These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

3D Strain helps relating LV function to LV and structure in athletes  

PubMed Central

Introduction The evaluation of cardiac contraction could benefit from a connection with the underlying helical structure of cardiac fibers in athletes either completely healthy or with minor common cardiopathies like Bicuspid Aortic Valve (BAV). This study aims to exploit the potential role of 3D strain to improve the physiological understanding of LV function and modification due to physical activity as a comparative model. Methods Three age-matched groups of young (age 20.3?±?5.4) individuals are prospectively enrolled: 15 normal healthy subjects, 15 healthy athletes, and 20 athletes with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). All subjects underwent echocardiographic examination and both 2D and 3D strain analysis. Results All echo parameters were within the normal range in the three groups. Global values of end-systolic longitudinal and circumferential strain, assesses by either 2D or 3D analysis, were not significantly different. The 3D strain analysis was extended in terms of principal and secondary strain (PS, SS). Global PS was very similar, global SS was significantly higher in athletes and displays a modified time course. The comparative analysis of strain-lines pattern suggests that the enhancement of LV function is achieved by a more synchronous recruitment of both left- and right-handed helical fibers. Conclusions 3D strain analysis allows a deeper physiological understanding of LV contraction in different types of athletes. Secondary strain, only available in 3D, identifies increase of performances due to physical activity; this appears to follow from the synergic activation of endocardial and epicardial fibers. PMID:25113389

2014-01-01

2

A Targeted Mutation within the Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) Envelope Protein Immunosuppressive Domain To Improve a Canarypox Virus-Vectored FeLV Vaccine  

PubMed Central

We previously delineated a highly conserved immunosuppressive (IS) domain within murine and primate retroviral envelope proteins that is critical for virus propagation in vivo. The envelope-mediated immunosuppression was assessed by the ability of the proteins, when expressed by allogeneic tumor cells normally rejected by engrafted mice, to allow these cells to escape, at least transiently, immune rejection. Using this approach, we identified key residues whose mutation (i) specifically abolishes immunosuppressive activity without affecting the “mechanical” function of the envelope protein and (ii) significantly enhances humoral and cellular immune responses elicited against the virus. The objective of this work was to study the immunosuppressive activity of the envelope protein (p15E) of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and evaluate the effect of its abolition on the efficacy of a vaccine against FeLV. Here we demonstrate that the FeLV envelope protein is immunosuppressive in vivo and that this immunosuppressive activity can be “switched off” by targeted mutation of a specific amino acid. As a result of the introduction of the mutated envelope sequence into a previously well characterized canarypox virus-vectored vaccine (ALVAC-FeLV), the frequency of vaccine-induced FeLV-specific gamma interferon (IFN-?)-producing cells was increased, whereas conversely, the frequency of vaccine-induced FeLV-specific interleukin-10 (IL-10)-producing cells was reduced. This shift in the IFN-?/IL-10 response was associated with a higher efficacy of ALVAC-FeLV against FeLV infection. This study demonstrates that FeLV p15E is immunosuppressive in vivo, that the immunosuppressive domain of p15E can modulate the FeLV-specific immune response, and that the efficacy of FeLV vaccines can be enhanced by inhibiting the immunosuppressive activity of the IS domain through an appropriate mutation. PMID:24198407

Schlecht-Louf, Geraldine; Mangeney, Marianne; El-Garch, Hanane; Lacombe, Valerie; Poulet, Herve

2014-01-01

3

Limitations of quantitative phase analysis for detection of coronary artery disease in patients with impaired LV-function  

SciTech Connect

Phase analysis of radionuclide ventriculograms is used for identifying ischemic wall motion abnormalities. Myocardial segments with an abnormal phase and the synchronicity of LV wall motion can be assessed from a histogram of LV phase distribution. We examined in this study the sensitivity of SDP-LV for identifying coronary artery disease and its specificity in patients with normal and various degrees of left ventricular impairment. A total of 84 patients were studied. In severe left ventricular impairment, phase analysis did not aid in distinguishing coronary artery disease from other causes of ventricular dysfunction. By contrast, phase analysis was highly sensitive and specific for coronary artery disease in patients with normal or moderately depressed left ventricular function.

Schwaiger, M.; Ratib, O.; Hanze, E.; Schelbert, H.R.

1983-01-01

4

Hyperinsulinemia improves ischemic LV function in insulin resistant subjects  

E-print Network

. There were no differ- ences between the two groups except for weight. Dobutamine stress The dose of dobutamine and atropine administered in each group were similar. This equivalent level of pharma- cological stress resulted in heart rates (HRs), systolic... : Alterations of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in the acutely ischemic heart. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 1981, 23:321-336. 6. Diaz R, Paolasso EA, Piegas LS, Tajer CD, Moreno MG, Corvalan R, Isea JE, Romero G: Metabolic modulation of acute myocardial infarction...

Heck, Patrick M; Hoole, Stephen P; Khan, Sadia N; Dutka, David P

2010-06-24

5

Anisotropic Reinforcement of Acute Anteroapical Infarcts Improves Pump Function  

PubMed Central

Background We hypothesize that a therapy that improves LV pump function early after infarction should decrease the need for compensation through sympathetic activation and dilation, thereby reducing the risk of developing heart failure. The mechanical properties of healing myocardial infarcts are an important determinant of left ventricular (LV) function, yet improving function by altering infarct properties has proven unexpectedly difficult. Using a computational model, we recently predicted that stiffening a large anterior infarct anisotropically (in only one direction) would improve LV function, while isotropic stiffening, the focus of previous studies and therapies, would not. The goal of this study was to test the novel strategy of anisotropic infarct reinforcement. Methods and Results We tested the effects of anisotropic infarct reinforcement in 10 open-chest dogs with large anteroapical infarcts that depressed LV pump function. We measured regional mechanics, LV volumes, and cardiac output at a range of preloads at Baseline, 45 minutes after coronary ligation (Ischemia), and 30 minutes later, following surgical reinforcement in the longitudinal direction (Anisotropic). Ischemia shifted the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship (ESPVR) and cardiac output curves rightward, decreasing cardiac output at matched end-diastolic pressure (EDP) by 44%. Anisotropic reinforcement significantly improved systolic function without impairing diastolic function, recovering half the deficit in overall LV function. Conclusions We conclude that anisotropic reinforcement is a promising new approach to improving LV function following a large myocardial infarction. PMID:22665716

Fomovsky, Gregory M.; Clark, Samantha A.; Parker, Katherine M.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Holmes, Jeffrey W.

2012-01-01

6

A EUKARYOTIC GENE IS FUNCTIONALLY EXPRESSED ri\\i E.COLI Kevin Struhl and Rona1d lV. Davis  

E-print Network

A EUKARYOTIC GENE IS FUNCTIONALLY EXPRESSED ri\\i E.COLI Kevin Struhl and Rona1d lV. Davis expression of this eukaryotic DNA in E. coli ap- proaches the arnount resulting frorn the analogous E.- goli gene. This cloning of such a eukaryotic gene in E. coli represents a good rnodel systern ior synthesis

7

Rest and redistribution thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy to predict improvement in left ventricular function after coronary arterial bypass grafting  

SciTech Connect

To examine the value of rest and redistribution thallium-201 imaging in predicting improvement in left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 26 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and abnormal LV function were studied. Nineteen patients had pathologic Q waves preoperatively. Rest and redistribution thallium-201 images and radionuclide ventriculograms were obtained before and after CABG, and the thallium scintigrams were evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively. The patients were divided according to the preoperative thallium scintigrams into 2 groups: Group I (16 patients) had either normal resting thallium-201 images or reversible resting perfusion defects, and Group II (10 patients) had fixed resting perfusion defects. The resting EF was less than 50% preoperatively in all patients. Fourteen patients (54%) showed improvement in EF postoperatively. Three patients (2 in Group I and 1 in Group II) showed new postoperative perfusion defects, and none of the 3 showed improvement in LV function. Of the remaining 14 patients in Group I, 12 (86%) showed improvement in LV function, compared with 2 of 9 patients in Group II (p less than 0.01). Improvement in LV function was observed in 8 of the 19 patients (42%) with abnormal Q waves. Nitroglycerin intervention radionuclide ventriculograms were obtained in 20 patients before CABG. Of the 6 patients who showed improvement in LV function with nitroglycerin, 4 also showed improvement postoperatively. Postoperative improvement in LV function was also observed in 6 of the 14 patients who did not improve with nitroglycerin.

Iskandrian, A.S.; Hakki, A.H.; Kane, S.A.; Goel, I.P.; Mundth, E.D.; Hakki, A.H.; Segal, B.L.

1983-05-01

8

Calpain 1 Knockdown Improves Tissue Sparing and Functional Outcomes after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats  

PubMed Central

Abstract To evaluate the hypothesis that calpain 1 knockdown would reduce pathological damage and functional deficits after spinal cord injury (SCI), we developed lentiviral vectors encoding calpain 1 shRNA and eGFP as a reporter (LV-CAPN1 shRNA). The ability of LV-CAPN1 shRNA to knockdown calpain 1 was confirmed in rat NRK cells using Northern and Western blot analysis. To investigate the effects on spinal cord injury, LV-CAPN1shRNA or LV-mismatch control shRNA (LV-control shRNA) were administered by convection enhanced diffusion at spinal cord level T10 in Long-Evans female rats (200–250?g) 1 week before contusion SCI, 180 kdyn force, or sham surgery at the same thoracic level. Intraspinal administration of the lentiviral particles resulted in transgene expression, visualized by eGFP, in spinal tissue at 2 weeks after infection. Calpain 1 protein levels were reduced by 54% at T10 2 weeks after shRNA-mediated knockdown (p<0.05, compared with the LV-control group, n=3 per group) while calpain 2 levels were unchanged. Intraspinal administration of LV-CAPN1shRNA 1 week before contusion SCI resulted in a significant improvement in locomotor function over 6 weeks postinjury, compared with LV-control administration (p<0.05, n=10 per group). Histological analysis of spinal cord sections indicated that pre-injury intraspinal administration of LV-CAPN1shRNA significantly reduced spinal lesion volume and improved total tissue sparing, white matter sparing, and gray matter sparing (p<0.05, n=10 per group). Together, results support the hypothesis that calpain 1 activation contributes to the tissue damage and impaired locomotor function after SCI, and that calpain1 represents a potential therapeutic target. PMID:23102374

Li, Yanzhang; Raza, Kashif; Yu, Xin Xin; Ghoshal, Sarbani; Geddes, James W.

2013-01-01

9

Three-dimensional CFD/MRI modeling reveals that ventricular surgical restoration improves ventricular function by modifying intraventricular blood flow.  

PubMed

Surgical ventricular restoration (SVR) is designed to normalize distorted ventricular shape and size in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and akinetic and dyskinetic segments. This study is aimed to quantify the characteristics of LV as a pump for a case before and after SVR, which is followed by coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We hypothesize that SVR+CABG improves heart flow. A patient with heart failure had magnetic resonance (MR) scans before and 4 months after SVR. LV endocardial geometries were semi-automated segmented and reconstructed using our customized algorithm. The arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation of Navier-Stokes equations was solved to derive the flow patterns and calculate pressure differences in LV. After SVR, LV ejection fraction increased from 34% to 48% in patient but was still lower than normal (70%). Second, LV vortices were stronger than pre-surgery but still weaker than normal. The maximum pressure differences between ventricular base and apex increased from 180 to 400?Pa during diastole, from 252 to 560?Pa during systole, respectively. As anticipated, SVR reduced LV volumes and augmented LV ejection fraction. Three-dimensional CFD/MRI modeling suggests that improved diastolic and systolic ventricular function after SVR is associated with changes in intraventricular blood flow. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24753501

Khalafvand, S S; Zhong, L; Ng, E Y K

2014-10-01

10

LV software for supersonic flow analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) maintains a leadership position in research into advanced aerospace propulsion systems. For the next generation of aircraft, engine designs continue to involve complex, high-speed flows. Performing the detailed flow diagnostics to properly evaluate these designs requires advanced instrumentation to probe these highly turbulent flows. The hostile flow environment often requires nonintrusive measurement techniques such as the laser velocimeter (LV). Since the LV is a proven instrument for nonintrusive flow measurement, it can provide quantitative velocity data with minimal interference to the flow. Based on anticipated flow conditions, laser velocimeter systems were procured from TSI, Inc. The initial system utilized counter processor technology, but later procurements this past year include a more advanced, correlator-based processor, which significantly improves the overall LV performance. To meet the needs of advanced research into propulsion, this instrument must be integrated into an existing VAX/VMS computer system for data acquisition, processing, and presentation. The work done under this grant before this period concentrated on developing the software required to setup and acquire data from the TSI MI-990 multichannel interface, and the RMR 1989 rotating machinery resolver. With the basis established for controlling the operation of the LV system, software development this past year shifted in emphasis from instrumentation control and data acquisition to data analysis and presentation. The progress of the program is reported.

Bell, William A.

1992-01-01

11

Intravenous mesenchymal stem cell therapy early after reperfused acute myocardial infarction improves left ventricular function and alters electrophysiologic properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct intramyocardial injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) improves left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and may increase ventricular arrhythmia in hearts with myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that intravenous MSCs given early after acute MI would engraft in injured myocardium, improve LV function, and result in pro-arrhythmic electrical remodeling. We created an apical infarction in swine by balloon occlusion\\/reperfusion, administered

Matthew J. Price; Chung-Chuan Chou; Malka Frantzen; Takashi Miyamoto; Saibal Kar; Steve Lee; Prediman K. Shah; Bradley J. Martin; Michael Lill; James S. Forrester; Peng-Sheng Chen; Raj R. Makkar

2006-01-01

12

Relationship between early diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients, an index of elastic recoil, and improvements in systolic and diastolic function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Early diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients (IVPGs) have been proposed to relate to left ventricular (LV) elastic recoil and early ventricular "suction." Animal studies have demonstrated relationships between IVPGs and systolic and diastolic indices during acute ischemia. However, data on the effects of improvements in LV function in humans and the relationship to IVPGs are lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight patients undergoing CABG and/or infarct exclusion surgery had a triple-sensor high-fidelity catheter placed across the mitral valve intraoperatively for simultaneous recording of left atrial (LA), basal LV, and apical LV pressures. Hemodynamic data obtained before bypass were compared with those with similar LA pressures and heart rates obtained after bypass. From each LV waveform, the time constant of LV relaxation (tau), +dP/dt(max), and -dP/dt(max) were determined. Transesophageal echocardiography was used to determined end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes and ejection fractions (EF). At similar LA pressures and heart rates, IVPG increased after bypass (before bypass 1.64+/-0.79 mm Hg; after bypass 2.67+/-1.25 mm Hg; P<0.01). Significant improvements were observed in ESV, as well as in apical and basal +dP/dt(max), -dP/dt(max), and tau (each P<0.05). Overall, IVPGs correlated inversely with both ESV (IVPG=-0.027[ESV]+3.46, r=-0.64) and EDV (IVPG=-0.027[EDV]+4.30, r=-0.70). Improvements in IVPGs correlated with improvements in apical tau (Deltatau =5.93[DeltaIVPG]+4.76, r=0.91) and basal tau (Deltatau =2.41[DeltaIVPG]+5.13, r=-0.67). Relative changes in IVPGs correlated with changes in ESV (DeltaESV=-0.97[%DeltaIVPG]+23.34, r=-0.79), EDV (DeltaEDV=-1.16[%DeltaIVPG]+34.92, r=-0.84), and EF (DeltaEF=0.38[%DeltaIVPG]-8.39, r=0.85). CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in LV function also increase IVPGs. These changes in IVPGs, suggestive of increases in LV suction and elastic recoil, correlate directly with improvements in LV relaxation and ESV.

Firstenberg, M. S.; Smedira, N. G.; Greenberg, N. L.; Prior, D. L.; McCarthy, P. M.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.

2001-01-01

13

Enhanced external counterpulsation improves endothelial function and exercise capacity in patients with ischaemic left ventricular dysfunction.  

PubMed

Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) therapy decreases angina episodes and improves quality of life in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (LVD). However, studies have not elucidated the mechanisms of action and overall effects of EECP in patients with LVD. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of EECP on endothelial function in peripheral conduit arteries and exercise capacity (peak Vo2 ) in patients with LVD. Patients with ischaemic LVD (ejection fraction (EF) 34.5 ± 4.2%; n = 9) and patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease (CAD) and preserved LV function (EF 53.5 ± 6.6%; n = 15) were studied before and after 35 sessions (1 h) of EECP. Brachial and femoral artery flow-mediated dilation (bFMD and fFMD, respectively) were evaluated using high-resolution ultrasound. Enhanced external counterpulsation elicited similar significant improvements in the following FMD parameters in the CAD and LVD groups (P ? 0.05 between groups for all): absolute bFMD (+53% and +70%, respectively), relative bFMD (+50% and +74%, respectively), bFMD normalized for shear rate (+70% and +61%, respectively), absolute fFMD (+33% and +21%, respectively) and relative fFMD (+32% and +17%, respectively). In addition, EECP significantly improved plasma levels of nitrate/nitrite (+55% and +28%) and prostacyclin (+50% and +70%), as well as peak Vo2 (+36% and +21%), similarly in both the CAD and LVD groups (P ? 0.05 between groups for all). Despite reduced LV function, EECP therapy significantly improves peripheral vascular function and functional capacity in CAD patients with ischaemic LVD to a similar degree to that seen in CAD patients with preserved LV function. PMID:24862172

Beck, Darren T; Martin, Jeffrey S; Casey, Darren P; Avery, Joseph C; Sardina, Paloma D; Braith, Randy W

2014-09-01

14

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MYOCARDIAL VIABILITY AND IMPROVEMENT IN LEFT VENTRICULAR FUNCTION AND HEART FAILURE SYMPTOMS AFTER CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS SURGERY  

Microsoft Academic Search

A b s t r a c t: Background: The evaluation of myocardial viability is an impor- tant preoperative parameter, predictive of improvement in regional and global left ventri- cular (LV) function after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). However, whether the presence of viability is also associated with relief of heart failure symptoms after revasculari- zation is not always certain.

Pop Gorceva

15

Ketanserin improves cardiac performance after myocardial infarction in spontaneously hypertensive rats partially through restoration of baroreflex function  

PubMed Central

Aim: Baroreflex dysfunction is associated with a higher rate of sudden death after myocardial infarction (MI). Ketanserin enhances baroreflex function in rats. The present work was designed to examine whether ketanserin improves the post-MI cardiac function and to explore the possible mechanism involved. Methods: Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were treated with ketanserin (0.3 mg·kg?1·d?1). Two weeks later, blood pressure and baroreflex function were measured, followed by a ligation of the left coronary artery. The expressions of vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (?7-nAChR) in ischemic myocardium, angiogenesis, cardiac function, and left ventricular (LV) remodeling were evaluated subsequently. Results: Ketanserin significantly improved baroreflex sensitivity (0.62±0.21 vs 0.34±0.12 ms/mmHg, P<0.01) and vagal tonic activity (heart rate changes in response to atropine, 54.8±16.2 vs 37.6±13.4 bpm, P<0.01) without affecting the blood pressure or basic heart rate in SHR. Treatment of SHR with ketanserin prominently improved cardiac function and alleviated LV remodeling, as reflected by increases in the ejection fraction, fractional shortening, and LV systolic pressure as well as decreases in LV internal diameter and LV relative weight. The capillary density, vascular endothelial growth factor expression, and blood flow in the ischemic myocardium were significantly higher in the ketanserin-treated group. In addition, ketanserin markedly increased the expression of VAChT and ?7-nAChR in ischemic myocardium. Conclusion: Ketanserin improved post-MI cardiac function and angiogenesis in ischemic myocardium. The findings provide a mechanistic basis for restoring baroreflex function using ketanserin in the treatment of MI. PMID:24241347

Yu, Jian-guang; Zhang, En-hui; Liu, Ai-jun; Liu, Jian-guo; Cai, Guo-jun; Su, Ding-feng

2013-01-01

16

Effect of Resynchronization Therapy Stimulation Site on the Systolic Function of Heart Failure Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) improves systolic function in heart failure patients with ventricular conduction delay by stimulating the left ventricle (LV) or both ventricles (biventricular, BV). Optimal LV site selection is of major clinical interest for CRT device implantation; however, the dependence of hemodynamics on LV stimulation site has not been established. Thus, the objective of this study was to

Christian Butter; Angelo Auricchio; Christoph Stellbrink; Eckart Fleck; Jiang Ding; Yinghong Yu; Etienne Huvelle; Julio Spinelli

17

LV software support for supersonic flow analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During 1991, the software developed allowed an operator to configure and checkout the TSI, Inc. laser velocimeter (LV) system prior to a run. This setup procedure established the operating conditions for the TSI MI-990 multichannel interface and the RMR-1989 rotating machinery resolver. In addition to initializing the instruments, the software package provides a means of specifying LV calibration constants, controlling the sampling process, and identifying the test parameters.

Bell, William A.

1991-01-01

18

Late reopening of an occluded infarct related artery improves left ventricular function and long term clinical outcome  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess effects on left ventricular (LV) function and on long term clinical outcome of late percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) of a chronically occluded infarct related artery. Methods: 65 patients who underwent PTCA a mean (SD) of 6.0 (1.2) months after a previous myocardial infarction were divided in two groups according to dilated artery patency status after PTCA: group 1 (35 patients with TIMI (thrombolysis in myocardial infarction) grade 3 flow) and group 2 (30 patients with TIMI grade 0–2 flow). Echocardiography was performed at admission and at six months’ follow up. A three year follow up was conducted with major adverse cardiac events (MACE) as end points. Results: At follow up, group 1 had improved global LV ejection fraction (48.7% v 43.6%, p < 0.001) and LV indexed end diastolic and end systolic volumes (75 v 86 ml/m2 and 40 v 53 ml/m2, respectively, p ?=? 0.011) compared with group 2. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a higher incidence of cardiac death (p ?=? 0.02) and MACE (p < 0.0001) in group 2. TIMI 3 after PTCA was an independent predictor of event-free survival at follow up. Conclusion: Late PTCA of a chronically occluded infarct related artery improves LV function, reduces cardiac death, and improves long term clinical outcome. PMID:15831653

Piscione, F; Galasso, G; De Luca, G; Marrazzo, G; Sarno, G; Viola, O; Accardo, D; Chiariello, M

2005-01-01

19

Evaluation of left ventricular systolic function revisited in septic shock.  

PubMed

The meta-analysis of Huang and coworkers failed to find any evidence for a protective effect of a decreased left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF). These results have to be interpreted with caution since in most studies included in the meta-analysis patients with LV systolic dysfunction received inotropic drugs. We have some arguments suggesting that such a treatment may improve macrocirculation and microcirculation and finally prognosis. This paper allows us to clarify the meaning of LV function in septic shock patients. In all experimental models of septic shock using the load-independent parameter of LV systolic function, LV contractility impairment, called septic cardiomyopathy, has been reported to be constant. However, LVEF reflects the coupling between LV contractility and LV afterload. A normal LVEF may be observed when the arterial tone is severely depressed, as in septic shock, despite seriously impaired intrinsic LV contractility. LV systolic function, evaluated using an echocardiograph or another device, is then more a reflection of arterial tone (and its correction) than of intrinsic LV contractility. As a consequence, the incidence of LV systolic dysfunction greatly depends on the time of the evaluation, reflecting the fact that, during resuscitation and treatment, vasoplegia and then LV afterload are corrected, thus unmasking septic cardiomyopathy. With these points in mind, we can revisit the results of Margaret Parker's original study: it is not that the patients with a low EF survived better, but rather that the other patients had an increased mortality due to persistent profound vasoplegia. PMID:23826739

Repessé, Xavier; Charron, Cyril; Vieillard-Baron, Antoine

2013-01-01

20

Evaluation of left ventricular systolic function revisited in septic shock  

PubMed Central

The meta-analysis of Huang and coworkers failed to find any evidence for a protective effect of a decreased left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF). These results have to be interpreted with caution since in most studies included in the meta-analysis patients with LV systolic dysfunction received inotropic drugs. We have some arguments suggesting that such a treatment may improve macrocirculation and microcirculation and finally prognosis. This paper allows us to clarify the meaning of LV function in septic shock patients. In all experimental models of septic shock using the load-independent parameter of LV systolic function, LV contractility impairment, called septic cardiomyopathy, has been reported to be constant. However, LVEF reflects the coupling between LV contractility and LV afterload. A normal LVEF may be observed when the arterial tone is severely depressed, as in septic shock, despite seriously impaired intrinsic LV contractility. LV systolic function, evaluated using an echocardiograph or another device, is then more a reflection of arterial tone (and its correction) than of intrinsic LV contractility. As a consequence, the incidence of LV systolic dysfunction greatly depends on the time of the evaluation, reflecting the fact that, during resuscitation and treatment, vasoplegia and then LV afterload are corrected, thus unmasking septic cardiomyopathy. With these points in mind, we can revisit the results of Margaret Parker's original study: it is not that the patients with a low EF survived better, but rather that the other patients had an increased mortality due to persistent profound vasoplegia. PMID:23826739

2013-01-01

21

ENHANCED EXTERNAL COUNTERPULSATION IMPROVES ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION AND EXERCISE CAPACITY IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC LEFT VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION  

PubMed Central

Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) therapy decreases angina episodes and improves quality of life in patients with left ventricular dysfunction (LVD). However, studies have not elucidated the mechanisms of action and overall effects of EECP in patients with LVD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of EECP on endothelial function in peripheral conduit arteries and exercise capacity (peak VO2) in patients with LVD. Patients with ischemic LVD (EF 34.5±4.2%; n=9), and patients with symptomatic CAD and preserved LV function (EF 53.5±6.6%; n=15), were studied before and after 35 1-hr sessions of EECP. Brachial (bFMD) and femoral (fFMD) artery flow-mediated dilation were evaluated using high-resolution ultrasound. EECP elicited similar significant improvements in the following FMD parameters amongst the CAD and LVD groups, respectively: absolute bFMD (+53% and +70%); relative bFMD (+50% and +74 %); bFMD normalized for shear rate (+70% and +61%); absolute fFMD (+33% and +21%); and relative fFMD (+32% and +17%) (P?0.05 between groups). EECP significantly improved plasma levels of nitrate/nitrite (NOx) (+55% and +28%; ?mol/L) and prostacyclin (6-keto-PGF1?) (+50% and +70%); and improved peak VO2 (+36% and +21%), similarly in both the CAD and LVD groups, respectively; (P?0.05 between groups). Despite reduced LV function, EECP therapy significantly improved peripheral vascular function and functional capacity similar in magnitude to that observed in CAD patients with preserved LV function. PMID:24862172

Beck, DT; Martin, JS; Casey, DP; Avery, JC; Sardina, PD; Braith, RW

2014-01-01

22

Effect of coronary artery bypass grafting on left ventricular systolic function at rest: evidence for preoperative subclinical myocardial ischemia  

SciTech Connect

Successful coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) improves exercise-induced left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), but its potential for improving resting LV function remains controversial. To assess the influence of CABG on LV function at rest, 31 CAD patients without previous myocardial infarction were studied before and 6 months after CABG by radionuclide angiography after all cardiac medicines were withdrawn. No patient had angina or ischemic electrocardiographic changes at rest. In 27 patients with patent bypass grafts, CABG significantly increased LV ejection fraction during exercise (47 +/- 11% before to 63 +/- 9% after operation, p less than 0.001), indicating reduction in exercise-induced LV ischemia. Moreover, LV ejection fraction at rest also increased (55 +/- 9 to 60 +/- 8%, p less than 0.001), with 20 of 27 patients manifesting an increase compared with preoperative values. Eleven of these 20 patients had apparently normal LV function at rest (ejection fraction and regional wall motion) before CABG. LV regional ejection fraction was computed by dividing the LV region of interest into 20 sectors. Regional analysis indicated that improved ejection fraction at rest after CABG occurred in regions developing ischemia during exercise before CABG. In 4 patients with occluded grafts, the ejection fraction at rest was unchanged by CABG globally (59 +/- 8 to 58 +/- 9%, difference not significant) and regionally. Thus, LV global and regional function at rest improved after successful CABG, even in patients with normal global LV ejection fraction and no visually detectable wall motion abnormality before surgery.

Dilsizian, V.; Bonow, R.O.; Cannon, R.O. 3d.; Tracy, C.M.; Vitale, D.F.; McIntosh, C.L.; Clark, R.E.; Bacharach, S.L.; Green, M.V.

1988-06-01

23

Skin Substitutes with Improved Barrier Function.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention relates to in vitro cultured skin substitutes, and in particular to in vitro cultured skin substitutes that have improved barrier function. In some embodiments, improved barrier function is a result of improved culture conditions, wh...

A. Comer, L. A. Hoffmann, M. Hoffmann

2005-01-01

24

Efficacy of an inactivated FeLV vaccine compared to a recombinant FeLV vaccine in minimum age cats following virulent FeLV challenge.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine the efficacy of an inactivated feline leukemia virus (FeLV) vaccine (Versifel(®) FeLV, Zoetis.) compared to a recombinant FeLV vaccine (Purevax(®) FeLV, Merial Animal Health) in young cats, exposed under laboratory conditions to a highly virulent challenge model. The study was designed to be consistent with the general immunogenicity requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia 6.0 Monograph 01/2008:1321-Feline Leukaemia Vaccine (Inactivated) with the exception that commercial-strength vaccines were assessed. Fifty seronegative cats (8-9 weeks old) were vaccinated subcutaneously on two occasions, three weeks apart, with either placebo (treatment group T01), Versifel FeLV Vaccine (treatment group T02), or Purevax FeLV Vaccine (treatment group T03) according to the manufacturer's directions. Cats were challenged three weeks after the second vaccination with a virulent FeLV isolate (61E strain). Persistent FeLV antigenemia was determined from 3 to 15 weeks postchallenge. Bone marrow samples were tested for the presence of FeLV proviral DNA to determine FeLV latent infection. At week 15 after challenge with the virulent FeLV 61E strain, the Versifel FeLV Vaccine conferred 89.5% protection against FeLV persistent antigenemia and 94.7% protection against FeLV proviral DNA integration in bone marrow cells. In comparison, the Purevax FeLV Vaccine conferred 20% protection against FeLV persistent antigenemia and 35% protection against FeLV proviral DNA integration in bone marrow cells following challenge. The data from this study show that the Versifel FeLV Vaccine was efficacious in preventing both FeLV persistent p27 antigenemia and FeLV proviral DNA integration in bone marrow cells of cats challenged with this particular challenge model under laboratory conditions and provided better protection than Purevax FeLV in this experimental challenge model with highly virulent FeLV. PMID:24662705

Stuke, Kristin; King, Vickie; Southwick, Kendra; Stoeva, Mira I; Thomas, Anne; Winkler, M Teresa C

2014-05-01

25

Fiber optics transmission of LV signal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first use of a long optical fiber for transmitting megahertz frequencies in a laser velocimeter (LV) receiver system is reported. The fiber comprises a 600-micron diameter fused silica core, a silicon polymer cladding and a plastic jacket. The fiber numerical aperture is 0.22, corresponding to a maximum entrance half-angle of 0.22 rad. The 10-m length used results in a 5.6% attenuation loss. The fiber is found to transmit an 80-MHz signal with excellent resolution. It is established that an LV receiver using fiber optics sends a clean signal in electronically noisy and high-pressure environments and allows velocity measurements in places too small for a photomultiplier tube.

Young, A. D.; Gunter, W. D., Jr.

1981-01-01

26

Early and late improvement of global and regional left ventricular function after transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients with severe aortic stenosis: an echocardiographic study  

PubMed Central

The recent development of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for severe aortic stenosis (AS) treatment offers a viable option for high-risk patient categories. Our aim is to evaluate whether 2D strain and strain rate can detect subtle improvement in global and regional LV systolic function immediately after TAVI. 2D conventional and 2D strain (speckle analysis) echocardiography was performed before, at discharge and after three months in thirty three patients with severe AS. After TAVI, we assessed by conventional echocardiography an immediate reduction of transaortic peak pressure gradient (p<0.0001), of mean pressure gradient (p<0.0001) and a concomitant increase in aortic valve area (AVA: 1.08±0.31 cm2/m2; p<0.0001). 2D longitudinal systolic strain showed a significant improvement in all patients, both at septal and lateral level, as early as 72 h after procedure (septal: -14.2±5.1 vs -16.7±3.7%, p<0.001; lateral: -9.4±3.9 vs -13.1±4.5%, p<0.001; respectively) and continued at 3 months follow-up (septal: -18.1±4.6%, p<0.0001; lateral: -14.8±4.4%, p<0.0001; respectively). Conventional echocardiography after TAVI proved a significant reduction of LV end-systolic volume and of LV mass with a mild improvement of LV ejection fraction (EF) (51.2±11.8 vs 52.9±6.4%; p<0.02) only after three months. 2D strain seems to be able to detect subtle changes in LV systolic function occurring early and late after TAVI in severe AS, while all conventional echo parameters seem to be less effective for this purpose. Further investigations are needed to prove the real prognostic impact of these echocardiographic findings. PMID:22254204

Giannini, Cristina; Petronio, Anna Sonia; Talini, Enrica; De Carlo, Marco; Guarracino, Fabio; Grazia, Maria; Donne, Delle; Nardi, Carmela; Conte, Lorenzo; Barletta, Valentina; Marzilli, Mario; Di Bello, Vitantonio

2011-01-01

27

Chronic Therapy with a Partial Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonist, Improves Left Ventricular Function and Remodeling in Dogs with Advanced Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background Adenosine (AD) elicits cardioprotection through A1-receptor (A1R) activation. Therapy with AD A1R agonists, however, is limited by undesirable actions of full agonism such as bradycardia. This study examined the effects of capadenoson (CAP), a partial AD A1R agonist, on left ventricular (LV) function and remodeling in dogs with heart failure (HF). Methods and Results 12 dogs with microembolization-induced HF were randomized to 12 weeks oral therapy with CAP (7.5 mg Bid, n=6) or to no therapy (Control, n=6). LV end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes, ejection fraction (EF), plasma norepinephrine (NE) and n-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (nt-pro BNP) were measured before (PRE) and 1 and 12 weeks after therapy (POST). LV tissue obtained at POST was used to assess volume fraction of interstitial fibrosis (VFIF), SERCA-2a activity, expression of mitochondria uncoupling proteins (UCP) and glucose transporters (GLUT). In controls, EDV and ESV increased and EF decreased significantly from PRE to POST (EF: 30±2 vs. 27±1 %, p<0.05). In CAP-treated dogs, EDV was unchanged; EF increased significantly after one week (36±2 vs. 27±2 %, p<0.05) with a further increase at POST (39±2 %, p<0.05) while ESV decreased. CAP significantly decreased VFIF, normalized SERCA-2a activity and expression of UCP-2 and -3, and GLUT-1 and -2 and significantly decreased NE and nt-pro BNP. Conclusion In HF dogs, CAP improves LV function and prevents progressive remodeling. Improvement of LV systolic function occurs early after initiating therapy. The results support development of partial AD A1R agonists for the treatment of chronic HF. PMID:23564604

Sabbah, Hani N.; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Kohli, Smita; Wang, Mengjun; Rastogi, Sharad; Zhang, Kefei; Zimmermann, Katja; Diedrichs, Nicole; Albrecht-Kupper, Barbara E.

2013-01-01

28

Randomized Trial of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Subacute Infarct-Related Coronary Artery Occlusion to Achieve Long-Term Patency and Improve Ventricular Function  

PubMed Central

Background In the present study, we sought to determine whether opening a persistently occluded infarct-related artery (IRA) by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients beyond the acute phase of myocardial infarction (MI) improves patency and indices of left ventricular (LV) size and function. Methods and Results Between May 2000 and July 2005, 381 patients with an occluded native IRA 3 to 28 days after MI (median 10 days) were randomized to PCI with stenting (PCI) or optimal medical therapy alone. Repeat coronary and LV angiography was performed 1 year after randomization (n=332, 87%). Coprimary end points were IRA patency and change in LV ejection fraction. Secondary end points included change in LV end-systolic and end-diastolic volume indices and wall motion. PCI was successful in 92%. At 1 year, 83% of PCI versus 25% of medical therapy–only patients had a patent IRA (P<0.001). LV ejection fraction increased significantly (P<0.001) in both groups, with no between-group difference: PCI 4.2±8.9 (n=150) versus medical therapy 3.5±8.2 (n=136; P=0.47). Median change (interquartile range) in LV end-systolic volume index was ?0.5 (?9.3 to 5.0) versus 1.0 (?5.7 to 7.3) mL/m2 (P=0.10), whereas median change (interquartile range) in LV end-diastolic volume index was 3.2 (?8.2 to 13.3) versus 5.3 (?4.6 to 23.2) mL/m2 (P=0.07) in the PCI (n=86) and medical therapy–only (n=76) groups, respectively. Conclusions PCI with stenting of a persistently occluded IRA in the subacute phase after MI effectively maintains long-term patency but has no effect on LV ejection fraction. On the basis of these findings and the lack of clinical benefit in the main Occluded Artery Trial, routine PCI is not recommended for stable patients with a persistently occluded IRA after MI. PMID:17105848

Dzavik, Vladimir; Buller, Christopher E.; Lamas, Gervasio A.; Rankin, James M.; Mancini, G.B. John; Cantor, Warren J.; Carere, Ronald J.; Ross, John R.; Atchison, Deborah; Forman, Sandra; Thomas, Boban; Buszman, Pawel; Vozzi, Carlos; Glanz, Anthony; Cohen, Eric A.; Meciar, Peter; Devlin, Gerald; Mascette, Alice; Sopko, George; Knatterud, Genell L.; Hochman, Judith S.

2007-01-01

29

Clustered PV inverters in LV networks: An overview of impacts and comparison of voltage control strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

High penetration of photovoltaic (PV) inverters in low voltage (LV) distribution network challenges the voltage stability due to interaction between multiple inverters and grid. As the main objective is to provide more power injection from VSC-based PV inverters, grid stability, reliability and power quality must be maintained or improved by adding cooperative control features to the grid-connected inverters. This paper

Erhan Demirok; Dezso Sera; Remus Teodorescu; P. Rodriguez; U. Borup

2009-01-01

30

Patient-specific MRI-based 3D FSI RV/LV/patch models for pulmonary valve replacement surgery and patch optimization.  

PubMed

A patient-specific right/left ventricle and patch (RV/LV/patch) combination model with fluid-structure interactions (FSIs) was introduced to evaluate and optimize human pulmonary valve replacement/insertion (PVR) surgical procedure and patch design. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging studies were performed to acquire ventricle geometry, flow velocity, and flow rate for healthy volunteers and patients needing RV remodeling and PVR before and after scheduled surgeries. CMR-based RV/LV/patch FSI models were constructed to perform mechanical analysis and assess RV cardiac functions. Both pre- and postoperation CMR data were used to adjust and validate the model so that predicted RV volumes reached good agreement with CMR measurements (error <3%). Two RV/LV/patch models were made based on preoperation data to evaluate and compare two PVR surgical procedures: (i) conventional patch with little or no scar tissue trimming, and (ii) small patch with aggressive scar trimming and RV volume reduction. Our modeling results indicated that (a) patient-specific CMR-based computational modeling can provide accurate assessment of RV cardiac functions, and (b) PVR with a smaller patch and more aggressive scar removal led to reduced stress/strain conditions in the patch area and may lead to improved recovery of RV functions. More patient studies are needed to validate our findings. PMID:18601452

Tang, Dalin; Yang, Chun; Geva, Tal; Del Nido, Pedro J

2008-08-01

31

Comparison of tomographic and planar radionuclide ventriculography in the assessment of regional left ventricular function in patients with left ventricular aneurysm before and after surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods and Results  To compare tomographic and planar radionuclide ventriculography (RNVG) in assessing regional left ventricular (LV) function\\u000a and predicting improvement in LV ejection fraction (LVEF) after operation in patients with LV aneurysm, 18 patients with aneurysm\\u000a underwent both tomography and planar RNVG 1 month before and 3 weeks to 6 months after aneurysmectomy and coronary artery\\u000a bypass grafting. All patients

Ping Lu; Xiujie Liu; Rongfang Shi; Lijun Mo; Jeffrey S. Borer

1994-01-01

32

Dendritic cell functional improvement in a preclinical model of lentiviral-mediated gene therapy for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.  

