patients with excessive arterial load. By use of a conductance catheter with microtip manometer, the effects of intravenous nitroglycerin (0.3-0.5 microg/kg/min) on LV function and hemodynamics were examined in 39 patients with various degrees of LV contractility. Patients were divided into two groups according to LV-arterial coupling, the ratio of end-systolic elastance (Ees) to effective arterial elastance (Ea). In patients with Ees/Ea ratio > 1, nitroglycerin had no effect on the time to peak force or on the time constant of LV relaxation (tau). On the other hand, in patients with Ees/Ea < 1, which represented excessive arterial load, nitroglycerin significantly shortened the time to peak force, shifted the peak of the loading sequence from late to early systole, and significantly decreased tau without any changes in Ees. Thus, nitroglycerin improved LV relaxation in patients with excessive arterial load partly by changing the systolic loading sequence. PMID:15725945

Fujimoto, Naoki; Onishi, Katsuya; Tanabe, Masaki; Dohi, Kaoru; Funabiki, Kaoru; Kurita, Tairou; Yamanaka, Takashi; Nakajima, Kazuki; Ito, Masaaki; Nobori, Tsutomu; Nakano, Takeshi

2005-03-01

57

Improving Multiferroic Functionalities via Interface Engineering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By first-principles calculation, we show that the multiferroic properties of (SrMnO3)1/(SrCoO3)1 superlattices are significantly improved compared with epitaxially strained SrMnO3 and SrCoO3 thin films. A ferroelectric ferromagnetic insulator is achieved at a relatively small tensile strain of +1.80% instead of +3.40% for pure SrMnO3. The mean-field-estimated critical temperature TC is enhanced to above room temperature instead of 92 K for SrMnO3. This is made possible because a rich variety of oxygen octahedral tilting patterns across the SrMnO3/SrCoO3 interfaces facilitate the ferromagnetic superexchange coupling between Co and Mn ions. As Mn and Co ions participate in both magnetic moment formation and polar distortion, strong magnetoelectric coupling is therefore anticipated. Our study suggests that a suitable choice of superlattice constituents not only allows one to optimize the multiferroic functionalities, but also offers a platform to investigate the specific mechanism involved in the multiferroicity of transition-metal oxides.

Song, Guang; Zhang, Weiyi

2015-04-01

58

Improved algorithm for calculating the Chandrasekhar function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical models of electron transport in condensed matter require an effective source of the Chandrasekhar H(x,omega) function. A code providing the H(x,omega) function has to be both accurate and very fast. The current revision of the code published earlier [A. Jablonski, Comput. Phys. Commun. 183 (2012) 1773] decreased the running time, averaged over different pairs of arguments x and omega, by a factor of more than 20. The decrease of the running time in the range of small values of the argument x, less than 0.05, is even more pronounced, reaching a factor of 30. The accuracy of the current code is not affected, and is typically better than 12 decimal places. New version program summaryProgram title: CHANDRAS_v2 Catalogue identifier: AEMC_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMC_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC license, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 976 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11416 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90 Computer: Any computer with a Fortran 90 compiler Operating system: Windows 7, Windows XP, Unix/Linux RAM: 0.7 MB Classification: 2.4, 7.2 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEMC_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun. 183 (2012) 1773 Does the new version supersede the old program: Yes Nature of problem: An attempt has been made to develop a subroutine that calculates the Chandrasekhar function with high accuracy, of at least 10 decimal places. Simultaneously, this subroutine should be very fast. Both requirements stem from the theory of electron transport in condensed matter. Solution method: Two algorithms were developed, each based on a different integral representation of the Chandrasekhar function. The final algorithm is edited by mixing these two algorithms by selecting ranges of the argument omega in which the performance is the fastest. Reasons for the new version: Some of the theoretical models describing electron transport in condensed matter need a source of the Chandrasekhar H function values with an accuracy of at least 10 decimal places. Additionally, calculations of this function should be as fast as possible since frequent calls to a subroutine providing this function are made (e.g., numerical evaluation of a double integral with a complicated integrand containing the H function). Both conditions were satisfied in the algorithm previously published [1]. However, it has been found that a proper selection of the quadrature in an integral representation of the Chandrasekhar function may considerably decrease the running time. By suitable selection of the number of abscissas in Gauss-Legendre quadrature, the execution time was decreased by a factor of more than 20. Simultaneously, the accuracy of results has not been affected. Summary of revisions: (1) As in previous work [1], two integral representations of the Chandrasekhar function, H(x,omega), were considered: the expression published by Dudarev and Whelan [2] and the expression published by Davidovi? et al. [3]. The algorithms implementing these representations were designated A and B, respectively. All integrals in these implementations were previously calculated using Romberg quadrature. It has been found, however, that the use of Gauss-Legendre quadrature considerably improved the performance of both algorithms. Two conditions have to be satisfied. (i) The number of abscissas, N, has to be rather large, and (ii) the abscissas and corresponding weights should be determined with accuracy as high as possible. The abscissas and weights are available for N=16, 20, 24, 32, 40, 48, 64, 80, and 96 with accuracy of 20 decimal places [4], and all these values were introduced into a new procedure GAUSS replacing procedure ROMBERG. Due to the fact that the implemented tables are rather extensive, they were recalculated using the Rybicki algorithm (Re

Jablonski, A.

2013-02-01

59

Biochemical characterization and molecular cloning of a plasminogen activator proteinase (LV-PA) from bushmaster snake venom.  

PubMed

The protein (LV-PA) from bushmaster (Lachesis muta muta) venom is a serine proteinase which specifically activates the inactive proenzyme plasminogen. LV-PA is a single chain glycoprotein with an apparent molecular mass of 33 kDa that fell to 28 kDa after treatment with N-Glycosidase F (PNGase F). Approximately 93% of its protein sequence was determined by automated Edman degradation of various fragments derived from a digestion with trypsin. A cDNA library of L. m. muta was constructed to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and the plasminogen activator precursor cDNA was sequenced. The complete amino acid sequence of the enzyme was deduced from the cDNA sequence. LV-PA is composed of 234 residues and contains a single asparagine-linked glycosylation site, Asn-X-Ser, bearing sugars that account for approximately 10% of the enzyme's total molecular mass of 33 kDa. The sequence of LV-PA is highly similar to the plasminogen activators (PAs) TSV-PA from Trimeresurus stejnegeri venom and Haly-PA from Agkistrodon halys. Furthermore, the mature protein sequence of LV-PA exhibits significant similarity with other viperidae venom serine proteinases which affect many steps of hemostasis, ranging from the blood coagulation cascade to platelet function. The Michaelis constant (Km) and the catalytic rate constant (kcat) of LV-PA on four chromogenic substrates were obtained from Lineweaver-Burk plots. In addition, we used an indirect enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) to explore the phylogenetic range of immunological cross-reactivity (using antibodies raised against LV-PA) with analogous serine proteinases from two viperidae venoms and mammals. PMID:17034951

Sanchez, Eladio F; Felicori, Liza F; Chavez-Olortegui, Carlos; Magalhaes, Henrique B P; Hermogenes, Ana L; Diniz, Marcelo V; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inacio de L M; Magalhaes, Arinos; Richardson, Michael

2006-12-01

60

Passive Ventricular Mechanics Modelling Using MRI of Structure and Function  

PubMed Central

Patients suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy or myocardial infarction can develop left ventricular (LV) diastolic impairment. The LV remodels its structure and function to adapt to pathophysiological changes in geometry and loading conditions and this remodeling process can alter the passive ventricular mechanics. In order to better understand passive ventricular mechanics, a LV finite element model was developed to incorporate physiological and mechanical information derived from in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tissue tagging, in vivo LV cavity pressure recording and ex vivo diffusion tensor MRI (DTMRI) of a canine heart. MRI tissue tagging enables quantitative evaluation of cardiac mechanical function with high spatial and temporal resolution, whilst the direction of maximum water diffusion (the primary eigenvector) in each voxel of a DTMRI directly correlates with the myocardial fibre orientation. This model was customized to the geometry of the canine LV during diastasis by fitting the segmented epicardial and endocardial surface data from tagged MRI using nonlinear finite element fitting techniques. Myofibre orientations, extracted from DTMRI of the same heart, were incorporated into this geometric model using a free form deformation methodology. Pressure recordings, temporally synchronized to the tissue tagging MRI data, were used to simulate the LV deformation during diastole. Simulation of the diastolic LV mechanics allowed us to estimate the stiffness of the passive LV myocardium based on kinematic data obtained from tagged MRI. This integrated physiological model will allow more insight into the regional passive diastolic mechanics of the LV on an individualized basis, thereby improving our understanding of the underlying structural basis of mechanical dysfunction in pathological conditions. PMID:18982680

Wang, V.Y.; Lam, H.I.; Ennis, D.B.; Young, A.A.; Nash, M.P.

2009-01-01

61

Improving Sensorimotor Function Using Stochastic Vestibular Stimulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during spaceflight, particularly during G-transition phases. Post flight sensorimotor changes may include postural and gait instability, spatial disorientation, and visual performance decrements, all of which can degrade operational capabilities of the astronauts and endanger the crew. Crewmember safety would be improved if these detrimental effects of spaceflight could be mitigated by a sensorimotor countermeasure and even further if adaptation to baseline could be facilitated. The goal of this research is to investigate the potential use of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a technology to improve sensorimotor function. We hypothesize that low levels of SVS will improve sensorimotor performance through stochastic resonance (SR). The SR phenomenon occurs when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is optimized by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. Two studies have been initiated to investigate the beneficial effects and potential practical usage of SVS. In both studies, electrical vestibular stimulation is applied via electrodes on the mastoid processes using a constant current stimulator. The first study aims to determine the repeatability of the effect of vestibular stimulation on sensorimotor performance and perception in order to better understand the practical use of SVS. The beneficial effect of low levels of SVS on balance performance has been shown in the past. This research uses the same balance task repeated multiple times within a day and across days to study the repeatability of the stimulation effects. The balance test consists of 50 sec trials in which the subject stands with his or her feet together, arms crossed, and eyes closed on compliant foam. Varying levels of SVS, ranging from 0-700 micro A, are applied across different trials. The subject-specific optimal SVS level is that which results in the best balance performance as measured by inertial measurement units placed on the upper and lower torso of the subjects. Additionally, each individual’s threshold for illusory motion perception of suprasensory electrical vestibular stimulation is measured multiple times within and across days to better understand how multiple SVS test methods compare. The second study aims to demonstrate stochastic resonance in the vestibular system using a perception based motion recognition task. This task measures an individual’s velocity threshold of motion recognition using a 6-degree of freedom Stewart platform and a 3-down/1-up staircase procedure. For this study, thresholds are determined using 150 trials in the upright, head-centered roll tilt motion direction at a 0.2 Hz frequency. We aim to demonstrate the characteristic bell shaped curve associated with stochastic resonance with each subject’s motion recognition thresholds at varying SVS levels ranging from 0 to 1500 micro A. The curve includes the individual’s baseline threshold with no SVS, optimal or minimal threshold at some mid-level of SVS, and finally degraded or increased threshold at a high SVS level. An additional aim is to formally retest each subject at his or her individual optimal SVS level on a different day than the original testing for additional validity. The overall purpose of this research is to further quantify the effects of SVS on various sensorimotor tasks and investigate the practical implications of its use in the context of human space flight so that it may be implemented in the future as a component of a comprehensive countermeasure plan for adaptation to G-transitions.

Galvan, R. C.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Oman, C. M.

2014-01-01

62

Effect of exercise training on diastolic function in metabolic syndrome.  

PubMed

It has been reported that metabolic syndrome (MetS) impairs left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. The objective of this study was to determine whether exercise training can improve LV diastolic function in individuals with MetS. Twenty-eight individuals with MetS (9 males, aged 60 ± 5 years) underwent a 1-year combined endurance and resistance exercise training program; maximal aerobic capacity (V?O2max), blood pressure, blood markers, and LV diastolic function were measured at weeks 0, 12, 24, and 52 throughout the training. Pulsed wave Doppler echocardiography across the mitral valve was used to assess peak early flow velocity (E) and peak atrial flow velocity (A) to determine the E/A ratio. Individuals with MetS had a reversed E/A ratio, suggesting impaired LV relaxation, the first stage of LV diastolic dysfunction. Exercise training reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) (129 ± 14 to 120 ± 12 mm Hg; p < 0.01) and increased V?O2max (29.2 ± 6.3 to 33.4 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); p < 0.01) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (1.04 ± 0.21 to 1.12 ± 0.25 mmol·L(-1); p = 0.02), but did not improve LV diastolic function. Individuals with an E/A ratio <1 at the start of training had a tendency toward an increased E/A ratio (p = 0.12) accompanied by significant decreases in SBP and increases in V?O2max with exercise training. Combined resistance and aerobic exercise training improved cardiometabolic health but did not improve the impaired LV diastolic function of individuals with MetS. PMID:23668763

Lalande, Sophie; Petrella, Robert J; Shoemaker, J Kevin

2013-05-01

63

Antioxidant treatment improves neonatal survival and prevents impaired cardiac function at adulthood following neonatal glucocorticoid therapy  

PubMed Central

Glucocorticoids are widely used to treat chronic lung disease in premature infants but their longer-term adverse effects on the cardiovascular system raise concerns. We reported that neonatal dexamethasone treatment in rats induced in the short term molecular indices of cardiac oxidative stress and cardiovascular tissue remodelling at weaning, and that neonatal combined antioxidant and dexamethasone treatment was protective at this time. In this study, we investigated whether such effects of neonatal dexamethasone have adverse consequences for NO bioavailability and cardiovascular function at adulthood, and whether neonatal combined antioxidant and dexamethasone treatment is protective in the adult. Newborn rat pups received daily i.p. injections of a human-relevant tapering dose of dexamethasone (D; n= 8; 0.5, 0.3, 0.1 ?g g?1) or D with vitamins C and E (DCE; n= 8; 200 and 100 mg kg?1, respectively) on postnatal days 1–3 (P1–3); vitamins were continued from P4 to P6. Controls received equal volumes of vehicle from P1 to P6 (C; n= 8). A fourth group received vitamins alone (CCE; n= 8). At P100, plasma NO metabolites (NOx) was measured and isolated hearts were assessed under both Working and Langendorff preparations. Relative to controls, neonatal dexamethasone therapy increased mortality by 18% (P < 0.05). Surviving D pups at adulthood had lower plasma NOx concentrations (10.6 ± 0.8 vs. 28.0 ± 1.5 ?m), an increased relative left ventricular (LV) mass (70 ± 2 vs. 63 ± 1%), enhanced LV end-diastolic pressure (14 ± 2 vs. 8 ± 1 mmHg) and these hearts failed to adapt output with increased preload (?cardiac output: 2.9 ± 2.0 vs. 10.6 ± 1.2 ml min?1) or afterload (?cardiac output: ?5.3 ± 2.0 vs.1.4 ± 1.2 ml min?1); all P < 0.05. Combined neonatal dexamethasone with antioxidant vitamins improved postnatal survival, restored plasma NOx and protected against cardiac dysfunction at adulthood. In conclusion, neonatal dexamethasone therapy promotes cardiac dysfunction at adulthood. Combined neonatal treatment with antioxidant vitamins is an effective intervention. PMID:23940378

Niu, Youguo; Herrera, Emilio A; Evans, Rhys D; Giussani, Dino A

2013-01-01

64

Predictors of Improvements in Daytime Function Outcomes with CPAP Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy improves daytime function in the sleep apnea\\/ hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) but it is unclear which patients benefit and what factors predict this im- provement. To test the hypothesis that brief arousals from sleep predict improvements in daytime functioning with CPAP therapy, we prospectively studied 62 patients with polysomnography-defined SAHS. Each underwent daytime function assessments

RUTH N. KINGSHOTT; MARJORIE VENNELLE; CAROL J. HOY; HEATHER M. ENGLEMAN; IAN J. DEARY; NEIL J. DOUGLAS

2000-01-01

65

New Algorithms for Improved Transcendental Functions on IA-64  

E-print Network

1 New Algorithms for Improved Transcendental Functions on IA-64 Shane Story Ping Tak Peter Tang of transcendental functions. Using several novel polynomial-based table-driven techniques, we are able to provide new algorithms for the transcendental functions. Major improvements include an accuracy level of about

California at Davis, University of

66

Tissue Kallikrein-Modified Human Endothelial Progenitor Cell Implantation Improves Cardiac Function via Enhanced Activation of Akt and Increased Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been shown to enhance angiogenesis not only by incorporating into the vasculature but also by secreting cytokines, thereby serving as an ideal vehicle for gene transfer. As tissue kallikrein (TK) has pleiotropic effects in inhibiting apoptosis and oxidative stress, and promoting angiogenesis, we evaluated the salutary potential of kallikrein-modified human EPCs (Ad.hTK-hEPCs) after acute myocardial infarction (MI). We genetically modified hEPCs with a TK gene and evaluated cell survival, engraftment, revascularization, and functional improvement in a nude mouse left anterior descending ligation model. hEPCs were manipulated to overexpress the TK gene. In-vitro, the antiapoptotic and paracrine effects were assessed under oxidative stress. TK protects hEPCs from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis via inhibition of activation of caspase-3 and 9, induction of Akt phosphorylation, and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor. In vivo, the Ad.hTK-hEPCs were transplanted after MI via intracardiac injection. The surviving cells were tracked after transplantation using near-infrared optical imaging. Left ventricular (LV) function was evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography. Capillary density was quantified using immunohistochemical staining. Engrafted Ad.hTK-hEPCs exhibited advanced protection against ischemia by increasing LV ejection fraction. Compared with Ad.Null-hEPCs, transplantation with Ad.hTK-hEPCs significantly decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis in association with increased retention of transplanted EPCs in the myocardium. Capillary density and arteriolar density in the infarct border zone was significantly higher in Ad.hTK-hEPCs transplanted mice than in Ad.Null-hEPCs treated mice. Transplanted hEPCs were clearly incorporated into CD31+ capillaries. These results indicate that implantation of kallikrein-modified EPCs in the heart provides advanced benefits in protection against ischemia-induced MI by enhanced angiogenesis and reducing apoptosis. PMID:23508045

Yao, Yuyu; Sheng, Zulong; Li, Yefei; Fu, Cong; Ma, Genshan; Liu, Naifeng; Chao, Julie; Chao, Lee

2014-01-01

67

Molecular characterization of M1146, an American isolate of Ljungan virus (LV) reveals the presence of a new LV genotype.  

PubMed

Ljungan virus (LV) is a suspected human pathogen recently isolated from bank voles in Sweden. This study describes the genetic characterization of a virus, M1146, which was isolated in 1962 from another vole species (Microtus montanus), trapped in Oregon, USA. Based on antigenic properties, M1146 was postulated previously as a putative member of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE: The near complete genomic sequence verifies that M1146 is a member of the Picornaviridae, most closely related to LVs isolated in Sweden. The strain M1146 possesses typical LV genomic organization, including a cluster of two 2A homologues. There are significant differences throughout the capsid protein region, while the non-structural region of M1146 is closely related to the Swedish LV genomes. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses show that M1146 represents a new genotype within the distinct LV cluster. Isolation of LV from both Swedish and American voles trapped over a period of 30 years suggests a continuous worldwide presence. PMID:12655084

Johansson, E Susanne; Niklasson, Bo; Tesh, Robert B; Shafren, Darren R; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Lindberg, A Michael

2003-04-01

68

Lentivirus-mediated Inhibition of Tumour Necrosis Factor-? improves motor function associated with PRDX6 in spinal cord contusion rats  

PubMed Central

The recovery of motor function in rats is inhibited following contusion spinal cord injury (cSCI). However, the mechanism of tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) in motor function after cSCI associated with peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) remains unknown. We randomly divided rats into four groups: sham, cSCI, vector and lentivirus mediating TNF-? RNA interference (TNF-?-RNAi-LV) group. The Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scale was used to evaluate motor function. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting were used to detect the expression of TNF-? and PRDX6, which were located in neurons using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence. Subsequently, lentiviral-mediated TNF-? was used to determine the role of TNF-?and the relationship of PRDX6 and TNF-? in cSCI. After cSCI, the motor capability of hind limbs disappeared and was followed by recovery of function. IHC analysis indicated that TNF-? and PRDX6 were primarily located in spinal cord neurons. TNF-? interference significantly improved neural behaviour and increased expression of PRDX6. Our study suggests that inhibition of TNF-? can promote the recovery of motor function. The underlying mechanism of TNF-?-promoted motor function may be connected with the up-regulation of PRDX6. This provides a new strategy or target for the clinical treatment of SCI in future. PMID:25686213

Zhang, Xiao; Shi, Lan-lan; Gao, Xia; Jiang, Di; Zhong, Zhan-qiong; Zeng, Xi; Rao, Ying; Hu, Xi; Li, Tian-zhi; Li, Xiu-juan; Li, Lei; Chen, Jian-min; Xia, Qingjie; Wang, Ting-hua

2015-01-01

69

Lentivirus-mediated Inhibition of Tumour Necrosis Factor-? improves motor function associated with PRDX6 in spinal cord contusion rats.  

PubMed

The recovery of motor function in rats is inhibited following contusion spinal cord injury (cSCI). However, the mechanism of tumour necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) in motor function after cSCI associated with peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) remains unknown. We randomly divided rats into four groups: sham, cSCI, vector and lentivirus mediating TNF-? RNA interference (TNF-?-RNAi-LV) group. The Basso, Beattie, Bresnahan (BBB) scale was used to evaluate motor function. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting were used to detect the expression of TNF-? and PRDX6, which were located in neurons using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence. Subsequently, lentiviral-mediated TNF-? was used to determine the role of TNF-?and the relationship of PRDX6 and TNF-? in cSCI. After cSCI, the motor capability of hind limbs disappeared and was followed by recovery of function. IHC analysis indicated that TNF-? and PRDX6 were primarily located in spinal cord neurons. TNF-? interference significantly improved neural behaviour and increased expression of PRDX6. Our study suggests that inhibition of TNF-? can promote the recovery of motor function. The underlying mechanism of TNF-?-promoted motor function may be connected with the up-regulation of PRDX6. This provides a new strategy or target for the clinical treatment of SCI in future. PMID:25686213

Zhang, Xiao; Shi, Lan-Lan; Gao, Xia; Jiang, Di; Zhong, Zhan-Qiong; Zeng, Xi; Rao, Ying; Hu, Xi; Li, Tian-Zhi; Li, Xiu-Juan; Li, Lei; Chen, Jian-Min; Xia, Qingjie; Wang, Ting-Hua

2015-01-01

70

Insertional mutagenesis of flvi-2 in tumors induced by infection with LC-FeLV, a myc-containing strain of feline leukemia virus.  

PubMed Central

LC-FeLV is a myc-containing strain of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) which exhibits only partial transforming activity in vitro and in vivo. LC-FeLV infection in kittens may induce, but does not necessarily induce, thymic lymphosarcoma in viremic animals after a short latency. These observations suggest that infection with LC-FeLV is not sufficient to induce complete transformation and that another genetic event(s) is required. One possibility for such an event is that the integrating provirus acts as an insertional mutagen and thereby disrupts the structure or function of another proto-oncogene. Using a strategy of transposon tagging, this possibility was examined in eight feline T-cell lymphosarcomas, including four induced by experimental infection with LC-FeLV, three induced by natural infection with FeLV, and one FeLV-negative tumor. The analysis demonstrated one locus, termed flvi-2, to be structurally altered in six of the tumors examined, including three induced by LC-FeLV and three in which no activated myc oncogene is apparent. Inverse polymerase chain reaction was used to demonstrate the presence and transcriptional orientation of proviruses integrated at flvi-2 in five of these tumors. The flvi-2 locus does not hybridize to cloned probes representing 21 previously identified proto-oncogenes or common domains of retroviral integration. Thus, the data suggest that interruption of the flvi-2 locus cooperates with the myc oncogene in the induction of T-cell lymphomas by LC-FeLV; indeed, the observations indicate that the insertional mutagenesis of flvi-2 plays a role in T-cell lymphomagenesis even in the absence of feline v-myc. Images PMID:1313907

Levy, L S; Lobelle-Rich, P A

1992-01-01

71

Improving System Dependability with Functional Alternatives We present the concept of alternative functionality for  

E-print Network

to enhance system dependability with a case study of an elevator control system. In simulation, an elevatorImproving System Dependability with Functional Alternatives Abstract We present the concept of alternative functionality for improving dependability in distributed embedded systems. Alternative

Koopman, Philip

72

Improved association in a classical density functional theory for water  

SciTech Connect

We present a modification to our recently published statistical associating fluid theory-based classical density functional theory for water. We have recently developed and tested a functional for the averaged radial distribution function at contact of the hard-sphere fluid that is dramatically more accurate at interfaces than earlier approximations. We now incorporate this improved functional into the association term of our free energy functional for water, improving its description of hydrogen bonding. We examine the effect of this improvement by studying two hard solutes (a hard hydrophobic rod and a hard sphere) and a Lennard-Jones approximation of a krypton atom solute. The improved functional leads to a moderate change in the density profile and a large decrease in the number of hydrogen bonds broken in the vicinity of the hard solutes. We find an improvement of the partial radial distribution for a krypton atom in water when compared with experiment.

Krebs, Eric J.; Schulte, Jeff B.; Roundy, David [Department of Physics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

2014-03-28

73

Improved association in a classical density functional theory for water.  

PubMed

We present a modification to our recently published statistical associating fluid theory-based classical density functional theory for water. We have recently developed and tested a functional for the averaged radial distribution function at contact of the hard-sphere fluid that is dramatically more accurate at interfaces than earlier approximations. We now incorporate this improved functional into the association term of our free energy functional for water, improving its description of hydrogen bonding. We examine the effect of this improvement by studying two hard solutes (a hard hydrophobic rod and a hard sphere) and a Lennard-Jones approximation of a krypton atom solute. The improved functional leads to a moderate change in the density profile and a large decrease in the number of hydrogen bonds broken in the vicinity of the hard solutes. We find an improvement of the partial radial distribution for a krypton atom in water when compared with experiment. PMID:24697459

Krebs, Eric J; Schulte, Jeff B; Roundy, David

2014-03-28

74

Glucagon-like peptide-1 and the exenatide analogue AC3174 improve cardiac function, cardiac remodeling, and survival in rats with chronic heart failure  

PubMed Central

Background Accumulating evidence suggests glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exerts cardioprotective effects in animal models of myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that chronic treatment with GLP-1 or the exenatide analog AC3174 would improve cardiac function, cardiac remodeling, insulin sensitivity, and exercise capacity (EC) in rats with MI-induced chronic heart failure (CHF) caused by coronary artery ligation. Methods Two weeks post-MI, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with GLP-1 (2.5 or 25 pmol/kg/min), AC3174 (1.7 or 5 pmol/kg/min) or vehicle via subcutaneous infusion for 11 weeks. Cardiac function and morphology were assessed by echocardiography during treatment. Metabolic, hemodynamic, exercise-capacity, and body composition measurements were made at study end. Results Compared with vehicle-treated rats with CHF, GLP-1 or AC3174 significantly improved cardiac function, including left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, and end diastolic pressure. Cardiac dimensions also improved as evidenced by reduced LV end diastolic and systolic volumes and reduced left atrial volume. Vehicle-treated CHF rats exhibited fasting hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. In contrast, GLP-1 or AC3174 normalized fasting plasma insulin and glucose levels. GLP-1 or AC3174 also significantly reduced body fat and fluid mass and improved exercise capacity and respiratory efficiency. Four of 16 vehicle control CHF rats died during the study compared with 1 of 44 rats treated with GLP-1 or AC3174. The cellular mechanism by which GLP-1 or AC3174 exert cardioprotective effects appears unrelated to changes in GLUT1 or GLUT4 translocation or expression. Conclusions Chronic treatment with either GLP-1 or AC3174 showed promising cardioprotective effects in a rat model of CHF. Hence, GLP-1 receptor agonists may represent a novel approach for the treatment of patients with CHF or cardiovascular disease associated with type 2 diabetes. PMID:21080957

2010-01-01

75

New Algorithms for Improved Transcendental Functions on IA64  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IA-64 architecture provides new opportunities and challenges for implementing an improved set of transcendental functions. Using several novel polynomial-based table-driven techniques, we are able to provide new algorithms for the transcendental functions. Major improvements include an accuracy level of about 0.6 ulps (units in the last place) and forward trigonometric functions that have a period of 2 ? .

Shane Story; Ping Tak Peter Tang

1999-01-01

76

Improved endothelial function with metformin in type 2 diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThis study was designed to assess the effect of metformin on impaired endothelial function in type 2 diabetes mellitus.BACKGROUNDAbnormalities in vascular endothelial function are well recognized among patients with type 2 (insulin-resistant) diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance itself may be central to the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction. The effects of metformin, an antidiabetic agent that improves insulin sensitivity, on endothelial function

Kieren J. Mather; Subodh Verma; Todd J. Anderson

2001-01-01

77

Pharmacoeconomic analysis of adjuvant oral capecitabine vs intravenous 5-FU/LV in Dukes' C colon cancer: the X-ACT trial  

PubMed Central

Oral capecitabine (Xeloda®) is an effective drug with favourable safety in adjuvant and metastatic colorectal cancer. Oxaliplatin-based therapy is becoming standard for Dukes' C colon cancer in patients suitable for combination therapy, but is not yet approved by the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) in the adjuvant setting. Adjuvant capecitabine is at least as effective as 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (5-FU/LV), with significant superiority in relapse-free survival and a trend towards improved disease-free and overall survival. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of adjuvant capecitabine from payer (UK National Health Service (NHS)) and societal perspectives. We used clinical trial data and published sources to estimate incremental direct and societal costs and gains in quality-adjusted life months (QALMs). Acquisition costs were higher for capecitabine than 5-FU/LV, but higher 5-FU/LV administration costs resulted in 57% lower chemotherapy costs for capecitabine. Capecitabine vs 5-FU/LV-associated adverse events required fewer medications and hospitalisations (cost savings £3653). Societal costs, including patient travel/time costs, were reduced by >75% with capecitabine vs 5-FU/LV (cost savings £1318), with lifetime gain in QALMs of 9 months. Medical resource utilisation is significantly decreased with capecitabine vs 5-FU/LV, with cost savings to the NHS and society. Capecitabine is also projected to increase life expectancy vs 5-FU/LV. Cost savings and better outcomes make capecitabine a preferred adjuvant therapy for Dukes' C colon cancer. This pharmacoeconomic analysis strongly supports replacing 5-FU/LV with capecitabine in the adjuvant treatment of colon cancer in the UK. PMID:16622438

Cassidy, J; Douillard, J-Y; Twelves, C; McKendrick, J J; Scheithauer, W; Bustová, I; Johnston, P G; Lesniewski-Kmak, K; Jelic, S; Fountzilas, G; Coxon, F; Díaz-Rubio, E; Maughan, T S; Malzyner, A; Bertetto, O; Beham, A; Figer, A; Dufour, P; Patel, K K; Cowell, W; Garrison, L P

2006-01-01

78

Autologous transplantation of arterial cells improves cardiac function in a rabbit model of infarcted myocardium.  

PubMed

Cellular cardiomyoplasty is a promising approach for the treatment of severe heart failure. However, the question which cell line is the best to use is still a matter of debate. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of arterial media-intima cell suspension (AMICS) transplantation in rabbit myocardial infarct model. The study was divided into 2 groups: group A (the cell-treated group, n = 9) and group B (the medium injection group, n = 8). Group A was further divided into 2 subgroups as branch-1 (treated with unlabeled cells) and branch-2 (treated with iron-labeled cells). The experimental myocardial infarction (MI) was induced by ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery with a combination of cryoinjury. Ten days after the MI, cells obtained from autologous femoral arteries were injected into the injured myocardium of group A, while group B received an injection of only DMEM medium. Clinical, echocardiographic, and histopathologic evaluations were done. As compared to the ninth day values, echocardiography showed a significant improvement in systolic functions and left ventricular (LV) dimensions of the cell-treated group on the 30th day. In the heart biopsy sections of branch-1, the immunostained injected cells were observed to exist closely, suggesting an organization. Cells existing separately and lumen-like structure organizations stained positive with both smooth muscle cell (SMC) alpha-actin and Prussian Blue were also showed in the histological observation of branch-2. Autologous AMICS transplantation seems to be a feasible and efficacious method for cellular cardiomyoplasty in our rabbit model. PMID:19739969

Tokac, Mehmet; Aktan, Murad; Ak, Ahmet; Duman, Selcuk; Tokgozoglu, Lale; Aygul, Nazif; Paksoy, Yahya; Porat, Yael

2010-06-01

79

Litopenaeus vannamei Sterile-Alpha and Armadillo Motif Containing Protein (LvSARM) Is Involved in Regulation of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors  

PubMed Central

The Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated NF-?B pathway is tightly controlled because overactivation may result in severe damage to the host, such as in the case of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. In mammals, sterile-alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein (SARM) plays an important role in negatively regulating this pathway. While Caenorhabditis elegans SARM is crucial for an efficient immune response against bacterial and fungal infections, it is still unknown whether Drosophila SARM participates in immune responses. Here, Litopenaeus vannamei SARM (LvSARM) was cloned and functionally characterized. LvSARM shared signature domains with and exhibited significant similarities to mammalian SARM. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression of LvSARM was responsive to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infections in the hemocyte, gill, hepatopancreas and intestine. In Drosophila S2 cells, LvSARM was widely distributed in the cytoplasm and could significantly inhibit the promoters of the NF-?B pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs). Silencing of LvSARM using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference increased the expression levels of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors, which are L.vannamei AMPs, and increased the mortality rate after V. alginolyticus infection. Taken together, our results reveal that LvSARM may be a novel component of the shrimp Toll pathway that negatively regulates shrimp AMPs, particularly Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors. PMID:23405063

Wang, Pei-Hui; Gu, Zhi-Hua; Wan, Ding-Hui; Zhu, Wei-Bin; Qiu, Wei; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

2013-01-01

80

LV wall segmentation using the variational level set method (LSM) with additional shape constraint for oedema quantification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper an automatic algorithm for the left ventricle (LV) wall segmentation and oedema quantification from T2-weighted cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images is presented. The extent of myocardial oedema delineates the ischaemic area-at-risk (AAR) after myocardial infarction (MI). Since AAR can be used to estimate the amount of salvageable myocardial post-MI, oedema imaging has potential clinical utility in the management of acute MI patients. This paper presents a new scheme based on the variational level set method (LSM) with additional shape constraint for the segmentation of T2-weighted CMR image. In our approach, shape information of the myocardial wall is utilized to introduce a shape feature of the myocardial wall into the variational level set formulation. The performance of the method is tested using real CMR images (12 patients) and the results of the automatic system are compared to manual segmentation. The mean perpendicular distances between the automatic and manual LV wall boundaries are in the range of 1-2 mm. Bland-Altman analysis on LV wall area indicates there is no consistent bias as a function of LV wall area, with a mean bias of -121 mm2 between individual investigator one (IV1) and LSM, and -122 mm2 between individual investigator two (IV2) and LSM when compared to two investigators. Furthermore, the oedema quantification demonstrates good correlation when compared to an expert with an average error of 9.3% for 69 slices of short axis CMR image from 12 patients.

Kadir, K.; Gao, H.; Payne, A.; Soraghan, J.; Berry, C.

2012-10-01

81

Original article Exposure of cats to low doses of FeLV: seroconversion  

E-print Network

Original article Exposure of cats to low doses of FeLV: seroconversion as the sole parameter for low FeLV infectious doses. Nai¨ve cats exposed to faeces of persistently infected cats seroconverted for disease progression. To investigate the impact of low FeLV doses on young cats and to test the hypothesis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

82

Improving structure-based function prediction using molecular dynamics  

PubMed Central

Summary The number of molecules with solved three-dimensional structure but unknown function is increasing rapidly. Particularly problematic are novel folds with little detectable similarity to molecules of known function. Experimental assays can determine the functions of such molecules, but are time-consuming and expensive. Computational approaches can identify potential functional sites; however, these approaches generally rely on single static structures and do not use information about dynamics. In fact, structural dynamics can enhance function prediction: we coupled molecular dynamics simulations with structure-based function prediction algorithms that identify Ca2+ binding sites. When applied to 11 challenging proteins, both methods showed substantial improvement in performance, revealing 22 more sites in one case and 12 more in the other, with a modest increase in apparent false positives. Thus, we show that treating molecules as dynamic entities improves the performance of structure-based function prediction methods. PMID:19604472

Glazer, Dariya S.; Radmer, Randall J.; Altman, Russ B.

2009-01-01

83

Long-term levosimendan treatment improves systolic function and myocardial relaxation in mice with cardiomyocyte-specific disruption of the Serca2 gene.  

PubMed

In human heart failure (HF), reduced cardiac function has, at least partly, been ascribed to altered calcium homeostasis in cardiomyocytes. The effects of the calcium sensitizer levosimendan on diastolic dysfunction caused by reduced removal of calcium from cytosol in early diastole are not well known. In this study, we investigated the effect of long-term levosimendan treatment in a murine model of HF where the sarco(endo)plasmatic reticulum ATPase (Serca) gene is specifically disrupted in the cardiomyocytes, leading to reduced removal of cytosolic calcium. After induction of Serca2 gene disruption, these mice develop marked diastolic dysfunction as well as impaired contractility. SERCA2 knockout (SERCA2KO) mice were treated with levosimendan or vehicle from the time of KO induction. At the 7-wk end point, cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and pressure measurements. Vehicle-treated SERCA2KO mice showed significantly diminished left-ventricular (LV) contractility, as shown by decreased ejection fraction, stroke volume, and cardiac output. LV pressure measurements revealed a marked increase in the time constant (?) of isovolumetric pressure decay, showing impaired relaxation. Levosimendan treatment significantly improved all three systolic parameters. Moreover, a significant reduction in ? toward normalization indicated improved relaxation. Gene-expression analysis, however, revealed an increase in genes related to production of the ECM in animals treated with levosimendan. In conclusion, long-term levosimendan treatment improves both contractility and relaxation in a heart-failure model with marked diastolic dysfunction due to reduced calcium transients. However, altered gene expression related to fibrosis was observed. PMID:24072410

Hillestad, Vigdis; Kramer, Frank; Golz, Stefan; Knorr, Andreas; Andersson, Kristin B; Christensen, Geir

2013-11-01

84

Neurofeedback improves executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven autistic children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) received a neurofeedback treatment that aimed to improve their level of executive control. Neurofeedback successfully reduced children's heightened theta\\/beta ratio by inhibiting theta activation and enhancing beta activation over sessions. Following treatment, children's executive capacities were found to have improved greatly relative to pre-treatment assessment on a range of executive function

Mirjam E. J. Kouijzer; Berrie J. L. Gerrits; Marco Congedo; Hein T. van Schie

2008-01-01

85

Functionalized SWNT\\/polymer nanocomposites for dramatic property improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present results for polymer nanocomposites of poly- (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and amide-functionalized SWNTs. The results demon- strate that even at very low loadings, 1 wt % (0.5 vol %), the mechanical and electri- cal properties are significantly improved. The improvement over PMMA properties exceeds the theoretical bounds for composites with the same volume fraction loading of

T. Ramanathan; H. Liu; L. C. Brinson

2005-01-01

86

Design of actively shielded main magnets: an improved functional method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved functional approach for designing MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) main magnets with active shielding is presented.\\u000a By nulling one or two external moments as well as a certain series of internal moments of the magnetic field, new designs\\u000a with improved shielding in combination with or without shorter magnet lengths are obtained. The improved method can be employed\\u000a to design

Yu-Chung N. Cheng; Timothy P. Eagan; Robert W. Brown; Shmaryu M. Shvartsman; Michael R. Thompson

2003-01-01

87

Astakine LvAST binds to the ? subunit of F1-ATP synthase and likely plays a role in white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei defense against white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Cytokines play a critical role in innate and adaptive immunity. Astakines represent a group of invertebrate cytokines that are related to vertebrate prokineticin and function in promoting hematopoiesis in crustaceans. We have identified an astakine from the white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei and named it LvAST in a previous research. In the present research, we investigated the interactions among LvAST, the envelope protein VP37 of white spot syndrome virus (i.e., WSSV), and the ? subunit of F1-ATP synthase (ATPsyn-?) of the white shrimp (i.e., BP53) using binding assays and co-precipitations. We also examined the effects of LvAST on shrimp susceptibility to WSSV. We found that LvAST and VP37 competitively bound to BP53, but did not bind to each other. Shrimps that had been injected with recombinant LvAST exhibited significantly lower mortality and longer survival time in experimental infections by WSSV. In contrast, shrimps whose LvAST gene expression had been inhibited by RNA interference showed significantly higher WSSV infection intensity and shorter survival time following viral challenges. These results suggested that LvAST and WSSV both likely use ATPsyn-? as a receptor and LvAST plays a role in shrimp defense against WSSV infection. This represented the first research showing the involvement of astakines in host antiviral immunity. PMID:25536411

Liang, Gao-Feng; Liang, Yan; Xue, Qinggang; Lu, Jin-Feng; Cheng, Jun-Jun; Huang, Jie

2015-03-01

88

Improving support vector machine classifiers by modifying kernel functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a method of modifying a kernel function to improve the performance of a supportvector machine classifier. This is based on the Riemannian geometrical structure induced by thekernel function. The idea is to enlarge the spatial resolution around the separating boundarysurface by a conformal mapping such that the separability between classes is increased. Examplesare given specifically for modifying Gaussian

Shun-ichi Amari; Si Wu

1999-01-01

89

Improving the Strict Avalanche Characteristics of Cryptographic Functions  

E-print Network

Improving the Strict Avalanche Characteristics of Cryptographic Functions Jennifer Seberry Xian-Mo a wide range of applications in designing cryptographically strong functions, including substitution, or simply, f(x) f(x ) is balanced, for every 2 Vn with W( ) = 1, where x = (x1 ::: xn) and W( ) denotes

Seberry, Jennifer

90

Automated monitoring functions for improved power system operation and control  

E-print Network

Automated monitoring functions for improved power system operation and control M. Kezunovic, Fellow IEEE, G. Latisko Abstract--This paper describes how new functions for automated analysis of data. INTRODUCTION Development of substation automation systems was taking place for the last decade but the lack

91

[Improving functional outcome of schizophrenia with cognitive remediation].  

PubMed

The functional outcome of schizophrenia is partly conditioned by cognitive disorders associated with this disease. The functional outcome of schizophrenia depends not only on psychotropic medications, but also on non-pharmacological measures and in particular on cognitive remediation. All patients suffering from schizophrenia should benefit from a multidisciplinary functional evaluation including neuropsychological assessment. The restitution of the functional evaluation's results values preserved skills rather than deficits. Cognitive remediation should be considered when cognitive disorders have a functional impact. It reduces the impact of the patient's cognitive disorders and improves the success of his/her concrete projects. PMID:25544348

Franck, Nicolas; Demily, Caroline

2015-03-01

92

Cardiac Structure and Function in Cushing's Syndrome: A Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients with Cushing's syndrome have left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and dysfunction on echocardiography, but echo-based measurements may have limited accuracy in obese patients. No data are available on right ventricular (RV) and left atrial (LA) size and function in these patients. Objectives: The objective of the study was to evaluate LV, RV, and LA structure and function in patients with Cushing's syndrome by means of cardiac magnetic resonance, currently the reference modality in assessment of cardiac geometry and function. Methods: Eighteen patients with active Cushing's syndrome and 18 volunteers matched for age, sex, and body mass index were studied by cardiac magnetic resonance. The imaging was repeated in the patients 6 months (range 2–12 mo) after the treatment of hypercortisolism. Results: Compared with controls, patients with Cushing's syndrome had lower LV, RV, and LA ejection fractions (P < .001 for all) and increased end-diastolic LV segmental thickness (P < .001). Treatment of hypercortisolism was associated with an improvement in ventricular and atrial systolic performance, as reflected by a 15% increase in the LV ejection fraction (P = .029), a 45% increase in the LA ejection fraction (P < .001), and an 11% increase in the RV ejection fraction (P = NS). After treatment, the LV mass index and end-diastolic LV mass to volume ratio decreased by 17% (P < .001) and 10% (P = .002), respectively. None of the patients had late gadolinium myocardial enhancement. Conclusion: Cushing's syndrome is associated with subclinical biventricular and LA systolic dysfunctions that are reversible after treatment. Despite skeletal muscle atrophy, Cushing's syndrome patients have an increased LV mass, reversible upon correction of hypercortisolism. PMID:25093618

Roux, Charles; Salenave, Sylvie; Kachenoura, Nadjia; Raissouni, Zainab; Macron, Laurent; Guignat, Laurence; Jublanc, Christel; Azarine, Arshid; Brailly, Sylvie; Young, Jacques; Mousseaux, Elie; Chanson, Philippe

2014-01-01

93

Effect of Paricalcitol on Left Ventricular Mass and Function in CKD—The OPERA Trial  

PubMed Central

Vitamin D seems to protect against cardiovascular disease, but the reported effects of vitamin D on patient outcomes in CKD are controversial. We conducted a prospective, double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to determine whether oral activated vitamin D reduces left ventricular (LV) mass in patients with stages 3–5 CKD with LV hypertrophy. Subjects with echocardiographic criteria of LV hypertrophy were randomly assigned to receive either oral paricalcitol (1 ?g) one time daily (n=30) or matching placebo (n=30) for 52 weeks. The primary end point was change in LV mass index over 52 weeks, which was measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Secondary end points included changes in LV volume, echocardiographic measures of systolic and diastolic function, biochemical parameters of mineral bone disease, and measures of renal function. Change in LV mass index did not differ significantly between groups (median [interquartile range], ?2.59 [?6.13 to 0.32] g/m2 with paricalcitol versus ?4.85 [?9.89 to 1.10] g/m2 with placebo). Changes in LV volume, ejection fraction, tissue Doppler-derived measures of early diastolic and systolic mitral annular velocities, and ratio of early mitral inflow velocity to early diastolic mitral annular velocity did not differ between the groups. However, paricalcitol treatment significantly reduced intact parathyroid hormone (P<0.001) and alkaline phosphatase (P=0.001) levels as well as the number of cardiovascular-related hospitalizations compared with placebo. In conclusion, 52 weeks of treatment with oral paricalcitol (1 ?g one time daily) significantly improved secondary hyperparathyroidism but did not alter measures of LV structure and function in patients with severe CKD. PMID:24052631

Fang, Fang; Chan, John; Wen, Yue-Yi; Qing, Shang; Chan, Iris Hiu-Shuen; Lo, Gladys; Lai, Kar-Neng; Lo, Wai-Kei; Lam, Christopher Wai-Kei; Yu, Cheuk-Man

2014-01-01

94

Text Mining Improves Prediction of Protein Functional Sites  

PubMed Central

We present an approach that integrates protein structure analysis and text mining for protein functional site prediction, called LEAP-FS (Literature Enhanced Automated Prediction of Functional Sites). The structure analysis was carried out using Dynamics Perturbation Analysis (DPA), which predicts functional sites at control points where interactions greatly perturb protein vibrations. The text mining extracts mentions of residues in the literature, and predicts that residues mentioned are functionally important. We assessed the significance of each of these methods by analyzing their performance in finding known functional sites (specifically, small-molecule binding sites and catalytic sites) in about 100,000 publicly available protein structures. The DPA predictions recapitulated many of the functional site annotations and preferentially recovered binding sites annotated as biologically relevant vs. those annotated as potentially spurious. The text-based predictions were also substantially supported by the functional site annotations: compared to other residues, residues mentioned in text were roughly six times more likely to be found in a functional site. The overlap of predictions with annotations improved when the text-based and structure-based methods agreed. Our analysis also yielded new high-quality predictions of many functional site residues that were not catalogued in the curated data sources we inspected. We conclude that both DPA and text mining independently provide valuable high-throughput protein functional site predictions, and that integrating the two methods using LEAP-FS further improves the quality of these predictions. PMID:22393388

Cohn, Judith D.; Ravikumar, Komandur E.