PubMed

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is a rare X-linked primary immunodeficiency caused by the defective expression of the WAS protein (WASP) in hematopoietic cells. It has been shown that dendritic cells (DCs) are functionally impaired in WAS patients and was(-/-) mice. We have previously demonstrated the efficacy and safety of a murine model of WAS gene therapy (GT), using stem cells transduced with a lentiviral vector (LV). The aim of this study was to investigate whether GT can correct DC defects in was(-/-) mice. As DCs expressing WASP were detected in the secondary lymphoid organs of the treated mice, we tested the in vitro and in vivo function of bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs). The BMDCs showed efficient in vitro uptake of latex beads and Salmonella typhimurium. When BMDCs from the treated mice (GT BMDCs) and the was(-/-) mice were injected into wild-type hosts, we found a higher number of cells that had migrated to the draining lymph nodes compared with mice injected with was(-/-) BMDCs. Finally, we found that ovalbumin (OVA)-pulsed GT BMDCs or vaccination of GT mice with anti-DEC205 OVA fusion protein can efficiently induce antigen-specific T-cell activation in vivo. These findings show that WAS GT significantly improves DC function, thus adding new evidence of the preclinical efficacy of LV-mediated WAS GT. PMID:22189416

Catucci, M; Prete, F; Bosticardo, M; Castiello, M C; Draghici, E; Locci, M; Roncarolo, M G; Aiuti, A; Benvenuti, F; Villa, A

2012-12-01

33

Late Gadolinium Enhancement in Cardiac MRI in Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis and Preserved Left Ventricular Systolic Function Is Related to Attenuated Improvement of Left Ventricular Geometry and Filling Pressure after Aortic Valve Replacement  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives We investigated echocardiographic predictors: left ventricular (LV) geometric changes following aortic valve replacement (AVR) according to the late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) and preserved LV systolic function. Subjects and Methods We analyzed 41 patients (24 males, 63.1±8.7 years) with preserved LV systolic function who were scheduled to undergo AVR for severe AS. All patients were examined with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), CMR before and after AVR (in the hospital) and serial TTEs (at 6 and 12 months) were repeated. Results The group with LGE (LGE+) showed greater wall thickness (septum, 14.3±2.6 mm vs. 11.5±2.0 mm, p=0.001, posterior; 14.3±2.5 mm vs. 11.4±1.6 mm, p<0.001), lower tissue Doppler image (TDIS', 4.4±1.4 cm/s vs. 5.5±1.2 cm/s, p=0.021; TDI E', 3.2±0.9 cm/s vs. 4.8±1.4 cm/s, p=0.002), and greater E/e' (21.8±10.3 vs. 15.4±6.3, p=0.066) than those without LGE (LGE-). Multivariate analysis show that TDI e' (odds ratio=0.078, 95% confidence interval=0.007-0.888, p=0.040) was an independent determinant of LGE+. In an analysis of the 6- and 12-month follow-up compared with pre-AVR, LGE- showed decreased LV end-diastolic diameter (48.3±5.0 mm vs. 45.8±3.6 mm, p=0.027; 48.3±5.0 mm vs. 46.5±3.4 mm, p=0.019). Moreover, E/e' (at 12 months) showed further improved LV filling pressure (16.0±6.6 vs. 12.3±4.3, p=0.001) compared with pre-AVR. However, LGE+ showed no significant improvement. Conclusion The absence of LGE is associated with favorable improvements in LV geometry and filling pressure. TDI E' is an independent determinant of LGE in patients with severe AS and preserved LV systolic function. PMID:25278984

Park, Junbeom; Choi, Jung-Ho; Yang, Pil-Sung; Lee, Sang-Eun; Heo, Ran; Shin, Sanghoon; Cho, In-Jeong; Kim, Young-Jin; Shim, Chi Young; Hong, Geu-Ru; Chung, Namsik

2014-01-01

34

Cross-Functional Team Processes and Patient Functional Improvement  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the hypothesis that higher levels of participation and functioning in cross-functional psychiatric treatment teams will be related to improved patient outcomes. Data Sources/Study Setting Primary data were collected during the period 1992–1999. The study was conducted in 40 teams within units treating seriously mentally ill patients in 16 Veterans Affairs hospitals across the U.S. Study Design A longitudinal, multilevel analysis assessed the relationship between individual- and team-level variables and patients' ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) over time. Team data were collected in 1992, 1994, and 1995. The number of times patient data were collected was dependent on the length of time the patient was treated and varied from 1 to 14 between 1992 and 1999. Key variables included: patients' ADL scores (the dependent variable); measures of team participation and team functioning; the number of days from baseline on which a patient's ADLs were assessed; and several control variables. Data Collection Methods Team data were obtained via self-administered questionnaires distributed to staff on the study teams. Additional team data were obtained via questionnaires completed by unit directors contemporaneously with the staff survey. Patient data were collected by trained clinicians at regular intervals using a standard assessment instrument. Principal Findings Results indicated that patients treated in teams with higher levels of staff participation experienced greater improvement in ADL over time. No differences in ADL change were noted for patients treated in teams with higher levels of team functioning. Conclusions Findings support our premise that team process has important implications for patient outcomes. The results suggest that the level of participation by the team as a whole may be a more important process attribute, in terms of patient improvements in ADLs, than the team's smooth functioning. These findings indicate the potential appropriateness of managerial interventions to encourage member investment in team processes. PMID:16174137

Alexander, Jeffrey A; Lichtenstein, Richard; Jinnett, Kimberly; Wells, Rebecca; Zazzali, James; Liu, Dawei

2005-01-01

35

Nutraceutical intervention improves older adults' cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Interventions to improve the cognitive health of older adults are of critical importance. In the current study, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using a pill-based nutraceutical (NT-020) that contained a proprietary formulation of blueberry, carnosine, green tea, vitamin D3, and Biovin to evaluate the impact on changes in multiple domains of cognitive functioning. One hundred and five cognitively intact adults aged 65-85 years of age (M=73.6 years) were randomized to receive NT-020 (n=52) or a placebo (n=53). Participants were tested with a battery of cognitive performance tests that were classified into six broad domains--episodic memory, processing speed, verbal ability, working memory, executive functioning, and complex speed at baseline and 2 months later. The results indicated that persons taking NT-020 improved significantly on two measures of processing speed across the 2-month test period in contrast to persons on the placebo whose performance did not change. None of the other cognitive ability measures were related to intervention group. The results also indicated that the NT-020 was well tolerated by older adults, and the presence of adverse events or symptoms did not differ between the NT-020 and placebo groups. Overall, the results of the current study were promising and suggest the potential for interventions like these to improve the cognitive health of older adults. PMID:24134194

Small, Brent J; Rawson, Kerri S; Martin, Christina; Eisel, Sarah L; Sanberg, Cyndy D; McEvoy, Cathy L; Sanberg, Paul R; Shytle, R Douglas; Tan, Jun; Bickford, Paula C

2014-02-01

36

Virtual reality training improves balance function  

PubMed Central

Virtual reality is a new technology that simulates a three-dimensional virtual world on a computer and enables the generation of visual, audio, and haptic feedback for the full immersion of users. Users can interact with and observe objects in three-dimensional visual space without limitation. At present, virtual reality training has been widely used in rehabilitation therapy for balance dysfunction. This paper summarizes related articles and other articles suggesting that virtual reality training can improve balance dysfunction in patients after neurological diseases. When patients perform virtual reality training, the prefrontal, parietal cortical areas and other motor cortical networks are activated. These activations may be involved in the reconstruction of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Growing evidence from clinical studies reveals that virtual reality training improves the neurological function of patients with spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy and other neurological impairments. These findings suggest that virtual reality training can activate the cerebral cortex and improve the spatial orientation capacity of patients, thus facilitating the cortex to control balance and increase motion function. PMID:25368651

Mao, Yurong; Chen, Peiming; Li, Le; Huang, Dongfeng

2014-01-01

37

Helminthic therapy: improving mucosal barrier function  

PubMed Central

The epidemiology of autoimmune diseases and helminth infections led to suggestions that helminths could improve inflammatory conditions, which was then tested using animal models. This has translated to clinical investigations aimed at the safe and controlled reintroduction of helminthic exposure to patients suffering from autoimmune diseases (so-called “helminthic therapy”) in an effort to mitigate the inflammatory response. In this review, we will summarize the results of recent clinical trials of helminthic therapy, with particular attention to mechanisms of action. Whereas previous reviews have emphasized immune regulatory mechanisms activated by helminths, we propose that enhancement of mucosal barrier function may have an equally important role in improving conditions of inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:22464690

Wolff, Martin J.; Broadhurst, Mara J.

2014-01-01

38

Molecular characterization of M1146, an American isolate of Ljungan virus (LV) reveals the presence of a new LV genotype.  

PubMed

Ljungan virus (LV) is a suspected human pathogen recently isolated from bank voles in Sweden. This study describes the genetic characterization of a virus, M1146, which was isolated in 1962 from another vole species (Microtus montanus), trapped in Oregon, USA. Based on antigenic properties, M1146 was postulated previously as a putative member of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE: The near complete genomic sequence verifies that M1146 is a member of the Picornaviridae, most closely related to LVs isolated in Sweden. The strain M1146 possesses typical LV genomic organization, including a cluster of two 2A homologues. There are significant differences throughout the capsid protein region, while the non-structural region of M1146 is closely related to the Swedish LV genomes. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses show that M1146 represents a new genotype within the distinct LV cluster. Isolation of LV from both Swedish and American voles trapped over a period of 30 years suggests a continuous worldwide presence. PMID:12655084

Johansson, E Susanne; Niklasson, Bo; Tesh, Robert B; Shafren, Darren R; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Lindberg, A Michael

2003-04-01

39

Autologous Cardiomyotissue Implant Promotes Myocardial Regeneration, Decreases Infarct Size and Improves Left Ventricular Function  

PubMed Central

Background Cell therapy for myocardial infarction (MI) may be limited by poor cell survival and lack of transdifferentiation. We report a novel technique of implanting whole autologous myocardial tissue from preserved myocardial regions into infarcted regions. Methods and Results Fourteen rats were used to optimize cardiomyotissue size using peritoneal wall implantation (300?M identified as optimal size). Thirty-nine pigs were used to investigate cardiomyotissue implantation in MI induced by LAD balloon occlusion [10 animals died, male to female transplantation for tracking with ISH for Y chromosome, n=4 (2-donors and 2-MI animals), acute MI implant cohort at 1 hour, n=13, and healed MI implant at 2 weeks, n=12]. Assessment included echocardiography, MRI, hemodynamics, TTC staining, histological, and molecular analysis. Tracking studies demonstrated viable implants with donor cells interspersed in the adjacent myocardium with gap junctions and desmosomes. In the acute MI cohort, treated animals compared to controls had improved perfusion by MRI (1.2±0.01 vs. 0.86±0.05,p<0.01), decreased MI size (MRI:%LV:2.2±0.5 vs. 5.4±1.5,p=0.04, TTC: %Anterior wall: 10.3±4.6 vs. 28.9±5.8,p<0.03), improved contractility (+dP/dt:1235±215 vs. 817±817,p<0.05). In healed MI cohort, treated animals had less decline in EF between 2 and 4 week assessment (-3±4% vs. -13±-4%,p<0.05), less decline in +/-dP/dt, and smaller MI (TTC: 21±11% vs. 3±8%,p=0.006) than control animals. Infarcts in the treated animals contained more mdr-1+ cells and fewer c-kit+ cells with a trend for decreased expression of MMP-2 and increased expression of TIMP-2. Conclusion Autologous cardiomyotissue implanted in myocardial infarction area remains viable, exhibits electromechanical coupling, decreases infarct size and improves LV function. PMID:21173354

Wykrzykowska, Joanna J.; Rosinberg, Audrey; Lee, Seung U.; Voisine, Pierre; Wu, Guifu; Appelbaum, Evan; Boodhwani, Munir; Sellke, Frank W.; Laham, Roger J.

2011-01-01

40

Improved algorithm for calculating the Chandrasekhar function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical models of electron transport in condensed matter require an effective source of the Chandrasekhar H(x,omega) function. A code providing the H(x,omega) function has to be both accurate and very fast. The current revision of the code published earlier [A. Jablonski, Comput. Phys. Commun. 183 (2012) 1773] decreased the running time, averaged over different pairs of arguments x and omega, by a factor of more than 20. The decrease of the running time in the range of small values of the argument x, less than 0.05, is even more pronounced, reaching a factor of 30. The accuracy of the current code is not affected, and is typically better than 12 decimal places. New version program summaryProgram title: CHANDRAS_v2 Catalogue identifier: AEMC_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMC_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC license, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 976 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11416 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90 Computer: Any computer with a Fortran 90 compiler Operating system: Windows 7, Windows XP, Unix/Linux RAM: 0.7 MB Classification: 2.4, 7.2 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEMC_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun. 183 (2012) 1773 Does the new version supersede the old program: Yes Nature of problem: An attempt has been made to develop a subroutine that calculates the Chandrasekhar function with high accuracy, of at least 10 decimal places. Simultaneously, this subroutine should be very fast. Both requirements stem from the theory of electron transport in condensed matter. Solution method: Two algorithms were developed, each based on a different integral representation of the Chandrasekhar function. The final algorithm is edited by mixing these two algorithms by selecting ranges of the argument omega in which the performance is the fastest. Reasons for the new version: Some of the theoretical models describing electron transport in condensed matter need a source of the Chandrasekhar H function values with an accuracy of at least 10 decimal places. Additionally, calculations of this function should be as fast as possible since frequent calls to a subroutine providing this function are made (e.g., numerical evaluation of a double integral with a complicated integrand containing the H function). Both conditions were satisfied in the algorithm previously published [1]. However, it has been found that a proper selection of the quadrature in an integral representation of the Chandrasekhar function may considerably decrease the running time. By suitable selection of the number of abscissas in Gauss-Legendre quadrature, the execution time was decreased by a factor of more than 20. Simultaneously, the accuracy of results has not been affected. Summary of revisions: (1) As in previous work [1], two integral representations of the Chandrasekhar function, H(x,omega), were considered: the expression published by Dudarev and Whelan [2] and the expression published by Davidovi? et al. [3]. The algorithms implementing these representations were designated A and B, respectively. All integrals in these implementations were previously calculated using Romberg quadrature. It has been found, however, that the use of Gauss-Legendre quadrature considerably improved the performance of both algorithms. Two conditions have to be satisfied. (i) The number of abscissas, N, has to be rather large, and (ii) the abscissas and corresponding weights should be determined with accuracy as high as possible. The abscissas and weights are available for N=16, 20, 24, 32, 40, 48, 64, 80, and 96 with accuracy of 20 decimal places [4], and all these values were introduced into a new procedure GAUSS replacing procedure ROMBERG. Due to the fact that the implemented tables are rather extensive, they were recalculated using the Rybicki algorithm (Re

Jablonski, A.

2013-02-01

41

Insertional mutagenesis of flvi-2 in tumors induced by infection with LC-FeLV, a myc-containing strain of feline leukemia virus.  

PubMed Central

LC-FeLV is a myc-containing strain of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) which exhibits only partial transforming activity in vitro and in vivo. LC-FeLV infection in kittens may induce, but does not necessarily induce, thymic lymphosarcoma in viremic animals after a short latency. These observations suggest that infection with LC-FeLV is not sufficient to induce complete transformation and that another genetic event(s) is required. One possibility for such an event is that the integrating provirus acts as an insertional mutagen and thereby disrupts the structure or function of another proto-oncogene. Using a strategy of transposon tagging, this possibility was examined in eight feline T-cell lymphosarcomas, including four induced by experimental infection with LC-FeLV, three induced by natural infection with FeLV, and one FeLV-negative tumor. The analysis demonstrated one locus, termed flvi-2, to be structurally altered in six of the tumors examined, including three induced by LC-FeLV and three in which no activated myc oncogene is apparent. Inverse polymerase chain reaction was used to demonstrate the presence and transcriptional orientation of proviruses integrated at flvi-2 in five of these tumors. The flvi-2 locus does not hybridize to cloned probes representing 21 previously identified proto-oncogenes or common domains of retroviral integration. Thus, the data suggest that interruption of the flvi-2 locus cooperates with the myc oncogene in the induction of T-cell lymphomas by LC-FeLV; indeed, the observations indicate that the insertional mutagenesis of flvi-2 plays a role in T-cell lymphomagenesis even in the absence of feline v-myc. Images PMID:1313907

Levy, L S; Lobelle-Rich, P A

1992-01-01

42

Loss or Inhibition of uPA or MMP-9 Attenuates LV Remodeling and Dysfunction after Acute Pressure Overload in Mice  

PubMed Central

Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is a natural response of the heart to increased pressure loading, but accompanying fibrosis and dilatation may result in irreversible life-threatening heart failure. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been invoked in various cardiac diseases, however, direct genetic evidence for a role of the plasminogen activator (PA) and MMP systems in pressure overload-induced LV hypertrophy and in heart failure is lacking. Therefore, the consequences of transverse aortic banding (TAB) were analyzed in mice lacking tissue-type PA (t-PA?/?), urokinase-type PA (u-PA?/?), or gelatinase-B (MMP-9?/?), and in wild-type (WT) mice after adenoviral gene transfer of the PA-inhibitor PAI-1 or the MMP-inhibitor TIMP-1. TAB elevated LV pressure comparably in all genotypes. In WT and t-PA?/? mice, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was associated with myocardial fibrosis, LV dilatation and dysfunction, and pump failure after 7 weeks. In contrast, in u-PA?/? mice or in WT mice after PAI-1- and TIMP-1-gene transfer, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was moderate and only minimally associated with cardiac fibrosis and LV dilatation, resulting in better preservation of pump function. Deficiency of MMP-9 had an intermediate effect. These findings suggest that the use of u-PA- or MMP-inhibitors might preserve cardiac pump function in LV pressure overloading. PMID:15631996

Heymans, Stephane; Lupu, Florea; Terclavers, Sven; Vanwetswinkel, Bjorn; Herbert, Jean-Marc; Baker, Andrew; Collen, Desire; Carmeliet, Peter; Moons, Lieve

2005-01-01

43

Bioinformatics analysis of time series gene expression in left ventricle (LV) with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).  

PubMed

This study is to investigate the key genes and their possible function in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The data of GSE4648 downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database include 6 time points (15 min, 60 min, 4h, 12h, 24h and 48 h) of 12 left ventricle (LV) samples, 12 surviving LV free wall (FW) samples, 12 inter-ventricular septum (IVS) samples after AMI operation and corresponding sham-operated samples. The data of each sample were analyzed with Affy and Bioconductor packages, and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were screened out using BETR package with false discovery rate (FDR)<0.01. Then, functional enrichment analysis for DEGs was conducted with Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID). Totally 194 DEGs were identified in LV, and only the gene tubulin beta 2a (Tubb2a) and natriuretic peptide B (Nppb) were respectively up-regulated in surviving FW tissue and IVS tissue. The biological process response to wounding and inflammatory response were significantly enriched, as well as leukocyte transendothelial migration pathway. Besides, the expression pattern analysis showed the DEGs mostly up-regulated at 4h after AMI, and these genes were mainly associated with immunity. Additionally, in transcriptional regulatory network, early growth response 1 (Egr1), activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3), Atf4, Myc and Fos were considered as the key transcription factors related to immune response. The key transcription factors and potential target genes might provide new information for the development of AMI, and leukocyte transendothelial migration pathway might play a vital role in AMI. PMID:24704022

Zhang, Tong; Zhao, Li-Li; Cao, Xue; Qi, Li-Chun; Wei, Guo-Qian; Liu, Jun-Yan; Yan, Shu-Jun; Liu, Jin-Gang; Li, Xue-Qi

2014-06-15

44

Antioxidant treatment improves neonatal survival and prevents impaired cardiac function at adulthood following neonatal glucocorticoid therapy  

PubMed Central

Glucocorticoids are widely used to treat chronic lung disease in premature infants but their longer-term adverse effects on the cardiovascular system raise concerns. We reported that neonatal dexamethasone treatment in rats induced in the short term molecular indices of cardiac oxidative stress and cardiovascular tissue remodelling at weaning, and that neonatal combined antioxidant and dexamethasone treatment was protective at this time. In this study, we investigated whether such effects of neonatal dexamethasone have adverse consequences for NO bioavailability and cardiovascular function at adulthood, and whether neonatal combined antioxidant and dexamethasone treatment is protective in the adult. Newborn rat pups received daily i.p. injections of a human-relevant tapering dose of dexamethasone (D; n= 8; 0.5, 0.3, 0.1 ?g g?1) or D with vitamins C and E (DCE; n= 8; 200 and 100 mg kg?1, respectively) on postnatal days 1–3 (P1–3); vitamins were continued from P4 to P6. Controls received equal volumes of vehicle from P1 to P6 (C; n= 8). A fourth group received vitamins alone (CCE; n= 8). At P100, plasma NO metabolites (NOx) was measured and isolated hearts were assessed under both Working and Langendorff preparations. Relative to controls, neonatal dexamethasone therapy increased mortality by 18% (P < 0.05). Surviving D pups at adulthood had lower plasma NOx concentrations (10.6 ± 0.8 vs. 28.0 ± 1.5 ?m), an increased relative left ventricular (LV) mass (70 ± 2 vs. 63 ± 1%), enhanced LV end-diastolic pressure (14 ± 2 vs. 8 ± 1 mmHg) and these hearts failed to adapt output with increased preload (?cardiac output: 2.9 ± 2.0 vs. 10.6 ± 1.2 ml min?1) or afterload (?cardiac output: ?5.3 ± 2.0 vs.1.4 ± 1.2 ml min?1); all P < 0.05. Combined neonatal dexamethasone with antioxidant vitamins improved postnatal survival, restored plasma NOx and protected against cardiac dysfunction at adulthood. In conclusion, neonatal dexamethasone therapy promotes cardiac dysfunction at adulthood. Combined neonatal treatment with antioxidant vitamins is an effective intervention. PMID:23940378

Niu, Youguo; Herrera, Emilio A; Evans, Rhys D; Giussani, Dino A

2013-01-01

45

Role of HIV-2 envelope in Lv2-mediated restriction  

SciTech Connect

We have characterized envelope protein pseudotyped HIV-2 particles derived from two HIV-2 isolates termed prCBL23 and CBL23 in order to define the role of the envelope protein for the Lv2-mediated restriction to infection. Previously, it has been described that the primary isolate prCBL23 is restricted to infection of several human cell types, whereas the T cell line adapted isolate CBL23 is not restricted in these cell types. Molecular cloning of the two isolates revealed that the env and the gag gene are responsible for the observed phenotype and that this restriction is mediated by Lv2, which is distinct from Ref1/Lv1 (Schmitz, C., Marchant, D., Neil, S.J., Aubin, K., Reuter, S., Dittmar, M.T., McKnight, A., Kizhatil, K., Albritton, L.M., 2004. Lv2, a novel postentry restriction, is mediated by both capsid and envelope. J. Virol. 78 (4), 2006-2016). We generated pseudotyped viruses consisting of HIV-2 (ROD-A{delta}env-GFP, ROD-A{delta}env-RFP, or ROD-A{delta}env-REN) and the prCBL23 or CBL23 envelope proteins as well as chimeric proteins between these envelopes. We demonstrate that a single amino acid exchange at position 74 in the surface unit of CBL23-Env confers restriction to infection. This single point mutation causes tighter CD4 binding, resulting in a less efficient fusion into the cytosol of the restricted cell line. Prevention of endosome formation and prevention of endosome acidification enhance infectivity of the restricted particles for GHOST/X4 cells indicating a degradative lysosomal pathway as a cause for the reduced cytosolic entry. The described restriction to infection of the primary isolate prCBL23 is therefore largely caused by an entry defect. A remaining restriction to infection (19-fold) is preserved when endosomal acidification is prevented. This restriction to infection is also dependent on the presence of the point mutation at position 74 (G74E)

Reuter, Sandra [Department of Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kaumanns, Patrick [Department of Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Buschhorn, Sabine B. [Department of Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Dittmar, Matthias T. [Department of Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: Matthias_Dittmar@med.uni-heidelberg.de

2005-02-05

46

LV wall segmentation using the variational level set method (LSM) with additional shape constraint for oedema quantification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper an automatic algorithm for the left ventricle (LV) wall segmentation and oedema quantification from T2-weighted cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images is presented. The extent of myocardial oedema delineates the ischaemic area-at-risk (AAR) after myocardial infarction (MI). Since AAR can be used to estimate the amount of salvageable myocardial post-MI, oedema imaging has potential clinical utility in the management of acute MI patients. This paper presents a new scheme based on the variational level set method (LSM) with additional shape constraint for the segmentation of T2-weighted CMR image. In our approach, shape information of the myocardial wall is utilized to introduce a shape feature of the myocardial wall into the variational level set formulation. The performance of the method is tested using real CMR images (12 patients) and the results of the automatic system are compared to manual segmentation. The mean perpendicular distances between the automatic and manual LV wall boundaries are in the range of 1-2 mm. Bland-Altman analysis on LV wall area indicates there is no consistent bias as a function of LV wall area, with a mean bias of -121 mm2 between individual investigator one (IV1) and LSM, and -122 mm2 between individual investigator two (IV2) and LSM when compared to two investigators. Furthermore, the oedema quantification demonstrates good correlation when compared to an expert with an average error of 9.3% for 69 slices of short axis CMR image from 12 patients.

Kadir, K.; Gao, H.; Payne, A.; Soraghan, J.; Berry, C.

2012-10-01

47

Short time-scale LV systolic dynamics: pressure vs. volume clamps and effect of activation.  

PubMed

We recently proposed a new model-based approach to quantifying short time-scale left ventricular (LV) systolic dynamics. In this study we examine the hypothesis that the quantitation of LV dynamics using the proposed approach is independent of external mechanical perturbations and the level of activation. Mechanical perturbation independence was assessed in seven isolated ferret hearts in which controlled changes in pressure (pressure clamp) or volume (volume clamp) were introduced at the time of peak isovolumetric pressure (protocol 1), and responses to these clamps were analyzed over the first 16 ms. The model described both pressure- and volume-clamps responses equally well. Model parameters were not different among various pressure clamps, and parameters estimated from volume clamps could accurately predict responses to pressure clamps [r2 range: 0.993-0.999; normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) range: 2.35-5.86%]. To examine activation independence, volume- (4 hearts) and pressure-clamp (4 hearts) responses were obtained and analyzed for baseline and postextrasystolic potentiated beats in a manner similar to protocol 1. The model parameter values estimated from the baseline state accurately predicted responses for the postextrasystolic potentiated state (r2 and NRMSE range for volume-clamp data: 0.989-0.998 and 3.35-6.88%, respectively; r2 and NRMSE range for pressure-clamp data: 0.992-0.996 and 4.26-5.23%, respectively). Thus the proposed approach can dissect the contributions of changes in activation from those due to changes in contractile unit properties on the function of the intact LV. PMID:8456995

Shroff, S G; Campbell, K B; Kirkpatrick, R D

1993-03-01

48

Optical Functional Tester: An Improved Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A redesign of the Optical Functional Tester (OFT) has been completed. The initial unit of the new design has been assembled and operated. Laboratory checkout has shown the versatility of the new design, its ease of operation, and adequate measurement sens...

D. L. Decker, H. E. Bennett, D. A. Dobberpuhl

1976-01-01

49

Improved association in a classical density functional theory for water.  

PubMed

We present a modification to our recently published statistical associating fluid theory-based classical density functional theory for water. We have recently developed and tested a functional for the averaged radial distribution function at contact of the hard-sphere fluid that is dramatically more accurate at interfaces than earlier approximations. We now incorporate this improved functional into the association term of our free energy functional for water, improving its description of hydrogen bonding. We examine the effect of this improvement by studying two hard solutes (a hard hydrophobic rod and a hard sphere) and a Lennard-Jones approximation of a krypton atom solute. The improved functional leads to a moderate change in the density profile and a large decrease in the number of hydrogen bonds broken in the vicinity of the hard solutes. We find an improvement of the partial radial distribution for a krypton atom in water when compared with experiment. PMID:24697459

Krebs, Eric J; Schulte, Jeff B; Roundy, David

2014-03-28

50

Improved association in a classical density functional theory for water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a modification to our recently published statistical associating fluid theory-based classical density functional theory for water. We have recently developed and tested a functional for the averaged radial distribution function at contact of the hard-sphere fluid that is dramatically more accurate at interfaces than earlier approximations. We now incorporate this improved functional into the association term of our free energy functional for water, improving its description of hydrogen bonding. We examine the effect of this improvement by studying two hard solutes (a hard hydrophobic rod and a hard sphere) and a Lennard-Jones approximation of a krypton atom solute. The improved functional leads to a moderate change in the density profile and a large decrease in the number of hydrogen bonds broken in the vicinity of the hard solutes. We find an improvement of the partial radial distribution for a krypton atom in water when compared with experiment.

Krebs, Eric J.; Schulte, Jeff B.; Roundy, David

2014-03-01

51

Simulation of LV pacemaker lead in marginal vein: potential risk factors for acute dislodgement.  

PubMed

Although left ventricular (LV) coronary sinus lead dislodgement remains a problem, the risk factors for dislodgement have not been clearly defined. In order to identify potential risk factors for acute lead dislodgement, we conducted dynamic finite element simulations of pacemaker lead dislodgement in marginal LV vein. We considered factors such as mismatch in lead and vein diameters, velocity of myocardial motion, branch angle between the insertion vein and the coronary sinus, degree of slack, and depth of insertion. The results show that large lead-to-vein diameter mismatch, rapid myocardial motion, and superficial insertion are potential risk factors for lead dislodgement. In addition, the degree of slack presents either a positive or negative effect on dislodgement risk depending on the branch angle. The prevention of acute lead dislodgment can be enforced by inducing as much static friction force as possible at the lead-vein interface, while reducing the external force. If the latter exceeds the former, dislodgement will occur. The present findings underscore the major risk factors for lead dislodgment, which may improve implantation criterion and future lead design. PMID:21303182

Zhao, Xuefeng; Burger, Mike; Liu, Yi; Das, Mithilesh K; Combs, William; Wenk, Jonathan F; Guccione, Julius M; Kassab, Ghassan S

2011-03-01

52

?3 adrenergic receptor selective stimulation during ischemia/reperfusion improves cardiac function in translational models through inhibition of mPTP opening in cardiomyocytes.  

PubMed

Selective stimulation of ?3 adrenergic-receptor (?3AR) has been shown to reduce infarct size in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. However, its functional long-term effect and the cardioprotective mechanisms at the level of cardiomyocytes have not been elucidated, and the impact of ?3AR stimulation has not been evaluated in a more translational large animal model. This study aimed at evaluating pre-perfusion administration of BRL37344 both in small and large animal models of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. Pre-reperfusion administration of the ?3AR agonist BRL37344 (5 ?g/kg) reduced infarct size at 2-and 24-h reperfusion in wild-type mice. Long-term (12-weeks) left ventricular (LV) function assessed by echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) was significantly improved in ?3AR agonist-treated mice. Incubation with ?3AR agonist (BRL37344, 7 ?mol/L) significantly reduced cell death in isolated adult mouse cardiomyocytes during hypoxia/reoxygenation and decreased susceptibility to deleterious opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), via a mechanism dependent on the Akt-NO signaling pathway. Pre-reperfusion BRL37344 administration had no effect on infarct size in cyclophilin-D KO mice, further implicating mPTP in the mechanism of protection. Large-white pigs underwent percutaneous coronary ischemia/reperfusion and 3-T CMR at 7 and 45 days post-infarction. Pre-perfusion administration of BRL37344 (5 ?g/kg) decreased infarct size and improved long-term LV contractile function. A single-dose administration of ?3AR agonist before reperfusion decreased infarct size and resulted in a consistent and long-term improvement in cardiac function, both in small and large animal models of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. This protection appears to be executed through inhibition of mPTP opening in cardiomyocytes. PMID:24951958

García-Prieto, Jaime; García-Ruiz, Jose Manuel; Sanz-Rosa, David; Pun, Andrés; García-Alvarez, Ana; Davidson, Sean M; Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Nuno-Ayala, Mario; Fernández-Jiménez, Rodrigo; Bernal, Juan A; Izquierdo-Garcia, José Luis; Jimenez-Borreguero, Jesús; Pizarro, Gonzalo; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús; Macaya, Carlos; Fuster, Valentín; Yellon, Derek M; Ibanez, Borja

2014-07-01

53

Improved wave function for strongly correlated electronic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scheme of optimization of a trial wave function in the variational Monte Carlo calculation is developed. It provides a more precise description of the ground state for strongly correlated electronic systems with highly improved trial wave function. A general type of variational wave function constructed from a linear combination of Slater determinants multiplied by Jastrow correlation factors is proposed.

Kenji Kobayashi; Kaoru Iguchi

1993-01-01

54

Improved endothelial function with metformin in type 2 diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThis study was designed to assess the effect of metformin on impaired endothelial function in type 2 diabetes mellitus.BACKGROUNDAbnormalities in vascular endothelial function are well recognized among patients with type 2 (insulin-resistant) diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance itself may be central to the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction. The effects of metformin, an antidiabetic agent that improves insulin sensitivity, on endothelial function

Kieren J. Mather; Subodh Verma; Todd J. Anderson

2001-01-01

55

Effects of propranolol treatment on left ventricular function and intracellular calcium regulation in rats with postinfarction heart failure  

PubMed Central

Chronic treatment with beta-adrenergic blocking agents can improve survival in patients with heart failure. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects and whether these effects are generalizable to ischaemic heart failure are unresolved.We performed echocardiographic-Doppler examinations in rats (n=28) 1 and 6 weeks after myocardial infarction (MI) or sham surgery. Rats were randomized to no treatment or propranolol (500?mg/l in drinking water) after the first echocardiogram. Isometric contractions and intracellular Ca transients were recorded simultaneously in noninfarcted left ventricular (LV) papillary muscles.Untreated MI rats had significant LV dilatation (10.6±0.4* vs 8.9±0.3?mm, MI vs control), impaired systolic function (fractional shortening=11±2* vs 38±2%), and a restrictive LV diastolic filling pattern. MI rats receiving propranolol had similar LV chamber sizes (10.6±0.5?mm) and systolic function (13±2%). The propranolol treated animals had higher LV end-diastolic pressures (27±2* vs 20±3?mmHg) and a more restricted LV diastolic filling pattern (increased ratio of early to late filling velocities and more rapid E wave deceleration rate). Contractility of papillary muscles from untreated MI rats was depressed (1.6±0.3 vs 2.4±0.5?g?mm?2). In addition, Ca transients were prolonged and the inotropic response to isoproterenol was blunted. Propranolol treatment did not improve force development (1.6±0.3?g?mm?2) or the duration of Ca transients during isoproterenol stimulation.Chronic propranolol treatment in rats with postinfarction heart failure did not improve LV remodeling or systolic function. LV diastolic pressures and filling patterns were worsened by propranolol. Treatment also did not produce appreciable improvement in contractility, intracellular Ca regulation or beta-adrenergic responsiveness in the noninfarcted myocardium. PMID:10455325

Litwin, Sheldon E; Katz, Sarah E; Morgan, James P; Douglas, Pamela S

1999-01-01

56

Towards improved methods for determining porous media multiphase flow functions  

E-print Network

TOWARDS IMPROVED METHODS FOR DETERMINING POROUS MEDIA MULTIPHASE FLOW FUNCTIONS A Thesis by SONG XUE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... May 2004 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering TOWARDS IMPROVED METHODS FOR DETERMINING POROUS MEDIA MULTIPHASE FLOW FUNCTIONS A Thesis by SONG XUE Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

Xue, Song

2004-09-30

57

Improving marketing–operations cross-functional relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaboration between marketing and operational areas is critical to business success. Despite this, in practice most companies suffer hostile and adversarial relationships between these functions. Existing research has not sufficiently addressed methods for improving this situation outside of the large corporation or manufacturing sector. This paper seeks to address this shortcoming, investigating mechanisms to support better cross-functional relationships in the

Niall Piercy

2010-01-01

58

Diagnosing and improving functioning in interdisciplinary health care teams.  

PubMed

Interdisciplinary teams play a key role in the delivery of health care. Team functioning can positively or negatively impact the effective and efficient delivery of health care services as well as the personal well-being of group members. Additionally, teams must be able and willing to work together to achieve team goals within a climate that reflects commitment to team goals, accountability, respect, and trust. Not surprisingly, dysfunctional team functioning can limit the success of interdisciplinary health care teams. The first step in improving dysfunctional team function is to conduct an analysis based on criteria necessary for team success, and this article provides meaningful criteria for doing such an analysis. These are the following: a common team goal, the ability and willingness to work together to achieve team goals, decision making, communication, and team member relationships. High-functioning interdisciplinary teams must exhibit features of good team function in all key domains. If a team functions well in some domains and needs to improve in others, targeted strategies are described that can be used to improve team functioning. PMID:22842755

Blackmore, Gail; Persaud, D David

2012-01-01

59

Improve vehicle's function safety with an approach investigating vehicle's electromagnetic interference with its function safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an approach to improve vehicle's function safety by integrating the analysis of electromagnetic interference with the analysis of safety function is proposed. It is proposed that vehicle's EMI analysis should be carried out with vehicle's function safety analysis. These two analyses should be carried out together from the beginning of the design of vehicle's electrical and electronic

Shuo Wang

2011-01-01

60

The Na+/Ca2+ exchange inhibitor SEA0400 limits intracellular Ca2+ accumulation and improves recovery of ventricular function when added to cardioplegia  

PubMed Central

Background The Na+/Ca2+ exchange inhibitor SEA0400 prevents myocardial injury in models of global ischemia and reperfusion. We therefore evaluated its potential as a cardioplegia additive. Methods Isolated rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to hypoxia (45 min) followed by reperfusion. During hypoxia, cells were protected using cardioplegia with (n?=?25) or without (n?=?24) SEA0400 (1 ?M), or were not protected with cardioplegia (hypoxic control, n?=?8). Intracellular Ca2+ levels were measured using Ca2+ sensitive dye (fura-2 AM). Isolated rat hearts were arrested using cardioplegia with (n?=?7) or without (n?=?6) SEA0400 (1 ?M) then reperfused after 45 min of ischemia. Left ventricular (LV) function, troponin release, and mitochondrial morphology were evaluated. Results Cardiomyocytes exposed to hypoxia without cardioplegia had poor survival (13%). Survival was significantly improved when cells were protected with cardioplegia containing SEA0400 (68%, p?=?0.009); cardioplegia without SEA0400 was associated with intermediate survival (42%). Cardiomyocytes exposed to hypoxia alone had a rapid increase in intracellular Ca2+ (305?±?123 nM after 20 minutes of ischemia). Increases in intracellular Ca2+ were reduced in cells arrested with cardioplegia without SEA0400; however cardioplegia containing SEA0400 was associated with the lowest intracellular Ca2+ levels (110?±?17 vs. 156?±?42 nM after 45 minutes of ischemia, p?=?0.004). Hearts arrested with cardioplegia containing SEA0400 had better recovery of LV work compared to cardioplegia without SEA0400 (23140?±?2264 vs. 7750?±?929 mmHg.?l, p?=?0.0001). Troponin release during reperfusion was lower (0.6?±?0.2 vs. 2.4?±?0.5 ng/mL, p?=?0.0026), and there were more intact (41?±?3 vs. 22?±?5%, p?improves recovery of LV function in isolated hearts. PMID:24401610

2014-01-01

61

Cardiac Structure and Function in Cushing's Syndrome: A Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Patients with Cushing's syndrome have left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and dysfunction on echocardiography, but echo-based measurements may have limited accuracy in obese patients. No data are available on right ventricular (RV) and left atrial (LA) size and function in these patients. Objectives: The objective of the study was to evaluate LV, RV, and LA structure and function in patients with Cushing's syndrome by means of cardiac magnetic resonance, currently the reference modality in assessment of cardiac geometry and function. Methods: Eighteen patients with active Cushing's syndrome and 18 volunteers matched for age, sex, and body mass index were studied by cardiac magnetic resonance. The imaging was repeated in the patients 6 months (range 2–12 mo) after the treatment of hypercortisolism. Results: Compared with controls, patients with Cushing's syndrome had lower LV, RV, and LA ejection fractions (P < .001 for all) and increased end-diastolic LV segmental thickness (P < .001). Treatment of hypercortisolism was associated with an improvement in ventricular and atrial systolic performance, as reflected by a 15% increase in the LV ejection fraction (P = .029), a 45% increase in the LA ejection fraction (P < .001), and an 11% increase in the RV ejection fraction (P = NS). After treatment, the LV mass index and end-diastolic LV mass to volume ratio decreased by 17% (P < .001) and 10% (P = .002), respectively. None of the patients had late gadolinium myocardial enhancement. Conclusion: Cushing's syndrome is associated with subclinical biventricular and LA systolic dysfunctions that are reversible after treatment. Despite skeletal muscle atrophy, Cushing's syndrome patients have an increased LV mass, reversible upon correction of hypercortisolism. PMID:25093618

Roux, Charles; Salenave, Sylvie; Kachenoura, Nadjia; Raissouni, Zainab; Macron, Laurent; Guignat, Laurence; Jublanc, Christel; Azarine, Arshid; Brailly, Sylvie; Young, Jacques; Mousseaux, Elie; Chanson, Philippe

2014-01-01

62

Functional and pathological improvements of the hearts in diabetes model by the combined therapy of bFGF-loaded nanoparticles with ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction.  

PubMed

Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among the diabetic patients and currently there is no effective means to reverse its pathological progress. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has shown promise as a molecular therapy for DCM, but its delivery is inefficient and non-specific. In the present study, a therapy combining nanoparticle (NP) carrier and ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) was reported the first time for bFGF delivery to the heart of diabetic rats. bFGF-loaded NP (bFGF-NP) were prepared with Poloxamer 188-grafted heparin copolymer using water-in-water technique, and the morphology, encapsulation efficiency, and bioactivity of bFGF-NP were studied. The cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of bFGF-NP were evaluated with primary cultures of the left ventricular (LV) cardiomyocytes in vitro. Therapeutic effects of bFGF-NP/UTMD on the heart of DCM rats were studied by measuring LV systolic and diastolic functions, hemodynamic characteristics and indicators of cardiac remodeling including myocardial collagen volume fraction and capillary density. Results demonstrated that bFGF-NP showed good round morphology, efficient bFGF encapsulation and stable bioactivity of bFGF in vitro. bFGF-NP/UTMD combined treatment significantly enhanced the efficiency of bFGF cellular uptake (P<0.05) without obvious cytotoxicity. Significant improvements (P<0.05) in both cardiac functions and tissue morphology in the DCM rats were observed in bFGF-NP/UTMD group. These were not achievable using free bFGF, bFGF-NP or UTMD treatment alone. Our results show that combining a non-viral vector with UTMD technique is an effective strategy to deliver bFGF to the heart, and the resulting growth factor therapy has demonstrated potential to reverse the progress of DCM by restoring the cardiac functions and even the structure of damaged cardiac tissues. PMID:24815422

Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Tian, Xin-Qiao; Zhang, Ming; Cai, Lu; Ru, Ao; Shen, Xiao-Tong; Jiang, Xi; Jin, Rong-Rong; Zheng, Lei; Hawkins, Kyle; Charkrabarti, Subrata; Li, Xiao-Kun; Lin, Qian; Yu, Wen-Ze; Ge, Shuping; Lu, Cui-Tao; Wong, Ho Lun

2014-07-28

63

Autologous heart cell transplantation improves cardiac function after myocardial injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Fetal ventricular cardiomyocyte transplantation into a cardiac scar improved ventricular function, but these cells were eventually eliminated by rejection. We therefore examined the feasibility of autologous adult heart cell transplantation.Methods. A transmural scar was produced in the left ventricular free wall of adult rats by cryoinjury. The left atrial appendage was harvested, and the atrial heart cells were cultured

Tetsuro Sakai; Ren-Ke Li; Richard D Weisel; Donald A. G Mickle; Eung-Joong Kim; Shinji Tomita; Zhi-Qian Jia; Terrence M Yau

1999-01-01

64

Improved backpropagation training algorithm using conic section functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new training algorithm composed of a propagation rule which contains MLP and RBF parts to improve the performance of backpropagation is proposed. The network using this propagation rule is known as a conic section function network. This network allows one to convert the open decision boundaries in an MLP to closed ones in an RBF, or vice versa. It

T. Yildirim; J. S. Marsland

1997-01-01

65

Automated monitoring functions for improved power system operation and control  

E-print Network

presented. Once fully implemented, this solution will serve both local and remote operators allowing further such as Digital Fault Recorder (DFR) [7], Digital Protection Relay (DPR), Power Quality Meter (PQM) [8], RemoteAutomated monitoring functions for improved power system operation and control M. Kezunovic, Fellow

66

Improvement in respiratory function after vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty  

PubMed Central

Our objective was to study the changes in respiratory function of patients with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) after vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. Thoracic kyphotic angle, local kyphotic angle, pain scores and pulmonary function parameters were measured in 38 older women with OVCFs before, three days after and three months after operation. Vital capacity, forced vital capacity and maximum voluntary ventilation significantly increased three days after operation (P?improve three months later (P?improvement of the local kyphotic angle and vital capacity had a remarkably positive correlation (vertebroplasty: r?=?0.778; kyphoplasty: r?=?0.637), and kyphoplasty could improve vital capacity more than vertebroplasty (P?improve the lung function impaired by OVCFs, and kyphoplasty has a better effect in improving vital capacity for thoracic OVCFs. PMID:18989668

Dong, RenBin; Gu, Yong; Han, GuoSheng; Yang, HuiLin; Tang, TianSi; Xiaoqing, Chen

2008-01-01

67

Functional fitness improvements after a worksite-based yoga initiative.  

PubMed

This study explored the benefits of yoga on functional fitness, flexibility, and perceived stress. A quasi-experimental design was used to measure benefits of yoga in sample of firefighters from a major metropolitan fire department. Yoga classes were conducted on-shift, in the fire stations over the period of 6 weeks. The classes included pranayama (breathing), asana (postures), and savasana (relaxation); 108 firefighters enrolled in the study, most were physically active but had no prior experience with yoga. Baseline and post-yoga assessments were completed by 77 participants. Paired t-tests revealed significant improvements in the Functional Movement Screen, a seven item test that measures functional fitness. Improvements were also noted in trunk flexibility and perceived stress. Participants also reported favorable perceptions of yoga: feeling more focused and less musculoskeletal pain. These findings - along with the retention of the majority of the participants - indicate that participants benefited from yoga. PMID:20006289

Cowen, Virginia S

2010-01-01

68

Arylsulfatase B Improves Locomotor Function after Mouse Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Bacterial chondroitinase ABC (ChaseABC) has been used to remove the inhibitory chondroitin sulfate chains from chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans to improve regeneration after rodent spinal cord injury. We hypothesized that the mammalian enzyme arylsulfatase B (ARSB) would also enhance recovery after mouse spinal cord injury. Application of the mammalian enzyme would be an attractive alternative to ChaseABC because of its more robust chemical stability and reduced immunogenicity. A one-time injection of human ARSB into injured mouse spinal cord eliminated immunoreactivity for chondroitin sulfates within five days, and up to 9 weeks after injury. After a moderate spinal cord injury, we observed improvements of locomotor recovery assessed by the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) in ARSB treated mice, compared to the buffer-treated control group, at 6 weeks after injection. After a severe spinal cord injury, mice injected with equivalent units of ARSB or ChaseABC improved similarly and both groups achieved significantly more locomotor recovery than the buffer-treated control mice. Serotonin and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive axons were more extensively present in mouse spinal cords treated with ARSB and ChaseABC, and the immunoreactive axons penetrated further beyond the injury site in ARSB or ChaseABC treated mice than in control mice. These results indicate that mammalian ARSB improves functional recovery after CNS injury. The structural/molecular mechanisms underlying the observed functional improvement remain to be elucidated. PMID:23520469

Yoo, Myungsik; Khaled, Muntasir; Gibbs, Kurt M.; Kim, Jonghun; Kowalewski, Bjorn; Dierks, Thomas; Schachner, Melitta

2013-01-01

69

Comparison of left ventricular diastolic function in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in patients undergoing percutaneous septal alcohol ablation versus surgical myotomy/myectomy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both percutaneous transcoronary alcohol septal reduction (ASR) and surgical myectomy are effective treatments to relieve left ventricular (LV) outflow tract obstruction in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC). LV diastolic function was assessed by echocardiography in 57 patients with obstructive HC at baseline and 5 +/- 4 months after ASR (n = 37) or surgical myectomy (n = 20). LV outflow tract pressure gradient decreased from 65 +/- 40 to 23 +/- 21 mm Hg (p <0.01) after treatment. The ratio of the early-to-late peak diastolic LV inflow velocities, and the ratio of the early peak diastolic LV inflow velocity to the lateral mitral annulus early diastolic velocity determined by tissue Doppler imaging significantly decreased after the procedures (1.6 +/- 1.7 vs 1.0 +/- 0.7 and 15 +/- 8 vs 11 +/- 5, respectively), whereas LV inflow propagation velocity significantly increased (60 +/- 24 vs 71 +/- 36 cm/s). Left atrial size decreased from 29 +/- 7 to 25 +/- 6 cm(2) (p <0.05). Patients had a significant improvement in New York Heart Association functional class and in exercise performance. When comparing ASR with myectomy, no difference was found in the degree of change in any parameter of diastolic function. Thus, diastolic function indexes obtained by echocardiography changed after septal reduction interventions in patients with obstructive HC; this change was similar to that after surgical myectomy and ASR.

Sitges, Marta; Shiota, Takahiro; Lever, Harry M.; Qin, Jian Xin; Bauer, Fabrice; Drinko, Jeannie K.; Agler, Deborah A.; Martin, Maureen G.; Greenberg, Neil L.; Smedira, Nicholas G.; Lytle, Bruce W.; Tuzcu, E. Murat; Garcia, Mario J.; Thomas, James D.

2003-01-01

70

Berberine Improves Kidney Function in Diabetic Mice via AMPK Activation  

PubMed Central

Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Effective therapies to prevent the development of this disease are required. Berberine (BBR) has several preventive effects on diabetes and its complications. However, the molecular mechanism of BBR on kidney function in diabetes is not well defined. Here, we reported that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is required for BBR-induced improvement of kidney function in vivo. AMPK phosphorylation and activity, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), kidney function including serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine clearance (Ccr), and urinary protein excretion, morphology of glomerulus were determined in vitro or in vivo. Exposure of cultured human glomerulus mesangial cells (HGMCs) to BBR time- or dose-dependently activates AMPK by increasing the thr172 phosphorylation and its activities. Inhibition of LKB1 by siRNA or mutant abolished BBR-induced AMPK activation. Incubation of cells with high glucose (HG, 30 mM) markedly induced the oxidative stress of HGMCs, which were abolished by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside, AMPK gene overexpression or BBR. Importantly, the effects induced by BBR were bypassed by AMPK siRNA transfection in HG-treated HGMCs. In animal studies, streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia dramatically promoted glomerulosclerosis and impaired kidney function by increasing serum BUN, urinary protein excretion, and decreasing Ccr, as well as increased oxidative stress. Administration of BBR remarkably improved kidney function in wildtype mice but not in AMPK?2-deficient mice. We conclude that AMPK activation is required for BBR to improve kidney function in diabetic mice. PMID:25409232

Zhao, Long; Sun, Li-Na; Nie, Hui-Bin; Wang, Xue-Ling; Guan, Guang-Ju

2014-01-01

71

Improved regional ventricular function after successful surgical revascularization  

SciTech Connect

Left ventricular segments with reversible asynergy at rest demonstrate reversible myocardial perfusion defects on exercise thallium-201 scintigrams. To determine if improved perfusion eliminates asynergy at rest, 23 patients with angina (stable in 21, unstable in 2) were studied before and after coronary artery bypass surgery. All patients underwent exercise myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, contrast ventriculography and coronary arteriography before and after surgery. Selective graft angiography was performed during the postoperative catheterization to determine graft patency. Segmental ventricular function was quantitated by a regional fraction method. The scintigrams were divided into five regions and compared with the corresponding regions of the ventriculogram. Seventy-one of a possible 142 ventricular segments exhibited exercise-induced perfusion deficits. Preoperative regional ejection fraction was normal in 42 of these segments and abnormal in 29. Postoperatively, in 19 of the abnormal segments, function improved or normalized. All these segments had improved perfusion during exercise after surgery and were supplied by a patent bypass graft. Nine of the 10 segments in which abnormal wall motion persisted postoperatively continued to have exercise-induced perfusion deficits, and 9 of the 10 segments were supplied by an occluded or stenotic graft or one with poor run off. Of the 42 segments with normal wall motion preoperatively, 30 had improved perfusion after surgery and 35 maintained normal function. This study indicates that asynergy at rest is permanently reversed after coronary bypass surgery if improved myocardial perfusion can be documented. These findings are consistent with but do not prove the concept that reversible rest asynergy may reflect chronic ischemia or a prolonged effect from previous ischemic episodes.

Brundage, B.H.; Massie, B.M.; Botvinick, E.H.

1984-04-01

72

Modification of biochar for functionality improvement in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of biochar to soils is generally considered and practiced in order to improve specific soil functions such as CEC, moisture and nutrient retention and providing additional habitat for micro-organisms. Improvement of these soil functions should lead to a higher crop yield. This would be added value to the long term sequestration of carbon in soils and contribution to renewable energy from producing and using biochar. The concept of using biochar for soil amendment is predicated on biochar behaving in a similar manner as soil organic matter (SOM) does. However, if one critically compares the properties of biochar with the properties of SOM, it is evident that biochar is rather different from SOM [Zwart, 2013 ;Zwart & Kuikman, 2013]. We have has produced a range of biochar from different feedstock using pyrolysis, gasification and hydrothermal carbonisation resulting in chars with significantly different properties. The project also investigates and tested several possibilities for improving the functionality of biochar in soils by either(i) selection of feedstock, (ii), selection of processing conditions and (iii) chemical and physical modification of biochar during and after the production process. Post modification includes the chemical treatment of biochars with either H2O2, KOH, H2SO4 and transitional metals such as Fe and investigates their effect on surface functionality, porosity, surface area, CEC and phosphate sorption. The influence of the addition of chemical modifiers and oxidants during pyrolysis and gasification has also been investigated and their effect on surface functionality determined using similar techniques. The influence of the original biomass structure on the morphology of the resultant biochars has been investigated using scanning electron microscopy.

Zwart, Kor; Kuikman, Peter; Ross, Anrew; Takaya, Chibi; Singh, Surjit; Kocaturk, Pelin; Visser, Rian

2014-05-01

73

Activities and Programs That Improve Children's Executive Functions  

PubMed Central

Executive functions (EFs; e.g., reasoning, working memory, and self-control) can be improved. Good news indeed, since EFs are critical for school and job success and for mental and physical health. Various activities appear to improve children’s EFs. The best evidence exists for computer-based training, traditional martial arts, and two school curricula. Weaker evidence, though strong enough to pass peer review, exists for aerobics, yoga, mindfulness, and other school curricula. Here I address what can be learned from the research thus far, including that EFs need to be progressively challenged as children improve and that repeated practice is key. Children devote time and effort to activities they love; therefore, EF interventions might use children’s motivation to advantage. Focusing narrowly on EFs or aerobic activity alone appears not to be as efficacious in improving EFs as also addressing children’s emotional, social, and character development (as do martial arts, yoga, and curricula shown to improve EFs). Children with poorer EFs benefit more from training; hence, training might provide them an opportunity to “catch up” with their peers and not be left behind. Remaining questions include how long benefits of EF training last and who benefits most from which activities. PMID:25328287

Diamond, Adele

2014-01-01

74

Left Ventricular Functional Analysis Using 64Slice Multidetector Row Computed Tomography: Comparison with Left Ventriculography and Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The progress in computed tomography (CT) has improved temporal resolution and shortened the acquisition time. We compared cardiac function using 64-slice CT with left ventriculography (LVG) and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods: A head-to-head comparison between CT, LVG and CMR was performed in 41 patients. In global LV function, CMR served as the reference. Regional wall motion was compared

Yen-Wen Wu; Eiji Tadamura; Shotaro Kanao; Masaki Yamamuro; Satoshi Okayama; Neiko Ozasa; Masanao Toma; Takeshi Kimura; Toru Kita; Akira Marui; Masashi Komeda; Kaori Togashi

2008-01-01

75

Functional training improves club head speed and functional fitness in older golfers.  

PubMed

Functional training programs have been used in a variety of rehabilitation settings with documented success. Based on that success, the concept of functional training has gained popularity in applied fitness settings to enhance sport performance. However, there has been little or no research studying the efficacy of functional training programs on the improvement of sport performance or functional fitness. Thus, it was the purpose of this study to determine the effect of a progressive functional training program on club head speed and functional fitness in older male golfers. Eighteen male golfers (age: 70.7 +/- 9.1 [SD] years) were randomly assigned to an exercise (N = 11) or control (N = 7) group. The exercise group participated in an 8-week progressive functional training program including flexibility exercises, core stability exercises, balance exercises, and resistance exercises. Pre- and postmeasurements included club head speed of a driver by radar (exercise and Control) and Fullerton Senior Fitness Test measurements (exercise only). One-way analysis of covariance was performed on club head speed measurements using pretest measurements as the covariate. Paired t-tests were performed to analyze Senior Fitness Test variables. After the intervention, maximal club head speed increased in the exercise group (127.3 +/- 13.4 to 133.6 +/- 14.2 km x hr(-1)) compared with the control group (134.5 +/- 14.6 to 133.3 +/- 11.2 km x hr(-1); p < 0.05). Additionally, improvements (p < 0.05) were detected for most Senior Fitness Test variables in the exercise group. In summary, this functional training program resulted in significant improvements in club head speed and several components of functional fitness. Future research should continue to examine the effect of functional training programs on sport performance and functional fitness in older adults. PMID:17313268

Thompson, Christian J; Cobb, Karen Myers; Blackwell, John

2007-02-01

76

Hepatic ABCA1 Expression Improves ?-Cell Function and Glucose Tolerance.  

PubMed

Low HDL is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. Hepatic ABCA1 is the rate-limiting protein in HDL biogenesis, and mice lacking hepatic ABCA1 (ABCA1(-l/-l)) have very low plasma HDL concentrations. To investigate the role of hepatic ABCA1 in glucose tolerance and ?-cell function, we used ABCA1(-l/-l) mice, which showed impaired glucose tolerance without changes in insulin sensitivity. Insulin secretion was reduced following glucose gavage. Ex vivo, glucose stimulated insulin secretion from ?-cells from wild-type (WT) and ABCA1(-l/-l) mice was similar. Insulin secretion was, however, reduced upon addition of ABCA1(-l/-l) serum to the medium compared with WT serum, whereas islets lacking ?-cell ABCA1 were not affected differently by ABCA1(-l/-l) or WT serum. After high-fat feeding, WT and ABCA1(-l/-l) mice showed no difference in glucose tolerance or insulin secretion, and serum from ABCA1(-l/-l) and WT mice fed a high-fat diet did not affect insulin secretion differently. We conclude that hepatic ABCA1 improves glucose tolerance by improving ?-cell function through both HDL production and interaction with ?-cell ABCA1. The beneficial effect of hepatic ABCA1 is decreased under metabolic stress. Increasing hepatic ABCA1 may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for improving glucose homeostasis in diabetes. PMID:25028523

de Haan, Willeke; Karasinska, Joanna M; Ruddle, Piers; Hayden, Michael R

2014-12-01

77

Improved Memory Function Two Years After Bariatric Surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective Obesity is as an independent risk factor for poor neurocognitive outcomes, including Alzheimer’s disease. Bariatric surgery has recently been shown to result in improved memory at 12-weeks post-operatively. However, the long-term effects of bariatric surgery on cognitive function remain unclear. Design and Methods 86 individuals (63 bariatric surgery patients, 23 obese controls) were recruited from a prospective study examining the neurocognitive effects of bariatric surgery. All participants completed self-report measurements and a computerized cognitive test battery prior to surgery and at 12-week and 24-month follow-up; obese controls completed measures at equivalent time points. Results Bariatric surgery patients exhibited high rates of pre-operative cognitive impairments in attention, executive function, memory, and language. Relative to obese controls, repeated measures ANOVA showed improvements in memory from baseline to 12-weeks and 24-months post-operatively (p < .05). Regression analyses controlling for baseline factors revealed that a lower BMI at 24-months demonstrated a trend toward significance for improved memory (? = -.30, p = .075). Conclusion These findings suggest that cognitive benefits of bariatric surgery may extend to 24-months post-operatively. Larger prospective studies with extended follow-up periods are needed to elucidate whether bariatric surgery decreases risk for cognitive decline and possibly the development of dementia. PMID:23625587

Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Paul, Robert; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, James E.; Gunstad, John

2014-01-01

78

Adaptive servoventilation improves cardiac function and respiratory stability  

PubMed Central

Cheyne–Stokes respiration (CSR) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) is of major prognostic impact and expresses respiratory instability. Other parameters are daytime pCO2, VE/VCO2-slope during exercise, exertional oscillatory ventilation (EOV), and increased sensitivity of central CO2 receptors. Adaptive servoventilation (ASV) was introduced to specifically treat CSR in CHF. Aim of this study was to investigate ASV effects on CSR, cardiac function, and respiratory stability. A total of 105 patients with CHF (NYHA ? II, left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) ? 40%) and CSR (apnoea–hypopnoea index ? 15/h) met inclusion criteria. According to adherence to ASV treatment (follow-up of 6.7 ± 3.2 months) this group was divided into controls (rejection of ASV treatment or usage <50% of nights possible and/or <4 h/night; n = 59) and ASV (n = 56) adhered patients. In the ASV group, ventilator therapy was able to effectively treat CSR. In contrast to controls, NYHA class, EF, oxygen uptake, 6-min walking distance, and NT-proBNP improved significantly. Moreover, exclusively in these patients pCO2, VE/VCO2-slope during exercise, EOV, and central CO2 receptor sensitivity improved. In CHF patients with CSR, ASV might be able to improve parameters of SDB, cardiac function, and respiratory stability. PMID:20835903

Bitter, Thomas; Lehmann, Roman; Korte, Stefan; Dimitriadis, Zisis; Faber, Lothar; Schmidt, Anke; Westerheide, Nina; Horstkotte, Dieter

2010-01-01

79

Adaptive servoventilation improves cardiac function and respiratory stability.  

PubMed

Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) is of major prognostic impact and expresses respiratory instability. Other parameters are daytime pCO?, VE/VCO?-slope during exercise, exertional oscillatory ventilation (EOV), and increased sensitivity of central CO? receptors. Adaptive servoventilation (ASV) was introduced to specifically treat CSR in CHF. Aim of this study was to investigate ASV effects on CSR, cardiac function, and respiratory stability. A total of 105 patients with CHF (NYHA ? II, left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) ? 40%) and CSR (apnoea-hypopnoea index ? 15/h) met inclusion criteria. According to adherence to ASV treatment (follow-up of 6.7 ± 3.2 months) this group was divided into controls (rejection of ASV treatment or usage <50% of nights possible and/or <4 h/night; n = 59) and ASV (n = 56) adhered patients. In the ASV group, ventilator therapy was able to effectively treat CSR. In contrast to controls, NYHA class, EF, oxygen uptake, 6-min walking distance, and NT-proBNP improved significantly. Moreover, exclusively in these patients pCO?, VE/VCO?-slope during exercise, EOV, and central CO? receptor sensitivity improved. In CHF patients with CSR, ASV might be able to improve parameters of SDB, cardiac function, and respiratory stability. PMID:20835903

Oldenburg, Olaf; Bitter, Thomas; Lehmann, Roman; Korte, Stefan; Dimitriadis, Zisis; Faber, Lothar; Schmidt, Anke; Westerheide, Nina; Horstkotte, Dieter

2011-02-01

80

Molecular Characterizations of a Novel Putative DNA-Binding Protein LvDBP23 in Marine Shrimp L. vannamei Tissues and Molting Stages  

PubMed Central

Background Litopenaeus Vannamei, well known as pacific white shrimp, is the most popular shrimp in the world shrimp market. Identification and characterization of shrimp muscle regulatory genes are not only important for shrimp genetic improvement, but also facilitate comparative genomic tools for understanding of muscle development and regeneration. Methodology/Principal Findings A novel mRNA encoding for a putative DNA-binding protein LvDBP23 was identified from Litopenaeus vannamei abdominal muscle cDNA library. The LvDBP23 cDNA contains 639 nucleotides of protein-coding sequence with deduced 212 amino acids of predicted molecular mass 23.32 kDa with glycine-rich domain at amino acid position 94–130. The mRNA sequence is successfully used for producing LvDBP23 recombinant protein in sf9 insect cell expression system. The expression of LvDBP23 mRNA is presented in abdominal muscle and swimming leg muscle, as well as other tissues including intestine, lymphoid and gill. The mRNA expression has the highest level in abdominal muscle in all tested tissues. LVDBP23 transcript during the molt cycle is highly expressed in the intermolt stage. In vitro nucleic acid-binding assays reveal that LvDBP23 protein can bind to both ssDNA and dsDNA, indicating its possible role of regulation of gene transcription. Conclusions/Significance We are the first to report a DNA-binding protein identified from the abdominal muscle tissue of marine shrimp L. Vannamei. Its high-level specific expression during the intermot stage suggests its role in the regulation of muscle buildup during the growth phase of shrimp molt cycle. PMID:21625495

Laoong-u-thai, Yanisa; Zhao, Baoping; Phongdara, Amornrat; Yang, Jinzeng

2011-01-01

81

IL 10 Treatment Attenuates Pressure Overload-Induced Hypertrophic Remodeling and Improves Heart Function via STAT3 Dependent Inhibition of NF?B  

PubMed Central

Background Inflammation plays a critical role in adverse cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Therefore, approaches geared towards inhibiting inflammation may provide therapeutic benefits. We tested the hypothesis that genetic deletion of interleukin-10 (IL10), a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, exacerbates pressure-overload induced adverse cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy and that IL10 therapy inhibits this pathology. Methods and Results Cardiac hypertrophy was induced in Wild-type (WT) and IL10-knockout (KO) mice by isoproterenol (ISO) infusion. ISO-induced left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and hypertrophic remodeling, including fibrosis and fetal gene expression, were further exaggerated in KO mice compared to WT. Systemic recombinant mouse IL10 administration markedly improved LV function and not only inhibited but also reversed ISO-induced cardiac remodeling. Intriguingly, very similar cardio-protective response of IL10 was found in transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced hypertrophy and heart failure model. In neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRCM) and H9c2 myoblasts, ISO activated NF?B while it inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation. Interestingly, IL10 suppressed ISO-induced NF?B activation and attenuated STAT3 inhibition. Moreover, pharmacological and genetic inhibition of STAT3 reversed the protective effects of IL10 while ectopic expression of constitutively active STAT3 mimicked the IL10 responses on the ISO effects, confirming that IL10 mediated inhibition of NF?B is STAT3 dependent. Conclusions Taken together our studies suggest IL10 treatment as a potential therapeutic approach to limit the progression of pressure overload-induced adverse cardiac remodeling. PMID:22705886

Verma, Suresh Kumar; Krishnamurthy, Prasanna; Barefield, David; Singh, Neha; Gupta, Rajesh; Lambers, Erin; Thal, Melissa; Mackie, Alexander; Hoxha, Eneda; Ramirez, Veronica; Qin, Gangjian; Sadayappan, Sakthivel; Ghosh, Asish; Kishore, Raj

2012-01-01

82

Active robotic training improves locomotor function in a stroke survivor  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical outcomes after robotic training are often not superior to conventional therapy. One key factor responsible for this is the use of control strategies that provide substantial guidance. This strategy not only leads to a reduction in volitional physical effort, but also interferes with motor relearning. Methods We tested the feasibility of a novel training approach (active robotic training) using a powered gait orthosis (Lokomat) in mitigating post-stroke gait impairments of a 52-year-old male stroke survivor. This gait training paradigm combined patient-cooperative robot-aided walking with a target-tracking task. The training lasted for 4-weeks (12 visits, 3?×?per week). The subject’s neuromotor performance and recovery were evaluated using biomechanical, neuromuscular and clinical measures recorded at various time-points (pre-training, post-training, and 6-weeks after training). Results Active robotic training resulted in considerable increase in target-tracking accuracy and reduction in the kinematic variability of ankle trajectory during robot-aided treadmill walking. These improvements also transferred to overground walking as characterized by larger propulsive forces and more symmetric ground reaction forces (GRFs). Training also resulted in improvements in muscle coordination, which resembled patterns observed in healthy controls. These changes were accompanied by a reduction in motor cortical excitability (MCE) of the vastus medialis, medial hamstrings, and gluteus medius muscles during treadmill walking. Importantly, active robotic training resulted in substantial improvements in several standard clinical and functional parameters. These improvements persisted during the follow-up evaluation at 6?weeks. Conclusions The results indicate that active robotic training appears to be a promising way of facilitating gait and physical function in moderately impaired stroke survivors. PMID:22906099

2012-01-01

83

Molecular Characterizations of a Novel Putative DNA-Binding Protein LvDBP23 in Marine Shrimp L. vannamei Tissues and Molting Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLitopenaeus Vannamei, well known as pacific white shrimp, is the most popular shrimp in the world shrimp market. Identification and characterization of shrimp muscle regulatory genes are not only important for shrimp genetic improvement, but also facilitate comparative genomic tools for understanding of muscle development and regeneration.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsA novel mRNA encoding for a putative DNA-binding protein LvDBP23 was identified from

Yanisa Laoong-u-thai; Baoping Zhao; Amornrat Phongdara; Jinzeng Yang

2011-01-01

84

Reduction of brain kynurenic acid improves cognitive function.  

PubMed

The elevation of kynurenic acid (KYNA) observed in schizophrenic patients may contribute to core symptoms arising from glutamate hypofunction, including cognitive impairments. Although increased KYNA levels reduce excitatory neurotransmission, KYNA has been proposed to act as an endogenous antagonist at the glycine site of the glutamate NMDA receptor (NMDAR) and as a negative allosteric modulator at the ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Levels of KYNA are elevated in CSF and the postmortem brain of schizophrenia patients, and these elevated levels of KYNA could contribute to NMDAR hypofunction and the cognitive deficits and negative symptoms associated with this disease. However, the impact of endogenously produced KYNA on brain function and behavior is less well understood due to a paucity of pharmacological tools. To address this issue, we identified PF-04859989, a brain-penetrable inhibitor of kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II), the enzyme responsible for most brain KYNA synthesis. In rats, systemic administration of PF-04859989 dose-dependently reduced brain KYNA to as little as 28% of basal levels, and prevented amphetamine- and ketamine-induced disruption of auditory gating and improved performance in a sustained attention task. It also prevented ketamine-induced disruption of performance in a working memory task and a spatial memory task in rodents and nonhuman primates, respectively. Together, these findings support the hypotheses that endogenous KYNA impacts cognitive function and that inhibition of KAT II, and consequent lowering of endogenous brain KYNA levels, improves cognitive performance under conditions considered relevant for schizophrenia. PMID:25100593

Kozak, Rouba; Campbell, Brian M; Strick, Christine A; Horner, Weldon; Hoffmann, William E; Kiss, Tamas; Chapin, Douglas S; McGinnis, Dina; Abbott, Amanda L; Roberts, Brooke M; Fonseca, Kari; Guanowsky, Victor; Young, Damon A; Seymour, Patricia A; Dounay, Amy; Hajos, Mihaly; Williams, Graham V; Castner, Stacy A

2014-08-01

85

Exercise Training Improves Plantarflexor Muscle Function in mdx Mice  

PubMed Central

Purpose We tested the hypothesis that low intensity exercise in mdx mice improves plantarflexor muscle contractile function, resistance to fatigue, and mitochondrial adaptations without exacerbating muscular dystrophy. Methods We subjected mdx mice to 12 wk of voluntary, low-resistance wheel running (Run, n=17) or normal cage activities (sedentary; Sed, n=16) followed by in vivo analyses for plantarflexor torque generation and fatigue resistance, or running capacity on a treadmill. Gastrocnemius muscles were further evaluated for exercise-induced mitochondrial adaptations and fiber type distribution and central nuclei. T-tests were used to determine differences between the Sed and Run groups. Results Plantarflexor submaximal isometric torques and maximal isometric torque at multiple ankle joint angles, and resistance to fatigue were greater in Run compared to Sed mdx mice (P<0.05). Citrate synthase and ?-HAD enzyme activities and COX IV protein expression in gastrocnemius muscles were greater in Run than Sed mdx mice (P?0.04), along with a trend of fiber type transformation from type IIb to type 2x fibers. Exercise training in mdx mice did not elevate serum creatine kinase levels, but led to a significant reduction of centrally-nucleated myofibers. Conclusion Voluntary, low-resistance wheel running in mdx mice can result in skeletal muscle adaptation, leading to improved contractile function and reduced fatigability, with no indication that exercise was detrimental. This study supports the need for further investigation of low intensity exercise as an early therapeutic intervention in ambulatory boys with DMD. PMID:22460476

Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Call, Jarrod A.; Cochrane, Gregory D.; Laker, Rhianna C.; Yan, Zhen; Lowe, Dawn A.

2012-01-01

86

Traditional Japanese Medicine Daikenchuto Improves Functional Constipation in Poststroke Patients  

PubMed Central

Poststroke patients with functional constipation, assessed by the Rome III criteria, from 6 hospitals were recruited in a study on the effects of the traditional Japanese medicine Daikenchuto (DKT) on constipation. Thirty-four patients (17 men and 17 women; mean age: 78.1 ± 11.6 years) were randomly assigned to 2 groups; all patients received conventional therapy for constipation, and patients in the DKT group received 15?g/day of DKT for 4 weeks. Constipation scoring system (CSS) points and the gas volume score (GVS) (the measure of the intestinal gas volume calculated from plain abdominal radiographs) were recorded before and after a 4-week observation period. The total score on the CSS improved significantly in the DKT group compared to the control (P < 0.01). In addition, scores for some CSS subcategories (frequency of bowel movements, feeling of incomplete evacuation, and need for enema/disimpaction) significantly improved in the DKT group (P < 0.01, P = 0.049, and P = 0.03, resp.). The GVS was also significantly reduced in the DKT group compared to the control (P = 0.03). DKT in addition to conventional therapy is effective in treating functional constipation in poststroke patients. This study was a randomized controlled trial and was registered in the UMIN Clinical Trial Registry (no. UMIN000007393). PMID:25089144

Numata, Takehiro; Takayama, Shin; Tobita, Muneshige; Ishida, Shuichi; Katayose, Dai; Shinkawa, Mitsutoshi; Oikawa, Takashi; Aonuma, Takanori; Kaneko, Soichiro; Tanaka, Junichi; Kanemura, Seiki; Iwasaki, Koh; Ishii, Tadashi; Yaegashi, Nobuo

2014-01-01

87

Improved CLARAty Functional-Layer/Decision-Layer Interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved interface software for communication between the CLARAty Decision and Functional layers has been developed. [The Coupled Layer Architecture for Robotics Autonomy (CLARAty) was described in Coupled-Layer Robotics Architecture for Autonomy (NPO-21218), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 12 (December 2002), page 48. To recapitulate: the CLARAty architecture was developed to improve the modularity of robotic software while tightening coupling between planning/execution and basic control subsystems. Whereas prior robotic software architectures typically contained three layers, the CLARAty contains two layers: a decision layer (DL) and a functional layer (FL).] Types of communication supported by the present software include sending commands from DL modules to FL modules and sending data updates from FL modules to DL modules. The present software supplants prior interface software that had little error-checking capability, supported data parameters in string form only, supported commanding at only one level of the FL, and supported only limited updates of the state of the robot. The present software offers strong error checking, and supports complex data structures and commanding at multiple levels of the FL, and relative to the prior software, offers a much wider spectrum of state-update capabilities.

Estlin, Tara; Rabideau, Gregg; Gaines, Daniel; Johnston, Mark; Chouinard, Caroline; Nessnas, Issa; Shu, I-Hsiang

2008-01-01

88

Alkalizer Administration Improves Renal Function in Hyperuricemia Associated with Obesity  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the combination effect of the alkalizer citrate with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol on renal function and uric acid in patients with hyperuricemia associated with obesity and/or metabolic syndrome (MetS), who were extracted from among the subjects enrolled in a prospective randomized controlled study aimed at assessing the efficacy of such a combination for improving renal function. We also conducted a post hoc analysis to examine influences on lipid profiles. Patients who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated to receive either allopurinol alone (monotherapy) or in combination with a citrate preparation (combination therapy). The analysis population consisted of 31 obese patients with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2 (monotherapy, 15 patients; combination therapy, 16 patients). The creatinine clearance rate (Ccr), serum uric acid levels, and lipid profiles were measured before and at 12 weeks after the start of treatment. In the combination therapy group, Ccr increased significantly and serum uric acid levels decreased significantly in obese patients, while Ccr tended to increase and serum uric acid levels decreased, though not significantly, in patients with MetS-related clinical parameters. Overall, blood triglyceride levels tended to improve in the combination therapy group as compared with the monotherapy group. PMID:23966810

Saito, Jun; Matsuzawa, Yoko; Ito, Hiroko; Omura, Masao; Kino, Tomoshige; Nishikawa, Tetsuo

2013-01-01

89

Alkalizer administration improves renal function in hyperuricemia associated with obesity.  

PubMed

We evaluated the combination effect of the alkalizer citrate with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol on renal function and uric acid in patients with hyperuricemia associated with obesity and/or metabolic syndrome (MetS), who were extracted from among the subjects enrolled in a prospective randomized controlled study aimed at assessing the efficacy of such a combination for improving renal function. We also conducted a post hoc analysis to examine influences on lipid profiles. Patients who consented to participate in the study were randomly allocated to receive either allopurinol alone (monotherapy) or in combination with a citrate preparation (combination therapy). The analysis population consisted of 31 obese patients with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m(2) (monotherapy, 15 patients; combination therapy, 16 patients). The creatinine clearance rate (Ccr), serum uric acid levels, and lipid profiles were measured before and at 12 weeks after the start of treatment. In the combination therapy group, Ccr increased significantly and serum uric acid levels decreased significantly in obese patients, while Ccr tended to increase and serum uric acid levels decreased, though not significantly, in patients with MetS-related clinical parameters. Overall, blood triglyceride levels tended to improve in the combination therapy group as compared with the monotherapy group. PMID:23966810

Saito, Jun; Matsuzawa, Yoko; Ito, Hiroko; Omura, Masao; Kino, Tomoshige; Nishikawa, Tetsuo

2013-01-01

90

Does L-carnitine improve endothelial function in hemodialysis patients?  

PubMed Central

Background: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in hemodialysis patients. These patients are also very prone to L-carnitine deficiency due to kidney disease. In this clinical trial, we investigated the effect of oral L-carnitine on endothelial function of these patients. Materials ans Methods: We studied 31 adult chronic hemodialysis patients in our center and divided them into two groups. The first group (n = 20) received 1500 mg/dialysis interval (every other day) oral L-carnitine. The control group (n = 11) received placebo for one month. Ultrasonographic measurements of flow mediated dilation and carotid intima-media thickness were performed before and after one month of L-carnitine and placebo therapy. Results: This study showed that after one month of L-carnitine or placebo therapy there was no significant improvement in flow mediated dilation (p = 0.80 and p = 0.59, respectively) or decrease in carotid intima-media thickness (p = 0.12 and p = 0.50, respectively). Conclusions: Our study revealed that one month of oral L-carnitine therapy did not improve endothelial function in hemodialysis patients. Long-term studies with large sample size using intravenous form and higher doses of the drug are required to clarify the questionable role of L-carnitine in hemodialysis patients. PMID:23626603

Sabri, Mohammad Reza; Fahimi, Farnaz; Hajialiasgar, Soheila; Etminan, Abbas; Nazemi, Sarir; Salehi, Farzaneh

2012-01-01

91

Shortening of atrioventricular delay at increased atrial paced heart rates improves diastolic filling and functional class in patients with biventricular pacing  

PubMed Central

Background Use of rate adaptive atrioventricular (AV) delay remains controversial in patients with biventricular (Biv) pacing. We hypothesized that a shortened AV delay would provide optimal diastolic filling by allowing separation of early and late diastolic filling at increased heart rate (HR) in these patients. Methods 34 patients (75 ± 11 yrs, 24 M, LVEF 34 ± 12%) with Biv and atrial pacing had optimal AV delay determined at baseline HR by Doppler echocardiography. Atrial pacing rate was then increased in 10 bpm increments to a maximum of 90 bpm. At each atrial pacing HR, optimal AV delay was determined by changing AV delay until best E and A wave separation was seen on mitral inflow pulsed wave (PW) Doppler (defined as increased atrial duration from baseline or prior pacemaker setting with minimal atrial truncation). Left ventricular (LV) systolic ejection time and velocity time integral (VTI) at fixed and optimal AV delay was also tested in 13 patients. Rate adaptive AV delay was then programmed according to the optimal AV delay at the highest HR tested and patients were followed for 1 month to assess change in NYHA class and Quality of Life Score as assessed by Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire. Results 81 AV delays were evaluated at different atrial pacing rates. Optimal AV delay decreased as atrial paced HR increased (201 ms at 60 bpm, 187 ms at 70 bpm, 146 ms at 80 bpm and 123 ms at 90 bpm (ANOVA F-statistic = 15, p = 0.0010). Diastolic filling time (P < 0.001 vs. fixed AV delay), mitral inflow VTI (p < 0.05 vs fixed AV delay) and systolic ejection time (p < 0.02 vs. fixed AV delay) improved by 14%, 5% and 4% respectively at optimal versus fixed AV delay at the same HR. NYHA improved from 2.6 ± 0.7 at baseline to 1.7 ± 0.8 (p < 0.01) 1 month post optimization. Physical component of Quality of Life Score improved from 32 ± 17 at baseline to 25 ± 12 (p < 0.05) at follow up. Conclusions Increased heart rate by atrial pacing in patients with Biv pacing causes compromise in diastolic filling time which can be improved by AV delay shortening. Aggressive AV delay shortening was required at heart rates in physiologic range to achieve optimal diastolic filling and was associated with an increase in LV ejection time during optimization. Functional class improved at 1 month post optimization using aggressive AV delay shortening algorithm derived from echo-guidance at the time of Biv pacemaker optimization. PMID:22269022

2012-01-01

92

Insertional activation of myb by F-MuLV in SCID mice induces myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Identification of retrovirus integration sites is a powerful method to identify cancer-related genes. This approach led to the discovery of the Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV) integration site-1 (fli-1). Viral insertion at the fli-1 locus induces erythroleukemia in susceptible strains of mice. Our recent data demonstrated that, F-MuLV-infected SCID mice, in contrast to wt CB17 controls, developed a non?erythroleukemic leukemia without viral integration at the fli-1 locus. Using ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction (LM-PCR) approach we identified a total of 15 viral integration sites in F-MuLV-infected SCID mice. One of the identified insertion sites was located about 62 kb upstream of the myeloblastosis (myb) gene. While integration within or surrounding the myb gene has been reported before for murine leukemia viruses, the location of the viral integration site identified in F-MuLV?infected SCID mice is novel and has never been reported. Using PCR analysis we showed that viral integration at the myb locus occurs with a frequency of 35% and therefore is considered as a common integration site. Integration of F-MuLV in this locus resulted in upregulation of the MYB protein. Flow cytometry analysis and methylcellulose culture of leukemic cells isolated from tumors with viral integration close to the myb indicated tumors of myeloid origin. Our findings indicate that, in contrast to wt CB17 mice, F-MuLV-infected SCID mice display viral integration within myeloid specific gene loci that result in the development of myelogenous leukemia. PMID:23677281

Haeri, Mehran; Li, Youjun; Li, Yanmei; Li, Qi; Spaner, David E; Ben-David, Yaacov

2013-07-01

93

Four-dimensional blood flow-specific markers of LV dysfunction in dilated cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Aims Patients with mild heart failure (HF) who are clinically compensated may have normal left ventricular (LV) stroke volume (SV). Despite this, altered intra-ventricular flow patterns have been recognized in these subjects. We hypothesized that, compared with normal LVs, flow in myopathic LVs would demonstrate a smaller proportion of inflow volume passing directly to ejection and diminished the end-diastolic preservation of the inflow kinetic energy (KE). Methods and results In 10 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) (49 ± 14 years, six females) and 10 healthy subjects (44 ± 17 years, four females), four-dimensional MRI velocity and morphological data were acquired. A previously validated method was used to separate the LV end-diastolic volume (EDV) into four flow components based on the blood's locations at the beginning and end of the cardiac cycle. KE was calculated over the cardiac cycle for each component. The EDV was larger (P = 0.021) and the ejection fraction smaller (P < 0.001) in DCM compared with healthy subjects; the SV was equivalent (DCM: 77 ± 19, healthy: 79 ± 16 mL). The proportion of the total LV inflow that passed directly to ejection was smaller in DCM (P = 0.000), but the end-diastolic KE/mL of the direct flow was not different in the two groups (NS). Conclusion Despite equivalent LVSVs, HF patients with mild LV remodelling demonstrate altered diastolic flow routes through the LV and impaired preservation of inflow KE at pre-systole compared with healthy subjects. These unique flow-specific changes in the flow route and energetics are detectable despite clinical compensation, and may prove useful as subclinical markers of LV dysfunction. PMID:22879457

Eriksson, Jonatan; Bolger, Ann F.; Ebbers, Tino; Carlhäll, Carl-Johan

2013-01-01

94

Design management of functional foods for quality of life improvement.  

PubMed

The paper examines the benefit of bread enriched with antioxidants on oxidative stress, and on the quantities of hydrosoluble antioxidants in a group of human subjects. The home-management of functional foods strategy seeks to improve prompt and effective basic nutrition using additional attributes that are directly positively beneficial for health and well-being. The purpose of this clinical study was to test the tolerance and benefits of multicomponent functional foods enriched with antioxidant compounds obtained from plant extracts on healthy adult volunteers. A detailed protocol was created to formalize and standardize the procedures for data collection, e.g. filling out standardized forms and functional diet questionnaires. For the research method, Group A was given the special diet enriched with multicomponent antioxidant foods and Group B (control). The data were analysed using the quantitative methods. They showed significant increase of hydrosoluble antioxidants in group A compared to control, from 220.61+/-27.92 - 313.56+/-37.09 micrograms/mL (p=0.05), compared to 280.47+/-32.1 - 238.27+/-44.93 micrograms/mL (p=0.45). Also, oxidative stress values showed a decrease in the diet group compared to control that reached statistical significance. Oxidative stress decreased in the diet group to 244 +/- 89 compared to 308+/-108 UFORT in the control group. The responses of the prevention of chronic diseases to a functional foods strategy depend on how they are absorbed and utilized in the body. An anti-oxidant diet with natural bioactive components could become an interesting solution for degenerative disorders in which oxidative stress is increased. PMID:24364445

Butnariu, Monica; Caunii, Angela

2013-01-01

95

Improving Project Management with Simulation and Completion Distribution Functions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Despite the critical importance of project completion timeliness, management practices in place today remain inadequate for addressing the persistent problem of project completion tardiness. A major culprit in late projects is uncertainty, which most, if not all, projects are inherently subject to. This uncertainty resides in the estimates for activity durations, the occurrence of unplanned and unforeseen events, and the availability of critical resources. In response to this problem, this research developed a comprehensive simulation based methodology for conducting quantitative project completion time risk analysis. It is called the Project Assessment by Simulation Technique (PAST). This new tool enables project stakeholders to visualize uncertainty or risk, i.e. the likelihood of their project completing late and the magnitude of the lateness, by providing them with a completion time distribution function of their projects. Discrete event simulation is used within PAST to determine the completion distribution function for the project of interest. The simulation is populated with both deterministic and stochastic elements. The deterministic inputs include planned project activities, precedence requirements, and resource requirements. The stochastic inputs include activity duration growth distributions, probabilities for events that can impact the project, and other dynamic constraints that may be placed upon project activities and milestones. These stochastic inputs are based upon past data from similar projects. The time for an entity to complete the simulation network, subject to both the deterministic and stochastic factors, represents the time to complete the project. Repeating the simulation hundreds or thousands of times allows one to create the project completion distribution function. The Project Assessment by Simulation Technique was demonstrated to be effective for the on-going NASA project to assemble the International Space Station. Approximately $500 million per month is being spent on this project, which is scheduled to complete by 2010. NASA project stakeholders participated in determining and managing completion distribution functions produced from PAST. The first result was that project stakeholders improved project completion risk awareness. Secondly, using PAST, mitigation options were analyzed to improve project completion performance and reduce total project cost.