2012-01-01

95

Role of HIV-2 envelope in Lv2-mediated restriction  

SciTech Connect

We have characterized envelope protein pseudotyped HIV-2 particles derived from two HIV-2 isolates termed prCBL23 and CBL23 in order to define the role of the envelope protein for the Lv2-mediated restriction to infection. Previously, it has been described that the primary isolate prCBL23 is restricted to infection of several human cell types, whereas the T cell line adapted isolate CBL23 is not restricted in these cell types. Molecular cloning of the two isolates revealed that the env and the gag gene are responsible for the observed phenotype and that this restriction is mediated by Lv2, which is distinct from Ref1/Lv1 (Schmitz, C., Marchant, D., Neil, S.J., Aubin, K., Reuter, S., Dittmar, M.T., McKnight, A., Kizhatil, K., Albritton, L.M., 2004. Lv2, a novel postentry restriction, is mediated by both capsid and envelope. J. Virol. 78 (4), 2006-2016). We generated pseudotyped viruses consisting of HIV-2 (ROD-A{delta}env-GFP, ROD-A{delta}env-RFP, or ROD-A{delta}env-REN) and the prCBL23 or CBL23 envelope proteins as well as chimeric proteins between these envelopes. We demonstrate that a single amino acid exchange at position 74 in the surface unit of CBL23-Env confers restriction to infection. This single point mutation causes tighter CD4 binding, resulting in a less efficient fusion into the cytosol of the restricted cell line. Prevention of endosome formation and prevention of endosome acidification enhance infectivity of the restricted particles for GHOST/X4 cells indicating a degradative lysosomal pathway as a cause for the reduced cytosolic entry. The described restriction to infection of the primary isolate prCBL23 is therefore largely caused by an entry defect. A remaining restriction to infection (19-fold) is preserved when endosomal acidification is prevented. This restriction to infection is also dependent on the presence of the point mutation at position 74 (G74E)

Reuter, Sandra [Department of Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kaumanns, Patrick [Department of Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Buschhorn, Sabine B. [Department of Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Dittmar, Matthias T. [Department of Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: Matthias_Dittmar@med.uni-heidelberg.de

2005-02-05

96

Will Incremental Hemodialysis Preserve Residual Function and Improve Patient Survival?  

PubMed Central

The progressive loss of residual renal function in peritoneal dialysis patients is associated with increased mortality. It has been suggested that incremental dialysis may help preserve residual renal function and improve patient survival. Residual renal function depends upon both patient related and dialysis associated factors. Maintaining patients in an over-hydrated state may be associated with better preservation of residual renal function but any benefit comes with a significant risk of cardiovascular consequences. Notably, it is only observational studies that have reported an association between dialysis patient survival and residual renal function; causality has not been established for dialysis patient survival. The tenuous connections between residual renal function and outcomes and between incremental hemodialysis and residual renal function should temper our enthusiasm for interventions in this area. PMID:25385441

Davenport, Andrew

2015-01-01

97

Functional improvement in severe head injury after readmission for rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Early rehabilitation has been shown to minimize complications and optimize functional outcomes in head-injured patients. Although cognitive, behavioural and vocational issues continue for years after injury, many investigations maintain that physical improvement is limited after 6 months. At 12 months after injury, expectations for physical improvement are generally limited. In addition, although repeated inpatient admissions for rehabilitation are common, gains in self-care and mobility skills during readmissions for rehabilitation have not been specifically investigated. In this retrospective study the records of 49 severely head-injured patients were evaluated. All were readmitted to an inpatient rehabilitation facility more than 12 months after injury. Barthel Index scores were obtained to evaluate physical function. Although previous studies would predict few improvements, in this study 53% (26 patients) showed improvement, and the difference between readmission and discharge Barthel scores was statistically significant (p = 0.0001). Gains were highly correlated with length of readmission, but not with age of patient, age at time of injury, length of coma, time since injury, or duration of previous rehabilitation. Patients with mid-range admission Barthel scores (21-85) demonstrated the largest gains, with 79% showing improvement. Gains averaged 11.2 points on the Barthel Index. Severely head-injured patients may show clinically significant improvement in physical function well after current standards predict a plateau. PMID:1638270

Tuel, S M; Presty, S K; Meythaler, J M; Heinemann, A W; Katz, R T

1992-01-01

98

Interaction of Bacteroides fragilis pLV22a relaxase and transfer DNA with Escherichia coli RP4-TraG coupling protein  

PubMed Central

Summary Many Bacteroides transfer factors are mobilizable in Escherichia coli when coresident with the IncP conjugative plasmid RP4, but not F. To begin characterization and potential interaction between Bacteroides mobilizable transfer factors and the RP4 mating channel, both mutants and deletions of the DNA processing (dtr), mating pair formation (mpf) and traG coupling genes of RP4 were tested for mobilization of Bacteroides plasmid pLV22a. All 10 mpf but none of the four dtr genes were required for mobilization of pLV22a. The RP4 TraG coupling protein (CP) was also required for mobilization of pLV22a, but could be substituted by a C-terminal deletion mutant of the F TraD CP. Potential interactions of the TraG CP with relaxase protein(s) and transfer DNA of both RP4 and pLV22a were assessed. Overlay assays identified productive interactions between TraG and the relaxase proteins of both MbpB and TraI from pLV22a and RP4 respectively. The Agrobacterium Transfer-ImmunoPrecipitation (TrIP) assay also identified an interaction between TraG and both RP4 and pLV22a transfer DNA. Thus, mobilization of the Bacteroides pLV22a in E. coli utilizes both RP4 Mpf and CP functions including an interaction between the relaxosome and the RP4 CP similar to that of cognate RP4 plasmid. PMID:17919288

Thomas, Johnson; Hecht, David W.

2011-01-01

99

Comparison of left ventricular diastolic function in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in patients undergoing percutaneous septal alcohol ablation versus surgical myotomy/myectomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both percutaneous transcoronary alcohol septal reduction (ASR) and surgical myectomy are effective treatments to relieve left ventricular (LV) outflow tract obstruction in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC). LV diastolic function was assessed by echocardiography in 57 patients with obstructive HC at baseline and 5 +/- 4 months after ASR (n = 37) or surgical myectomy (n = 20). LV outflow tract pressure gradient decreased from 65 +/- 40 to 23 +/- 21 mm Hg (p <0.01) after treatment. The ratio of the early-to-late peak diastolic LV inflow velocities, and the ratio of the early peak diastolic LV inflow velocity to the lateral mitral annulus early diastolic velocity determined by tissue Doppler imaging significantly decreased after the procedures (1.6 +/- 1.7 vs 1.0 +/- 0.7 and 15 +/- 8 vs 11 +/- 5, respectively), whereas LV inflow propagation velocity significantly increased (60 +/- 24 vs 71 +/- 36 cm/s). Left atrial size decreased from 29 +/- 7 to 25 +/- 6 cm(2) (p <0.05). Patients had a significant improvement in New York Heart Association functional class and in exercise performance. When comparing ASR with myectomy, no difference was found in the degree of change in any parameter of diastolic function. Thus, diastolic function indexes obtained by echocardiography changed after septal reduction interventions in patients with obstructive HC; this change was similar to that after surgical myectomy and ASR.

Sitges, Marta; Shiota, Takahiro; Lever, Harry M.; Qin, Jian Xin; Bauer, Fabrice; Drinko, Jeannie K.; Agler, Deborah A.; Martin, Maureen G.; Greenberg, Neil L.; Smedira, Nicholas G.; Lytle, Bruce W.; Tuzcu, E. Murat; Garcia, Mario J.; Thomas, James D.

2003-01-01

100

Surface glycosaminoglycans mediate adherence between HeLa cells and Lactobacillus salivarius Lv72  

PubMed Central

Background The adhesion of lactobacilli to the vaginal surface is of paramount importance to develop their probiotic functions. For this reason, the role of HeLa cell surface proteoglycans in the attachment of Lactobacillus salivarius Lv72, a mutualistic strain of vaginal origin, was investigated. Results Incubation of cultures with a variety of glycosaminoglycans (chondroitin sulfate A and C, heparin and heparan sulfate) resulted in marked binding interference. However, no single glycosaminoglycan was able to completely abolish cell binding, the sum of all having an additive effect that suggests cooperation between them and recognition of specific adhesins on the bacterial surface. In contrast, chondroitin sulfate B enhanced cell to cell attachment, showing the relevance of the stereochemistry of the uronic acid and the sulfation pattern on binding. Elimination of the HeLa surface glycosaminoglycans with lyases also resulted in severe adherence impairment. Advantage was taken of the Lactobacillus-glycosaminoglycans interaction to identify an adhesin from the bacterial surface. This protein, identify as a soluble binding protein of an ABC transporter system (OppA) by MALDI-TOF/(MS), was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and shown to interfere with L. salivarius Lv72 adhesion to HeLa cells. Conclusions These data suggest that glycosaminoglycans play a fundamental role in attachment of mutualistic bacteria to the epithelium that lines the cavities where the normal microbiota thrives, OppA being a bacterial adhesin involved in the process. PMID:24044741

2013-01-01

101

Curva de rotação óptica de ESO-LV 5100550  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESO-LV 5100550 é o membro mais fraco do par de galáxias austral SBG 357 (Soares et al. 1995). É classificada no catálogo RC3 como uma espiral ordinária de tipo inicial (early-type); porém, uma análise morfológica sugere que ela tenha uma grande barra. O objetivo do estudo é determinar sua cinemática de tal modo que possamos inferir mais a respeito de sua dinâmica, provavelmente perturbada, já que se espera que esteja sob forte influência da companheira ESO-LV 5100560. Apresentarei resultados parciais determinados a partir de espectros obtidos com o instrumento Double Spectrograph montado no telescópio Hale do Monte Palomar, EUA. As observações foram realizadas por D.S.L. Soares, P.M.V. Veiga e T.E. Nordgren, em 1998. Foram tomados espectros de fenda longa posicionada sobre a linha dos nodos do disco e ao longo da suposta barra. Os dados foram reduzidos com uso do pacote IRAF. Obtivemos o perfil de velocidades radiais na linha de visada ao longo das fendas e calculamos o desvio para o vermelho cosmológico do sistema, com base no espectro central. Determinamos as curvas de rotação deprojetadas, com base em cálculos para os valores teóricos esperados das componentes de velocidades puramente circulares em um disco inclinado. A inclinação do disco, dado fundamental nesta deprojeção, foi estimada através da média das elipticidades das isofotas mais externas.

Carvalho, D. B.; Soares, D. S. L.

2003-08-01

102

Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1?±?2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG; 68.2?±?3.2 years). Examinations included measurements of cardiac function, microvascular endothelial function [reactive hyperemic index (RHI)], maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max ), and body composition. In VPG, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume was 20% larger (P?LV ejection fraction was higher (P?LV longitudinal displacement, i.e., LV shortening of 21% (P?LV systolic function, physical fitness, microvascular function, and a healthier body composition. Overall, VPG have better cardiovascular function compared with CG, which may reduce their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:24303918

Schmidt, J F; Andersen, T R; Andersen, L J; Randers, M B; Hornstrup, T; Hansen, P R; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

2015-02-01

103

Autologous heart cell transplantation improves cardiac function after myocardial injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Fetal ventricular cardiomyocyte transplantation into a cardiac scar improved ventricular function, but these cells were eventually eliminated by rejection. We therefore examined the feasibility of autologous adult heart cell transplantation.Methods. A transmural scar was produced in the left ventricular free wall of adult rats by cryoinjury. The left atrial appendage was harvested, and the atrial heart cells were cultured

Tetsuro Sakai; Ren-Ke Li; Richard D Weisel; Donald A. G Mickle; Eung-Joong Kim; Shinji Tomita; Zhi-Qian Jia; Terrence M Yau

1999-01-01

104

LEARN TO IMPROVE Sleep affects our daily functioning and our  

E-print Network

ABOUT SLEEP Test your knowledge with the ten most fascinating and weird sleep facts. If you didn't scoreLEARN TO IMPROVE YOUR SLEEP CAPS #12;PLAY Sleep affects our daily functioning and our physical of these cycles each night, with an increase in the period of dreaming before we wake in the morning. REM sleep

Viglas, Anastasios

105

Cardiomyoplasty improves contractile reserve after myocardial injury in mice: functional and morphological investigations with reconstructive three-dimensional echocardiography.  

PubMed

Cellular cardiomyoplasty (CMP) is a novel therapeutic approach to myocardial injury (MI). Post-MI remodeling of the left ventricle (LV) comprises dilatation and impairment of systolic function and gives rise to progressive hemodynamic deterioration. We aimed to investigate: a) the impact of CMP on global and regional parameters of LV remodeling (LVR) as well as contractile reserve and b) the suitability and validity of different echocardiographic methods in this scenario. Murine ventricular cardiomyocytes (E13.5-E16.5) were transplanted into cryolesioned hearts of male HIM-OF1 mice. Echocardiography was performed at rest 4 and 14 days postoperatively. For quantification of akinetic myocardial mass and contractile reserve 2 weeks postoperatively additionally low-dose dobutamine stress echocardiography was conducted. Reconstructive 3D-echocardiography (r3D-echo) was compared to "plain" echocardiographic investigations and was compared to invasive measurements with conduction catheter. CMP significantly attenuated LV dilatation and reduced LV function decline on day 14, as obtained with all echocardiographic modalities and confirmed with conduction catheter measurements. In contrast to plain echocardiography and invasive testing, r3D-echo allowed noninvasive quantification of scar size and assessment of regional contractile reserve. Cell transplanted hearts demonstrated a significant decrease of akinetic myocardial mass (-CMP: 13 ± 2%; +CMP 7 ± 1%; p < 0.001) and increased regional contractile reserve, an indirect sign of myocardial viability. The present study demonstrates beneficial effects of CMP on global and regional parameters of LVR and contractile reserve after MI. In contrast to "simple" 2D echocardiography, r3D-echo allowed the assessment of regional contractile reserve and quantification of akinetic myocardial mass as additive functional and morphological measures of LVR. PMID:21439129

Ghanem, Alexander; Röll, Wilhelm; Bostani, Toktam; Dewald, Oliver; Fleischmann, Bernd K; Stypmann, Jörg; Nickenig, Georg; Tiemann, Klaus

2011-01-01

106

Low-intensity interval exercise training attenuates coronary vascular dysfunction and preserves Ca2+-sensitive K+ current in miniature swine with LV hypertrophy  

PubMed Central

Coronary vascular dysfunction has been observed in several models of heart failure (HF). Recent evidence indicates that exercise training is beneficial for patients with HF, but the precise intensity and underlying mechanisms are unknown. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy can play a significant role in the development of HF; therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects of low-intensity interval exercise training on coronary vascular function in sedentary (HF) and exercise trained (HF-TR) aortic-banded miniature swine displaying LV hypertrophy. Six months postsurgery, in vivo coronary vascular responses to endothelin-1 (ET-1) and adenosine were measured in the left anterior descending coronary artery. Baseline and maximal coronary vascular conductance were similar between all groups. ET-1-induced reductions in coronary vascular conductance (P < 0.05) were greater in HF vs. sedentary control and HF-TR groups. Pretreatment with the ET type A (ETA) receptor blocker BQ-123 prevented ET-1 hypersensitivity in HF animals. Whole cell voltage clamp was used to characterize composite K+ currents (IK+) in coronary smooth muscle cells. Raising internal Ca2+ from 200 to 500 nM increased Ca2+-sensitive K+ current in HF-TR and control, but not HF animals. In conclusion, an ETA-receptor-mediated hypersensitivity to ET-1, elevated resting LV wall tension, and decreased coronary smooth muscle cell Ca2+-sensitive IK+ was found in sedentary animals with LV hypertrophy. Low-intensity interval exercise training preserved normal coronary vascular function and smooth muscle cell Ca2+-sensitive IK+, illustrating a potential mechanism underlying coronary vascular dysfunction in a large-animal model of LV hypertrophy. Our results demonstrate the potential clinical impact of exercise on coronary vascular function in HF patients displaying pathological LV hypertrophy. PMID:21841018

Tharp, Darla L.; Ivey, Jan R.; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K.; Bowles, Douglas K.

2011-01-01

107

Tiotropium Respimat® improves physical functioning in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  

PubMed Central

Aim: This observational study with tiotropium Respimat® was performed in a real-life setting to investigate its effectiveness with regard to physical functioning and tolerability. Methods: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n = 1,230; mean age, 65.5 years) received tiotropium 5 ?g once daily via Respimat® Soft Inhaler for 6 weeks in an open-label observational study. At baseline and week 6, patients completed the Physical Function subdomain [PF-10] of the Short Form (SF) 36 questionnaire. Results: Improvement in standardized PF-10 score of ?10 points was achieved by 61.5% of patients. Mean (SD) standardized PF-10 scores improved by 13.4 (15.9) points, from 49.0 (24.5) to 62.3 points (23.5; P < 0.001). Results in smokers (n = 435) were not significantly different to those in nonsmokers. The general condition of patients improved during treatment. Adverse events were reported by 4.0% of patients and were chiefly respiratory symptoms and dry mouth. Conclusion: In COPD patients receiving tiotropium Respimat® in daily practice, physical function improved rapidly within 6 weeks of treatment, irrespective of smoking status. PMID:21103403

Rau-Berger, Heike; Mitfessel, Harald; Glaab, Thomas

2010-01-01

108

Marked improvement in left ventricular function and significant reverse left ventricular remodeling within 3 months of cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

We monitored reverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling and LV function during the first 6 months of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in 34 patients (mean age = 55.3 +/- 13.6 years, 28 men) with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), left bundle branch block, in stable New York Heart Association class III, and on fixed drug regimen who underwent implantation of CRT systems with or without cardioverter defibrillator back-up. QRS-complex duration was reduced from 169.69 +/- 19.6 ms (SD) to 144.1 +/- 23.4 ms during CRT. Parasternal M-mode and apical 2D-echocardiography was performed before and 3 and 6 months after device implantation. LV enddiastolic (EDD) and endsystolic (ESD) diameters were measured, and biplane LV enddiastolic (EDV), and endsystolic (ESV) volumes and ejection fractions (EF) were calculated using a modified Simpson formula. Significant decreases in LVEDD (P = 0.0064 at 3 months and P = 0.021 at 6 months), LVESD (P = 0.023 at 3 months, and P = 0.003 at 6 months), and LVESV (P = 0.006 resp. P = 0.007), and increases in LVEF (P = 0.003 at 3 months and P < 0.001 at 6 months) were observed. Mean LVEF increased from 23% at baseline to 39% at 6 months. CRT induced prominent reverse LV remodeling and significantly increased LVEF within a few months in patients with DCM. PMID:15683524

Funck, Reinhard C; Koelsch, Susanne; Waldhans, Stefan; Prinz, Helge; Grimm, Wolfram; Moosdorf, Rainer; Maisch, Bernhard

2005-01-01

109

Arylsulfatase B Improves Locomotor Function after Mouse Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Bacterial chondroitinase ABC (ChaseABC) has been used to remove the inhibitory chondroitin sulfate chains from chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans to improve regeneration after rodent spinal cord injury. We hypothesized that the mammalian enzyme arylsulfatase B (ARSB) would also enhance recovery after mouse spinal cord injury. Application of the mammalian enzyme would be an attractive alternative to ChaseABC because of its more robust chemical stability and reduced immunogenicity. A one-time injection of human ARSB into injured mouse spinal cord eliminated immunoreactivity for chondroitin sulfates within five days, and up to 9 weeks after injury. After a moderate spinal cord injury, we observed improvements of locomotor recovery assessed by the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) in ARSB treated mice, compared to the buffer-treated control group, at 6 weeks after injection. After a severe spinal cord injury, mice injected with equivalent units of ARSB or ChaseABC improved similarly and both groups achieved significantly more locomotor recovery than the buffer-treated control mice. Serotonin and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive axons were more extensively present in mouse spinal cords treated with ARSB and ChaseABC, and the immunoreactive axons penetrated further beyond the injury site in ARSB or ChaseABC treated mice than in control mice. These results indicate that mammalian ARSB improves functional recovery after CNS injury. The structural/molecular mechanisms underlying the observed functional improvement remain to be elucidated. PMID:23520469

Yoo, Myungsik; Khaled, Muntasir; Gibbs, Kurt M.; Kim, Jonghun; Kowalewski, Björn; Dierks, Thomas; Schachner, Melitta

2013-01-01

110

Training improves visual processing speed and generalizes to untrained functions  

PubMed Central

Studies show that manipulating certain training features in perceptual learning determines the specificity of the improvement. The improvement in abnormal visual processing following training and its generalization to visual acuity, as measured on static clinical charts, can be explained by improved sensitivity or processing speed. Crowding, the inability to recognize objects in a clutter, fundamentally limits conscious visual perception. Although it was largely considered absent in the fovea, earlier studies report foveal crowding upon very brief exposures or following spatial manipulations. Here we used GlassesOff's application for iDevices to train foveal vision of young participants. The training was performed at reading distance based on contrast detection tasks under different spatial and temporal constraints using Gabor patches aimed at testing improvement of processing speed. We found several significant improvements in spatio-temporal visual functions including near and also non-trained far distances. A remarkable transfer to visual acuity measured under crowded conditions resulted in reduced processing time of 81?ms, in order to achieve 6/6 acuity. Despite a subtle change in contrast sensitivity, a robust increase in processing speed was found. Thus, enhanced processing speed may lead to overcoming foveal crowding and might be the enabling factor for generalization to other visual functions. PMID:25431233

Lev, Maria; Ludwig, Karin; Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Voss, Stephanie; Sterzer, Philipp; Hesselmann, Guido; Polat, Uri

2014-01-01

111

Are Normative Values for LV Geometry and Mass Based on Fundamental Imaging Valid With Use of Harmonic Imaging?  

PubMed Central

Background Multiple studies have reported echocardiographically determined normal reference values for left ventricular mass (LVM) derived using fundamental imaging (FI). Modern ultrasound systems now use harmonic imaging (HI) due to the improved LV endomyocardial definition. However, the 2005 American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) Recommendations noted that the applicability of the reference values to HI-derived measurements has not been established. Methods LV end-diastolic volume, diameter, wall thickness, and mass were determined using HI in healthy subjects (n=251) including a normal weight (NW, body mass index [BMI] < 25 kg/m2, n=149, 68% women) and an otherwise-healthy overweight (OW, BMI ?25 and <30 kg/m2, n=102, 41% women) groups. Measurements were compared to ASE-endorsed reference values. The agreement between FI and HI was determined in a prospective cohort of 51 subjects. Results 2D-derived LV volumes were similar between NW and OW subjects; although M-mode (MM)-derived LV diameters were slightly greater in OW. 2D- and MM-derived LVM was greater in OW compared to NW subjects, including after adjustment by height or height2.7; however, indexing to body surface area eliminated these differences. The partition values for abnormal 2D- and MM-derived LVM were generally greater in NW and OW subjects of both sexes compared with the ASE endorsed values (except MM-derived in NW men). However, there were no significant differences in LVM determined by HI compared to FI in a prospectively studied cohort. Conclusions Reference values for LVM derived from NW and OW cohorts are generally higher than the ASE-endorsed referenced values. The difference between NW and ASE-endorsed values is unlikely to result from the use of HI rather than FI since there is excellent agreement between these two imaging modalities. This study emphasizes the need to update normal reference values to reflect modern imaging methods. PMID:20863657

de las Fuentes, Lisa; Spence, Karen E.; Dávila-Román, Victor G.; Waggoner, Alan D.

2010-01-01

112

Improving the ecological validity of executive functioning assessment.  

PubMed

The current study investigated ways to improve the ecological validity of the neuropsychological assessment of executive functioning through the formal assessment of compensatory strategies and environmental cognitive demands. Results indicated that the group of executive functioning tests (i.e., Trail Making Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Stroop, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test) accounted for 18-20% of the variance in everyday executive ability as measured by the Dysexecutive Questionnaire and Brock Adaptive Functioning Questionnaire. The addition of extra-test variables significantly increased the variance in everyday executive ability accounted for. The current study adds to the literature on the ecological validity of executive functioning assessment by highlighting the importance of extra-test variables when trying to understand the complex relationship between cognitive testing and real world performance. PMID:16554143

Chaytor, Naomi; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Burr, Robert

2006-04-01

113

Berberine Improves Kidney Function in Diabetic Mice via AMPK Activation  

PubMed Central

Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Effective therapies to prevent the development of this disease are required. Berberine (BBR) has several preventive effects on diabetes and its complications. However, the molecular mechanism of BBR on kidney function in diabetes is not well defined. Here, we reported that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is required for BBR-induced improvement of kidney function in vivo. AMPK phosphorylation and activity, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), kidney function including serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine clearance (Ccr), and urinary protein excretion, morphology of glomerulus were determined in vitro or in vivo. Exposure of cultured human glomerulus mesangial cells (HGMCs) to BBR time- or dose-dependently activates AMPK by increasing the thr172 phosphorylation and its activities. Inhibition of LKB1 by siRNA or mutant abolished BBR-induced AMPK activation. Incubation of cells with high glucose (HG, 30 mM) markedly induced the oxidative stress of HGMCs, which were abolished by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside, AMPK gene overexpression or BBR. Importantly, the effects induced by BBR were bypassed by AMPK siRNA transfection in HG-treated HGMCs. In animal studies, streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia dramatically promoted glomerulosclerosis and impaired kidney function by increasing serum BUN, urinary protein excretion, and decreasing Ccr, as well as increased oxidative stress. Administration of BBR remarkably improved kidney function in wildtype mice but not in AMPK?2-deficient mice. We conclude that AMPK activation is required for BBR to improve kidney function in diabetic mice. PMID:25409232

Zhao, Long; Sun, Li-Na; Nie, Hui-Bin; Wang, Xue-Ling; Guan, Guang-Ju

2014-01-01

114

Etifoxine improves peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery  

PubMed Central

Peripheral nerves show spontaneous regenerative responses, but recovery after injury or peripheral neuropathies (toxic, diabetic, or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy syndromes) is slow and often incomplete, and at present no efficient treatment is available. Using well-defined peripheral nerve lesion paradigms, we assessed the therapeutic usefulness of etifoxine, recently identified as a ligand of the translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO), to promote axonal regeneration, modulate inflammatory responses, and improve functional recovery. We found by histologic analysis that etifoxine therapy promoted the regeneration of axons in and downstream of the lesion after freeze injury and increased axonal growth into a silicone guide tube by a factor of 2 after nerve transection. Etifoxine also stimulated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, and the effect was even stronger than for specific TSPO ligands. Etifoxine treatment caused a marked reduction in the number of macrophages after cryolesion within the nerve stumps, which was rapid in the proximal and delayed in the distal nerve stumps. Functional tests revealed accelerated and improved recovery of locomotion, motor coordination, and sensory functions in response to etifoxine. This work demonstrates that etifoxine, a clinically approved drug already used for the treatment of anxiety disorders, is remarkably efficient in promoting acceleration of peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Its possible mechanism of action is discussed, with reference to the neurosteroid concept. This molecule, which easily enters nerve tissues and regulates multiple functions in a concerted manner, offers promise for the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries and axonal neuropathies. PMID:19075249

Girard, Christelle; Liu, Song; Cadepond, Françoise; Adams, David; Lacroix, Catherine; Verleye, Marc; Gillardin, Jean-Marie; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile; Schumacher, Michael; Schweizer-Groyer, Ghislaine

2008-01-01

115

Etifoxine improves peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery.  

PubMed

Peripheral nerves show spontaneous regenerative responses, but recovery after injury or peripheral neuropathies (toxic, diabetic, or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy syndromes) is slow and often incomplete, and at present no efficient treatment is available. Using well-defined peripheral nerve lesion paradigms, we assessed the therapeutic usefulness of etifoxine, recently identified as a ligand of the translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO), to promote axonal regeneration, modulate inflammatory responses, and improve functional recovery. We found by histologic analysis that etifoxine therapy promoted the regeneration of axons in and downstream of the lesion after freeze injury and increased axonal growth into a silicone guide tube by a factor of 2 after nerve transection. Etifoxine also stimulated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, and the effect was even stronger than for specific TSPO ligands. Etifoxine treatment caused a marked reduction in the number of macrophages after cryolesion within the nerve stumps, which was rapid in the proximal and delayed in the distal nerve stumps. Functional tests revealed accelerated and improved recovery of locomotion, motor coordination, and sensory functions in response to etifoxine. This work demonstrates that etifoxine, a clinically approved drug already used for the treatment of anxiety disorders, is remarkably efficient in promoting acceleration of peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Its possible mechanism of action is discussed, with reference to the neurosteroid concept. This molecule, which easily enters nerve tissues and regulates multiple functions in a concerted manner, offers promise for the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries and axonal neuropathies. PMID:19075249

Girard, Christelle; Liu, Song; Cadepond, Françoise; Adams, David; Lacroix, Catherine; Verleye, Marc; Gillardin, Jean-Marie; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile; Schumacher, Michael; Schweizer-Groyer, Ghislaine

2008-12-23

116

Use of a 4D planispheric transformation for the tracking and analysis of LV motion with tagged MR images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major issue in cardiac imaging is the assessment of cardiac function and particularly the identification of ischemic or infarcted tissues. We present in this article a method to reconstruct the motion of the left ventricle (LV) using 4D planispheric transformations of time and space combined in a first step with B-spline tensor products. Because of the 4D modeling, (1) the use of planispheric coordinates makes the numerical evaluation more stable as compared to prolate spheroidal coordinates, the equivalent focal point being much further from the apical area of the heart. (2) In the temporal modeling, a simple adaptation is possible to changing temporal dynamics such as introduced by ectopic pacing or rapid filling after systole. (3) Finally, the strain analysis and displacement parameters that are used for the spatial modeling are computed at any point of the LV volume. Experiments are conducted on a normal and a pathological LV (posterior infarct) in order to assess the tuning of the parameters of the method. The mean RMS-distance error is less than 0.5 mm for both LVs. Finally, the motion is analyzed as smooth zeroth (displacement) and first order parameters (strain).

Declerck, Jerome; Ayache, Nicholas; McVeigh, Elliot R.

1999-05-01

117

Viral DNA tethering domains complement replication-defective mutations in the p12 protein of MuLV Gag.  

PubMed

The p12 protein of murine leukemia virus (MuLV) group-specific antigen (Gag) is associated with the preintegration complex, and mutants of p12 (PM14) show defects in nuclear entry or retention. Here we show that p12 proteins engineered to encode peptide sequences derived from known viral tethering proteins can direct chromatin binding during the early phase of viral replication and rescue a lethal p12-PM14 mutant. Peptides studied included segments of Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA)(1-23), human papillomavirus 8 E2, and prototype foamy virus chromatin-binding sequences. Amino acid substitutions in Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus LANA and prototype foamy virus chromatin-binding sequences that blocked nucleosome association failed to rescue MuLV p12-PM14. Rescue by a larger LANA peptide, LANA(1-32), required second-site mutations that are predicted to reduce peptide binding affinity to chromosomes, suggesting that excessively high binding affinity interfered with Gag/p12 function. This is supported by confocal microscopy of chimeric p12-GFP fusion constructs showing the reverted proteins had weaker association to condensed mitotic chromosomes. Analysis of the integration-site selection of these chimeric viruses showed no significant change in integration profile compared with wild-type MuLV, suggesting release of the tethered p12 post mitosis, before viral integration. PMID:23661057

Schneider, William M; Brzezinski, Jonathon D; Aiyer, Sriram; Malani, Nirav; Gyuricza, Mercedes; Bushman, Frederic D; Roth, Monica J

2013-06-01

118

Normalizing hematocrit in dialysis patients improves brain function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) treatment has been shown to improve brain and cognitive function in anemic dialysis patients. Significant debate continues, however, regarding the appropriate target hematocrit (Hct) that will lead to the greatest benefits while considering possible side effects and costs of rHuEPO. Current practice results in an Hct averaging only 31% to 32% in dialysis patients, a level

Janiece L. Pickett; David C. Theberge; Warren S. Brown; Suzanne U. Schweitzer; Allen R. Nissenson

1999-01-01

119

Design of actively shielded main magnets: an improved functional method.  

PubMed

An improved functional approach for designing MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) main magnets with active shielding is presented. By nulling one or two external moments as well as a certain series of internal moments of the magnetic field, new designs with improved shielding in combination with or without shorter magnet lengths are obtained. The improved method can be employed to design short and practical superconducting magnets at any given field strength. The resulting designs yield the desired field homogeneity inside the region of interest without using superconducting shim coils. This approach requires only a modest amount of computing power. One of the design steps, a contour plot of the continuous current solutions, can be utilized to study stretch goals for favorable design parameters. PMID:12884110

Cheng, Yu-Chung N; Eagan, Timothy P; Brown, Robert W; Shvartsman, Shmaryu M; Thompson, Michael R

2003-07-01

120

Modification of biochar for functionality improvement in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of biochar to soils is generally considered and practiced in order to improve specific soil functions such as CEC, moisture and nutrient retention and providing additional habitat for micro-organisms. Improvement of these soil functions should lead to a higher crop yield. This would be added value to the long term sequestration of carbon in soils and contribution to renewable energy from producing and using biochar. The concept of using biochar for soil amendment is predicated on biochar behaving in a similar manner as soil organic matter (SOM) does. However, if one critically compares the properties of biochar with the properties of SOM, it is evident that biochar is rather different from SOM [Zwart, 2013 ;Zwart & Kuikman, 2013]. We have has produced a range of biochar from different feedstock using pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal carbonisation resulting in chars with significantly different properties. The project also investigates and tested several possibilities for improving the functionality of biochar in soils by either(i) selection of feedstock, (ii), selection of processing conditions and (iii) chemical and physical modification of biochar during and after the production process. Post modification includes the chemical treatment of biochars with either H2O2, KOH, H2SO4 and transitional metals such as Fe and investigates their effect on surface functionality, porosity, surface area, CEC and phosphate sorption. The influence of the addition of chemical modifiers and oxidants during pyrolysis and gasification has also been investigated and their effect on surface functionality determined using similar techniques. The influence of the original biomass structure on the morphology of the resultant biochars has been investigated using scanning electron microscopy.

Zwart, Kor; Kuikman, Peter; Ross, Anrew; Takaya, Chibi; Singh, Surjit; Kocaturk, Pelin; Visser, Rian

2014-05-01

121

Assessment of the LV-S2 & LV-S3 Stack Sampling Probe Locations for Compliance with ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999  

SciTech Connect

This document reports on a series of tests conducted to assess the proposed air sampling locations for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Group 1-2A exhaust stacks with respect to the applicable criteria regarding the placement of an air sampling probe. The LV-C2, LV-S2, and LV-S3 exhaust stacks were tested together as a group (Test Group 1-2A). This report only covers the results of LV-S2 and LV-S3; LV-C2 will be reported on separately. Federal regulations1 require that a sampling probe be located in the exhaust stack according to the criteria established by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society (ANSI/HPS) N13.1-1999, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. 2 These criteria address the capability of the sampling probe to extract a sample that represents the effluent stream.

Glissmeyer, John A.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Flaherty, Julia E.; Amidan, Brett G.

2014-09-30

122

Activities and Programs That Improve Children's Executive Functions.  

PubMed

Executive functions (EFs; e.g., reasoning, working memory, and self-control) can be improved. Good news indeed, since EFs are critical for school and job success and for mental and physical health. Various activities appear to improve children's EFs. The best evidence exists for computer-based training, traditional martial arts, and two school curricula. Weaker evidence, though strong enough to pass peer review, exists for aerobics, yoga, mindfulness, and other school curricula. Here I address what can be learned from the research thus far, including that EFs need to be progressively challenged as children improve and that repeated practice is key. Children devote time and effort to activities they love; therefore, EF interventions might use children's motivation to advantage. Focusing narrowly on EFs or aerobic activity alone appears not to be as efficacious in improving EFs as also addressing children's emotional, social, and character development (as do martial arts, yoga, and curricula shown to improve EFs). Children with poorer EFs benefit more from training; hence, training might provide them an opportunity to "catch up" with their peers and not be left behind. Remaining questions include how long benefits of EF training last and who benefits most from which activities. PMID:25328287

Diamond, Adele

2012-10-01

123

Activities and Programs That Improve Children’s Executive Functions  

PubMed Central

Executive functions (EFs; e.g., reasoning, working memory, and self-control) can be improved. Good news indeed, since EFs are critical for school and job success and for mental and physical health. Various activities appear to improve children’s EFs. The best evidence exists for computer-based training, traditional martial arts, and two school curricula. Weaker evidence, though strong enough to pass peer review, exists for aerobics, yoga, mindfulness, and other school curricula. Here I address what can be learned from the research thus far, including that EFs need to be progressively challenged as children improve and that repeated practice is key. Children devote time and effort to activities they love; therefore, EF interventions might use children’s motivation to advantage. Focusing narrowly on EFs or aerobic activity alone appears not to be as efficacious in improving EFs as also addressing children’s emotional, social, and character development (as do martial arts, yoga, and curricula shown to improve EFs). Children with poorer EFs benefit more from training; hence, training might provide them an opportunity to “catch up” with their peers and not be left behind. Remaining questions include how long benefits of EF training last and who benefits most from which activities. PMID:25328287

Diamond, Adele

2014-01-01

124

Intravenous Glial Growth Factor 2 (GGF2) Isoform of Neuregulin-1? Improves Left Ventricular Function, Gene and Protein Expression in Rats after Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Aims Recombinant Neuregulin (NRG)-1? has multiple beneficial effects on cardiac myocytes in culture, and has potential as a clinical therapy for heart failure (HF). A number of factors may influence the effect of NRG-1? on cardiac function via ErbB receptor coupling and expression. We examined the effect of the NRG-1? isoform, glial growth factor 2 (GGF2), in rats with myocardial infarction (MI) and determined the impact of high-fat diet as well as chronicity of disease on GGF2 induced improvement in left ventricular systolic function. Potential mechanisms for GGF2 effects on the remote myocardium were explored using microarray and proteomic analysis. Methods and Results Rats with MI were randomized to receive vehicle, 0.625 mg/kg, or 3.25 mg/kg GGF2 in the presence and absence of high-fat feeding beginning at day 7 post-MI and continuing for 4 weeks. Residual left ventricular (LV) function was improved in both of the GGF2 treatment groups compared with the vehicle treated MI group at 4 weeks of treatment as assessed by echocardiography. High-fat diet did not prevent the effects of high dose GGF2. In experiments where treatment was delayed until 8 weeks after MI, high but not low dose GGF2 treatment was associated with improved systolic function. mRNA and protein expression analysis of remote left ventricular tissue revealed a number of changes in myocardial gene and protein expression altered by MI that were normalized by GGF2 treatment, many of which are involved in energy production. Conclusions This study demonstrates that in rats with MI induced systolic dysfunction, GGF2 treatment improves cardiac function. There are differences in sensitivity of the myocardium to GGF2 effects when administered early vs. late post-MI that may be important to consider in the development of GGF2 in humans. PMID:23437060

Murphy, Abigail; Smith, Holly M.; Galindo, Cristi L.; Pentassuglia, Laura; Peng, Xuyang; Lenneman, Carrie G.; Odiete, Oghenerukevwe; Friedman, David B.; Kronenberg, Marvin W.; Zheng, Siyuen; Zhao, Zhongming; Song, Yanna; Harrell, Frank E.; Srinivas, Maya; Ganguly, Anindita; Iaci, Jennifer; Parry, Tom J.; Caggiano, Anthony O.; Sawyer, Douglas B.

2013-01-01

125

Enzyme functional evolution through improved catalysis of ancestrally nonpreferred substrates  

PubMed Central

In this study, we investigated the role for ancestral functional variation that may be selected upon to generate protein functional shifts using ancestral protein resurrection, statistical tests for positive selection, forward and reverse evolutionary genetics, and enzyme functional assays. Data are presented for three instances of protein functional change in the salicylic acid/benzoic acid/theobromine (SABATH) lineage of plant secondary metabolite-producing enzymes. In each case, we demonstrate that ancestral nonpreferred activities were improved upon in a daughter enzyme after gene duplication, and that these functional shifts were likely coincident with positive selection. Both forward and reverse mutagenesis studies validate the impact of one or a few sites toward increasing activity with ancestrally nonpreferred substrates. In one case, we document the occurrence of an evolutionary reversal of an active site residue that reversed enzyme properties. Furthermore, these studies show that functionally important amino acid replacements result in substrate discrimination as reflected in evolutionary changes in the specificity constant (kcat/KM) for competing substrates, even though adaptive substitutions may affect KM and kcat separately. In total, these results indicate that nonpreferred, or even latent, ancestral protein activities may be coopted at later times to become the primary or preferred protein activities. PMID:22315396

Huang, Ruiqi; Hippauf, Frank; Rohrbeck, Diana; Haustein, Maria; Wenke, Katrin; Feike, Janie; Sorrelle, Noah; Piechulla, Birgit; Barkman, Todd J.

2012-01-01

126

Enzyme functional evolution through improved catalysis of ancestrally nonpreferred substrates.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the role for ancestral functional variation that may be selected upon to generate protein functional shifts using ancestral protein resurrection, statistical tests for positive selection, forward and reverse evolutionary genetics, and enzyme functional assays. Data are presented for three instances of protein functional change in the salicylic acid/benzoic acid/theobromine (SABATH) lineage of plant secondary metabolite-producing enzymes. In each case, we demonstrate that ancestral nonpreferred activities were improved upon in a daughter enzyme after gene duplication, and that these functional shifts were likely coincident with positive selection. Both forward and reverse mutagenesis studies validate the impact of one or a few sites toward increasing activity with ancestrally nonpreferred substrates. In one case, we document the occurrence of an evolutionary reversal of an active site residue that reversed enzyme properties. Furthermore, these studies show that functionally important amino acid replacements result in substrate discrimination as reflected in evolutionary changes in the specificity constant (k(cat)/K(M)) for competing substrates, even though adaptive substitutions may affect K(M) and k(cat) separately. In total, these results indicate that nonpreferred, or even latent, ancestral protein activities may be coopted at later times to become the primary or preferred protein activities. PMID:22315396

Huang, Ruiqi; Hippauf, Frank; Rohrbeck, Diana; Haustein, Maria; Wenke, Katrin; Feike, Janie; Sorrelle, Noah; Piechulla, Birgit; Barkman, Todd J

2012-02-21

127

Meshless Deformable Models for LV Motion Analysis Xiaoxu Wang Dimitis Metaxas  

E-print Network

Meshless Deformable Models for LV Motion Analysis Xiaoxu Wang Dimitis Metaxas Rutgers University meshless deformable model for in vivo cardiac left ventricle (LV) 3D motion estimation. As a relatively new and redistribute the force to meshless parti- cles throughout the myocardium. Internal constraint forces

128

Functional remediation for patients with bipolar II disorder: Improvement of functioning and subsyndromal symptoms.  

PubMed

Recently, Functional Remediation (FR) has proven to be effective in improving the functional outcome of euthymic bipolar patients. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of the FR program in a subsample of euthymic bipolar II patients (BPII). A post-hoc analyses were undertaken using data of 53 BPII outpatients who had participated in a multicenter, rater-blind, randomized, controlled trial exploring the efficacy of FR (n=17) as compared with a Psychoeducation group (PSY) (n=19) and a treatment as usual control group (TAU n=17). The primary outcome variable was the functional improvement defined as the mean change in the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) from baseline to endpoint after the intervention. Regarding the treatment effect, data reveal a significant functional improvement from baseline to endpoint, suggestive for an interaction between program pertinence and time (pre-post). Nevertheless, Tukey?s post-hoc test only revealed a trend in favor of a better outcome for FR when compared to the other two groups. We also found an interaction between program pertinence and time when analysing the subdepressive symptoms, with BPII patients in FR showing a significant reduction when compared to the PSY group. Our results suggest that the FR appears to be effective in improving the overall functional outcome in BPII, as well as in reducing subdepressive symptoms. PMID:24906790

Solé, Brisa; Bonnin, C Mar; Mayoral, María; Amann, Benedikt L; Torres, Imma; González-Pinto, Ana; Jimenez, Esther; Crespo, Jose Manuel; Colom, Francesc; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Reinares, Maria; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Soria, Sara; Garcia-Portilla, M Paz; Ibañez, Ángela; Vieta, Eduard; Martinez-Aran, Anabel; Torrent, Carla

2015-02-01

129

Ranolazine improves diastolic function in spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Diastolic dysfunction can lead to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, for which there is no effective therapeutic. Ranolazine has been reported to reduce diastolic dysfunction, but the specific mechanisms of action are unclear. The effect of ranolazine on diastolic function was examined in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), where left ventricular relaxation is impaired and stiffness increased. The objective of this study was to determine whether ranolazine improves diastolic function in SHRs and identify the mechanism(s) by which improvement is achieved. Specifically, to test the hypothesis that ranolazine, by inhibiting late sodium current, reduces Ca(2+) overload and promotes ventricular relaxation and reduction in diastolic stiffness, the effects of ranolazine or vehicle on heart function and the response to dobutamine challenge were evaluated in aged male SHRs and Wistar-Kyoto rats by echocardiography and pressure-volume loop analysis. The effects of ranolazine and the more specific sodium channel inhibitor tetrodotoxin were determined on the late sodium current, sarcomere length, and intracellular calcium in isolated cardiomyocytes. Ranolazine reduced the end-diastolic pressure-volume relationship slope and improved diastolic function during dobutamine challenge in the SHR. Ranolazine and tetrodotoxin also enhanced cardiomyocyte relaxation and reduced myoplasmic free Ca(2+) during diastole at high-stimulus rates in the SHR. The density of the late sodium current was elevated in SHRs. In conclusion, ranolazine was effective in reducing diastolic dysfunction in the SHR. Its mechanism of action, at least in part, is consistent with inhibition of the increased late sodium current in the SHR leading to reduced Ca(2+) overload. PMID:24464752

Williams, Sarah; Pourrier, Marc; McAfee, Donald; Lin, Shunping; Fedida, David

2014-03-01

130

Diagnosis of coronary artery disease by radionuclide angiography: Effect of combining indices of left ventricular function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine whether the diagnostic capability of radionuclide angiography (RNA) in detecting coronary artery disease (CAD) might be improved by using several indices of left ventricular (LV) function in concert. Three different models (rest data, exercise data, and rest plus exercise data) were derived by stepwise multivariate discriminant analysis of RNA data in 65

L. Pace; S. L. Bacharach; R. O. Bonow; M. V. Green; S. M. Larson

1989-01-01

131

Adaptive servoventilation improves cardiac function and respiratory stability  

PubMed Central

Cheyne–Stokes respiration (CSR) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) is of major prognostic impact and expresses respiratory instability. Other parameters are daytime pCO2, VE/VCO2-slope during exercise, exertional oscillatory ventilation (EOV), and increased sensitivity of central CO2 receptors. Adaptive servoventilation (ASV) was introduced to specifically treat CSR in CHF. Aim of this study was to investigate ASV effects on CSR, cardiac function, and respiratory stability. A total of 105 patients with CHF (NYHA ? II, left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) ? 40%) and CSR (apnoea–hypopnoea index ? 15/h) met inclusion criteria. According to adherence to ASV treatment (follow-up of 6.7 ± 3.2 months) this group was divided into controls (rejection of ASV treatment or usage <50% of nights possible and/or <4 h/night; n = 59) and ASV (n = 56) adhered patients. In the ASV group, ventilator therapy was able to effectively treat CSR. In contrast to controls, NYHA class, EF, oxygen uptake, 6-min walking distance, and NT-proBNP improved significantly. Moreover, exclusively in these patients pCO2, VE/VCO2-slope during exercise, EOV, and central CO2 receptor sensitivity improved. In CHF patients with CSR, ASV might be able to improve parameters of SDB, cardiac function, and respiratory stability. PMID:20835903

Bitter, Thomas; Lehmann, Roman; Korte, Stefan; Dimitriadis, Zisis; Faber, Lothar; Schmidt, Anke; Westerheide, Nina; Horstkotte, Dieter

2010-01-01

132

Intracoronary administration of cardiac stem cells in mice: a new, improved technique for cell therapy in murine models  

PubMed Central

A model of intracoronary stem cell delivery that enables transgenesis/gene targeting would be a powerful tool but is still lacking. To address this gap, we compared intracoronary and intramyocardial delivery of lin?/c-kit+/GFP+ cardiac stem cells (CSCs) in a murine model of reperfused myocardial infarction (MI). Lin?/c-kit+/GFP+ CSCs were successfully expanded from GFP transgenic hearts and cultured with no detectable phenotypic change for up to ten passages. Intracoronary delivery of CSCs 2 days post-MI resulted in significant alleviation of adverse LV remodeling and dysfunction, which was at least equivalent, if not superior, to that achieved with intramyocardial delivery. Compared with intramyocardial injection, intracoronary infusion was associated with a more homogeneous distribution of CSCs in the infarcted region and a greater increase in viable tissue in this region, suggesting greater formation of new cardiomyocytes. Intracoronary CSC delivery resulted in improved function in the infarcted region, as well as in improved global LV systolic and diastolic function, and in decreased LV dilation and LV expansion index; the magnitude of these effects was similar to that observed after intramyocardial injection. We conclude that, in the murine model of reperfused MI, intracoronary CSC infusion is at least as effective as intramyocardial injection in limiting LV remodeling and improving both regional and global LV function. The intracoronary route appears to be superior in terms of uniformity of cell distribution, myocyte regeneration, and amount of viable tissue in the risk region. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report that intracoronary infusion of stem cells in mice is feasible and effective. PMID:21516491

Li, Qianhong; Guo, Yiru; Ou, Qinghui; Chen, Ning; Wu, Wen-Jian; Yuan, Fangping; O’Brien, Erin; Wang, Tao; Luo, Li; Hunt, Gregory N.; Zhu, Xiaoping

2013-01-01

133

Improving executive functioning in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

An extensive body of literature has documented executive function (EF) impairments in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD); however, few studies have aimed specifically at improving EF. One treatment program that shows promise for children with FASD is the Alert Program for Self-Regulation®, which is a 12-week treatment specifically designed to target self-regulation, a component of EF. The present study sought to examine if Alert would produce improvements in self-regulation that would generalize to other aspects of EF, behavior, and social skills in children with FASD. Twenty-five children aged 8-12 years diagnosed with an FASD were assigned in alternating sequence to either an immediate treatment (TXT) or a delayed treatment control (DTC) group. Both groups received a comprehensive evaluation of EF at baseline and upon completing therapy (TXT), or after a 12- to 14-week interval from baseline (DTC). Parents also completed questionnaires assessing EF and behavior at both time points. For the TXT group only, parent questionnaires were readministered at 6-month follow-up. At the 12-week follow-up, the TXT group displayed significant improvements in inhibitory control and social cognition. Parents of children in the TXT group reported improved behavioral and emotional regulation, as well as reduced externalizing behavior problems. These behavioral improvements along with further improved parent-rated inhibitory control was maintained at the 6-month follow-up. The EF disabilities in children with FASD can be remediated through a targeted treatment approach aimed at facilitating self-regulation skills. PMID:25010354

Nash, Kelly; Stevens, Sara; Greenbaum, Rachel; Weiner, Judith; Koren, Gideon; Rovet, Joanne

2015-01-01

134

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves cognitive functioning after brain injury  

PubMed Central

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been widely applied and recognized in the treatment of brain injury; however, the correlation between the protective effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and changes of metabolites in the brain remains unclear. To investigate the effect and potential mechanism of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cognitive functioning in rats, we established traumatic brain injury models using Feeney's free falling method. We treated rat models with hyperbaric oxygen therapy at 0.2 MPa for 60 minutes per day. The Morris water maze test for spatial navigation showed that the average escape latency was significantly prolonged and cognitive function decreased in rats with brain injury. After treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy for 1 and 2 weeks, the rats’ spatial learning and memory abilities were improved. Hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis showed that the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased at 1 week, and the N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio was significantly increased at 2 weeks after hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Nissl staining and immunohistochemical staining showed that the number of nerve cells and Nissl bodies in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased, and glial fibrillary acidic protein positive cells were decreased after a 2-week hyperbaric oxygen therapy treatment. Our findings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen therapy significantly improves cognitive functioning in rats with traumatic brain injury, and the potential mechanism is mediated by metabolic changes and nerve cell restoration in the hippocampal CA3 region. PMID:25206655

Liu, Su; Shen, Guangyu; Deng, Shukun; Wang, Xiubin; Wu, Qinfeng; Guo, Aisong

2013-01-01

135

Active robotic training improves locomotor function in a stroke survivor  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical outcomes after robotic training are often not superior to conventional therapy. One key factor responsible for this is the use of control strategies that provide substantial guidance. This strategy not only leads to a reduction in volitional physical effort, but also interferes with motor relearning. Methods We tested the feasibility of a novel training approach (active robotic training) using a powered gait orthosis (Lokomat) in mitigating post-stroke gait impairments of a 52-year-old male stroke survivor. This gait training paradigm combined patient-cooperative robot-aided walking with a target-tracking task. The training lasted for 4-weeks (12 visits, 3?×?per week). The subject’s neuromotor performance and recovery were evaluated using biomechanical, neuromuscular and clinical measures recorded at various time-points (pre-training, post-training, and 6-weeks after training). Results Active robotic training resulted in considerable increase in target-tracking accuracy and reduction in the kinematic variability of ankle trajectory during robot-aided treadmill walking. These improvements also transferred to overground walking as characterized by larger propulsive forces and more symmetric ground reaction forces (GRFs). Training also resulted in improvements in muscle coordination, which resembled patterns observed in healthy controls. These changes were accompanied by a reduction in motor cortical excitability (MCE) of the vastus medialis, medial hamstrings, and gluteus medius muscles during treadmill walking. Importantly, active robotic training resulted in substantial improvements in several standard clinical and functional parameters. These improvements persisted during the follow-up evaluation at 6?weeks. Conclusions The results indicate that active robotic training appears to be a promising way of facilitating gait and physical function in moderately impaired stroke survivors. PMID:22906099

2012-01-01

136

Methylphenidate significantly improves declarative memory functioning of adults with ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Declarative memory deficits are common in untreated adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but limited\\u000a evidence exists to support improvement after treatment with methylphenidate. The objective of this study was to examine the\\u000a effects of methylphenidate on memory functioning of adults with ADHD.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Eighteen adults with ADHD who were clinical responders to methylphenidate participated in this randomized crossover trial.\\u000a After

Joris C. Verster; Evelijne M. Bekker; J. J. Sandra Kooij; Jan K. Buitelaar; Marinus N. Verbaten; Edmund R. Volkerts; Berend Olivier

2010-01-01

137

Schrödinger functional boundary conditions and improvement for N >3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard method to calculate non-perturbatively the evolution of the running coupling of a SU( N ) gauge theory is based on the Schrödinger functional (SF). In this paper we construct a family of boundary fields for general values of N which enter the standard definition of the SF coupling. We provide spatial boundary conditions for fermions in several representations which reduce the condition number of the squared Dirac operator. In addition, we calculate the improvement coefficients for N >3 needed to remove boundary cutoff effects from the gauge action. After this, residual cutoff effects on the step scaling function are shown to be very small even when considering non-fundamental representations. We also calculate the ratio of ? parameters between the and SF schemes.

Hietanen, Ari; Karavirta, Tuomas; Vilaseca, Pol

2014-11-01

138

Does cognitive function improve with quetiapine in comparison to haloperidol?  

PubMed

Recent evidence suggests that schizophrenia patients taking atypical antipsychotic medications may perform better on some tests of cognitive function than those treated with older antipsychotics. The current study compared the effects of quetiapine and haloperidol on measures of executive function, memory and attention. Subjects were 58 stable outpatients with schizophrenia (DSM III-R) who received a battery of cognitive tests as part of a randomized, double-blind, multi-site clinical efficacy study conducted by AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals. Cognitive assessments were conducted prior to randomization when patients were receiving < or =30 mg haloperidol or equivalent (mean: 9.2mg/day haloperidol equivalents), and again after 24 weeks of fixed-dose treatment with either quetiapine 600 or 300 mg/day or haloperidol 12 mg/day. Analyses of covariance with planned comparisons were used to compare scores on cognitive measures at the end of 24 weeks by treatment group with baseline cognitive function scores used as covariates. Patients receiving quetiapine 600 mg/day improved to a greater extent than patients receiving haloperidol on overall cognitive function (p<0.02). Specific differences were found for executive function (Verbal Fluency Test, p<0.04), attention (Stroop Color Word Test, p<.03) and verbal memory (Paragraph Recall Test, p<0.02). Treatment group differences were not solely due to benztropine use, medication side effects, or changes in symptomatology. Treatment with quetiapine at higher doses (600 mg/day) relative to haloperidol appears to have a positive impact on important domains of cognitive performance that have been found to predict role function and community outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:11738537

Velligan, Dawn I; Newcomer, John; Pultz, Joseph; Csernansky, John; Hoff, Anne L; Mahurin, Roderick; Miller, Alexander L

2002-01-15

139

Effects of verapamil and propranolol on left ventricular systolic function and diastolic filling in patients with coronary artery disease: radionuclide angiographic studies at rest and during exercise  

SciTech Connect

To determine the effects of verapamil on left ventricular (LV) systolic function and diastolic filling in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), researchers performed gated radionuclide angiography at rest and during exercise in 16 symptomatic patients before and during oral verapamil therapy (480 mg/day). Twelve patients were also studied during oral propranolol. LV ejection fraction at rest was normal in 13 patients, but abnormal diastolic filling at rest, defined as peak filling rate (PFR) less than 2.5 end-diastolic volumes (EDV)/sec or time to PFR greater than 180 msec, was present in 15. During verapamil, resting ejection fraction decreased, but resting diastolic filling improved: PFR increased and time to PFR decreased. Exercise ejection fraction did not change during verapamil, but exercise PFR increased, and exercise time to PFR decreased. In contrast, propranolol did not alter ejection fraction, PFR, or time to PFR at rest or during exercise. Thus, LV ejection fraction is decreased by verapamil at rest but is unchanged during exercise. While LV systolic function is not improved by verapamil, LV diastolic filling is enhanced by verapamil, both at rest and during exercise. These mechanisms may account in part for the symptomatic improvement in many patients during verapamil therapy.

Bonow, R.O.; Leon, M.B.; Rosing, D.R.; Kent, K.M.; Lipson, L.C.; Bacharach, S.L.; Green, M.V.; Epstein, S.E.

1982-06-01

140

Maca (L. meyenii) for improving sexual function: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is an Andean plant of the brassica (mustard) family. Preparations from maca root have been reported to improve sexual function. The aim of this review was to assess the clinical evidence for or against the effectiveness of the maca plant as a treatment for sexual dysfunction. Methods We searched 17 databases from their inception to April 2010 and included all randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of any type of maca compared to a placebo for the treatment of healthy people or human patients with sexual dysfunction. The risk of bias for each study was assessed using Cochrane criteria, and statistical pooling of data was performed where possible. The selection of studies, data extraction, and validations were performed independently by two authors. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion by the two authors. Results Four RCTs met all the inclusion criteria. Two RCTs suggested a significant positive effect of maca on sexual dysfunction or sexual desire in healthy menopausal women or healthy adult men, respectively, while the other RCT failed to show any effects in healthy cyclists. The further RCT assessed the effects of maca in patients with erectile dysfunction using the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction-5 and showed significant effects. Conclusion The results of our systematic review provide limited evidence for the effectiveness of maca in improving sexual function. However, the total number of trials, the total sample size, and the average methodological quality of the primary studies were too limited to draw firm conclusions. More rigorous studies are warranted. PMID:20691074

2010-01-01

141

Valuing preferences over stormwater management outcomes including improved hydrologic function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stormwater runoff causes environmental problems such as flooding, soil erosion, and water pollution. Conventional stormwater management has focused primarily on flood reduction, while a new generation of decentralized stormwater solutions yields ancillary benefits such as healthier aquatic habitat, improved surface water quality, and increased water table recharge. Previous research has estimated values for flood reduction from stormwater management, but no estimates exist for the willingness to pay (WTP) for some of the other environmental benefits of alternative approaches to stormwater control. This paper uses a choice experiment survey of households in Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, to estimate the values of several attributes of stormwater management outcomes. We analyzed data from 131 surveyed households in randomly selected neighborhoods. We find that people value reduced basement flooding more than reductions in yard or street flooding, but WTP for basement flood reduction in the area only exists if individuals are currently experiencing significant flooding themselves. Citizens value both improved water quality and improved hydrologic function and aquatic habitat from runoff reduction. Thus, widespread investment in low impact development stormwater solutions could have very large total benefits, and stormwater managers should be wary of policies and infrastructure plans that reduce flooding at the expense of water quality and aquatic habitat.

LondoñO Cadavid, Catalina; Ando, Amy W.

2013-07-01

142

Incomplete Recovery of Myocyte Contractile Function Despite Improvement of Myocardial Architecture With Left Ventricular Assist Device Support  

PubMed Central

Background Unloading a failing heart with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) can improve ejection fraction (EF) and left ventricular (LV) size; however, recovery with LVAD explantation is rare. We hypothesized that evaluation of myocyte contractility and biochemistry at the sarcomere level before and after LVAD may explain organ level changes. Methods and Results Paired LV tissue samples were frozen from 8 patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy at LVAD implantation (Before LVAD) and prior to transplant (After LVAD). These were compared to 8 nonfailing hearts. Isolated skinned myocytes were purified, attached to a force transducer, and dimensions, maximal calcium saturated force (Fmax), calcium sensitivity, and myofilament cooperativity were assessed. Relative isoform abundance and phosphorylation levels of sarcomeric contractile proteins were measured. With LVAD support, the unloaded EF improved (10.0±1.0 to 25.6±11.0%, p=0.007), LV size decreased (LVIDd 7.6±1.2 to 4.9±1.4cm, p<0.001), and myocyte dimensions decreased (cross-sectional area 1247±346 to 638±254?m2, p=0.001). Fmax improved after LVAD (3.6±0.9 to 7.3±1.8mN/mm2, p<0.001), but was still lower than nonfailing (7.3±1.8 vs. 17.6±1.8mN/mm2, p<0.001). An increase in troponin I (TnI) phosphorylation after LVAD was noted, but protein kinase C phosphorylation of TnI decreased. Biochemical changes of other sarcomeric proteins were not observed after LVAD. Conclusions There is significant improvement in LV and myocyte size with LVAD, but there is only partial recovery of EF and myocyte contractility. LVAD support was only associated with biochemical changes in TnI. This suggests that alternate mechanisms might contribute to contractile changes after LVAD and that additional interventions may be needed to alter biochemical remodeling of the sarcomere to further enhance myofilament and organ level recovery. PMID:21540356

Ambardekar, Amrut V.; Walker, John S.; Walker, Lori A.; Cleveland, Joseph C.; Lowes, Brian D.; Buttrick, Peter M.

2012-01-01

143

Coronary flow reserve improves after aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis: an adenosine transthoracic echocardiography study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe goal of this study was to assess coronary flow reserve (CFR) before and after aortic valve replacement (AVR).BACKGROUNDCoronary flow reserve is impaired under conditions of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. It is not known whether CFR improves with regression of LV hypertrophy in humans.METHODSWe investigated 35 patients with pure aortic stenosis, LV hypertrophy and normal coronary arteriograms. Patients underwent adenosine

David J. R Hildick-Smith; Leonard M Shapiro

2000-01-01

144

The influence of renal alograft function on cardiovscular status and left ventricular remodelling.  

PubMed

The synergy and shared co-morbidity, certainly interplay between kidney and cardiovascular disease, where advanced renal failure influences on progression of cardiac disease in bi-direction relationship. Cardiovascular diseases are cause of death in almost 50% of uremic patients. Correction of uremia after successful renal transplantation leads to improved cardiovascular status in the majority of kidney transplanted patients. The aim of this study was an evaluation of the influence of renal allograft function on left ventricular remodelling in the first year after transplantation comparing echocardiographic findings before and twelve months after transplantation had been done. In retrospective-prospective study we followed up 30 patients with renal allograft in the first post transplant year. During the study values of serum creatinine and creatinine clearance were monthly monitored. Echocardiographic examination was done before transplantation and one year after the kidney transplantation. Results of our study showed that before transplantation 67% of patients had echocardiographic signs of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, while 33% of patients had normal echocardiographic findings. After first post transplant year, 63% of patients showed normal view of LV, and 37% remained with LV hypertrophy. Diastolic dysfunction of LV till the end of study had been reduced from 70% to 40% of patients. The positive echocardiographic remodelling of LV significantly correlated with the rise in creatinine clearance and with the reduction of the serum creatinine. These results confirm positive correlation between renal allograft functional status and remodelling of left ventricular hypertrophy after successful renal transplantation. PMID:19485940

Dzemidzi?, Jasminka; Rasi?, Senija; Saracevi?, Adnan

2009-05-01

145

Schwann Cells Seeded in Acellular Nerve Grafts Improve Functional Recovery  

PubMed Central

Introduction This study evaluated whether Schwann cells (SCs) from different nerve sources transplanted into cold-preserved acellular nerve grafts (CP-ANGs) would improve functional regeneration compared to nerve isografts. Methods SCs isolated and expanded from motor and sensory branches of rat femoral and sciatic nerves were seeded into 14mm CP-ANGs. Growth factor expression, axonal regeneration, and functional recovery were evaluated in a14 mm rat sciatic injury model and compared to isografts. Results At 14 days, motor or sensory-derived SCs increased expression of growth factors in CP-ANGs versus isografts. After 42 days, histomorphometric analysis found CP-ANGs with SCs and isografts had similar numbers of regenerating nerve fibers. At 84 days, muscle force generation was similar for CP-ANGs with SCs and isografts. SC source did not affect nerve fiber counts or muscle force generation. Discussion SCs transplanted into CP-ANGs increase functional regeneration to isograft levels; however SC nerve source did not have an effect. PMID:23625513

Jesuraj, Nithya J.; Santosa, Katherine B.; MacEwan, Matthew R.; Moore, Amy M.; Kasukurthi, Rahul; Ray, Wilson Z.; Flagg, Eric R.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Borschel, Gregory H.; Johnson, Philip J.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E.

2014-01-01

146

Inhibiting epigenetic enzymes to improve atherogenic macrophage functions.  

PubMed

Macrophages determine the outcome of atherosclerosis by propagating inflammatory responses, foam cell formation and eventually necrotic core development. Yet, the pathways that regulate their atherogenic functions remain ill-defined. It is now apparent that chromatin remodeling chromatin modifying enzymes (CME) governs immune responses but it remains unclear to what extent they control atherogenic macrophage functions. We hypothesized that epigenetic mechanisms regulate atherogenic macrophage functions, thereby determining the outcome of atherosclerosis. Therefore, we designed a quantitative semi-high-throughput screening platform and studied whether the inhibition of CME can be applied to improve atherogenic macrophage activities. We found that broad spectrum inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) and histone methyltransferases (HMT) has both pro- and anti-inflammatory effects. The inhibition of HDACs increased histone acetylation and gene expression of the cholesterol efflux regulators ATP-binding cassette transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1, but left foam cell formation unaffected. HDAC inhibition altered macrophage metabolism towards enhanced glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation and resulted in protection against apoptosis. Finally, we applied inhibitors against specific HDACs and found that HDAC3 inhibition phenocopies the atheroprotective effects of pan-HDAC inhibitors. Based on our data, we propose the inhibition of HDACs, and in particular HDAC3, in macrophages as a novel potential target to treat atherosclerosis. PMID:25446073

Van den Bossche, Jan; Neele, Annette E; Hoeksema, Marten A; de Heij, Femke; Boshuizen, Marieke C S; van der Velden, Saskia; de Boer, Vincent C; Reedquist, Kris A; de Winther, Menno P J

2014-12-12

147

Heart rate variability biofeedback improves cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to examine the effect of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback on the cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep in daily life. Forty-five healthy young adults were randomly assigned to one of three groups: HRV biofeedback, Autogenic Training(AT), and no-treatment control. Participants in the HRV biofeedback were instructed to use a handheld HRV biofeedback device before their habitual bedtime, those in the AT were asked to listen to an audiotaped instruction before bedtime,and those in the control were asked to engage in their habitual activity before bedtime. Pulse wave signal during sleep at their own residences was measured continuously with a wrist watch-type transdermal photoelectric sensor for three time points. Baseline data were collected on the first night of measurements, followed by two successive nights for HRV biofeedback, AT, or control. Cardiorespiratory resting function was assessed quantitatively as the amplitude of high frequency(HF) component of pulse rate variability, a surrogate measure of respiratory sinus arrhythmia. HF component increased during sleep in the HRV biofeedback group,although it remained unchanged in the AT and control groups. These results suggest that HRV biofeedback before sleep may improve cardiorespiratory resting function during sleep. PMID:23959190

Sakakibara, Masahito; Hayano, Junichiro; Oikawa, Leo O; Katsamanis, Maria; Lehrer, Paul

2013-12-01

148

POSTER PRESENTATION Open Access Assessment of diastolic function from velocity-  

E-print Network

and healthy volun- teers by CMR showed significantly altered LV diastolic function related to LV hypertrophy wall thickness (mm) NA 20 (4) NA Extent of LV hypertrophy (%) NA 16 (17) NA LGE (g) NA 4.1 (4.6) NA LGE

149

Automated classification of LV regional wall motion based on spatio-temporal profiles from cardiac cine magnetic resonance imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessment of the cardiac Left Ventricle (LV) wall motion is generally based on visual inspection or quantitative analysis of 2D+t sequences acquired in short-axis cardiac cine-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Most often, cardiac dynamic is globally analized from two particular phases of the cardiac cycle. In this paper, we propose an automated method to classify regional wall motion in LV function based on spatio-temporal pro les and Support Vector Machines (SVM). This approach allows to obtain a binary classi cation between normal and abnormal motion, without the need of pre-processing and by exploiting all the images of the cardiac cycle. In each short- axis MRI slice level (basal, median, and apical), the spatio-temporal pro les are extracted from the selection of a subset of diametrical lines crossing opposites LV segments. Initialized at end-diastole phase, the pro les are concatenated with their corresponding projections into the succesive temporal phases of the cardiac cycle. These pro les are associated to di erent types of information that derive from the image (gray levels), Fourier, Wavelet or Curvelet domains. The approach has been tested on a set of 14 abnormal and 6 healthy patients by using a leave-one-out cross validation and two kernel functions for SVM classi er. The best classi cation performance is yielded by using four-level db4 wavelet transform and SVM with a linear kernel. At each slice level the results provided a classi cation rate of 87.14% in apical level, 95.48% in median level and 93.65% in basal level.

Mantilla, Juan; Garreau, Mireille; Bellanger, Jean-Jacques; Paredes, José Luis

2013-11-01

150

Inhibition of neutrophil activity improves cardiac function after cardiopulmonary bypass  

PubMed Central

Background The arterial in line application of the leukocyte inhibition module (LIM) in the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) limits overshooting leukocyte activity during cardiac surgery. We studied in a porcine model whether LIM may have beneficial effects on cardiac function after CPB. Methods German landrace pigs underwent CPB (60 min myocardial ischemia; 30 min reperfusion) without (group I; n = 6) or with LIM (group II; n = 6). The cardiac indices (CI) and cardiac function were analyzed pre and post CPB with a Swan-Ganz catheter and the cardiac function analyzer. Neutrophil labeling with technetium, scintigraphy, and histological analyses were done to track activated neutrophils within the organs. Results LIM prevented CPB-associated increase of neutrophil counts in peripheral blood. In group I, the CI significantly declined post CPB (post: 3.26 ± 0.31; pre: 4.05 ± 0.45 l/min/m2; p < 0.01). In group II, the CI was only slightly reduced (post: 3.86 ± 0.49; pre 4.21 ± 1.32 l/min/m2; p = 0.23). Post CPB, the intergroup difference showed significantly higher CI values in the LIM group (p < 0.05) which was in conjunction with higher pre-load independent endsystolic pressure volume relationship (ESPVR) values (group I: 1.57 ± 0.18; group II: 1.93 ± 0.16; p < 0.001). Moreover, the systemic vascular resistance and pulmonary vascular resistance were lower in the LIM group. LIM appeared to accelerate the sequestration of hyperactivated neutrophils in the spleen and to reduce neutrophil infiltration of heart and lung. Conclusion Our data provides strong evidence that LIM improves perioperative hemodynamics and cardiac function after CPB by limiting neutrophil activity and inducing accelerated sequestration of neutrophils in the spleen. PMID:17925040

Abdel-Rahman, Ulf; Margraf, Stefan; Aybek, Tayfun; Lögters, Tim; Bitu-Moreno, José; Francischetti, Ieda; Kranert, Tilmann; Grünwald, Frank; Windolf, Joachim; Moritz, Anton; Scholz, Martin

2007-01-01

151

Improving Project Management with Simulation and Completion Distribution Functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite the critical importance of project completion timeliness, management practices in place today remain inadequate for addressing the persistent problem of project completion tardiness. A major culprit in late projects is uncertainty, which most, if not all, projects are inherently subject to. This uncertainty resides in the estimates for activity durations, the occurrence of unplanned and unforeseen events, and the availability of critical resources. In response to this problem, this research developed a comprehensive simulation based methodology for conducting quantitative project completion time risk analysis. It is called the Project Assessment by Simulation Technique (PAST). This new tool enables project stakeholders to visualize uncertainty or risk, i.e. the likelihood of their project completing late and the magnitude of the lateness, by providing them with a completion time distribution function of their projects. Discrete event simulation is used within PAST to determine the completion distribution function for the project of interest. The simulation is populated with both deterministic and stochastic elements. The deterministic inputs include planned project activities, precedence requirements, and resource requirements. The stochastic inputs include activity duration growth distributions, probabilities for events that can impact the project, and other dynamic constraints that may be placed upon project activities and milestones. These stochastic inputs are based upon past data from similar projects. The time for an entity to complete the simulation network, subject to both the deterministic and stochastic factors, represents the time to complete the project. Repeating the simulation hundreds or thousands of times allows one to create the project completion distribution function. The Project Assessment by Simulation Technique was demonstrated to be effective for the on-going NASA project to assemble the International Space Station. Approximately $500 million per month is being spent on this project, which is scheduled to complete by 2010. NASA project stakeholders participated in determining and managing completion distribution functions produced from PAST. The first result was that project stakeholders improved project completion risk awareness. Secondly, using PAST, mitigation options were analyzed to improve project completion performance and reduce total project cost.

Cates, Grant R.

2004-01-01

152

An improved shell of revolution element utilizing cubic displacement functions  

E-print Network

be expressed as 27 + - 2 U = ZJJ (Clc CZ e 2v Clcsee Gl" [Ilx + GZx ??lx x + G-x ) ?d 2 Z. . r 2. 1 s 2 o se 1 s e "2. se (2. 8) where C] = F t/(1 -v v ) CZ=Etj(1-v v ) Di = E t /['IZ(I - v v )1 3 (Z. g) 0 2 E t /[12(1 - v, v )] G 1 2 Gt Gt /12... of Cominittee) (Head of Department) ( Mcilib . r) Augnst 1370 A3STRACT An Improved Shell of Revol?tion Element Utilizing Cubi c Displacement Functions . (August IS70) Paul 61itchelI llebane, III, B. S. , Texas Mli University; Directed by: Dr. James A...

Mebane, Paul Mitchell

1970-01-01

153

Obovatol improves cognitive functions in animal models for Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is obscure, but neuroinflammation and accumulation of ?-amyloid (A?) are implicated in pathogenesis of AD. We have shown anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic properties of obovatol, a biphenolic compound isolated from Magnolia obovata. In this study, we examined the effect of obovatol on cognitive deficits in two separate AD models: (i) mice that received intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of A?(1-42) (2.0 ?g/mouse) and (ii) Tg2576 mice-expressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein (K670N, M671L). Injection of A?(1-42) into lateral ventricle caused memory impairments in the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tasks, being associated with neuroinflammation. A?(1-42) -induced abnormality was significantly attenuated by administration of obovatol. When we analyzed with Tg2576 mice, long-term treatment of obovatol (1 mg/kg/day for 3 months) significantly improved cognitive function. In parallel with the improvement, treatment suppressed astroglial activation, BACE1 expression and NF-?B activity in the transgenic mice. Furthermore, obovatol potently inhibited fibrillation of A?in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by Thioflavin T fluorescence and electron microscopic analysis. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that obovatol prevented memory impairments in experimental AD models, which could be attributable to amelioration of neuroinflammation and amyloidogenesis by inhibition of NF-?B signaling pathway and anti-fibrillogenic activity of obovatol. PMID:22212065

Choi, Dong-Young; Lee, Jae Woong; Peng, Jin; Lee, Young Jung; Han, Jin-Yi; Lee, Yeon Hee; Choi, Im Seop; Han, Sang Bae; Jung, Jae Kyung; Lee, Woong Soo; Lee, Seung-Ho; Kwon, Byoung-Mog; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hong, Jin Tae

2012-03-01

154

Interventions to Improve the Physical Function of ICU Survivors  

PubMed Central

Background: ICU admissions are ever increasing across the United States. Following critical illness, physical functioning (PF) may be impaired for up to 5 years. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of interventions targeting PF among ICU survivors. The objective of this study was to identify effective interventions that improve long-term PF in ICU survivors. Methods: MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Physiotherapy Evidence-Based Database (PEDro) were searched between 1990 and 2012. Two reviewers independently evaluated studies for eligibility, critically appraised the included studies, and extracted data into standardized evidence tables. Results: Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Interventions included exercise/physical therapy (PT), parenteral nutrition, nurse-led follow-up, spontaneous awakening trials, absence of sedation during mechanical ventilation, and early tracheotomy. Nine studies failed to demonstrate efficacy on PF of the ICU survivors. However, early physical exercise and PT-based interventions had a positive effect on long-term PF. Conclusions: The only effective intervention to improve long-term PF in critically ill patients is exercise/PT; its benefit may be greater if started earlier. Further research in this area comparing different interventions and timing is needed. PMID:23949645

Calvo-Ayala, Enrique; Farber, Mark O.; Ely, E. Wesley; Boustani, Malaz A.

2013-01-01

155

Left ventricular modelling: a quantitative functional assessment tool based on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

We present the development and testing of a semi-automated tool to support the diagnosis of left ventricle (LV) dysfunctions from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). CMR short-axis images of the LVs were obtained in 15 patients and processed to detect endocardial and epicardial contours and compute volume, mass and regional wall motion (WM). Results were compared with those obtained from manual tracing by an expert cardiologist. Nearest neighbour tracking and finite-element theory were merged to calculate local myocardial strains and torsion. The method was tested on a virtual phantom, on a healthy LV and on two ischaemic LVs with different severity of the pathology. Automated analysis of CMR data was feasible in 13/15 patients: computed LV volumes and wall mass correlated well with manually extracted data. The detection of regional WM abnormalities showed good sensitivity (77.8%), specificity (85.1%) and accuracy (82%). On the virtual phantom, computed local strains differed by less than 14 per cent from the results of commercial finite-element solver. Strain calculation on the healthy LV showed uniform and synchronized circumferential strains, with peak shortening of about 20 per cent at end systole, progressively higher systolic wall thickening going from base to apex, and a 10° torsion. In the two pathological LVs, synchronicity and homogeneity were partially lost, anomalies being more evident for the more severely injured LV. Moreover, LV torsion was dramatically reduced. Preliminary testing confirmed the validity of our approach, which allowed for the fast analysis of LV function, even though future improvements are possible. PMID:22670208

Conti, C. A.; Votta, E.; Corsi, C.; De Marchi, D.; Tarroni, G.; Stevanella, M.; Lombardi, M.; Parodi, O.; Caiani, E. G.; Redaelli, A.

2011-01-01

156

Improved Functionality and Curation Support in the ADS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this poster we describe the developments of the new ADS platform over the past year, focusing on the functionality which improves its discovery and curation capabilities.The ADS Application Programming Interface (API) is being updated to support authenticated access to the entire suite of ADS services, in addition to the search functionality itself. This allows programmatic access to resources which are specific to a user or class of users.A new interface, built directly on top of the API, now provides a more intuitive search experience and takes into account the best practices in web usability and responsive design. The interface now incorporates in-line views of graphics from the AAS Astroexplorer and the ADS All-Sky Survey image collections.The ADS Private Libraries, first introduced over 10 years ago, are now being enhanced to allow the bookmarking, tagging and annotation of records of interest. In addition, libraries can be shared with one or more ADS users, providing an easy way to collaborate in the curation of lists of papers. A library can also be explicitly made public and shared at large via the publishing of its URL.In collaboration with the AAS, the ADS plans to support the adoption of ORCID identifiers by implementing a plugin which will simplify the import of papers in ORCID via a query to the ADS API. Deeper integration between the two systems will depend on available resources and feedback from the community.

Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Grant, Carolyn S.; Thompson, Donna; Chyla, Roman; Holachek, Alexandra; Sudilovsky, Vladimir; Murray, Stephen S.

2015-01-01

157

Cardiac function assessed by attenuation-corrected radionuclide pressure-volume indices  

SciTech Connect

Using attenuation-corrected radionuclide volumes and arm-cuff peak systolic pressures, the authors established the mean value for the ratio of left ventricular (LV) peak systolic pressure/end systolic volume at rest for 15 healthy persons. In 43 patients with coronary disease, this ratio was more sensitive as an indicator of abnormal LV function and for predicting coronary artery disease than the resting ejection fraction. The slope of an end systolic pressure-volume line was also calculated from data obtained under three loading conditions: at rest, during isometric handgrip testing, and after the sublingual administration of nitroglycerin. These results represent an improvement over previous radionuclide pressure-volume measurements that have not used attenuation correction and show the need for accurate, nongeometric measurements of the LV end systolic volume.

Maurer, A.H.; Siegel, J.A.; Blasius, K.M.; Deneberg, B.S.; Spann, J.F.; Malmud, L.S.

1985-07-01

158

Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of a new Amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV-1313)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The amphotropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLV-A's) are naturally occurring, exogenously acquired gammaretroviruses that are indigenous to the Southern California wild mice. These viruses replicate in a wide range of cell types including human cells in vitro and they can cause both hematological and neurological disorders in feral as well as in the inbred laboratory mice. Since MuLV-A's also exhibit

Thomas M Howard; Zhijuan Sheng; Mingwu Wang; Yongchun Wu; Suraiya Rasheed

2006-01-01

159

PEDF Improves Cardiac Function in Rats with Acute Myocardial Infarction via Inhibiting Vascular Permeability and Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis.  

PubMed

Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a pleiotropic gene with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-angiogenic properties. However, recent reports about the effects of PEDF on cardiomyocytes are controversial, and it is not known whether and how PEDF acts to inhibit hypoxic or ischemic endothelial injury in the heart. In the present study, adult Sprague-Dawley rat models of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were surgically established. PEDF-small interfering RNA (siRNA)-lentivirus (PEDF-RNAi-LV) or PEDF-LV was delivered into the myocardium along the infarct border to knockdown or overexpress PEDF, respectively. Vascular permeability, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, myocardial infarct size and animal cardiac function were analyzed. We also evaluated PEDF's effect on the suppression of the endothelial permeability and cardiomyocyte apoptosis under hypoxia in vitro. The results indicated that PEDF significantly suppressed the vascular permeability and inhibited hypoxia-induced endothelial permeability through PPAR?-dependent tight junction (TJ) production. PEDF protected cardiomyocytes against ischemia or hypoxia-induced cell apoptosis both in vivo and in vitro via preventing the activation of caspase-3. We also found that PEDF significantly reduced myocardial infarct size and enhanced cardiac function in rats with AMI. These data suggest that PEDF could protect cardiac function from ischemic injury, at least by means of reducing vascular permeability, cardiomyocyte apoptosis and myocardial infarct size. PMID:25768344

Zhang, Hao; Wang, Zheng; Feng, Shou-Jie; Xu, Lei; Shi, He-Xian; Chen, Li-Li; Yuan, Guang-Da; Yan, Wei; Zhuang, Wei; Zhang, Yi-Qian; Zhang, Zhong-Ming; Dong, Hong-Yan

2015-01-01

160

Left ventricular epicardial admittance measurement for detection of acute LV dilation  

PubMed Central

There are two implanted heart failure warning systems incorporated into biventricular pacemakers/automatic implantable cardiac defibrillators and tested in clinical trials: right heart pressures, and lung conductance measurements. However, both warning systems postdate measures of the earliest indicator of impending heart failure: left ventricular (LV) volume. There are currently no proposed implanted technologies that can perform LV blood volume measurements in humans. We propose to solve this problem by incorporating an admittance measurement system onto currently deployed biventricular and automatic implantable cardiac defibrillator leads. This study will demonstrate that an admittance measurement system can detect LV blood conductance from the epicardial position, despite the current generating and sensing electrodes being in constant motion with the heart, and with dynamic removal of the myocardial component of the returning voltage signal. Specifically, in 11 pigs, it will be demonstrated that 1) a physiological LV blood conductance signal can be derived; 2) LV dilation in response to dose-response intravenous neosynephrine can be detected by blood conductance in a similar fashion to the standard of endocardial crystals when admittance is used, but not when only traditional conductance is used; 3) the physiological impact of acute left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion and resultant LV dilation can be detected by blood conductance, before the anticipated secondary rise in right ventricular systolic pressure; and 4) a pleural effusion simulated by placing saline outside the pericardium does not serve as a source of artifact for blood conductance measurements. PMID:21148342

Porterfield, John E.; Larson, Erik R.; Jenkins, James T.; Escobedo, Daniel; Valvano, Jonathan W.; Pearce, John A.

2011-01-01

161

Lingo-1 inhibited by RNA interference promotes functional recovery of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.  

PubMed

Lingo-1 is a negative regulator of myelination. Repairment of demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS)/experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), requires activation of the myelination program. In this study, we observed the effect of RNA interference on Lingo-1 expression, and the impact of Lingo-1 suppression on functional recovery and myelination/remyelination in EAE mice. Lentiviral vectors encoding Lingo-1 short hairpin RNA (LV/Lingo-1-shRNA) were constructed to inhibit Lingo-1 expression. LV/Lingo-1-shRNA of different titers were transferred into myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced EAE mice by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection. Meanwhile, lentiviral vectors carrying nonsense gene sequence (LVCON053) were used as negative control. The Lingo-1 expression was detected and locomotor function was evaluated at different time points (on days 1,3,7,14,21, and 30 after ICV injection). Myelination was investigated by luxol fast blue (LFB) staining.LV/Lingo-1-shRNA administration via ICV injection could efficiently down-regulate the Lingo-1 mRNA and protein expression in EAE mice on days 7,14,21, and 30 (P?LV/Lingo-1-shRNA groups. The locomotor function score in the LV/Lingo-1-shRNA treated groups were significantly lower than the untreated or LVCON053 group from day 7 on. The 5 × 10(8) TU/mL LV/Lingo-1-shRNA group achieved the best functional improvement (0.87?±?0.11 vs. 3.05?±?0.13, P?LV/Lingo-1-shRNA groups by LFB staining (P?LV/Lingo-1-shRNA by ICV injection could efficiently knockdown Lingo-1 expression in vivo, improve functional recovery and enhance myelination/remyelination. Antagonism of Lingo-1 by RNA interference is, therefore, a promising approach for the treatment of demyelinating diseases, such as MS/EAE. PMID:25045138

Wang, Chun-Juan; Qu, Chuan-Qiang; Zhang, Jie; Fu, Pei-Cai; Guo, Shou-Gang; Tang, Rong-Hua

2014-12-01

162

Changes in collagen metabolism account for ventricular functional recovery following beta-blocker therapy in patients with chronic heart failure.  

PubMed

While beta blockade improves left ventricular (LV) function in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), the mechanisms are not well known. This study aimed to examine whether changes in myocardial collagen metabolism account for LV functional recovery following beta-blocker therapy in 62 CHF patients with reduced ejection fraction (EF). LV function was echocardiographically measured at baseline and 1, 6, and 12 months after bisoprolol therapy along with serum markers of collagen metabolism including C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (CITP) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. Deceleration time of mitral early velocity (DcT) increased even in the early phase, but LVEF gradually improved throughout the study period. Heart rate (HR) was reduced from the early stage, and CITP gradually decreased. LVEF and DcT increased more so in patients with the larger decreases in CITP (r = -0.33, p < 0.05; r = -0.28, p < 0.05, respectively), and HR (r = -0.31, p < 0.05; r = -0.38, p < 0.05, respectively). In addition, there were greater decreases in CITP, MMP-2 and HR from baseline to 1, 6, or 12 months in patients with above-average improvement in LVEF than in those with below-average improvement in LVEF. Similar results were obtained in terms of DcT. There was no significant correlation between the changes in HR and CITP. In conclusion, improvement in LV systolic/diastolic function was greatest in patients with the larger inhibition of collagen degradation. Changes in myocardial collagen metabolism are closely related to LV functional recovery somewhat independently from HR reduction. PMID:25351137

Fukui, Miho; Goda, Akiko; Komamura, Kazuo; Nakabo, Ayumi; Masaki, Mitsuru; Yoshida, Chikako; Hirotani, Shinichi; Lee-Kawabata, Masaaki; Tsujino, Takeshi; Mano, Toshiaki; Masuyama, Tohru

2014-10-29

163

Evaluation of the Effect of Cardiac Rehabilitation on Left Ventricular Diastolic and Systolic Function and Cardiac Chamber Size in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background: Exercise and rehabilitation are important methods for decreasing the risk factors of coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to evaluate the effect of the cardiac rehabilitation (CR) exercise program on the cardiac structure and physiology in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: In this randomized controlled study, 146 patients with CAD were divided equally into two groups: case group (undertaking CR after PCI) and control group (without rehabilitation after PCI). All the patients in the case group underwent echocardiography (before and after CR), and echocardiography was performed for the control group simultaneously. The CR exercise program encompassed 24 sessions, twice or three times a week, with each session lasting between 15 and 45 minutes, depending on the individual patient’s tolerance. Left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, LV diastolic function, LV end-systolic and diastolic diameter, and right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic diameter were measured in the CR group before and after rehabilitation and compared to those in the control group at the same times. Results: In this study, 146 patients (46 female and 100 male) were evaluated: 73 in the rehabilitation group and 73 in the control group. The mean age of the patients in the CR and control groups was 58.05 ± 10.27 and 56.76 ± 10.07 years, respectively. The CR exercise program had useful effects on LV diastolic function after PCI. The distribution of LV diastolic dysfunction after the CR exercise program was changed significantly only in the CR group (p value = 0.043). In the CR group, normal, grade I, grade II, and grade III LV diastolic dysfunction were observed in 20.5%, 69.8%, 6.8%, and 2.7%, respectively. This distribution was changed respectively to 30.1%, 61.6%, 5.4%, and 2.7% following CR, which showed a significant improvement due to CR in LV diastolic function, most prominently in the patients with grade I diastolic dysfunction (p value = 0.390). There was no significant change in LV and RV diameter before and after rehabilitation, while the ejection fraction increased significantly (p value < 0.05) in both groups. Conclusion: The RC exercise program can be effective in the augmentation of LV diastolic dysfunction after PCI, without significant changes in LV diameters.

Soleimannejad, Kourosh; Nouzari, Younos; Ahsani, Alireza; Nejatian, Mostafa; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

2014-01-01

164

Evaluation of respiratory influences on left ventricular function parameters extracted from echocardiographic acoustic quantification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to assess, using the echocardiographic acoustic quantification technique, the influence of respiration on left ventricular (LV) function and its modifications connected with the ageing process, quantifying in a non-invasive way the respiratory contribution to the LV volume variability. An automated algorithm is applied to extract the beat-to-beat measurements of LV function parameters from the LV volume

Enrico G Caiani; Maurizio Turiel; Sabrina Muzzupappa; Alberto Porta; Giuseppe Baselli; Massimo Pagani; Sergio Cerutti; Alberto Malliani

2000-01-01

165

The Rapalogue, CCI-779, Improves Salivary Gland Function following Radiation  

PubMed Central

The standard of care for head and neck cancer typically includes surgical resection of the tumor followed by targeted head and neck radiation. However depending on tumor location and stage, some cases may not require surgical resection while others may be treated with chemoradiation. Unfortunately, these radiation treatments cause chronic negative side effects for patients. These side effects are associated with damage to surrounding normal salivary gland tissue and include xerostomia, changes in taste and malnutrition. The underlying mechanisms of chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction are unknown, however, in rodent models persistently elevated proliferation is correlated with reduced stimulated salivary flow. The rapalogue, CCI-779, has been used in other cell systems to induce autophagy and reduce proliferation, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if CCI-779 could be utilized to ameliorate chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Four to six week old Atg5f/f; Aqp5-Cre, Atg5+/+; Aqp5-Cre and FVB mice were treated with targeted head and neck radiation. FVB mice were treated with CCI-779, chloroquine, or DMSO post-radiation. Stimulated salivary flow rates were determined and parotid and submandibular salivary gland tissues were collected for analyses. Mice with a defect in autophagy, via a conditional knockout of Atg5 in the salivary glands, display increased compensatory proliferation in the acinar cell compartment and hypertrophy at 24-72 hours following radiation. FVB mice treated with post-therapy CCI-779 have significant improvements in salivary gland physiology as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates, proliferation indices and amylase production and secretion. Consequently, post-radiation use of CCI-779 allows for improvement of salivary gland function and reestablishment of glandular homeostasis. As CCI-779 is already FDA approved for other uses, it could have a secondary use to alleviate the chronic side effects in head and neck cancer patients who have completed anti-tumor therapy. PMID:25437438

Morgan-Bathke, Maria; Harris, Zoey I.; Arnett, Deborah G.; Klein, Rob R.; Burd, Randy; Ann, David K.; Limesand, Kirsten H.

2014-01-01

166

Antibody to granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor reduces the number of activated tissue macrophages and improves left ventricular function after myocardial infarction in a rat coronary artery ligation model.  

PubMed

Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) promotes infarct expansion and inappropriate collagen synthesis in a myocardial infarction (MI). This study was designed to determine if treatment with anti-GM-CSF will inhibit macrophage migration, preserve function, and limit left ventricular (LV) remodeling in the rat coronary artery ligation model. Treatment with a monoclonal antibody to GM-CSF (5 mg/kg) was initiated 24 hours before coronary artery ligation and continued every 3 days for 3 weeks. Left coronary arteries of rats were ligated, animals were recovered, and cardiac function was evaluated 3 weeks postligation. Tissue samples were processed for histochemistry. Anti-GM-CSF treatment increased LV ejection fraction (37 ± 3% vs 47 ± 5%) and decreased LV end systolic diameter (0.75 ± 0.12 vs 0.59 ± 0.05 cm) with no changes in LV systolic pressure (109 ± 4 vs 104 ± 5 mm Hg), LV end diastolic pressure (22 ± 4 vs 21 ± 2 mm Hg), LV end diastolic diameter (0.96 ± 0.04 vs 0.92 ± 0.05 cm), or the time constant of LV relaxation tau (25.4 ± +2.4 vs 22.7 ± 1.4 milliseconds) (P < 0.05). Significantly lower numbers of tissue macrophages and significant reductions in infarct size were found in the myocardium of antibody-treated animals (81 ± 21.24 vs 195 ± 31.7 positive cells per 0.105 mm, compared with controls. These findings suggest that inhibition of macrophage migration may be beneficial in the treatment of heart failure after MI. PMID:21326109

Kellar, Robert S; Lancaster, Jordan J; Thai, Hoang M; Juneman, Elizabeth; Johnson, Nicholle M; Byrne, Howard G; Stansifer, Maribeth; Arsanjani, Reza; Baer, Mark; Bebbington, Christopher; Flashner, Michael; Yarranton, Geoffrey; Goldman, Steven

2011-05-01

167

Key Residues in the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor ?2 Subunit Contribute to ?-Conotoxin LvIA Binding.  