Cates, Grant R.

2004-01-01

96

Two Litopenaeus vannamei HMGB proteins interact with transcription factors LvSTAT and LvDorsal to activate the promoter of white spot syndrome virus immediate-early gene ie1.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused great economic damage to shrimp aquaculture. Previous studies have shown that WSSV successfully usurps the immunity system of the host for its own gene regulation. To investigate the role of shrimp high mobility group box (HMGB) proteins in WSSV gene regulation, two Litopenaeus vannamei HMGB genes, LvHMGBa and LvHMGBb, were isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Recombinant LvHMGBa/b proteins were present in the nucleus of transfected Drosophila Schneider 2 (S2) cells. Luciferase reporter assays revealed that LvHMGBa/b upregulated the WSSV immediate-early (IE) gene (ie1) in a NF-?B and STAT binding site-dependent manner. GST pull-down assays demonstrated that LvHMGBa/b interacted with L. vannamei Dorsal (LvDorsal) and L. vannamei STAT (LvSTAT), respectively. LvHMGBa was highly expressed in hepatopancreas while HMGBb was highly expressed in stomach, intestine, heart, antennal gland, and epidermis. Moreover, an immune challenge assay demonstrated that the expression of LvHMGBa/b was upregulated by WSSV infection and that both mRNAs reached peak values at 24 h post-infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report that invertebrate HMGB proteins participates in viral gene regulation. PMID:21186060

Chen, Yi-Hong; Jia, Xiao-Ting; Huang, Xian-De; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Mei; Xie, Jun-Feng; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo

2011-02-01

97

Do women have impaired regional systolic function in hypertensive heart disease? A 3-dimensional echocardiography study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: In pressure overload left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, gender- related differences in global LV systolic function have been previously reported. The goal of this study was to determine regional systolic function of the left ventri- cle in male and female patients with hypertensive heart disease. Methods and results: Regional LV function was analyzed from multiplane transeso- phageal echocardiography with three-dimensional

Jurgen Frielingsdorf; Michele Genoni; Otto M. Hess; Frank A. Flachskampf

2007-01-01

98

Cardiac assist with a twist: apical torsion as a means to improve failing heart function.  

PubMed

Changes in muscle fiber orientation across the wall of the left ventricle (LV) cause the apex of the heart to turn 10-15 deg in opposition to its base during systole and are believed to increase stroke volume and lower wall stress in healthy hearts. Studies show that cardiac torsion is sensitive to various disease states, which suggests that it may be an important aspect of cardiac function. Modern imaging techniques have sparked renewed interest in cardiac torsion dynamics, but no work has been done to determine whether mechanically augmented apical torsion can be used to restore function to failing hearts. In this report, we discuss the potential advantages of this approach and present evidence that turning the cardiac apex by mechanical means can displace a clinically significant volume of blood from failing hearts. Computational models of normal and reduced-function LVs were created to predict the effects of applied apical torsion on ventricular stroke work and wall stress. These same conditions were reproduced in anesthetized pigs with drug-induced heart failure using a custom apical torsion device programmed to rotate over various angles during cardiac systole. Simulations of applied 90 deg torsion in a prolate spheroidal computational model of a reduced-function pig heart produced significant increases in stroke work (25%) and stroke volume with reduced fiber stress in the epicardial region. These calculations were in substantial agreement with corresponding in vivo measurements. Specifically, the computer model predicted torsion-induced stroke volume increases from 13.1 to 14.4 mL (9.9%) while actual stroke volume in a pig heart of similar size and degree of dysfunction increased from 11.1 to 13.0 mL (17.1%). Likewise, peak LV pressures in the computer model rose from 85 to 95 mm Hg (11.7%) with torsion while maximum ventricular pressures in vivo increased in similar proportion, from 55 to 61 mm Hg (10.9%). These data suggest that: (a) the computer model of apical torsion developed for this work is a fair and accurate predictor of experimental outcomes, and (b) supra-physiologic apical torsion may be a viable means to boost cardiac output while avoiding blood contact that occurs with other assist methods. PMID:22070328

Trumble, Dennnis R; McGregor, Walter E; Kerckhoffs, Roy C P; Waldman, Lewis K

2011-10-01

99

GMOS-IFU Spectroscopy of 167-317 (LV2) Proplyd in Orion  

E-print Network

We present high spatial resolution spectroscopic observations of the proplyd 167-317 (LV2) near the Trapezium cluster in the Orion nebula, obtained during the System Verification run of the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph (GMOS) Integral Field Unit (IFU) at the Gemini South Observatory. We have detected 38 forbidden and permitted emission lines associated with the proplyd and its redshifted jet. We have been able to detect three velocity components in the profiles of some of these lines: a peak with a 28-33 km/s systemic velocity that is associated with the photoevaporated proplyd flow, a highly redshifted component associated with a previously reported jet (which has receding velocities of about 80-120 km/s with respect to the systemic velocity and is spatially distributed to the southeast of the proplyd) and a less obvious, approaching structure, which may possibly be associated with a faint counter-jet with systemic velocity of (-75 +/- 15) km/s. We find evidences that the redshifted jet has a variable velocity, with slow fluctuations as a function of the distance from the proplyd. We present several background subtracted, spatially distributed emission line maps and we use this information to obtain the dynamical characteristics over the observed field. Using a simple model and with the extinction corrected Halpha fluxes, we estimate the mass loss rate for both the proplyd photoevaporated flow and the redshifted microjet, obtaining (6.2 +/- 0.6) x 10^{-7} M_sun/year and (2.0 +/- 0.7) x 10^{-8} M_sun/year, respectively.

M. J. Vasconcelos; A. H. Cerqueira; H. Plana; A. C. Raga; C. Morisset

2005-06-14

100

Addition of substitution of simian virus 40 enhancer sequences into the Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) long terminal repeat yields infectious M-MuLV with altered biological properties.  

PubMed Central

Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) is a replication-competent retrovirus which induces T-cell lymphoma in mice. The enhancer sequences present within the M-MuLV long terminal repeat (LTR) region of the proviral genome have been shown to influence the disease specificity of the virus strongly. We examined the contribution of the M-MuLV enhancers to the transcriptional activity and pathogenesis of M-MuLV by constructing LTRs containing heterologous enhancer elements. The simian virus 40 enhancer region (72- and 21-base-pair repeats) was inserted into the U3 region (at -150 base pairs) of the M-MuLV LTR (Mo + SV) and also into a deleted form of the LTR which lacks the M-MuLV enhancer sequences (delta Mo + SV). These chimeric LTRs were used to generate infectious M-MuLVs by transfection of corresponding proviral plasmids into mouse fibroblasts. The relative infectivities of Mo + SV and delta Mo + SV recombinant viruses as determined by rat XC cell plaque assay and reverse transcriptase assay were 60 to 70% of wild-type M-MuLV levels. To study the pathogenicity of these two recombinant viruses, we inoculated newborn NIH Swiss mice with either Mo + SV or delta Mo + SV M-MuLV. Both viruses induced disease more slowly than M-MuLV, which induces disease 2 to 4 months postinoculation. Mo + SV M-MuLV-inoculated animals became moribund at 3 to 13 months postinoculation, whereas delta Mo + SV M-MuLV-inoculated animals became moribund at 6 to 24 months postinoculation. The tumors induced by the two viruses were characterized histologically and molecularly. Mo + SV M-MuLV-induced tumors were primarily T-cell-derived lymphoblastic lymphomas containing extensive rearrangements of the T-cell receptor beta gene. In contrast, delta Mo + SV M-MuLV induced pre-B- and B-cell lymphoblastic lymphomas, B-cell-derived follicular-center cell lymphomas, and acute myeloid leukemia. The delta Mo + SV tumor DNAs from B-lineage tumors were typically rearranged at the immunoglobulin gene loci and contained germ line configurations of the T-cell receptor beta gene. Southern blot hybridization confirmed that the tumor DNAs contained the predicted Mo + SV M-MuLV or delta Mo + SV M-MuLV provirus. Images PMID:2836623

Hanecak, R; Pattengale, P K; Fan, H

1988-01-01

101

HeAT: A Software Assistant for the Analysis of LV Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction  

E-print Network

HeAT: A Software Assistant for the Analysis of LV Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction in 4D MR of pathological structures after myocardial infarction. In this paper the Heart Analysis Tool (HeAT) for the quantitative analysis of 4D MR image sequences of infarct patients is used to analyze the characteristics

Lübeck, Universität zu

102

Voltage and frequency control of inverter based weak LV network microgrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper voltage and frequency control of islanded microgrid after intentional and unintentional switching events are investigated. The weak low voltage (LV) network based microgrid consists of two inverter based distributed generation (DG) units. One unit is a storage (battery) unit and the other is a photovoltaic (PV) cell. In this case the battery inverter with rapid response is

H. Laaksonen; P. Saari; R. Komulainen

2005-01-01

103

Theoretical Population Biology 52, 60 70 (1997) Modelling the Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in  

E-print Network

the circulation of animal retro- viruses has not been modelled until recently (Courchamp et al., 1995). OurTheoretical Population Biology 52, 60 70 (1997) Modelling the Feline Leukemia Virus (Fe and impact of Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in populations of domestic cats. The model was tested with data

Courchamp, Franck

104

LV SURFACE RECONSTRUCTION FROM SPARSE TMRI USING LAPLACIAN SURFACE DEFORMATION AND OPTIMIZATION  

E-print Network

- mation (LSD) algorithms. The resulting mesh represents the reconstructed surface of the image data. Further more, this high quality surface mesh can be adopted by most deformable models. Using tagging line have been widely used for LV motion reconstruction. An accurate and high quality mesh is crucial

105

Comparison of left ventricular function during interval versus steady-state exercise training in patients with chronic congestive heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to assess the safety of interval exercise training in patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) with respect to left ventricular (LV) function. For effective rehabilitation in CHF, both aerobic capacity and muscle strength need to be improved. We have previously demonstrated in both coronary artery bypass surgery and patients with CHF that interval exercise training (IET)

Katharina Meyer; Carl Foster; Nikolaos Georgakopoulos; Ramiz Hajric; Samuel Westbrook; Amy Ellestad; Ken Tilman; Dani Fitzgerald; Heidi Young; Howard Weinstein; Helmut Roskamm

1998-01-01

106

Speckle-Tracking and Tissue-Doppler Stress Echocardiography in Arterial Hypertension: A Sensitive Tool for Detection of Subclinical LV Impairment  

PubMed Central

Early diagnosis of cardiac alterations in hypertensive heart disease is still challenging. Since such patients might have depressed global LV systolic strain or strain rate when EF is still normal, speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) and tissue-Doppler imaging (TDI) combined with stress echocardiography might improve early diagnosis of cardiac alterations. In this prospective study standard 2D Doppler echocardiography, STE, and TDI were performed at rest and during bicycle exercise in 92 consecutive patients—46 hypertensive subjects with normal ejection fraction and 46 healthy controls. STE and TDI were used to measure global peak systolic LV circumferential strain (CS), longitudinal strain (LS), and longitudinal strain rate (SR). Mean arterial blood pressure was significantly higher in hypertensive patients at rest (100.8?mmHg SD 13.5?mmHg; P = 0.002) and during physical exercise testing (124.2?mmHg SD 13.4?mmHg; P = 0.003). Hypertensive patients had significantly reduced values of systolic CS (P = 0.001), LS (P = 0.014), and SR (P < 0.001) at rest as well as during physical exercise—CS (P < 0.001), LS (P < 0.001), and SR (P < 0.001). Using STE and TDI, reduced LV systolic strain and strain rate consistent with early cardiac alterations can be detected in patients with arterial hypertension. These findings were evident at rest and markedly pronounced during exercise echocardiography. PMID:25389528

Hensel, Kai O.; Leischik, Roman

2014-01-01

107

Genetically enhancing mitochondrial antioxidant activity improves muscle function in aging.  

PubMed

Age-related skeletal muscle dysfunction is a leading cause of morbidity that affects up to half the population aged 80 or greater. Here we tested the effects of increased mitochondrial antioxidant activity on age-dependent skeletal muscle dysfunction using transgenic mice with targeted overexpression of the human catalase gene to mitochondria (MCat mice). Aged MCat mice exhibited improved voluntary exercise, increased skeletal muscle specific force and tetanic Ca(2+) transients, decreased intracellular Ca(2+) leak and increased sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) load compared with age-matched wild type (WT) littermates. Furthermore, ryanodine receptor 1 (the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release channel required for skeletal muscle contraction; RyR1) from aged MCat mice was less oxidized, depleted of the channel stabilizing subunit, calstabin1, and displayed increased single channel open probability (Po). Overall, these data indicate a direct role for mitochondrial free radicals in promoting the pathological intracellular Ca(2+) leak that underlies age-dependent loss of skeletal muscle function. This study harbors implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies, including mitochondria-targeted antioxidants for treatment of mitochondrial myopathies and other healthspan-limiting disorders. PMID:25288763

Umanskaya, Alisa; Santulli, Gaetano; Xie, Wenjun; Andersson, Daniel C; Reiken, Steven R; Marks, Andrew R

2014-10-21

108

Bioactive rosette nanotube-hydroxyapatite nanocomposites improve osteoblast functions.  

PubMed

Inspired from biological systems, small synthetic organic molecules expressing the hydrogen bonding arrays of the DNA bases guanine and cytosine were prepared, and their self-assembly into rosette nanotubes (RNTs) was investigated. Due to their unique biological, physicochemical, and mechanical properties, RNTs could serve as the next generation of injectable orthopedic materials. In this study, a self-assembling module (termed twin base linkers or TBL) was synthesized, and the corresponding RNTs were used as bioactive components in composites of poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles (termed TBL/HA/pHEMA). The properties of these composites were characterized for solidification time, surface morphology, mechanical properties, and cytocompatibility. The experimental conditions were optimized to achieve solidification within 2-40 min, offering a range of properties for orthopedic applications. Composites with 20 wt% HA nanoparticles had a compressive strength (37.1 MPa) and an ultimate tensile stress (14.7 MPa) similar to that of a natural vertebral disc (5-30 MPa). Specifically, the TBL (0.01 mg/mL)/HA(20 wt%)/pHEMA composites improved long-term functions of osteoblasts (or bone-forming cells) in terms of collagen synthesis, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium deposition. Moreover, this composite inhibited fibroblast adhesion, thus decreasing the potential for undesirable fibrous tissue formation. In summary, this in vitro study provided evidence that TBL/HA/pHEMA composites are promising injectable orthopedic implant materials that warrant further mechanistic and in vivo studies. PMID:22530958

Sun, Linlin; Zhang, Lijie; Hemraz, Usha D; Fenniri, Hicham; Webster, Thomas J

2012-09-01

109

Emulsion design to improve the delivery of functional lipophilic components.  

PubMed

The food industry has used emulsion science and technology for many years to create a diverse range of food products, such as milk, cream, soft drinks, nutritional beverages, dressings, mayonnaise, sauces, dips, deserts, ice cream, margarine, and butter. The majority of these food products are conventional oil-in-water (O/W) or water-in-oil (W/O) type emulsions. Recently, there has been increasing interest within the food industry in either improving or extending the functional performance of foods using novel structured emulsions. This article reviews recent developments in the creation of structured emulsions that could be used by the food and other industries, including nanoemulsions, multiple emulsions, multilayer emulsions, solid lipid particles, and filled hydrogel particles. These structured emulsions can be produced from food-grade [generally recognized as safe (GRAS)] ingredients (e.g., lipids, proteins, polysaccharides, surfactants, and minerals), using simple processing operations (e.g., mixing, homogenizing, and thermal processing). The structure, production, performance, and potential applications of each type of structured emulsion system are discussed. PMID:22129337

McClements, David Julian

2010-01-01

110

CRT improves LV filling dynamics: insights from echocardiographic particle imaging velocimetry.  

PubMed

Echocardiographic particle imaging velocimetry allows blood flow visualization and characterization of diastolic vortex formation that may play a key role in filling efficiency. We hypothesized that abrupt withdrawal of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) would alter the timing of left ventricular diastolic vortex formation and modify cardiac time intervals. In patients with heart failure (HF) who had chronically implanted CRT devices, the timing of the onset of the diastolic vortex (TDV) from mitral valve opening, transmitral flow, and cardiac time intervals was measured at baseline and after deactivation and reactivation of CRT. Compared with control patients with cardiovascular risk factors but structurally normal hearts, TDV was significantly delayed in patients with HF. Deactivation of CRT resulted in striking delay in TDV due to disorganized flow and reduced flow acceleration, and reactivation reversed these characteristics instantly. In addition, CRT deactivation also prolonged the isovolumic contraction interval, which closely correlated with the changes in the TDV. These data suggest that CRT plays an important role in optimization of left ventricular diastolic filling. PMID:23764097

Goliasch, Georg; Goscinska-Bis, Kinga; Caracciolo, Giuseppe; Nakabo, Ayumi; Smolka, Grzegorz; Pedrizzetti, Gianni; Narula, Jagat; Sengupta, Partho P

2013-06-01

111

Functional meat starter cultures for improved sausage fermentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starter cultures that initiate rapid acidification of the raw meat batter and that lead to a desirable sensory quality of the end-product are used for the production of fermented sausages. Recently, the use of new, functional starter cultures with an industrially or nutritionally important functionality is being explored. Functional starter cultures offer an additional functionality compared to classical starter cultures

Frédéric Leroy; Jurgen Verluyten; Luc De Vuyst

2006-01-01

112

Lingo-1 inhibited by RNA interference promotes functional recovery of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.  

PubMed

Lingo-1 is a negative regulator of myelination. Repairment of demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS)/experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), requires activation of the myelination program. In this study, we observed the effect of RNA interference on Lingo-1 expression, and the impact of Lingo-1 suppression on functional recovery and myelination/remyelination in EAE mice. Lentiviral vectors encoding Lingo-1 short hairpin RNA (LV/Lingo-1-shRNA) were constructed to inhibit Lingo-1 expression. LV/Lingo-1-shRNA of different titers were transferred into myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced EAE mice by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection. Meanwhile, lentiviral vectors carrying nonsense gene sequence (LVCON053) were used as negative control. The Lingo-1 expression was detected and locomotor function was evaluated at different time points (on days 1,3,7,14,21, and 30 after ICV injection). Myelination was investigated by luxol fast blue (LFB) staining.LV/Lingo-1-shRNA administration via ICV injection could efficiently down-regulate the Lingo-1 mRNA and protein expression in EAE mice on days 7,14,21, and 30 (P?LV/Lingo-1-shRNA groups. The locomotor function score in the LV/Lingo-1-shRNA treated groups were significantly lower than the untreated or LVCON053 group from day 7 on. The 5 × 10(8) TU/mL LV/Lingo-1-shRNA group achieved the best functional improvement (0.87?±?0.11 vs. 3.05?±?0.13, P?LV/Lingo-1-shRNA groups by LFB staining (P?LV/Lingo-1-shRNA by ICV injection could efficiently knockdown Lingo-1 expression in vivo, improve functional recovery and enhance myelination/remyelination. Antagonism of Lingo-1 by RNA interference is, therefore, a promising approach for the treatment of demyelinating diseases, such as MS/EAE. Anat Rec, 297:2356-2363, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25045138

Wang, Chun-Juan; Qu, Chuan-Qiang; Zhang, Jie; Fu, Pei-Cai; Guo, Shou-Gang; Tang, Rong-Hua

2014-12-01

113

Physical capacity and functional abilities improve in young adults with intellectual disabilities after functional training.  

PubMed

Individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) have higher rates of obesity, lower rates of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular endurance than do typically developed individuals (TDI) and are twice as likely to develop chronic disease, living half as long as TDIs do. The purpose of this study was to examine the improvements in physical capacity and functional ability in Special Olympic Athletes (SOAs) aged 19-22 years after participating in a functional training (FT) program and compare these scores with those of the SOAs in a resistance weight training (WT) program. Twenty SOAs (13 men, 7 women with mild to moderate ID) participated in a 1-hour FT program, twice a week, for 10 weeks, compared with 22 same-aged SOAs (14 men, 8 women) participating in a 1-hour WT program (2× week for 8 weeks). Prefitness and postfitness tests consisting of heart rate (HR) for the 3-minute step test, static plank, body weight squats, static bar hang, and knee push-ups were conducted. Two-tailed, paired sample t-tests (p < 0.05) were used to evaluate the differences in the FT group. Change scores were used to compare FTG with the WT group. The HR decreased by 31.8 b·min?¹ pre-post in the FTG (p < 0.001). Static plank duration improved by 22.4 seconds in the FTG (p = 0.016); static plank change scores improved (p = 0.037) for the FTG (26.5 ± 32.1 seconds compared with that for the WT group (4.6 ± 22 seconds). Height and weight values were unchanged in both the groups. The results of this study demonstrate the value of FT programs for this population, because weight equipment is not always available in many settings. PMID:21912297

Barwick, Ryan B; Tillman, Mark D; Stopka, Christine B; Dipnarine, Krishna; Delisle, Anthony; Sayedul Huq, Mona

2012-06-01

114

0,0015/0,25 * (L/V) = 0,003  

E-print Network

f o ff pp f o f f in out f FrL L L b L d Q Q L c f L c b FrL L L b L d Q Q f c c thus Frv gL LQ g L v LLv L Lv L v L b Lvb LQ g L L L b LQL d Q Q f LQL g L L L b L L LQLLLLLLL d Q Q Q Q f c c a QLs(L/V)max = 0,0015/0,25 = 0,006 * ½ (L/V) = 0,003 M�FST exam �A 424302 25-012012 Short answers 419

Zevenhoven, Ron

115

Lektionsblad till Endimensionell analys, delkurs B2, E 2009 Frberedelser infr vning 1 Lv2  

E-print Network

Lektionsblad till Endimensionell analys, delkurs B2, E 2009 Förberedelser inför övning 1 Lv2 zn = w löses genom ansatsen z = rei. I följande uppgift kommer båda ansatserna till använding: A.42 sidorna 250­251 till användning. · Gör uppgift 5.5. Observera att vi i denna uppgift dividerar med den

Nilsson, Johan

116

Development of virus non-producer lymphosarcomas in pet cats exposed to FeLV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring oncoviruses of several species1-6 are transmitted contagiously and cause lymphosarcoma (LSA) or leukaemia in their hosts7. All naturally occurring oncoviruses replicate in vivo in the tumours they induce or, as with bovine leukaemia virus, can be isolated from tumour cells grown in short-term cell culture7,8. However, we have shown that feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) is not present in

W. D. Hardy; A. J. McClelland; E. E. Zuckerman; H. W. Snyder; E. G. MacEwen; D. Francis; M. Essex

1980-01-01

117

An improved method of constructing binned luminosity functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that binned differential luminosity functions constructed using the 1/Va method have a significant systematic error for objects close to the flux limit(s) of their parent sample. This is particularly noticeable when luminosity functions are produced for a number of different redshift ranges as is common in the study of AGN or galaxy evolution. We present a simple method of constructing a binned luminosity function which overcomes this problem and has a number of other advantages over the traditional 1/Va method. We also describe a practical method for comparing binned and model luminosity functions, by calculating the expectation values of the binned luminosity function from the model. Binned luminosity functions produced by the two methods are compared for simulated data and for the Large Bright QSO Survey (LBQS). It is shown that the 1/Va method produces a very misleading picture of evolution in the LBQS. The binned luminosity function of the LBQS is then compared with a model two-power-law luminosity function undergoing pure luminosity evolution from Boyle et al. The comparison is made using a model luminosity function averaged over each redshift shell, and using the expectation values for the binned luminosity function calculated from the model. The luminosity function averaged in each redshift shell gives a misleading impression that the model over predicts the number of QSOs at low luminosity even for 1.0< z<1.5, when model and data are consistent. The expectation values show that there are significant differences between model and data: the model overpredicts the number of low luminosity sources at both low and high redshift. The luminosity function does not appear to steepen relative to the model as redshift increases.

Page, M. J.; Carrera, F. J.

2000-01-01

118

Improvement of skin barrier function during treatment of atopic dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Active dermatitis causes a disturbance in skin barrier function. This can be evaluated by the measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and percutaneous absorption of hydrocortisone.Objective: The study objective was to evaluate changes in skin barrier function during treatment of atopic dermatitis.Methods: Nine patients with widespread atopic dermatitis were studied longitudinally by measuring the severity of the dermatitis and

Kristiina Aalto-Korte

1995-01-01

119

Improving Cognition and Function Through Exercise Intervention in Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To analyze the effects of cognition on function and to explore the potential of aerobic exercise for promoting cognitive and functional capacities. Design: Integrative review of literature. Methods: Studies were selected based on an extensive search of electronic databases and man- ual cross-referencing for 1980 to 2006, using the combination of key words: Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia, or cognitive

Fang Yu; Ann M. Kolanowski; Neville E. Strumpf; Paul J. Eslinger

2006-01-01

120

Real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic study of left ventricular function after infarct exclusion surgery for ischemic cardiomyopathy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Infarct exclusion (IE) surgery, a technique of left ventricular (LV) reconstruction for dyskinetic or akinetic LV segments in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, requires accurate volume quantification to determine the impact of surgery due to complicated geometric changes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty patients who underwent IE (mean age 61+/-8 years, 73% men) had epicardial real-time 3-dimensional echocardiographic (RT3DE) studies performed before and after IE. RT3DE follow-up was performed transthoracically 42+/-67 days after surgery in 22 patients. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare the values before and after IE surgery and at follow-up. Significant decreases in LV end-diastolic (EDVI) and end-systolic (ESVI) volume indices were apparent immediately after IE and in follow-up (EDVI 99+/-40, 67+/-26, and 71+/-31 mL/m(2), respectively; ESVI 72+/-37, 40+/-21, and 42+/-22 mL/m(2), respectively; P:<0.05). LV ejection fraction increased significantly and remained higher (0.29+/-0.11, 0.43+/-0.13, and 0.42+/-0.09, respectively, P:<0.05). Forward stroke volume in 16 patients with preoperative mitral regurgitation significantly improved after IE and in follow-up (22+/-12, 53+/-24, and 58+/-21 mL, respectively, P:<0.005). New York Heart Association functional class at an average 285+/-144 days of clinical follow-up significantly improved from 3.0+/-0.8 to 1.8+/-0.8 (P:<0.0001). Smaller end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes measured with RT3DE immediately after IE were closely related to improvement in New York Heart Association functional class at clinical follow-up (Spearman's rho=0.58 and 0.60, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: RT3DE can be used to quantitatively assess changes in LV volume and function after complicated LV reconstruction. Decreased LV volume and increased ejection fraction imply a reduction in LV wall stress after IE surgery and are predictive of symptomatic improvement.

Qin, J. X.; Shiota, T.; McCarthy, P. M.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Greenberg, N. L.; Tsujino, H.; Bauer, F.; Travaglini, A.; Hoercher, K. J.; Buda, T.; Smedira, N. G.; Thomas, J. D.

2000-01-01

121

Improved WKB radial wave functions in several bases  

SciTech Connect

We develop approximate WKB-like solutions to the radial Schroedinger equation for problems with an angular momentum barrier using Riccati-Bessel, Coulomb, and harmonic-oscillator functions as basis functions. The solutions treat the angular momentum singularity near the origin more accurately in leading approximation than the standard WKB solutions based on sine waves. The solutions based on Riccati-Bessel and free Coulomb wave functions continue smoothly through the inner turning point and are appropriate for scattering problems. The solutions based on oscillator and bound Coulomb wave functions incorporate both turning points smoothly and are particularly appropriate for bound-state problems; no matching of piecewise solutions using Airy functions is necessary.

Durand, B.; Durand, L.

1986-05-01

122

Improved response functions for gamma-ray skyshine analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computationally simple method, based on line-beam response functions, is refined for estimating gamma skyshine dose rates. Critical to this method is the availability of an accurate approximation for the line-beam response function (LBRF). In this study, the LBRF is evaluated accurately with the point-kernel technique using recent photon interaction data. Various approximations to the LBRF are considered, and a

J. K. Shultis; R. E. Faw; X. Deng

1992-01-01

123

Running head: NEUROFEEDBACK IMPROVES EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING IN AUTISM Neurofeedback improves Executive Functioning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

E-print Network

autistic children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) received a neurofeedback treatment in autistic children are discussed. Keywords: neurofeedback, autism spectrum disorder, executive function Executive Functioning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Mirjam E. J. Kouijzer1,2 , Jan M. H. de

Boyer, Edmond

124

LEARN TO IMPROVE Sleep affects our daily functioning and our  

E-print Network

The effects of sleep deprivation and chronic lack of sleep 04 Tips for Improving Sleep #12;1IMPORTANT FACTS. THE EFFECTS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION AND CHRONIC LACK OF SLEEP If you are haven't been getting a good night and mental health. Difficulty sleeping is a common problem that can lead to poor concentration, irritability

Viglas, Anastasios

125

Endothelial function and left ventricular diastolic functional reserve in type 2 diabetes mellitus  

PubMed Central

Background Endothelial dysfunction is an early feature of vascular disease. Left ventricular (LV) diastolic reserve is the ability of the left ventricle to augment diastolic function with exercise and may be impaired in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). It is unclear if endothelial dysfunction is related to impaired LV diastolic reserve and diminished exercise capacity. Methods 96 patients with type 2 DM and 10 controls had brachial artery reactivity testing, followed by exercise echocardiography. The brachial artery diameter was measured at rest and during reactive hyperaemia. LV diastolic reserve was measured as ?e? with exercise and diastolic reserve index (?e?/rest e?). Exercise capacity was calculated by metabolic equivalents (METs). Results Compared with controls, patients with DM had lower rest e? (7 vs 9?cm/s, p=0.002), lower ?e?(1 vs 4?cm/s, p=0.023), lower ?e?/rest e? (0.20 vs 0.47, p=0.003) and reduced flow mediated dilation (FMD, 5 vs 15%, p<0.001). FMD was correlated with ?e? (r=0.65, p<0.001), diastolic reserve index (r=0.61, p<0.001) and post-exercise septal E/e? (r=?0.50, p<0.001), but not with rest e? (r=0.13, p=0.177). FMD was an independent predictor of ?e? (?=0.002, p<0.001, R2=0.47) and diastolic reserve index (?=0.030, p<0.001, R2=0.41). Younger age (p<0.001), male gender (p=0.014), lower body mass index (p<0.001), lower rest E/e? (p=0.042) and higher FMD (p=0.025) were independent predictors of higher METs (R2=0.52, p<0.001). Conclusions Patients with DM had impaired endothelial function and LV diastolic dysfunction. LV diastolic reserve and exercise capacity are linked to endothelial function. Targeting vascular risk factors to improve endothelial function may improve LV diastolic reserve and exercise capacity. PMID:25332819

Leung, Melissa; Phan, Victoria; Leung, Dominic Y

2014-01-01

126

Cellular entry via an actin and clathrin-dependent route is required for Lv2 restriction of HIV-2  

SciTech Connect

Lv2 is a human factor that restricts infection of some HIV-2 viruses after entry into particular target cells. HIV-2 MCR is highly susceptible to Lv2 whereas HIV-2 MCN is not. The block is after reverse transcription but prior to nuclear entry. The viral determinants for this restriction have been mapped to the HIV-2 envelope and the capsid genes. Our model of Lv2 restriction suggests that the route taken into a cell is important in determining whether a productive infection occurs. Here we characterised the infectious routes used by MCN and MCR using chemical compounds and molecular techniques to distinguish between potential pathways. Our results suggest that susceptible MCR can enter restrictive HeLa{sup CD4} cells via two pathways; a clathrin/AP2 mediated endocytic route that is sensitive to Lv2 restriction and an alternative, non-clathrin mediated route, which results in more efficient infection.

Harrison, I.P., E-mail: ian.harrison@medsch.ucl.ac.uk [Queen Mary, University of London, Whitechapel, London (United Kingdom); School of Medicine and Dentistry, Centre for Immunology and Infectious Disease, Blizard Institute for Cell and Molecular Science, 4 Newark Street, Whitechapel, London E1 2AT (United Kingdom); McKnight, A., E-mail: a.mcknight@qmul.ac.uk [Queen Mary, University of London, Whitechapel, London (United Kingdom)

2011-06-20

127

Improved motion invariant imaging with time varying shutter functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In motion invariant photography, blur is introduced by a structured movement of the camera during capture. The structured movement results in a uniform blur which simplifies deblur through post-processing for objects moving at different speeds in a single motion plane. However motion invariance depends on the camera speed exceeding the object speed (in the image plane) by a significant amount. This can lead to noisy image results and may be a problem for implementation of the method in practice. We propose the introduction of a time varying shutter transmittance to this recently proposed computational imaging method and demonstrate through simulation how this can improve both the degree of motion invariance and the reconstructed image quality, despite a reduction in optical efficiency. Improvements in the order 6dB are demonstrated for the reconstructed, deblurred images in the presence of moderate noise. The work has the potential to bring motion invariant photography closer to use in real camera product.

Webster, Steve; Dorrell, Andrew

2011-01-01

128

Improved response functions for gamma-ray skyshine analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computationally simple method, based on line-beam response functions, is refined for estimating gamma skyshine dose rates. Critical to this method is the availability of an accurate approximation for the line-beam response function (LBRF). In this study, the LBRF is evaluated accurately with the point-kernel technique using recent photon interaction data. Various approximations to the LBRF are considered, and a three parameter formula is selected as the most practical approximation. By fitting the approximating formula to point-kernel results, a set of parameters is obtained that allows the LBRF to be quickly and accurately evaluated for energies between 0.01 and 15 MeV, for source-to-detector distances from 1 to 3000 m, and for beam angles from 0 to 180 degrees. This re-evaluation of the approximate LBRF gives better accuracy, especially at low energies, over a greater source-to-detector range than do previous LBRF approximations. A conical beam response function is also introduced for application to skyshine sources that are azimuthally symmetric about a vertical axis. The new response functions are then applied to three simple skyshine geometries (an open silo geometry, an infinite wall, and a rectangular four-wall building) and the results are compared to previous calculations and benchmark data.

Shultis, J. K.; Faw, R. E.; Deng, X.

1992-09-01

129

Improved response functions for gamma-ray skyshine analyses  

SciTech Connect

A computationally simple method, based on line-beam response functions, is refined for estimating gamma skyshine dose rates. Critical to this method is the availability of an accurate approximation for the line-beam response function (LBRF). In this study the LBRF is evaluated accurately with the point-kernel technique using recent photon interaction data. Various approximations to the LBRF are considered, and a three parameter formula is selected as the most practical approximation. By fitting the approximating formula to point-kernel results, a set of parameters is obtained that allows the LBRF to be quickly and accurately evaluated for energies between 0.01 and 15 MeV, for source-to-detector distances from 1 to 3000 m, and for beam angles from 0 to 180 degrees. This reevaluation of the approximate LBRF gives better accuracy, especially at low energies, over a greater source-to-detector range than do previous LBRF approximations. A conical beam response function is also introduced for application to skyshine sources that are azimuthally symmetric about a vertical axis. The new response functions are then applied to three simple skyshine geometries (an open silo geometry, an infinite wall, and a rectangular four-wall building) and the results compared to previous calculations and benchmark data.

Shultis, J.K.; Faw, R.E.; Deng, X. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1992-09-01

130

Functional genomics: tools for improving farm animal health and welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The first genome sequence assemblies of farm animal species are now accessible through public domain databases, and further sequencing projects are in rapid progress. In addition, large collections of expressed sequences have been obtained, which will aid in constructing annotated transcript maps for many economically important species. Thus, the breeding of farm animals is entering the post-genome era. Functional

S. Hiendleder; S. Bauersachs; A. Boulesteix; H. Blum; G. J. Arnold; T. Fröhlich

2005-01-01

131

Nanobiosensors Constraint of DNA on Functionalized Graphene Improves  

E-print Network

, Liu et al. used PEGylated graphene oxide for delivery of water- insoluble cancer drugs to cancer cells, and targeted drug- delivery systems.[6] Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and DNA were used to study, graphene was further functionalized by sonication with 25% nitric acid and 75% sulphuric acid (v/v) for 2 h

Aksay, Ilhan A.

132

Improving balance function using vestibular stochastic resonance: optimizing stimulus characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a non-linear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized\\u000a by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. Stochastic resonance using imperceptible stochastic vestibular electrical\\u000a stimulation, when applied to normal young and elderly subjects, has been shown to significantly improve ocular stabilization\\u000a reflexes in response to whole-body

Ajitkumar P. Mulavara; Matthew J. Fiedler; Igor S. Kofman; Scott J. Wood; Jorge M. Serrador; Brian Peters; Helen S. Cohen; Millard F. Reschke; Jacob J. Bloomberg

2011-01-01

133

Novel MRI-derived quantitative biomarker for cardiac function applied to classifying ischemic cardiomyopathy within a Bayesian rule learning framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization of regional left ventricular (LV) function may have application in prognosticating timely response and informing choice therapy in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. The purpose of this study is to characterize LV function through a systematic analysis of 4D (3D + time) endocardial motion over the cardiac cycle in an effort to define objective, clinically useful metrics of pathological remodeling and declining cardiac performance, using standard cardiac MRI data for two distinct patient cohorts accessed from CardiacAtlas.org: a) MESA - a cohort of asymptomatic patients; and b) DETERMINE - a cohort of symptomatic patients with a history of ischemic heart disease (IHD) or myocardial infarction. The LV endocardium was segmented and a signed phase-to-phase Hausdorff distance (HD) was computed at 3D uniformly spaced points tracked on segmented endocardial surface contours, over the cardiac cycle. An LV-averaged index of phase-to-phase endocardial displacement (P2PD) time-histories was computed at each tracked point, using the HD computed between consecutive cardiac phases. Average and standard deviation in P2PD over the cardiac cycle was used to prepare characteristic curves for the asymptomatic and IHD cohort. A novel biomarker of RMS error between mean patient-specific characteristic P2PD over the cardiac cycle for each individual patient and the cumulative P2PD characteristic of a cohort of asymptomatic patients was established as the RMS-P2PD marker. The novel RMS-P2PD marker was tested as a cardiac function based feature for automatic patient classification using a Bayesian Rule Learning (BRL) framework. The RMS-P2PD biomarker indices were significantly different for the symptomatic patient and asymptomatic control cohorts (p<0.001). BRL accurately classified 83.8% of patients correctly from the patient and control populations, with leave-one-out cross validation, using standard indices of LV ejection fraction (LV-EF) and LV end-systolic volume index (LV-ESVI). This improved to 91.9% with inclusion of the RMS-P2PD biomarker and was congruent with improvements in both sensitivity for classifying patients and specificity for identifying asymptomatic controls from 82.6% up to 95.7%. RMS-P2PD, when contrasted against a collective normal reference, is a promising biomarker to investigate further in its utility for identifying quantitative signs of pathological endocardial function which may boost standard image makers as precursors of declining cardiac performance.

Menon, Prahlad G.; Morris, Lailonny; Staines, Mara; Lima, Joao; Lee, Daniel C.; Gopalakrishnan, Vanathi

2014-03-01

134

The combination of single cell micromanipulation with LV-PCR system and its application in forensic science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micromanipulation method was combined with the AmpliGrid LV-PCR system to select and detect single cells, in order to provide a possible solution for biological mixtures and trace samples. Three fresh buccal cells could be completely genotyped by two STR kits. Sixty parallel single cell LV-PCRs were performed using Identifiler®, 13 complete profiles (21.7%) and 13 acceptable profiles (13–15 loci) were

Caixia Li; Bing Qi; Anquan Ji; Xiulan Xu; Lan Hu

2009-01-01

135

Methylphenidate improves motor functions in children diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A previous study showed that a high percentage of children diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD) displayed a consistent pattern of motor function problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) on such motor performance in children with HKD METHODS: 25 drug-naïve boys, aged 8–12 yr with a HKD-F90.0 diagnosis, were randomly assigned into

Liv Larsen Stray; Torstein Stray; Synnøve Iversen; Anne Ruud; Bjørn Ellertsen

2009-01-01

136

Improved synthesis of DCDHF fluorophores with maleimide functional groups  

PubMed Central

A group of dicyanodihydrofuran (DCDHF) fluorophores with thiol-reactive maleimide functionality has been synthesized. One of the methods involves aromatic nucleophilic substitution reaction between an arylfluoride containing DCDHF and an amine containing protected maleimide. An alternative and generally useful method involves combination of the Mitsunobu reaction of a DCDHF-OH with a furan or 2-methylfuran protected maleimide and then subsequent retro Diels–Alder reaction. PMID:18584068

Lu, Zhikuan; Weber, Ryan; Twieg, Robert J.

2008-01-01

137

Does obesity surgery improve psychosocial functioning? A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to present a review of the psychosocial outcome of bariatric surgery with special consideration of psychiatric comorbidity, psychopathology, psychosocial functioning, econometric data, and general quality of life (QoL).PURPOSE: A review of all (non-) controlled trials of the last two decades both with a retrospective and prospective design and a follow-up period of at

S Herpertz; R Kielmann; A M Wolf; M Langkafel; W Senf; J Hebebrand; S Herpertz

2003-01-01

138

Tetrahydrobiopterin: a vascular redox target to improve endothelial function.  

PubMed

Loss of normal endothelial function and bioactivity of nitric oxide (NO), associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), are characteristics of cardiovascular disease states. There is good experimental evidence that these abnormalities are causally related to cardiovascular disease pathogeneses, and are amenable to therapeutic intervention. However, simple attempts to increase NO levels or reduce "oxidative stress", for example using nonselective anti-oxidant drugs, have shown no benefit as treatments of cardiovascular disease. Increasing evidence highlights the need to better understand NO and ROS mediated signaling mechanisms in endothelial function, in order to identify more rational and selective therapeutic targets. The NO synthase co-factor, tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a redox active molecule which regulates NO and ROS production by NO synthase and provides an exemplar of redox dependent signaling in the endothelium, with relevance to cardiovascular disease. Loss of endothelial cell BH4 is observed in cardiovascular disease states and results in loss of NO, but increased ROS production by endothelial NO synthase. Genetic mouse models of augmented endothelial cell BH4 synthesis have shown proof of concept that endothelial cell BH4 can alter cardiovascular disease pathogenesis, but clinical trials of BH4 therapy in vascular disease have been limited by systemic oxidation and limited endothelial cell uptake of BH4. In contrast, some existing therapies such as statins appear to exert favourable effects on endothelial cell BH4 and endothelial NO synthase function. Identifying specific redox mechanisms and targets in the endothelium will provide new potential targets for future drug treatments. PMID:23259560

Channon, Keith M

2012-11-01

139

Improvement of motor function in early Parkinson disease by safinamide.  

PubMed

A median safinamide (SAF) dose of 70 mg/day (range 40 to 90 mg/day) increased the percentage of parkinsonian patients improving their motor scores by > or =30% from baseline (responders) after 3 months from 21.4% (placebo) to 37.5% (p < 0.05, calculated by logistic regression analysis). In a subgroup of 101 patients under stable treatment with a single dopamine agonist, addition of SAF magnified the response (47.1% responders, mean 4.7-point motor score decrease; p > or = 0.05). These results suggest that doses of SAF exerting ion channel block and glutamate release inhibition add to its symptomatic effect and warrant exploration of higher doses. PMID:15326260

Stocchi, F; Arnold, G; Onofrj, M; Kwiecinski, H; Szczudlik, A; Thomas, A; Bonuccelli, U; Van Dijk, A; Cattaneo, C; Sala, P; Fariello, R G

2004-08-24

140

Hibiscus sabdariffa extract lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function.  

PubMed

Polyphenols from Hibiscus sabdariffa calices were administered to patients with metabolic syndrome (125 mg/kg/day for 4 wk, n = 31) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (125 or 60 mg/kg in a single dose or daily for 1 wk, n = 8 for each experimental group). The H. sabdariffa extract improved metabolism, displayed potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and significantly reduced blood pressure in both humans and rats. Diuresis and inhibition of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme were found to be less important mechanisms than those related to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and endothelium-dependent effects to explain the beneficial actions. Notably, polyphenols induced a favorable endothelial response that should be considered in the management of metabolic cardiovascular risks. PMID:24668839

Joven, Jorge; March, Isabel; Espinel, Eugenia; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Aragonès, Gerard; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Rios, Lidia; Martin-Paredero, Vicente; Menendez, Javier A; Micol, Vicente; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Camps, Jordi

2014-06-01

141

Improving Kepler Pipeline Sensitivity with Pixel Response Function Photometry.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the results of our investigation into the feasibility and expected benefits of implementing PRF-fitting photometry in the Kepler Science Processing Pipeline. The Kepler Pixel Response Function (PRF) describes the expected system response to a point source at infinity and includes the effects of the optical point spread function, the CCD detector responsivity function, and spacecraft pointing jitter. Planet detection in the Kepler pipeline is currently based on simple aperture photometry (SAP), which is most effective when applied to uncrowded bright stars. Its effectiveness diminishes rapidly as target brightness decreases relative to the effects of noise sources such as detector electronics, background stars, and image motion. In contrast, PRF photometry is based on fitting an explicit model of image formation to the data and naturally accounts for image motion and contributions of background stars. The key to obtaining high-quality photometry from PRF fitting is a high-quality model of the system's PRF, while the key to efficiently processing the large number of Kepler targets is an accurate catalog and accurate mapping of celestial coordinates onto the focal plane. If the CCD coordinates of stellar centroids are known a priori then the problem of PRF fitting becomes linear. A model of the Kepler PRF was constructed at the time of spacecraft commissioning by fitting piecewise polynomial surfaces to data from dithered full frame images. While this model accurately captured the initial state of the system, the PRF has evolved dynamically since then and has been seen to deviate significantly from the initial (static) model. We construct a dynamic PRF model which is then used to recover photometry for all targets of interest. Both simulation tests and results from Kepler flight data demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate.Kepler was selected as the 10th mission of the Discovery Program. Funding for this mission is provided by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate.

Morris, Robert L.; Bryson, Steve; Jenkins, Jon Michael; Smith, Jeffrey C

2014-06-01

142

Functionally gradient hard carbon composites for improved adhesion and wear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach is proposed for fabricating biomedical devices that last longer and are more biocompatible than those presently available. In this approach, a bulk material is chosen that has desirable mechanical properties (low modulus, high strength, high ductility and high fatigue strength). This material is coated with corrosion-resistant, wear-resistant, hard, and biocompatible hard carbon films. One of the many forms of carbon, tetrahedral amorphous carbon, consists mainly of sp3-bonded atoms. Tetrahedral amorphous carbon possesses properties close to diamond in terms of hardness, atomic smoothness, and inertness. Tetrahedral amorphous carbon and diamond films usually contain large amounts of compressive and sometimes tensile stresses; adhesive failure from these stresses has limited widespread use of these materials. This research involves processing, characterization and modeling of functionally gradient tetrahedral amorphous carbon and diamond composite films on metals (cobalt-chromium and titanium alloys) and polymers (polymethylmethacrylate and polyethylene) used in biomedical applications. Multilayer discontinuous thin films of titanium carbide, titanium nitride, aluminum nitride, and tungsten carbide have been developed to control stresses and graphitization in diamond films. A morphology of randomly interconnected micron sized diamond crystallites provides increased toughness and stress reduction. Internal stresses in tetrahedral amorphous carbon were reduced via incorporation of carbide forming elements (silicon and titanium) and noncarbide forming elements (copper, platinum, and silver). These materials were produced using a novel target design during pulsed laser deposition. These alloying atoms reduce hardness and sp3-bonded carbon content, but increase adhesion and wear resistance. Silver and platinum provide the films with antimicrobial properties, and silicon provides bioactivity and aids bone formation. Bilayer coatings were created that couple the adherence, biocompatibility, erosion resistance, and long term release of functional elements from hard carbon coatings with bioactive properties of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and short term drug release properties of resorbable poly (D,L) lactide-based materials. Finally, these hard carbon coatings have a variety of non-medical applications, including use in microelectronics packaging, sensors, flat panel displays, photodiodes, cutting tools, optical switches, and wear-resistant magnetic disks.

Narayan, Roger Jagdish

143

An improved Green's function for ion beam transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ion beam transport theory allows testing of material transmission properties in the laboratory environment generated by particle accelerators. This is a necessary step in materials development and evaluation for space use. The approximations used in solving the Boltzmann transport equation for the space setting are often not sufficient for laboratory work and those issues are the main emphasis of the present work. In consequence, an analytic solution of the linear Boltzmann equation is pursued in the form of a Green's function allowing flexibility in application to a broad range of boundary value problems. It has been established that simple solutions can be found for high charge and energy (HZE) ions by ignoring nuclear energy downshifts and dispersion. Such solutions were found to be supported by experimental evidence with HZE ion beams when multiple scattering was added. Lacking from the prior solutions were range and energy straggling and energy downshift with dispersion associated with nuclear events. Recently, we have found global solutions including these effects providing a broader class of HZE ion solutions. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Tweed, J.; Wilson, J. W.; Tripathi, R. K.

2004-01-01

144

Prospects for improving brain function in individuals with Down syndrome.  

PubMed

Down syndrome (DS), which results from an extra copy of chromosome 21 (trisomy 21), is the most common genetically defined cause of intellectual disability. Although no pharmacotherapy aimed at counteracting the cognitive and adaptive deficits associated with this genetic disorder has been approved at present, there have been several new promising studies on pharmacological agents capable of rescuing learning/memory deficits seen in mouse models of DS. Here, we will review the available mouse models for DS and provide a comprehensive, albeit not exhaustive review of the following preclinical research strategies: (1) SOD1 and antioxidant agents; (2) APP and ?-secretase inhibitors; (3) DYRK1A and the polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG); (4) GIRK2 and fluoxetine; (5) adrenergic receptor agonists; (6) modulation of GABAA and GABAB receptors; (7) agonism of the hedgehog signaling pathway; (8) nerve growth factor (NGF) and other neurotrophic factors; (9) anticholinesterase (AChE) agents; and (10) antagonism of NMDA receptors. Finally, we will review briefly five different strategies in DS that have led to clinical studies that either have been concluded or are currently underway: (1) antioxidant therapy; (2) AChE therapy; (3) green tea extract therapy; (4) RG1662 therapy; and (5) memantine therapy. These are exciting times in DS research. Within a decade or so, it is well into the realm of possibility that new forms of pharmacotherapies might become valuable tools in the armamentarium of developmental clinicians, as adjutants to more traditional and proven forms of habilitative interventions aimed at improving the quality of life of individuals with DS. PMID:23821040

Costa, Alberto C S; Scott-McKean, Jonah J

2013-09-01

145

Therapeutic intraspinal microstimulation improves forelimb function after cervical contusion injury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. Intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) is a promising method for activating the spinal cord distal to an injury. The objectives of this study were to examine the ability of chronically implanted stimulating wires within the cervical spinal cord to (1) directly produce forelimb movements, and (2) assess whether ISMS stimulation could improve subsequent volitional control of paretic extremities following injury. Approach. We developed a technique for implanting intraspinal stimulating electrodes within the cervical spinal cord segments C6-T1 of Long-Evans rats. Beginning 4 weeks after a severe cervical contusion injury at C4-C5, animals in the treatment condition received therapeutic ISMS 7 hours/day, 5 days/week for the following 12 weeks. Main results. Over 12 weeks of therapeutic ISMS, stimulus-evoked forelimb movements were relatively stable. We also explored whether therapeutic ISMS promoted recovery of forelimb reaching movements. Animals receiving daily therapeutic ISMS performed significantly better than unstimulated animals during behavioural tests conducted without stimulation. Quantitative video analysis of forelimb movements showed that stimulated animals performed better in the movements reinforced by stimulation, including extending the elbow to advance the forelimb and opening the digits. While threshold current to elicit forelimb movement gradually increased over time, no differences were observed between chronically stimulated and unstimulated electrodes suggesting that no additional tissue damage was produced by the electrical stimulation. Significance. The results indicate that therapeutic intraspinal stimulation delivered via chronic microwire implants within the cervical spinal cord confers benefits extending beyond the period of stimulation, suggesting future strategies for neural devices to promote sustained recovery after injury.

Kasten, M. R.; Sunshine, M. D.; Secrist, E. S.; Horner, P. J.; Moritz, C. T.

2013-08-01

146

Brazilian green propolis improves immune function in aged mice.  

PubMed

Aging weakened innate and adaptive immunity both quantitatively and qualitatively. Some components in propolis could stimulate immune function in young animals or cultured immune cells in vitro. Few studies had been carried out in the aged. The present study was to evaluate the effects of Brazilian green propolis supplementation on the immunological parameters in aged mice. Eighty Kunming mice, aged 15-18 months, were randomly assigned to the control and three experimental groups supplemented with different doses (83.3, 157.4 and 352.9 mg/kg.bw respectively) of Brazilian green propolis. The experiment lasted for 4 weeks. Contents of total polyphenol, flavonoid, cinnamic acid and artepillin-C in Brazilian green propolis were analyzed. Splenic NK cytotoxic, T lymphocyte proliferation and antibody generation cells, as well as the phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages, ear swelling, and serum contents of IgG, IgM, hemolysin and cytokines were measured. After 4 weeks of treatment, the phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages was enhanced in 157.4 mg/kg and 352.9 mg/kg groups. Ear swelling increased in all propolis treatmented groups. Antibodies specific to sheep erythrocytes were higher in the groups receiving 157.4 and 352.9 mg/kg.bw than that of control group. IgG level dramatically increased in the groups receiving 83.3 and 157.4 mg/kg.bw in comparison to the control group. These results indicate that administration of Brazilian green propolis have a positive effect on innate and adaptive immunity in aged mice. PMID:25120274

Gao, Weina; Wu, Jianquan; Wei, Jingyu; Pu, Lingling; Guo, Changjiang; Yang, Jijun; Yang, Ming; Luo, Haiji

2014-07-01

147

Improved functional overview of protein complexes using inferred epistatic relationships  

PubMed Central

Background Epistatic Miniarray Profiling(E-MAP) quantifies the net effect on growth rate of disrupting pairs of genes, often producing phenotypes that may be more (negative epistasis) or less (positive epistasis) severe than the phenotype predicted based on single gene disruptions. Epistatic interactions are important for understanding cell biology because they define relationships between individual genes, and between sets of genes involved in biochemical pathways and protein complexes. Each E-MAP screen quantifies the interactions between a logically selected subset of genes (e.g. genes whose products share a common function). Interactions that occur between genes involved in different cellular processes are not as frequently measured, yet these interactions are important for providing an overview of cellular organization. Results We introduce a method for combining overlapping E-MAP screens and inferring new interactions between them. We use this method to infer with high confidence 2,240 new strongly epistatic interactions and 34,469 weakly epistatic or neutral interactions. We show that accuracy of the predicted interactions approaches that of replicate experiments and that, like measured interactions, they are enriched for features such as shared biochemical pathways and knockout phenotypes. We constructed an expanded epistasis map for yeast cell protein complexes and show that our new interactions increase the evidence for previously proposed inter-complex connections, and predict many new links. We validated a number of these in the laboratory, including new interactions linking the SWR-C chromatin modifying complex and the nuclear transport apparatus. Conclusion Overall, our data support a modular model of yeast cell protein network organization and show how prediction methods can considerably extend the information that can be extracted from overlapping E-MAP screens. PMID:21605386

2011-01-01

148

Relationship between systolic and diastolic function with improvements in forward stroke volume following reduction in mitral regurgitation.  

PubMed

Efforts to improve mitral regurgitation (MR) are often performed in conjunction with coronary revascularization. However, the independent effects of a reduced MR area (MRa) are difficult to quantify. Using a previously developed cardiovascular model, ventricular contractility (elastance 1-8 mmHg/ml) and relaxation (tau: 40-150 msec) were independently adjusted for four grades of MR orifice areas (0.0 to 0.8 cm2). Improvements in forward stroke volume (fSV) were determined for the permutations of reduced MRa. For all conditions, LV end-diastolic pressure and volumes ranged from 7.3-24.2 mmHg and 64.8-174.3 ml, respectively. Overall, fSV ranged from 36.0-89.4 (mean: 64.2 +/- 12.8) ml, improved between 6.4 and 35.3% (mean: 15.6 +/- 8.1%), and was best predicted by (r=0.97, p<0.01) %delta(fSV)[correction of fVS]=34[MRa initial] - 46[MRa final] -0.5[elastance]. Reduced MRa, independent of relaxation and minimally influence by contractility, yield improved fSVs. PMID:14640110

Firstenberg, M S; Greenberg, N L; Smedira, N G; McCarthy, P M; Garcia, M J; Thomas, J D

2001-01-01

149

An improved method for extracting matrix elements from lattice three-point functions  

SciTech Connect

The extraction of matrix elements from baryon three-point functions is complicated by the fact that the signal-to-noise drops rapidly as a function of time. Using a previously discussed method to improve the signal-to-noise for lattice two-point functions, we use this technique to do so for lattice three-point functions, using electromagnetic form factors for the nucleon and Delta as an example.

C. Aubin, K. Orginos

2011-12-01

150

Functional Clustering Drives Encoding Improvement in a Developing Brain Network during Awake Visual Learning  

E-print Network

Sensory experience drives dramatic structural and functional plasticity in developing neurons. However, for single-neuron plasticity to optimally improve whole-network encoding of sensory information, changes must be ...

Dunfield, Derek

151

A Functional Test Procedure for the improved commissioning of a VAV system  

E-print Network

A Functional Test Procedure for the improved commissioning of a VAV system Philippe ANDRE*, Patrick LAC?TE* Cleide APARECIDA SILVA**, Jules HANNAY** and Jean LEBRUN** * Department of Environmental Sciences and Management - ARLON...A Functional Test Procedure for the improved commissioning of a VAV system Philippe ANDRE*, Patrick LAC?TE* Cleide APARECIDA SILVA**, Jules HANNAY** and Jean LEBRUN** * Department of Environmental Sciences and Management - ARLON...

Andre, P.; Lacote, P.; Aparecida Silva, C.; Hannay, J.; Lebrun, J.

2004-01-01

152

Improving learnability of high functionality user interfaces through simplification without loss of functionality  

E-print Network

Justify is a high-functionality web application that helps users clearly state arguments and organize them in a meaningful structure, however due to its complicated user interface and abundance of point types, it is extremely ...

Fleisher, Tamara

2013-01-01

153

Eur Heart J . Author manuscript Chronic heart rate reduction with ivabradine improves systolic function of  

E-print Network

Eur Heart J . Author manuscript Page /1 11 Chronic heart rate reduction with ivabradine improves the adaptations of left ventricular function and calcium handling to chronic heart rate reduction with ivabradine). Ivabradine reduced heart rate by about 20 and improved both ejection fraction (% + 35 ) and systolic

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

154

The non-specificity of the left/right ventricular amplitude ratio (LV/RV) for mitral insufficiency  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the specificity of the LV/RV for mitral insufficiency. One hundred and sixty patients underwent MUGA studies as part of their diagnostic evaluation. Phase analysis was performed. In the amplitude image, the LV/RV was measured. Patients were divided into 11 clinical groups based on chart review after adequate follow-up. The groups were compared by Duncan's Multiple Comparsion Test. Patients with mitral insufficiency (N = 12, mean LV/RV = 2.36), those with idiopathic myocardiopathy (8, 2.29) and those with normal hearts having lung disease on chest x-ray (22, 1.78) formed a group which at the p < .05 level were not different from one another. Patients with idiopathic myocardiography, normal hearts with lung disease on chest x-ray, normal hearts with lung disease (23, 1.71) formed a second group which partially overlapped with both the first and third groups. The third group consisted of normal hearts with lung disease, normal hearts not taking adriamycin (18, 1.53), normal hearts taking adriamycin (22, 1.50), congestive heart failure (19, 1.50), arteriosclerotic heart disease, normal hearts (15, 1.29), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute myocardial infarction. The LV/RV is not specific for mitral insufficiency. Idiopathic myocardiography, and normal hearts with lung disease on chest x-ray (metastases, cancer of the lung, infiltrates, fibrosis, and/or COPD) cannot be differentiated on a statistical basis. The mitral insufficiency group had the greatest values of LV/RV. It appears that decreased RV amplitude seen with diseases causing strain on the right ventricle will result in elevated LV/RV ratios.

Preston, D.F.; Reinsel, M.S.; Martin, N.L.; Robinson, R.G.

1984-01-01

155

Improved Left Ventricular Mechanics From Acute VDD Pacing in Patients With Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Ventricular Conduction Delay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Ventricular pacing can improve hemodynamics in heart failure patients, but direct effects on left ventricular (LV) function from varying pacing site and atrioventricular (AV) delay remain unknown. We hypothesized that the magnitude and location of basal intraventricular conduction delay critically influences pacing responses and that single-site pacing in the delay-activated region yields similar or better responses to biventricular pacing. Methods

David A. Kass; Chen-Huan Chen; Cecilia Curry; Maurice Talbot; Ronald Berger; Barry Fetics; Erez Nevo

156

TELEMEDICINE TO ASSIST PATIENT UNDERSTANDING OF ATMOSPHERIC INFLUENCE ON LUNG FUNCTION AND IMPROVE  

E-print Network

TELEMEDICINE TO ASSIST PATIENT UNDERSTANDING OF ATMOSPHERIC INFLUENCE ON LUNG FUNCTION AND IMPROVE-time generic telemedicine system is presented. It is discussed in the context of self- management for people as influencing lung function, we have used data collected during a feasibility study of the telemedicine system

McSharry, Patrick E.

157

Better assessment of physical function: item improvement is neglected but essential  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Physical function is a key component of patient-reported outcome (PRO) assessment in rheumatology. Modern psychometric methods, such as Item Response Theory (IRT) and Computerized Adaptive Testing, can materially improve measurement precision at the item level. We present the qualitative and quantitative item-evaluation process for developing the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function item bank. METHODS: The

Bonnie Bruce; James F Fries; Debbie Ambrosini; Bharathi Lingala; Barbara Gandek; Matthias Rose; John E Ware Jr

2009-01-01

158

A Personalization Framework to Improve Quality of Experience for DVD-like Functions  

E-print Network

A Personalization Framework to Improve Quality of Experience for DVD-like Functions in P2P Vo, Germany Abstract The requirement for supporting DVD-like functions raises new challenges to the design of P2P VoD systems. The uncertainty of frequent user DVD-like interactivity makes it difficult

Zhou, Yuanyuan

159

APEX: A Personalization Framework to Improve Quality of Experience for DVD-like Functions  

E-print Network

APEX: A Personalization Framework to Improve Quality of Experience for DVD-like Functions in P2P Vo for supporting DVD-like functions raises new challenges to the design of P2P VoD systems. The uncertainty of frequent user DVD-like interactivity makes it difficult to ensure user perceived Quality of Experience (Qo

Zhou, Yuanyuan

160

YULE-WALKER EQUATIONS APPLIED TO HESSIANS OF THE CHARACTERISTIC FUNCTION FOR IMPROVED AR ESTIMATION  

E-print Network

YULE-WALKER EQUATIONS APPLIED TO HESSIANS OF THE CHARACTERISTIC FUNCTION FOR IMPROVED AR ESTIMATION@eng.tau.ac.il ABSTRACT Estimation of the autoregressive (AR) parameters of an AR process often involves applying Yule-Walker-based estimate. Index Terms-- autoregressive, Yule-Walker, char- acteristic function, Hessian, charrelation

Yeredor, Arie

161

Cognitive Adaptation Training: Establishing Environmental Supports to Bypass Cognitive Deficits and Improve Functional Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several approaches to the treatment of cognitive impairments and their functional consequences for persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder have been developed in recent years. This article focuses on the use of Cognitive adaptation training (CAT), a psychosocial intervention that seeks to bypass cognitive impairments in schizophrenia in an effort to improve functional outcomes. CAT relies on the use

NATALIE J. MAPLES; DAWN I. VELLIGAN

2008-01-01

162

Tai Chi Chuan training improves the pulmonary function of asthmatic children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose: Tai Chi Chuan, a traditional Chinese exercise, is thought to improve cardiopulmonary function in patients with chronic disease. This study investigated the effect of Tai Chi Chuan on the pulmonary function and daily symptoms of asthmatic children. Methods: Thirty asthmatic children were enrolled into the study. Fifteen of the 30 children participated in a 12-week Tai Chi

Yu-Feng Chang; Yao-Hsu Yang; Chin-Chieh Chen; Bor-Luen Chiang

163

Electrical Stimulation as a Therapeutic Option to Improve Eyelid Function in Chronic Facial Nerve Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. TO establish whether it is possible to improve orbicularis oculi muscle function in the eyelids of patients with a chronic seventh cranial nerve palsy by using transcutaneous electrical stimulation to the point at which electrical stimulation induces a functional blink. METHODS. Ten subjects (one woman, nine men) aged 36 to 76 with chronic, moderate to severe facial nerve palsy

John Gittins; Kevin Martin; James Sbeldrick; Ashwin Reddy; Leonard Tbean

164

Incidence of Functional Decline and Improvement in a Community-dwelling, Very Elderly Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aging of the population, functional decline is one of the major challenges to health care systems. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of functional decline and improvement in a community-dwelling population of people aged 75 years and above. A representative sample of elderly people living at home in the city of Sherbrooke (Quebec, Canada)

Rejean Hebert; Carol Brayne; David Spiegelhalter

165

Biventricular Pacing in End-Stage Heart Failure Improves Functional Capacity and Left Ventricular Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Asynchronous patterns of contraction and relaxation may contribute to hemodynamic and functional impairment in heart failure. In 1993, we introduced biventricular pacing as a novel method to treat heart failure by synchronous stimulation of the right and left ventricles after an appropriate atrioventricular delay. The objectives of this study were to assess the early and long-term effects of this

Patricia F. Bakker; Huub W. Meijburg; Jaap W. de Vries; Morton M. Mower; Andra C. Thomas; Michael L. Hull; Etienne O. Robles de Medina; Johan J. Bredée

2000-01-01

166

Occurrence and characterization of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar 9,12:l,v:- strains from Bulgaria, Denmark, and the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2006, Salmonella enterica serovar I 9,12:l,v:- emerged in Bulgaria. The aim of this study was to characterize Salmonella serovar I 9,12:l,v:- isolates from Bulgaria, Denmark, and the United States. We compared isolates of Salmonella I 9,12:l,v:- and diphasic serovars with similar antigenic formulas by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and antimicrobial\\u000a susceptibility. The phase 2 flagellin gene (fljB) was also

P. Petrov; R. S. Hendriksen; T. Kantardjiev; G. Asseva; G. Sørensen; P. Fields; M. Mikoleit; J. Whichard; J. R. McQuiston; M. Torpdahl; F. M. Aarestrup; F. J. Angulo

2009-01-01

167

Developing models of how cognitive improvements change functioning: Mediation, moderation and moderated mediation  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive remediation (CRT) affects functioning but the extent and type of cognitive improvements necessary are unknown. Aim To develop and test models of how cognitive improvement transfers to work behaviour using the data from a current service. Method Participants (N49) with a support worker and a paid or voluntary job were offered CRT in a Phase 2 single group design with three assessments: baseline, post therapy and follow-up. Working memory, cognitive flexibility, planning and work outcomes were assessed. Results Three models were tested (mediation — cognitive improvements drive functioning improvement; moderation — post treatment cognitive level affects the impact of CRT on functioning; moderated mediation — cognition drives functioning improvements only after a certain level is achieved). There was evidence of mediation (planning improvement associated with improved work quality). There was no evidence that cognitive flexibility (total Wisconsin Card Sorting Test errors) and working memory (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III digit span) mediated work functioning despite significant effects. There was some evidence of moderated mediation for planning improvement if participants had poorer memory and/or made fewer WCST errors. The total CRT effect on work quality was d = 0.55, but the indirect (planning-mediated CRT effect) was d = 0.082 Conclusion Planning improvements led to better work quality but only accounted for a small proportion of the total effect on work outcome. Other specific and non-specific effects of CRT and the work programme are likely to account for some of the remaining effect. This is the first time complex models have been tested and future Phase 3 studies need to further test mediation and moderated mediation models. PMID:22503640

Wykes, Til; Reeder, Clare; Huddy, Vyv; Taylor, Rumina; Wood, Helen; Ghirasim, Natalia; Kontis, Dimitrios; Landau, Sabine

2012-01-01

168

Seroprevalence of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) in shelter cats on the island of Newfoundland, Canada  

PubMed Central

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) are retroviruses found within domestic and wild cat populations. These viruses cause severe illnesses that eventually lead to death. Housing cats communally for long periods of time makes shelters at high risk for virus transmission among cats. We tested 548 cats from 5 different sites across the island of Newfoundland for FIV and FeLV. The overall seroprevalence was 2.2% and 6.2% for FIV and FeLV, respectively. Two sites had significantly higher seroprevalence of FeLV infection than the other 3 sites. Analysis of sequences from the FeLV env gene (envelope gene) from 6 positive cats showed that 4 fell within the FeLV subtype-A, while 2 sequences were most closely related to FeLV subtype-B and endogenous feline leukemia virus (en FeLV). Varying seroprevalence and the variation in sequences at different sites demonstrate that some shelters are at greater risk of FeLV infections and recombination can occur at sites of high seroprevalence. PMID:24688176

Munro, Hannah J.; Berghuis, Lesley; Lang, Andrew S.; Rogers, Laura; Whitney, Hugh

2014-01-01

169

Differences in somatosensory and motor improvement during temporary functional deafferentation in stroke patients and healthy subjects.  

PubMed

Temporary functional deafferentation is of interest to become an additional tool in neurorehabilitative treatments. Temporary functional deafferentation is known to improve sensory and motor outcomes in chronic stroke patients and healthy subjects. The present study soughts to indicate differences in the efficiency of pharmacologically induced temporary functional deafferentation between chronic stroke patients and matched healthy subjects. 46 chronic stroke patients and 20 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were deafferented on one forearm by an anesthetic cream. Somatosensory performance was assessed using von-Frey Hair testing and Grating orientation task; motor performance was assessed by means of a shape-sorter-drum task. Grating orientation task and shape-sorter-drum task were significantly improved during temporary functional deafferentation in stroke patients but not in healthy subjects. Von-Frey Hair testing revealed no improvement of absolute tactile thresholds during temporary functional deafferentation in both groups. Furthermore, the stroke patients showed deficits at baseline measurement in all assessments except the von-Frey Hair test. Temporary functional deafferentation of a forearm by an anesthetic cream results in improvements of motor performance and somatosensory discrimination in stroke patients but not in healthy subjects. Therefore, it is reasonable to test in a next step whether temporary functional deafferentation might become an additional tool in motor rehabilitation of post stroke patients. PMID:23735321

Sens, Elisabeth; Knorr, Christin; Preul, Christoph; Meissner, Winfried; Witte, Otto W; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Weiss, Thomas

2013-09-01

170

Gait improvement after treadmill training in ischemic stroke survivors: A critical review of functional MRI studies?  

PubMed Central

Stroke survivors often present with abnormal gait, movement training can improve the walking performance post-stroke, and functional MRI can objectively evaluate the brain functions before and after movement training. This paper analyzes the functional MRI changes in patients with ischemic stroke after treadmill training with voluntary and passive ankle dorsiflexion. Functional MRI showed that there are some changes in some regions of patients with ischemic stroke including primary sensorimotor cortex, supplementary motor area and cingulate motor area after treadmill training. These findings suggest that treadmill training likely improves ischemic stroke patients’ lower limb functions and gait performance and promotes stroke recovery by changing patients’ brain plasticity; meanwhile, the novel treadmill training methods can better training effects. PMID:25337096

Xiao, Xiang; Huang, Dongfeng; O'Young, Bryan

2012-01-01

171

Metformin may produce antidepressant effects through improvement of cognitive function among depressed patients with diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus and depressive disorders are both common chronic diseases that increase functional disability and social burden. Cognitive impairment is a potentially debilitating feature of depression. Previous evidence indicates that the antidiabetic drug metformin could be suitable for diabetic patients with cognitive impairment. However, there is no direct evidence from clinical studies that metformin treatment improves cognitive function in diabetic patients suffering from depression. In the present study, 58 participants diagnosed with depression and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were recruited and divided into two groups, one treated with metformin and the other treated with placebo for 24 weeks. Cognitive function, depressive behaviour and diabetes improvement were evaluated. Chronic treatment with metformin for 24 weeks improved cognitive performance, as assessed by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, in depressed patients with T2DM. In addition, metformin significantly improved depressive performance and changed the glucose metabolism in depressed patients with diabetes. Depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with cognitive performance in metformin-treated participants. Furthermore, associations were observed between the parameters of blood glucose metabolism and the depression phenotype. These findings suggest that chronic treatment with metformin has antidepressant behavioural effects and that improved cognitive function is involved in the therapeutic outcome of metformin. The results of the present study also raise the possibility that supplementary administration of antidiabetic medications may enhance the recovery of depression, comorbid with T2DM, through improvements in cognitive performance. PMID:24862430

Guo, Min; Mi, Jia; Jiang, Qiu-Ming; Xu, Jin-Mei; Tang, Ying-Ying; Tian, Geng; Wang, Bin

2014-09-01

172

Improving Balance Function Using Low Levels of Electrical Stimulation of the Balance Organs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crewmembers returning from long-duration space flight face significant challenges due to the microgravity-induced inappropriate adaptations in balance/ sensorimotor function. The Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC is developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance the brain s ability to detect signals from the balance organs of the inner ear and use them for rapid improvement in balance skill, especially when combined with balance training exercises. This method involves a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable providing imperceptible electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the human body. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a nonlinear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. This phenomenon of SR is based on the concept of maximizing the flow of information through a system by a non-zero level of noise. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input in humans has been shown to improve motor, cardiovascular, visual, hearing, and balance functions. SR increases contrast sensitivity and luminance detection; lowers the absolute threshold for tone detection in normal hearing individuals; improves homeostatic function in the human blood pressure regulatory system; improves noise-enhanced muscle spindle function; and improves detection of weak tactile stimuli using mechanical or electrical stimulation. SR noise has been shown to improve postural control when applied as mechanical noise to the soles of the feet, or when applied as electrical noise at the knee and to the back muscles.

Bloomberg, Jacob; Reschke, Millard; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen

2012-01-01

173

Dynamic Complexity in the Electrochemical Oxidation of Thiourea Jiamin Feng, Qingyu Gao,, Xiaoli Lv, and Irving R. Epstein*,  

E-print Network

Dynamic Complexity in the Electrochemical Oxidation of Thiourea Jiamin Feng, Qingyu Gao,, Xiaoli Lv oxidation of thiourea under potential- control mode and found complex oscillations with one large peak oxidation of thiourea revealed that the reaction is a complex process, and several possible products were

Epstein, Irving R.

174

Increased matrix metalloproteinase activity and selective upregulation in LV myocardium from patients with end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—One of the hallmarks of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is left ventricular (LV) remodeling. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of enzymes that contribute to extracellular remodeling in several disease states. Additionally, a family of inhibitors called tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) has been shown to exist and to tightly regulate MMP activity. However, the types of MMPs and TIMPs

Chadwick V. Thomas; Mytsi L. Coker; James L. Zellner; John R. Handy; Jackson Crumbley III; Francis G. Spinale

1998-01-01

175

Aircraft Accident Report - Las Vegas Airlines, Piper PA-31-350, N44LV, Las Vegas, Nevada, August 30, 1978.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

About 0747 P.d.t., August 30, 1978, Las Vegas Airlines Flight 44, a Piper PA-31-350 (N44LV), crashed in VFR conditions shortly after takeoff from runway 25 at the North Las Vegas Airport, Las Vegas, Nevada. Flight 44 was a charter flight from Las Vegas, N...

1978-01-01

176

Chemical abundances in the protoplanetary disk LV2 (Orion) - II: High dispersion VLT observations and microjet properties  

E-print Network

Integral field spectroscopy of the LV2 proplyd is presented taken with the VLT/FLAMES Argus array at an angular resolution of 0.31x0.31 arcsec^2 and velocity resolutions down to 2 km/s per pixel. Following subtraction of the local M42 emission, the spectrum of LV2 is isolated from the surrounding nebula. We measured the heliocentric velocities and widths of a number of lines detected in the intrinsic spectrum of the proplyd, as well as in the adjacent Orion nebula within a 6.6 x 4.2 arcsec^2 FoV. It is found that far-UV to optical collisional lines with critical densities, Ncrit, ranging from 10^3 to 10^9 /cm^3 suffer collisional de-excitation near the rest velocity of the proplyd correlating tightly with their critical densities. Lines of low Ncrit are suppressed the most. The bipolar jet arising from LV2 is spectrally and spatially well-detected in several emission lines. We compute the [O III] electron temperature profile across LV2 in velocity space and measure steep temperature variations associated with...

Tsamis, Y G

2011-01-01

177

Complete set of mitochondrial pan-edited mRNAs in Leishmania mexicana amazonensis LV78  

PubMed Central

Editing of mRNA transcribed from the mitochondrial cryptogenes ND8 (G1), ND9 (G2), G3, G4, ND3 (G5), RPS12 (G6) was investigated in Leishmania mexicana amazonensis, strain LV78, by amplification of the cDNA, cloning and sequencing. For each of these genes, extensively and partially edited transcripts were found to be relatively abundant compared to the respective pre-edited molecules. Moreover, the editing patterns observed in a majority of transcripts of each gene were consistent among themselves which allowed for inferring consensus editing sequences. The open reading frames contained in the consensus sequences were predicted to encode polypeptides that were highly similar to their counterparts in other species of Trypanosomatidae. Several kinetoplast DNA minicircles from this species available in the public domain were found to contain genes for guide RNAs which mediate editing of some of the mRNAs. The results indicate that the investigated strain of L. m. amazonensis has preserved its full editing capacity in spite of the long-term maintenance in culture. This property differs drastically from the other Leishmania species which lost some or all of the G1–G5 mRNA editing ability in culture. PMID:20546801

Maslov, Dmitri A.

2010-01-01

178

Hibernating myocardium: clinical and functional response to revascularisation 1 Presented at the 10th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery, Prague, Czech Republic, 6–9 October 1996. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We assessed the effects of coronary bypass grafting on left ventricular (LV) function, exercise capacity and symptom profile in patients with LV impairment and evaluated the role of identifying myocardial hibernation in a prospective non-randomised study. Methods: Of 120 patients screened, 47 patients with LV ejection fraction <35% and three vessel coronary artery disease were studied. All underwent stress\\/redistribution

M. G. Gunning; T. P. Chua; D. Harrington; C. J. Knight; E. Burman; D. J. Pennell; J. Pepper; K. Fox; S. R. Underwood

1997-01-01

179

Further improvement in the variational many-body wave functions for light nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved variational ansatz is proposed and implemented for variational many-body wave functions for light nuclei with nucleons interacting through Argonne (AV18) and Urbana IX (UIX) three-nucleon interactions. The new ansatz is based upon variationally distinguishing between the various components of the two-body Jastrow and operatorial correlations, which are operated upon by three-body and spin-orbit correlations. We obtain noticeable improvement in the quality of the wave function and lowering of the energies compared to earlier results. The new energies are -8.38(1), -28.07(1), and -29.90(1) MeV for 3H, 4He, and 6Li, respectively. Though, the present improved ansatz still fails to stabilize the 6Li nucleus against a breakup into an ? particle and a deuteron by 390 KeV; nonetheless, it is an improvement over previous studies.

Usmani, Q. N.; Anwar, K.; Abdullah, Nooraihan

2012-09-01

180

Improved constraint satisfaction in a simple generalized gradient approximation exchange functional  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though there is fevered effort on orbital-dependent approximate exchange-correlation functionals, generalized gradient approximations, especially the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) form, remain the overwhelming choice in calculations. A simple generalized gradient approximation (GGA) exchange functional [A. Vela, V. Medel, and S. B. Trickey, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 244103 (2009)] was developed that improves substantially over PBE in energetics (on a typical test set) while being almost as simple in form. The improvement came from constraining the exchange enhancement factor to be below the Lieb-Oxford bound for all but one value of the exchange dimensionless gradient, s, and to go to the uniform electron gas limit at both s = 0 and s --> ?. Here we discuss the issue of asymptotic constraints for GGAs and show that imposition of the large s constraint, lims-->?s1/2Fxc(n,s)functional yields modest further improvement. The resulting exchange functional, denoted VT{8,4}, is only slightly more complicated than VMT and easy to program. Additional improvement is obtained by combining VT{8,4} or VMT exchange with the Lee-Yang-Parr correlation functional. Extensive computational results on several datasets are provided as verification of the overall performance gains of both versions.

Vela, Alberto; Pacheco-Kato, Juan C.; Gázquez, José L.; del Campo, Jorge M.; Trickey, S. B.

2012-04-01

181

Eucalyptus increases ceramide levels in keratinocytes and improves stratum corneum function.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to identify a plant extract that would improve stratum corneum functions and to elucidate the mechanism(s) involved. Based on the information that stratum corneum functions depend on the level of ceramide in the stratum corneum, we identified a Eucalyptus extract that was able to increase the level of ceramide in human keratinocytes in culture and in human stratum corneum and that improves the stratum corneum water holding and barrier functions. Addition of the Eucalyptus extract to human keratinocytes in culture increased the level of ceramide in a dose-dependent manner and also increased the biosynthesis of ceramide, glucosylceramide and sphingomyelin. Topical application of the Eucalyptus extract on the dry skin of human subjects induced by acetone and diethylether treatment resulted in a significant increase in ceramide level in the stratum corneum, a significant improvement in its water-holding function and an improvement in its barrier function. The addition of macrocarpal A, one of the main components of the Eucalyptus extract, to human keratinocytes in culture increased the level of ceramide and the mRNA expression of serine palmitoyltransferase, acid sphingomyelinase, neutral sphingomyelinase, glucosylceramide synthase and glucocerebrosidase in a dose-dependent manner. Our results indicate that the increased content of ceramides in the stratum corneum may underlie the therapeutic effect of the Eucalyptus extract. Our results also indicate the possibility that macrocarpal A is the key component that stimulates the synthesis of ceramide in the stratum corneum. PMID:21696405

Ishikawa, J; Shimotoyodome, Y; Chen, S; Ohkubo, K; Takagi, Y; Fujimura, T; Kitahara, T; Takema, Y

2012-02-01

182

How does the motor relearning program improve neurological function of brain ischemia monkeys??  

PubMed Central

The motor relearning program can significantly improve various functional disturbance induced by ischemic cerebrovascular diseases. However, its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. In injured brain tissues, glial fibrillary acidic protein and neurofilament protein changes can reflect the condition of injured neurons and astrocytes, while vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor changes can indicate angiogenesis. In the present study, we induced ischemic brain injury in the rhesus macaque by electrocoagulation of the M1 segment of the right middle cerebral artery. The motor relearning program was conducted for 60 days from the third day after model establishment. Immunohistochemistry and single-photon emission CT showed that the numbers of glial fibrillary acidic protein-, neurofilament protein-, vascular endothelial growth factor- and basic fibroblast growth factor-positive cells were significantly increased in the infarcted side compared with the contralateral hemisphere following the motor relearning program. Moreover, cerebral blood flow in the infarcted side was significantly improved. The clinical rating scale for stroke was used to assess neurological function changes in the rhesus macaque following the motor relearning program. Results showed that motor function was improved, and problems with consciousness, self-care ability and balance function were significantly ameliorated. These findings indicate that the motor relearning program significantly promoted neuronal regeneration, repair and angiogenesis in the surroundings of the infarcted hemisphere, and improve neurological function in the rhesus macaque following brain ischemia.