PubMed

?-Conotoxin LvIA (?-CTx LvIA) is a small peptide from the venom of the carnivorous marine gastropod Conus lividus and is the most selective inhibitor of ?3?2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) known to date. It can distinguish the ?3?2 nAChR subtype from the ?6?2* (* indicates the other subunit) and ?3?4 nAChR subtypes. In this study, we performed mutational studies to assess the influence of residues of the ?2 subunit versus those of the ?4 subunit on the binding of ?-CTx LvIA. Although two ?2 mutations, ?3?2[F119Q] and ?3?2[T59K], strongly enhanced the affinity of LvIA, the ?2 mutation ?3?2[V111I] substantially reduced the binding of LvIA. Increased activity of LvIA was also observed when the ?2-T59L mutant was combined with the ?3 subunit. There were no significant difference in inhibition of ?3?2[T59I], ?3?2[Q34A], and ?3?2[K79A] nAChRs when compared with wild-type ?3?2 nAChR. ?-CTx LvIA displayed slower off-rate kinetics at ?3?2[F119Q] and ?3?2[T59K] than at the wild-type receptor, with the latter mutant having the most pronounced effect. Taken together, these data provide evidence that the ?2 subunit contributes to ?-CTx LvIA binding and selectivity. The results demonstrate that Val(111) is critical and facilitates LvIA binding; this position has not previously been identified as important to binding of other 4/7 framework ?-conotoxins. Thr(59) and Phe(119) of the ?2 subunit appear to interfere with LvIA binding, and their replacement by the corresponding residues of the ?4 subunit leads to increased affinity. PMID:25713061

Zhangsun, Dongting; Zhu, Xiaopeng; Wu, Yong; Hu, Yuanyan; Kaas, Quentin; Craik, David J; McIntosh, J Michael; Luo, Sulan

2015-04-10

168

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance assessment of ventricular function and myocardial scarring before and early after repair of anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery  

PubMed Central

Background In patients with anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) left ventricular (LV) dilatation and dysfunction evolves due to diminished myocardial perfusion caused by coronary steal phenomenon. Using late gadolinium enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) imaging, myocardial scarring has been shown in ALCAPA patients late after repair, however the incidence of scarring before surgery and its impact on postoperative course after surgical repair remained unknown. Methods 8 ALCAPA-patients (mean age 10.0?±?5.8 months) underwent CMR before and early after (mean 4.9?±?2.5 months) coronary reimplantation procedures. CMR included functional analysis and LGE for detection of myocardial scars. Results LV dilatation (mean LVEDVI 171?±?94 ml/m2) and dysfunction (mean LV-EF 22?±?10 %) was present in all patients and improved significantly after surgery (mean LVEDV 68?±?42 ml/m2, p?=?0.02; mean LV-EF 58?±?19 %, p?LV function while myocardial scarring was still present in both patients. In two patients new-onset transmural scarring was found, although functional recovery after operation was sufficient. One of them showed a stenosis of the left coronary artery and required resurgery. Conclusions Despite diminished myocardial perfusion and severely compromised LV function, myocardial scarring was preoperatively only infrequently present. Improvement of myocardial function was independent of new-onset scarring while the impact of preoperative scarring still needs to be defined. PMID:24387660

2014-01-01

169

Stimulus Characteristics for Vestibular Stochastic Resonance to Improve Balance Function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stochastic resonance (SR) is a mechanism by which noise can enhance the response of neural systems to relevant sensory signals. Studies have shown that imperceptible stochastic vestibular electrical stimulation, when applied to normal young and elderly subjects, significantly improved their ocular stabilization reflexes in response to whole-body tilt as well as balance performance during postural disturbances. The goal of this study was to optimize the amplitude characteristics of the stochastic vestibular signals for balance performance during standing on an unstable surface. Subjects performed a standard balance task of standing on a block of foam with their eyes closed. Bipolar stochastic electrical stimulation was applied to the vestibular system using constant current stimulation through electrodes placed over the mastoid process behind the ears. Amplitude of the signals varied in the range of 0-700 microamperes. Balance performance was measured using a force plate under the foam block, and inertial motion sensors were placed on the torso and head. Balance performance with stimulation was significantly greater (10%-25%) than with no stimulation. The signal amplitude at which performance was maximized was in the range of 100-300 microamperes. Optimization of the amplitude of the stochastic signals for maximizing balance performance will have a significant impact on development of vestibular SR as a unique system to aid recovery of function in astronauts after long-duration space flight or in patients with balance disorders.

Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott; Serrado, Jorge; Cohen, Helen; Reschke, Millard; Bloomberg, Jacob

2010-01-01

170

Emulsion design to improve the delivery of functional lipophilic components.  

PubMed

The food industry has used emulsion science and technology for many years to create a diverse range of food products, such as milk, cream, soft drinks, nutritional beverages, dressings, mayonnaise, sauces, dips, deserts, ice cream, margarine, and butter. The majority of these food products are conventional oil-in-water (O/W) or water-in-oil (W/O) type emulsions. Recently, there has been increasing interest within the food industry in either improving or extending the functional performance of foods using novel structured emulsions. This article reviews recent developments in the creation of structured emulsions that could be used by the food and other industries, including nanoemulsions, multiple emulsions, multilayer emulsions, solid lipid particles, and filled hydrogel particles. These structured emulsions can be produced from food-grade [generally recognized as safe (GRAS)] ingredients (e.g., lipids, proteins, polysaccharides, surfactants, and minerals), using simple processing operations (e.g., mixing, homogenizing, and thermal processing). The structure, production, performance, and potential applications of each type of structured emulsion system are discussed. PMID:22129337

McClements, David Julian

2010-01-01

171

A device for the functional improvement of lagophthalmos.  

PubMed

A new device was tested on rabbits for the improvement of lagophthalmos, which causes dryness and irritation of the eye and may cause blindness if untreated. In the presented study, 14 rabbits were injected with local anesthetic to induce temporary facial palsy leading to lagophthalmos on one side. To provide functionality to the upper eyelids, ferromagnetic steel plates were either implanted within the eyelid or taped on the eyelid surface. The device detected blinking in the nonparalytic side and moved the anesthetized paralytic eyelid by pulling the steel plate electromagnetically. The control group (n = 5) did not wear the device, and they could not shut their paralytic eyelids. The treatment group with the external placement of the metal plate (n = 4) and the treatment group with the implant (n = 5) wore the device for artificial blinking. All animals were observed during the experiments, and blinking was recorded on digital video. The data collected from video records were analyzed to test the statistical difference of blinking between control and the treated groups. The results showed that the treatment groups could artificially move their paralytic eyelids. Furthermore, the treatment group with the implant showed a noticeable similarity in eyelid position compared with healthy (nonparalytic) eyes. PMID:23851837

A?ik, Mehmet Do?an; Yaprak, Bülent; Güven, Erdem; Karabulut, Aylin Bilgin; Güçlü, Burak

2013-07-01

172

Real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic study of left ventricular function after infarct exclusion surgery for ischemic cardiomyopathy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Infarct exclusion (IE) surgery, a technique of left ventricular (LV) reconstruction for dyskinetic or akinetic LV segments in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, requires accurate volume quantification to determine the impact of surgery due to complicated geometric changes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty patients who underwent IE (mean age 61+/-8 years, 73% men) had epicardial real-time 3-dimensional echocardiographic (RT3DE) studies performed before and after IE. RT3DE follow-up was performed transthoracically 42+/-67 days after surgery in 22 patients. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare the values before and after IE surgery and at follow-up. Significant decreases in LV end-diastolic (EDVI) and end-systolic (ESVI) volume indices were apparent immediately after IE and in follow-up (EDVI 99+/-40, 67+/-26, and 71+/-31 mL/m(2), respectively; ESVI 72+/-37, 40+/-21, and 42+/-22 mL/m(2), respectively; P:<0.05). LV ejection fraction increased significantly and remained higher (0.29+/-0.11, 0.43+/-0.13, and 0.42+/-0.09, respectively, P:<0.05). Forward stroke volume in 16 patients with preoperative mitral regurgitation significantly improved after IE and in follow-up (22+/-12, 53+/-24, and 58+/-21 mL, respectively, P:<0.005). New York Heart Association functional class at an average 285+/-144 days of clinical follow-up significantly improved from 3.0+/-0.8 to 1.8+/-0.8 (P:<0.0001). Smaller end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes measured with RT3DE immediately after IE were closely related to improvement in New York Heart Association functional class at clinical follow-up (Spearman's rho=0.58 and 0.60, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: RT3DE can be used to quantitatively assess changes in LV volume and function after complicated LV reconstruction. Decreased LV volume and increased ejection fraction imply a reduction in LV wall stress after IE surgery and are predictive of symptomatic improvement.

Qin, J. X.; Shiota, T.; McCarthy, P. M.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Greenberg, N. L.; Tsujino, H.; Bauer, F.; Travaglini, A.; Hoercher, K. J.; Buda, T.; Smedira, N. G.; Thomas, J. D.

2000-01-01

173

Left ventricular diastolic function and dysfunction: Central role of echocardiography  

PubMed Central

Comprehensive and precise assessment of left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function is necessary to establish, or exclude, heart failure as a cause or component of dyspnea. Echocardiography with Doppler readily assesses LV diastolic function; advantages include that echocardiography is non-invasive, does not require radiation, is portable, rapid, readily available, and in competent hands, can provide an accurate and comprehensive assessment of LV systolic and diastolic function. Correct assessment of LV diastolic function is relevant in patients with both depressed and preserved LV ejection fraction (EF ? 50%, and < 50%, respectively). Tissue Doppler (TD) imaging has been useful in demonstrating impaired LV relaxation in the setting of preserved LVEF, which, in the setting of increased cardiac volume, can result in elevated LV filling pressures, and dyspnea due to diastolic heart failure. TD imaging is not always critical in patients with depressed LVEF, since such patients by definition have impaired LV relaxation, and thus significant increases in volume will result in increases in LV filling pressure due to impaired LV compliance. Thus, in depressed LVEF, transmitral flow velocities (E and A, and E/A) and deceleration time, pulmonary venous Doppler, left atrial volume, and pulmonary artery (PA) pressures suffice for the accurate assessment of LV filling pressures. Overall, diastolic assessment by echo-Doppler can be readily achieved in by using a comprehensive diastolic assessment—incorporating many 2-dimensional, conventional and tissue Doppler variables—as opposed to relying on any single, diastolic parameter, which can lead to errors.

Dokainish, Hisham

2015-01-01

174

An improved version of the Green's function molecular dynamics method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents an improved version of the Green's function molecular dynamics method (Kong et al., 2009; Campañá and Müser, 2004 [1,2]), which enables one to study the elastic response of a three-dimensional solid to an external stress field by taking into consideration only atoms near the surface. In the previous implementation, the effective elastic coefficients measured at the ?-point were altered to reduce finite size effects: their eigenvalues corresponding to the acoustic modes were set to zero. This scheme was found to work well for simple Bravais lattices as long as only atoms within the last layer were treated as Green's function atoms. However, it failed to function as expected in all other cases. It turns out that a violation of the acoustic sum rule for the effective elastic coefficients at ? (Kong, 2010 [3]) was responsible for this behavior. In the new version, the acoustic sum rule is enforced by adopting an iterative procedure, which is found to be physically more meaningful than the previous one. In addition, the new algorithm allows one to treat lattices with bases and the Green's function slab is no longer confined to one layer. New version program summaryProgram title: FixGFC/FixGFMD v1.12 Catalogue identifier: AECW_v1_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECW_v1_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 206 436 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 314 850 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: All Operating system: Linux Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes. Code has been parallelized using MPI directives. RAM: Depends on the problem Classification: 7.7 External routines: LAMMPS ( http://lammps.sandia.gov/), MPI ( http://www.mcs.anl.gov/research/projects/mpi/), FFT ( http://www.fftw.org/) Catalogue identifier of previous version: AECW_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 1004 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Green's function molecular dynamics (GFMD) is a coarse-graining method that enables one to investigate the full elastic response of an interface between a semi-infinite solid and a contact while taking only the surface atoms in the solid into consideration. The effect of long-range elastic deformations on the surface atoms from the semi-infinite solid is replaced by effective elastic interactions, thus reducing the problem from three dimensions to two dimensions without compromising the physical essence of the problem. Solution method: See "Nature of problem". Reasons for new version: The basic theory underlying the new version is essentially the same as the previous one, while the special treatment to reduce the finite size effect on effective elastic coefficients at the ?-point is now realized in a physically meaningful manner. Finite size effects are an important issue in molecular dynamics simulations, particularly for GFMD, they result in a violation of the acoustic sum rule (ASR) for the effective elastic coefficients measured at the ?-point ( ?). In the previous implementation, the effective elastic coefficients measured at the ?-point were altered by setting their eigenvalues corresponding to the acoustic modes to zero. This scheme was found to work well for simple Bravais lattices as long as only atoms within the last layer were treated as Green's function atoms. However, it failed to function as expected in all other cases. We therefore adopt a new algorithm to enforce the ASR for ? (Kong, 2010 [3]) which is implemented in this revision. Summary of revisions: Assuming the lattice under study consists of surface unit cells with n basis atoms labeled by k=1,2,…,n. When all atoms in the lattice are moved by the same amount, i.e., the crystal is rigidly translated, the force on any atom must be zero

Kong, Ling Ti; Denniston, Colin; Müser, Martin H.

2011-02-01

175

Framingham Score and LV Mass predict Events in Young Adults: CARDIA Study  

PubMed Central

Background Framingham risk score (FRS) underestimates risk in young adults. LV mass (LVM) relates to cardiovascular disease (CVD), with unclear value in youth. In a young biracial cohort, we investigate how FRS predicts CVD over 20 years and the incremental value of LVM. We also explore the predictive ability of different cut-points for hypertrophy. Methods We assessed FRS and echocardiography-derived LVM (indexed by BSA or height2.7) from 3980 African-American and white CARDIA participants (1990-1991); and followed over 20 years for a combined endpoint: cardiovascular death; nonfatal myocardial infarction, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral artery disease. We assessed the predictive ability of FRS for CVD and also calibration, discrimination, and net reclassification improvement for adding LVM to FRS. Results Mean age was 30±4 years, 46% males, and 52% white. Event incidence (n = 118) across FRS groups was, respectively, 1.3%, 5.4%, and 23.1% (p<0.001); and was 1.4%, 1.3%, 3.7%, and 5.4% (p<0.001) across quartiles of LVM (cut-points 117g, 144g, and 176g). LVM predicted CVD independently of FRS, with the best performance in normal weight participants. Adding LVM to FRS modestly increased discrimination and had a statistically significant reclassification. The 85th percentile (?116 g/m2 for men; ?96 g/m2 for women) showed event prediction more robust than currently recommended cut-points for hypertrophy. Conclusion In a biracial cohort of young adults, FRS and LVM are helpful independent predictors of CVD. LVM can modestly improve discrimination and reclassify participants beyond FRS. Currently recommended cut-points for hypertrophy may be too high for young adults. PMID:24507735

Armstrong, Anderson C.; Jacobs, David R.; Gidding, Samuel S.; Colangelo, Laura A.; Gjesdal, Ola; Lewis, Cora E.; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Sidney, Stephen; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Williams, O. D.; Goff, David C.; Liu, Kiang; Lima, Joao A. C.

2014-01-01

176

Effects of a myofilament calcium sensitizer on left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in rats with volume overload heart failure.  

PubMed

Aortocaval fistula (ACF)-induced volume overload (VO) heart failure (HF) results in progressive left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Hemodynamic load reversal during pre-HF (4 wk post-ACF; REV) results in rapid structural but delayed functional recovery. This study investigated myocyte and myofilament function in ACF and REV and tested the hypothesis that a myofilament Ca(2+) sensitizer would improve VO-induced myofilament dysfunction in ACF and REV. Following the initial sham or ACF surgery in male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-240 g) at week 0, REV surgery and experiments were performed at weeks 4 and 8, respectively. In ACF, decreased LV function is accompanied by impaired sarcomeric shortening and force generation and decreased Ca(2+) sensitivity, whereas, in REV, impaired LV function is accompanied by decreased Ca(2+) sensitivity. Intravenous levosimendan (Levo) elicited the best inotropic and lusitropic responses and was selected for chronic oral studies. Subsets of ACF and REV rats were given vehicle (water) or Levo (1 mg/kg) in drinking water from weeks 4-8. Levo improved systolic (% fractional shortening, end-systolic elastance, and preload-recruitable stroke work) and diastolic (?, dP/dtmin) function in ACF and REV. Levo improved Ca(2+) sensitivity without altering the amplitude and kinetics of the intracellular Ca(2+) transient. In ACF-Levo, increased cMyBP-C Ser-273 and Ser-302 and cardiac troponin I Ser-23/24 phosphorylation correlated with improved diastolic relaxation, whereas, in REV-Levo, increased cMyBP-C Ser-273 phosphorylation and increased ?-to-?-myosin heavy chain correlated with improved diastolic relaxation. We concluded that Levo improves LV function, and myofilament composition and regulatory protein phosphorylation likely play a key role in improving function. PMID:25260618

Wilson, Kristin; Guggilam, Anuradha; West, T Aaron; Zhang, Xiaojin; Trask, Aaron J; Cismowski, Mary J; de Tombe, Pieter; Sadayappan, Sakthivel; Lucchesi, Pamela A

2014-12-01

177

Improved Imaged-derived Input Function for Study of Human Brain FDG-PET  

E-print Network

Improved Imaged-derived Input Function for Study of Human Brain FDG-PET Hongbin Guo, Rosemary Improved Imaged-derived Input Function for Study of Human Brain FDG-PET I. INTRODUCTION Positron emission-invasive image-derived input function is validated for human [18 F]-fluoro deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission

Renaut, Rosemary

178

Improving Sensorimotor Function and Adaptation using Stochastic Vestibular Stimulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during adaption to G-transitions that occur when entering and exiting microgravity. Post space flight, these sensorimotor disturbances can include postural and gait instability, visual performance changes, manual control disruptions, spatial disorientation, and motion sickness, all of which can hinder the operational capabilities of the astronauts. Crewmember safety would be significantly increased if sensorimotor changes brought on by gravitational changes could be mitigated and adaptation could be facilitated. The goal of this research is to investigate and develop the use of electrical stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a countermeasure to augment sensorimotor function and facilitate adaptation. For this project, SVS will be applied via electrodes on the mastoid processes at imperceptible amplitude levels. We hypothesize that SVS will improve sensorimotor performance through the phenomena of stochastic resonance, which occurs when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is optimized by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. In line with the theory of stochastic resonance, a specific optimal level of SVS will be found and tested for each subject [1]. Three experiments are planned to investigate the use of SVS in sensory-dependent tasks and performance. The first experiment will aim to demonstrate stochastic resonance in the vestibular system through perception based motion recognition thresholds obtained using a 6-degree of freedom Stewart platform in the Jenks Vestibular Laboratory at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. A range of SVS amplitudes will be applied to each subject and the subjectspecific optimal SVS level will be identified as that which results in the lowest motion recognition threshold, through previously established, well developed methods [2,3,4]. The second experiment will investigate the use of optimal SVS in facilitating sensorimotor adaptation to system disturbances. Subjects will adapt to wearing minifying glasses, resulting in decreased vestibular ocular reflex (VOR) gain. The VOR gain will then be intermittently measured while the subject readapts to normal vision, with and without optimal SVS. We expect that optimal SVS will cause a steepening of the adaptation curve. The third experiment will test the use of optimal SVS in an operationally relevant aerospace task, using the tilt translation sled at NASA Johnson Space Center, a test platform capable of recreating the tilt-gain and tilt-translation illusions associated with landing of a spacecraft post-space flight. In this experiment, a perception based manual control measure will be used to compare performance with and without optimal SVS. We expect performance to improve in this task when optimal SVS is applied. The ultimate goal of this work is to systematically investigate and further understand the potential benefits of stochastic vestibular stimulation in the context of human space flight so that it may be used in the future as a component of a comprehensive countermeasure plan for adaptation to G-transitions.

Galvan, R. C.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Oman, C. M.

2014-01-01

179

Novel MRI-derived quantitative biomarker for cardiac function applied to classifying ischemic cardiomyopathy within a Bayesian rule learning framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization of regional left ventricular (LV) function may have application in prognosticating timely response and informing choice therapy in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. The purpose of this study is to characterize LV function through a systematic analysis of 4D (3D + time) endocardial motion over the cardiac cycle in an effort to define objective, clinically useful metrics of pathological remodeling and declining cardiac performance, using standard cardiac MRI data for two distinct patient cohorts accessed from CardiacAtlas.org: a) MESA - a cohort of asymptomatic patients; and b) DETERMINE - a cohort of symptomatic patients with a history of ischemic heart disease (IHD) or myocardial infarction. The LV endocardium was segmented and a signed phase-to-phase Hausdorff distance (HD) was computed at 3D uniformly spaced points tracked on segmented endocardial surface contours, over the cardiac cycle. An LV-averaged index of phase-to-phase endocardial displacement (P2PD) time-histories was computed at each tracked point, using the HD computed between consecutive cardiac phases. Average and standard deviation in P2PD over the cardiac cycle was used to prepare characteristic curves for the asymptomatic and IHD cohort. A novel biomarker of RMS error between mean patient-specific characteristic P2PD over the cardiac cycle for each individual patient and the cumulative P2PD characteristic of a cohort of asymptomatic patients was established as the RMS-P2PD marker. The novel RMS-P2PD marker was tested as a cardiac function based feature for automatic patient classification using a Bayesian Rule Learning (BRL) framework. The RMS-P2PD biomarker indices were significantly different for the symptomatic patient and asymptomatic control cohorts (p<0.001). BRL accurately classified 83.8% of patients correctly from the patient and control populations, with leave-one-out cross validation, using standard indices of LV ejection fraction (LV-EF) and LV end-systolic volume index (LV-ESVI). This improved to 91.9% with inclusion of the RMS-P2PD biomarker and was congruent with improvements in both sensitivity for classifying patients and specificity for identifying asymptomatic controls from 82.6% up to 95.7%. RMS-P2PD, when contrasted against a collective normal reference, is a promising biomarker to investigate further in its utility for identifying quantitative signs of pathological endocardial function which may boost standard image makers as precursors of declining cardiac performance.

Menon, Prahlad G.; Morris, Lailonny; Staines, Mara; Lima, Joao; Lee, Daniel C.; Gopalakrishnan, Vanathi

2014-03-01

180

High prevalence of non-productive FeLV infection in necropsied cats and significant association with pathological findings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying a combination of semi-nested PCR and immunohistology (IHC), the presence of exogenous feline leukemia virus infection was studied in 302 necropsied cats with various disorders. 9% showed the classical outcome of persistent productive FeLV infection which was represented by FeLV antigen expression in different organs. 152 cats (50%) harboured exogenous FeLV-specific proviral sequences in the bone marrow but did

M. Suntz; K. Failing; W. Hecht; D. Schwartz; M. Reinacher

2010-01-01

181

Speckle-Tracking and Tissue-Doppler Stress Echocardiography in Arterial Hypertension: A Sensitive Tool for Detection of Subclinical LV Impairment  

PubMed Central

Early diagnosis of cardiac alterations in hypertensive heart disease is still challenging. Since such patients might have depressed global LV systolic strain or strain rate when EF is still normal, speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) and tissue-Doppler imaging (TDI) combined with stress echocardiography might improve early diagnosis of cardiac alterations. In this prospective study standard 2D Doppler echocardiography, STE, and TDI were performed at rest and during bicycle exercise in 92 consecutive patients—46 hypertensive subjects with normal ejection fraction and 46 healthy controls. STE and TDI were used to measure global peak systolic LV circumferential strain (CS), longitudinal strain (LS), and longitudinal strain rate (SR). Mean arterial blood pressure was significantly higher in hypertensive patients at rest (100.8?mmHg SD 13.5?mmHg; P = 0.002) and during physical exercise testing (124.2?mmHg SD 13.4?mmHg; P = 0.003). Hypertensive patients had significantly reduced values of systolic CS (P = 0.001), LS (P = 0.014), and SR (P < 0.001) at rest as well as during physical exercise—CS (P < 0.001), LS (P < 0.001), and SR (P < 0.001). Using STE and TDI, reduced LV systolic strain and strain rate consistent with early cardiac alterations can be detected in patients with arterial hypertension. These findings were evident at rest and markedly pronounced during exercise echocardiography. PMID:25389528

Hensel, Kai O.; Leischik, Roman

2014-01-01

182

Addition of substitution of simian virus 40 enhancer sequences into the Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) long terminal repeat yields infectious M-MuLV with altered biological properties.  

PubMed

Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) is a replication-competent retrovirus which induces T-cell lymphoma in mice. The enhancer sequences present within the M-MuLV long terminal repeat (LTR) region of the proviral genome have been shown to influence the disease specificity of the virus strongly. We examined the contribution of the M-MuLV enhancers to the transcriptional activity and pathogenesis of M-MuLV by constructing LTRs containing heterologous enhancer elements. The simian virus 40 enhancer region (72- and 21-base-pair repeats) was inserted into the U3 region (at -150 base pairs) of the M-MuLV LTR (Mo + SV) and also into a deleted form of the LTR which lacks the M-MuLV enhancer sequences (delta Mo + SV). These chimeric LTRs were used to generate infectious M-MuLVs by transfection of corresponding proviral plasmids into mouse fibroblasts. The relative infectivities of Mo + SV and delta Mo + SV recombinant viruses as determined by rat XC cell plaque assay and reverse transcriptase assay were 60 to 70% of wild-type M-MuLV levels. To study the pathogenicity of these two recombinant viruses, we inoculated newborn NIH Swiss mice with either Mo + SV or delta Mo + SV M-MuLV. Both viruses induced disease more slowly than M-MuLV, which induces disease 2 to 4 months postinoculation. Mo + SV M-MuLV-inoculated animals became moribund at 3 to 13 months postinoculation, whereas delta Mo + SV M-MuLV-inoculated animals became moribund at 6 to 24 months postinoculation. The tumors induced by the two viruses were characterized histologically and molecularly. Mo + SV M-MuLV-induced tumors were primarily T-cell-derived lymphoblastic lymphomas containing extensive rearrangements of the T-cell receptor beta gene. In contrast, delta Mo + SV M-MuLV induced pre-B- and B-cell lymphoblastic lymphomas, B-cell-derived follicular-center cell lymphomas, and acute myeloid leukemia. The delta Mo + SV tumor DNAs from B-lineage tumors were typically rearranged at the immunoglobulin gene loci and contained germ line configurations of the T-cell receptor beta gene. Southern blot hybridization confirmed that the tumor DNAs contained the predicted Mo + SV M-MuLV or delta Mo + SV M-MuLV provirus. PMID:2836623

Hanecak, R; Pattengale, P K; Fan, H

1988-07-01

183

New and Improved Key-Homomorphic Pseudorandom Functions Abhishek Banerjee  

E-print Network

its (secret) key or seed. The family F is key homomorphic if the set of keys has a group structure, 2014 Abstract A key-homomorphic pseudorandom function (PRF) family {Fs : D R} allows one (PRF) family [GGM84] F = {Fs : D R} is a finite set of (deterministic) functions with common domain D

184

Toward improved traceability of non-functional requirements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This position paper examines current practices and challenges for tracing non-functional requirements (NFRs). Anecdotal evidence suggests that many organizations do not effectively trace NFRs and that functional changes are often implemented with very little understanding as to how system qualities such as safety, security, and performance will be impacted. The tendency for NFRs to have broad ranging impact upon a

Jane Cleland-Huang

2005-01-01

185

?3-Adrenergic receptor antagonist improves exercise performance in pacing-induced heart failure  

PubMed Central

In heart failure (HF), the impaired left ventricular (LV) arterial coupling and diastolic dysfunction present at rest are exacerbated during exercise. We have previously shown that in HF at rest stimulation of ?3-adrenergic receptors by endogenous catecholamine depresses LV contraction and relaxation. ?3-Adrenergic receptors are activated at higher concentrations of catecholamine. Thus exercise may cause increased stimulation of cardiac ?3-adrenergic receptors and contribute to this abnormal response. We assessed the effect of L-748,337 (50 ?g/kg iv), a selective ?3-adrenergic receptor antagonist (?3-ANT), on LV dynamics during exercise in 12 chronically instrumented dogs with pacing-induced HF. Compared with HF at rest, exercise increased LV end-systolic pressure (PES), minimum LV pressure (LVPmin), and the time constant of LV relaxation (?) with an upward shift of early diastolic portion of LV pressure-volume loop. LV contractility decreased and arterial elastance (EA) increased. LV arterial coupling (EES/EA) (0.40 vs. 0.51) was impaired. Compared with exercise in HF preparation, exercise after ?3-ANT caused similar increases in heart rate and PES but significantly decreased ? (34.9 vs. 38.3 ms) and LVPmin with a downward shift of the early diastolic portion of LV pressure-volume loop and further augmented dV/dtmax. Both EES and EES/EA (0.68 vs. 0.40) were increased. LV mechanical efficiency improved from 0.39 to 0.53. In conclusion, after HF, ?3-ANT improves LV diastolic filling; increases LV contractility, LV arterial coupling, and mechanical efficiency; and improves exercise performance. PMID:23873794

Masutani, Satoshi; Cheng, Heng-Jie; Morimoto, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Han, Qing-Hua; Little, William C.

2013-01-01

186

Signal Processing 85 (2005) 121127 An improvement of the energy function$  

E-print Network

propose an alternative definition/method of computation of the energy function of a stationary time seriesSignal Processing 85 (2005) 121­127 An improvement of the energy function$ Konstantinos Drakakisa appealing averaging function, a simple renormalization of the energy function. r 2004 Elsevier B.V. All

Drakakis, Konstantinos

187

SVM-based classification of LV wall motion in cardiac MRI with the assessment of STE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose an automated method to classify normal/abnormal wall motion in Left Ventricle (LV) function in cardiac cine-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), taking as reference, strain information obtained from 2D Speckle Tracking Echocardiography (STE). Without the need of pre-processing and by exploiting all the images acquired during a cardiac cycle, spatio-temporal profiles are extracted from a subset of radial lines from the ventricle centroid to points outside the epicardial border. Classical Support Vector Machines (SVM) are used to classify features extracted from gray levels of the spatio-temporal profile as well as their representations in the Wavelet domain under the assumption that the data may be sparse in that domain. Based on information obtained from radial strain curves in 2D-STE studies, we label all the spatio-temporal profiles that belong to a particular segment as normal if the peak systolic radial strain curve of this segment presents normal kinesis, or abnormal if the peak systolic radial strain curve presents hypokinesis or akinesis. For this study, short-axis cine- MR images are collected from 9 patients with cardiac dyssynchrony for which we have the radial strain tracings at the mid-papilary muscle obtained by 2D STE; and from one control group formed by 9 healthy subjects. The best classification performance is obtained with the gray level information of the spatio-temporal profiles using a RBF kernel with 91.88% of accuracy, 92.75% of sensitivity and 91.52% of specificity.

Mantilla, Juan; Garreau, Mireille; Bellanger, Jean-Jacques; Paredes, José Luis

2015-01-01

188

GMOS-IFU Spectroscopy of 167-317 (LV2) Proplyd in Orion  

E-print Network

We present high spatial resolution spectroscopic observations of the proplyd 167-317 (LV2) near the Trapezium cluster in the Orion nebula, obtained during the System Verification run of the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph (GMOS) Integral Field Unit (IFU) at the Gemini South Observatory. We have detected 38 forbidden and permitted emission lines associated with the proplyd and its redshifted jet. We have been able to detect three velocity components in the profiles of some of these lines: a peak with a 28-33 km/s systemic velocity that is associated with the photoevaporated proplyd flow, a highly redshifted component associated with a previously reported jet (which has receding velocities of about 80-120 km/s with respect to the systemic velocity and is spatially distributed to the southeast of the proplyd) and a less obvious, approaching structure, which may possibly be associated with a faint counter-jet with systemic velocity of (-75 +/- 15) km/s. We find evidences that the redshifted jet has a variable velocity, with slow fluctuations as a function of the distance from the proplyd. We present several background subtracted, spatially distributed emission line maps and we use this information to obtain the dynamical characteristics over the observed field. Using a simple model and with the extinction corrected Halpha fluxes, we estimate the mass loss rate for both the proplyd photoevaporated flow and the redshifted microjet, obtaining (6.2 +/- 0.6) x 10^{-7} M_sun/year and (2.0 +/- 0.7) x 10^{-8} M_sun/year, respectively.

M. J. Vasconcelos; A. H. Cerqueira; H. Plana; A. C. Raga; C. Morisset

2005-06-14

189

Neurofeedback Improves Executive Functioning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven autistic children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) received a neurofeedback treatment that aimed to improve their level of executive control. Neurofeedback successfully reduced children's heightened theta/beta ratio by inhibiting theta activation and enhancing beta activation over sessions. Following treatment, children's…

Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Congedo, Marco; van Schie, Hein T.

2009-01-01

190

LV Motion and Strain Computation from tMRI based on Meshless Deformable Models  

E-print Network

LV Motion and Strain Computation from tMRI based on Meshless Deformable Models Xiaoxu Wang1 , Ting, USA, 2 New York University, New York, NJ, 08854, USA Abstract. We propose a novel meshless deformableMRI). The meshless deformable model can capture global defor- mations such as contraction and torsion with a few

191

The dawn and dusk electrojet response to substorm onset E. Bora lv1  

E-print Network

The dawn and dusk electrojet response to substorm onset E. Bora� lv1 , P. Eglitis1 , H. J substorm onset and related reactions in the dawn and dusk ionospheric electrojets, clearly separated from electrojet, and the IMAGE chain at dawn, for the westward jet. In the ®rst few minutes following substorm

Boyer, Edmond

192

77 FR 21620 - Notice of the Buy America Waiver Request for Vossloh 101-LV Concrete Ties  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FRA-2012-0033] Notice of the Buy America Waiver Request for Vossloh 101-LV Concrete...Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of Buy America waiver request and request for comment...a waiver request from FRA's Buy America Act requirements for the purchase of...

2012-04-10

193

STUDIA UNIVERSITATIS BABE-BOLYAI, PHILOLOGIA, LV, 1, 2010 LE TRAITEMENT MDIATIQUE DES SUICIDES FRANCE  

E-print Network

STUDIA UNIVERSITATIS BABE-BOLYAI, PHILOLOGIA, LV, 1, 2010 LE TRAITEMENT MÉDIATIQUE DES SUICIDES À SUICIDES EN LIEN AVEC LE TRAVAIL ALAIN RABATEL1 ABSTRACT. The treatment by the media of the suicides at France Telecom: the slow emergence of management responsability in suicides linked to work. This article

Boyer, Edmond

194

Toward accurate segmentation of the LV myocardium and chamber for volumes  

E-print Network

extraction from the images. New algo- rithms for segmenting the heart left ventricle myocardium and chamber to the high level of noise and the signal drops resulting of insufficiently perfused regions. The LV chamber for the estimation of the heart wall thickness and the chamber volume variation during the heart cycle

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

195

PSEUDO-THREE-TAP PITCH PREDICTION FILTERS Qian Yasheng lV2 Peter Kabal '  

E-print Network

PSEUDO-THREE-TAP PITCH PREDICTION FILTERS Qian Yasheng lV2 Peter Kabal ' `Dept. of Electrical Eng. McGill University Montreal, Quebec Canada H3A 2A7 ABSTRACT Pitch filters play an important role in high quality medium and low rate speech coders. We propose a pseudo-three-tap pitch filter with one

Kabal, Peter

196

HeAT: A Software Assistant for the Analysis of LV Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction  

E-print Network

HeAT: A Software Assistant for the Analysis of LV Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction in 4D MR of pathological structures after myocardial infarction. In this paper the Heart Analysis Tool (HeAT) for the quantitative analysis of 4D MR image sequences of infarct patients is used to analyze the characteristics

Lübeck, Universität zu

197

Research on LV's Chinese marketing strategy based on the STV triangle model  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the open economy and the economic globalization's deep influence, the age of the Chinese luxury consumption has come. This paper analyzes LV's marketing strategy in Chinese market based on Philip Kotler's STV triangle model, and finds the key reasons behind its success. According to the research results, this paper also gives Chinese local luxury enterprises some suggestions to help

Xinman Lu; Lei Fang

2011-01-01

198

Simulated 3D Ultrasound LV Cardiac Images for Active Shape Model Training  

E-print Network

Simulated 3D Ultrasound LV Cardiac Images for Active Shape Model Training Constantine Butakoff of 3D ultrasound cardiac segmentation using Active Shape Models (ASM) is presented. The proposed resolution MRI scans and the appearance model obtained from simulated 3D ultrasound images. Usually

Frangi, Alejandro

199

Gene cloning: exploring cotton functional genomics and genetic improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cotton is the most important natural fiber plant in the world. The genetic improvement of the quality of the cotton fiber\\u000a and agricultural productivity is imperative under the situation of increasing consumption and rapid development of textile\\u000a technology. Recently, the study of cotton molecular biology has progressed greatly. A lot of specifically or preferentially\\u000a expressed cotton fiber genes were cloned

Diqiu Liu; Xianlong Zhang

2008-01-01

200

Scrapie infection activates the replication of ecotropic, xenotropic, and polytropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV) in brains and spinal cords of senescence-accelerated mice: implication of MuLV in progression of scrapie pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Senescence-accelerated mice (SAMP8) have a short life span, whereas SAMR1 mice are resistant to accelerated senescence. Previously it has been reported that the Akv strain of ecotropic murine leukemia virus (E-MuLV) was detected in brains of SAMP8 mice but not in brains of SAMR1 mice. In order to determine the change of MuLV levels following scrapie infection, we analyzed the E-MuLV titer and the RNA expression levels of E-MuLV, xenotropic MuLV, and polytropic MuLV in brains and spinal cords of scrapie-infected SAM mice. The expression levels of the 3 types of MuLV were increased in scrapie-infected mice compared to control mice; E-MuLV expression was detected in infected SAMR1 mice, but only in the terminal stage of scrapie disease. We also examined incubation periods and the levels of PrPSc in scrapie-infected SAMR1 (sR1) and SAMP8 (sP8) mice. We confirmed that the incubation period was shorter in sP8 (210+/-5 days) compared to sR1 (235+/-10 days) after intraperitoneal injection. The levels of PrPSc in sP8 were significantly greater than sR1 at 210+/-5 days, but levels of PrPSc at the terminal stage of scrapie in both SAM strains were virtually identical. These results show the activation of MuLV expression by scrapie infection and suggest acceleration of the progression of scrapie pathogenesis by MuLV. PMID:16930537

Lee, Kyung-Hee; Jeong, Byung-Hoon; Jin, Jae-Kwang; Meeker, Harry C; Kim, Jae-Il; Carp, Richard I; Kim, Yong-Sun

2006-10-13

201

Detection of Antibodies to the Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) Transmembrane Protein p15E: an Alternative Approach for Serological FeLV Detection Based on Antibodies to p15E  

PubMed Central

The aim of this report was to investigate whether the diagnosis of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection by serology might be feasible and useful. Among the various viral proteins, the FeLV env-gene product (SU) and the envelope transmembrane protein p15E were considered promising candidates for the serological diagnosis of FeLV infection. Thus, we evaluated p15E and three other FeLV antigens, namely, a recombinant env-gene product, whole FeLV, and a short peptide from the FeLV transmembrane protein, for their potential to detect FeLV infection. To evaluate possible exposure of cats to FeLV, we tested serum and plasma samples from experimentally and naturally infected and vaccinated cats for the presence of antibodies to these antigens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The serological results were compared with the p27 and proviral real-time PCR results. We found that p15E displayed a diagnostic sensitivity of 95.7% and a specificity of 100% in experimentally infected cats. In naturally infected cats, p15E showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 77.1% and a specificity of 85.6%. Vaccinated cats displayed minimal antibody levels to p15E, suggesting that anti-p15E antibodies indicate infection rather than vaccination. The other antigens turned out to be too unspecific. The lower specificity in cats exposed to FeLV under field conditions may be explained by the fact that some cats become infected and seroconvert in the absence of detectable viral nucleic acids in plasma. We conclude that p15E serology may become a valuable tool for diagnosing FeLV infection; in some cases, it may replace PCR. PMID:24696026

Boenzli, Eva; Hadorn, Maik; Hartnack, Sonja; Huder, Jon; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

2014-01-01

202

Tau Suppression in a Neurodegenerative Mouse Model Improves Memory Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are the most common intraneuronal inclusion in the brains of patients with neurodegenerative diseases and have been implicated in mediating neuronal death and cognitive deficits. Here, we found that mice expressing a repressible human tau variant developed progressive age-related NFTs, neuronal loss, and behavioral impairments. After the suppression of transgenic tau, memory function recovered, and neuron numbers

K. SantaCruz; J. Lewis; T. Spires; J. Paulson; L. Kotilinek; M. Ingelsson; A. Guimaraes; M. DeTure; M. Ramsden; E. McGowan; C. Forster; M. Yue; J. Orne; C. Janus; A. Mariash; M. Kuskowski; B. Hyman; M. Hutton; K. H. Ashe

2005-01-01

203

Improving the clipped OFDM performance by using conic function  

Microsoft Academic Search

In orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, the peak to average power ratio (PAR) is much high. The clipping signal scheme is a useful method to reduce PAR, but using this scheme, the subcarriers' orthogonality is destroyed. In order to weaken the effect of clipping scheme to systems' performance, the conic function scheme is proposed to retrieve the clipped signal.

Linjun Wu; Shihua Zhu; Xingle Feng

2004-01-01

204

Antibody-functionalized SERS tags with improved sensitivity.  

PubMed

Protein detection at the femtomolar level can be achieved by using metallic nanoparticle assemblies that function as surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy reporters and that contain suitable surface-bound recognition elements. Proper control of the interaction between nanoparticles within the assemblies is critical for achieving this performance. PMID:21735028

Guarrotxena, Nekane; Bazan, Guillermo C

2011-08-21

205

Surface functionalization of silicone rubber for permanent adhesion improvement.  

PubMed

The surface properties of poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) layers screen printed onto silicon wafers were studied after oxygen and ammonia plasma treatments and subsequent grafting of poly(ethylene -alt-maleic anhydride) (PEMA) using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), roughness analysis, and contact angle and electrokinetic measurements. In the case of oxygen-plasma-treated PDMS, a hydrophilic, brittle, silica-like surface layer containing reactive silanol groups was obtained. These surfaces indicate a strong tendency for "hydrophobic recovery" due to the surface segregation of low-molecular-weight PDMS species. The ammonia plasma treatment of PDMS resulted in the generation of amino-functional surface groups and the formation of a weak boundary layer that could be washed off by polar liquids. To avoid the loss of the plasma modification effect and to achieve stabilization of the mechanically instable, functionalized PDMS top layer, PEMA was subsequently grafted directly or after using gamma-APS as a coupling agent on the plasma-activated PDMS surfaces. In this way, long-time stable surface functionalization of PDMS was obtained. The reactivity of the PEMA-coated PDMS surface caused by the availability of anhydride groups could be controlled by the number of amino functional surface groups of the PDMS surface necessary for the covalent binding of PEMA. The higher the number of amino functional surface groups available for the grafting-to procedure, the lower the hydrophilicity and hence the lower the reactivity of the PEMA-coated PDMS surface. Additionally, pull-off tests were applied to estimate the effect of surface modification on the adhesion between the silicone rubber and an epoxy resin. PMID:18828614

Roth, Jan; Albrecht, Victoria; Nitschke, Mirko; Bellmann, Cornelia; Simon, Frank; Zschoche, Stefan; Michel, Stefan; Luhmann, Claudia; Grundke, Karina; Voit, Brigitte

2008-11-01

206

Overview of solid particle LV seeding techniques used at UTRC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the failure of existing seeders to meet the stringent specifications required for benchmark experiments in high pressure, high temperature, rapidly accelerating flowfields, an effort is made to improve an existing solid particle seeder. The goal is to produce a more monodisperse seed from the 0.3 micro alumina powder with more than 99 percent of the particles in the submicron range while maintaining a high seeding rate. Coiled-wire inserts are installed within the ends of the nitrogen injection lines in the primary seeder to produce swirling conical jets to vigorously agitate the seed bed. A secondary swirler, constructed from a 25 cm length of 3.8 cm ID steel pipe having threaded end caps, is connected to the output line of the primary seeder. The seeded nitrogen from the primary seeder is injected tangentially at near sonic velocity into the secondary swirler 9.4 cm above its base. Independently controlled auxiliary nitrogen used to increase the swirl in the secondary chamber is also injected tangentially 2.5 cm below the seeded nitrogen lines. Large seed particles are collected by bleeds in the swirler cap and directed overboard. The remaining seeded nitrogen is collected on the center line of the secondary swirler and ducted to the rig.

Patrick, W. P.

1985-10-01

207

Team function in obstetrics to reduce errors and improve outcomes.  

PubMed

Crew resource management (CRM), adapted from aviation for the practice of medicine, offers the potential of reducing medical errors, increasing employee retention, and improving patient satisfaction. CRM, however, requires a culture that promotes teamwork and acceptance of new concepts. Leadership is needed to transform the culture, as well as to train, coach, and sustain the behavior CRM demands. Culture change can be fostered through teamwork activities that, when made part of a daily routine, provides the basis for modeling teamwork skills and sets the stage for sustained culture change. New tools are available to measure processes as well as patient and staff satisfaction. PMID:18319130

Nielsen, Peter; Mann, Susan

2008-03-01

208

Organic nanopatch device improves sleep and enhances vital organ function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Actigraphic measurements depicting movement during sleep, tissue bioimpedance images of different organs reflecting their physiological functional status, Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire as well as sleep diary data reflecting subjective self-evaluation of sleep were collected from 20 volunteers [5 males and 15 females, 20–79 (55 ± 12) years of age, 105–235 lbs (158 ± 36) in weight, and 5 – 6.4

Homer Nazeran; Sherry Blake-Greenberg

2012-01-01

209

Towards improved methods for determining porous media multiphase flow functions  

E-print Network

multiphase property. Three synthetic experiments are used to show the erroneous estimation of flow functions associated with the homogeneity assumption. A proposal approach is used to predict the relative permeability of wetting phase using NMR relaxation... data. Several sets of three-dimensional NMR experiments are performed. Three-dimensional saturation distribution and relaxation are determined. Relative permeability of wetting phase are calculated by applying an empirical rela- tion. This approach...

Xue, Song

2004-09-30

210

Does obesity surgery improve psychosocial functioning? A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to present a review of the psychosocial outcome of bariatric surgery with special consideration of psychiatric comorbidity, psychopathology, psychosocial functioning, econometric data, and general quality of life (QoL).PURPOSE: A review of all (non-) controlled trials of the last two decades both with a retrospective and prospective design and a follow-up period of at

S Herpertz; R Kielmann; A M Wolf; M Langkafel; W Senf; J Hebebrand; S Herpertz

2003-01-01

211

Tetrahydrobiopterin Improves Endothelial Function in Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a cofactor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is reduced during the early stage of vascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetic vasculopathy, and even throughout the entire progression of atherosclerosis. Methods. A literature search was performed using electronic databases (up to January 31, 2014), including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), using an established strategy. Results. Fourteen articles were selected with a total of 370 patients. Ten of the fourteen studies showed a significant improvement in the endothelial dysfunction of various cardiovascular disease groups with BH4 supplementation compared with the control groups or placebos. Three studies showed no positive outcome, and one study showed that low-dose BH4 had no effect but that high-dose BH4 did have a significantly different result. Conclusions. This review concludes that supplementation with BH4 and/or augmentation of the endogenous levels of BH4 will be a novel approach to improve the endothelial dysfunction observed in various cardiovascular diseases. BH4 might be considered to be a new therapeutic agent to prevent the initiation and progression of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25548592

Wang, Qiongying; Yang, Mina; Xu, Han; Yu, Jing

2014-01-01

212

Development and evaluation of a semiautomatic segmentation method for the estimation of LV parameters on cine MR images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a semiautomatic method for left ventricular (LV) segmentation on cine MR images and subsequent estimation of cardiac parameters. The study group comprised cardiac MR examinations of 18 consecutive patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. The new method allowed the automatic detection of the LV endocardial and epicardial boundaries on each short-axis cine MR image using a Bayesian flooding segmentation algorithm and weighted least-squares B-splines minimization. Manual editing of the automatic contours could be performed for unsatisfactory segmentation results. The end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), ejection fraction (EF) and LV mass estimated by the new method were compared with the reference values obtained by manually tracing the LV cavity borders. The reproducibility of the new method was determined using data from two independent observers. The mean number of endocardial and epicardial outlines not requiring any manual adjustment was more than 80% and 76% of the total contour number per study, respectively. The mean segmentation time including the required manual corrections was 2.3 ± 0.7 min per patient. LV volumes estimated by the semiautomatic method were significantly lower than those by manual tracing (P < 0.05), whereas no difference was found for EF and LV mass (P > 0.05). LV indices estimated by the two methods were well correlated (r >= 0.80). The mean difference between manual and semiautomatic method for estimating EDV, ESV, EF and LV mass was 6.1 ± 7.2 ml, 3.0 ± 5.2 ml, -0.6 ± 4.3% and -6.2 ± 12.2 g, respectively. The intraobserver and interobserver variability associated with the semiautomatic determination of LV indices was 0.5-1.2% and 0.8-3.9%, respectively. The estimation of LV parameters with the new semiautomatic segmentation method is technically feasible, highly reproducible and time effective.