Yin, Yong; Gu, Zhen; Pan, Lei; Gan, Lu; Qin, Dongdong; Yang, Bo; Guo, Jin; Hu, Xintian; Wang, Tinghua; Feng, Zhongtang

2013-01-01

183

Relationship between clinical improvement and functional gains with clozapine in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Impairment in psychosocial functioning is a key feature in schizophrenia, but few studies have examined the relationship between improvements in symptoms and functioning. We examined the relationship between change in symptoms and change in functioning in a group of patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia after 6 and 12 weeks of clozapine treatment. Participants were assessed prior to clozapine and again at 6 and 12-week on the 18-item Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Social and Occupational Functioning Scale (SOFAS). Change scores in BPRS and SOFAS at 6 and 12-week post-clozapine were calculated and the direct relationship was assessed via regression models. Forty-three participants were included in this study; age of sample was 42.1±12.7 years, with 31 (72.1%) male participants. At baseline, the mean BPRS total and SOFAS scores were 46.98±12.86 and 33.07±10.79, respectively. There were significant improvements in BPRS total and SOFAS scores at 6 weeks, but no significant differences between 6 and 12-week assessments. There was no significant change in negative symptoms at both follow-up assessments. At 6-week, change in symptoms was not correlated with change in functioning and while the relationship between change in symptoms and functioning was stronger at 12 weeks, none of the BPRS factors emerged as a significant predictor. The present study found that lower baseline SOFAS score was the most robust predictor for improvements in SOFAS at 6 and 12-weeks. There appears to be a "ceiling" for functional improvements on clozapine, but follow-up studies are needed to examine functional gains beyond 12 weeks. PMID:25156578

Lee, Jimmy; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Fervaha, Gagan; Bhaloo, Amaal; Powell, Valerie; Remington, Gary

2014-10-01

184

Whole-body vibration improves walking function in individuals with spinal cord injury: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Injury to the central nervous system often results in impairments that negatively affect walking function. Prior evidence suggests that vibration may improve walking function. The purpose of this study was to determine whether repeated use of whole-body vibration (WBV) is associated with improvements in walking function in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Subjects were 17 individuals with chronic (? 1 year), motor-incomplete SCI. Subjects were tested before and after participation in a 12-session (3 days/week- for 4 weeks) intervention of WBV. We assessed change in walking function via 3D motion capture, with walking speed as the primary outcome measure. We also assessed the influence of the WBV intervention on secondary gait characteristics, including cadence, step length, and hip angle-to-knee angle intralimb coordination. Walking speed increased by a mean of 0.062 ± 0.011 m/s, a change that was statistically significant (p<0.001). The WBV intervention was also associated with statistically significant increases in cadence, and both the stronger and weaker legs exhibited increased step length and improved consistency of intralimb coordination. Changes in cadence and step length of the stronger leg were strongly correlated with improvements in walking speed. The improvement in walking speed observed with the WBV intervention was comparable to that reported in the literature in association with locomotor training. This magnitude of change has been identified as being clinically meaningful, even in non-clinical populations. These findings suggest WBV may be useful to improve walking function with effects that may persist for some time following the intervention. PMID:19648013

Ness, Lanitia L.; Field-Fote, Edelle C.

2009-01-01

185

Intracranial arachnoid cysts: impairment of higher cognitive functions and postoperative improvement  

PubMed Central

Background Intracranial arachnoid cysts have been shown to yield cognitive impairment over a range of basic mental functions, and these functions normalize after surgical cyst decompression. We wanted to investigate whether such cysts may also impair executive cognitive functions, and whether surgical cyst decompression leads to an improvement. Methods This study included 22 patients with arachnoid cysts and 13 control patients scheduled for low back surgery. All subjects were tested with Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) tests, assessing executive function 1 day before surgery and a minimum of 3 months after surgery. The data were analyzed according to scaled score computations based on raw scores provided by D-KEFS, adjusted for age, gender, and educational norms. Results Preoperatively, the patients with cysts group performed worse than the control group in verbal knowledge, mental flexibility, inhibitory capacity, problem solving, and planning skills. Postoperatively, the patients with cysts group significantly improved performance and were no longer different from the control group in the following subtests: inhibition, inhibition/switching, letter fluency, category switching, and total switching accuracy. The patients with cysts group also significantly improved performance in color naming, category fluency, and in the Tower test, but nevertheless remained impaired at follow-up compared with the control group. The control group did not show a similar improvement, except for the Tower test. Cyst size or postoperative volume reduction did not correlate with cognitive performance or postoperative improvement. Patients with left-sided temporal cysts performed poorer than patients with right-sided cysts on a complex verbal task demanding mental flexibility. Conclusions Arachnoid cysts seem to impair not only basic cognition, but also executive functions. Most of this impairment appears to be reversible after surgical cyst decompression. These results may have implications for future preoperative considerations for patients with intracranial arachnoid cysts. PMID:23985219

2013-01-01

186

Improvement of Eustachian Tube Function by Tissue-Engineered Regeneration of Mastoid Air Cells  

PubMed Central

Objectives/Hypothesis Most cases of chronic otitis media (OMC) are associated with poor development of the mastoid air cells (MACs) and poor Eustachian tube (ET) function. We have previously reported that MAC regeneration can effectively eliminate intractable OMC. In this study, we assessed the ability of regenerated MACs to restore normal gas exchange function and contribute to improved ET function. Study Design Clinical trial with control. Setting General hospitals. Materials and Methods Seventy-six patients with OMC, including cholesteatoma and adhesive otitis media, received tympanoplasty and MAC regeneration therapy. At the first-stage of tympanoplasty, artificial pneumatic bones and/or autologous bone fragments were implanted into the opened mastoid cavity. At the 2nd-stage operation, a nitrous oxide (N2O) gas study was performed in 10 patients to measure middle ear pressure (MEP). For the control group, MEP was measured in five patients with good MAC development during cochlear implantation or facial nerve decompression. ET function was measured twice in each patient, once before the 1st operation and 6 months after the second operation. Results At the 2nd-stage operation, in all cases with regenerated MACs and in the normal control group, MEP changed after administration of N2O. In contrast, no change in MEP was observed in cases with unregenerated MACs. In 70% (n = 37/53) of the regenerated MAC group, ET function was improved, whereas improvement of ET function was observed in only 13% (n = 3/23) of the unregenerated MAC group. Conclusions Tissue-engineered regeneration of MACs improves ET function and gas exchange in the middle ear. Laryngoscope, 2012 Level of Evidence 3b PMID:23086494

Kanemaru, Shin-ichi; Umeda, Hiroo; Yamashita, Masaru; Hiraumi, Harukazu; Hirano, Shigeru; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Ito, Juichi

2013-01-01

187

Chemical abundances in the protoplanetary disc LV 2 (Orion) - II. High-dispersion VLT observations and microjet properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Integral field spectroscopy of the LV 2 proplyd is presented taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT)/FLAMES Argus array at an angular resolution of 0.31 × 0.31 arcsec2 and velocity resolutions down to 2 km s-1 pixel-1. Following subtraction of the local M42 emission, the spectrum of LV 2 is isolated from the surrounding nebula. We measured the heliocentric velocities and widths of a number of lines detected in the intrinsic spectrum of the proplyd, as well as in the adjacent Orion nebula falling within a 6.6 × 4.2 arcsec2 field of view. It is found that far-ultraviolet to optical collisional lines with critical densities, Ncr, ranging from 103 to 109 cm-3 suffer collisional de-excitation near the rest velocity of the proplyd correlating tightly with their critical densities. Lines of low Ncr are suppressed the most. The bipolar jet arising from LV 2 is spectrally and spatially well detected in several emission lines. We compute the [O III] electron temperature profile across LV 2 in velocity space and measure steep temperature variations associated with the red-shifted lobe of the jet, possibly being due to a shock discontinuity. From the velocity-resolved analysis the ionized gas near the rest frame of LV 2 has Te= 9200 ± 800 K and Ne˜ 106 cm-3, while the red-shifted jet lobe has Te? 9000-104 K and Ne˜ 106-107 cm-3. The jet flow is highly ionized but contains dense semineutral clumps emitting neutral oxygen lines. The abundances of N+, O2 +, Ne2 +, Fe2 +, S+and S2 +are measured for the strong red-shifted jet lobe. Iron in the core of LV 2 is depleted by 2.54 dex with respect to solar as a result of sedimentation on dust, whereas the efficient destruction of dust grains in the fast microjet raises its Fe abundance to at least 30 per cent solar. Sulphur does not show evidence of significant depletion on dust, but its abundance both in the core and the jet is only about half solar. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under programme 078.C-0247(A).

Tsamis, Y. G.; Walsh, J. R.

2011-11-01

188

A Study of Improving Sight and Functional Vocabulary Development and Comprehension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a program to increase sight/functional vocabulary to improve reading comprehension. The targeted population consisted of one 2nd-3rd grade and one 6th-8th grade cross-categorical self-contained class, located in an elementary school and a middle school. The schools were located in a northeast suburb of a major city in the…

Henning, Diane; Pickett, Anita

189

Improved Imaged-derived Input Function for Study of Human Brain FDG-PET  

E-print Network

Improved Imaged-derived Input Function for Study of Human Brain FDG-PET Hongbin Guo, Rosemary tomography (PET) studies. Two time windows can be recognized in the time activity curve measured from the compartmental model for FDG PET [5]. Index Terms Quantification of FDG PET, Automated Image-derived input

Renaut, Rosemary

190

Autologous porcine heart cell transplantation improved heart function after a myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Fetal cardiomyocyte transplantation improved heart function after cardiac injury. However, cellular allografts were rejected despite cyclosporine (INN: ciclosporin) therapy. We therefore evaluated autologous heart cell transplantation in an adult swine model of a myocardial infarction. Methods: In 16 adult swine a myocardial infarction was created by occlusion of the distal left anterior descending coronary artery by an intraluminal coil.

Ren-Ke Li; Richard D. Weisel; Donald A. G. Mickle; Zhi-Qiang Jia; Eung-Joong Kim; Tetsuro Sakai; Shinji Tomita; Leonard Schwartz; Mark Iwanochko; Mansoor Husain; Robert J. Cusimano; Robert J. Burns; Terrence M. Yau

2000-01-01

191

Structure-function strategies to improve the pharmacological value of animal toxins  

E-print Network

synthesis or genetic engineering. Unfortunately, they rarely display the required characteristics in terms engineering ­ Pros and cons In animal venoms, peptide sizes are mainly in the range of 0.4 to 8.0 k genetic engineering, making the former approach more appropriate to improve the structural and functional

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

192

proteinsSTRUCTURE O FUNCTION O BIOINFORMATICS Improving taxonomy-based protein fold  

E-print Network

proteinsSTRUCTURE O FUNCTION O BIOINFORMATICS Improving taxonomy-based protein fold recognition methods can be broadly classified into two categories, that is, template-based1­6 and taxonomy- based.7­13 In recent years, the taxonomy-based method has attracted great attention due to its encouraging performance

Chen, Xin

193

Troglitazone Therapy Improves Endothelial Function to Near Normal Levels in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) exhibit impaired endothelial function, which is strongly and directly correlated with both testosterone levels and insulin resis- tance. Endothelial dysfunction is considered a potent risk factor for macrovascular disease. Because troglitazone (Tgz) improves both hormonal profiles and insulin sensitivity, we tested whether Tgz treatment ameliorates endothelial func- tion in these patients. We studied

GIANCARLO PARADISI; HELMUT O. STEINBERG; MARGUERITE K. SHEPARD; GINGER HOOK; ALAIN D. BARON

2010-01-01

194

Neutron monitor yield function: New improved computations A. L. Mishev,1,3  

E-print Network

Neutron monitor yield function: New improved computations A. L. Mishev,1,3 I. G. Usoskin,1,2 and G June 2013. [1] A ground-based neutron monitor (NM) is a standard tool to measure cosmic ray (CR experimental data. Citation: Mishev, A. L., I. G. Usoskin, and G. A. Kovaltsov (2013), Neutron monitor yield

Usoskin, Ilya G.

195

A new approach to improve functionality for cost reduction in construction project  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarized and reviewed the current main strategies for cost reduction in construction projects. According to the feedback from ten experienced construction managers, we analyzed the implementation of the current main strategies and nine possible factors (reasons) that should influence these strategies. Then a new approach is introduced to improve functionality for cost reduction in construction projects.

Shujing Li

2010-01-01

196

Sensorimotor Training in a Virtual Reality Environment: Does It Improve Functional  

E-print Network

Sensorimotor Training in a Virtual Reality Environment: Does It Improve Functional Recovery the effectiveness of computerized virtual reality (VR) training of the hemiparetic hand of patients poststroke using of interactive computer games for 13 days of training, weekend breaks, and pretests and posttests. Each subject

New Jersey, University of Medicine and Dentistry of

197

Ingestion of Broccoli Sprouts Does Not Improve Endothelial Function in Humans with Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ingestion of glucosinolates has previously been reported to improve endothelial function in spontaneously hypertensive rats, possibly because of an increase in NO availability in the endothelium due to an attenuation of oxidative stress; in our study we tried to see if this also would be the case in humans suffering from essential hypertension.Methods40 hypertensive individuals without diabetes and with normal

Buris Christiansen; Natalia Bellostas Muguerza; Atheline Major Petersen; Britt Kveiborg; Christian Rask Madsen; Hermann Thomas; Nikolaj Ihlemann; Jens Christian Sørensen; Lars Køber; Hilmer Sørensen; Christian Torp-Pedersen; Helena Domínguez

2010-01-01

198

Using Resource Selection Functions to Improve Estimation of Elk Population Numbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stratification is commonly used to improve sampling efficiency of aerial surveys of ungulate populations with strata typically based on a priori information, such as preflight animal observations or vegetation attributes as surrogates for animal densities. We evaluated the usefulness of stratifying survey units for elk (Cervus elaphus) in the Rocky Mountain foothills of Alberta, Canada, using a resource selection function

James R. Allen; Leslie E. Mcinenly; Evelyn H. Merrill; Mark S. Boyce

2008-01-01

199

Improving Students' Representational Flexibility in Linear-Function Problems: An Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates the effects of an intervention aimed at improving representational flexibility in linear-function problems. Forty-nine students aged 13-16 participated in the study. A pretest-intervention-posttest design with an experimental and control group was used. At pretest, both groups solved a choice test, where they could freely…

Acevedo Nistal, A.; Van Dooren, W.; Verschaffel, L.

2014-01-01

200

A finite element inverse analysis to assess functional improvement during the fracture healing process  

E-print Network

A finite element inverse analysis to assess functional improvement during the fracture healing i n f o Article history: Accepted 2 September 2009 Keywords: Fracture healing Finite element architecture on the FEA estimated material property metric. The finite element model inverse analysis developed

Miga, Michael I.

201

Improvement in gonadal function through modification of negative feed-back  

E-print Network

Improvement in gonadal function through modification of negative feed-back R. B. LAND ARC, Animal predictable for the technique to be acceptable for general use. Genetic variation in the ovulation rate. It will be argued that the modification of steroid feed-back offers a more promising means of raising gonadal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

202

A Bayesian Method to Incorporate Hundreds of Functional Characteristics with Association Evidence to Improve Variant Prioritization  

PubMed Central

The increasing quantity and quality of functional genomic information motivate the assessment and integration of these data with association data, including data originating from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We used previously described GWAS signals (“hits”) to train a regularized logistic model in order to predict SNP causality on the basis of a large multivariate functional dataset. We show how this model can be used to derive Bayes factors for integrating functional and association data into a combined Bayesian analysis. Functional characteristics were obtained from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE), from published expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), and from other sources of genome-wide characteristics. We trained the model using all GWAS signals combined, and also using phenotype specific signals for autoimmune, brain-related, cancer, and cardiovascular disorders. The non-phenotype specific and the autoimmune GWAS signals gave the most reliable results. We found SNPs with higher probabilities of causality from functional characteristics showed an enrichment of more significant p-values compared to all GWAS SNPs in three large GWAS studies of complex traits. We investigated the ability of our Bayesian method to improve the identification of true causal signals in a psoriasis GWAS dataset and found that combining functional data with association data improves the ability to prioritise novel hits. We used the predictions from the penalized logistic regression model to calculate Bayes factors relating to functional characteristics and supply these online alongside resources to integrate these data with association data. PMID:24844982

Gagliano, Sarah A.; Barnes, Michael R.

2014-01-01

203

IMPROVING CORRELATION FUNCTION FITTING WITH RIDGE REGRESSION: APPLICATION TO CROSS-CORRELATION RECONSTRUCTION  

SciTech Connect

Cross-correlation techniques provide a promising avenue for calibrating photometric redshifts and determining redshift distributions using spectroscopy which is systematically incomplete (e.g., current deep spectroscopic surveys fail to obtain secure redshifts for 30%-50% or more of the galaxies targeted). In this paper, we improve on the redshift distribution reconstruction methods from our previous work by incorporating full covariance information into our correlation function fits. Correlation function measurements are strongly covariant between angular or spatial bins, and accounting for this in fitting can yield substantial reduction in errors. However, frequently the covariance matrices used in these calculations are determined from a relatively small set (dozens rather than hundreds) of subsamples or mock catalogs, resulting in noisy covariance matrices whose inversion is ill-conditioned and numerically unstable. We present here a method of conditioning the covariance matrix known as ridge regression which results in a more well behaved inversion than other techniques common in large-scale structure studies. We demonstrate that ridge regression significantly improves the determination of correlation function parameters. We then apply these improved techniques to the problem of reconstructing redshift distributions. By incorporating full covariance information, applying ridge regression, and changing the weighting of fields in obtaining average correlation functions, we obtain reductions in the mean redshift distribution reconstruction error of as much as {approx}40% compared to previous methods. We provide a description of POWERFIT, an IDL code for performing power-law fits to correlation functions with ridge regression conditioning that we are making publicly available.

Matthews, Daniel J.; Newman, Jeffrey A., E-mail: djm70@pitt.edu, E-mail: janewman@pitt.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)

2012-02-01

204

An improved cost function for modeling of muscle activity during running.  

PubMed

This paper tries to improve a recently developed mass-spring-damper model of the human body during running. The previous model took the muscle activity into account using a nonlinear controller that tuned the mechanical properties of the soft-tissue package based on two physiological hypotheses, namely "constant-force" and "constant-vibration". Three cost functions were used, out of which one was based on the constant-force hypothesis and two others were based on the constant-vibration hypothesis. The results of the study showed that the proposed cost functions are only partially successful in capturing the experimentally observed trends of the ground reaction force and vibration. The current paper proposes an improved cost function that combines both above-mentioned hypotheses. It is shown that the improved cost function can capture all the trends that were observed in the measurements of the ground reaction force and vibration level. It is therefore advised to use the new cost function in place of the previous ones. PMID:21159342

Nikooyan, Ali Asadi; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas

2011-03-15

205

Improving Function in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Design and Methods of a Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe vision loss in older adults and impairs the ability to read, drive, and live independently and increases the risk for depression, falls, and earlier mortality. Although new medical treatments have improved AMD’s prognosis, vision-related disability remains a major public health problem. Improving Function in AMD (IF-AMD) is a two-group randomized, parallel design, controlled clinical trial that compares the efficacy of Problem-Solving Therapy (PST) with Supportive Therapy (ST) (an attention control treatment) to improve vision function in 240 patients with AMD. PST and ST therapists deliver 6 one-hour respective treatment sessions to subjects in their homes over 2 months. Outcomes are assessed masked to treatment assignment at 3 months (main trial endpoint) and 6 months (maintenance effects). The primary outcome is targeted vision function (TVF), which refers to specific vision-dependent functional goals that subjects highly value but find difficult to achieve. TVF is an innovative outcome measure in that it is targeted and tailored to individual subjects yet is measured in a standardized way. This paper describes the research methods, theoretical and clinical aspects of the study treatments, and the measures used to evaluate functional and psychiatric outcomes in this population. PMID:20974293

Rovner, Barry W.; Casten, Robin J.; Hegel, Mark T.; Massof, Robert W.; Leiby, Benjamin E.; Tasman, William S.

2010-01-01

206

Effect of Intracoronary Delivery of Autolologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Two to Three Weeks Following Acute Myocardial Infarction on Left-Ventricular Function: The LateTIME Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Context Clinical trial results suggest that intracoronary delivery of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs) may improve left ventricular (LV) function when administered within the first week following myocardial infarction (MI). However, since a substantial number of patients may not present for early cell delivery, we investigated the efficacy of autologous BMC delivery 2–3 weeks post-MI. Objective To determine if intracoronary delivery of autologous BMCs improves global and regional LV function when delivered 2–3 weeks following first MI. Design, Setting, and Patients LateTIME is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute - sponsored Cardiovascular Cell Therapy Research Network (CCTRN) of 87 patients with significant LV dysfunction (LVEF ? 45%) following successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Interventions Intracoronary infusion of 150 × 106 autologous BMCs (total nucleated cells) or placebo (2:1 BMC:placebo) was performed within 12 hours of bone marrow aspiration after local automated cell processing. Main Outcome Measures The primary endpoints were changes in global (LVEF) and regional (wall motion) LV function in the infarct and border zone from baseline to 6 months as measured by cardiac MRI at a core lab blinded to treatment assignment Secondary endpoints included changes in LV volumes and infarct size. Results 87 patients were randomized between July 2008 and February 2011: mean age = 57 ± 11 yrs, 83% male. Harvesting, processing, and intracoronary delivery of BMCs in this setting was feasible and safe. The change from baseline to six months in the BMC group, when compared to the placebo group, for LVEF (48.7 to 49.2% vs. 45.3 to 48.8%; Difference = ?3.0, 95% CI ?7.0 to 0.9), wall motion in the infarct zone (6.2 to 6.5 vs. 4.9 to 5.9 mm; Difference = ?0.7, 95% CI ?2.8 to 1.3), and wall motion in the border zone (16.0 to 16.6 mm vs. 16.1 to 19.3 mm; Difference = ?2.6; 95% CI ?6.0 to 0.8) were not statistically significant. There was no significant change in LV volumes and infarct volumes decreased by a similar amount in both groups at 6 months compared to baseline. Conclusions Among patients with MI and LV dysfunction following reperfusion with PCI, intracoronary infusion of autologous BMCs compared to intracoronary placebo infusion, 2–3 weeks after PCI did not improve global or regional function at 6 months. PMID:22084195

Traverse, Jay H.; Henry, Timothy D.; Ellis, Stephen G.; Pepine, Carl J.; Willerson, James T.; Zhao, David X.M.; Forder, John R.; Byrne, Barry J.; Hatzopoulos, Antonis K.; Penn, Marc S.; Perin, Emerson C.; Baran, Kenneth W.; Chambers, Jeffrey; Lambert, Charles; Raveendran, Ganesh; Simon, Daniel I.; Vaughan, Douglas E.; Simpson, Lara M.; Gee, Adrian P.; Taylor, Doris A.; Cogle, Christopher R.; Thomas, James D.; Silva, Guilherme V.; Jorgenson, Beth C.; Olson, Rachel E.; Bowman, Sherry; Francescon, Judy; Geither, Carrie; Handberg, Eileen; Smith, Deirdre X.; Baraniuk, Sarah; Piller, Linda B.; Loghin, Catalin; Aguilar, David; Richman, Sara; Zierold, Claudia; Bettencourt, Judy; Sayre, Shelly L.; Vojvodic, Rachel W.; Skarlatos, Sonia I.; Gordon, David J.; Ebert, Ray F.; Kwak, Minjung; Moye, Lemuel A.; Simari, Robert D.

2013-01-01

207

Functional recovery of hibernating myocardium after coronary bypass surgery: Does it coincide with improvement in perfusion  

SciTech Connect

To determine the relationship between functional recovery and improvement in perfusion after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), 49 patients were studied. Radionuclide angiography was performed before, 1 month after, and 6 to 12 months after CABG to evaluate regional wall motion. Exercise thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging was done before and 1 month after CABG to assess regional perfusion. Preoperative asynergy was observed in 108 segments, and 74 of them showed an improvement in wall motion 1 month after CABG (segment A). Sixty-six of these segments (89%) were associated with an improvement in perfusion. Eight segments that had not improved 1 month after CABG demonstrated a delayed recovery of wall motion 6 to 12 months after CABG (segment B). However, seven of eight segments (88%) already showed an improvement in perfusion 1 month after CABG. A total of 82 segments exhibited functional recovery after CABG and were considered hibernating segments. In the preoperative study segment B more frequently had areas of akinesis or dyskinesis than segment A (75% vs 34%, p less than 0.05). The mean percent thallium-201 uptake in segment B was lower than that in segment A (74% {plus minus} 9% vs 83% {plus minus} 8%, p less than 0.05). Functional recovery of hibernating myocardium usually coincided with an improvement in perfusion. However, delayed functional recovery after reperfusion was observed in some instances. Severe asynergy and severe thallium-201 defects were more frequently observed in these segments with delayed recovery. Hibernating myocardium might remain stunned during those recovery periods.

Takeishi, Y.; Tono-oka, I.; Kubota, I.; Ikeda, K.; Masakane, I.; Chiba, J.; Abe, S.; Tsuiki, K.; Komatani, A.; Yamaguchi, I. (First Department of Internal Medicine, Yamagata University School of Medicine (Japan))

1991-09-01

208

Marked functional improvement after combined chemoradiotherapy for cervical spine glioblastoma causing quadriparesis in an adolescent.  

PubMed

Primary spinal glioblastoma (GBM) is a rare spinal tumour and is considered to have poor prognosis. We describe a case of a 17-year-old adolescent boy with a cervical spine GBM presenting with neck pain and right upper limb weakness. Initial spinal MRI demonstrated a 4.5 cm lesion extending from C2 to C5 suspicious for demyelination. Despite high-dose corticosteroids, his weakness progressed resulting in quadriparesis. Subsequent laminectomy and biopsy confirmed spinal GBM. Shortly after surgery the patient continued to deteriorate and was essentially bedbound. Standard chemoradiotherapy as per the Stupp protocol, together with multimodal rehabilitation, resulted in substantial functional improvement within 6 weeks of initiation. Continued functional improvement was observed for a period of 11 months. Although an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance score of 4 would normally preclude chemoradiotherapy, a prolonged response to treatment and return to independent function were observed. PMID:24518393

Lau, Peter Kar Han; Lee, Gabriel; Bynevelt, Michael; Nowak, Anna K

2014-01-01

209

Analysis and improvement of a chaos-based Hash function construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The construction of a new Hash function attracts much attention recently. In Kwok and Tang (2005) [Kwok HS, Tang WKS. A chaos-based cryptographic Hash function for message authentication. Int J Bifurcat Chaos 2005;15:4043-50], a chaos-based Hash function has been proposed. In this paper, the potential flaws in the original algorithm are analyzed in detail, and then the corresponding improving measures are proposed. We enhance the influence that each bit of the final Hash value is closely related to all the bits of the message or key and a single bit change in message or key results in great changes in the final Hash value. Simulation results show that the proposed improving algorithm has strong diffusion and confusion capability, good collision resistance, extreme sensitivity to message and secret key.

Deng, Shaojiang; Li, Yantao; Xiao, Di

2010-05-01

210

Second Preimage Attack on a Chaos-Based Hash Function Construction and Its Improvement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hash functions play an important role in cryptography. Recently, Hash functions based on chaotic map are attracting more and more attention. In 2005, Kwok and Tang proposed a chaos-based cryptographic hash function. Five years later, Deng and Xiao showed that this algorithm has low collision resistance and it does not have good diffusion and confusion property. Then, based on the weakness of this algorithm, they improved it and introduced the second version of the original algorithm. In this paper, we show that both algorithms: the first algorithm and the second version of the algorithm have the same weaknesses and they are not second preimage resistance. Then, we improve the second version of the algorithm and show that this algorithm has good confusion and diffusion property such as the second version of the original algorithm.

Hajibabaei, Zahra; Dakhilalian, Mohammad

211

Neurologic music therapy improves executive function and emotional adjustment in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation.  

PubMed

This study examined the immediate effects of neurologic music therapy (NMT) on cognitive functioning and emotional adjustment with brain-injured persons. Four treatment sessions were held, during which participants were given a pre-test, participated in 30 min of NMT that focused on one aspect of rehabilitation (attention, memory, executive function, or emotional adjustment), which was followed by post-testing. Control participants engaged in a pre-test, 30 min of rest, and then a post-test. Treatment participants showed improvement in executive function and overall emotional adjustment, and lessening of depression, sensation seeking, and anxiety. Control participants improved in emotional adjustment and lessening of hostility, but showed decreases in measures of memory, positive affect, and sensation seeking. PMID:19673815

Thaut, Michael H; Gardiner, James C; Holmberg, Dawn; Horwitz, Javan; Kent, Luanne; Andrews, Garrett; Donelan, Beth; McIntosh, Gerald R

2009-07-01

212

Left ventricular diastolic function and carotid artery wall in elderly athletes and sedentary controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advancing age is characterized by structural and functional change of left ventricle (LV) and large elastic arteries. Recent advances in tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) and integrated backscatter (IBS), new ultrasound tools, have allowed non-invasive assessment of structural and functional characterization of myocardium and artery wall. Our aim was to compare LV diastolic function and carotid artery remodeling in elderly athletes

Fabio Galetta; Ferdinando Franzoni; Francesca R. Femia; Francesco Bartolomucci; Angelo Carpi; Gino Santoro

2004-01-01

213

N-acetylcysteine amide preserves mitochondrial bioenergetics and improves functional recovery following spinal trauma.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial dysfunction is becoming a pivotal target for neuroprotective strategies following contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) and the pharmacological compounds that maintain mitochondrial function confer neuroprotection and improve long-term hindlimb function after injury. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of cell-permeating thiol, N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), a precursor of endogenous antioxidant glutathione (GSH), on mitochondrial function acutely, and long-term tissue sparing and hindlimb locomotor recovery following upper lumbar contusion SCI. Some designated injured adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (n=120) received either vehicle or NACA (75, 150, 300 or 600mg/kg) at 15min and 6h post-injury. After 24h the total, synaptic, and non-synaptic mitochondrial populations were isolated from a single 1.5cm spinal cord segment (centered at injury site) and assessed for mitochondrial bioenergetics. Results showed compromised total mitochondrial bioenergetics following acute SCI that was significantly improved with NACA treatment in a dose-dependent manner, with maximum effects at 300mg/kg (n=4/group). For synaptic and non-synaptic mitochondria, only 300mg/kg NACA dosage showed efficacy. Similar dosage (300mg/kg) also maintained mitochondrial GSH near normal levels. Other designated injured rats (n=21) received continuous NACA (150 or 300mg/kg/day) treatment starting at 15min post-injury for one week to assess long-term functional recovery over 6weeks post-injury. Locomotor testing and novel gait analyses showed significantly improved hindlimb function with NACA that were associated with increased tissue sparing at the injury site. Overall, NACA treatment significantly maintained acute mitochondrial bioenergetics and normalized GSH levels following SCI, and prolonged delivery resulted in significant tissue sparing and improved recovery of hindlimb function. PMID:24805071

Patel, Samir P; Sullivan, Patrick G; Pandya, Jignesh D; Goldstein, Glenn A; VanRooyen, Jenna L; Yonutas, Heather M; Eldahan, Khalid C; Morehouse, Johnny; Magnuson, David S K; Rabchevsky, Alexander G

2014-07-01

214

Recent trends in robot-assisted therapy environments to improve real-life functional performance after stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper and lower limb robotic tools for neuro-rehabilitation are effective in reducing motor impairment but they are limited in their ability to improve real world function. There is a need to improve functional outcomes after robot-assisted therapy. Improvements in the effectiveness of these environments may be achieved by incorporating into their design and control strategies important elements key to inducing

Michelle J Johnson; Clement J. Zablocki

2006-01-01

215

Recognizing the fingerprints of the Galactic bar: a quantitative approach to comparing model (l,v) distributions to observation  

E-print Network

We present a new method for fitting simple hydrodynamical models to the (l,v) distribution of atomic and molecular gas observed in the Milky Way. The method works by matching features found in models and observations. It is based on the assumption that the large-scale features seen in (l,v) plots, such as ridgelines and the terminal velocity curve, are influenced primarily by the underlying large-scale Galactic potential and are only weakly dependent on local ISM heating and cooling processes. In our scheme one first identifies by hand the features in the observations: this only has to be done once. We describe a procedure for automatically extracting similar features from simple hydrodynamical models and quantifying the "distance" between each model's features and the observations. Application to models of the Galactic Bar region (|l|<30deg) shows that our feature-fitting method performs better than \\chi^2 or envelope distances at identifying the correct underlying galaxy model.

Sormani, Mattia C

2014-01-01

216

Right and left ventricular functional impairment and sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea may contribute to the development of pulmonary hypertension and RVF primarily through pulmonary vasoconstriction secondary to hypoxia. Several recent studies indicate, however, that intermittent apnea-related hypoxia is not sufficient to cause sustained pulmonary hypertension. These studies have been consistent in showing that pulmonary hypertension and RVF are almost invariably seen in the presence of diurnal hypoxia. Sustained pulmonary hypertension, therefore, appears to be associated with sustained hypoxia as is the case in COPD. Patients with OSA who have hypoxia while awake are, as a rule, obese and have mild-to-moderate diffuse obstructive airways disease. Thus, most cases of pulmonary hypertension in association with OSA result from a combination of OSA, obesity, and diffuse obstructive airways disease, a so-called overlap syndrome. However, from the therapeutic viewpoint, it is apparent that treatment of OSA by NCPAP or tracheostomy, in such cases, is usually sufficient to reverse pulmonary hypertension and RVF. More recent work has provided strong evidence that OSA can play a role in the pathogenesis of LV heart failure in patients with CHF of otherwise unknown etiology. It is likely that this occurs through a combination of increased LV afterload related to exaggerated negative Pit swings during obstructive apneas, to intermittent hypoxia, and to chronically elevated sympathoadrenal activity. Reversal of OSA by NCPAP in these patients may relieve LV heart failure. These findings add a new dimension to our understanding of the pathophysiologic effects of OSA on the cardiovascular system by demonstrating that the LV is a structure that may suffer functional impairment secondary to the stresses imposed by OSA. Finally, it has now become apparent that CSR in patients with CHF can cause symptoms of a sleep apnea syndrome when associated with intermittent hypoxia and arousals from sleep. Reversal of CSR during sleep by NCPAP can lead to alleviation of these symptoms and possibly to reduced cardiac dyspnea and LV systolic function as well. Taken together, this suggests that much more extensive use of polysomnography may be warranted in the investigation of cardiovascular disease. The reasons are compelling: sleep apnea disorders are common and eminently treatable conditions whose reversal can result in improved right and left heart function and symptomatic improvement in patients with impaired myocardial function. PMID:1521413

Bradley, T D

1992-09-01

217

Influence of age on the relationship between left atrial performance and left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in systemic arterial hypertension  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Changes in left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic properties may generate variations in left atrial (LA) size and function in many pathophysiological models of LV overload. Besides these states, increasing age may independently influence and magnify LA changes. OBJECTIVE To investigate the relation of LA size and function to increasing age in hypertensive patients, and to evaluate whether this relationship is influenced by LV function. METHODS Three hundred thirty-six patients were evaluated using Doppler echocardiography. Maximal LA volume and ejection force were used as indexes of LA size and performance, respectively. RESULTS Age was positively associated with LA ejection force (r=0.34, P<0.001) and maximal volume (r=0.25, P<0.001). The effect of age was independent of LV mass and LV concentric geometry, which independently influenced LA parameters. The relationship between age and LA ejection force was maintained in patients with and without LV systolic dysfunction, and in those with normal diastolic function, whereas it was lost in those with LV diastolic dysfunction. The relationship between age and LA size was not influenced by either LV systolic or diastolic function. LA ejection force was associated with LV mass and LV concentric geometry in all groups of patients 56 years or older, while no association was found between these variables in patients younger than 56 years. LV mass was systematically linked to maximal LA volume in all classes of age, together with LV end-diastolic volume in all groups of patients 56 years of age or older, and LV concentric geometry in patients 68 years of age or older. CONCLUSIONS There is a positive relationship between age and LA size and performance in hypertensive patients, which is independent of LV mass and geometry. The effect of age on LA performance is insignificant when diastolic dysfunction occurs. PMID:18651023

Cioffi, Giovanni; Mureddu, Gian Francesco; Stefenelli, Carlo

2006-01-01

218

Improving Balance Function Using Low Levels of Electrical Stimulation of the Balance Organs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Crewmembers returning from long-duration space flight face significant challenges due to the microgravity-induced inappropriate adaptations in balance/sensorimotor function. The Neuroscience Laboratory at JSC is developing a method based on stochastic resonance to enhance the brain's ability to detect signals from the balance organs of the inner ear and use them for rapid improvement in balance skill, especially when combined with balance training exercises. This method involves a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable and provides imperceptible electrical stimulation to the balance organs of the human body. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a nonlinear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. This phenomenon of SR is based on the concept of maximizing the flow of information through a system by a non-zero level of noise. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input in humans has been shown to improve motor, cardiovascular, visual, hearing, and balance functions. SR increases contrast sensitivity and luminance detection; lowers the absolute threshold for tone detection in normal hearing individuals; improves homeostatic function in the human blood pressure regulatory system; improves noise-enhanced muscle spindle function; and improves detection of weak tactile stimuli using mechanical or electrical stimulation. SR noise has been shown to improve postural control when applied as mechanical noise to the soles of the feet, or when applied as electrical noise at the knee and to the back muscles. SR using imperceptible stochastic electrical stimulation of the vestibular system (stochastic vestibular stimulation, SVS) applied to normal subjects has shown to improve the degree of association between the weak input periodic signals introduced via venous blood pressure receptors and the heart-rate responses. Also, application of SVS over 24 hours improves the long-term heart-rate dynamics and motor responsiveness as indicated by daytime trunk activity measurements in patients with multi-system atrophy, Parkinson s disease, or both, including patients who were unresponsive to standard therapy for Parkinson s disease. Recent studies conducted at the NASA JSC Neurosciences Laboratories showed that imperceptible SVS, when applied to normal young healthy subjects, leads to significantly improved balance performance during postural disturbances on unstable compliant surfaces. These studies have shown the benefit of SR noise characteristic optimization with imperceptible SVS in the frequency range of 0-30 Hz, and amplitudes of stimulation have ranged from 100 to 400 microamperes.

Bloomberg, Jacob; Reschke, Millard; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen

2012-01-01

219

Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph Integral Field Unit Spectroscopy of the 167-317 (LV2) Proplyd in Orion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present high spatial resolution spectroscopic observations of the proplyd 167-317 (LV2) near the Trapezium cluster in the Orion Nebula, obtained during the system verification run of the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) Integral Field Unit (IFU) at the Gemini South Observatory. We have detected 38 forbidden and permitted emission lines associated with the proplyd and its redshifted jet. We have been able to detect three velocity components in the profiles of some of these lines: a peak with a 28-33 km s-1 systemic velocity that is associated with the photoevaporated proplyd flow, a highly redshifted component associated with a previously reported jet (which has receding velocities of about 80-120 km s-1 with respect to the systemic velocity and which is spatially distributed to the southeast of the proplyd), and a less obvious, approaching structure that may possibly be associated with a faint counterjet with a systemic velocity of -75+/-15 km s-1. We find evidence that the redshifted jet has a variable velocity, with slow fluctuations as a function of the distance from the proplyd. We present several background-subtracted, spatially distributed emission-line maps, and we use this information to obtain the dynamical characteristics over the observed field. Using a simple model and extinction-corrected H? fluxes, we estimate the mass-loss rate for both the proplyd photoevaporated flow and the redshifted microjet, obtaining M?proplyd=(6.2+/-0.6)×10-7 Msolar yr-1 and M?jet=(2.0+/-0.7)×10-8 Msolar yr-1, respectively. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), CNPq (Brazil), and CONICET (Argentina).

Vasconcelos, M. J.; Cerqueira, A. H.; Plana, H.; Raga, A. C.; Morisset, C.

2005-10-01

220

The peroxisome proliferator phenylbutyric acid (PBA) protects astrocytes from ts 1 MoMuLV-induced oxidative cell death  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s\\u000a disease, and HIV neuroAIDS. In this study, we have investigated an agent, phenylbutyric acid, that ameliorates cell death\\u000a in murine astrocytes infected with ts1 MoMuLV (ts1). Phenylbutyric acid, an aromatic short chain fatty acid, was shown to prevent the loss of catalase that occurs\\u000a in

Na Liu; Wenan Qiang; Xianghong Kuang; Philippe Thuillier; William S. Lynn; Paul K. Y. Wong

2002-01-01

221

Anaesthetic modification of regional myocardial functional adjustments during myocardial ischaemia: halothane vs fentanyl.  

PubMed

During myocardial ischaemia, functional compensation occurs by non-ischaemic regions of the left ventricle (LV). Anaesthetics may affect compensation by altering contractility, metabolism and perfusion. This was studied in dogs anaesthetized with fentanyl (150 micrograms kg-1 loading dose and 100 micrograms kg-1 h-1) or 0.75% and 1.5% halothane and subjected to left anterior descending artery (LAD) occlusion. After 15 min of anterior wall ischaemia, cardiac output, mean arterial pressure and LV maximum dP/dt were diminished in the 1.5% halothane but not in the 0.75% halothane or fentanyl groups. In all groups, stroke volume decreased, LV end-diastolic pressure increased and anterior wall function deteriorated (measured as systolic shortening, peak systolic intramyocardial pressure (IMP), regional wall stroke work (RSW) and slope of preload recruitable stroke work curve (Mw)) with ischaemia. Functional changes in the lateral (non-ischaemic) wall were different between groups. Regional function during occlusion in this area improved with fentanyl (mean (SEM) IMP, RSW and Mw increased by 23 (2)%, 37 (3)% and 69 (7)%, respectively), was relatively well maintained with 0.75% halothane and diminished with 1.5% halothane. PMID:1547053

Kim, Y D; Danchek, M; Myers, A K; Burke, T A; Analouei, A; Miller, D L; Moore, S; Coughlin, S; Visner, M S

1992-03-01

222

HIGH RESOLUTION H{alpha} IMAGES OF THE BINARY LOW-MASS PROPLYD LV 1 WITH THE MAGELLAN AO SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

We utilize the new Magellan adaptive optics system (MagAO) to image the binary proplyd LV 1 in the Orion Trapezium at H{alpha}. This is among the first AO results in visible wavelengths. The H{alpha} image clearly shows the ionization fronts, the interproplyd shell, and the cometary tails. Our astrometric measurements find no significant relative motion between components over {approx}18 yr, implying that LV 1 is a low-mass system. We also analyze Large Binocular Telescope AO observations, and find a point source which may be the embedded protostar's photosphere in the continuum. Converting the H magnitudes to mass, we show that the LV 1 binary may consist of one very-low-mass star with a likely brown dwarf secondary, or even plausibly a double brown dwarf. Finally, the magnetopause of the minor proplyd is estimated to have a radius of 110 AU, consistent with the location of the bow shock seen in H{alpha}.

Wu, Y.-L.; Close, L. M.; Males, J. R.; Follette, K.; Morzinski, K.; Kopon, D.; Rodigas, T. J.; Hinz, P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Puglisi, A.; Esposito, S.; Pinna, E.; Riccardi, A.; Xompero, M.; Briguglio, R., E-mail: yalinwu@email.arizona.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

2013-09-01

223

Improved cognitive-cerebral function in older adults with chromium supplementation.  

PubMed

Insulin resistance is implicated in the pathophysiological changes associated with Alzheimer's disease, and pharmaceutical treatments that overcome insulin resistance improve memory function in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease. Chromium (Cr) supplementation improves glucose disposal in patients with insulin resistance and diabetes. We sought to assess whether supplementation with Cr might improve memory and neural function in older adults with cognitive decline. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 26 older adults to receive either chromium picolinate (CrPic) or placebo for 12 weeks. Memory and depression were assessed prior to treatment initiation and during the final week of treatment. We also performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans on a subset of subjects. Although learning rate and retention were not enhanced by CrPic supplementation, we observed reduced semantic interference on learning, recall, and recognition memory tasks. In addition, fMRI indicated comparatively increased activation for the CrPic subjects in right thalamic, right temporal, right posterior parietal, and bifrontal regions. These findings suggest that supplementation with CrPic can enhance cognitive inhibitory control and cerebral function in older adults at risk for neurodegeneration. PMID:20423560

Krikorian, Robert; Eliassen, James C; Boespflug, Erin L; Nash, Tiffany A; Shidler, Marcelle D

2010-06-01

224

Dejian Mind-Body Intervention Improves the Cognitive Functions of a Child with Autism  

PubMed Central

There has been increasing empirical evidence for the enhancing effects of Dejian Mind-Body Intervention (DMBI), a traditional Chinese Shaolin healing approach, on human frontal brain activity/functions, including patients with autism who are well documented to have frontal lobe problems. This study aims to compare the effects of DMBI with a conventional behavioural/cognitive intervention (CI) on enhancing the executive functions and memory of a nine-year-old boy with low-functioning autism (KY) and to explore possible underlying neural mechanism using EEG theta cordance. At post-one-month DMBI, KY's inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and memory functioning have significantly improved from “severely-to-moderately impaired” to “within-normal” range. This improvement was not observed from previous 12-month CI. Furthermore, KY showed increased cordance gradually extending from the anterior to the posterior brain region, suggesting possible neural mechanism underlying his cognitive improvement. These findings have implicated potential applicability of DMBI as a rehabilitation program for patients with severe frontal lobe and/or memory disorders. PMID:21584249

Chan, Agnes S.; Sze, Sophia L.; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Han, Yvonne M. Y.; Leung, Winnie W. M.; Shi, Dejian

2011-01-01

225

Quantification and improvement of speech transmission performance using headphones in acoustic stimulated functional magnetic resonance imaging.  

PubMed

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has made a major contribution to the understanding of higher brain function, but fMRI with auditory stimulation, used in the planning of brain tumor surgery, is often inaccurate because there is a risk that the sounds used in the trial may not be correctly transmitted to the subjects due to acoustic noise. This prompted us to devise a method of digitizing sound transmission ability from the accuracy rate of 67 syllables, classified into three types. We evaluated this with and without acoustic noise during imaging. We also improved the structure of the headphones and compared their sound transmission ability with that of conventional headphones attached to an MRI device (a GE Signa HDxt 3.0 T). We calculated and compared the sound transmission ability of the conventional headphones with that of the improved model. The 95 percent upper confidence limit (UCL) was used as the threshold for accuracy rate of hearing for both headphone models. There was a statistically significant difference between the conventional model and the improved model during imaging (p < 0.01). The rate of accuracy of the improved model was 16 percent higher. 29 and 22 syllables were accurate at a 95% UCL in the improved model and the conventional model, respectively. This study revealed the evaluation system used in this study to be useful for correctly identifying syllables during fMRI. PMID:25327421

Yamamura, Ken Ichiro; Takatsu, Yasuo; Miyati, Tosiaki; Kimura, Tetsuya

2014-10-01

226

Declining ambient air pollution and lung function improvement in Austrian children  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three thousand four hundred fifty-one Austrian elementary school children were examined (between 2 and 8 times) by spirometry by standardized methods, over a 5 yr period. The districts where they lived were grouped into those where NO 2 declined during this period (by at least 30 ?g/m 3 measured as half year means) and those with less or no decline in ambient NO 2. In both groups of districts, SO 2 and TSP fell by similar amounts over this period. A continuous improvement of MEF25 (maximum exspiratory flow rate at 25% vital capacity) was found in districts with declining ambient NO 2. Populations did not differ in respect of anthropometric factors, passive smoking or socioeconomic status. A birth cohort from this study population which was followed up to age 18 confirmed the improved growth of MEF25 with decline in NO 2, while the improved growth of forced vital capacity was more related to decline in SO 2. This study provides the first evidence that improvements in the outdoor air quality during the 1980s are correlated with health benefits, and suggest that adverse effects on lung function related to ambient air pollution are reversible before adulthood. Improvement of small airway functions appeared to be more dependent on reductions of NO 2 than reduction in SO 2 and TSP.

Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael

227

Bariatric Surgery Patients Exhibit Improved Memory Function 12 Months Post-Operatively  

PubMed Central

Introduction/Purpose Previous work from our group demonstrated improved memory function in bariatric surgery patients at 12 weeks post-operatively relative to controls. However, no study has examined longer term changes in cognitive functioning following bariatric surgery. Materials and Methods A total of 137 individuals (95 bariatric surgery patients, 42 obese controls) were followed prospectively to determine whether post-surgery cognitive improvements persist. Potential mechanisms of change were also examined. Bariatric surgery participants completed self-report measurements and a computerized cognitive test battery prior to surgery and at 12-week and 12-month follow-up; obese controls completed measures at equivalent time points. Results Bariatric surgery patients exhibited cognitive deficits relative to well established standardized normative data prior to surgery, and obese controls demonstrated similar deficits. Analyses of longitudinal change indicated an interactive effect on memory indices, with bariatric surgery patients demonstrating better performance post-operatively than obese controls. Conclusion While memory performance was improved 12 months post-bariatric surgery, the mechanisms underlying these improvements were unclear and did not appear attributable to obvious post-surgical changes, such as reductions in BMI or co-morbid medical conditions. Future studies employing neuroimaging, metabolic biomarkers, and more precise physiological measurements are needed to determine the mechanisms underlying memory improvements following bariatric surgery. PMID:23636994

Miller, Lindsay A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Galioto, Rachel; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael J.; Wing, Rena; Cohen, Ronald A.; Paul, Robert H.; Mitchell, James E.; Gunstad, John

2013-01-01

228

Selective GABAA ?5 Positive Allosteric Modulators Improve Cognitive Function in Aged Rats with Memory Impairment  

PubMed Central

A condition of excess activity in the hippocampal formation is observed in the aging brain and in conditions that confer additional risk during aging for Alzheimer’s disease. Compounds that act as positive allosteric modulators at GABAA ?5 receptors might be useful in targeting this condition because GABAA ?5 receptors mediate tonic inhibition of principal neurons in the affected network. While agents to improve cognitive function in the past focused on inverse agonists, which are negative allosteric modulators at GABAA ?5 receptors, research supporting that approach used only young animals and predated current evidence for excessive hippocampal activity in age-related conditions of cognitive impairment. Here, we used two compounds, Compound 44 [6,6-dimethyl-3-(3-hydroxypropyl)thio-1-(thiazol-2-yl)-6,7-dihydro-2-benzothiophen-4(5H)-one] and Compound 6 [methyl 3,5-diphenylpyridazine-4-carboxylate], with functional activity as potentiators of ?-aminobutyric acid at GABAA ?5 receptors, to test their ability to improve hippocampal-dependent memory in aged rats with identified cognitive impairment. Improvement was obtained in aged rats across protocols differing in motivational and performance demands and across varying retention intervals. Significant memory improvement occurred after either intracereboventricular infusion with Compound 44 (100 ?g) in a water maze task or systemic administration with Compound 6 (3 mg/kg) in a radial arm maze task. Furthermore, systemic administration improved behavioral performance at dosing shown to provide drug exposure in the brain and in vivo receptor occupancy in the hippocampus. These data suggest a novel approach to improve neural network function in clinical conditions of excess hippocampal activity. PMID:22732440

Koh, Ming Teng; Rosenzweig-Lipson, Sharon; Gallagher, Michela

2012-01-01

229

Functional improvements desired by patients before and in the first year after total hip arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Background In the field of rehabilitation, patients are supposed to be experts on their own lives, but the patient’s own desires in this respect are often not reported. Our objectives were to describe the patients’ desires regarding functional improvements before and after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Methods Sixty-four patients, 34 women and 30 men, with a mean age of 65 years, were asked to describe in free text which physical functions they desired to improve. They were asked before surgery and at three and 12 months after surgery. Each response signified one desired improvement. The responses were coded according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to the 1st, 2nd and 3rd category levels. The frequency of the codes was calculated as a percentage of the total number of responses of all assessments times and in percentage of each time of assessment. Results A total of 333 responses were classified under Part 1 of the ICF, Functioning and Disability, and 88% of the responses fell into the Activities and Participation component. The numbers of responses classified into the Activities and Participation component were decreasing over time (p < 0.001). The categories of Walking (d450), Moving around (d455), and Recreation and leisure (d920) included more than half of the responses at all the assessment times. At three months after surgery, there was a trend that fewer responses were classified into the Recreation and leisure category, while more responses were classified into the category of Dressing (d540). Conclusions The number of functional improvements desired by the patients decreased during the first postoperative year, while the content of the desires before and one year after THA were rather consistent over time and mainly concerned with the ability to walk and participate in recreation and leisure activities. At three months, however, there was a tendency that the patients were more concerned about the immediate problems with putting on socks and shoes. PMID:23947801

2013-01-01

230

Sleep Extension Improves Neurocognitive Functions in Chronically Sleep-Deprived Obese Individuals  

PubMed Central

Background Sleep deprivation and obesity, are associated with neurocognitive impairments. Effects of sleep deprivation and obesity on cognition are unknown, and the cognitive long-term effects of improvement of sleep have not been prospectively assessed in short sleeping, obese individuals. Objective To characterize neurocognitive functions and assess its reversibility. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Tertiary Referral Research Clinical Center. Patients A cohort of 121 short-sleeping (<6.5 h/night) obese (BMI 30–55 kg/m2) men and pre-menopausal women. Intervention Sleep extension (468±88 days) with life-style modifications. Measurements Neurocognitive functions, sleep quality and sleep duration. Results At baseline, 44% of the individuals had an impaired global deficit score (t-score 0–39). Impaired global deficit score was associated with worse subjective sleep quality (p?=?0.02), and lower urinary dopamine levels (p?=?0.001). Memory was impaired in 33%; attention in 35%; motor skills in 42%; and executive function in 51% of individuals. At the final evaluation (N?=?74), subjective sleep quality improved by 24% (p<0.001), self-reported sleep duration increased by 11% by questionnaires (p<0.001) and by 4% by diaries (p?=?0.04), and daytime sleepiness tended to improve (p?=?0.10). Global cognitive function and attention improved by 7% and 10%, respectively (both p?=?0.001), and memory and executive functions tended to improve (p?=?0.07 and p?=?0.06). Serum cortisol increased by 17% (p?=?0.02). In a multivariate mixed model, subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency, urinary free cortisol and dopamine and plasma total ghrelin accounted for 1/5 of the variability in global cognitive function. Limitations Drop-out rate. Conclusions Chronically sleep-deprived obese individuals exhibit substantial neurocognitive deficits that are partially reversible upon improvement of sleep in a non-pharmacological way. These findings have clinical implications for large segments of the US population. Trail registration www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00261898. NIDDK protocol 06-DK-0036 PMID:24482677

Lucassen, Eliane A.; Piaggi, Paolo; Dsurney, John; de Jonge, Lilian; Zhao, Xiong-ce; Mattingly, Megan S.; Ramer, Angela; Gershengorn, Janet; Csako, Gyorgy; Cizza, Giovanni

2014-01-01

231

Do larger femoral heads improve the functional outcome in total hip arthroplasty?  

PubMed

Use of larger diameter femoral heads has been popularised in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Recent studies have implicated larger femoral heads in early failure. We evaluated what effect the size of the femoral head had on the early functional outcome in order to determine the optimal head size for the maximal functional outcome. There were 726 patients who underwent elective THA and were divided into 3 groups according to head size then compared with respect to functional outcome scores and dislocation rates. This study failed to show that increasing the size of the femoral head significantly improved the functional outcome at 1 year after total hip arthroplasty but that the use of a 36 mm or greater femoral head did reduce the dislocation rate. PMID:23891058

Allen, Charlotte L; Hooper, Gary J; Frampton, Christopher M A

2014-02-01

232

Direct Injection of Kit Ligand-2 Lentivirus Improves Cardiac Repair and Rescues Mice Post-myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Myocardial infarction (MI) and subsequent adverse remodeling cause heart failure. Previously we demonstrated a role for Kit ligand (KL) in improving cardiac function post-MI. KL has two major isoforms; KL-1 is secreted whereas KL-2 is predominantly membrane bound. We demonstrate here first that KL-2-deficient mice have worse survival and an increased heart/bodyweight ratio post-MI compared to mice with reduced c-Kit receptor expression. Next we synthesized recombinant lentiviral vectors (LVs) that engineered functional expression of murine KL-1 and KL-2. For in vivo analyses, we directly injected these LVs into the left ventricle of membrane-bound KL-deficient Sl/Sld or wild-type (WT) mice undergoing MI. Control LV/enGFP injection led to measurable reporter gene expression in hearts. Injection of LV/KL-2 attenuated adverse left ventricular remodeling and dramatically improved survival post-MI in both Sl/Sld and WT mice (from 12 to 71% and 35 to 73%, respectively, versus controls). With regard toward beginning to understand the possible salutary mechanisms involved in this effect, differential staining patterns of Sca-1 and Ly49 on peripheral blood (PB) cells from therapeutically treated animals was found. Our data show that LV/KL-2 gene therapy is a promising treatment for MI. PMID:19002160

Higuchi, Koji; Ayach, Bilal; Sato, Takeya; Chen, Manyin; Devine, Sean P; Rasaiah, Vanessa I; Dawood, Fayez; Yanagisawa, Teruyuki; Tei, Chuwa; Takenaka, Toshihiro; Liu, Peter P; Medin, Jeffrey A

2008-01-01

233

Exercise training improves functional sympatholysis in spontaneously hypertensive rats through a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism.  

PubMed

Functional sympatholysis is impaired in hypertensive animals and patients. Exercise training (ET) improves functional sympatholysis through a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent mechanism in normotensive rats. However, whether ET has similar physiological benefits in hypertension remains to be elucidated. Thus we tested the hypothesis that the impairment in functional sympatholysis in hypertension is reversed by ET through a NO-dependent mechanism. In untrained normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYUT; n = 13), untrained spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRUT; n = 13), and exercise-trained SHR (SHRET; n = 6), changes in femoral vascular conductance (FVC) were examined during lumbar sympathetic nerve stimulation (1, 2.5, and 5 Hz) at rest and during muscle contraction. The magnitude of functional sympatholysis (?%FVC = ?%FVC muscle contraction - ?%FVC rest) in SHRUT was significantly lower than WKYUT (1 Hz: -2 ± 4 vs. 13 ± 3%; 2.5 Hz: 9 ± 3 vs. 21 ± 3%; and 5 Hz: 12 ± 3 vs. 26 ± 3%, respectively; P < 0.05). Three months of voluntary wheel running significantly increased maximal oxygen uptake in SHRET compared with nontrained SHRUT (78 ± 6 vs. 62 ± 4 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively; P < 0.05) and restored the magnitude of functional sympatholysis in SHRET (1 Hz: 9 ± 2%; 2.5 Hz: 20 ± 4%; and 5 Hz: 34 ± 5%). Blockade of NO synthase (NOS) by N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester attenuated functional sympatholysis in WKYUT but not SHRUT. Furthermore, NOS inhibition significantly diminished the improvements in functional sympatholysis in SHRET. These data demonstrate that impairments in functional sympatholysis are normalized via a NO mechanism by voluntary wheel running in hypertensive rats. PMID:24816260

Mizuno, Masaki; Iwamoto, Gary A; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Mitchell, Jere H; Smith, Scott A

2014-07-15

234

Regulation of the immediate-early genes of white spot syndrome virus by Litopenaeus vannamei kruppel-like factor (LvKLF).  

PubMed

Kruppel-like factors (KLFs) belong to a subclass of Cys2/His2 zinc-finger DNA-binding proteins, and act as important regulators with diverse roles in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. Our previous research showed that PmKLF from Penaeus monodon is crucial for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, yet the mechanisms by which PmKLF influences WSSV infection remain unclear. This study cloned KLF from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvKLF), which had 93% similarity with PmKLF. LvKLF formed a dimer via the C-terminal zinc-finger motif. Knockdown of LvKLF expression by dsRNA injection in WSSV-challenged shrimps was found to significantly inhibit the transcription of two important immediate-early (IE) genes, IE1 and WSSV304, and also reduced WSSV copy numbers. Moreover, reporter assays revealed that the promoter activities of these two WSSV IE genes were substantially enhanced by LvKLF. Mutations introduced in the promoter sequences of IE1 and WSSV304 were shown to abolish LvKLF activation of promoter activities; and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that LvKLF binds to putative KLF-response elements (KRE) in the promoters. Taken together, these results indicate that LvKLF transcriptional regulation of key IE genes is critical to WSSV replication. PMID:24881625

Huang, Ping-Han; Lu, Shao-Chia; Yang, Shu-Han; Cai, Pei-Si; Lo, Chu-Fang; Chang, Li-Kwan

2014-10-01

235

Renal Function Can Improve at Any Stage of Chronic Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction Even though renal function decline is considered relentless in chronic kidney disease (CKD), improvement has been shown in patients with hypertensive nephropathy. Whether this can occur in any type of nephropathy and at any stage is unknown as are the features of patients who improve. Methods We identified 406 patients in the NephroTest cohort with glomerular filtration rates (mGFR) measured by 51Cr-EDTA clearance at least 3 times during at least 2 years of follow-up. Individual examination of mGFR trajectories by 4 independent nephrologists classified patients as improvers, defined as those showing a sustained mGFR increase, or nonimprovers. Twelve patients with erratic trajectories were excluded. Baseline data were compared between improvers and nonimprovers, as was the number of recommended therapeutic targets achieved over time (specifically, for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, proteinuria, and use of renin angiotensin system blockers). Results Measured GFR improved over time in 62 patients (15.3%). Their median mGFR slope was +1.88[IQR 1.38, 3.55] ml/min/year; it was ?2.23[?3.9, ?0.91] for the 332 nonimprovers. Improvers had various nephropathies, but not diabetic glomerulopathy or polycystic kidney disease. They did not differ from nonimprovers for age, sex, cardiovascular history, or CKD stage, but their urinary albumin excretion rate was lower. Improvers achieved significantly more recommended therapeutic targets (2.74±0.87) than nonimprovers (2.44±0.80, p<0.01). They also had fewer CKD-related metabolic complications and a lower prevalence of 25OH-vitamin-D deficiency. Conclusion GFR improvement is possible in CKD patients at any CKD stage through stage 4–5. It is noteworthy that this GFR improvement is associated with a decrease in the number of metabolic complications over time. PMID:24349134

Weis, Lise; Metzger, Marie; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Thervet, Eric; Flamant, Martin; Vrtovsnik, Francois; Gauci, Cedric; Houillier, Pascal; Froissart, Marc; Letavernier, Emmanuel; Stengel, Benedicte; Boffa, Jean-Jacques

2013-01-01

236

Long-term wheel running compromises diaphragm function but improves cardiac and plantarflexor function in the mdx mouse  

PubMed Central

Dystrophin-deficient muscles suffer from free radical injury, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and inflammation, among other pathologies that contribute to muscle fiber injury and loss, leading to wheelchair confinement and death in the patient. For some time, it has been appreciated that endurance training has the potential to counter many of these contributing factors. Correspondingly, numerous investigations have shown improvements in limb muscle function following endurance training in mdx mice. However, the effect of long-term volitional wheel running on diaphragm and cardiac function is largely unknown. Our purpose was to determine the extent to which long-term endurance exercise affected dystrophic limb, diaphragm, and cardiac function. Diaphragm specific tension was reduced by 60% (P < 0.05) in mice that performed 1 yr of volitional wheel running compared with sedentary mdx mice. Dorsiflexor mass (extensor digitorum longus and tibialis anterior) and function (extensor digitorum longus) were not altered by endurance training. In mice that performed 1 yr of volitional wheel running, plantarflexor mass (soleus and gastrocnemius) was increased and soleus tetanic force was increased 36%, while specific tension was similar in wheel-running and sedentary groups. Cardiac mass was increased 15%, left ventricle chamber size was increased 20% (diastole) and 18% (systole), and stroke volume was increased twofold in wheel-running compared with sedentary mdx mice. These data suggest that the dystrophic heart may undergo positive exercise-induced remodeling and that limb muscle function is largely unaffected. Most importantly, however, as the diaphragm most closely recapitulates the human disease, these data raise the possibility of exercise-mediated injury in dystrophic skeletal muscle. PMID:23823150

Acosta, Pedro; Sleeper, Meg M.; Barton, Elisabeth R.; Sweeney, H. Lee

2013-01-01

237

Long-term wheel running compromises diaphragm function but improves cardiac and plantarflexor function in the mdx mouse.  

PubMed

Dystrophin-deficient muscles suffer from free radical injury, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and inflammation, among other pathologies that contribute to muscle fiber injury and loss, leading to wheelchair confinement and death in the patient. For some time, it has been appreciated that endurance training has the potential to counter many of these contributing factors. Correspondingly, numerous investigations have shown improvements in limb muscle function following endurance training in mdx mice. However, the effect of long-term volitional wheel running on diaphragm and cardiac function is largely unknown. Our purpose was to determine the extent to which long-term endurance exercise affected dystrophic limb, diaphragm, and cardiac function. Diaphragm specific tension was reduced by 60% (P < 0.05) in mice that performed 1 yr of volitional wheel running compared with sedentary mdx mice. Dorsiflexor mass (extensor digitorum longus and tibialis anterior) and function (extensor digitorum longus) were not altered by endurance training. In mice that performed 1 yr of volitional wheel running, plantarflexor mass (soleus and gastrocnemius) was increased and soleus tetanic force was increased 36%, while specific tension was similar in wheel-running and sedentary groups. Cardiac mass was increased 15%, left ventricle chamber size was increased 20% (diastole) and 18% (systole), and stroke volume was increased twofold in wheel-running compared with sedentary mdx mice. These data suggest that the dystrophic heart may undergo positive exercise-induced remodeling and that limb muscle function is largely unaffected. Most importantly, however, as the diaphragm most closely recapitulates the human disease, these data raise the possibility of exercise-mediated injury in dystrophic skeletal muscle. PMID:23823150

Selsby, Joshua T; Acosta, Pedro; Sleeper, Meg M; Barton, Elisabeth R; Sweeney, H Lee

2013-09-01

238

Coherent Functional Modules Improve Transcription Factor Target Identification, Cooperativity Prediction, and Disease Association  

PubMed Central

Transcription factors (TFs) are fundamental controllers of cellular regulation that function in a complex and combinatorial manner. Accurate identification of a transcription factor's targets is essential to understanding the role that factors play in disease biology. However, due to a high false positive rate, identifying coherent functional target sets is difficult. We have created an improved mapping of targets by integrating ChIP-Seq data with 423 functional modules derived from 9,395 human expression experiments. We identified 5,002 TF-module relationships, significantly improved TF target prediction, and found 30 high-confidence TF-TF associations, of which 14 are known. Importantly, we also connected TFs to diseases through these functional modules and identified 3,859 significant TF-disease relationships. As an example, we found a link between MEF2A and Crohn's disease, which we validated in an independent expression dataset. These results show the power of combining expression data and ChIP-Seq data to remove noise and better extract the associations between TFs, functional modules, and disease. PMID:24516403

Karczewski, Konrad J.; Snyder, Michael; Altman, Russ B.; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.

2014-01-01

239

[An outstanding feature of traditional Chinese medicine: improving local pathology by regulating holistic function].  

PubMed

Holistic conception reflects that "Syndrome" summarizes all aspects and conditions related to occurrence of disease referring to different constitutions. "Treatment according to syndrome differentiation" improves local pathological changes through regulating holistic function, which is the practical application of holistic conception and an outstanding feature of TCM. According to syndrome differentiation, treatment shows favorable effects on local pathological changes as restenosis after coronary artery intervention therapy, excessive inflammation, vascular endothelial injury in coronary artery disease and hypoadrenocortical function with drugs for promoting blood to remove blood stasis, clearing heat and detoxifying toxin, and warming Shen-yang, and aromatic drugs for warming meridian to dredge obstruction. PMID:17205828

Shen, Zi-Yin

2006-12-01

240

Improving gross motor function and postural control with hippotherapy in children with Down syndrome: case reports.  

PubMed

The purpose of this case report is to describe the impact of an 11-week hippotherapy program on the gross motor functions of two children (respectively 28 and 37 months old) diagnosed with Down syndrome. Hippotherapy is a strategy that uses the horse's motion to stimulate and enhance muscle contraction and postural control. The children were assessed by the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) and accelerometry. The results indicate that both children improved on many dimensions of the GMFM. Power spectral analysis of the acceleration signals showed improvement in postural control of either the head or trunk, because the children adopted two different adaptative strategies to perturbation induced by the moving horse. PMID:20673078

Champagne, Danielle; Dugas, Claude

2010-11-01

241

Catestatin Improves Post-Ischemic Left Ventricular Function and Decreases Ischemia\\/Reperfusion Injury in Heart  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chromogranin A (CgA)-derived anti-hypertensive peptide catestatin (CST) antagonizes catecholamine secretion, and is a negative myocardial inotrope acting via a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism.\\u000a It is not known whether CST contributes to ischemia\\/reperfusion injury or is a component of a cardioprotective response to\\u000a limit injury. Here, we tested whether CST by virtue of its negative inotropic activity improves post-ischemic cardiac function

Claudia Penna; Giuseppe Alloatti; Maria Pia Gallo; Maria Carmela Cerra; Renzo Levi; Francesca Tullio; Eleonora Bassino; Serena Dolgetta; Sushil K. Mahata; Bruno Tota; Pasquale Pagliaro

2010-01-01

242

Age and the Effectiveness of Anti-Hypertensive Therapy on Improvement in Diastolic Function  

PubMed Central

Objective Diastolic dysfunction is associated with adverse outcomes and is highly prevalent among older adults with hypertension. Lowering systolic blood pressure (SBP) with anti-hypertensive therapy has been shown to improve diastolic function, but whether or not age influences this effect is unknown. Methods In the Exforge Intensive Control of Hypertension to Evaluate Efficacy in Diastolic Dysfunction trial, 189 patients (age range, 45 to 93 years) with hypertension and diastolic dysfunction underwent echocardiography before and after 24 weeks of intensive versus standard anti-hypertensive therapy titrated to a goal SBP <135 versus <140 mmHg. We performed linear regression analyses to examine the association between age and improvement in diastolic function achieved with SBP reduction. Results Anti-hypertensive therapy reduced SBP by 28±19 mmHg overall, and this was not significantly different across age strata. However, percent improvement in diastolic relaxation velocity (lateral E’ peak velocity) for every 10 mmHg reduction in SBP was lower in older compared to younger patients. In analyses adjusting for age stratum, sex, treatment arm, baseline relaxation velocity, and baseline blood pressure, older age was associated with reduced improvement in diastolic relaxation velocity per 10 mmHg of SBP reduction (? ?1.64; P=0.009). In contrast, the degree of change in left ventricular mass index per 10 mmHg reduction in SBP was not influenced by age (P=0.89). Conclusions In our sample of individuals with hypertension and diastolic dysfunction, older compared to younger adults experienced less improvement in diastolic function in response to similar reductions in SBP. PMID:24309488

CHENG, Susan; LAM, Carolyn; SHAH, Amil; CLAGGETT, Brian; DESAI, Akshay; HILKERT, Robert J.; IZZO, Joseph; OPARIL, Suzanne; PITT, Bertram; SOLOMON, Scott D.

2014-01-01

243

Edificio PISCINA: Junio L-V 8:00 H a 22:00 y S-D de 10:00 a 20:00  

E-print Network

SALIDA DEL AGUA. GIMNASIO: L-V 8:00 a 21:30h, y S-D de 10:00 A 19:30h. Julio L-V 9:00 H a 21:00 y S-D de 10:00 a 20:00 PISCINA EXTERIOR 12:00 a 19:45h SALIDA DEL AGUA. GIMNASIO: L-V 9:00 a 20:30h, y S-D de SALIDA DEL AGUA. GIMNASIO: L-D de 12:00 A 19:30h. IMPORTANTE: De junio a septiembre, Pabellón Norte y

Autonoma de Madrid, Universidad

244

A pilot study of an acupuncture protocol to improve visual function in retinitis pigmentosa patients  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with retinitis pigmentosa are motivated to try complementary or integrative therapies to slow disease progression. Basic science, clinical research and retinitis pigmentosa patients' self-reports support the hypothesis that acupuncture may improve visual function. Methods A prospective, case series, pilot study enrolled 12 adult patients with RP treated at an academic medical centre with a standardised protocol that combined electroacupuncture to the forehead and below the eyes and acupuncture to the body, at 10 half-hour sessions over two weeks. Pre- and post-treatment tests included Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity (VA), Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity (CS), Goldmann visual fields, and dark-adapted full-field stimulus threshold (FST)(n = 9). Scotopic Sensitivity Tester-1 (SST-1) dark-adaptometry was performed on the last two subjects. Results Six of 12 subjects had measurable, significant visual function improvements after treatment. Three of nine subjects tested with the FST had a significant 10.3 to 17.5 dB (that is, 13- to 53-fold) improvement in both eyes at one week after acupuncture, maintained for at least 10 to 12 months, which was well outside typical test-retest variability (95% CI: 3–3.5 dB) previously found in retinitis pigmentosa. SST-1 dark-adaptation was shortened in both subjects tested on average by 48.5 per cent at one week (range 36 to 62 per cent across 10 to 30 dB), which was outside typical coefficients of variation of less than 30 per cent previously determined in patients with retinitis pigmentosa and normals. Four of the five subjects with psychophysically measured scotopic sensitivity improvements reported subjective improvements in vision at night or in dark environments. One subject had 0.2 logMAR improvement in VA; another had 0.55 logCS improvement. Another subject developed more than 20 per cent improvement in the area of the Goldmann visual fields. The acupuncture protocol was completed and well tolerated by all, without adverse events or visual loss. Conclusions Acupuncture entails minimal risk, if administered by a well-trained acupuncturist and may have significant, measurable benefits on residual visual function in patients with retinitis pigmentosa, in particular scotopic sensitivity, which had not previously been studied. These preliminary findings support the need for future controlled studies of potential mechanisms. PMID:24773463

Bittner, Ava K; Gould, Jeffrey M; Rosenfarb, Andy; Rozanski, Collin; Dagnelie, Gislin

2014-01-01

245

Cardiac I-1c Overexpression With Reengineered AAV Improves Cardiac Function in Swine Ischemic Heart Failure.  

PubMed

Cardiac gene therapy has emerged as a promising option to treat advanced heart failure (HF). Advances in molecular biology and gene targeting approaches are offering further novel options for genetic manipulation of the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to improve cardiac function in chronic HF by overexpressing constitutively active inhibitor-1 (I-1c) using a novel cardiotropic vector generated by capsid reengineering of adeno-associated virus (BNP116). One month after a large anterior myocardial infarction, 20 Yorkshire pigs randomly received intracoronary injection of either high-dose BNP116.I-1c (1.0?×?10(13) vector genomes (vg), n = 7), low-dose BNP116.I-1c (3.0?×?10(12) vg, n = 7), or saline (n = 6). Compared to baseline, mean left ventricular ejection fraction increased by 5.7% in the high-dose group, and by 5.2% in the low-dose group, whereas it decreased by 7% in the saline group. Additionally, preload-recruitable stroke work obtained from pressure-volume analysis demonstrated significantly higher cardiac performance in the high-dose group. Likewise, other hemodynamic parameters, including stroke volume and contractility index indicated improved cardiac function after the I-1c gene transfer. Furthermore, BNP116 showed a favorable gene expression pattern for targeting the heart. In summary, I-1c overexpression using BNP116 improves cardiac function in a clinically relevant model of ischemic HF. PMID:25023328

Ishikawa, Kiyotake; Fish, Kenneth M; Tilemann, Lisa; Rapti, Kleopatra; Aguero, Jaume; Santos-Gallego, Carlos G; Lee, Ahyoung; Karakikes, Ioannis; Xie, Chaoqin; Akar, Fadi G; Shimada, Yuichi J; Gwathmey, Judith K; Asokan, Aravind; McPhee, Scott; Samulski, Jade; Samulski, Richard Jude; Sigg, Daniel C; Weber, Thomas; Kranias, Evangelia G; Hajjar, Roger J

2014-12-01

246

Transplantation of embryonic stem cells improves cardiac function in postinfarcted rats.  

PubMed

Massive loss of cardiac myocytes after myocardial infarction (MI) is a common cause of heart failure. The present study was designed to investigate the improvement of cardiac function in MI rats after embryonic stem (ES) cell transplantation. MI in rats was induced by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Cultured ES cells used for cell transplantation were transfected with the marker green fluorescent protein (GFP). Animals in the treated group received intramyocardial injection of ES cells in injured myocardium. Compared with the MI control group injected with an equivalent volume of the cell-free medium, cardiac function in ES cell-implanted MI animals was significantly improved 6 wk after cell transplantation. The characteristic phenotype of engrafted ES cells was identified in implanted myocardium by strong positive staining to sarcomeric alpha-actin, cardiac alpha-myosin heavy chain, and troponin I. GFP-positive cells in myocardium sectioned from MI hearts confirmed the survival and differentiation of engrafted cells. In addition, single cells isolated from cell-transplanted MI hearts showed rod-shaped GFP-positive myocytes with typical striations. The present data demonstrate that ES cell transplantation is a feasible and novel approach to improve ventricular function in infarcted failing hearts. PMID:11744672

Min, Jiang-Yong; Yang, Yinke; Converso, Kimber L; Liu, Lixin; Huang, Qin; Morgan, James P; Xiao, Yong-Fu

2002-01-01

247

Cognitive Training for Improving Executive Function in Chemotherapy-Treated Breast Cancer Survivors  

PubMed Central

Difficulties with thinking and problem solving are very common among breast cancer survivors. We tested a computerized cognitive training program for 41 breast cancer survivors. The training program was associated with significant improvements in thinking and problem-solving skills. Our findings demonstrate potential for our online, home-based cognitive training program to improve cognitive difficulties among breast cancer survivors. Background A majority of breast cancer (BC) survivors, particularly those treated with chemotherapy, experience long-term cognitive deficits that significantly reduce quality of life. Among the cognitive domains most commonly affected include executive functions (EF), such as working memory, cognitive flexibility, multitasking, planning, and attention. Previous studies in other populations have shown that cognitive training, a behavioral method for treating cognitive deficits, can result in significant improvements in a number of cognitive skills, including EF. Materials and Methods In this study, we conducted a randomized controlled trial to investigate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a novel, online EF training program in long-term BC survivors. A total of 41 BC survivors (21 active, 20 wait list) completed the 48 session training program over 12 weeks. The participants were, on average, 6 years after therapy. Results Cognitive training led to significant improvements in cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency and processing speed, with marginally significant downstream improvements in verbal memory as assessed via standardized measures. Self-ratings of EF skills, including planning, organizing, and task monitoring, also were improved in the active group compared with the wait list group. Conclusions Our findings suggest that EF skills may be improved even in long-term survivors by using a computerized, home-based intervention program. These improvements may potentially include subjective EF skills, which suggest a transfer of the training program to real-world behaviors. PMID:23647804

Kesler, Shelli; Hosseini, S. M. Hadi; Heckler, Charles; Janelsins, Michelle; Palesh, Oxana; Mustian, Karen; Morrow, Gary

2013-01-01

248

Long-chain omega-3 Fatty acids improve brain function and structure in older adults.  

PubMed

Higher intake of seafish or oil rich in long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-n3-FA) may be beneficial for the aging brain. We tested in a prospective interventional design whether high levels of supplementary LC-n3-FA would improve cognition, and addressed potential mechanisms underlying the effects. Sixty-five healthy subjects (50-75 years, 30 females) successfully completed 26 weeks of either fish oil (2.2 g/day LC-n3-FA) or placebo intake. Before and after the intervention period, cognitive performance, structural neuroimaging, vascular markers, and blood parameters were assayed. We found a significant increase in executive functions after LC-n3-FA compared with placebo (P = 0.023). In parallel, LC-n3-FA exerted beneficial effects on white matter microstructural integrity and gray matter volume in frontal, temporal, parietal, and limbic areas primarily of the left hemisphere, and on carotid intima media thickness and diastolic blood pressure. Improvements in executive functions correlated positively with changes in omega-3-index and peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and negatively with changes in peripheral fasting insulin. This double-blind randomized interventional study provides first-time evidence that LC-n3-FA exert positive effects on brain functions in healthy older adults, and elucidates underlying mechanisms. Our findings suggest novel strategies to maintain cognitive functions into old age. PMID:23796946

Witte, A Veronica; Kerti, Lucia; Hermannstädter, Henrike M; Fiebach, Jochen B; Schreiber, Stephan J; Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas; Flöel, Agnes

2014-11-01

249

Acute hyperglycemia impairs functional improvement after spinal cord injury in mice and humans.  

PubMed

Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating disorder for which the identification of exacerbating factors is urgently needed. We demonstrate that transient hyperglycemia during acute SCI is a detrimental factor that impairs functional improvement in mice and human patients after acute SCI. Under hyperglycemic conditions, both in vivo and in vitro, inflammation was enhanced through promotion of the nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) transcription factor in microglial cells. During acute SCI, hyperglycemic mice exhibited progressive neural damage, with more severe motor deficits than those observed in normoglycemic mice. Consistent with the animal study findings, a Pearson ?(2) analysis of data for 528 patients with SCI indicated that hyperglycemia on admission (glucose concentration ?126 mg/dl) was a significant risk predictor of poor functional outcome. Moreover, a multiple linear regression analysis showed hyperglycemia at admission to be a powerful independent risk factor for a poor motor outcome, even after excluding patients with diabetes mellitus with chronic hyperglycemia (regression coefficient, -1.37; 95% confidence interval, -2.65 to -0.10; P < 0.05). Manipulating blood glucose during acute SCI in hyperglycemic mice rescued the exacerbation of pathophysiology and improved motor functional outcomes. Our findings suggest that hyperglycemia during acute SCI may be a useful prognostic factor with a negative impact on motor function, highlighting the importance of achieving tight glycemic control after central nervous system injury. PMID:25273098

Kobayakawa, Kazu; Kumamaru, Hiromi; Saiwai, Hirokazu; Kubota, Kensuke; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Kishimoto, Junji; Yokota, Kazuya; Ideta, Ryosuke; Shiba, Keiichiro; Tozaki-Saitoh, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Kazuhide; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Okada, Seiji

2014-10-01

250

Inhibition of CXCL12 signaling attenuates the postischemic immune response and improves functional recovery after stroke  

PubMed Central

After stroke, brain inflammation in the ischemic hemisphere hampers brain tissue reorganization and functional recovery. Housing rats in an enriched environment (EE) dramatically improves recovery of lost neurologic functions after experimental stroke. We show here that rats housed in EE after stroke induced by permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (pMCAO), showed attenuated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the ischemic core and the surrounding peri-infarct area, including a significant reduction in the stroke-induced chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its natural ligand stromal cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12). To mimic beneficial effects of EE, we studied the impact of inhibiting CXCL12 action on functional recovery after transient MCAO (tMCAO). Rats treated with the specific CXCL12 receptor antagonist 1-[4-(1,4,8,11-tetrazacyclotetradec-1-ylmethyl)phenyl]methyl]-1,4,8,11-tetrazacyclo-tetradecan (AMD3100) showed improved recovery compared with saline-treated rats after tMCAO, without a concomitant reduction in infarct size. This was accompanied by a reduction of infiltrating immune cells in the ischemic hemisphere, particularly cluster of differentiation 3-positive (CD3+) and CD3+/CD4+ T cells. Spleen atrophy and delayed death of splenocytes, induced by tMCAO, was prevented by AMD3100 treatment. We conclude that immoderate excessive activation of the CXCL12 pathway after stroke contributes to depression of neurologic function after stroke and that CXCR4 antagonism is beneficial for the recovery after stroke. PMID:23632969

Ruscher, Karsten; Kuric, Enida; Liu, Yawei; Walter, Helene L; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh; Englund, Elisabet; Wieloch, Tadeusz

2013-01-01

251

Improved global and regional left ventricular function after angioplasty for chronic coronary occlusion.  

PubMed

Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty can be performed safely and effectively in patients with chronic total coronary occlusion. To investigate the effect on left ventricular function, global and regional left ventricular ejection fraction were analyzed by contrast angiography in 49 patients before and 10 +/- 6 weeks after successful recanalization. Coronary angiography at follow-up showed reocclusion in 12 patients (24%). In 37 patients with patent arteries global ejection fraction increased from 55.8 +/- 7.1% at baseline to 62.5 +/- 11.3% at follow-up (P < 0.001), and regional wall motion assessed by the centerline method improved from -1.7 +/- 1.0 to -0.6 +/- 1.5 standard deviations/chord (P < 0.001). In contrast, in patients with reocclusion neither global ejection fraction nor regional wall motion were significantly different at follow-up compared with baseline. Changes in global or regional left ventricular function after coronary recanalization were unrelated to other parameters such as severity of angina, duration of occlusion, history of myocardial infarction, presence or absence of visible collaterals, or baseline left ventricular function. Thus in patients with primarily successful recanalization of chronically occluded coronary arteries persistent vessel patency is the major determinant of global and regional improvement of left ventricular function. PMID:7950155

Engelstein, E; Terres, W; Hofmann, D; Hansen, L; Hamm, C W

1994-06-01

252

[An oral function improvement program utilizing health behavior theories ameliorates oral functions and oral hygienic conditions of pre-frail elderly persons].  

PubMed

Oral function improvement programs utilizing health behavior theories are considered to be effective in preventing the need for long-term social care. In the present study, an oral function improvement program based upon health behavior theories was designed, and its utility was assessed in 102 pre-frail elderly persons (33 males, 69 females, mean age: 76.9 +/- 5.7) considered to be in potential need of long-term social care and attending a long-term care prevention class in Sayama City, Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The degree of improvement in oral functions (7 items) and oral hygienic conditions (3 items) was assessed by comparing oral health before and after participation in the program. The results showed statistically significant improvements in the following oral functions: (1) lip functions (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllable "Pa"), (2) tongue functions, (3) tongue root motor skills (oral diadochokinesis, measured by the regularity of the repetition of the syllables "Ta" and "Ka"), (4) tongue extension/retraction, (5) side-to-side tongue movement functions, (6) cheek motor skills, and (7) repetitive saliva swallowing test (RSST). The following measures of oral hygiene also showed a statistically significant improvement: (1) debris on dentures or teeth, (2) coated tongue, and (3) frequency of oral cleaning. These findings demonstrated that an improvement program informed by health behavior theories is useful in improving oral functions and oral hygiene conditions. PMID:25244722

Hideo, Sakaguchi

2014-06-01

253

Dual-functionalized PAMAM dendrimers with improved P-glycoprotein inhibition and tight junction modulating effect.  