Mazonakis, Michalis; Grinias, Elias; Pagonidis, Konstantin; Tziritas, George; Damilakis, John

2010-02-01

213

Distinct Functional Networks Associated with Improvement of Affective Symptoms and Cognitive Function During Citalopram Treatment in Geriatric Depression  

PubMed Central

Variability in the affective and cognitive symptom response to antidepressant treatment has been observed in geriatric depression. The underlying neural circuitry is poorly understood. The current study evaluated the cerebral glucose metabolic effects of citalopram treatment and applied multivariate, functional connectivity analyses to identify brain networks associated with improvements in affective symptoms and cognitive function. Sixteen geriatric depressed patients underwent resting Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies of cerebral glucose metabolism and assessment of affective symptoms and cognitive function before and after eight weeks of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment (citalopram). Voxel-wise analyses of the normalized glucose metabolic data showed decreased cerebral metabolism during citalopram treatment in the anterior cingulate gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, precuneus, amygdala, and parahippocampal gyrus. Increased metabolism was observed in the putamen, occipital cortex and cerebellum. Functional connectivity analyses revealed two networks which were uniquely associated with improvement of affective symptoms and cognitive function during treatment. A subcortical-limbic-frontal network was associated with improvement in affect (depression and anxiety), while a medial temporal-parietal-frontal network was associated with improvement in cognition (immediate verbal learning/memory and verbal fluency). The regions that comprise the cognitive network overlap with the regions that are affected in Alzheimer’s dementia. Thus, alterations in specific brain networks associated with improvement of affective symptoms and cognitive function are observed during citalopram treatment in geriatric depression. PMID:20886575

Diaconescu, Andreea Oliviana; Kramer, Elisse; Hermann, Carol; Ma, Yilong; Dhawan, Vijay; Chaly, Thomas; Eidelberg, David; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Smith, Gwenn S.

2010-01-01

214

Improved ground-state electronic structure and optical dielectric constants with a semilocal exchange functional  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recently published generalized gradient approximation functional within density functional theory (DFT) has shown, in a few paradigm tests, an improved KS orbital description over standard (semi)local approximations. The characteristic feature of this functional is an enhancement factor that diverges like s ln(s ) for large reduced density gradients s which leads to unusual properties. We explore the improved orbital description of this functional more thoroughly by computing the electronic band structure, band gaps, and the optical dielectric constants in semiconductors, Mott insulators, and ionic crystals. Compared to standard semilocal functionals, we observe improvement in both the band gaps and the optical dielectric constants. In particular, the results are similar to those obtained with orbital functionals or by perturbation theory methods in that it opens band gaps in systems described as metallic by standard (semi)local density functionals, e.g., Ge, ? -Sn, and CdO.

Vl?ek, Vojt?ch; Steinle-Neumann, Gerd; Leppert, Linn; Armiento, Rickard; Kümmel, Stephan

2015-01-01

215

Hibiscus sabdariffa extract lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function.  

PubMed

Polyphenols from Hibiscus sabdariffa calices were administered to patients with metabolic syndrome (125 mg/kg/day for 4 wk, n = 31) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (125 or 60 mg/kg in a single dose or daily for 1 wk, n = 8 for each experimental group). The H. sabdariffa extract improved metabolism, displayed potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and significantly reduced blood pressure in both humans and rats. Diuresis and inhibition of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme were found to be less important mechanisms than those related to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and endothelium-dependent effects to explain the beneficial actions. Notably, polyphenols induced a favorable endothelial response that should be considered in the management of metabolic cardiovascular risks. PMID:24668839

Joven, Jorge; March, Isabel; Espinel, Eugenia; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Aragonès, Gerard; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Rios, Lidia; Martin-Paredero, Vicente; Menendez, Javier A; Micol, Vicente; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Camps, Jordi

2014-06-01

216

Improvement of motor function in early Parkinson disease by safinamide.  

PubMed

A median safinamide (SAF) dose of 70 mg/day (range 40 to 90 mg/day) increased the percentage of parkinsonian patients improving their motor scores by > or =30% from baseline (responders) after 3 months from 21.4% (placebo) to 37.5% (p < 0.05, calculated by logistic regression analysis). In a subgroup of 101 patients under stable treatment with a single dopamine agonist, addition of SAF magnified the response (47.1% responders, mean 4.7-point motor score decrease; p > or = 0.05). These results suggest that doses of SAF exerting ion channel block and glutamate release inhibition add to its symptomatic effect and warrant exploration of higher doses. PMID:15326260

Stocchi, F; Arnold, G; Onofrj, M; Kwiecinski, H; Szczudlik, A; Thomas, A; Bonuccelli, U; Van Dijk, A; Cattaneo, C; Sala, P; Fariello, R G

2004-08-24

217

Can stronger pelvic muscle floor improve sexual function?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and hypothesis  This study aims to evaluate the association between pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength and sexual functioning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Retrospective chart review of consecutive all women who were referred with a primary complaint of sexual dysfunction. Women\\u000a underwent standardized clinical evaluation including pelvic muscle strength which was ranked from 0 (weak) to 2 (strong).\\u000a The duration of pelvic muscle contraction was

Lior Lowenstein; Ilan Gruenwald; Irena Gartman; Yoram Vardi

2010-01-01

218

Running head: NEUROFEEDBACK IMPROVES EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING IN AUTISM Neurofeedback improves Executive Functioning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

E-print Network

Executive Functioning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Mirjam E. J. Kouijzer1,2 , Jan M. H. de Moor1 , Berrie J. L. Gerrits2 , Marco Congedo3 , and Hein T. van Schie1 1 Behavioral Science Institute.vanschie@psych.ru.nl hal-00297294,version1-16Jul2008 Author manuscript, published in "Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders

Boyer, Edmond

219

Improved Left Ventricular Mechanics From Acute VDD Pacing in Patients With Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Ventricular Conduction Delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Ventricular pacing can improve hemodynamics in heart failure patients, but direct effects on left ventricular (LV) function from varying pacing site and atrioventricular (AV) delay remain unknown. We hypothesized that the magnitude and location of basal intraventricular conduction delay critically influences pacing responses and that single-site pacing in the delay-activated region yields similar or better responses to biventricular pacing. Methods

David A. Kass; Chen-Huan Chen; Cecilia Curry; Maurice Talbot; Ronald Berger; Barry Fetics; Erez Nevo

220

Relationship between systolic and diastolic function with improvements in forward stroke volume following reduction in mitral regurgitation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts to improve mitral regurgitation (MR) are often performed in conjunction with coronary revascularization. However, the independent effects of a reduced MR area (MRa) are difficult to quantify. Using a previously developed cardiovascular model, ventricular contractility (elastance 1-8 mmHg/ml) and relaxation (tau: 40-150 msec) were independently adjusted for four grades of MR orifice areas (0.0 to 0.8 cm2). Improvements in forward stroke volume (fSV) were determined for the permutations of reduced MRa. For all conditions, LV end-diastolic pressure and volumes ranged from 7.3-24.2 mmHg and 64.8-174.3 ml, respectively. Overall, fSV ranged from 36.0-89.4 (mean: 64.2 +/- 12.8) ml, improved between 6.4 and 35.3% (mean: 15.6 +/- 8.1%), and was best predicted by (r=0.97, p<0.01) %delta(fSV)[correction of fVS]=34[MRa initial] - 46[MRa final] -0.5[elastance]. Reduced MRa, independent of relaxation and minimally influence by contractility, yield improved fSVs.

Firstenberg, M. S.; Greenberg, N. L.; Smedira, N. G.; McCarthy, P. M.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.

2001-01-01

221

Pilot Study of Pioglitazone and Exercise Training Effects on Basal Myocardial Substrate Metabolism and Left Ventricular Function in HIV-Positive Individuals with Metabolic Complications  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with HIV infection and peripheral metabolic complications have impaired basal myocardial insulin sensitivity that is related to left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction. It is unknown whether interventions shown to be effective in improving peripheral insulin sensitivity can improve basal myocardial insulin sensitivity and diastolic function in people with HIV and peripheral metabolic complications. Objective In a pilot study, we evaluated whether the peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-?) agonist pioglitazone or combined endurance and resistance exercise training improves basal myocardial insulin sensitivity and diastolic function in HIV+ adults with peripheral metabolic complications. Design Twenty-four HIV+ adults with metabolic complications including peripheral insulin resistance were randomly assigned to 4 months of pioglitazone (PIO; 30 mg/d) or supervised, progressive endurance and resistance exercise training (EXS; 90–120 min/d, 3 d/wk). Basal myocardial substrate metabolism was quantified by radioisotope tracer methodology and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, and LV function was measured by echocardiography. Results Twenty participants completed the study. Neither PIO nor EXS resulted in a detectable improvement in basal myocardial insulin sensitivity or diastolic function. Post hoc analyses revealed sample sizes of more than 100 participants are needed to detect significant effects of these interventions on basal myocardial insulin sensitivity and function. Conclusions PIO or EXS alone did not significantly increase basal myocardial insulin sensitivity or LV diastolic function in HIV+ individuals with peripheral metabolic complications. PMID:24334183

Cade, W. Todd; Reeds, Dominic N.; Overton, E. Turner; Herrero, Pilar; Waggoner, Alan D.; Laciny, Erin; Bopp, Coco; Lassa-Claxton, Sherry; Gropler, Robert J.; Peterson, Linda R.; Yarasheski, Kevin E.

2014-01-01

222

Early Intervention to Improve Hand Function in Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy often have marked hand involvement with excessive thumb adduction and flexion and limited active wrist extension from infancy. Post-lesional aberrant plasticity can lead to progressive abnormalities of the developing motor system. Disturbances of somatosensory and visual function and developmental disregard contribute to difficulties with hand use. Progressive soft tissue and bony changes may occur, leading to contractures, which further limit function in a vicious cycle. Early intervention might help to break this cycle, however, the precise nature and appropriateness of the intervention must be carefully considered. Traditional approaches to the hemiplegic upper limb include medications and botulinum toxin injections to manage abnormalities of tone, and surgical interventions. Therapist input, including provision of orthoses, remains a mainstay although many therapies have not been well evaluated. There has been a recent increase in interventions for the hemiplegic upper limb, mostly aimed outside the period of infancy. These include trials of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) and bimanual therapy as well as the use of virtual reality and robot-assisted therapy. In future, non-invasive brain stimulation may be combined with therapy. Interventions under investigation in the infant age group include modified CIMT and action observation therapy. A further approach which may be suited to the infant with thumb-in-palm deformity, but which requires evaluation, is the use of elastic taping. Enhanced cutaneous feedback through mechanical stimulation to the skin provided by the tape during movement has been postulated to modulate ongoing muscle activity. If effective, this would represent a low-cost, safe, widely applicable early intervention. PMID:25610423

Basu, Anna Purna; Pearse, Janice; Kelly, Susan; Wisher, Vicki; Kisler, Jill

2015-01-01

223

Functionally gradient hard carbon composites for improved adhesion and wear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach is proposed for fabricating biomedical devices that last longer and are more biocompatible than those presently available. In this approach, a bulk material is chosen that has desirable mechanical properties (low modulus, high strength, high ductility and high fatigue strength). This material is coated with corrosion-resistant, wear-resistant, hard, and biocompatible hard carbon films. One of the many forms of carbon, tetrahedral amorphous carbon, consists mainly of sp3-bonded atoms. Tetrahedral amorphous carbon possesses properties close to diamond in terms of hardness, atomic smoothness, and inertness. Tetrahedral amorphous carbon and diamond films usually contain large amounts of compressive and sometimes tensile stresses; adhesive failure from these stresses has limited widespread use of these materials. This research involves processing, characterization and modeling of functionally gradient tetrahedral amorphous carbon and diamond composite films on metals (cobalt-chromium and titanium alloys) and polymers (polymethylmethacrylate and polyethylene) used in biomedical applications. Multilayer discontinuous thin films of titanium carbide, titanium nitride, aluminum nitride, and tungsten carbide have been developed to control stresses and graphitization in diamond films. A morphology of randomly interconnected micron sized diamond crystallites provides increased toughness and stress reduction. Internal stresses in tetrahedral amorphous carbon were reduced via incorporation of carbide forming elements (silicon and titanium) and noncarbide forming elements (copper, platinum, and silver). These materials were produced using a novel target design during pulsed laser deposition. These alloying atoms reduce hardness and sp3-bonded carbon content, but increase adhesion and wear resistance. Silver and platinum provide the films with antimicrobial properties, and silicon provides bioactivity and aids bone formation. Bilayer coatings were created that couple the adherence, biocompatibility, erosion resistance, and long term release of functional elements from hard carbon coatings with bioactive properties of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and short term drug release properties of resorbable poly (D,L) lactide-based materials. Finally, these hard carbon coatings have a variety of non-medical applications, including use in microelectronics packaging, sensors, flat panel displays, photodiodes, cutting tools, optical switches, and wear-resistant magnetic disks.

Narayan, Roger Jagdish

224

Therapeutic intraspinal microstimulation improves forelimb function after cervical contusion injury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. Intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) is a promising method for activating the spinal cord distal to an injury. The objectives of this study were to examine the ability of chronically implanted stimulating wires within the cervical spinal cord to (1) directly produce forelimb movements, and (2) assess whether ISMS stimulation could improve subsequent volitional control of paretic extremities following injury. Approach. We developed a technique for implanting intraspinal stimulating electrodes within the cervical spinal cord segments C6-T1 of Long-Evans rats. Beginning 4 weeks after a severe cervical contusion injury at C4-C5, animals in the treatment condition received therapeutic ISMS 7 hours/day, 5 days/week for the following 12 weeks. Main results. Over 12 weeks of therapeutic ISMS, stimulus-evoked forelimb movements were relatively stable. We also explored whether therapeutic ISMS promoted recovery of forelimb reaching movements. Animals receiving daily therapeutic ISMS performed significantly better than unstimulated animals during behavioural tests conducted without stimulation. Quantitative video analysis of forelimb movements showed that stimulated animals performed better in the movements reinforced by stimulation, including extending the elbow to advance the forelimb and opening the digits. While threshold current to elicit forelimb movement gradually increased over time, no differences were observed between chronically stimulated and unstimulated electrodes suggesting that no additional tissue damage was produced by the electrical stimulation. Significance. The results indicate that therapeutic intraspinal stimulation delivered via chronic microwire implants within the cervical spinal cord confers benefits extending beyond the period of stimulation, suggesting future strategies for neural devices to promote sustained recovery after injury.

Kasten, M. R.; Sunshine, M. D.; Secrist, E. S.; Horner, P. J.; Moritz, C. T.

2013-08-01

225

mTOR inhibition improves immune function in the elderly.  

PubMed

Inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway extends life span in all species studied to date, and in mice delays the onset of age-related diseases and comorbidities. However, it is unknown if mTOR inhibition affects aging or its consequences in humans. To begin to assess the effects of mTOR inhibition on human aging-related conditions, we evaluated whether the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 ameliorated immunosenescence (the decline in immune function during aging) in elderly volunteers, as assessed by their response to influenza vaccination. RAD001 enhanced the response to the influenza vaccine by about 20% at doses that were relatively well tolerated. RAD001 also reduced the percentage of CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes expressing the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor, which inhibits T cell signaling and is more highly expressed with age. These results raise the possibility that mTOR inhibition may have beneficial effects on immunosenescence in the elderly. PMID:25540326

Mannick, Joan B; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Lattanzi, Maria; Valiante, Nicholas M; Praestgaard, Jens; Huang, Baisong; Lonetto, Michael A; Maecker, Holden T; Kovarik, John; Carson, Simon; Glass, David J; Klickstein, Lloyd B

2014-12-24

226

An Improved Green's Function for Ion Beam Transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ion beam transport theory allows testing of material transmission properties in the laboratory environment generated by particle accelerators. This is a necessary step in materials development and evaluation for space use. The approximations used in solving the Boltzmann transport equation for the space setting are often not sufficient for laboratory work and those issues are the main emphasis of the present work. In consequence, an analytic solution of the linear Boltzmann equation is pursued in the form of a Green's function allowing flexibility in application to a broad range of boundary value problems. It has been established that simple solutions can be found for the high charge and energy (HZE) by ignoring nuclear energy downshifts and dispersion. Such solutions were found to be supported by experimental evidence with HZE ion beams when multiple scattering was added. Lacking from the prior solutions were range and energy straggling and energy downshift with dispersion associated with nuclear events. Recently, we have found global solutions including these effects providing a broader class of HZE ion solutions.

Tweed, J.; Wilson, J. W.; Tripathi, R. K.

2003-01-01

227

The importance of hybrid stage I palliation for neonates with critical aortic stenosis and reduced left ventricular function.  

PubMed

The optimal management strategy for neonates with congenital aortic stenosis, two balanced ventricles, and duct-dependent systemic circulation (critical aortic stenosis) is still controversial. Thirteen patients with critical aortic stenosis underwent balloon aortic valvotomy (BAV) between 1996 and 2013, at the median age of 1 day old (range 0-28). Since 2010, bilateral pulmonary artery banding with ductal stenting following BAV was conducted for patients with reduced left ventricular (LV) function as a hybrid stage I palliation for the bridge to decision for further treatment. A follow-up was completed on all patients and the median follow-up period was 3.3 years (max 16.0). The overall survival rate at 15 years was 67.1 %. Six of the seven patients with maintained LV function could go on to the definitive Ross or Konno-aortic valve replacement at the median duration of 311 days after initial BAV, without any mortality. Three of four patients with reduced LV function died before 2010 with conventional treatment. With use of a hybrid stage I palliation, one of two patients ultimately underwent Fontan completion at 38 months of age and the other successfully underwent the definitive Ross-Konno operation at 9 months of age after recovery of the LV function. Although a statistically significant improvement has not been observed yet, the application of hybrid stage I palliation following BAV would be a favorable alternative for patients with reduced LV function to avoid a high-risk neonatal Ross or Norwood-type operation, and also to determine further treatment carefully. PMID:25480352

Misumi, Yusuke; Hoashi, Takaya; Kagisaki, Koji; Yazaki, Satoshi; Kitano, Masataka; Kurosaki, Kenichi; Shiraishi, Isao; Ichikawa, Hajime

2015-04-01

228

An improved method for extracting matrix elements from lattice three-point functions  

SciTech Connect

The extraction of matrix elements from baryon three-point functions is complicated by the fact that the signal-to-noise drops rapidly as a function of time. Using a previously discussed method to improve the signal-to-noise for lattice two-point functions, we use this technique to do so for lattice three-point functions, using electromagnetic form factors for the nucleon and Delta as an example.

C. Aubin, K. Orginos

2011-12-01

229

Is blockade of the Renin-Angiotensin system able to reverse the structural and functional remodeling of the left ventricle in severe aortic stenosis?  

PubMed

: In experimental aortic stenosis (AS), blockade of the renin-angiotensin system attenuates AS-related left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and improves survival. We tested whether candesartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, favorably influences LV structure and function and improves exercise capacity in AS patients. Fifty-one patients with severe AS were randomized to receive candesartan (target dose 16 mg/d) or placebo. Eight patients discontinued treatment and the remaining 43 patients underwent echocardiography, walking test, and measurement of plasma N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP) before and after an average of 5-month treatment. No statistically significant changes in LV diameters, mass, or function were seen. The median 6-minute walking distance decreased from 390 to 368 m with candesartan (P = 0.003) and from 380 to 370 m with placebo (P = 0.523), reflecting natural progression of AS. Concomitantly, median Nt-proBNP increased from 319 to 414 ng/L with candesartan (P = 0.170) and from 413 to 561 ng/L with placebo (P = 0.035). No change with candesartan was statistically significantly different from the corresponding change with placebo. In conclusion, candesartan was well tolerated but had no favorable effects on the LV or effort tolerance. The benefits found in experimental AS of blocking the renin-angiotensin system could not be reproduced in patients with severe AS. PMID:25469804

Helske-Suihko, Satu; Laine, Mika; Lommi, Jyri; Kaartinen, Maija; Werkkala, Kalervo; Kovanen, Petri T; Kupari, Markku

2015-03-01

230

Improved Displacement Transfer Functions for Structure Deformed Shape Predictions Using Discretely Distributed Surface Strains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the formulations of earlier Displacement Transfer Functions for structure shape predictions, the surface strain distributions, along a strain-sensing line, were represented with piecewise linear functions. To improve the shape-prediction accuracies, Improved Displacement Transfer Functions were formulated using piecewise nonlinear strain representations. Through discretization of an embedded beam (depth-wise cross section of a structure along a strain-sensing line) into multiple small domains, piecewise nonlinear functions were used to describe the surface strain distributions along the discretized embedded beam. Such piecewise approach enabled the piecewise integrations of the embedded beam curvature equations to yield slope and deflection equations in recursive forms. The resulting Improved Displacement Transfer Functions, written in summation forms, were expressed in terms of beam geometrical parameters and surface strains along the strain-sensing line. By feeding the surface strains into the Improved Displacement Transfer Functions, structural deflections could be calculated at multiple points for mapping out the overall structural deformed shapes for visual display. The shape-prediction accuracies of the Improved Displacement Transfer Functions were then examined in view of finite-element-calculated deflections using different tapered cantilever tubular beams. It was found that by using the piecewise nonlinear strain representations, the shape-prediction accuracies could be greatly improved, especially for highly-tapered cantilever tubular beams.

Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran

2012-01-01

231

Functional Clustering Drives Encoding Improvement in a Developing Brain Network during Awake Visual Learning  

E-print Network

Sensory experience drives dramatic structural and functional plasticity in developing neurons. However, for single-neuron plasticity to optimally improve whole-network encoding of sensory information, changes must be ...

Dunfield, Derek

232

42 CFR 493.2001 - Establishment and function of the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Laboratory Improvement Advisory Committee. 493.2001 Section 493.2001 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Consultations § 493.2001 Establishment and function of the Clinical...

2010-10-01

233

Repeated thermal therapy improves impaired vascular endothelial function in patients with coronary risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESWe sought to determine whether sauna therapy, a thermal vasodilation therapy, improves endothelial function in patients with coronary risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and smoking.BACKGROUNDExposure to heat is widely used as a traditional therapy in many different cultures. We have recently found that repeated sauna therapy improves endothelial and cardiac function in patients with chronic heart failure.METHODSTwenty-five

Masakazu Imamura; Sadatoshi Biro; Takashi Kihara; Shiro Yoshifuku; Kunitsugu Takasaki; Yutaka Otsuji; Shinichi Minagoe; Yoshifumi Toyama; Chuwa Tei

2001-01-01

234

Precise improvement of ISAF reconstruction algorithm based on the computational radius of density function.  

PubMed

The output of icosahedral symmetry-adapted functions (ISAF) reconstruction algorithm is a virus capsid, where the density function of every outside point is theoretically zero. However, original ISAF algorithm takes reconstructed map as a solid sphere and density function of every point in the whole sphere is calculated. The density functions outside virus capsid may not be always zero, which may sometimes produce noise. In this study, Fourier shell correlation (FSC) is used for proving that density function calculation of original ISAF algorithm can reduce reconstruction precision. Subsequently, the range of virus capsid is determined with radial density function curve and the original ISAF algorithm is improved by calculating density function inside virus capsid. The experimental results on Cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) data of cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (CPV) indicate that the improved ISAF algorithm can generate more details of virus capsid and achieve a higher resolution. PMID:25227095

Wang, Gongming; Xu, Fan

2014-01-01

235

School Improvement: A Functional View of Enabling Equity of Opportunity. A Center Policy & Practice Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ongoing dilemma for those expected to improve schools is how to meet our society's basic aims for public education in ways that level the playing field. The dilemma is exacerbated by the need to do more with less. This brief approaches these matters in the context of three direct functions that are essential to school improvement: (1)…

Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2011

2011-01-01

236

Global path planning for mobile robot based on improved artificial potential function  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a major problem with traditional artificial potential field method. It is the formation of local minima that can trap the robot before reaching its goal. To overcome the problem, this paper presents an improved potential field approach. It consists of two parts. The former, the improved attractive potential function, brings the minimum distance between the robot and the

Pu Shi; Yiwen Zhao

2009-01-01

237

Improvement of cardiac function by short-term enzyme replacement therapy in a murine model of cardiomyopathy associated with Hunter syndrome evaluated by serial echocardiography with speckle tracking 2-D strain analysis.  

PubMed

Cardiac systolic function is significantly decreased in a proportion of patients with Hunter syndrome. This study was performed to evaluate the change in myocardial function associated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in a mouse model of cardiomyopathy associated with Hunter syndrome. Thirty 9-week-old iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) knockout mice received either intravenous injection of human recombinant IDS (ERT group, N=15) or saline (control group, N=15) for 5 weeks. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and after treatment. Echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular (LV) systolic function and 2-dimensional radial and circumferential strain were assessed. At follow-up, there was a significant increase in LV fractional shortening and radial and circumferential strain in the ERT group only. Notable myocardial fibrosis was observed in the control group only. In the murine model of Hunter syndrome, ERT exerts beneficial effects on cardiac function, which can be evaluated by serial echocardiographic evaluation including 2-dimensional strain analysis. PMID:24836711

Lee, Sang-Chol; Lee, Jieun; Jin, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Jung-Sun; Jeon, Eun-Seok; Kwun, Young Hee; Chang, Mi Sun; Ko, Ah-ra; Yook, Yeon Joo; Sohn, Young Bae

2014-07-01

238

Isoproterenol-induced alterations in myocardial blood flow, systolic and diastolic function in conscious dogs with heart failure.  

PubMed

The effects of isoproterenol were examined in 10 conscious, chronically instrumented adult dogs with left ventricular (LV) failure after pressure overload hypertrophy induced by aortic banding at 8-10 weeks of age (LV free wall plus septum-to-body weight ratio, 8.6 +/- 0.5 g/kg) and also in eight control dogs (LV free wall plus septum-to-body weight ratio, 5.1 +/- 0.3 g/kg). Baseline values of heart rate, LV end-diastolic pressure, LV end-diastolic stress, and LV systolic wall stress were greater in the LV failure dogs (p less than 0.01), whereas the ejection phase index, rate of change of LV short-axis diameter, LV dD/dt, was depressed compared with control animals. In the control animals, isoproterenol infusion increased Vcf and LV dD/dt significantly (p less than 0.05), whereas LV systolic wall stress did not change. In the LV failure dogs, the increases in Vcf and LV dD/dt were less (p less than 0.01), and LV systolic wall stress increased (p less than 0.01). In the control animals, LV end-diastolic pressure, LV end-diastolic stress, LV end-diastolic stress-dimension ratio, diastolic radial myocardial stiffness, and the time constant of isovolumic relaxation decreased (p less than 0.05), whereas in the LV failure dogs, LV end-diastolic pressure, LV end-diastolic stress, diastolic radial myocardial stiffness, and the LV end-diastolic stress-dimension ratio increased. In the LV failure group, the endocardial to epicardial blood flow ratio fell to 0.59 +/- 0.06 during isoproterenol infusion, that is, significantly lower than in control dogs (0.93 +/- 0.06). These data support the concept that potent sympathomimetic amines exert deleterious effects on systolic and diastolic function in the failing heart, potentially related to subendocardial hypoperfusion. PMID:2527646

Hittinger, L; Shannon, R P; Kohin, S; Lader, A S; Manders, W T; Patrick, T A; Kelly, P; Vatner, S F

1989-09-01

239

Interleukin10 improves left ventricular function in rats with heart failure subsequent to myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence has shown that pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially TNF-?, are involved in the inflammatory response in the remodelling process after myocardial infarction (MI). Although IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, has been shown to antagonize some of the deleterious effects of TNF-?, little is known about its role in post-MI left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to investigate

Christian Stumpf; Katrin Seybold; Sebastian Petzi; Gerald Wasmeier; Dorette Raaz; Atilla Yilmaz; Thomas Anger; Werner G. Daniel; Christoph D. Garlichs

2008-01-01

240

Electrical Stimulation as a Therapeutic Option to Improve Eyelid Function in Chronic Facial Nerve Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. TO establish whether it is possible to improve orbicularis oculi muscle function in the eyelids of patients with a chronic seventh cranial nerve palsy by using transcutaneous electrical stimulation to the point at which electrical stimulation induces a functional blink. METHODS. Ten subjects (one woman, nine men) aged 36 to 76 with chronic, moderate to severe facial nerve palsy

John Gittins; Kevin Martin; James Sbeldrick; Ashwin Reddy; Leonard Tbean

241

TELEMEDICINE TO ASSIST PATIENT UNDERSTANDING OF ATMOSPHERIC INFLUENCE ON LUNG FUNCTION AND IMPROVE  

E-print Network

TELEMEDICINE TO ASSIST PATIENT UNDERSTANDING OF ATMOSPHERIC INFLUENCE ON LUNG FUNCTION AND IMPROVE-time generic telemedicine system is presented. It is discussed in the context of self- management for people as influencing lung function, we have used data collected during a feasibility study of the telemedicine system

McSharry, Patrick E.

242

NEW FUNCTIONAL FOOD INGREDIENTS FOR IMPROVING THE HEALTH BENEFITS OF ASIAN FOODS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to utilize new functional food ingredients containing soluble beta-glucan fiber that could be used to improve the health qualities of Asian foods. These functional food fibers were studied as replacements for coconut milk, butter, or saturated fat shortenings that are ...

243

NEW FUNCTIONAL FOOD INGREDIENTS FOR IMPROVING THE HEALTH BENEFITS OF ASIAN FOODS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to utilize new functional food ingredients containing soluble betaglucan fiber that could be used to improve the heatlh qualities of Asian foods. These functional food fibers were studied as replacements for coconut milk, butter, or saturated fat shortenings that are w...

244

Improvement of scale factors for harmonic vibrational frequency calculations using new polarization functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Density functional calculations were carried to improve the calculated CO vibrational frequencies for transition metal carbonyls. Two types of density functionals were studied, hybrid and generalized-gradient methods. Using the simplex optimization method, new polarization functions for C and O atoms were obtained. With these new optimized functions, new scaling factors were obtained. The results reveal that, with the new polarization functions, the agreement between the calculated and the experimental values improves considerably. In general, the new scaling factors are very close to unit, with standard uncertainties close to ±0.006 cm-1. The use of the new polarization functions allows more precise calculations of the transition metal carbonyl CO vibrational frequencies.0

Sierraalta, Anibal; Martorell, Guillermo; Ehrmann, Elena; Añez, Rafael

245

Effects of remission speed and improvement of cognitive functions of depressed patients.  

PubMed

Major depressive disorder (MDD) presents neuropsychological alterations which improve after the treatment, but it might be mediated by clinical variables. Our goal is to study whether the speed of remission of MDD bears any relation to the improvement of the patients? cognitive functioning after a successful treatment. We carried out clinical and neuropsychological assessments of 51 patients with MDD. After these procedures they underwent a 24-week treatment with fluoxetine, and were assessed again with the same battery used prior to treatment. They were arranged into three groups according to how rapid their symptoms remitted. The patients with a rapid remission presented improvements in working memory, speed of information processing, and some executive functions, unlike the other groups. Rapid remitters also improved in episodic memory and executive functions more than the other patients. PMID:25619432

Gudayol-Ferré, Esteve; Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan; Peró-Cebollero, Maribel

2015-03-30

246

Cellular entry via an actin and clathrin-dependent route is required for Lv2 restriction of HIV-2  

SciTech Connect

Lv2 is a human factor that restricts infection of some HIV-2 viruses after entry into particular target cells. HIV-2 MCR is highly susceptible to Lv2 whereas HIV-2 MCN is not. The block is after reverse transcription but prior to nuclear entry. The viral determinants for this restriction have been mapped to the HIV-2 envelope and the capsid genes. Our model of Lv2 restriction suggests that the route taken into a cell is important in determining whether a productive infection occurs. Here we characterised the infectious routes used by MCN and MCR using chemical compounds and molecular techniques to distinguish between potential pathways. Our results suggest that susceptible MCR can enter restrictive HeLa{sup CD4} cells via two pathways; a clathrin/AP2 mediated endocytic route that is sensitive to Lv2 restriction and an alternative, non-clathrin mediated route, which results in more efficient infection.

Harrison, I.P., E-mail: ian.harrison@medsch.ucl.ac.uk [Queen Mary, University of London, Whitechapel, London (United Kingdom); School of Medicine and Dentistry, Centre for Immunology and Infectious Disease, Blizard Institute for Cell and Molecular Science, 4 Newark Street, Whitechapel, London E1 2AT (United Kingdom); McKnight, A., E-mail: a.mcknight@qmul.ac.uk [Queen Mary, University of London, Whitechapel, London (United Kingdom)

2011-06-20

247

Comparative effects of propranolol and verapamil alone and in combination on left ventricular function and volumes in patients with chronic exertional angina: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study with radionuclide ventriculography  

SciTech Connect

With the use of equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography the effects on left ventricular (LV) function of 160 mg oral propranolol daily and 360 mg verapamil daily alone and in combination were compared in 18 patients with chronic exertional angina. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover protocol was used. The reduction in exercise rate-pressure product induced by the combination (118 +/- 28 mm Hg/min) was significantly greater than that by propranolol (135 +/- 27 mm Hg/min) or verapamil alone (163 +/- 28 mm Hg/min). In patients at rest, neither single nor combined therapy altered global or regional left ventricular ejection fractions (EFs). Verapamil, but not propranolol, increased cardiac volumes of resting subjects; used in combination, no further increase in LV volume occurred. With placebo, exercise global EF did not decrease from the level at rest and therefore no drug effect could be demonstrated for this parameter of LV function. By an evaluation of normalized regional EF measurements the combination was shown to reduce exercise-induced hypokinesis (placebo 52 +/- 20%, combination 61 +/- 23%. No significant improvement was noted with propranolol or verapamil alone; only the combination prevented a significant increase in end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes during exercise. Thus, propranolol and verapamil, used alone in moderate doses, exert no beneficial effect on exercise LV function as measured by EF and volume changes, and resting function deteriorates slightly with verapamil.

Johnston, D.L.; Gebhardt, V.A.; Donald, A.; Kostuk, W.J.

1983-12-01

248

Naloxone improves functional recovery of myocardial stunning in conscious dogs through its action on the central nervous system.  

PubMed

This study tests the hypothesis that naloxone, but not its quarternary salt, naloxone methiodide (which does not enter the central nervous system), improves recovery from myocardial stunning in conscious dogs. Twenty dogs were chronically instrumented for measurement of heart rate, left atrial, aortic and left ventricular pressure (LVP), LV dP x dtmax(-1) and myocardial wall thickening fraction (WTF). Regional myocardial blood flow was determined with coloured microspheres. Occluder around the left anterior descending artery (LAD) allowed induction of reversible LAD ischaemia. Each of the 20 dogs underwent two LAD ischaemic challenges. Experiments (performed on separate days, in crossover fashion) were: (i) 10 min of LAD occlusion after application of naloxone 63 microg kg(-1) or naloxone methiodide 63 microg kg(-1) and (ii) occlusion without naloxone or naloxone methiodide. WTF was measured at baseline and until complete recovery occurred. LAD ischaemia significantly reduced LAD WTF with (mean (SD) 54 (15)% lower than baseline) and without naloxone (55 (16)% lower than baseline), without significant haemodynamic differences. Between I to 30 min of reperfusion, WTF was significantly higher with naloxone (P < 0.05). There was no difference in WTF with or without naloxone methiodide. We conclude that naloxone improved recovery from myocardial stunning in conscious dogs, and that this was centrally mediated. PMID:11573630

Weber, T P; Stypmann, J; Meissner, A; Hartlage, M G; Van Aken, H; Rolf, N

2001-04-01

249

Determination of early diastolic LV vortex formation time (T*) via the PDF formalism: a kinematic model of filling.  

PubMed

The filling (diastolic) function of the human left ventricle is most commonly assessed by echocardiography, a non-invasive imaging modality. To quantify diastolic function (DF) empiric indices are obtained from the features (height, duration, area) of transmitral flow velocity contour, obtained by echocardiography. The parameterized diastolic filling (PDF) formalism is a kinematic model developed by Kovács et. al. which incorporates the suction pump attribute of the left ventricle and facilitates DF quantitation by analysis of echocardiographic transmitral flow velocity contours in terms of stiffness (k), relaxation (c) and load (x(0)). A complementary approach developed by Gharib et. al., uses fluid mechanics and characterizes DF in terms of vortex formation time (T*) derived from streamline features formed by the jet of blood aspirated into the ventricle. Both of these methods characterize DF using a causality-based approach. In this paper, we derive T*'s kinematic analogue T*(kinematic) in terms of k, c and x(0). A comparison between T*(kinematic) and T*(fluid) (mechanic) obtained from averaged transmitral velocity and mitral annulus diameter, is presented. We found that T* calculated by the two methods were comparable and T*(kinematic) correlated with the peak LV recoil driving force kx(0). PMID:19964049

Ghosh, Erina; Shmuylovich, Leonid; Kovacs, Sandor J

2009-01-01

250

Differences in somatosensory and motor improvement during temporary functional deafferentation in stroke patients and healthy subjects.  

PubMed

Temporary functional deafferentation is of interest to become an additional tool in neurorehabilitative treatments. Temporary functional deafferentation is known to improve sensory and motor outcomes in chronic stroke patients and healthy subjects. The present study soughts to indicate differences in the efficiency of pharmacologically induced temporary functional deafferentation between chronic stroke patients and matched healthy subjects. 46 chronic stroke patients and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were deafferented on one forearm by an anesthetic cream. Somatosensory performance was assessed using von-Frey Hair testing and Grating orientation task; motor performance was assessed by means of a shape-sorter-drum task. Grating orientation task and shape-sorter-drum task were significantly improved during temporary functional deafferentation in stroke patients but not in healthy subjects. Von-Frey Hair testing revealed no improvement of absolute tactile thresholds during temporary functional deafferentation in both groups. Furthermore, the stroke patients showed deficits at baseline measurement in all assessments except the von-Frey Hair test. Temporary functional deafferentation of a forearm by an anesthetic cream results in improvements of motor performance and somatosensory discrimination in stroke patients but not in healthy subjects. Therefore, it is reasonable to test in a next step whether temporary functional deafferentation might become an additional tool in motor rehabilitation of post stroke patients. PMID:23735321

Sens, Elisabeth; Knorr, Christin; Preul, Christoph; Meissner, Winfried; Witte, Otto W; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Weiss, Thomas

2013-09-01

251

Peptide Lv augments L-type voltage-gated calcium channels through vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling.  

PubMed

We previously identified peptide Lv, a novel bioactive peptide that enhances the activity of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs) in cone photoreceptors. In this study, we verified that peptide Lv was able to augment L-VGCC currents in cardiomyocytes, as well as promote proliferation of endothelial cells. We used a proteomics approach to determine the specific receptors and binding partners of peptide Lv and found that vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) interacted with peptide Lv. Peptide Lv treatment in embryonic cardiomyocytes stimulated tyrosine autophosphorylation of VEGFR2 and activated its downstream signaling. Peptide Lv activity was blocked by DMH4, a VEGFR2 specific blocker, but not by SCH202676, an allosteric inhibitor of G protein-coupled receptors, suggesting that the activity of peptide Lv was mediated through VEGFR2 signaling. Inhibition of VEGFR tyrosine kinase or its downstream signaling molecules abolished the augmentation of L-VGCCs elicited by peptide Lv in cardiomyocytes. In addition, peptide Lv promoted cell proliferation of cultured human endothelial cells. Calcium entry through L-VGCCs is essential for excitation-contraction coupling in cardiomyocytes. Since peptide Lv was able to augment L-VGCCs through activation of VEGF signaling in cardiomyocytes and promote proliferation of endothelial cells, peptide Lv may play an important role in regulating the cardiovascular system. PMID:25698653

Shi, Liheng; Ko, Soyoung; Ko, Michael L; Kim, Andy Jeesu; Ko, Gladys Y-P

2015-05-01

252

Improving Balance Function Using Low Levels of Electrical Stimulation of the Balance Organs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crewmembers returning from long-duration space flight face significant challenges due to the microgravity-induced inappropriate adaptations in balance/ sensorimotor function. The Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC is developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance the brain s ability to detect signals from the balance organs of the inner ear and use them for rapid improvement in balance skill, especially when combined with balance training exercises. This method involves a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable providing imperceptible electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the human body. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a nonlinear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. This phenomenon of SR is based on the concept of maximizing the flow of information through a system by a non-zero level of noise. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input in humans has been shown to improve motor, cardiovascular, visual, hearing, and balance functions. SR increases contrast sensitivity and luminance detection; lowers the absolute threshold for tone detection in normal hearing individuals; improves homeostatic function in the human blood pressure regulatory system; improves noise-enhanced muscle spindle function; and improves detection of weak tactile stimuli using mechanical or electrical stimulation. SR noise has been shown to improve postural control when applied as mechanical noise to the soles of the feet, or when applied as electrical noise at the knee and to the back muscles.

Bloomberg, Jacob; Reschke, Millard; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen

2012-01-01

253

Gait improvement after treadmill training in ischemic stroke survivors: A critical review of functional MRI studies?  

PubMed Central

Stroke survivors often present with abnormal gait, movement training can improve the walking performance post-stroke, and functional MRI can objectively evaluate the brain functions before and after movement training. This paper analyzes the functional MRI changes in patients with ischemic stroke after treadmill training with voluntary and passive ankle dorsiflexion. Functional MRI showed that there are some changes in some regions of patients with ischemic stroke including primary sensorimotor cortex, supplementary motor area and cingulate motor area after treadmill training. These findings suggest that treadmill training likely improves ischemic stroke patients’ lower limb functions and gait performance and promotes stroke recovery by changing patients’ brain plasticity; meanwhile, the novel treadmill training methods can better training effects. PMID:25337096

Xiao, Xiang; Huang, Dongfeng; O’Young, Bryan

2012-01-01

254

Rodent Biocompatibility Test Using the NASA Foodbar and Epoxy EP21LV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Epoxy has been used successfully to affix NASA foodbars to the inner walls of the Animal Enclosure Module for past space flight experiments utilizing rodents. The epoxy used on past missions was discontinued, making it necessary to identify a new epoxy for use on the STS-108 and STS-107 missions. This experiment was designed to test the basic biocompatibility of epoxy EP21LV with male rats (Sprague Dawley) and mice (Swiss Webster) when applied to NASA foodbars. For each species, the test was conducted with a control group fed untreated foodbars and an experimental group fed foodbars applied with EP21LV. For each species, there were no group differences in animal health and no statistical differences (P<0.05) in body weights throughout the study. In mice, there was a 16% increase in heart weight in the epoxy group; this result was not found in rats. For both species, there were no statistical differences found in other organ weights measured. In rats, blood glucose levels were 15% higher and both total protein and globulin were 10% lower in the epoxy group. Statistical differences in these parameters were not found in mice. For both species, no statistical differences were found in other blood parameters tested. Food consumption was not different in rats but water consumption was significantly decreased 10 to 15% in the epoxy group. The difference in water consumption is likely due to an increased water content of the epoxy-treated foodbars. Finally, both species avoided consumption of the epoxy material. Based on the global analysis of the results, the few parameters found to be statistically different do not appear to be a physiologically relevant effect of the epoxy material, We conclude that the EP21LV epoxy is biocompatible with rodents.

Tillman, J.; Steele, M.; Dumars, P.; Vasques, M.; Girten, B.; Sun, S. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

255

Mesenchymal stromal cells in stroke: improvement of motor recovery or functional compensation?  

PubMed

Experimental stroke treatment by mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) populations is an attractive paradigm in stroke research. There are many studies describing improved functional outcomes after MSC delivery in stroke, but the mechanisms through which the transferred cells exert these effects are less well understood. Moreover, commonly applied functional tests may not be suitable for discriminating real functional recovery from compensation, which is a frequently encountered phenomenon in rodents. This commentary highlights some of the potential risks for the translational process associated with these tests and proposes some alternative test arrays which may achieve more specific functional phenotyping. PMID:24849662

Boltze, Johannes; Lukomska, Barbara; Jolkkonen, Jukka

2014-08-01

256

Effect of Intracoronary Delivery of Autolologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Two to Three Weeks Following Acute Myocardial Infarction on Left-Ventricular Function: The LateTIME Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Context Clinical trial results suggest that intracoronary delivery of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs) may improve left ventricular (LV) function when administered within the first week following myocardial infarction (MI). However, since a substantial number of patients may not present for early cell delivery, we investigated the efficacy of autologous BMC delivery 2–3 weeks post-MI. Objective To determine if intracoronary delivery of autologous BMCs improves global and regional LV function when delivered 2–3 weeks following first MI. Design, Setting, and Patients LateTIME is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute - sponsored Cardiovascular Cell Therapy Research Network (CCTRN) of 87 patients with significant LV dysfunction (LVEF ? 45%) following successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Interventions Intracoronary infusion of 150 × 106 autologous BMCs (total nucleated cells) or placebo (2:1 BMC:placebo) was performed within 12 hours of bone marrow aspiration after local automated cell processing. Main Outcome Measures The primary endpoints were changes in global (LVEF) and regional (wall motion) LV function in the infarct and border zone from baseline to 6 months as measured by cardiac MRI at a core lab blinded to treatment assignment Secondary endpoints included changes in LV volumes and infarct size. Results 87 patients were randomized between July 2008 and February 2011: mean age = 57 ± 11 yrs, 83% male. Harvesting, processing, and intracoronary delivery of BMCs in this setting was feasible and safe. The change from baseline to six months in the BMC group, when compared to the placebo group, for LVEF (48.7 to 49.2% vs. 45.3 to 48.8%; Difference = ?3.0, 95% CI ?7.0 to 0.9), wall motion in the infarct zone (6.2 to 6.5 vs. 4.9 to 5.9 mm; Difference = ?0.7, 95% CI ?2.8 to 1.3), and wall motion in the border zone (16.0 to 16.6 mm vs. 16.1 to 19.3 mm; Difference = ?2.6; 95% CI ?6.0 to 0.8) were not statistically significant. There was no significant change in LV volumes and infarct volumes decreased by a similar amount in both groups at 6 months compared to baseline. Conclusions Among patients with MI and LV dysfunction following reperfusion with PCI, intracoronary infusion of autologous BMCs compared to intracoronary placebo infusion, 2–3 weeks after PCI did not improve global or regional function at 6 months. PMID:22084195

Traverse, Jay H.; Henry, Timothy D.; Ellis, Stephen G.; Pepine, Carl J.; Willerson, James T.; Zhao, David X.M.; Forder, John R.; Byrne, Barry J.; Hatzopoulos, Antonis K.; Penn, Marc S.; Perin, Emerson C.; Baran, Kenneth W.; Chambers, Jeffrey; Lambert, Charles; Raveendran, Ganesh; Simon, Daniel I.; Vaughan, Douglas E.; Simpson, Lara M.; Gee, Adrian P.; Taylor, Doris A.; Cogle, Christopher R.; Thomas, James D.; Silva, Guilherme V.; Jorgenson, Beth C.; Olson, Rachel E.; Bowman, Sherry; Francescon, Judy; Geither, Carrie; Handberg, Eileen; Smith, Deirdre X.; Baraniuk, Sarah; Piller, Linda B.; Loghin, Catalin; Aguilar, David; Richman, Sara; Zierold, Claudia; Bettencourt, Judy; Sayre, Shelly L.; Vojvodic, Rachel W.; Skarlatos, Sonia I.; Gordon, David J.; Ebert, Ray F.; Kwak, Minjung; Moyé, Lemuel A.; Simari, Robert D.

2013-01-01

257

LV motion and strain computation from tMRI based on meshless deformable models.  

PubMed

We propose a novel meshless deformable model for in vivo Left Ventricle (LV) 3D motion estimation and analysis based on tagged MRI (tMRI). The meshless deformable model can capture global deformations such as contraction and torsion with a few parameters, while track local deformations with Laplacian representation. In particular, the model performs well even when the control points (tag intersections) are relatively sparse. We test the performance of the meshless model on a numeric phantom, as well as in vivo heart data of healthy subjects and patients. The experimental results show that the meshless deformable model can fully recover the myocardial motion and strain in 3D. PMID:18979800

Wang, Xiaoxu; Chen, Ting; Zhang, Shaoting; Metaxas, Dimitris; Axel, Leon

2008-01-01

258

0,0015/0,25 * (L/V) = 0,003  

E-print Network

(L/V)max = 0,0015/0,25 = 0,006 * ½ (L/V) = 0,003 M�FST exam �A 424302 25-012012 Short answers 419. Balance equations: F = 10 kmol/h = L + V, and F·xF = L·x + V·y, with x = 0.3, xF = 0.4 Relative volatility = (y/x)/((1-y)/(1-x)) = (0.3/0.7)·y/(1-y) = 2.5 y = 0.517 L = 5.39 kmol/h and V = 4.61 kmol/h 420. 11

Zevenhoven, Ron

259

Impact of psychosocial factors on functional improvement in Latino older adults after Tai Chi exercise.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence underscores the health benefits of Tai Chi (TC), although there is limited evidence of benefits among racial and ethnic minorities. This study investigated the impact of psychosocial status on balance among 23 Latino seniors after a twice-a-week, 12-week TC exercise program. Functional status was measured at baseline, immediately after, and three months following the TC exercise program, using the Timed Up and Go Test and Tinetti Falls Efficacy Scale. Psychosocial status was measured at baseline by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire. Both measures of functional status improved and were sustained after three months of TC. Greater improvement was significantly related to a higher level of baseline social support. More depressed seniors reported less fear of falling after TC. Depression and social support are important moderators of functional improvement after TC among Latino seniors. PMID:24451550

Siu, Ka-Chun; Rajaram, Shireen S; Padilla, Carolina

2015-01-01

260

The Use of Patterned Neuromuscular Stimulation to Improve Hand Function Following Surgery for Ulnar Neuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 60-year-old man with wasting and weakness of the right hand following ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow was referred for electrotherapy. An ulnar nerve transposition had been performed 2 years previously. This had produced some improvement in nerve conduction without significantly improving hand muscle function.The right first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI) was stimulated for 4 hours per day over

T. PETTERSON; G. P. SMITH; J. A. OLDHAM; T. E. HOWE; R. C. TALLIS

1994-01-01

261

Exercise inhibits neuronal apoptosis and improves cerebral function following rat traumatic brain injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exercise is reported to inhibit neuronal apoptotic cell death in the hippocampus and improve learning and memory. However,\\u000a the effect of exercise on inhibition of neuronal apoptosis surrounding the area of damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI)\\u000a and the improvement of cerebral dysfunction following TBI are unknown. Here, we investigate the effect of exercise on morphology\\u000a and cerebral function following

Tatsuki Itoh; Motohiro Imano; Shozo Nishida; Masahiro Tsubaki; Shigeo Hashimoto; Akihiko Ito; Takao Satou

262

The effectiveness of proprioceptive training for improving motor function: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objective: Numerous reports advocate that training of the proprioceptive sense is a viable behavioral therapy for improving impaired motor function. However, there is little agreement of what constitutes proprioceptive training and how effective it is. We therefore conducted a comprehensive, systematic review of the available literature in order to provide clarity to the notion of training the proprioceptive system. Methods: Four major scientific databases were searched. The following criteria were subsequently applied: (1) A quantified pre- and post-treatment measure of proprioceptive function. (2) An intervention or training program believed to influence or enhance proprioceptive function. (3) Contained at least one form of treatment or outcome measure that is indicative of somatosensory function. From a total of 1284 articles, 51 studies fulfilled all criteria and were selected for further review. Results: Overall, proprioceptive training resulted in an average improvement of 52% across all outcome measures. Applying muscle vibration above 30 Hz for longer durations (i.e., min vs. s) induced outcome improvements of up to 60%. Joint position and target reaching training consistently enhanced joint position sense (up to 109%) showing an average improvement of 48%. Cortical stroke was the most studied disease entity but no clear evidence indicated that proprioceptive training is differentially beneficial across the reported diseases. Conclusions: There is converging evidence that proprioceptive training can yield meaningful improvements in somatosensory and sensorimotor function. However, there is a clear need for further work. Those forms of training utilizing both passive and active movements with and without visual feedback tended to be most beneficial. There is also initial evidence suggesting that proprioceptive training induces cortical reorganization, reinforcing the notion that proprioceptive training is a viable method for improving sensorimotor function. PMID:25674059

Aman, Joshua E.; Elangovan, Naveen; Yeh, I-Ling; Konczak, Jürgen

2015-01-01

263

How does the motor relearning program improve neurological function of brain ischemia monkeys??  

PubMed Central

The motor relearning program can significantly improve various functional disturbance induced by ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. However, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. In injured brain tissues, glial fibrillary acidic protein and neurofilament protein changes can reflect the condition of injured neurons and astrocytes, while vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor changes can indicate angiogenesis. In the present study, we induced ischemic brain injury in the rhesus macaque by electrocoagulation of the M1 segment of the right middle cerebral artery. The motor relearning program was conducted for 60 days from the third day after model establishment. Immunohistochemistry and single-photon emission CT showed that the numbers of glial fibrillary acidic protein-, neurofilament protein-, vascular endothelial growth factor- and basic fibroblast growth factor-positive cells were significantly increased in the infarcted side compared with the contralateral hemisphere following the motor relearning program. Moreover, cerebral blood flow in the infarcted side was significantly improved. The clinical rating scale for stroke was used to assess neurological function changes in the rhesus macaque following the motor relearning program. Results showed that motor function was improved, and problems with consciousness, self-care ability and balance function were significantly ameliorated. These findings indicate that the motor relearning program significantly promoted neuronal regeneration, repair and angiogenesis in the surroundings of the infarcted hemisphere, and improve neurological function in the rhesus macaque following brain ischemia. PMID:25206440

Yin, Yong; Gu, Zhen; Pan, Lei; Gan, Lu; Qin, Dongdong; Yang, Bo; Guo, Jin; Hu, Xintian; Wang, Tinghua; Feng, Zhongtang

2013-01-01

264

How does the motor relearning program improve neurological function of brain ischemia monkeys?  

PubMed

The motor relearning program can significantly improve various functional disturbance induced by ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. However, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. In injured brain tissues, glial fibrillary acidic protein and neurofilament protein changes can reflect the condition of injured neurons and astrocytes, while vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor changes can indicate angiogenesis. In the present study, we induced ischemic brain injury in the rhesus macaque by electrocoagulation of the M1 segment of the right middle cerebral artery. The motor relearning program was conducted for 60 days from the third day after model establishment. Immunohistochemistry and single-photon emission CT showed that the numbers of glial fibrillary acidic protein-, neurofilament protein-, vascular endothelial growth factor- and basic fibroblast growth factor-positive cells were significantly increased in the infarcted side compared with the contralateral hemisphere following the motor relearning program. Moreover, cerebral blood flow in the infarcted side was significantly improved. The clinical rating scale for stroke was used to assess neurological function changes in the rhesus macaque following the motor relearning program. Results showed that motor function was improved, and problems with consciousness, self-care ability and balance function were significantly ameliorated. These findings indicate that the motor relearning program significantly promoted neuronal regeneration, repair and angiogenesis in the surroundings of the infarcted hemisphere, and improve neurological function in the rhesus macaque following brain ischemia. PMID:25206440

Yin, Yong; Gu, Zhen; Pan, Lei; Gan, Lu; Qin, Dongdong; Yang, Bo; Guo, Jin; Hu, Xintian; Wang, Tinghua; Feng, Zhongtang

2013-06-01

265

Acetyl-L-Carnitine Treatment Following Spinal Cord Injury Improves Mitochondrial Function Correlated with Remarkable Tissue Sparing and Functional Recovery  

PubMed Central

We have recently documented that treatment with the alternative biofuel, acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC, 300 mg/kg), as late as 1 hr after T10 contusion spinal cord injury (SCI), significantly maintained mitochondrial function 24 hrs after injury. Here we report that following more severe contusion SCI centered on the L1/L2 segments that are postulated to contain lamina X neurons critical for locomotion (the “central pattern generator”), ALC treatment resulted in significant improvements in acute mitochondrial bioenergetics and long-term hindlimb function. While control-injured rats were only able to achieve slight movements of hindlimb joints, ALC-treated animals produced consistent weight-supported plantar steps one month after injury. Such landmark behavioral improvements were significantly correlated with increased tissue sparing of both gray and white matter proximal to the injury, as well as preservation of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive neurons in lamina X rostral to the injury site. These findings signify that functional improvements with ALC treatment are mediated, in part, by preserved locomotor circuitry rostral to upper lumbar contusion SCI. Based on beneficial effects of ALC on mitochondrial bioenergetics after injury, our collective evidence demonstrate that preventing mitochondrial dysfunction acutely “promotes” neuroprotection that may be associated with the milestone recovery of plantar, weight-supported stepping. PMID:22445934

Patel, Samir P.; Sullivan, Patrick G.; Lyttle, Travis S.; Magnuson, David S. K.; Rabchevsky, Alexander G.

2012-01-01

266

Improved Ventricular Function during Inhalation of PGI2 Aerosol Partly Relies on Enhanced Myocardial Contractility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhaled prostacyclin (PGI2) aerosol induces selective pulmonary vasodilation. Further, it improves right ventricular (RV) function, which may largely rely on pulmonary vasodilation, but also on enhanced myocardial contractility. We investigated the effects of the inhaled PGI2 analogs epoprostenol (EPO) and iloprost (ILO) on RV function and myocardial contractility in 9 anesthetized pigs receiving aerosolized EPO (25 and 50 ng·kg–1·min–1) and,

G. Kemming; H. Kisch-Wedel; M. Flondor; C. Hofstetter; W. Kreyling; E. Thein; F. Meisner; S. Bruhn; B. Zwissler

2005-01-01

267

Improved Upper Bound on the Nonlinearity of High Order Correlation Immune Functions  

E-print Network

of an mth-order correlation immune function f with n variables satisfies the condition of Nf 2n-1 - 2m , and that when m > 1 2 n - 2 and f is a balanced function, the nonlinearity satisfies Nf 2n-1 - 2m+1 . In this work we prove that the general inequality, namely Nf 2n-1 - 2m , can be improved to Nf 2n-1 - 2m+1

Zheng, Yuliang

268

Improved Serum Leptin and Ghrelin Following Bariatric Surgery Predict Better Postoperative Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Bariatric surgery is associated with improved cognitive function, but the mechanisms underlying these gains remain poorly understood. Disturbed leptin and ghrelin systems are common in obese individuals and are associated with impaired cognitive function in other samples. Bariatric surgery has been shown to improve serum leptin and ghrelin levels, and these changes may underlie postoperative cognitive improvements. Methods Eighty-four patients completed a computerized cognitive test battery prior to bariatric surgery and at 12 months postoperatively. Participants also submitted to an 8-hour fasting blood draw to quantify serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations at these same time points. Results Baseline cognitive impairments and disturbed leptin and ghrelin levels improved at the 12-month follow-up compared to presurgery. Higher leptin levels were associated with worse attention/executive function at baseline; no such findings emerged for ghrelin. Regression analyses controlling for baseline factors and demographic characteristics showed that both decreased leptin and increased ghrelin following surgery was associated with better attention/executive function at the 12-month follow-up. These effects diminished after controlling for the postoperative change in body mass index (BMI); however, BMI change did not predict 12-month cognitive function. Conclusions Improvements in leptin and ghrelin levels following bariatric surgery appear to contribute to postoperative cognitive benefits. These gains may involve multiple mechanisms, such as reduced inflammation and improved glycemic control. Future studies that employ neuroimaging are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms and determine whether the effects of bariatric surgery on leptin and ghrelin levels can attenuate adverse brain changes and/or risk of dementia in severely obese individuals. PMID:25628737

Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, James E.

2015-01-01

269

A decentralized mechanism for improving the functional robustness of distribution networks.  

PubMed

Most real-world distribution systems can be modeled as distribution networks, where a commodity can flow from source nodes to sink nodes through junction nodes. One of the fundamental characteristics of distribution networks is the functional robustness, which reflects the ability of maintaining its function in the face of internal or external disruptions. In view of the fact that most distribution networks do not have any centralized control mechanisms, we consider the problem of how to improve the functional robustness in a decentralized way. To achieve this goal, we study two important problems: 1) how to formally measure the functional robustness, and 2) how to improve the functional robustness of a network based on the local interaction of its nodes. First, we derive a utility function in terms of network entropy to characterize the functional robustness of a distribution network. Second, we propose a decentralized network pricing mechanism, where each node need only communicate with its distribution neighbors by sending a "price" signal to its upstream neighbors and receiving "price" signals from its downstream neighbors. By doing so, each node can determine its outflows by maximizing its own payoff function. Our mathematical analysis shows that the decentralized pricing mechanism can produce results equivalent to those of an ideal centralized maximization with complete information. Finally, to demonstrate the properties of our mechanism, we carry out a case study on the U.S. natural gas distribution network. The results validate the convergence and effectiveness of our mechanism when comparing it with an existing algorithm. PMID:22547458

Shi, Benyun; Liu, Jiming

2012-10-01

270

Cardiac autonomic function in patients with diabetes improves with practice of comprehensive yogic breathing program  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this study was to observe the effect comprehensive yogic breathing (Sudarshan Kriya Yoga [SKY] and Pranayam) had on cardiac autonomic functions in patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective randomized controlled intervention trial. Cardiac autonomic functions were assessed in 64 diabetics. Patients were randomized into two groups, one group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and the other group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and comprehensive yogic breathing program. Standard therapy included dietary advice, brisk walking for 45 min daily, and administration of oral antidiabetic drugs. Comprehensive yogic breathing program was introduced to the participants through a course of 12 h spread over 3 days. It was an interactive session in which SKY, a rhythmic cyclical breathing, preceded by Pranayam is taught under the guidance of a certified teacher. Cardiac autonomic function tests were done before and after 6 months of intervention. Results: In the intervention group, after practicing the breathing techniques for 6 months, the improvement in sympathetic functions was statistically significant (P 0.04). The change in sympathetic functions in the standard therapy group was not significant (P 0.75). Parasympathetic functions did not show any significant change in either group. When both parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions were considered, there was a trend toward improvement in patients following comprehensive yogic breathing program (P 0.06). In the standard therapy group, no change in cardiac autonomic functions was noted (P 0.99). Conclusion: Cardiac autonomic functions improved in patients with diabetes on standard treatment who followed the comprehensive yogic breathing program compared to patients who were on standard therapy alone. PMID:23869306

Jyotsna, Viveka P.; Ambekar, Smita; Singla, Rajiv; Joshi, Ansumali; Dhawan, Anju; Kumar, Neeta; Deepak, K. K.; Sreenivas, V.

2013-01-01

271

Prefrontal activation predicts social functioning improvement after initial treatment in late-onset depression.  

PubMed

The activation of oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) has been shown to be lacking in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of patients with late-onset depression (LOD), in verbal fluency task (VFT)-related near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). In our previous studies, we have emphasized the connection between the lack of activation in the frontopolar cortex and social functioning disorder in patients with LOD. In this study, we investigated whether the responsiveness to medical treatment of untreated patients with LOD, particularly social functioning improvements, could be predicted by NIRS findings at the initial examination. The subjects were 29 patients with LOD who were diagnosed with major depression at 65 years or older at the initial examination (mean age ± standard deviation, 72.4 ± 5.71 years). We measured the changes in hemoglobin concentration in the prefrontal and temporal cortex regions during a VFT by using 52-channel NIRS. In addition, depression status and social functioning were evaluated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Social Adaptation Self-evaluation Scale, respectively, at the initial examination and 8 weeks after the treatment. A negative correlation was found between the NIRS activation in the right ventrolateral PFC region before treatment and the improvement in social functioning. These results suggested that the social functioning improvements were greater in LOD with initially lower NIRS activation in the right ventrolateral PFC region. NIRS is a simple technique that can be used before treatment to evaluate the social functioning levels of patients with LOD, and predict social functioning improvement after treatment. PMID:25659188

Pu, Shenghong; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Katsutoshi; Matsumura, Hiroshi; Nagata, Izumi; Kaneko, Koichi

2015-03-01

272

Family Ranching and Farming: A Consensus Management Model to Improve Family Functioning and Decrease Work Stress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that internal and external threats could squeeze ranch and farm families out of business. Offers six-step Consensus Management Model that combines strategic planning with psychoeducation/family therapy. Describes pilot test with intergenerational ranch family that indicated improvements in family functioning, including reduced stress and…

Zimmerman, Toni Schindler; Fetsch, Robert J.

1994-01-01

273

Improved relay coordination and relay response time by integrating the relay functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a practical method for improving relay coordination for high current faults by reducing the relay operating times by integrating the relay functions. This results in reduced fault duration at high currents, which minimizes equipment damage. Two examples of relay coordination for a typical distribution system using traditional relays, reclosers and new universal relays are presented. A protection

Ljubomir A Kojovic; John F. Witte

2000-01-01

274

Eur Heart J . Author manuscript Chronic heart rate reduction with ivabradine improves systolic function of  

E-print Network

collagen accumulation in rats with congestive heart failure induced by permanent coronary artery ligationEur Heart J . Author manuscript Page /1 11 Chronic heart rate reduction with ivabradine improves systolic function of the reperfused heart through a dual mechanism involving a direct mechanical effect

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

275

A lattice determination of moments of unpolarized nucleon structure functions using improved Wilson fermions  

SciTech Connect

Within the framework of quenched lattice QCD and using O(a) improved Wilson fermions and nonperturbative renormalization, a high statistics computation of low moments of the unpolarized nucleon structure functions is given. Particular attention is paid to the chiral and continuum extrapolations.

Goeckeler, M. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Leipzig, D-04109 Leipzig (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Horsley, R. [School of Physics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Pleiter, D. [John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Rakow, P.E.L. [Theoretical Physics Division, Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Schierholz, G. [John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing NIC, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

2005-06-01

276

Structure-function strategies to improve the pharmacological value of animal toxins  

E-print Network

Structure-function strategies to improve the pharmacological value of animal toxins Michel De sources of bioactive compounds that possess obvious pharmacological, therapeutic, and/or biotechnological, identification of actual target(s) is generally a difficult task. Pharmacological profiling using well defined

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

277

Improving service quality using quality function deployment: The air cargo sector of China airlines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent-rising crude oil prices have impacted on the development of the air-freight industry making improved service quality and competitiveness— pressing issues for management. To examine the performance of China Airlines this paper employs quality function deployment to integrate inside quality technology and the voice of outside consumers, and using “House of Quality” charts, illustrates the company's performance in terms of

Rong-Tsu Wang

2007-01-01

278

Transplantation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Improves Cardiac Function in a Rat Model of Dilated Cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into a variety of cells, including cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. However, little information is available about the therapeutic potency of MSC transplantation in cases of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), an important cause of heart failure. Methods and Results—We investigated whether transplanted MSCs induce myogenesis and angiogenesis and improve cardiac function in a rat model

Noritoshi Nagaya; Kenji Kangawa; Takefumi Itoh; Takashi Iwase; Shinsuke Murakami; Yoshinori Miyahara; Takafumi Fujii; Masaaki Uematsu; Hajime Ohgushi; Masakazu Yamagishi; Takeshi Tokudome; Hidezo Mori; Kunio Miyatake; Soichiro Kitamura

2010-01-01

279

Intraoperative Facial Nerve Monitoring in the Surgery of Cerebellopontine Angle Tumors: Improved Preservation of Nerve Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surgery of cerebellopontine angle tumors has shown remarkable progress over the last 20 years due to improved microsurgical techniques. However, the dissection of the facial nerve may lead to postoperative paresis as the result of the surgical trauma and the disruption of blood supply over a large distance. The functional status of the nerve can be intraoperatively monitored by

Thomas Lenarz; Arne Ernst

1994-01-01

280

Neutron monitor yield function: New improved computations A. L. Mishev,1,3  

E-print Network

Neutron monitor yield function: New improved computations A. L. Mishev,1,3 I. G. Usoskin,1,2 and G June 2013. [1] A ground-based neutron monitor (NM) is a standard tool to measure cosmic ray (CR experimental data. Citation: Mishev, A. L., I. G. Usoskin, and G. A. Kovaltsov (2013), Neutron monitor yield

Usoskin, Ilya G.

281

Balance Training Improves Function and Postural Control in Those with Chronic Ankle Instability  

Microsoft Academic Search

MCKEON, P. O., C. D. INGERSOLL, D. C. KERRIGAN, E. SALIBA, B. C. BENNETT, and J. HERTEL. Balance Training Improves Function and Postural Control in Those with Chronic Ankle Instability. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 40, No. 10, pp. 1810-1819, 2008. Purpose: The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to determine the effect of a 4-wk balance training program

PATRICK O. MCKEON; CHRISTOPHER D. INGERSOLL; D. CASEY KERRIGAN; ETHAN SALIBA; BRADFORD C. BENNETT; JAY HERTEL

2008-01-01

282

New application of Exp-function method for improved Boussinesq equation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Exp-function method is used to obtain generalized solitary solutions and periodic solutions for nonlinear evolution equations arising in mathematical physics with the aid of symbolic computation method, namely, the improved Boussinesq equation. The method is straightforward and concise, and its applications is promising for other nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

M. A. Abdou; A. A. Soliman; S. T. El-Basyony

2007-01-01

283

EXERCISE IMPROVES SEXUAL FUNCTION IN WOMEN TAKING ANTIDEPRESSANTS: RESULTS FROM A RANDOMIZED CROSSOVER TRIAL  

PubMed Central

Background In laboratory studies, exercise immediately before sexual stimuli improved sexual arousal of women taking antidepressants [1]. We evaluated if exercise improves sexual desire, orgasm, and global sexual functioning in women experiencing antidepressant-induced sexual side effects. Methods Fifty-two women who were reporting antidepressant sexual side effects were followed for 3 weeks of sexual activity only. They were randomized to complete either three weeks of exercise immediately before sexual activity (3×/week) or 3 weeks of exercise separate from sexual activity (3×/week). At the end of the first exercise arm, participants crossed to the other. We measured sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, depression, and physical health. Results Exercise immediately prior to sexual activity significantly improved sexual desire and, for women with sexual dysfunction at baseline, global sexual function. Scheduling regular sexual activity significantly improved orgasm function; exercise did not increase this benefit. Neither regular sexual activity nor exercise significantly changed sexual satisfaction. Conclusions Scheduling regular sexual activity and exercise may be an effective tool for the behavioral management of sexual side effects of antidepressants. PMID:24754044

Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

2014-01-01

284

Improvement of Cardiac Function by Bone Marrow Cell Implantation in a Rat Hypoperfusion Heart Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Local bone marrow cell implantation can induce angiogenesis. In the present study we investi- gated whether angiogenesis induced by bone marrow cell implantation improves deteriorated cardiac function in a rat heart model of hypoperfusion. Methods. A hypoperfusion heart model was created in Dark Agouti rats by ligating the left anterior descending artery placed against a copper wire (275 m),

Masahiko Nishida; Tao-Sheng Li; Ken Hirata; Masafumi Yano; Masunori Matsuzaki; Kimikazu Hamano

2010-01-01

285

Effect of time on dynamic properties of cohesive soils using improved transfer function estimators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improved estimators of the transfer function (H2, H3, H4), in addition to the conventional estimator (H1), were used to evaluate the dynamic soil properties and to study the effect of confinement duration on damping and shear modulus of soils. In this study, two types of cohesive soils, a kaolinite and a bentonite, were tested using a resonant column apparatus under

F Amini

1999-01-01

286

Development of functional polymers in modification of cotton for improving dyeability of reactive dyes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of some modification polymers for cotton in improving dyeability of reactive dyes has been emphatically reviewed. 5 typical functional polymers are included in the paper, they are polyepichlorohydrin dimethylamine, poly(4-vinylpyridine) quaternary ammonium compound, dendrimer, chitosan and starch derivatives. Basic pretreatment conditions, dyeing mechanism, dye exhaustion and fixation, K\\/S yielded and some fastness properties of the modified dyed cotton

MA Wei; ZHANG Shu-fen; YANG Jin-zong

287

Enriched Rehabilitative Training Promotes Improved Forelimb Motor Function and Enhanced Dendritic Growth after Focal Ischemic Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic impairment of forelimb and digit movement is a com- mon problem after stroke that is resistant to therapy. Previous studies have demonstrated that enrichment improves behav- ioral outcome after focal ischemia; however, postischemic en- richment alone is not capable of enhancing fine digit and forelimb function. Therefore, we combined environmental en- richment with daily skilled-reach training to assess the

Jeff Biernaskie; Dale Corbett

2001-01-01

288

Improvement in gonadal function through modification of negative feed-back  

E-print Network

Improvement in gonadal function through modification of negative feed-back R. B. LAND ARC, Animal predictable for the technique to be acceptable for general use. Genetic variation in the ovulation rate. It will be argued that the modification of steroid feed-back offers a more promising means of raising gonadal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

289

Exercise training improves neurovascular control and functional capacity in heart failure patients regardless of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Exercise training is a non-pharmacological strategy for treatment of heart failure. Exercise training improves functional capacity and quality of life in patients. Moreover, exercise training reduces muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and peripheral vasoconstriction. However, most of these studies have been conducted in middle-aged patients. Thus, the effects of exercise training in older patients are much less understood. The

Ligia M Antunes-Correa; Bianca Y Kanamura; Ruth C Melo; Thais S Nobre; Linda M Ueno; Fabio GM Franco; Fabiana Roveda; Ana Maria Braga; Maria UPB Rondon; Patricia C Brum; Holly R Middlekauff; Carlos E Negrao

2012-01-01

290

Improving the Safety of Homeless Young People with Mobile Phones: Values, Form and Function  

E-print Network

Improving the Safety of Homeless Young People with Mobile Phones: Values, Form and Function Jill this proposition, 43 participants, from four stakeholder groups (homeless young people, service providers, police officers, and community members), were asked to consider how homeless young people could use mobile phones

Anderson, Richard

291

Playing Piano Can Improve Upper Extremity Function after Stroke: Case Studies  

PubMed Central

Music-supported therapy (MST) is an innovative approach that was shown to improve manual dexterity in acute stroke survivors. The feasibility of such intervention in chronic stroke survivors and its longer-term benefits, however, remain unknown. The objective of this pilot study was to estimate the short- and long-term effects of a 3-week piano training program on upper extremity function in persons with chronic stroke. A multiple pre-post sequential design was used, with measurements taken at baseline (week0, week3), prior to (week6) and after the intervention (week9), and at 3-week follow-up (week12). Three persons with stroke participated in the 3-week piano training program that combined structured piano lessons to home practice program. The songs, played on an electronic keyboard, involved all 5 digits of the affected hand and were displayed using a user-friendly MIDI program. After intervention, all the three participants showed improvements in their fine (nine hole peg test) and gross (box and block test) manual dexterity, as well as in the functional use of the upper extremity (Jebsen hand function test). Improvements were maintained at follow-up. These preliminary results support the feasibility of using an MST approach that combines structured lessons to home practice to improve upper extremity function in chronic stroke. PMID:23533954

Villeneuve, Myriam; Lamontagne, Anouk

2013-01-01

292

Playing piano can improve upper extremity function after stroke: case studies.  

PubMed

Music-supported therapy (MST) is an innovative approach that was shown to improve manual dexterity in acute stroke survivors. The feasibility of such intervention in chronic stroke survivors and its longer-term benefits, however, remain unknown. The objective of this pilot study was to estimate the short- and long-term effects of a 3-week piano training program on upper extremity function in persons with chronic stroke. A multiple pre-post sequential design was used, with measurements taken at baseline (week0, week3), prior to (week6) and after the intervention (week9), and at 3-week follow-up (week12). Three persons with stroke participated in the 3-week piano training program that combined structured piano lessons to home practice program. The songs, played on an electronic keyboard, involved all 5 digits of the affected hand and were displayed using a user-friendly MIDI program. After intervention, all the three participants showed improvements in their fine (nine hole peg test) and gross (box and block test) manual dexterity, as well as in the functional use of the upper extremity (Jebsen hand function test). Improvements were maintained at follow-up. These preliminary results support the feasibility of using an MST approach that combines structured lessons to home practice to improve upper extremity function in chronic stroke. PMID:23533954

Villeneuve, Myriam; Lamontagne, Anouk

2013-01-01

293

Improvements in Neurocognitive Function and Mood Following Adjunctive Treatment with Mifepristone (RU486) in Bipolar Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

High cortisol levels are found in severe mood disorders, particularly bipolar disorder. Hypercortisolaemia may cause or exacerbate both neurocognitive impairment and depressive symptoms. We hypothesized that antiglucocorticoid treatments, particularly corticosteroid receptor antagonists, would improve neurocognitive functioning and attenuate depressive symptoms in this disorder. To test this hypothesis, 20 bipolar patients were treated with 600 mg\\/day of the corticosteroid receptor antagonist

Allan H Young; Peter Gallagher; Stuart Watson; Dolores Del-Estal; Bruce M Owen; I Nicol Ferrier

2004-01-01

294

[Case managers experience improved trajectories for cancer patients after implementation of the case manager function.  

PubMed

Case managers are increasingly used to optimize trajectories for patients. This study is based on a questionnaire among case managers in cancer care, aiming at the clarification of the function and its impact on especially patient safety, when handing over the responsibility. The results show a major variation in how the function is organized, the level of competence and the task to be handled. The responsibility has in general been narrowed to department level. Overall, the case managers believe that the function has optimized pathways for cancer patients and improved safety, but barriers persist. PMID:25316364

Axelsen, Karina Rahbek; Nafei, Hanne; Jakobsen, Stine Finne; Gandrup, Per; Knudsen, Janne Lehmann

2014-10-13

295

Increasing Muscle Mass Improves Vascular Function in Obese (db/db) Mice  

PubMed Central

Background A sedentary lifestyle is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and exercise has been shown to ameliorate this risk. Inactivity is associated with a loss of muscle mass, which is also reversed with isometric exercise training. The relationship between muscle mass and vascular function is poorly defined. The aims of the current study were to determine whether increasing muscle mass by genetic deletion of myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle growth, can influence vascular function in mesenteric arteries from obese db/db mice. Methods and Results Myostatin expression was elevated in skeletal muscle of obese mice and associated with reduced muscle mass (30% to 50%). Myostatin deletion increased muscle mass in lean (40% to 60%) and obese (80% to 115%) mice through increased muscle fiber size (P<0.05). Myostatin deletion decreased adipose tissue in lean mice, but not obese mice. Markers of insulin resistance and glucose tolerance were improved in obese myostatin knockout mice. Obese mice demonstrated an impaired endothelial vasodilation, compared to lean mice. This impairment was improved by superoxide dismutase mimic Tempol. Deletion of myostatin improved endothelial vasodilation in mesenteric arteries in obese, but not in lean, mice. This improvement was blunted by nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor l?NG?nitroarginine methyl ester (l?NAME). Prostacyclin (PGI2)? and endothelium?derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)?mediated vasodilation were preserved in obese mice and unaffected by myostatin deletion. Reactive oxygen species) was elevated in the mesenteric endothelium of obese mice and down?regulated by deletion of myostatin in obese mice. Impaired vasodilation in obese mice was improved by NADPH oxidase inhibitor (GKT136901). Treatment with sepiapterin, which increases levels of tetrahydrobiopterin, improved vasodilation in obese mice, an improvement blocked by l?NAME. Conclusions Increasing muscle mass by genetic deletion of myostatin improves NO?, but not PGI2? or EDHF?mediated vasodilation in obese mice; this vasodilation improvement is mediated by down?regulation of superoxide. PMID:24965025

Qiu, Shuiqing; Mintz, James D.; Salet, Christina D.; Han, Weihong; Giannis, Athanassios; Chen, Feng; Yu, Yanfang; Su, Yunchao; Fulton, David J.; Stepp, David W.

2014-01-01

296

Fluorescently Labeled Peptide Increases Identification of Degenerated Facial Nerve Branches during Surgery and Improves Functional Outcome  

PubMed Central

Nerve degeneration after transection injury decreases intraoperative visibility under white light (WL), complicating surgical repair. We show here that the use of fluorescently labeled nerve binding probe (F-NP41) can improve intraoperative visualization of chronically (up to 9 months) denervated nerves. In a mouse model for the repair of chronically denervated facial nerves, the intraoperative use of fluorescent labeling decreased time to nerve identification by 40% compared to surgeries performed under WL alone. Cumulative functional post-operative recovery was also significantly improved in the fluorescence guided group as determined by quantitatively tracking of the recovery of whisker movement at time intervals for 6 weeks post-repair. To our knowledge, this is the first description of an injectable probe that increases visibility of chronically denervated nerves during surgical repair in live animals. Future translation of this probe may improve functional outcome for patients with chronic denervation undergoing surgical repair. PMID:25751149

Hussain, Timon; Mastrodimos, Melina B.; Raju, Sharat C.; Glasgow, Heather L.; Whitney, Michael; Friedman, Beth; Moore, Jeffrey D.; Kleinfeld, David; Steinbach, Paul; Messer, Karen; Pu, Minya; Tsien, Roger Y.; Nguyen, Quyen T.

2015-01-01

297

A new function of rapid eye movement sleep: Improvement of muscular efficiency.  

PubMed

Previously I demonstrated that the slow wave sleep (SWS) functioned to adjust the emotional balance disrupted by emotional memories randomly accumulated during waking, while the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep played the opposite role. Many experimental results have unambiguously shown that various emotional memories are processed during REM sleep. In this article, it is attempted to combine this confirmed function of REM sleep with the atonic state unique to REM sleep, and to integrate a new theory suggesting that improvement of muscular efficiency be a new function of REM sleep. This new function of REM sleep is more advantageous than the function of REM sleep in emotional memories and disinhibited drives to account for the phylogenetic variations of REM sleep, especially the absence of REM sleep in dolphins and short duration of REM sleep in birds in contrary to that in humans and rodents, the absence of penile erections in REM sleep in armadillo, as well as the higher voltage in EEG during REM sleep in platypus and ostrich. Besides, this new function of REM sleep is also advantageous to explain the association of REM sleep with the atonic episodes in SWS, the absence of drastic menopausal change in duration of REM sleep, and the effects of ambient temperature on the duration of REM sleep. These comparative and experimental evidences support the improvement of muscular efficiency as a new and major function of REM sleep. PMID:25770701

Cai, Zi-Jian

2015-05-15

298

Mineralocorticoid receptor stimulation improves cognitive function and decreases cortisol secretion in depressed patients and healthy individuals.  

PubMed

Memory and executive function are often impaired in patients with major depression, while cortisol secretion is increased. Mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) are abundantly expressed in the hippocampus and in the prefrontal cortex, brain areas critical for memory, executive function, and cortisol inhibition. Here, we investigated whether MR stimulation with fludrocortisone (1) improves memory and executive function and (2) decreases cortisol secretion in depressed patients and healthy individuals. Twenty-four depressed patients without medication and 24 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy participants received fludrocortisone (0.4?mg) or placebo in a randomized, double-blind, within-subject cross-over design. We measured verbal memory, visuospatial memory, executive function, psychomotor speed, and salivary cortisol secretion during cognitive testing between 1400 and 1700 hours. For verbal memory and executive function, we found better performance after fludrocortisone compared with placebo across groups. No treatment effect on other cognitive domains emerged. Depressed patients performed worse than healthy individuals in psychomotor speed and executive function. No group effect or group × treatment interaction emerged on other cognitive domains. Fludrocortisone decreased cortisol secretion across groups and there was a significant correlation between cortisol inhibition and verbal memory performance. Our data suggest a crucial role of MR in verbal memory and executive function and demonstrate the possibility to improve cognition in depressed patients and healthy individuals through MR stimulation. PMID:25035081

Otte, Christian; Wingenfeld, Katja; Kuehl, Linn K; Kaczmarczyk, Michael; Richter, Steffen; Quante, Arnim; Regen, Francesca; Bajbouj, Malek; Zimmermann-Viehoff, Frank; Wiedemann, Klaus; Hinkelmann, Kim

2015-01-01

299

A Bayesian Method to Incorporate Hundreds of Functional Characteristics with Association Evidence to Improve Variant Prioritization  

PubMed Central

The increasing quantity and quality of functional genomic information motivate the assessment and integration of these data with association data, including data originating from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We used previously described GWAS signals (“hits”) to train a regularized logistic model in order to predict SNP causality on the basis of a large multivariate functional dataset. We show how this model can be used to derive Bayes factors for integrating functional and association data into a combined Bayesian analysis. Functional characteristics were obtained from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE), from published expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), and from other sources of genome-wide characteristics. We trained the model using all GWAS signals combined, and also using phenotype specific signals for autoimmune, brain-related, cancer, and cardiovascular disorders. The non-phenotype specific and the autoimmune GWAS signals gave the most reliable results. We found SNPs with higher probabilities of causality from functional characteristics showed an enrichment of more significant p-values compared to all GWAS SNPs in three large GWAS studies of complex traits. We investigated the ability of our Bayesian method to improve the identification of true causal signals in a psoriasis GWAS dataset and found that combining functional data with association data improves the ability to prioritise novel hits. We used the predictions from the penalized logistic regression model to calculate Bayes factors relating to functional characteristics and supply these online alongside resources to integrate these data with association data. PMID:24844982

Gagliano, Sarah A.; Barnes, Michael R.

2014-01-01

300

Functional recovery of hibernating myocardium after coronary bypass surgery: Does it coincide with improvement in perfusion  

SciTech Connect

To determine the relationship between functional recovery and improvement in perfusion after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), 49 patients were studied. Radionuclide angiography was performed before, 1 month after, and 6 to 12 months after CABG to evaluate regional wall motion. Exercise thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging was done before and 1 month after CABG to assess regional perfusion. Preoperative asynergy was observed in 108 segments, and 74 of them showed an improvement in wall motion 1 month after CABG (segment A). Sixty-six of these segments (89%) were associated with an improvement in perfusion. Eight segments that had not improved 1 month after CABG demonstrated a delayed recovery of wall motion 6 to 12 months after CABG (segment B). However, seven of eight segments (88%) already showed an improvement in perfusion 1 month after CABG. A total of 82 segments exhibited functional recovery after CABG and were considered hibernating segments. In the preoperative study segment B more frequently had areas of akinesis or dyskinesis than segment A (75% vs 34%, p less than 0.05). The mean percent thallium-201 uptake in segment B was lower than that in segment A (74% {plus minus} 9% vs 83% {plus minus} 8%, p less than 0.05). Functional recovery of hibernating myocardium usually coincided with an improvement in perfusion. However, delayed functional recovery after reperfusion was observed in some instances. Severe asynergy and severe thallium-201 defects were more frequently observed in these segments with delayed recovery. Hibernating myocardium might remain stunned during those recovery periods.

Takeishi, Y.; Tono-oka, I.; Kubota, I.; Ikeda, K.; Masakane, I.; Chiba, J.; Abe, S.; Tsuiki, K.; Komatani, A.; Yamaguchi, I. (First Department of Internal Medicine, Yamagata University School of Medicine (Japan))

1991-09-01

301

IMPROVING CORRELATION FUNCTION FITTING WITH RIDGE REGRESSION: APPLICATION TO CROSS-CORRELATION RECONSTRUCTION  

SciTech Connect

Cross-correlation techniques provide a promising avenue for calibrating photometric redshifts and determining redshift distributions using spectroscopy which is systematically incomplete (e.g., current deep spectroscopic surveys fail to obtain secure redshifts for 30%-50% or more of the galaxies targeted). In this paper, we improve on the redshift distribution reconstruction methods from our previous work by incorporating full covariance information into our correlation function fits. Correlation function measurements are strongly covariant between angular or spatial bins, and accounting for this in fitting can yield substantial reduction in errors. However, frequently the covariance matrices used in these calculations are determined from a relatively small set (dozens rather than hundreds) of subsamples or mock catalogs, resulting in noisy covariance matrices whose inversion is ill-conditioned and numerically unstable. We present here a method of conditioning the covariance matrix known as ridge regression which results in a more well behaved inversion than other techniques common in large-scale structure studies. We demonstrate that ridge regression significantly improves the determination of correlation function parameters. We then apply these improved techniques to the problem of reconstructing redshift distributions. By incorporating full covariance information, applying ridge regression, and changing the weighting of fields in obtaining average correlation functions, we obtain reductions in the mean redshift distribution reconstruction error of as much as {approx}40% compared to previous methods. We provide a description of POWERFIT, an IDL code for performing power-law fits to correlation functions with ridge regression conditioning that we are making publicly available.

Matthews, Daniel J.; Newman, Jeffrey A., E-mail: djm70@pitt.edu, E-mail: janewman@pitt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)

2012-02-01

302

Towards improved local hybrid functionals by calibration of exchange-energy densities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach for the calibration of (semi-)local and exact exchange-energy densities in the context of local hybrid functionals is reported. The calibration functions are derived from only the electron density and its spatial derivatives, avoiding spatial derivatives of the exact-exchange energy density or other computationally unfavorable contributions. The calibration functions fulfill the seven more important out of nine known exact constraints. It is shown that calibration improves substantially the definition of a non-dynamical correlation energy term for generalized gradient approximation (GGA)-based local hybrids. Moreover, gauge artifacts in the potential-energy curves of noble-gas dimers may be corrected by calibration. The developed calibration functions are then evaluated for a large range of energy-related properties (atomization energies, reaction barriers, ionization potentials, electron affinities, and total atomic energies) of three sets of local hybrids, using a simple one-parameter local-mixing. The functionals are based on (a) local spin-density approximation (LSDA) or (b) Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange and correlation, and on (c) Becke-88 (B88) exchange and Lee-Yang-Parr (LYP) correlation. While the uncalibrated GGA-based functionals usually provide very poor thermochemical data, calibration allows a dramatic improvement, accompanied by only a small deterioration of reaction barriers. In particular, an optimized BLYP-based local-hybrid functional has been found that is a substantial improvement over the underlying global hybrids, as well as over previously reported LSDA-based local hybrids. It is expected that the present calibration approach will pave the way towards new generations of more accurate hyper-GGA functionals based on a local mixing of exchange-energy densities.

Arbuznikov, Alexei V.; Kaupp, Martin

2014-11-01

303

Towards improved local hybrid functionals by calibration of exchange-energy densities.  

PubMed

A new approach for the calibration of (semi-)local and exact exchange-energy densities in the context of local hybrid functionals is reported. The calibration functions are derived from only the electron density and its spatial derivatives, avoiding spatial derivatives of the exact-exchange energy density or other computationally unfavorable contributions. The calibration functions fulfill the seven more important out of nine known exact constraints. It is shown that calibration improves substantially the definition of a non-dynamical correlation energy term for generalized gradient approximation (GGA)-based local hybrids. Moreover, gauge artifacts in the potential-energy curves of noble-gas dimers may be corrected by calibration. The developed calibration functions are then evaluated for a large range of energy-related properties (atomization energies, reaction barriers, ionization potentials, electron affinities, and total atomic energies) of three sets of local hybrids, using a simple one-parameter local-mixing. The functionals are based on (a) local spin-density approximation (LSDA) or (b) Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange and correlation, and on (c) Becke-88 (B88) exchange and Lee-Yang-Parr (LYP) correlation. While the uncalibrated GGA-based functionals usually provide very poor thermochemical data, calibration allows a dramatic improvement, accompanied by only a small deterioration of reaction barriers. In particular, an optimized BLYP-based local-hybrid functional has been found that is a substantial improvement over the underlying global hybrids, as well as over previously reported LSDA-based local hybrids. It is expected that the present calibration approach will pave the way towards new generations of more accurate hyper-GGA functionals based on a local mixing of exchange-energy densities. PMID:25429927

Arbuznikov, Alexei V; Kaupp, Martin

2014-11-28

304

Can We Quantify Functional Improvement Following Total Knee Arthroplasty in the Clinical Setting?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine if improvements in knee function after arthroplasty could be practicably measured in the clinical setting using available, validated technology. The tools we assessed included a timed test of common activities, a platform posturography analysis, and a portable gait laboratory device to quantify body segment motion. We measured the function of 25 total knee arthroplasty patients before surgery and at 1, 4, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Assessment of sit-to-stand, walking, stair climbing, lunging, Knee Society Scores, and Oxford Survey Scores were collected at each interval. Patients showed significant improvement in step length, gait speed, symmetry of weight distribution, symmetry of lunging, and speed of stair climbing. Changes in function with long-term follow-up can be precisely measured, making this technology promising for clinical or research applications. PMID:25260032

Parks, Nancy L; Whitney, Catherine E; Engh, Gerard A

2014-09-26

305

N-acetylcysteine amide preserves mitochondrial bioenergetics and improves functional recovery following spinal trauma.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial dysfunction is becoming a pivotal target for neuroprotective strategies following contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) and the pharmacological compounds that maintain mitochondrial function confer neuroprotection and improve long-term hindlimb function after injury. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of cell-permeating thiol, N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), a precursor of endogenous antioxidant glutathione (GSH), on mitochondrial function acutely, and long-term tissue sparing and hindlimb locomotor recovery following upper lumbar contusion SCI. Some designated injured adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=120) received either vehicle or NACA (75, 150, 300 or 600mg/kg) at 15min and 6h post-injury. After 24h the total, synaptic, and non-synaptic mitochondrial populations were isolated from a single 1.5cm spinal cord segment (centered at injury site) and assessed for mitochondrial bioenergetics. Results showed compromised total mitochondrial bioenergetics following acute SCI that was significantly improved with NACA treatment in a dose-dependent manner, with maximum effects at 300mg/kg (n=4/group). For synaptic and non-synaptic mitochondria, only 300mg/kg NACA dosage showed efficacy. Similar dosage (300mg/kg) also maintained mitochondrial GSH near normal levels. Other designated injured rats (n=21) received continuous NACA (150 or 300mg/kg/day) treatment starting at 15min post-injury for one week to assess long-term functional recovery over 6weeks post-injury. Locomotor testing and novel gait analyses showed significantly improved hindlimb function with NACA that were associated with increased tissue sparing at the injury site. Overall, NACA treatment significantly maintained acute mitochondrial bioenergetics and normalized GSH levels following SCI, and prolonged delivery resulted in significant tissue sparing and improved recovery of hindlimb function. PMID:24805071

Patel, Samir P; Sullivan, Patrick G; Pandya, Jignesh D; Goldstein, Glenn A; VanRooyen, Jenna L; Yonutas, Heather M; Eldahan, Khalid C; Morehouse, Johnny; Magnuson, David S K; Rabchevsky, Alexander G

2014-07-01

306

Systemic and coronary hemodynamic actions and left ventricular functional effects of levosimendan in conscious dogs.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of levosimendan, a new myofilament Ca2+ sensitizer with phosphodiesterase (PDE)-inhibiting properties, on systemic and coronary hemodynamics and left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function in conscious dogs with intact and blocked autonomic nervous system (ANS) reflexes. Twenty experiments were conducted in 10 dogs chronically instrumented for measurement of aortic and LV pressure, the peak rate of increase and decrease in LV pressure (+dP/dtmax and -dP/dtmin), subendocardial segment length, diastolic coronary blood flow (CBF) velocity, and cardiac output (CO). The slope (Mw) of the regional preload recruitable stroke work relation was used to assess myocardial contractility. Diastolic function was evaluated by -dP/dtmin, a time constant of isovolumic relaxation (tau), maximum segment lengthening velocity during rapid ventricular filling (dL/dtmax), and a regional chamber stiffness constant (Kp). Dogs were randomly assigned to receive levosimendan (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) with or without ANS blockade. On separate experimental days, systemic and coronary hemodynamics and LV pressure-segment length diagrams and waveforms were recorded after 10-min equilibration at each dose in the conscious ANS-intact or ANS-blocked state. Levosimendan increased heart rate (HR), CO, mean and diastolic CBF velocity, and pressure-work index (PWI, an estimate of myocardial oxygen consumption) and decreased LV end-diastolic pressure (EDP), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), end-systolic and end-diastolic segment length, and mean and diastolic coronary vascular resistance (CVR) in dogs with intact ANS function. Levosimendan-induced increases in HR and PWI and decreases in SVR were attenuated by ANS blockade. Levosimendan caused equivalent dose-dependent increases in Mw in ANS-intact and ANS-blocked dogs, consistent with a positive inotropic effect independent of ANS activity. Levosimendan decreased tau (e.g., 35 +/- 1 ms during control to 29 +/- 1 ms at the high dose) and increased the magnitude of LV -dP/dtmin in dogs with intact but not blocked ANS reflexes, suggesting that relaxation was enhanced by favorable changes in systemic hemodynamics or ANS activation and direct effects of this drug on lusitropic state. Levosimendan also increased dL/dtmax to a greater degree in ANS-intact dogs, indicating that improvement of rapid ventricular filling was also partially dependent on ANS tone. No changes in Kp were observed in either experimental group. The results indicate that levosimendan decreases preload and afterload and has positive inotropic and lusitropic properties. The actions of levosimendan on diastolic function are largely mediated by the ANS. PMID:7475041

Harkin, C P; Pagel, P S; Tessmer, J P; Warltier, D C

1995-08-01

307

B cell–specific lentiviral gene therapy leads to sustained B-cell functional recovery in a murine model of X-linked agammaglobulinemia  

PubMed Central

The immunodeficiency disorder, X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), results from mutations in the gene encoding Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk). Btk is required for pre-B cell clonal expansion and B-cell antigen receptor signaling. XLA patients lack mature B cells and immunoglobulin and experience recurrent bacterial infections only partially mitigated by life-long antibody replacement therapy. In pursuit of definitive therapy for XLA, we tested ex vivo gene therapy using a lentiviral vector (LV) containing the immunoglobulin enhancer (E?) and Ig? (B29) minimal promoter to drive B lineage–specific human Btk expression in Btk/Tec?/? mice, a strain that reproduces the features of human XLA. After transplantation of E?B29-Btk-LV–transduced stem cells, treated mice showed significant, albeit incomplete, rescue of mature B cells in the bone marrow, peripheral blood, spleen, and peritoneal cavity, and improved responses to T-independent and T-dependent antigens. LV-treated B cells exhibited enhanced B-cell antigen receptor signaling and an in vivo selective advantage in the peripheral versus central B-cell compartment. Secondary transplantation showed sustained Btk expression, viral integration, and partial functional responses, consistent with long-term stem cell marking; and serial transplantation revealed no evidence for cellular or systemic toxicity. These findings strongly support pursuit of B lineage–targeted LV gene therapy in human XLA. PMID:20093406

Kerns, Hannah M.; Ryu, Byoung Y.; Stirling, Brigid V.; Sather, Blythe D.; Astrakhan, Alexander; Humblet-Baron, Stephanie; Liggitt, Denny

2010-01-01

308

Phenomenological and biological correlates of improved cognitive function in hospitalized elderly medical inpatients.  

PubMed

Deterioration of cognitive ability is a recognized outcome following acute illness in older patients. Levels of circulating cytokines and APOE genotype have both been linked with acute illness-related cognitive decline. In this observational longitudinal study, consecutive admissions to an elderly medical unit of patients aged ?70 years were assessed within 3 days and re-assessed twice weekly with a range of scales assessing cognitive function, functional status and illness severity. Cytokines and APOE genotype were measured in a subsample. Improvement was defined as either a 20% or three points increase in mini mental state examination (MMSE). From the 142 participants 55 (39%) experienced cognitive improvement, of which 30 (54.5%) had delirium while 25 had non-delirious acute cognitive disorder. Using bivariate statistics, subjects with more severe acute illness, lower insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels and more severe delirium were more likely to experience a ?20% improvement in MMSE scores. When the criterion of cognitive improvement was a 3 point improvement in MMSE, those with more severe delirium, females and older were more likely to be improved. Longitudinal analysis using any criterion of improvement indicated that improvement was significantly (p<.05) predicted by higher levels of IGF-I, lower levels of IL-1 (alpha and beta), lack of APOE epsilon 4 allele, and female gender. In conclusion, cognitive recovery during admission is not exclusively linked to delirium status, but reflects a range of factors. The character and relevance of non-delirious acute cognitive disorder warrants further study. PMID:25189345

Adamis, Dimitrios; Meagher, David; Treloar, Adrian; Dunne, Colum; Larvin, Michael; Martin, Finbarr C; Macdonald, Alastair J D

2014-01-01

309

Improving Balance Function Using Low Levels of Electrical Stimulation of the Balance Organs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crewmembers returning from long-duration space flight face significant challenges due to the microgravity-induced inappropriate adaptations in balance/sensorimotor function. The Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC is developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance the brain's ability to detect signals from the balance organs of the inner ear and use them for rapid improvement in balance skill, especially when combined with balance training exercises. This method involves a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable and provides imperceptible electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the human body. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a nonlinear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. This phenomenon of SR is based on the concept of maximizing the flow of information through a system by a non-zero level of noise. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input in humans has been shown to improve motor, cardiovascular, visual, hearing, and balance functions. SR increases contrast sensitivity and luminance detection; lowers the absolute threshold for tone detection in normal hearing individuals; improves homeostatic function in the human blood pressure regulatory system; improves noise-enhanced muscle spindle function; and improves detection of weak tactile stimuli using mechanical or electrical stimulation. SR noise has been shown to improve postural control when applied as mechanical noise to the soles of the feet, or when applied as electrical noise at the knee and to the back muscles. SR using imperceptible stochastic electrical stimulation of the vestibular system (stochastic vestibular stimulation, SVS) applied to normal subjects has shown to improve the degree of association between the weak input periodic signals introduced via venous blood pressure receptors and the heart-rate responses. Also, application of SVS over 24 hours improves the long-term heart-rate dynamics and motor responsiveness as indicated by daytime trunk activity measurements in patients with multi-system atrophy, Parkinson s disease, or both, including patients who were unresponsive to standard therapy for Parkinson s disease. Recent studies conducted at the NASA JSC Neurosciences Laboratories showed that imperceptible SVS, when applied to normal young healthy subjects, leads to significantly improved balance performance during postural disturbances on unstable compliant surfaces. These studies have shown the benefit of SR noise characteristic optimization with imperceptible SVS in the frequency range of 0-30 Hz, and amplitudes of stimulation have ranged from 100 to 400 microamperes.

Bloomberg, Jacob; Reschke, Millard; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen

2012-01-01

310

Functional improvement and symptom management in multiple sclerosis: clinical efficacy of current therapies.  

PubMed

Disease-modifying treatments (DMTs), which are the foundation of multiple sclerosis (MS) care, reduce clinical exacerbations (relapses) and slow disease progression; however, improving quality of life (QOL) is an unmet need for many individuals with MS. DMTs, including interferon-beta, glatiramer acetate, natalizumab, mitoxantrone, and fingolimod, reduce the rate and severity of relapses, the accumulation of brain and spinal cord lesions as shown on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and disability progression. Many studies link diminished QOL with specific MS symptoms (fatigue, impaired mobility, spasticity, etc). Even in patients already receiving DMTs, symptoms and QOL may improve with additional agents that treat specific symptoms, thereby improving patient function and ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs). Patients have reported that mobility impairment is one of the worst aspects of MS. Almost half of patients treated with DMTs reported no improvement in mobility. However, blocking the voltage-dependent potassium channels on the surface of demyelinated nerve fibers may improve signal conduction. Dalfampridine, a potassium channel blocker, received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for all forms of MS specifically to improve walking, which was demonstrated by increased walking speed. By improving walking in some patients with MS, the effects of dalfampridine may complement those of DMTs and address the stated priorities of many patients. PMID:21761953

Berger, Joseph R

2011-05-01

311

Support vector analysis of color-Doppler images: a new approach for estimating indices of left ventricular function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reliable noninvasive estimators of global left ventric- ular (LV) chamber function remain unavailable. We have previ- ously demonstrated a potential relationship between color-Doppler M-mode (CDMM) images and two basic indices of LV function: peak-systolic elastance and the time-constant of LV relaxation . Thus, we hypothesized that these two indices could be estimated noninvasively by adequate postprocessing of CDMM recordings. A

José Luis Rojo-álvarez; J. Bermejo; V. M. Juarez-caballero; R. Yotti; C. Cortina; M. A. Garcia-fernandez; J. C. Antoranz

2006-01-01

312

PROGENITOR CELL RELEASE PLUS EXERCISE TO IMPROVE FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE IN PERIPHERAL ARTERY DISEASE: THE PROPEL STUDY  

PubMed Central

Functional impairment, functional decline, and mobility loss are major public health problems in people with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). Few medical therapies significantly improve walking performance in PAD. We describe methods for the PROgenitor cell release Plus Exercise to improve functionaL performance in PAD (PROPEL) Study, a randomized controlled clinical trial designed to determine whether granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) combined with supervised treadmill walking exercise improves six-minute walk distance more than GM-CSF alone, more than supervised treadmill exercise alone, and more than placebo plus attention control in participants with PAD, respectively. PROPEL Study participants are randomized to one of four arms in a 2 by 2 factorial design. The four study arms are GM-CSF plus supervised treadmill exercise, GM-CSF plus attention control, placebo plus supervised exercise therapy, or placebo plus attention control. The primary outcome is change in six-minute walk distance at 12-week follow-up. Secondary outcomes include change in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), change in maximal treadmill walking time, and change in circulating CD34+ cells at 12-week follow-up. Outcomes are also measured at six-week and six-month follow-up. Results of the PROPEL Study will have important implications for understanding mechanisms of improving walking performance and preventing mobility loss in the large and growing number of men and women with PAD. PMID:24080099

Domanchuk, Kathryn; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M.; Criqui, Michael H.; Tian, Lu; Liu, Kiang; Losordo, Douglas; Stein, James; Green, David; Kibbe, Melina; Zhao, Lihui; Annex, Brian; Perlman, Harris; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Pearce, William; Taylor, Doris; McDermott, Mary M.

2013-01-01

313

Restoring endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis improves functional recovery after spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response (ERSR) is activated to maintain protein homeostasis or induce apoptosis in the ER in response to distinct cellular insults including hypoxia, inflammation, and oxidative damage. Recently, we showed ERSR activation in a mouse model of a contusive spinal cord injury (SCI) and an improved hindlimb locomoter function following SCI when the pro-apoptotic arm of ERSR was genetically inhibited. The objective of the current study was to explore if the pharmacological enhancement of the homeostatic arm of the ERSR pathway can improve the functional outcome after SCI. Salubrinal enhances the homoestatic arm of the ERSR by increasing phosphorylation of eIF2?. Salubrinal significantly enhanced the levels of phosphorylated eIF2? protein and modulated the downstream ERSR effectors assessed at the lesion epicenter 6 hours post-SCI. Hindlimb locomotion showed significant improvement in animals treated with salubrinal. Treadmill-based-gait assessement showed a significant increase in maximum speed of coordinated walking and a decrease in rear stance time and stride length in salubrinal-treated animals. This improved functional recovery corresponded with increased white matter sparing and decreased oligodendrocyte apoptosis. In addition, salubrinal protected cultured mouse oligodendrocyte progenitor cells against the ER stress-inducing toxin tunicamycin. These data suggest that boosting the homeostatic arm of the ERSR reduces oligodendrocyte loss after traumatic SCI and supports the contention that pharmacological targeting of the ERSR after CNS trauma is a therapeutically viable approach. PMID:23659896

Ohri, Sujata Saraswat; Hetman, Michal; Whittemore, Scott R.

2013-01-01

314

Enhanced response inhibition during intensive meditation training predicts improvements in self-reported adaptive socioemotional functioning.  

PubMed

We examined the impact of training-induced improvements in self-regulation, operationalized in terms of response inhibition, on longitudinal changes in self-reported adaptive socioemotional functioning. Data were collected from participants undergoing 3 months of intensive meditation training in an isolated retreat setting (Retreat 1) and a wait-list control group that later underwent identical training (Retreat 2). A 32-min response inhibition task (RIT) was designed to assess sustained self-regulatory control. Adaptive functioning (AF) was operationalized as a single latent factor underlying self-report measures of anxious and avoidant attachment, mindfulness, ego resilience, empathy, the five major personality traits (extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience), difficulties in emotion regulation, depression, anxiety, and psychological well-being. Participants in Retreat 1 improved in RIT performance and AF over time whereas the controls did not. The control participants later also improved on both dimensions during their own retreat (Retreat 2). These improved levels of RIT performance and AF were sustained in follow-up assessments conducted approximately 5 months after the training. Longitudinal dynamic models with combined data from both retreats showed that improvement in RIT performance during training influenced the change in AF over time, which is consistent with a key claim in the Buddhist literature that enhanced capacity for self-regulation is an important precursor of changes in emotional well-being. PMID:21500899

Sahdra, Baljinder K; MacLean, Katherine A; Ferrer, Emilio; Shaver, Phillip R; Rosenberg, Erika L; Jacobs, Tonya L; Zanesco, Anthony P; King, Brandon G; Aichele, Stephen R; Bridwell, David A; Mangun, George R; Lavy, Shiri; Wallace, B Alan; Saron, Clifford D

2011-04-01

315

Dietary resistant starch improves selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents  

PubMed Central

Resistant starch (RS) is a dietary fiber that exerts multiple beneficial effects. The current study explored the effects of dietary RS on selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents. Because glucokinase (GK) expression in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and area postrema of the brainstem is important for brain glucose sensing, GK mRNA was measured by brain nuclei microdissection and PCR. Adult RS-fed rats had a higher GK mRNA than controls in both brain nuclei, an indicator of improved brain glucose sensing. Next, we tested whether dietary RS improve selected behaviors in aged mice. RS-fed aged mice exhibited (1) an increased eating responses to fasting, a behavioral indicator of improvement in aged brain glucose sensing; (2) a longer latency to fall from an accelerating rotarod, a behavioral indicator of improved motor coordination; and (3) a higher serum active GLP-1. Third, GLP-1 receptor null (GLP-1RKO) mice were used to test the role of GLP-1 in brain glucose sensing, and they exhibited impaired eating responses to fasting. We conclude that in rodents (1) dietary RS improves two important indicators of brain function: glucose sensing and motor coordination, and that (2) GLP-1 is important in the optimal feeding response to a fast. PMID:23818307

Zhou, June; Keenan, Michael J.; Fernandez-Kim, Sun Ok; Pistell, Paul J.; Ingram, Donald K.; Li, Bing; Raggio, Anne M.; Shen, Li; Zhang, Hanjie; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Tulley, Richard T.; Blackman, Marc R.; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Martin, Roy J.

2013-01-01

316

Declining ambient air pollution and lung function improvement in Austrian children  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three thousand four hundred fifty-one Austrian elementary school children were examined (between 2 and 8 times) by spirometry by standardized methods, over a 5 yr period. The districts where they lived were grouped into those where NO 2 declined during this period (by at least 30 ?g/m 3 measured as half year means) and those with less or no decline in ambient NO 2. In both groups of districts, SO 2 and TSP fell by similar amounts over this period. A continuous improvement of MEF25 (maximum exspiratory flow rate at 25% vital capacity) was found in districts with declining ambient NO 2. Populations did not differ in respect of anthropometric factors, passive smoking or socioeconomic status. A birth cohort from this study population which was followed up to age 18 confirmed the improved growth of MEF25 with decline in NO 2, while the improved growth of forced vital capacity was more related to decline in SO 2. This study provides the first evidence that improvements in the outdoor air quality during the 1980s are correlated with health benefits, and suggest that adverse effects on lung function related to ambient air pollution are reversible before adulthood. Improvement of small airway functions appeared to be more dependent on reductions of NO 2 than reduction in SO 2 and TSP.

Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael

317

The non-specificity of the left/right ventricular amplitude ratio (LV/RV) for mitral insufficiency  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the specificity of the LV/RV for mitral insufficiency. One hundred and sixty patients underwent MUGA studies as part of their diagnostic evaluation. Phase analysis was performed. In the amplitude image, the LV/RV was measured. Patients were divided into 11 clinical groups based on chart review after adequate follow-up. The groups were compared by Duncan's Multiple Comparsion Test. Patients with mitral insufficiency (N = 12, mean LV/RV = 2.36), those with idiopathic myocardiopathy (8, 2.29) and those with normal hearts having lung disease on chest x-ray (22, 1.78) formed a group which at the p < .05 level were not different from one another. Patients with idiopathic myocardiography, normal hearts with lung disease on chest x-ray, normal hearts with lung disease (23, 1.71) formed a second group which partially overlapped with both the first and third groups. The third group consisted of normal hearts with lung disease, normal hearts not taking adriamycin (18, 1.53), normal hearts taking adriamycin (22, 1.50), congestive heart failure (19, 1.50), arteriosclerotic heart disease, normal hearts (15, 1.29), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute myocardial infarction. The LV/RV is not specific for mitral insufficiency. Idiopathic myocardiography, and normal hearts with lung disease on chest x-ray (metastases, cancer of the lung, infiltrates, fibrosis, and/or COPD) cannot be differentiated on a statistical basis. The mitral insufficiency group had the greatest values of LV/RV. It appears that decreased RV amplitude seen with diseases causing strain on the right ventricle will result in elevated LV/RV ratios.

Preston, D.F.; Reinsel, M.S.; Martin, N.L.; Robinson, R.G.

1984-01-01

318

Selective GABAA ?5 Positive Allosteric Modulators Improve Cognitive Function in Aged Rats with Memory Impairment  

PubMed Central

A condition of excess activity in the hippocampal formation is observed in the aging brain and in conditions that confer additional risk during aging for Alzheimer’s disease. Compounds that act as positive allosteric modulators at GABAA ?5 receptors might be useful in targeting this condition because GABAA ?5 receptors mediate tonic inhibition of principal neurons in the affected network. While agents to improve cognitive function in the past focused on inverse agonists, which are negative allosteric modulators at GABAA ?5 receptors, research supporting that approach used only young animals and predated current evidence for excessive hippocampal activity in age-related conditions of cognitive impairment. Here, we used two compounds, Compound 44 [6,6-dimethyl-3-(3-hydroxypropyl)thio-1-(thiazol-2-yl)-6,7-dihydro-2-benzothiophen-4(5H)-one] and Compound 6 [methyl 3,5-diphenylpyridazine-4-carboxylate], with functional activity as potentiators of ?-aminobutyric acid at GABAA ?5 receptors, to test their ability to improve hippocampal-dependent memory in aged rats with identified cognitive impairment. Improvement was obtained in aged rats across protocols differing in motivational and performance demands and across varying retention intervals. Significant memory improvement occurred after either intracereboventricular infusion with Compound 44 (100 ?g) in a water maze task or systemic administration with Compound 6 (3 mg/kg) in a radial arm maze task. Furthermore, systemic administration improved behavioral performance at dosing shown to provide drug exposure in the brain and in vivo receptor occupancy in the hippocampus. These data suggest a novel approach to improve neural network function in clinical conditions of excess hippocampal activity. PMID:22732440

Koh, Ming Teng; Rosenzweig-Lipson, Sharon; Gallagher, Michela

2012-01-01

319

Repletion of S-Nitrosohemoglobin Improves Organ Function and Physiologic Status in Swine Following Brain Death  

PubMed Central

Structured Abstract Objective To determine if deficiency of nitric oxide bioactivity contributes to the physiologic instability that occurs following brain death and, if so, to also determine in this setting whether administration of a renitrosylating agent could improve systemic physiologic status. Summary Background Data Organ function following brain death is negatively impacted by reduced perfusion and increased inflammation; the magnitude of these responses can impact post-graft function. Perfusion and inflammation are normally regulated by protein S-nitrosylation but systemic assessments of nitric oxide bioactivity following brain death have not been performed. Methods Brain death was induced in instrumented swine by inflation of a balloon catheter placed under the cranium. The subjects were then serially assigned to receive either standard supportive care or care augmented by 20 ppm of the nitrosylating agent ethyl nitrite blended into the ventilation circuit. Results Circulating nitric oxide bioactivity (in the form of S-nitrosohemoglobin) was markedly diminished 10 h after induction of brain death—a decline that was obviated by administration of ethyl nitrite. Maintenance of S-nitrosohemoglobin was associated with improvements in tissue blood flow and oxygenation, reductions in markers of immune activation and cellular injury, and with preservation of organ function. Conclusions In humans the parameters monitored in this study are predictive of post-graft function. As such, maintenance of endocrine nitric oxide bioactivity after brain death may provide a novel means to improve the quality of organs available for donation. PMID:23360919

Yurcisin, Basil M.; Davison, Tara E.; Bibbs, Syreena M.; Collins, Bradley H.; Stamler, Jonathan S.; Reynolds, James D.

2013-01-01

320

A Piano Training Program to Improve Manual Dexterity and Upper Extremity Function in Chronic Stroke Survivors  

PubMed Central

Objective: Music-supported therapy was shown to induce improvements in motor skills in stroke survivors. Whether all stroke individuals respond similarly to the intervention and whether gains can be maintained over time remain unknown. We estimated the immediate and retention effects of a piano training program on upper extremity function in persons with chronic stroke. Methods: Thirteen stroke participants engaged in a 3-week piano training comprising supervised sessions (9?×?60?min) and home practice. Fine and gross manual dexterity, movement coordination, and functional use of the upper extremity were assessed at baseline, pre-intervention, post-intervention, and at a 3-week follow-up. Results: Significant improvements were observed for all outcomes at post-intervention and follow-up compared to pre-intervention scores. Larger magnitudes of change in manual dexterity and functional use of the upper extremity were associated with higher initial levels of motor recovery. Conclusion: Piano training can result in sustainable improvements in upper extremity function in chronic stroke survivors. Individuals with a higher initial level of motor recovery at baseline appear to benefit the most from this intervention. PMID:25202258

Villeneuve, Myriam; Penhune, Virginia; Lamontagne, Anouk

2014-01-01

321

Improving Function in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the efficacy of Problem-Solving Therapy (PST) with Supportive Therapy (ST) to improve Targeted Vision Function in Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). Design Single-masked, attention controlled randomized clinical trial with outcome assessments at 3 months (main trial endpoint) and 6 months (maintenance effects). Participants Patients with AMD (N = 241) attending retina practices. Interventions PST uses a structured problem-solving approach to reduce vision-related task difficulty. ST is a standardized attention control treatment. Main Outcome Measures Targeted Vision Function (TVF); National Eye Institute Vision Function Questionnaire - 25 plus Supplement (NEI VFQ); Activities Inventory (AI); and Vision-Related Quality of Life. Results There were no significant between-group differences in TVF scores at 3 months (p = 0.47) or 6 months (p = 0.62). For PST subjects, mean [standard deviation (SD)] TVF scores improved from 2.71 (0.52) at baseline to 2.18 (0.88) at 3 months (p = 0.001) and were 2.18 (0.95) at 6 months (change from 3 to 6 months, p = .74). For ST subjects, TVF scores improved from 2.73 (0.52) at baseline to 2.14 (0.96) at 3 months (p = 0.001) and were 2.15 (0.96) at 6 months (change from 3 to 6 months, p = .85). Similar proportions of PST and ST subjects had less difficulty performing a TVF goal at 3 months (77.4% vs. 78.6%, respectively; p = 0.83) and 6 months (76.2% vs. 79.1%, respectively; p = 0.61). There were no significant changes in the NEI VFQ or AI. Vision-related quality-of-life improved for PST relative to ST subjects at 3 months [F (4,192) = 2.46; p = 0.05] and 6 months [F (4,178) = 2.55; p = 0.05)]. PST subjects also developed more adaptive coping strategies than ST subjects. Conclusions We found that PST was not superior to ST at improving vision function in patients with AMD but PST improved their vision-related quality of life. Despite the benefits of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatments, AMD remains associated with disability, depression, and diminished quality of life. This clinical reality necessitates new rehabilitative interventions to improve the vision function and quality of life of older persons with AMD. PMID:23642378

Rovner, Barry W.; Casten, Robin J.; Hegel, Mark T.; Massof, Robert W.; Leiby, Benjamin E.; Ho, Allen C.; Tasman, William S.

2013-01-01

322

Seroprevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in shelter cats on the island of Newfoundland, Canada.  

PubMed

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are retroviruses found within domestic and wild cat populations. These viruses cause severe illnesses that eventually lead to death. Housing cats communally for long periods of time makes shelters at high risk for virus transmission among cats. We tested 548 cats from 5 different sites across the island of Newfoundland for FIV and FeLV. The overall seroprevalence was 2.2% and 6.2% for FIV and FeLV, respectively. Two sites had significantly higher seroprevalence of FeLV infection than the other 3 sites. Analysis of sequences from the FeLV env gene (envelope gene) from 6 positive cats showed that 4 fell within the FeLV subtype-A, while 2 sequences were most closely related to FeLV subtype-B and endogenous feline leukemia virus (en FeLV). Varying seroprevalence and the variation in sequences at different sites demonstrate that some shelters are at greater risk of FeLV infections and recombination can occur at sites of high seroprevalence. PMID:24688176

Munro, Hannah J; Berghuis, Lesley; Lang, Andrew S; Rogers, Laura; Whitney, Hugh

2014-04-01

323

Seroprevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in shelter cats on the island of Newfoundland, Canada  

PubMed Central

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are retroviruses found within domestic and wild cat populations. These viruses cause severe illnesses that eventually lead to death. Housing cats communally for long periods of time makes shelters at high risk for virus transmission among cats. We tested 548 cats from 5 different sites across the island of Newfoundland for FIV and FeLV. The overall seroprevalence was 2.2% and 6.2% for FIV and FeLV, respectively. Two sites had significantly higher seroprevalence of FeLV infection than the other 3 sites. Analysis of sequences from the FeLV env gene (envelope gene) from 6 positive cats showed that 4 fell within the FeLV subtype-A, while 2 sequences were most closely related to FeLV subtype-B and endogenous feline leukemia virus (en FeLV). Varying seroprevalence and the variation in sequences at different sites demonstrate that some shelters are at greater risk of FeLV infections and recombination can occur at sites of high seroprevalence. PMID:24688176

Munro, Hannah J.; Berghuis, Lesley; Lang, Andrew S.; Rogers, Laura; Whitney, Hugh

2014-01-01

324

Improved functional recovery with oxandrolone after spinal cord injury in rats.  

PubMed

At present, only the corticosteroid, methylprednisolone, is used for acute spinal cord injury to improve function. However, improvements are modest, and are associated with myopathy and immunosuppression so that alternative treatments are needed. Oxandrolone is an androgenic steroid with potential neuroprotective properties that is used to prevent muscle loss and is not immunosuppressive. Oxandrolone increased locomotor recovery concomitant with reduced loss of cord tissue in a standard weight drop model of spinal cord contusion injury indicating oxandrolone as a possible alternative to methylprednisolone. Oxandrolone also increased axonal sprouting within the ventral horns distal to the injury consistent with formation of relay circuits mediating locomotor recovery. PMID:19424096

Zeman, Richard J; Bauman, William A; Wen, Xialing; Ouyang, Nengtai; Etlinger, Joseph D; Cardozo, Christopher P

2009-06-17

325

Influence of Intraaortic Balloon Pump Counterpulsation on Transesophageal Echocardiography Derived Determinants of Diastolic Function  

PubMed Central

Introduction Intraaortic balloon pump counterpulsation (IABP) is often used in patients with acute coronary syndrome for its favourable effects on left ventricular (LV) systolic function and coronary perfusion. However, the effects of IABP on LV diastolic function have not been comprehensively investigated. Acute diastolic dysfunction has been linked to increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of IABP on LV diastolic dysfunction using standard TEE derived parameters. Methods Intraoperative TEE was performed in 10 patients (mean age 65 ± 11 yrs) undergoing urgent coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), who had received an IABP preoperatively. TEE derived measures of diastolic dysfunction included early to late transmitral Doppler inflow velocity ratio (E/A), deceleration time (Dt), pulmonary venous systolic to diastolic Doppler velocity ratio (S/D), transmitral propagation velocity (Vp), and the ratio of early to late mitral annular tissue Doppler velocities (e’/a’). Statistical analyses included the Wilcoxon Sign-Rank test, and a p<0.05 was considered significant. Results Transmitral inflow E/A ratios increased significantly from 0.86 to 1.07 (p < 0.05), while Dt decreased significantly from 218 to 180 ms (p < 0.05) with the use of IABP. Significant increases in Vp (34 cm/s to 43 cm/s; p < 0.05), and e’/a’ (0.58 to 0.71; p < 0.05) suggested a favourable influence of intraaortic counterpulsation on diastolic function. Conclusion The use of perioperative IABP significantly improves TEE derived parameters of diastolic function consistent with a favourable impact on LV relaxation in cardiac surgery patients undergoing CABG. PMID:25739068

Rosenberger, Peter; Schmid, Eckhard; Memtsoudis, Stavros G.; Angermair, Johannes; Tuli, Jayshree K.; Shernan, Stanton K.

2015-01-01

326

Sleep Extension Improves Neurocognitive Functions in Chronically Sleep-Deprived Obese Individuals  

PubMed Central

Background Sleep deprivation and obesity, are associated with neurocognitive impairments. Effects of sleep deprivation and obesity on cognition are unknown, and the cognitive long-term effects of improvement of sleep have not been prospectively assessed in short sleeping, obese individuals. Objective To characterize neurocognitive functions and assess its reversibility. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary Referral Research Clinical Center. Patients A cohort of 121 short-sleeping (<6.5 h/night) obese (BMI 30–55 kg/m2) men and pre-menopausal women. Intervention Sleep extension (468±88 days) with life-style modifications. Measurements Neurocognitive functions, sleep quality and sleep duration. Results At baseline, 44% of the individuals had an impaired global deficit score (t-score 0–39). Impaired global deficit score was associated with worse subjective sleep quality (p?=?0.02), and lower urinary dopamine levels (p?=?0.001). Memory was impaired in 33%; attention in 35%; motor skills in 42%; and executive function in 51% of individuals. At the final evaluation (N?=?74), subjective sleep quality improved by 24% (p<0.001), self-reported sleep duration increased by 11% by questionnaires (p<0.001) and by 4% by diaries (p?=?0.04), and daytime sleepiness tended to improve (p?=?0.10). Global cognitive function and attention improved by 7% and 10%, respectively (both p?=?0.001), and memory and executive functions tended to improve (p?=?0.07 and p?=?0.06). Serum cortisol increased by 17% (p?=?0.02). In a multivariate mixed model, subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency, urinary free cortisol and dopamine and plasma total ghrelin accounted for 1/5 of the variability in global cognitive function. Limitations Drop-out rate. Conclusions Chronically sleep-deprived obese individuals exhibit substantial neurocognitive deficits that are partially reversible upon improvement of sleep in a non-pharmacological way. These findings have clinical implications for large segments of the US population. Trail registration www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00261898. NIDDK protocol 06-DK-0036 PMID:24482677

Lucassen, Eliane A.; Piaggi, Paolo; Dsurney, John; de Jonge, Lilian; Zhao, Xiong-ce; Mattingly, Megan S.; Ramer, Angela; Gershengorn, Janet; Csako, Gyorgy; Cizza, Giovanni

2014-01-01

327

Predictors of improved functional outcome in elderly inpatients after rehabilitation: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Purpose The number of elderly inpatients has been steadily increasing worldwide. However, the ability to predict the degree of improvement of functional capacity after comprehensive examination of elderly inpatients is still lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictors of improved functional outcome after rehabilitation of elderly inpatients. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study with 1,079 patients (age <70 years: N=331, age ?70 years: N=748) who had been admitted to Tottori Municipal Hospital. Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores were measured both at admission and discharge to calculate FIM gain and efficiency. Of these patients, 262 patients had oral examinations on admission. The Mann–Whitney U-test or chi-square test was used for statistical analyses. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to compute the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Cut-off values of FIM scores to determine if elderly inpatients were able to return home after discharge were determined using a receiver operating characteristic curve. Results FIM scores, including FIM gain and efficiency, of elderly patients were significantly lower than those of middle-aged patients. Inability to close the lips and dysfunctional tongue movement, but not the loss of teeth, were correlated with a reduced improvement of FIM scores. Cognitive impairment and aspiration pneumonia, but not cerebrovascular disease, were also correlated with a reduced improvement of FIM scores. Interestingly, FIM scores were significantly lower in patients with both cerebrovascular disease and a loss of posterior occlusion. Factors shown to have a significant impact on the improvement of FIM scores included the stable posterior occlusion (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.2–4.1), closed lips (OR: 5.15, 95% CI: 2.3–11.7), functional tongue movement (OR: 5.74, 95% CI: 3.0–11.0), presence of cognitive impairment (OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.17–0.49), and presence of aspiration pneumonia (OR: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.15–0.51). Conclusion Age and disorder of oral function may be significant predictors of improved functional capacity after rehabilitation for elderly inpatients. PMID:25584025

Naruishi, Koji; Kunita, Akiko; Kubo, Katsuyuki; Nagata, Toshihiko; Takashiba, Shogo; Adachi, Seiji

2014-01-01

328

Renal Function Can Improve at Any Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction Even though renal function decline is considered relentless in chronic kidney disease (CKD), improvement has been shown in patients with hypertensive nephropathy. Whether this can occur in any type of nephropathy and at any stage is unknown as are the features of patients who improve. Methods We identified 406 patients in the NephroTest cohort with glomerular filtration rates (mGFR) measured by 51Cr-EDTA clearance at least 3 times during at least 2 years of follow-up. Individual examination of mGFR trajectories by 4 independent nephrologists classified patients as improvers, defined as those showing a sustained mGFR increase, or nonimprovers. Twelve patients with erratic trajectories were excluded. Baseline data were compared between improvers and nonimprovers, as was the number of recommended therapeutic targets achieved over time (specifically, for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, proteinuria, and use of renin angiotensin system blockers). Results Measured GFR improved over time in 62 patients (15.3%). Their median mGFR slope was +1.88[IQR 1.38, 3.55] ml/min/year; it was ?2.23[?3.9, ?0.91] for the 332 nonimprovers. Improvers had various nephropathies, but not diabetic glomerulopathy or polycystic kidney disease. They did not differ from nonimprovers for age, sex, cardiovascular history, or CKD stage, but their urinary albumin excretion rate was lower. Improvers achieved significantly more recommended therapeutic targets (2.74±0.87) than nonimprovers (2.44±0.80, p<0.01). They also had fewer CKD-related metabolic complications and a lower prevalence of 25OH-vitamin-D deficiency. Conclusion GFR improvement is possible in CKD patients at any CKD stage through stage 4–5. It is noteworthy that this GFR improvement is associated with a decrease in the number of metabolic complications over time. PMID:24349134

Weis, Lise; Metzger, Marie; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Thervet, Eric; Flamant, Martin; Vrtovsnik, François; Gauci, Cédric; Houillier, Pascal; Froissart, Marc; Letavernier, Emmanuel; Stengel, Bénédicte; Boffa, Jean-Jacques

2013-01-01

329

Lv2, a Novel Postentry Restriction, Is Mediated by both Capsid and Envelope  

PubMed Central

The characterization of restrictions to lentivirus replication in cells identifies critical steps in the viral life cycle and potential therapeutic targets. We previously reported that a human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) isolate was restricted to infection in some human cells, which led us to identify a step in the life cycle of HIV-2 detected after reverse transcription but prior to nuclear entry. The block is bypassed with a vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G (VSV-G) envelope (A. McKnight et al., J. Virol. 75:6914-6922, 2001). We hypothesized that, although the restriction is apparent at a post-reverse transcription step, the lack of progress results from a failure of the virus to reach a cellular compartment with access to the nucleus. Here we analyzed molecular clones of the restricted virus, MCR, and an unrestricted virus, MCN. Using sequence analysis and gene swapping, we mapped the viral determinants to gag and env. Site-directed mutagenesis identified a single amino acid at position 207 in CA to be responsible for the gag restriction. Pseudotype experiments indicate that this step is also important for the infection of cells by HIV-1. The HIV-1 NL4.3 core is restricted if supplied with a restricted MCR envelope but not with VSV-G. Also the NL4.3 envelope rescues the restricted core of HIV-2 MCR. Abrogation experiments with MLV demonstrate that the restriction is distinct from Fv1/Ref1/Lv1. We propose that this represents a new lentiviral restriction, Lv2. Thus, the envelope and capsid of HIV act to ensure that the virus is delivered into an appropriate cellular compartment that allows postentry events in viral replication to proceed efficiently. PMID:14747565

Schmitz, Christian; Marchant, David; Neil, Stuart J. D.; Aubin, Keith; Reuter, Sandra; Dittmar, Matthias T.; McKnight, Áine

2004-01-01

330

Feline Upper Respiratory Tract Lymphoma: Site, Cyto-histology, Phenotype, FeLV Expression, and Prognosis.  

PubMed

Lymphoma is the most common feline upper respiratory tract (URT) tumor. Primary nasal and nasopharyngeal lymphomas have been evaluated as distinct pathological entities; however, data on their differing clinical behavior are missing. A total of 164 endoscopic- guided URT pinch biopsies were formalin fixed and routinely processed. Imprint cytological specimens were stained with May Grünwald-Giemsa. Immunohistochemistry for anti-CD20, CD3, FeLVp27, and FeLVgp70 was performed. Prognostic significance of clinicopathological variables was investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Lymphoma was diagnosed in 39 cats (24%). Most cats with lymphoma were domestic shorthair (32 [82%]), were male (F/M = 0.56), and had a mean age of 10.3 years (range, 1-16 years). Lymphomas were primary nasal in 26 cats (67%), nasopharyngeal in 6 (15%), and in both locations (combined lymphomas) in 7 cats (18%). Neoplastic growth pattern was diffuse in 35 cases (90%) and nodular in 4 (10%). Epitheliotropism was observed in 10 cases (26%). Tumor cells were large in 15 cases, were small and medium in 11 cases each, and 2 had mixed cell size. Submucosal lymphoplasmacytic inflammation was observed in 23 cases (59%). Cytology was diagnostic for lymphoma in 12 of 25 cases (48%). A B-cell origin prevailed (34 [87%]). Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) p27or gp70 antigen was detected in 21 lymphomas (54%). URT lymphomas were aggressive, with survival varying from 0 to 301 days (mean, 53 days). Epitheliotropism in 8 B-cell lymphomas (80%) and in 2 T-cell lymphomas (20%) correlated with prolonged survival. Age younger or older than 10 years had a negative prognostic value. Lymphoplasmacytic inflammation and FeLV infection may represent favoring factors for URT lymphoma development. PMID:24903757

Santagostino, S F; Mortellaro, C M; Boracchi, P; Avallone, G; Caniatti, M; Forlani, A; Roccabianca, P

2015-03-01

331

A phase II experience with neoadjuvant irinotecan (CPT-11), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin (LV) for colorectal liver metastases  

PubMed Central

Background Chemotherapy may improve survival in patients undergoing resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy may help identify patients with occult extrahepatic disease (averting unnecessary metastasectomy), and it provides in vivo chemosensitivity data. Methods A phase II trial was initiated in which patients with resectable CLM received CPT-11, 5-FU and LV for 12 weeks. Metastasectomy was performed unless extrahepatic disease appeared. Postoperatively, patients with stable or responsive disease received the same regimen for 12 weeks. Patients with progressive disease received either second-line chemotherapy or best supportive care. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS); secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS) and safety. Results 35 patients were accrued. During preoperative chemotherapy, 16 patients (46%) had grade 3/4 toxicities. Resection was not possible in 5 patients. One patient died of arrhythmia following surgery, and 1 patient had transient liver failure. During the postoperative treatment phase, 12 patients (55%) had grade 3/4 toxicities. Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) occurred in 11 patients (34%) at various times during treatment. Of those who underwent resection, median DFS was 23.0 mo. and median OS has not been reached. The overall survival from time of diagnosis of liver metastases was 51.6 mo for the entire cohort. Conclusion A short course of chemotherapy prior to hepatic metastasectomy may serve to select candidates best suited for resection and it may also direct postoperative systemic treatment. Given the significant incidence of DVT, alternative systemic neoadjuvant regimens should be investigated, particularly those that avoid the use of a central venous line. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00168155. PMID:19457245

2009-01-01

332

Treatment-related improvement in neuropsychological functioning in suicidal depressed patients: paroxetine vs. bupropion.  

PubMed

Neuropsychological dysfunction is associated with risk for suicidal behavior, but it is unknown if antidepressant medication treatment is effective in reducing this dysfunction, or if specific medications might be more beneficial. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment within a randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing paroxetine and bupropion in patients with DSM-IV Major Depressive Disorder and either past suicide attempt or current suicidal thoughts. Change in neurocognitive performance was compared between assessments and between medication groups. Treatment effects on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Scale for Suicide Ideation were compared with neurocognitive improvement. Neurocognitive functioning improved after treatment in all patients, without clear advantage for either medication. Improvement in memory performance was associated with a reduction in suicidal ideation independent of the improvement of depression severity. Overall, antidepressant medication improved neurocognitive performance in patients with major depression and suicide risk. Reduced suicidal ideation was best predicted by a combination of the independent improvements in both depression symptomatology and verbal memory. Targeted treatment of neurocognitive dysfunction in these patients may augment standard medication treatment for reducing suicidal behavior risk. PMID:25555415

Gorlyn, Marianne; Keilp, John; Burke, Ainsley; Oquendo, Maria; Mann, J John; Grunebaum, Michael

2015-02-28

333

DPP4-inhibitor improves neuronal insulin receptor function, brain mitochondrial function and cognitive function in rats with insulin resistance induced by high-fat diet consumption.  

PubMed

High-fat diet (HFD) consumption has been demonstrated to cause peripheral and neuronal insulin resistance, and brain mitochondrial dysfunction in rats. Although the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, is known to improve peripheral insulin sensitivity, its effects on neuronal insulin resistance and brain mitochondrial dysfunction caused by a HFD are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that vildagliptin prevents neuronal insulin resistance, brain mitochondrial dysfunction, learning and memory deficit caused by HFD. Male rats were divided into two groups to receive either a HFD or normal diet (ND) for 12 weeks, after which rats in each group were fed with either vildagliptin (3 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 21 days. The cognitive function was tested by the Morris Water Maze prior to brain removal for studying neuronal insulin receptor (IR) and brain mitochondrial function. In HFD rats, neuronal insulin resistance and brain mitochondrial dysfunction were demonstrated, with impaired learning and memory. Vildagliptin prevented neuronal insulin resistance by restoring insulin-induced long-term depression and neuronal IR phosphorylation, IRS-1 phosphorylation and Akt/PKB-ser phosphorylation. It also improved brain mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive function. Vildagliptin effectively restored neuronal IR function, increased glucagon-like-peptide 1 levels and prevented brain mitochondrial dysfunction, thus attenuating the impaired cognitive function caused by HFD. PMID:23240760

Pipatpiboon, Noppamas; Pintana, Hiranya; Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

2013-03-01

334

Fish oil selectively improves heart function in a mouse model of lipid-induced cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Fish oil (FO) supplementation may improve cardiac function in some patients with heart failure, especially those with diabetes. To determine why this occurs, we studied the effects of FO in mice with heart failure due either to transgenic expression of the lipid uptake protein, acyl CoA synthetase 1 (ACS1) or overexpression of the transcription factor peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)? via the cardiac specific myosin heavy chain (MHC) promoter. ACS1 mice and control littermates were fed three diets containing low or high-dose FO or non-purified diet (NPD) for 6 weeks. MHC-PPAR? mice were fed low-dose FO or NPD. Compared to control mice fed NPD, ACS1 and MHC-PPAR? mice fed NPD had reduced cardiac function and survival with cardiac fibrosis. In contrast, ACS1 mice fed high-dose FO had better cardiac function, survival and less myocardial fibrosis. FO increased eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids and reduced saturated fatty acids in cardiac diacylglycerols. This was associated with reduced PKC alpha and beta activation. In contrast, low-dose FO reduced MHC-PPAR? mice survival with no change in PKC activation or cardiac function. Thus, dietary FO reverses fibrosis and improves cardiac function and survival of ACS1 mice, but does not benefit all forms of lipid-mediated cardiomyopathy. PMID:23567901

Khan, Raffay S.; Chokshi, Aalap; Drosatos, Konstantinos; Jiang, Hongfeng; Yu, Shuiqing; Harris, Collette R.; Schulze, P. Christian; Homma, Shunichi; Blaner, William S.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Huang, Li-Shin; Goldberg, Ira J.

2013-01-01

335

Coherent Functional Modules Improve Transcription Factor Target Identification, Cooperativity Prediction, and Disease Association  

PubMed Central

Transcription factors (TFs) are fundamental controllers of cellular regulation that function in a complex and combinatorial manner. Accurate identification of a transcription factor's targets is essential to understanding the role that factors play in disease biology. However, due to a high false positive rate, identifying coherent functional target sets is difficult. We have created an improved mapping of targets by integrating ChIP-Seq data with 423 functional modules derived from 9,395 human expression experiments. We identified 5,002 TF-module relationships, significantly improved TF target prediction, and found 30 high-confidence TF-TF associations, of which 14 are known. Importantly, we also connected TFs to diseases through these functional modules and identified 3,859 significant TF-disease relationships. As an example, we found a link between MEF2A and Crohn's disease, which we validated in an independent expression dataset. These results show the power of combining expression data and ChIP-Seq data to remove noise and better extract the associations between TFs, functional modules, and disease. PMID:24516403

Karczewski, Konrad J.; Snyder, Michael; Altman, Russ B.; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.

2014-01-01

336

Myocardial Structure and Function Differ in Systolic and Diastolic Heart Failure  

E-print Network

Myocardial Structure and Function Differ in Systolic and Diastolic Heart Failure Loek van Heerebeek, MD, PhD Background--To support the clinical distinction between systolic heart failure (SHF) and diastolic heart failure (DHF), left ventricular (LV) myocardial structure and function were compared in LV

Linke, Wolfgang A.

337

Improving optical limiting of cw lasers with fullerene functionalized gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the attempt to improve optical limiting of cw lasers by exploiting the thermo-optic effect exhibited by gold nanostructures, we investigated two coupled systems consisting of either gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) or gold-silica core-shell (AuNSs), both functionalized with a thiolated-fulleropyrrolidine (C60Py). We measured the optical limiting behavior under cw illumination at 514 and 647 nm, resonant with the surface plasmon resonance at around 520 of AuNPs and at 650 nm of AuNSs, respectively. Temporal response analysis shows the variation of transmitted irradiance in a 300 milliseconds time interval, corresponding to the blinking time of the human eye. Comparing the present results we those previously obtained for AuNPs1 we demonstrate an improvement of the response of functionalized nanoparticles (AuNPs- C60Py) with respect to bare AuNPs.

Frare, Maria Chiara; Weber, Verena; De Filippo, Christian Corrado; Signorini, Raffaella; Maggini, Michele; Bozio, Renato

2014-10-01

338

A Functional Test Procedure for the improved commissioning of a VAV system  

E-print Network

A Functional Test Procedure for the improved commissioning of a VAV system Philippe ANDRE*, Patrick LAC?TE* Cleide APARECIDA SILVA**, Jules HANNAY** and Jean LEBRUN** * Department of Environmental Sciences and Management - ARLON... benefit of the commissioning action. 6. REFERENCES [1] Philippe Andr?, Cleide Aparecida-Silva, Nestor Fonseca, Jules Hannay, Jean Lebrun and Patrick Lac?te RE-COMMISSIONING OF A VAV AIR-DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM , submitted to ICEBO 2004, 2004. ...

Andre, P.; Lacote, P.; Aparecida Silva, C.; Hannay, J.; Lebrun, J.

2004-01-01

339

Functional improvement after motor training is correlated with synaptic plasticity in rat thalamus.  

PubMed

The goals of this study were to determine whether functional outcome after motor training in rats was linked to synaptic plasticity in thalamus, and whether the Rota-rod apparatus, widely used to test motor function, could be used as an easy and quantitative motor skill training procedure. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 39) were evaluated under three training conditions: 1. Movement requiring balance and coordination skills on Rota-rod; 2. simple exercise on treadmill; 3. nontrained controls. Motor function was evaluated by a series of motor tests (foot fault placing, parallel bar crossing, rope and ladder climbing) before and 14 or 28 days after training procedure. Synaptic strength in brain was assessed by synaptophysin immunocytochemistry. After 14 days of training, Rota-rod-trained animals significantly (p < 0.01) improved motor performance, compared to treadmill and nontrained animals. Animals with up to 28 days of simple exercises on the treadmill did not show a significantly improved performance on most motor tasks, except for an improvement in foot fault placing. Intensive synaptophysin immunoreactivity was present in the right but not the left mediodorsal and ventromedial nuclei of thalamus in Rota-rod-trained rats at 14 and 28 days, and in treadmill-trained rats at 28 days. The data suggested that functional outcome is effectively improved by motor skill training rather than by simple exercises, and this may be related, at least partially, to uniquely lateralized synaptogenesis in the thalamus. Both Rota-rod and treadmill could be quantitatively used in rats for motor training of different complexity. PMID:12500709

Ding, Yuchuan; Li, Jie; Lai, Qin; Azam, Salman; Rafols, José A; Diaz, Fernando G

2002-12-01

340

rHuEPO treatment improves brain and cognitive function of anemic dialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

rHuEPO treatment improves brain and cognitive function of anemic dialysis patients. Twenty-four patients with chronic renal failure, stabilized on hemodialysis, were treated with recombinant human erythropoietin. Before treatment, all patients were anemic (mean Hct = 23.7%). Hematocrits reached normal levels (36.5%) after three months of treatment. Brain event-related potentials and neuropyschological tests were used to assess changes in brain and

James T Marsh; Warren S Brown; Deane Wolcott; Clifford R Carr; Rebecca Harper; Suzanne V Schweitzer; Allen R Nissenson

1991-01-01

341

Improving photovoltaic properties by incorporating both single walled carbon nanotubes and functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs) are introduced together for photovoltaic application in a poly(3-octylthiophene)\\/n-Si heterojunction solar cell. The performance of the device was improved by manyfold by the incorporation of both SWCNTs and f-MWCNTs. The open circuit voltage (Voc), short circuit current density (Jsc), fill factor (FF), and power conversion efficiency (?) were 0.44 V,

Ishwor Khatri; Sudip Adhikari; Hare Ram Aryal; Tetsuo Soga; Takashi Jimbo; Masayoshi Umeno

2009-01-01

342

Pirfenidone improves renal function and fibrosis in the post-obstructed kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pirfenidone improves renal function and fibrosis in the post-obstructed kidney.BackgroundPirfenidone™ (PFD) is a novel anti-fibrotic agent that can prevent and even reverse extracellular matrix accumulation in several organs, as shown by experimental and clinical studies. Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) is a well-characterized model of experimental renal disease culminating in tubulointerstitial fibrosis.MethodsUUO or sham-operated rats were administered PFD (500 mg\\/kg\\/day) in

Toshikatsu Shimizu; Takayuki Kuroda; Satoshi Hata; Masafumi Fukagawa; Solomon B Margolin; Kiyoshi Kurokawa

1998-01-01

343

Evaluation of assertive training and homosexual guidance service groups designed to improve homosexual functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposes that clinicians should develop research-based procedures for homosexuals that are designed to facilitate homosexual functioning. Assertive training is considered as such a procedure. 27 male, 17-45 yr old Ss were randomly assigned to a behaviorally oriented assertive training group or a nondirective group run by a homosexual guidance service. Pre- and postassessment on 4 self-report measures indicated improvement in

A. Russell; R. Winkler

1977-01-01

344

Molecular mechanisms that could contribute to prolonged effectiveness of PDE5 inhibitors to improve erectile function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in penile vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) plays a key role in promoting penile erection. Phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) in VSMC breaks down cGMP to counter this effect. Sildenafil (Viagra), vardenafil (Levitra) and tadalafil (Cialis), treatments for erectile dysfunction, inhibit PDE5 action. Many men with erectile dysfunction have improved erectile function after plasma inhibitor concentration falls below therapeutic

S H Francis; G Z Morris; J D Corbin

2008-01-01

345

Yizhi Xingnao prescription improves the cognitive function of patients after a transient ischemic attack?  

PubMed Central

Patients with mild cognitive impairment after a transient ischemic attack were included in this study. They were treated with Yizhi Xingnao prescription, ergoloid mesylates or aspirin for 60 days. Evaluation using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale showed that cognitive function was significantly improved in all patients, especially after the combined treatment of Yizhi Xingnao and aspirin. The scores from the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale were improved overall and the effective treatment rate was as high as 79%, which was higher than patients treated with a combination of ergoloid mesylates and aspirin, or aspirin alone. Our experimental findings indicate that Yizhi Xingnao prescription can improve mild cognitive impairment after a transient ischemic attack, and that it is more effective than ergoloid mesylates.

Jiang, Donglin; Chu, Xing; Hu, Lingling; Jiang, Shengyang; Hu, Feng; Sun, Junming; Li, Chengwan

2012-01-01

346

A pilot study of an acupuncture protocol to improve visual function in retinitis pigmentosa patients  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with retinitis pigmentosa are motivated to try complementary or integrative therapies to slow disease progression. Basic science, clinical research and retinitis pigmentosa patients' self-reports support the hypothesis that acupuncture may improve visual function. Methods A prospective, case series, pilot study enrolled 12 adult patients with RP treated at an academic medical centre with a standardised protocol that combined electroacupuncture to the forehead and below the eyes and acupuncture to the body, at 10 half-hour sessions over two weeks. Pre- and post-treatment tests included Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity (VA), Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity (CS), Goldmann visual fields, and dark-adapted full-field stimulus threshold (FST)(n = 9). Scotopic Sensitivity Tester-1 (SST-1) dark-adaptometry was performed on the last two subjects. Results Six of 12 subjects had measurable, significant visual function improvements after treatment. Three of nine subjects tested with the FST had a significant 10.3 to 17.5 dB (that is, 13- to 53-fold) improvement in both eyes at one week after acupuncture, maintained for at least 10 to 12 months, which was well outside typical test-retest variability (95% CI: 3–3.5 dB) previously found in retinitis pigmentosa. SST-1 dark-adaptation was shortened in both subjects tested on average by 48.5 per cent at one week (range 36 to 62 per cent across 10 to 30 dB), which was outside typical coefficients of variation of less than 30 per cent previously determined in patients with retinitis pigmentosa and normals. Four of the five subjects with psychophysically measured scotopic sensitivity improvements reported subjective improvements in vision at night or in dark environments. One subject had 0.2 logMAR improvement in VA; another had 0.55 logCS improvement. Another subject developed more than 20 per cent improvement in the area of the Goldmann visual fields. The acupuncture protocol was completed and well tolerated by all, without adverse events or visual loss. Conclusions Acupuncture entails minimal risk, if administered by a well-trained acupuncturist and may have significant, measurable benefits on residual visual function in patients with retinitis pigmentosa, in particular scotopic sensitivity, which had not previously been studied. These preliminary findings support the need for future controlled studies of potential mechanisms. PMID:24773463

Bittner, Ava K; Gould, Jeffrey M; Rosenfarb, Andy; Rozanski, Collin; Dagnelie, Gislin

2014-01-01

347

ORIGINAL RESEARCH Restored Activation of Primary Motor Area from Motor Reorganization and Improved Motor Function after Brain Tumor Resection  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Reorganization of brain function may result in preservation of motor function in patients with brain tumors. The goal of the present study was to investigate whether function of the primary motor area (M1) was restored and whether motor function improved after brain tumor resection. METHODS: Five patients with metastatic brain tumors located within or near M1 underwent

N. Shinoura; Y. Suzuki; R. Yamada; T. Kodama; M. Takahashi; K. Yagi

348

Long-term wheel running compromises diaphragm function but improves cardiac and plantarflexor function in the mdx mouse  

PubMed Central

Dystrophin-deficient muscles suffer from free radical injury, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and inflammation, among other pathologies that contribute to muscle fiber injury and loss, leading to wheelchair confinement and death in the patient. For some time, it has been appreciated that endurance training has the potential to counter many of these contributing factors. Correspondingly, numerous investigations have shown improvements in limb muscle function following endurance training in mdx mice. However, the effect of long-term volitional wheel running on diaphragm and cardiac function is largely unknown. Our purpose was to determine the extent to which long-term endurance exercise affected dystrophic limb, diaphragm, and cardiac function. Diaphragm specific tension was reduced by 60% (P < 0.05) in mice that performed 1 yr of volitional wheel running compared with sedentary mdx mice. Dorsiflexor mass (extensor digitorum longus and tibialis anterior) and function (extensor digitorum longus) were not altered by endurance training. In mice that performed 1 yr of volitional wheel running, plantarflexor mass (soleus and gastrocnemius) was increased and soleus tetanic force was increased 36%, while specific tension was similar in wheel-running and sedentary groups. Cardiac mass was increased 15%, left ventricle chamber size was increased 20% (diastole) and 18% (systole), and stroke volume was increased twofold in wheel-running compared with sedentary mdx mice. These data suggest that the dystrophic heart may undergo positive exercise-induced remodeling and that limb muscle function is largely unaffected. Most importantly, however, as the diaphragm most closely recapitulates the human disease, these data raise the possibility of exercise-mediated injury in dystrophic skeletal muscle. PMID:23823150

Acosta, Pedro; Sleeper, Meg M.; Barton, Elisabeth R.; Sweeney, H. Lee

2013-01-01

349

Alterations in left ventricular diastolic function in conscious dogs with pacing-induced heart failure.  

PubMed Central

We investigated in conscious dogs (a) the effects of heart failure induced by chronic rapid ventricular pacing on the sequence of development of left ventricular (LV) diastolic versus systolic dysfunction and (b) whether the changes were load dependent or secondary to alterations in structure. LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction were evident within 24 h after initiation of pacing and occurred in parallel over 3 wk. LV systolic function was reduced at 3 wk, i.e., peak LV dP/dt fell by -1,327 +/- 105 mmHg/s and ejection fraction by -22 +/- 2%. LV diastolic dysfunction also progressed over 3 wk of pacing, i.e., tau increased by +14.0 +/- 2.8 ms and the myocardial stiffness constant by +6.5 +/- 1.4, whereas LV chamber stiffness did not change. These alterations were associated with increases in LV end-systolic (+28.6 +/- 5.7 g/cm2) and LV end-diastolic stresses (+40.4 +/- 5.3 g/cm2). When stresses and heart rate were matched at the same levels in the control and failure states, the increases in tau and myocardial stiffness were no longer observed, whereas LV systolic function remained depressed. There were no increases in connective tissue content in heart failure. Thus, pacing-induced heart failure in conscious dogs is characterized by major alterations in diastolic function which are reversible with normalization of increased loading condition. Images PMID:1601992

Komamura, K; Shannon, R P; Pasipoularides, A; Ihara, T; Lader, A S; Patrick, T A; Bishop, S P; Vatner, S F

1992-01-01

350

Alterations in left ventricular diastolic function in conscious dogs with pacing-induced heart failure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigated in conscious dogs (a) the effects of heart failure induced by chronic rapid ventricular pacing on the sequence of development of left ventricular (LV) diastolic versus systolic dysfunction and (b) whether the changes were load dependent or secondary to alterations in structure. LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction were evident within 24 h after initiation of pacing and occurred in parallel over 3 wk. LV systolic function was reduced at 3 wk, i.e., peak LV dP/dt fell by -1,327 +/- 105 mmHg/s and ejection fraction by -22 +/- 2%. LV diastolic dysfunction also progressed over 3 wk of pacing, i.e., tau increased by +14.0 +/- 2.8 ms and the myocardial stiffness constant by +6.5 +/- 1.4, whereas LV chamber stiffness did not change. These alterations were associated with increases in LV end-systolic (+28.6 +/- 5.7 g/cm2) and LV end-diastolic stresses (+40.4 +/- 5.3 g/cm2). When stresses and heart rate were matched at the same levels in the control and failure states, the increases in tau and myocardial stiffness were no longer observed, whereas LV systolic function remained depressed. There were no increases in connective tissue content in heart failure. Thus, pacing-induced heart failure in conscious dogs is characterized by major alterations in diastolic function which are reversible with normalization of increased loading condition.

Komamura, K.; Shannon, R. P.; Pasipoularides, A.; Ihara, T.; Lader, A. S.; Patrick, T. A.; Bishop, S. P.; Vatner, S. F.

1992-01-01

351

Efficacy of a Crisis Intervention in Improving Mother-Child Interaction and Children's Play Functioning.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. We examined the efficacy of a crisis-based intervention in improving mother-child interaction and children's play functioning for families who had experienced domestic violence. METHOD. Using a pretest-posttest two-group control study design, we assigned the intervention group (n = 20 mother-child dyads) to the Family Intervention for Improving Occupational Performance (FI-OP) program and the control group (n = 17 dyads) to a playroom program. Both programs consisted of eight 30-min sessions. We videotaped dyads during free play and used standardized tools to assess interactions, play skills, and playfulness. RESULTS. After the intervention, mother-child interaction was significantly better in the FI-OP group than in the playroom group. The children in the FI-OP group also demonstrated significantly greater improvement in play skills, but not in playfulness. CONCLUSION. FI-OP is a promising program for improving aspects of mother-child interaction and children's play functioning among survivors of domestic violence. PMID:25553747

Waldman-Levi, Amiya; Weintraub, Naomi

2015-01-01

352

Bone Marrow Transplantation in Dysferlin-Deficient Mice Results in a Mild Functional Improvement  

PubMed Central

Dysferlinopathies are caused by mutations in the DYSF gene. Dysferlin is a protein mainly expressed in the skeletal muscle and monocytes. Cell therapy constitutes a promising tool for the treatment of muscular dystrophies. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) using the A/J Dysfprmd mouse model of dysferlinopathy. For that purpose, we studied dysferlin expression by western blot and/or immunohistochemistry in transplanted mice and controls. Computerized analyses of locomotion and electrophysiological techniques were also performed to test the functional improvement. We observed dysferlin expression in splenocytes, but not in the skeletal muscle of the transplanted mice. However, the locomotion test, electromyography studies, and muscle histology showed an improvement in all transplanted mice that was more significant in the animals transplanted with dysferlin+/+ cells. In conclusion, although BMT restores dysferlin expression in monocytes, but not in skeletal muscle, muscle function was partially recovered. We propose that the slight improvement observed in the functional studies could be related with factors, such as the hepatocyte growth factor, released after BMT that prevented muscle degeneration. PMID:23777246

Flix, Bàrbara; Suárez-Calvet, Xavier; Díaz-Manera, Jordi; Santos-Nogueira, Eva; Mancuso, Renzo; Barquinero, Jordi; Navas, Miquel; Navarro, Xavier; Illa, Isabel

2013-01-01

353

Traditional Chinese Medicine Tongxinluo Improves Cardiac Function of Rats with Dilated Cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

The study aimed at testing the hypothesis that tongxinluo capsule might exert its cardioprotective effect by preventing ventricular remodeling and improving coronary microvascular function in a rat model of doxorubicin-induced dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Rats that survived DCM induction were randomly divided into three groups to be given 1.5 g·kg?1·day?1 (TXL-H, n = 9) or 0.15 g·kg?1·day?1 (TXL-L, n = 10) of tongxinluo, or normal saline at the same volume (DCM-C, n = 10) intragastrically. Age matched normal rats treated with normal saline were used as normal controls (NOR-C, n = 9). After four weeks of treatment, the DCM-C, TXL-H, and TXL-L groups exhibited significant cardiac dysfunction, left ventricular remodeling, and coronary microvascular dysfunction, compared with the NOR-C rats. However, myocardial functional parameters were significantly improved and microvascular density (MVD) increased in the TXL-H group compared with the DCM-C group (all P < 0.01). Left ventricular remodeling was prevented. There were close linear relationships between CVF and LVEF (r = ?0.683, P < 0.05), MVD and LVEF (r = 0.895, P < 0.05), and MVD and CVF (r = ?0.798, P < 0.05). It was indicated that high-dose tongxinluo effectively improved cardiac function in rat model of DCM. PMID:25614749

Shen, Fang-Fang; Jiang, Ting-Hui; Jiang, Jin-Qi; Lou, Ying; Hou, Xu-Min

2014-01-01

354

Early improvement of functional mitral regurgitation in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to assess the clinical and prognostic impact of early functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) improvement on the outcome of patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC). The prevalence and prognostic role of FMR improvement, particularly at early follow-up, in patients with IDC are still unclear. From 1988 to 2009, we enrolled 470 patients with IDC with available FMR data at baseline and after 6 ± 2 months. According to the evolution of FMR, patients were classified into 3 groups: stable absent-mild FMR, early FMR improvement (downgrading from moderate-severe to absent-mild), and persistence/early development of moderate-severe FMR. At baseline, 177 of 470 patients (38%) had moderate-severe FMR. Patients with early FMR improvement had significantly better survival rate-free from heart transplant with respect to those with persistence/early development of moderate-severe FMR (93%, 81%, and 66% vs 91%, 64%, and 52% at 1, 6, and 12 years, respectively; p = 0.044). At 6-month follow-up multivariate analysis, FMR improvement was associated with better prognosis (hazard ratio 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64 to 0.96, p = 0.02); the other independent predictors were male gender, heart failure duration, and early re-evaluation of the New York Heart Association class and left ventricle systolic function. This model provided more accurate risk stratification compared with the baseline model (Net Reclassification Index 80% at 12 months and 41% at 72 months). In conclusion, in a large cohort of patients with IDC receiving optimal medical treatment, early improvement of FMR was frequent (53%) and emerged as a favorable independent prognostic factor with an incremental short- and long-term power compared with the baseline evaluation. PMID:25721482

Stolfo, Davide; Merlo, Marco; Pinamonti, Bruno; Poli, Stefano; Gigli, Marta; Barbati, Giulia; Fabris, Enrico; Di Lenarda, Andrea; Sinagra, Gianfranco

2015-04-15

355

[An oral function improvement program utilizing health behavior theories ameliorates oral functions and oral hygienic conditions of pre-frail elderly persons].  

PubMed

Oral function improvement programs utilizing health behavior theories are considered to be effective in preventing the need for long-term social care. In the present study, an oral function improvement program based upon health behavior theories was designed, and its utility was assessed in 102 pre-frail elderly persons (33 males, 69 females, mean age: 76.9 +/- 5.7) considered to be in potential need of long-term social care and attending a long-term care prevention class in Sayama City, Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The degree of improvement in oral functions (7 items) and oral hygienic conditions (3 items) was assessed by comparing oral health before and after participation in the program. The results showed statistically significant improvements in the following oral functions: (1) lip functions (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllable "Pa"), (2) tongue functions, (3) tongue root motor skills (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllables "Ta" and "Ka"), (4) tongue extension/retraction, (5) side-to-side tongue movement functions, (6) cheek motor skills, and (7) repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST). The following measures of oral hygiene also showed a statistically significant improvement: (1) debris on dentures or teeth, (2) coated tongue, and (3) frequency of oral cleaning. These findings demonstrated that an improvement program informed by health behavior theories is useful in improving oral functions and oral hygiene conditions. PMID:25244722

Hideo, Sakaguchi

2014-06-01

356

Improved Air Quality and Attenuated Lung Function Decline: Modification by Obesity in the SAPALDIA Cohort  

PubMed Central

Background: Air pollution and obesity are hypothesized to contribute to accelerated decline in lung function with age through their inflammatory properties. Objective: We investigated whether the previously reported association between improved air quality and lung health in the population-based SAPALDIA cohort is modified by obesity. Methods: We used adjusted mixed-model analyses to estimate the association of average body mass index (BMI) and changes in particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ? 10 µm (PM10; ?PM10) with lung function decline over a 10-year follow-up period. Results: Lung function data and complete information were available for 4,664 participants. Age-related declines in lung function among participants with high average BMI were more rapid for FVC (forced vital capacity), but slower for FEV1/FVC (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec/FVC) and FEF25–75 (forced expiratory flow at 25–75%) than declines among those with low or normal average BMI. Improved air quality was associated with attenuated reductions in FEV1/FVC, FEF25–75, and FEF25–75/FVC over time among low- and normal-BMI participants, but not overweight or obese participants. The attenuation was most pronounced for ?FEF25–75/FVC (30% and 22% attenuation in association with a 10-?g/m3 decrease in PM10 among low- and normal-weight participants, respectively.) Conclusion: Our results point to the importance of considering health effects of air pollution exposure and obesity in parallel. Further research must address the mechanisms underlying the observed interaction. Citation: Schikowski T, Schaffner E, Meier F, Phuleria HC, Vierkötter A, Schindler C, Kriemler S, Zemp E, Krämer U, Bridevaux P-O, Rochat T, Schwartz J, Künzli N, Probst-Hensch N. 2013. Improved air quality and attenuated lung function decline: modification by obesity in the SAPALDIA cohort. Environ Health Perspect 121:1034–1039; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206145 PMID:23820868

Schaffner, Emmanuel; Meier, Flurina; Phuleria, Harish C.; Vierkötter, Andrea; Schindler, Christian; Kriemler, Susi; Zemp, Elisabeth; Krämer, Ursula; Bridevaux, Pierre-Olivier; Rochat, Thierry; Schwartz, Joel; Künzli, Nino; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

2013-01-01

357

The Effect of Vitamin C on Endothelial Function of Children with Type 1 Diabetes: An Experimental Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Considering the importance of improvement of endothelial function in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) and to prevent its related micro- and macro-vascular complications; in this study, the effect of vitamin C administration on improving endothelial function of children with type 1 diabetes was investigated. Methods: In this analytic-experimental study, children with type 1 DM aged 6-18 years and a group of healthy children enrolled. Vitamin C (250 mg/daily) administrated for the two studied groups for 1-month. Endothelial function evaluated by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and intima-media thickness (IMT) measurement using vascular Doppler ultrasonography, before and after trial. Results: In this study, 18 patients with type 1 diabetes (DM) and 19 normal children as the control group were studied. After vitamin C administration IMT reduced in all studied groups (P < 0.05). FMD increased in all studied groups, but it was significant only in the control group (P = 0.02 in the control group and P = 0.07 in patients with DM). Mean differences of IMT 2 – IMT 1, FMD 2 – FMD 1 and left ventricular (LV) mass 2 – LV mass 1 and blood pressure (BP) were not significantly different in two studied groups (P > 0.05). Mean differences of IMT 2 – IMT 1, FMD 2 – FMD 1, LV mass 2 – LV mass 1 and BP were not significantly different in patients with HbA1c ? 7 g/dl and those with HbA1c >7 g/dl and control group (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The findings of the current study indicated that vitamin C may have a protective effect on endothelial dysfunction, but regarding its effectiveness among the high-risk population such as diabetic patients with and without appropriate glycemic control the study was not sufficiently powered due to its small sample size. PMID:25489448

Sabri, Mohammad Reza; Tavana, Esfandiar Najafi; Ahmadi, Alireza; Hashemipour, Mahin

2014-01-01

358

A simple way to improve anatomical mapping of functional brain imaging  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Advances in functional neuroimaging studies have led to the need for improved anatomical precision to face with more and more specific challenges. Nevertheless, functional MRI (fMRI) suffers from geometrical distortions which limit the matching between functional and anatomical data necessary to interpret fMRI results. The ‘FieldMap’ method is the most widely used technique to correct for geometrical distortions but in some cases cannot be applied or provides unsatisfactory results. The objective of the present study is thus to provide a very simple alternative method for distortion correction and to demonstrate its efficiency. Methods This correction relies on the non-linear registration of Echo-Planar-Imaging (EPI) acquisitions onto their corresponding undistorted non-EPI T2Star volume, and was tested on two independent groups of subjects undertaking the same paradigm but scanned with distinct EPI sequences. Results This procedure was found to considerably decrease the mismatch between functional and anatomical data in both groups, as revealed through several quantitative and qualitative measures on both EPI volumes and activation maps. Conclusion The present study describes a simple, rapid, and easily implementable method to significantly improve neuroanatomical accuracy of fMRI results localization, which may be relevant for future neuroimaging studies. PMID:20331499

Villain, Nicolas; Landeau, Brigitte; Groussard, Mathilde; Mevel, Katell; Fouquet, Marine; Dayan, Jacques; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice; Chételat, Gaël

2010-01-01

359

Acute hyperglycemia impairs functional improvement after spinal cord injury in mice and humans.  

PubMed

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating disorder for which the identification of exacerbating factors is urgently needed. We demonstrate that transient hyperglycemia during acute SCI is a detrimental factor that impairs functional improvement in mice and human patients after acute SCI. Under hyperglycemic conditions, both in vivo and in vitro, inflammation was enhanced through promotion of the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) transcription factor in microglial cells. During acute SCI, hyperglycemic mice exhibited progressive neural damage, with more severe motor deficits than those observed in normoglycemic mice. Consistent with the animal study findings, a Pearson ?(2) analysis of data for 528 patients with SCI indicated that hyperglycemia on admission (glucose concentration ?126 mg/dl) was a significant risk predictor of poor functional outcome. Moreover, a multiple linear regression analysis showed hyperglycemia at admission to be a powerful independent risk factor for a poor motor outcome, even after excluding patients with diabetes mellitus with chronic hyperglycemia (regression coefficient, -1.37; 95% confidence interval, -2.65 to -0.10; P < 0.05). Manipulating blood glucose during acute SCI in hyperglycemic mice rescued the exacerbation of pathophysiology and improved motor functional outcomes. Our findings suggest that hyperglycemia during acute SCI may be a useful prognostic factor with a negative impact on motor function, highlighting the importance of achieving tight glycemic control after central nervous system injury. PMID:25273098

Kobayakawa, Kazu; Kumamaru, Hiromi; Saiwai, Hirokazu; Kubota, Kensuke; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Kishimoto, Junji; Yokota, Kazuya; Ideta, Ryosuke; Shiba, Keiichiro; Tozaki-Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Kazuhide; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Okada, Seiji

2014-10-01

360

Cortical Depth Dependent Functional Responses in Humans at 7T: Improved Specificity with 3D GRASE  

PubMed Central

Ultra high fields (7T and above) allow functional imaging with high contrast-to-noise ratios and improved spatial resolution. This, along with improved hardware and imaging techniques, allow investigating columnar and laminar functional responses. Using gradient-echo (GE) (T2* weighted) based sequences, layer specific responses have been recorded from human (and animal) primary visual areas. However, their increased sensitivity to large surface veins potentially clouds detecting and interpreting layer specific responses. Conversely, spin-echo (SE) (T2 weighted) sequences are less sensitive to large veins and have been used to map cortical columns in humans. T2 weighted 3D GRASE with inner volume selection provides high isotropic resolution over extended volumes, overcoming some of the many technical limitations of conventional 2D SE-EPI, whereby making layer specific investigations feasible. Further, the demonstration of columnar level specificity with 3D GRASE, despite contributions from both stimulated echoes and conventional T2 contrast, has made it an attractive alternative over 2D SE-EPI. Here, we assess the spatial specificity of cortical depth dependent 3D GRASE functional responses in human V1 and hMT by comparing it to GE responses. In doing so we demonstrate that 3D GRASE is less sensitive to contributions from large veins in superficial layers, while showing increased specificity (functional tuning) throughout the cortex compared to GE. PMID:23533682

Muckli, Lars; Ugurbil, Kamil; Yacoub, Essa; Goebel, Rainer

2013-01-01

361

Accounting for epistatic interactions improves the functional analysis of protein structures  

PubMed Central

Motivation: The constraints under which sequence, structure and function coevolve are not fully understood. Bringing this mutual relationship to light can reveal the molecular basis of binding, catalysis and allostery, thereby identifying function and rationally guiding protein redesign. Underlying these relationships are the epistatic interactions that occur when the consequences of a mutation to a protein are determined by the genetic background in which it occurs. Based on prior data, we hypothesize that epistatic forces operate most strongly between residues nearby in the structure, resulting in smooth evolutionary importance across the structure. Methods and Results: We find that when residue scores of evolutionary importance are distributed smoothly between nearby residues, functional site prediction accuracy improves. Accordingly, we designed a novel measure of evolutionary importance that focuses on the interaction between pairs of structurally neighboring residues. This measure that we term pair-interaction Evolutionary Trace yields greater functional site overlap and better structure-based proteome-wide functional predictions. Conclusions: Our data show that the structural smoothness of evolutionary importance is a fundamental feature of the coevolution of sequence, structure and function. Mutations operate on individual residues, but selective pressure depends in part on the extent to which a mutation perturbs interactions with neighboring residues. In practice, this principle led us to redefine the importance of a residue in terms of the importance of its epistatic interactions with neighbors, yielding better annotation of functional residues, motivating experimental validation of a novel functional site in LexA and refining protein function prediction. Contact: lichtarge@bcm.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24021383

Wilkins, Angela D.; Venner, Eric; Marciano, David C.; Erdin, Serkan; Atri, Benu; Lua, Rhonald C.; Lichtarge, Olivier

2013-01-01

362

The concept of phenomenological light-front wave functions -- Regge improved diquark model predictions  

E-print Network

We introduce a classification scheme for parton distribution models and we model generalized parton distributions (GPDs), their form factors, and parton distribution functions (PDFs), integrated and unintegrated ones, in terms of unintegrated double distributions that are obtained from the parton number conserved overlap of effective light-front wave functions. For a so-called "spherical" model we present general expressions for all twist-two related non-perturbative quantities in terms of one effective light-front wave function, including chiral-odd GPDs. We also discuss the Regge improvement of such quark models from the $s$-channel point of view and study the relations between zero-skewness GPDs and unintegrated PDFs on a more general ground. Finally, we provide a few phenomenological applications that emphasize the role of orbital angular momenta.

Dieter Müller; Dae Sung Hwang

2014-07-07

363

Pre-print of Chapter to appear in L.V. Shavinina (Ed). The International Handbook of Giftedness. Springer Science  

E-print Network

- 1 - Pre-print of Chapter to appear in L.V. Shavinina (Ed). The International Handbook it. Ideally education should nurture talent in the classroom and create well-rounded individuals akin) is both an early form of chemical technology exploring the nature of substances but it is also a

Bardsley, John

364

AlumniPROFilES S Y LV I E R O U S S E A U  

E-print Network

relations. He feels that the area of human rights is a particularly important and vital area to considerAlumniPROFilES S Y LV I E R O U S S E A U BA Human Biology '13 (Area of Concentration: Global O n J A C k S O n BA International Relations & Psychology `09; MA Public Policy '08 (University

Prinz, Friedrich B.

365

Increased matrix metalloproteinase activity and selective upregulation in LV myocardium from patients with end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—One of the hallmarks of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is left ventricular (LV) remodeling. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of enzymes that contribute to extracellular remodeling in several disease states. Additionally, a family of inhibitors called tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) has been shown to exist and to tightly regulate MMP activity. However, the types of MMPs and TIMPs

Chadwick V. Thomas; Mytsi L. Coker; James L. Zellner; John R. Handy; Jackson Crumbley III; Francis G. Spinale

1998-01-01

366

Integrated strategy for improving functional connectivity mapping using multiecho fMRI.  

PubMed

Functional connectivity analysis of resting state blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI is widely used for noninvasively studying brain functional networks. Recent findings have indicated, however, that even small (?1 mm) amounts of head movement during scanning can disproportionately bias connectivity estimates, despite various preprocessing efforts. Further complications for interregional connectivity estimation from time domain signals include the unaccounted reduction in BOLD degrees of freedom related to sensitivity losses from high subject motion. To address these issues, we describe an integrated strategy for data acquisition, denoising, and connectivity estimation. This strategy builds on our previously published technique combining data acquisition with multiecho (ME) echo planar imaging and analysis with spatial independent component analysis (ICA), called ME-ICA, which distinguishes BOLD (neuronal) and non-BOLD (artifactual) components based on linear echo-time dependence of signals-a characteristic property of BOLD T*2 signal changes. Here we show for 32 control subjects that this method provides a physically principled and nearly operator-independent way of removing complex artifacts such as motion from resting state data. We then describe a robust estimator of functional connectivity based on interregional correlation of BOLD-independent component coefficients. This estimator, called independent components regression, considerably simplifies statistical inference for functional connectivity because degrees of freedom equals the number of independent coefficients. Compared with traditional connectivity estimation methods, the proposed strategy results in fourfold improvements in signal-to-noise ratio, functional connectivity analysis with improved specificity, and valid statistical inference with nominal control of type 1 error in contrasts of connectivity between groups with different levels of subject motion. PMID:24038744

Kundu, Prantik; Brenowitz, Noah D; Voon, Valerie; Worbe, Yulia; Vértes, Petra E; Inati, Souheil J; Saad, Ziad S; Bandettini, Peter A; Bullmore, Edward T

2013-10-01

367

Predictors of Improvement in Endothelial Function After Exercise Training in a Diverse Sample of Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background: Endothelial dysfunction measured via flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is associated with greater risk of future hypertension and cardiovascular events in postmenopausal women. Aerobic exercise training has been shown to improve endothelial function in Caucasian populations, but has not been evaluated specifically in African Americans. This has clinical importance due to the increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease in African Americans. Methods: In the present pilot study, 8 African American (age: 55.8±1.7 years, peak oxygen uptake [VO2 peak]: 21.0±3.9?mL/kg/minute, body mass index [BMI]: 30.1± 6.3?kg/m2) and 16 Caucasian (age: 57.2±5.9 years, VO2 peak: 21.8±3.7?mL/kg/minute, BMI: 29.3±5.2?kg/m2) sedentary postmenopausal women underwent brachial artery FMD measurements before and after 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training. FMD was quantified by comparing B-mode ultrasound images of the brachial artery at rest and following reactive hyperemia after 5 minutes of forearm occlusion. Participants performed aerobic exercise training 4 days per week for 12 weeks. Results: Despite improvements in fitness in both groups, aerobic exercise training did not significantly improve FMD in African American (5.8% to 5.7%, p=0.950) or Caucasian postmenopausal women (5.7% to 6.6%, p=0.267). In women with the greatest impairment in endothelial function at baseline (FMD<4.5%), a significant improvement in FMD was observed, independent of race, following exercise training (2.2% to 6.2%, p=0.007). Conclusion: The benefits of aerobic exercise training on endothelial function in postmenopausal women are most pronounced in women with endothelial dysfunction prior to training and do not appear to be affected by race. PMID:24299160

Weltman, Judith Y.; Patrie, James T.; Saliba, Susan A.; Gaesser, Glenn A.; Barrett, Eugene J.; Weltman, Arthur

2014-01-01

368

BDNF-treated retinal progenitor sheets transplanted to degenerate rats: improved restoration of visual function.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional efficacy of retinal progenitor cell (RPC) containing sheets with BDNF microspheres following subretinal transplantation in a rat model of retinal degeneration. Sheets of E19 RPCs derived from human placental alkaline phosphatase (hPAP) expressing transgenic rats were coated with poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) microspheres containing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and transplanted into the subretinal space of S334ter line 3 rhodopsin retinal degenerate rats. Controls received transplants without BDNF or BDNF microspheres alone. Visual function was monitored using optokinetic head-tracking behavior. Visually evoked responses to varying light intensities were recorded from the superior colliculus (SC) by electrophysiology at 60days after surgery. Frozen sections were studied by immunohistochemistry for photoreceptor and synaptic markers. Visual head tracking was significantly improved in rats that received BDNF-coated RPC sheets. Relatively more BDNF-treated transplanted rats (80%) compared to non-BDNF transplants (57%) responded to a "low light" intensity of 1cd/m2 in a confined SC area. With bright light, the onset latency of SC responses was restored to a nearly normal level in BDNF-treated transplants. No significant improvement was observed in the BDNF-only and no surgery transgenic control rats. The bipolar synaptic markers mGluR6 and PSD-95 showed normal distribution in transplants and abnormal distribution of the host retina, both with or without BDNF treatment. Red-green cones were significantly reduced in the host retina overlying the transplant in the BDNF-treated group. In summary, BDNF coating improved the functional efficacy of RPC grafts. The mechanism of the BDNF effects--either promoting functional integration between the transplant and the host retina and/or synergistic action with other putative humoral factors released by the RPCs--still needs to be elucidated. PMID:17983616

Seiler, Magdalene J; Thomas, Biju B; Chen, Zhenhai; Arai, Shinichi; Chadalavada, Sridhar; Mahoney, Melissa J; Sadda, Srinivas R; Aramant, Robert B

2008-01-01

369

Liguzinediol improved the heart function and inhibited myocardial cell apoptosis in rats with heart failure  

PubMed Central

Aim: Liguzinediol is a novel derivative of ligustrazine isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Chuanxiong (Ligusticum wallichii Franch), and produces significant positive inotropic effect in isolated rat hearts. In this study we investigated the effects of liguzinediol on a rat model of heart failure. Methods: To induce heart failure, male SD rats were injected with doxorubicin (DOX, 2 mg/kg, ip) once a week for 4 weeks. Then the rats were administered with liguzinediol (5, 10, 20 mg·kg?1·d?1, po) for 2 weeks. Hemodynamic examination was conducted to evaluate heart function. Myocardial cell apoptosis was examined morphologically. The expression of related genes and proteins were analyzed using immunohistochemical staining and Western blot assays, respectively. Results: Oral administration of liguzinediol dose-dependently improved the heart function in DOX-treated rats. Electron microscopy revealed that liguzinediol (10 mg·kg?1·d?1) markedly attenuated DOX-induced injury of cardiomyocytes, and decreased the number of apoptotic bodies in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, liguzinediol significantly decreased Bax protein level, and increased Bcl-2 protein level in cardiomyocytes of DOX-treated rats, led to an increase in the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. Moreover, liguzinediol significantly decreased the expression of both cleaved caspase-3 and NF-?B in cardiomyocytes of DOX-treated rats. Administration of digitalis (0.0225 mg·kg?1·d?1) also markedly improved the heart function and the morphology of cardiomyocytes in DOX-treated rats. Conclusion: Liguzinediol improves the heart function and inhibits myocardial cell apoptosis in the rat model of heart failure, which is associated with regulating Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3 and NF-?B expression. PMID:25220638

Li, Yu; Song, Ping; Zhu, Qing; Yin, Qiu-yi; Ji, Jia-wen; Li, Wei; Bian, Hui-min

2014-01-01

370

Increased Cardiac Myocyte PDE5 Levels in Human and Murine Pressure Overload Hypertrophy Contribute to Adverse LV Remodeling  

PubMed Central

Background The intracellular second messenger cGMP protects the heart under pathological conditions. We examined expression of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5), an enzyme that hydrolyzes cGMP, in human and mouse hearts subjected to sustained left ventricular (LV) pressure overload. We also determined the role of cardiac myocyte-specific PDE5 expression in adverse LV remodeling in mice after transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Methodology/Principal Findings In patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) undergoing valve replacement, we detected greater myocardial PDE5 expression than in control hearts. We observed robust expression in scattered cardiac myocytes of those AS patients with higher LV filling pressures and BNP serum levels. Following TAC, we detected similar, focal PDE5 expression in cardiac myocytes of C57BL/6NTac mice exhibiting the most pronounced LV remodeling. To examine the effect of cell-specific PDE5 expression, we subjected transgenic mice with cardiac myocyte-specific PDE5 overexpression (PDE5-TG) to TAC. LV hypertrophy and fibrosis were similar as in WT, but PDE5-TG had increased cardiac dimensions, and decreased dP/dtmax and dP/dtmin with prolonged tau (P<0.05 for all). Greater cardiac dysfunction in PDE5-TG was associated with reduced myocardial cGMP and SERCA2 levels, and higher passive force in cardiac myocytes in vitro. Conclusions/Significance Myocardial PDE5 expression is increased in the hearts of humans and mice with chronic pressure overload. Increased cardiac myocyte-specific PDE5 expression is a molecular hallmark in hypertrophic hearts with contractile failure, and represents an important therapeutic target. PMID:23527037

Vandenwijngaert, Sara; Pokreisz, Peter; Hermans, Hadewich; Gillijns, Hilde; Pellens, Marijke; Bax, Noortje A. M.; Coppiello, Giulia; Oosterlinck, Wouter; Balogh, Agnes; Papp, Zoltan; Bouten, Carlijn V. C.; Bartunek, Jozef; D'hooge, Jan; Luttun, Aernout; Verbeken, Erik; Herregods, Marie Christine; Herijgers, Paul; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Janssens, Stefan

2013-01-01

371

[A case of irinotecan-resistant colon cancer responding to chronotherapy with oxaliplatin, 5-FU, l-LV].  

PubMed

We report a case of irinotecan-resistant colon cancer responding to chronotherapy with oxaliplatin (L-OHP), 5-FU, l-LV (l-Leucovorin). A 72-year-old man was examined at a certain hospital because of constipation and appetite loss. Chest computed tomography (CT) revealed lung metastases, and abdominal CT revealed liver metastases. He was then referred to our hospital. A colonoscopy revealed type 2 tumor in the colon, at the hepatic flexure. We diagnosed adenocarcinoma of the colon with metastases to the liver and lung. Resection of the primary lesion was performed, and chemotherapy consisting of systemic administration of CPT-11, 5-FU and l-LV was performed. After 2 courses of combined treatment with CPT-11/5-FU/l-LV, CT revealed considerable reduction of the metastatic tumors. However, after 3 courses of combined treatment, progressive disease was observed and new brain and bone metastases were detected. We imported and used a non-approved/pending drug, oxaliplatin from the Remedy and Health Corporation, with informed consent from the patient and his family and our clinical ethics committee. Chronotherapeutic schedules have been performed, from which the safety and activity of oxaliplatin against advanced colorectal cancer was reported. Our patient received a 5-day course of chronomodulated 5-FU and l-LV (750 and 300 mg/body/day, respectively; peak delivery rate at AM 4:00 hours) with L-OHP on the first day of each course (100 mg/body, as a 6-hour infusion). Each course was again repeated every 21 days. A partial response was observed in the liver and lung metastases. These results indicate that chronomodulated 5-FU and LV with L-OHP therapy could be an effective regimen for cases of irinotecan-resistant colon cancer. PMID:12722689

Sagawa, Tamotsu; Tsuji, Yasushi; Takayanagi, Norihiro; Hirayama, Yasuo; Sakamaki, Sumio; Chiba, Hiroki; Iyama, Satoshi; Oku, Takatomi; Sato, Yasushi; Takahashi, Minoru; Takayama, Tetsuji; Niitsu, Yoshiro

2003-04-01

372

Increased LV apical untwist during preload reduction in healthy humans: an echocardiographic speckle tracking study during lower body negative pressure  

PubMed Central

We sought to investigate the effect of reduced preload on left ventricle (LV) untwist and early diastolic filling in healthy individuals. Twelve healthy men, 22 (22, 23) years of age, were examined at rest and during applied lower body negative pressure (LBNP) of ?20 mmHg and ?40 mmHg, respectively. Regional untwist and untwist rate during IVRT were calculated at LV basal, papillary, subpapillary, and apical short axis levels by two dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. Left ventricle early diastolic filling was assessed by transmitral E-wave (E) peak velocity by pulsed Doppler and flow propagation velocity (Vp) by color M-mode Doppler and early diastolic pulsed Doppler tissue velocities (E') from septal and lateral mitral annulus. From rest to LBNP ?40 mmHg, the LV untwist and untwist rate at subpapillary level increased from 2.3 (1.4, 3.5) to 4.5 (3.1, 7.6) degrees and from ?36 (?51, ?25) to ?69 (?127, ?42) °/s (P < 0.001, P = 0.003), respectively, while apical untwist and untwist rate increased from 3.9 (2.3, 4.3) to 7.6 (6.4, 10.5) degrees and from ?51 (?69, ?40) to ?118 (?170, ?84) °/s (P < 0.001, P < 0.001), respectively. Since untwist and untwist rate at the basal level were unchanged, this created markedly larger base to apical untwist and untwist rate gradients from rest to LBNP ?40 mmHg. E, Vp, and E' were reduced by 34, 32, and 39%, respectively. LV untwist and untwist rate during IVRT were increased at apical levels, which might be a physiological mechanism to minimize the impairment in LV early diastolic filling during preload reduction. PMID:25802362

Hodt, Anders; Hisdal, Jonny; Stugaard, Marie; Stranden, Einar; Atar, Dan; Steine, Kjetil

2015-01-01

373

Targeting oxidized LDL improves insulin sensitivity and immune cell function in obese Rhesus macaques?  

PubMed Central

Oxidation of LDL (oxLDL) is a crucial step in the development of cardiovascular disease. Treatment with antibodies directed against oxLDL can reduce atherosclerosis in rodent models through unknown mechanisms. We demonstrate that through a novel mechanism of immune complex formation and Fc-? receptor (Fc?R) engagement, antibodies targeting oxLDL (MLDL1278a) are anti-inflammatory on innate immune cells via modulation of Syk, p38 MAPK phosphorylation and NF?B activity. Subsequent administration of MLDL1278a in diet-induced obese (DIO) nonhuman primates (NHP) resulted in a significant decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines and improved overall immune cell function. Importantly, MLDL1278a treatment improved insulin sensitivity independent of body weight change. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which an anti-oxLDL antibody improves immune function and insulin sensitivity independent of internalization of oxLDL. This identifies MLDL1278a as a potential therapy for reducing vascular inflammation in diabetic conditions. PMID:24049738

Li, Shijie; Kievit, Paul; Robertson, Anna-Karin; Kolumam, Ganesh; Li, Xiumin; von Wachenfeldt, Karin; Valfridsson, Christine; Bullens, Sherry; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Bader, Lindsay; Cowan, Kyra J.; Kamath, Amrita; van Bruggen, Nicholas; Bunting, Stuart; Frendéus, Björn; Grove, Kevin L.

2013-01-01

374

Targeting oxidized LDL improves insulin sensitivity and immune cell function in obese Rhesus macaques.  

PubMed

Oxidation of LDL (oxLDL) is a crucial step in the development of cardiovascular disease. Treatment with antibodies directed against oxLDL can reduce atherosclerosis in rodent models through unknown mechanisms. We demonstrate that through a novel mechanism of immune complex formation and Fc-? receptor (Fc?R) engagement, antibodies targeting oxLDL (MLDL1278a) are anti-inflammatory on innate immune cells via modulation of Syk, p38 MAPK phosphorylation and NF?B activity. Subsequent administration of MLDL1278a in diet-induced obese (DIO) nonhuman primates (NHP) resulted in a significant decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines and improved overall immune cell function. Importantly, MLDL1278a treatment improved insulin sensitivity independent of body weight change. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which an anti-oxLDL antibody improves immune function and insulin sensitivity independent of internalization of oxLDL. This identifies MLDL1278a as a potential therapy for reducing vascular inflammation in diabetic conditions. PMID:24049738

Li, Shijie; Kievit, Paul; Robertson, Anna-Karin; Kolumam, Ganesh; Li, Xiumin; von Wachenfeldt, Karin; Valfridsson, Christine; Bullens, Sherry; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Bader, Lindsay; Cowan, Kyra J; Kamath, Amrita; van Bruggen, Nicholas; Bunting, Stuart; Frendéus, Björn; Grove, Kevin L

2013-01-01

375

Improvement in Empirical Potential Functions for Increasing the Utility of Molecular Dynamics Simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate modeling of potential functions is critical for realistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. In this study, improvement in potential functions is discussed by revisiting the multistate empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) method and the FUJI force field. The MS-EVB method enables simulation of dynamic chemical reactions in various situations. In this study, excess protons in water under shear were investigated by combining the MS-EVB method with the non-equilibrium MD technique. It was found that the orientation of the hydronium-like moiety is considerably more anisotropic under shear than that of the water molecule. Separately, the FUJI force field includes main-chain torsional parameters carefully derived on the basis of high-level ab initio calculations. To further demonstrate that the use of the FUJI force field improves the accuracy of MD results beyond previously reported examples, the conformational distribution of the Ala dipeptide was investigated. The results obtained using the FUJI force field agreed more closely with the experimental results than those obtained using other standard force fields. Interestingly, the MD trajectories with the FUJI force field undergo the Y conformation more frequently than those with other popular force fields. Furthermore, it was found that the choice of force field affects the structures of an antigen-antibody complex obtained using MD simulations. These improvements in the force fields essentially extend the range of applications for the MD simulation method.

Yamashita, Takefumi

376