PubMed

This study aims to surface modify poly(amido amine) or PAMAM dendrimers by sequentially grafting poly(ethylene glycol) or PEG and 4-thiobutylamidine (TBA) so as to reduce PAMAM cytotoxicity while improving the ability of PAMAM to modulate P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux and tight junction integrity. Conjugation of functional groups was determined by NMR spectroscopy, FT-IR, thiol group quantification and molecular weight estimation. The yield of the dual-functionalized dendrimers was >80%. The dual-functionalized dendrimer could significantly reduce PAMAM cytotoxicity to <15% as reflected by LDH release in Caco-2 and MDCK/MDR1 cells after 72 h of exposure. Thiolated dendrimers could increase cellular accumulation and permeation of the P-gp substrate R-123, and such effect could be affected by the extent of PEGylation of the dendrimer. Surface-modified PAMAM dendrimers, either by single or dual functionalization, could better modulate tight junction integrity in comparison with unmodified PAMAM, as demonstrated through immunostaining of the tight junction marker ZO-1, permeation of the model compound Lucifer Yellow (LY) and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER). Of importance, reversible tight junction modulating effect was only observed in the dual-functionalized dendrimers. Collectively, dual functionalization with PEG and TBA represented a promising approach in altering PAMAM dendrimer surface for potential application in oral drug delivery. PMID:24219381

Liu, Yuanjie; Chiu, Gigi N C

2013-12-01

254

Longitudinal predictors of youth functional improvement in a public mental health system.  

PubMed

The present study examined youth characteristics that predict level of impairment at entry into a system of care and rate of improvement over the course of service provision. Youth characteristics studied included gender, age, specific diagnostic categories, and comorbidity. A total of 2,171 youth served in a state-wide public mental health system were included in the study. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to analyze longitudinal data derived from quarterly ratings of functional status. Gender had no relationship to initial level of impairment or rate of improvement. Older youth, those with disruptive behavior disorders, and those with more than one DSM diagnosis were more impaired at system entry. Those with attentional disorders began services less impaired. Older youth improved at faster rates. Youth with a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis improved at slower rates. Neither comorbidity nor the presence of a mood or attentional disorder affected the rate of improvement. Both researchers and systems of care developers should consider these patterns in their future work. PMID:19277868

Mueller, Charles W; Tolman, Ryan; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K; Daleiden, Eric L

2010-07-01

255

Cardiac responses to left ventricular pacing in hearts with normal electrical conduction: beneficial effect of improved filling is counteracted by dyssynchrony.  

PubMed

Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been proposed in heart failure patients with narrow QRS, but the mechanism of a potential beneficial effect is unknown. The present study investigated the hypothesis that left ventricular (LV) pacing increases LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) by allowing the LV to start filling before the right ventricle (RV) during narrow QRS in an experimental model. LV and biventricular pacing were studied in six anesthetized dogs before and after the induction of LV failure. Function was evaluated by pressures and dimensions, and dyssynchrony was evaluated by electromyograms and deformation. In the nonfailing heart, LV pacing gave the LV a head start in filling relative to the RV (P < 0.05) and increased LVEDV (P < 0.05). The response was similar during LV failure when RV diastolic pressure was elevated. The pacing-induced increase in LVEDV was attributed to a rightward shift of the septum (P < 0.01) due to an increased left-to-right transseptal pressure gradient (P < 0.05). LV pacing, however, also induced dyssynchrony (P < 0.05) and therefore reduced LV stroke work (P < 0.05) during baseline, and similar results were seen in failing hearts. Biventricular pacing did not change LVEDV, but systolic function was impaired. This effect was less marked than with LV pacing. In conclusion, pacing of the LV lateral wall increased LVEDV by displacing the septum rightward, suggesting a mechanism for a favorable effect of CRT in narrow QRS. The pacing, however, induced dyssynchrony and therefore reduced LV systolic function. These observations suggest that detrimental effects should be considered when applying CRT in patients with narrow QRS. PMID:24906920

Boe, Espen; Russell, Kristoffer; Remme, Espen W; Gjesdal, Ola; Smiseth, Otto A; Skulstad, Helge

2014-08-01

256

Mitral annular descent velocity by tissue Doppler echocardiography as an index of global left ventricular function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitral annular descent has been described as an index of left ventricular (LV) systolic function, which is independent of endocardial definition. Echocardiographic tissue Doppler imaging is a new technique that calculates and displays color-coded cardiac tissue velocities on-line. To evaluate mitral annular descent velocity as a rapid index of global LV function, we performed tissue Doppler imaging studies in 55

Vijay K. Gulati; William E. Katz; William P. Follansbee; John Gorcsan

1996-01-01

257

Effects of isoproterenol on regional myocardial function, electrogram, and blood flow in conscious dogs with myocardial ischemia.  

PubMed Central

The effects of coronary occlusion and of subsequent isoproterenol infusion were examined in conscious dogs. Left ventricular (LV) function was assessed by measurements of LV diameter, pressure, velocity and dP/dt/P, and regional myocardial function was assessed by measurements of segment length (SL) and velocity of SL shortening in normal, border, and ischemic zones. Regional myocardial function was measured from the same sites, along with intramyocardial electrograms and regional myocardial blood flow as determined by radioactive microspheres. Coronary occlusion resulted in graded loss of function from the normal to severely ischemic zones with graded flow reductions and graded increases in ST segment elevation. Isoproterenol improved overall LV function, and function in the normal zone. Isoproterenol also improved function in 19 of 21 border-zone segments and in all moderately ischemic segments, while elevating further the ST segments. These changes were accompanied by increases in myocardial blood flow. In contrast, in severely ischemic segments, isoproterenol resulted in a deterioration of function, in that paradoxical motion occurred in segments previously akinetic during systole, while paradoxical motion was intensified in those segments in which it was already present. These changes were accompanied by further ST segment elevation but not by concurrent increases in blood flow. In addition, in 2 of 21 border zone segments, myocardial blood flow fell and these segments responded to isoproterenol with complete loss of function; paradoxical motion developed. Thus, in the conscious dog, a strong inotropic agent can improve function, even in the ischemic myocardium, as long as the required additional blood flow can be provided wither through primary or collateral channels. PMID:1262470

Vatner, S F; Millard, R W; Patrick, T A; Heyndrickx, G R

1976-01-01

258

The caspase-8 shRNA-modified mesenchymal stem cells improve the function of infarcted heart.  

PubMed

The beneficial effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in cardiac cell therapy are greatly limited due to poor survival after transplantation into ischemic hearts. Here, we investigated whether caspase 8 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) modification enhance human MSCs (hMSCs) survival and improve infarcted heart function. Recombinant adenovirus encoding pre-miRNA-155-designed caspase 8 shRNA was prepared to inhibit caspase 8 expression in hMSCs. The effect of caspase 8 shRNA modification on protecting hMSCs from apoptosis under the conditions of serum deprivation and hypoxia was tested by Annexin V/PI staining and caspase 8 activity assay. The caspase 8 shRNA-modified and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-labeled hMSCs were injected into the border zone of the infarcted region of rat heart. Echocardiography and Masson trichrome staining were performed to assess heart function and cardiac fibrosis. Our results showed that adenovirus-mediated caspase 8 shRNA could efficiently inhibit caspase 8 expression in hMSCs. Knock-down of caspase 8 expression lead to inhibition of hMSCs apoptosis, reduction of caspase 8 activity and up-regulations of HGF, IGF-1 and Bcl-2. Transplantation of caspase 8 shRNA-modified hMSCs could significantly improve infracted heart function, attenuate cardiac fibrosis. Consistently, the rate of cardiomyocyte apoptosis and caspase 8 activity were significantly decreased, and the survival rate of transplanted hMSCs was markedly elevated in the myocardium receiving caspase 8 shRNA-modified hMSCs transplantation. Together, our findings implicated the therapeutic potential of caspase 8 shRNA-modified hMSCs in improving the infarcted heart function. PMID:25060909

Liang, Yeyou; Lin, Qiuxiong; Zhu, Jiening; Li, Xiaohong; Fu, Yongheng; Zou, Xiao; Liu, Xiaoying; Tan, Honghong; Deng, Chunyu; Yu, Xiyong; Shan, Zhixin; Yuan, Weiwei

2014-12-01

259

Liguzinediol improved the heart function and inhibited myocardial cell apoptosis in rats with heart failure  

PubMed Central

Aim: Liguzinediol is a novel derivative of ligustrazine isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Chuanxiong (Ligusticum wallichii Franch), and produces significant positive inotropic effect in isolated rat hearts. In this study we investigated the effects of liguzinediol on a rat model of heart failure. Methods: To induce heart failure, male SD rats were injected with doxorubicin (DOX, 2 mg/kg, ip) once a week for 4 weeks. Then the rats were administered with liguzinediol (5, 10, 20 mg·kg?1·d?1, po) for 2 weeks. Hemodynamic examination was conducted to evaluate heart function. Myocardial cell apoptosis was examined morphologically. The expression of related genes and proteins were analyzed using immunohistochemical staining and Western blot assays, respectively. Results: Oral administration of liguzinediol dose-dependently improved the heart function in DOX-treated rats. Electron microscopy revealed that liguzinediol (10 mg·kg?1·d?1) markedly attenuated DOX-induced injury of cardiomyocytes, and decreased the number of apoptotic bodies in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, liguzinediol significantly decreased Bax protein level, and increased Bcl-2 protein level in cardiomyocytes of DOX-treated rats, led to an increase in the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. Moreover, liguzinediol significantly decreased the expression of both cleaved caspase-3 and NF-?B in cardiomyocytes of DOX-treated rats. Administration of digitalis (0.0225 mg·kg?1·d?1) also markedly improved the heart function and the morphology of cardiomyocytes in DOX-treated rats. Conclusion: Liguzinediol improves the heart function and inhibits myocardial cell apoptosis in the rat model of heart failure, which is associated with regulating Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3 and NF-?B expression. PMID:25220638

Li, Yu; Song, Ping; Zhu, Qing; Yin, Qiu-yi; Ji, Jia-wen; Li, Wei; Bian, Hui-min

2014-01-01

260

Modulating molecular chaperones improves sensory fiber recovery and mitochondrial function in diabetic peripheral neuropathy  

PubMed Central

Quantification of intra-epidermal nerve fibers (iENFs) is an important approach to stage diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and is a promising clinical endpoint for identifying beneficial therapeutics. Mechanistically, diabetes decreases neuronal mitochondrial function and enhancing mitochondrial respiratory capacity may aid neuronal recovery from glucotoxic insults. We have proposed that modulating the activity and expression of heat shock proteins (Hsp) may be of benefit in treating DPN. KU-32 is a C-terminal Hsp90 inhibitor that improved thermal hypoalgesia in diabetic C57Bl/6 mice but it was not determined if this was associated with an increase in iENF density and mitochondrial function. After 16 weeks of diabetes, Swiss Webster mice showed decreased electrophysiological and psychosensory responses and a >30% loss of iENFs. Treatment of the mice with ten weekly doses of 20 mg/kg KU-32 significantly reversed pre-existing deficits in nerve conduction velocity and responses to mechanical and thermal stimuli. KU-32 therapy significantly reversed the pre-existing loss of iENFs despite the identification of a sub-group of drug-treated diabetic mice that showed improved thermal sensitivity but no increase in iENF density. To determine if the improved clinical indices correlated with enhanced mitochondrial activity, sensory neurons were isolated and mitochondrial bioenergetics assessed ex vivo using extracellular flux technology. Diabetes decreased maximal respiratory capacity in sensory neurons and this deficit was improved following KU-32 treatment. In conclusion, KU-32 improved physiological and morphologic markers of degenerative neuropathy and drug efficacy may be related to enhanced mitochondrial bioenergetics in sensory neurons. PMID:22465570

Urban, Michael J.; Pan, Pan; Farmer, Kevin L.; Zhao, Huiping; Blagg, Brian S.J.; Dobrowsky, Rick T.

2012-01-01

261

Adeno-associated Virus 9 Mediated FKRP Gene Therapy Restores Functional Glycosylation of ?-dystroglycan and Improves Muscle Functions  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the FKRP gene are associated with a wide range of muscular dystrophies from mild limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) 2I to severe Walker–Warburg syndrome and muscle-eye-brain disease. The characteristic biochemical feature of these diseases is the hypoglycosylation of ?-dystroglycan (?-DG). Currently there is no effective treatment available. In this study, we examined the adeno-associated virus serotype 9 vector (AAV9)-mediated gene therapy in the FKRP mutant mouse model with a proline to leucine missense mutation (P448L). Our results showed that intraperitoneal administration of AAV9-FKRP resulted in systemic FKRP expression in all striated muscles examined with the highest levels in cardiac muscle. Consistent with our previous observations, FKRP protein is localized in the Golgi apparatus in myofibers. Expression of FKRP consequently restored functional glycosylation of ?-DG in the skeletal and cardiac muscles. Significant improvement in dystrophic pathology, serum creatine kinase levels and muscle function was observed. Only limited FKRP transgene expression was detected in kidney and liver with no detectable toxicity. Our results provided evidence for the utility of AAV-mediated gene replacement therapy for FKRP-related muscular dystrophies. PMID:23817215

Xu, Lei; Lu, Pei Juan; Wang, Chi-Hsien; Keramaris, Elizabeth; Qiao, Chunping; Xiao, Bin; Blake, Derek J; Xiao, Xiao; Lu, Qi Long

2013-01-01

262

Alterations in left ventricular diastolic function in conscious dogs with pacing-induced heart failure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigated in conscious dogs (a) the effects of heart failure induced by chronic rapid ventricular pacing on the sequence of development of left ventricular (LV) diastolic versus systolic dysfunction and (b) whether the changes were load dependent or secondary to alterations in structure. LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction were evident within 24 h after initiation of pacing and occurred in parallel over 3 wk. LV systolic function was reduced at 3 wk, i.e., peak LV dP/dt fell by -1,327 +/- 105 mmHg/s and ejection fraction by -22 +/- 2%. LV diastolic dysfunction also progressed over 3 wk of pacing, i.e., tau increased by +14.0 +/- 2.8 ms and the myocardial stiffness constant by +6.5 +/- 1.4, whereas LV chamber stiffness did not change. These alterations were associated with increases in LV end-systolic (+28.6 +/- 5.7 g/cm2) and LV end-diastolic stresses (+40.4 +/- 5.3 g/cm2). When stresses and heart rate were matched at the same levels in the control and failure states, the increases in tau and myocardial stiffness were no longer observed, whereas LV systolic function remained depressed. There were no increases in connective tissue content in heart failure. Thus, pacing-induced heart failure in conscious dogs is characterized by major alterations in diastolic function which are reversible with normalization of increased loading condition.

Komamura, K.; Shannon, R. P.; Pasipoularides, A.; Ihara, T.; Lader, A. S.; Patrick, T. A.; Bishop, S. P.; Vatner, S. F.

1992-01-01

263

Chronic heart rate reduction with ivabradine improves systolic function of the reperfused heart through a dual mechanism involving a direct  

E-print Network

Chronic heart rate reduction with ivabradine improves systolic function of the reperfused heart function and calcium handling to chronic heart rate reduction with ivabradine in the reperfused heart heart rate by about 20% and improved both ejection fraction (+35%) and systolic displacement (+26

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

264

IL-7 Promotes T Cell Viability, Trafficking, and Functionality and Improves Survival in Sepsis  

PubMed Central

Sepsis is a highly lethal disorder characterized by widespread apoptosis-induced depletion of immune cells and the development of a profound immunosuppressive state. IL-7 is a potent antiapoptotic cytokine that enhances immune effector cell function and is essential for lymphocyte survival. In this study, recombinant human IL-7 (rhIL-7) efficacy and potential mechanisms of action were tested in a murine peritonitis model. Studies at two independent laboratories showed that rhIL-7 markedly improved host survival, blocked apoptosis of CD4 and CD8 T cells, restored IFN-? production, and improved immune effector cell recruitment to the infected site. Importantly, rhIL-7 also prevented a hallmark of sepsis (i.e., the loss of delayed-type hypersensitivity), which is an IFN-?– and T cell-dependent response. Mechanistically, rhIL-7 significantly increased the expression of the leukocyte adhesion markers LFA-1 and VLA-4, consistent with its ability to improve leukocyte function and trafficking to the infectious focus. rhIL-7 also increased the expression of CD8. The potent antiapoptotic effect of rhIL-7 was due to increased Bcl-2, as well as to a dramatic decrease in sepsis-induced PUMA, a heretofore unreported effect of IL-7. If additional animal studies support its efficacy in sepsis and if current clinical trials continue to confirm its safety in diverse settings, rhIL-7 should be strongly considered for clinical trials in sepsis. PMID:20200277

Unsinger, Jacqueline; McGlynn, Margaret; Kasten, Kevin R.; Hoekzema, Andrew S.; Watanabe, Eizo; Muenzer, Jared T.; McDonough, Jacquelyn S.; Tschoep, Johannes; Ferguson, Thomas A.; McDunn, Jonathan E.; Morre, Michel; Hildeman, David A.; Caldwell, Charles C.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.

2010-01-01

265

The Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Sitagliptin Improves Vascular Endothelial Function in Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

The vascular endothelial function is impaired in the very early stage of atherosclerosis in diabetic patients. The goal of this study was to identify the mechanism underlying the improvement in vascular endothelial function by sitagliptin in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. This study was an open-labeled prospective observational single arm trial. Forty patients were treated with 50 mg of sitagliptin once daily for 12-weeks. The flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and plasma adiponectin were measured at baseline and 12 weeks after initiating treatment. The %FMD was significantly increased after treatment (4.13 ± 1.59 vs 5.12 ± 1.55, P < 0.001), whereas the nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD) did not change. The plasma adiponectin levels significantly increased (13.0 ± 11.3 vs 14.3 ± 12.8, P < 0.001). The changes in the FMD were significantly correlated with those of the plasma adiponectin (r = 0.322, P < 0.05). A multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that the improvement in the FMD is associated with the plasma adiponectin (P < 0.05). The treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with sitagliptin reverses vascular endothelial dysfunction, as evidenced by increase in the FMD, and improvement of the adiponectin levels (UMIN Clinical Trials Registry System as trial ID UMIN000004236). PMID:23166419

Kubota, Yoshiaki; Takagi, Gen; Ikeda, Takeshi; Kirinoki-Ichikawa, Sonoko; Tanaka, Kotoko; Mizuno, Kyoichi

2012-01-01

266

Global profiling of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1: Expression of hypothetical genes and improved functional annotations  

SciTech Connect

The gamma-proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 is a metabolically versatile organism that can reduce a wide range of organic compounds, metal ions, and radionuclides. Similar to most other sequenced organisms, approximate to40% of the predicted ORFs in the S. oneidensis genome were annotated as uncharacterized "hypothetical" genes. We implemented an integrative approach by using experimental and computational analyses to provide more detailed insight into gene function. Global expression profiles were determined for cells after UV irradiation and under aerobic and suboxic growth conditions. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses confidently identified 538 hypothetical genes as expressed in S. oneidensis cells both as mRNAs and proteins (33% of all predicted hypothetical proteins). Publicly available analysis tools and databases and the expression data were applied to improve the annotation of these genes. The annotation results were scored by using a seven-category schema that ranked both confidence and precision of the functional assignment. We were able to identify homologs for nearly all of these hypothetical proteins (97%), but could confidently assign exact biochemical functions for only 16 proteins (category 1; 3%). Altogether, computational and experimental evidence provided functional assignments or insights for 240 more genes (categories 2-5; 45%). These functional annotations advance our understanding of genes involved in vital cellular processes, including energy conversion, ion transport, secondary metabolism, and signal transduction. We propose that this integrative approach offers a valuable means to undertake the enormous challenge of characterizing the rapidly growing number of hypothetical proteins with each newly sequenced genome.

Picone, Alex F. [Biatech, Bothell WA; Galperin, Michael Y. [National Center for Biotechnology Information; Romine, Margaret [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Higdon, Roger [Biatech, Bothell WA; Makarova, Kira S. [National Center for Biotechnology Information; Kolker, Natali [Biatech, Bothell WA; Anderson, Gordon A [ORNL; Qiu, Xiaoyun [ORNL; Babnigg, Gyorgy [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Beliaev, Alexander S [ORNL; Edlefsen, Paul [Biatech, Bothell WA; Elias, Dwayne A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Gorby, Dr. Yuri A. [J. Craig Venter Institute; Holzman, Ted [Biatech, Bothell WA; Klappenbach, Joel [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lipton, Mary S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); McCue, Lee Ann [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Monroe, Matthew [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Pinchuk, Grigoriy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Purvine, Samuel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Serres, Margrethe H. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Tsapin, Sasha [University of Southern California; Zakrajsek, Brian A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Zhu, Wenguang [Harvard University; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Lawrence, Charles E. [Wadsworth Center, Albany, NY; Riley, Monica [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Collart, Frank [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); YatesIII, John R. [Scripps Research Institute, The, La Jolla, CA; Smith, Richard D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Nealson, Kenneth H. [University of Southern California; Fredrickson, James K [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Tiedje, James M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

2005-01-01

267

Enhancing dentate gyrus function with dietary flavanols improves cognition in older adults.  

PubMed

The dentate gyrus (DG) is a region in the hippocampal formation whose function declines in association with human aging and is therefore considered to be a possible source of age-related memory decline. Causal evidence is needed, however, to show that DG-associated memory decline in otherwise healthy elders can be improved by interventions that enhance DG function. We addressed this issue by first using a high-resolution variant of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map the precise site of age-related DG dysfunction and to develop a cognitive task whose function localized to this anatomical site. Then, in a controlled randomized trial, we applied these tools to study healthy 50-69-year-old subjects who consumed either a high or low cocoa flavanol-containing diet for 3 months. A high-flavanol intervention was found to enhance DG function, as measured by fMRI and by cognitive testing. Our findings establish that DG dysfunction is a driver of age-related cognitive decline and suggest non-pharmacological means for its amelioration. PMID:25344629

Brickman, Adam M; Khan, Usman A; Provenzano, Frank A; Yeung, Lok-Kin; Suzuki, Wendy; Schroeter, Hagen; Wall, Melanie; Sloan, Richard P; Small, Scott A

2014-12-01

268

Ketogenic Diet Improves Forelimb Motor Function after Spinal Cord Injury in Rodents  

PubMed Central

High fat, low carbohydrate ketogenic diets (KD) are validated non-pharmacological treatments for some forms of drug-resistant epilepsy. Ketones reduce neuronal excitation and promote neuroprotection. Here, we investigated the efficacy of KD as a treatment for acute cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats. Starting 4 hours following C5 hemi-contusion injury animals were fed either a standard carbohydrate based diet or a KD formulation with lipid to carbohydrate plus protein ratio of 3:1. The forelimb functional recovery was evaluated for 14 weeks, followed by quantitative histopathology. Post-injury 3:1 KD treatment resulted in increased usage and range of motion of the affected forepaw. Furthermore, KD improved pellet retrieval with recovery of wrist and digit movements. Importantly, after returning to a standard diet after 12 weeks of KD treatment, the improved forelimb function remained stable. Histologically, the spinal cords of KD treated animals displayed smaller lesion areas and more grey matter sparing. In addition, KD treatment increased the number of glucose transporter-1 positive blood vessels in the lesion penumbra and monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT1) expression. Pharmacological inhibition of MCTs with 4-CIN (?-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate) prevented the KD-induced neuroprotection after SCI, In conclusion, post-injury KD effectively promotes functional recovery and is neuroprotective after cervical SCI. These beneficial effects require the function of monocarboxylate transporters responsible for ketone uptake and link the observed neuroprotection directly to the function of ketones, which are known to exert neuroprotection by multiple mechanisms. Our data suggest that current clinical nutritional guidelines, which include relatively high carbohydrate contents, should be revisited. PMID:24223849

Streijger, Femke; Plunet, Ward T.; Lee, Jae H. T.; Liu, Jie; Lam, Clarrie K.; Park, Soeyun; Hilton, Brett J.; Fransen, Bas L.; Matheson, Keely A. J.; Assinck, Peggy; Kwon, Brian K.; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

2013-01-01

269

In vivo MRI-based 3D FSI RV\\/LV models for human right ventricle and patch design for potential computer-aided surgery optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Right ventricular dysfunction is one of the more common causes of heart failure in patients with congenital heart defects. Use of computer-assisted procedures is becoming more popular in clinical decision making process and computer-aided surgeries. A 3D in vivo MRI-based RV\\/LV combination model with fluid–structure interaction (FSI), RV–LV interaction, and RV–patch interaction was introduced to perform mechanical analysis for human

Chun Yang; Dalin Tang; Idith Haber; Tal Geva; Pedro J. del Nido

2007-01-01

270

Assessment of myocardial and LV blood pool post-contrast T1 evolution: comparison between healthy subjects and patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy  

E-print Network

POSTER PRESENTATION Open Access Assessment of myocardial and LV blood pool post-contrast T1 evolution: comparison between healthy subjects and patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Nadjia Kachenoura1*, Laila Besson-Hajji1,2, Martin J Graves3... and LV blood pool post-contrast T1 evolution: comparison between healthy subjects and patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 2013 15(Suppl 1):E44. Submit your next manuscript to BioMed Central and take full...

Kachenoura, Nadjia; Besson-Hajji, Laila; Graves, Martin J; Reid, Scott; Ashrafpoor, Golmehr; Macron, Laurent; Azarine, Arshid; Redheuil, Alban; Mousseaux, Elie

2013-01-30

271

FTY720 is Neuroprotective and Improves Functional Outcomes After Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice  

PubMed Central

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 20% of all strokes and is the most devastating form across all stroke types. Lymphocytes have been shown to potentiate cerebral inflammation and brain injury after stroke. FTY720 (Fingolimod) is an immune-modulating drug that prevents the egress of peripheral lymphocytes from peripheral stores. We hypothesized that FTY720 would reduce peripheral circulating lymphocytes, resulting in reduced brain injury and improved functional outcomes. CD-1 mice were anesthetized and then injected with collagenase into the right basal ganglia. Animals were divided into three groups: sham, ICH + Vehicle, and ICH + FTY720, by the intra-peritoneal route at 1 h after ICH induction. Brain water content was measured at 24 and 72 h. Neurobehavioral tests included corner test, forelimb use asymmetry, paw placement, wire-hang test, beam balance test, and a Neuroscore. FTY720 significantly reduced brain edema and improved neurological function at all time points tested. Lymphocyte modulation with FTY720 is an effective neuroprotective strategy to reduce brain injury and promote functional recovery after ICH. PMID:21725758

Rolland, William B.; Manaenko, Anatol; Lekic, Tim; Hasegawa, Yu; Ostrowski, Robert; Tang, Jiping

2013-01-01

272

Pulsed electromagnetic field improves cardiac function in response to myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Extracorporeal pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has been shown the ability to improve regeneration in various ischemic episodes. Here, we examined whether PEMF therapy facilitate cardiac recovery in rat myocardial infarction (MI), and the cellular/molecular mechanisms underlying PEMF-related therapy was further investigated. The MI rats were exposed to active PEMF for 4 cycles per day (8 minutes/cycle, 30 ± 3 Hz, 5 mT) after MI induction. The data demonstrated that PEMF treatment significantly inhibited cardiac apoptosis and improved cardiac systolic function. Moreover, PEMF treatment increased capillary density, the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxic inducible factor-1? in infarct border zone. Furthermore, the number and function of circulating endothelial progenitor cells were advanced in PEMF treating rats. In vitro, PEMF induced the degree of human umbilical venous endothelial cells tubulization and increased soluble pro-angiogenic factor secretion (VEGF and nitric oxide). In conclusion, PEMF therapy preserves cardiac systolic function, inhibits apoptosis and trigger postnatal neovascularization in ischemic myocardium. PMID:24936220

Hao, Chang-Ning; Huang, Jing-Juan; Shi, Yi-Qin; Cheng, Xian-Wu; Li, Hao-Yun; Zhou, Lin; Guo, Xin-Gui; Li, Rui-Lin; Lu, Wei; Zhu, Yi-Zhun; Duan, Jun-Li

2014-01-01

273

Perturbative renormalization functions of local operators for staggered fermions with stout improvement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the perturbative computation of the renormalization functions for the quark field and for a complete set of ultralocal fermion bilinears. The computation of the relevant Green’s functions are carried out at one-loop level for the staggered action using massive fermions. The gluon links which appear both in the fermion action and in the definition of the bilinears are improved by applying a stout smearing procedure up to two times, iteratively. In the gluon sector we employ the Symanzik improved gauge action for different sets of values of the Symanzik coefficients. The renormalization functions are presented in (two variants of) the RI' and in the MS¯ renormalization scheme; the dependence on all stout parameters, as well as on the fermion mass, the gauge fixing parameter, and the renormalization scale, is shown explicitly. This work is related to our recent paper [Phys. Rev. D 86, 094512 (2012)]. To make our results easily accessible to the reader, we include them in the distribution package of this paper as a Mathematica input file, “Staggered.m.”

Constantinou, M.; Costa, M.; Panagopoulos, H.

2013-08-01

274

Aerobic exercise as an adjunct therapy for improving cognitive function in heart failure.  

PubMed

Persons with heart failure (HF) are typically older and are at a much higher risk for developing cognitive impairment (CI) than persons without HF. Increasingly, CI is recognized as a significant, independent predictor of worse clinical outcomes, more frequent hospital readmissions, and higher mortality rates in persons with HF. CI can have devastating effects on ability to carry out HF effective self-care behaviors. If CI occurs, however, there are currently no evidence based guidelines on how to manage or improve cognitive function in this population. Improvement in cognition has been reported following some therapies in HF and is thought to be the consequence of enhanced cerebral perfusion and oxygenation, suggesting that CI may be amenable to intervention. Because there is substantial neuronal loss with dementia and no effective restorative therapies, interventions that slow, reverse, or prevent cognitive decline are essential. Aerobic exercise is documented to increase cerebral perfusion and oxygenation by promoting neuroplasticity and neurogenesis and, in turn, cognitive functioning. Few studies have examined exercise as a potential adjunct therapy for attenuating or alleviating cognitive decline in HF. In this review, the potential benefit of aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning in HF is presented along with future research directions. PMID:25105053

Gary, Rebecca A; Brunn, Kathryn

2014-01-01

275

Pulsed electromagnetic field improves cardiac function in response to myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Extracorporeal pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has been shown the ability to improve regeneration in various ischemic episodes. Here, we examined whether PEMF therapy facilitate cardiac recovery in rat myocardial infarction (MI), and the cellular/molecular mechanisms underlying PEMF-related therapy was further investigated. The MI rats were exposed to active PEMF for 4 cycles per day (8 minutes/cycle, 30 ± 3 Hz, 5 mT) after MI induction. The data demonstrated that PEMF treatment significantly inhibited cardiac apoptosis and improved cardiac systolic function. Moreover, PEMF treatment increased capillary density, the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxic inducible factor-1? in infarct border zone. Furthermore, the number and function of circulating endothelial progenitor cells were advanced in PEMF treating rats. In vitro, PEMF induced the degree of human umbilical venous endothelial cells tubulization and increased soluble pro-angiogenic factor secretion (VEGF and nitric oxide). In conclusion, PEMF therapy preserves cardiac systolic function, inhibits apoptosis and trigger postnatal neovascularization in ischemic myocardium. PMID:24936220

Hao, Chang-Ning; Huang, Jing-Juan; Shi, Yi-Qin; Cheng, Xian-Wu; Li, Hao-Yun; Zhou, Lin; Guo, Xin-Gui; Li, Rui-Lin; Lu, Wei; Zhu, Yi-Zhun; Duan, Jun-Li

2014-01-01

276

Aerobic Exercise as an Adjunct Therapy for Improving Cognitive Function in Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Persons with heart failure (HF) are typically older and are at a much higher risk for developing cognitive impairment (CI) than persons without HF. Increasingly, CI is recognized as a significant, independent predictor of worse clinical outcomes, more frequent hospital readmissions, and higher mortality rates in persons with HF. CI can have devastating effects on ability to carry out HF effective self-care behaviors. If CI occurs, however, there are currently no evidence based guidelines on how to manage or improve cognitive function in this population. Improvement in cognition has been reported following some therapies in HF and is thought to be the consequence of enhanced cerebral perfusion and oxygenation, suggesting that CI may be amenable to intervention. Because there is substantial neuronal loss with dementia and no effective restorative therapies, interventions that slow, reverse, or prevent cognitive decline are essential. Aerobic exercise is documented to increase cerebral perfusion and oxygenation by promoting neuroplasticity and neurogenesis and, in turn, cognitive functioning. Few studies have examined exercise as a potential adjunct therapy for attenuating or alleviating cognitive decline in HF. In this review, the potential benefit of aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning in HF is presented along with future research directions. PMID:25105053

Gary, Rebecca A.; Brunn, Kathryn

2014-01-01

277

Improving CO2 adsorption onto activated carbon through functionalization by chitosan and triethylenetetramine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activated carbon (AC) is one of the most dominant adsorbents for CO2 capture. To increase the capacity of CO2 adsorption, amine functional groups are grafted onto the adsorbent surfaces. In this study AC was functionalized by two different amines; chitosan and triethylenetetramine. The adsorption of CO2 onto raw and amine functionalized AC was experimentally investigated using volumetric technique in the temperature range of 293-313 K and pressure range of 1-40 bar. Results indicated that amine functionalization of the adsorbent significantly improved the adsorption of CO2. The adsorption capacity of CO2 achieved by the amine functionalized AC with triethylenetetramine (AC-TETA) was more than the amount, reached by amine functionalized AC with chitosan (AC-chitosan). The maximum amount of CO2 uptake achieved by AC-TETA and AC-chitosan was16.16 and 13.65 mmol/g at 298 K and 40 bar which shows 90% and 60% increase compared to raw AC, respectively. The experimental data of CO2 adsorption were analyzed using different model isotherms such as Freundlich, Langmuir, and Langmuir-Freundlich. Freundlich isotherm presented a nearly perfect fit in all cases which indicated the heterogeneous nature of the adsorbents surfaces. Gas adsorption kinetic study on the adsorbents revealed fast kinetics of CO2 adsorption on the AC before and after amine functionalization. Small values of isosteric heat of adsorption evaluated by a set of isotherms based on the Clasius-Clapeyron equation indicated that physisorption was the dominant mechanism in the adsorption process.

Keramati, Mona; Ghoreyshi, Ali Asghar

2014-03-01

278

Sampling Multiple Scoring Functions Can Improve Protein Loop Structure Prediction Accuracy  

PubMed Central

Accurately predicting loop structures is important for understanding functions of many proteins. In order to obtain loop models with high accuracy, efficiently sampling the loop conformation space to discover reasonable structures is a critical step. In loop conformation sampling, coarse-grain energy (scoring) functions coupling with reduced protein representations are often used to reduce the number of degrees of freedom as well as sampling computational time. However, due to implicitly considering many factors by reduced representations, the coarse-grain scoring functions may have potential insensitivity and inaccuracy, which can mislead the sampling process and consequently ignore important loop conformations. In this paper, we present a new computational sampling approach to obtain reasonable loop backbone models, so-called the Pareto Optimal Sampling (POS) method. The rationale of the POS method is to sample the function space of multiple, carefully-selected scoring functions to discover an ensemble of diversified structures yielding Pareto optimality to all sampled conformations. POS method can efficiently tolerate insensitivity and inaccuracy in individual scoring functions and thereby lead to significant accuracy improvement in loop structure prediction. We apply the POS method to a set of 4- to 12-residue loop targets using a function space composed of backbone-only Rosetta, DFIRE, and a triplet backbone dihedral potential developed in our lab. Our computational results show that in 501 out of 502 targets, the model sets generated by POS contain structure models are within subangstrom resolution. Moreover, the top-ranked models have Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) less than 1A in 96.8%, 84.1%, and 72.2% of the short (4~6 residues), medium (7~9 residues), and long (10~12) targets, respectively, when the all-atom models are generated by local optimization from the backbone models and are ranked by our recently developed Pareto Optimal Consensus (POC) method. Similar sampling effectiveness can also be found in a set of 13-residue loop targets. PMID:21702492

Rata, Ionel; Jakobsson, Eric

2011-01-01

279

Improved normal tissue sparing in head and neck radiotherapy using biological cost function based-IMRT.  

PubMed

Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has reduced the impact of acute and late toxicities associated with head and neck radiotherapy. Treatment planning system (TPS) advances in biological cost function based optimization (BBO) and improved segmentation techniques have increased organ at risk (OAR) sparing compared to conventional dose-based optimization (DBO). A planning study was undertaken to compare OAR avoidance in DBO and BBO treatment planning. Simultaneous integrated boost treatment plans were produced for 10 head and neck patients using both planning systems. Plans were compared for tar get coverage and OAR avoidance. Comparisons were made using the BBO TPS Monte Carlo dose engine to eliminate differences due to inherent algorithms. Target coverage (V95%) was maintained for both solutions. BBO produced lower OAR doses, with statistically significant improvement to left (12.3%, p = 0.005) and right parotid mean dose (16.9%, p = 0.004), larynx V50_Gy (71.0%, p = 0.005), spinal cord (21.9%, p < 0.001) and brain stem dose maximums (31.5%, p = 0.002). This study observed improved OAR avoidance with BBO planning. Further investigations will be undertaken to review any clinical benefit of this improved planned dosimetry. PMID:22066597

Anderson, N; Lawford, C; Khoo, V; Rolfo, M; Joon, D L; Wada, M

2011-12-01

280

Alpha4beta1 integrin blockade after spinal cord injury decreases damage and improves neurological function.  

PubMed

The extent of disability caused by spinal cord injury (SCI) relates to secondary tissue destruction arising partly from an intraspinal influx of neutrophils and monocyte/macrophages after the initial injury. The integrin alpha4beta1, expressed by these leukocytes, is a key to their activation and migration into/within tissue. Therefore, blocking this integrin's functions may afford significant neuroprotection. Rats were treated intravenously with a blocking monoclonal antibody (mAb) to the alpha4 subunit of alpha4beta1 at 2 and 24 h after thoracic clip-compression SCI. Anti-alpha4beta1 treatment significantly decreased neutrophil and monocyte/macrophage influx at 3 d by 47% and 53%, respectively, and decreased neutrophil influx by 61% at 7 d after SCI. Anti-alpha4beta1 treatment also significantly reduced oxidative activity in injured cord homogenates at 3 d. For example, myeloperoxidase activity decreased by 38%, inducible nitric oxide by 44%, dichlorofluorescein (marking free radicals) by 33% and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) by 42%. At 2-8 weeks after SCI, motor function improved by up to 2 points on an open-field locomotor scale. Treated rats supported weight with their hind paws instead of sweeping. At 2-4 weeks after SCI, anti-alpha4beta1 treatment decreased blood pressure responses during autonomic dysreflexia by as much as 43% and, at 2-8 weeks, decreased mechanical allodynia elicited from the trunk and hind paw by up to 54% and 40%, respectively. This improved functional recovery correlated with spared myelin-containing white matter and >10-fold more bulbospinal serotonergic axons below the injury than were in controls. The significant neurological improvement offered by this neuroprotective strategy underscores the potential for an anti-integrin treatment for SCI. PMID:19038604

Fleming, Jennifer C; Bao, Feng; Chen, Yuhua; Hamilton, Eilis F; Relton, Jane K; Weaver, Lynne C

2008-12-01

281

Sustained delivery of VEGF from designer self-assembling peptides improves cardiac function after myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The designer peptide LRKKLGKA could self-assemble into nanofibers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Injection of LRKKLGKA peptides could promote the sustained delivery of VEGF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Injection of VEGF with LRKKLGKA peptides lead to sufficient angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Injection of VEGF with LRKKLGKA peptides improves heart function. -- Abstract: Poor vascularization and insufficient oxygen supply are detrimental to the survival of residual cardiomyocytes or transplanted stem cells after myocardial infarction. To prolong and slow the release of angiogenic factors, which stimulate both angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, we constructed a novel self-assembling peptide by attaching the heparin-binding domain sequence LRKKLGKA to the self-assembling peptide RADA16. This designer self-assembling peptide self-assembled into nanofiber scaffolds under physiological conditions, as observed by atomic force microscopy. The injection of designer self-assembling peptides can efficiently provide the sustained delivery of VEGF for at least 1 month. At 4 weeks after transplantation, cardiac function was improved, and scar size and collagen deposition were markedly reduced in the group receiving VEGF with the LRKKLGKA scaffolds compared with groups receiving VEGF alone, LRKKLGKA scaffolds alone or VEGF with RADA16 scaffolds. The microvessel density in the VEGF with LRKKLGKA group was higher than that in the VEGF with RADA16 group. TUNEL and cleaved caspase-3 expression assays showed that the transplantation of VEGF with LRKKLGKA enhanced cell survival in the infarcted heart. These results present the tailor-made peptide scaffolds as a new generation of sustained-release biomimetic biomaterials and suggest that the use of angiogenic factors along with designer self-assembling peptides can lead to myocardial protection, sufficient angiogenesis, and improvement in cardiac function.

Guo, Hai-dong [Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China)] [Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China); Cui, Guo-hong; Yang, Jia-jun [Department of Neurology, Shanghai No. 6 People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200233 (China)] [Department of Neurology, Shanghai No. 6 People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200233 (China); Wang, Cun [Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Li-sheng; Jiang, Jun [Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China)] [Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China); Shao, Shui-jin, E-mail: shaoshuijin@163.com [Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China)] [Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China)

2012-07-20

282

Ginkgo biloba extract and bilberry anthocyanins improve visual function in patients with normal tension glaucoma.  

PubMed

Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) and anthocyanins are considered beneficial for various vascular diseases. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of GBE and anthocyanins on visual function in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) based on the vascular theory of mechanisms of glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Retrospective analysis was carried out by a chart review of 332 subjects (209 men and 123 women) who were treated with anthocyanins (n=132), GBE (n=103), or no medication (control, n=97). Humphrey Visual Field (HVF) test, logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity (logMAR BCVA), intraocular pressure, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose were determined before and after treatment. Complete ocular and systemic examinations were performed. The mean follow-up duration was 23.82±9.84 (range, 12-59) months; the mean anthocyanin treatment duration was 24.32±10.43 (range, 6-53) months, and the mean GBE treatment duration was 23.81±10.36 months (range, 6-59) months. After anthocyanin treatment, the mean BCVA for all eyes improved from 0.16 (±0.34) to 0.11 (±0.18) logMAR units (P=.008), and HVF mean deviation improved from -6.44 (±7.05) to -5.34 (±6.42) (P=.001). After GBE treatment, HVF mean deviation improved from -5.25 (±6.13) to -4.31 (±5.60) (P=.002). A generalized linear model demonstrated that the final BCVA was not affected by demographic differences among the groups. These results suggest that anthocyanins and GBE may be helpful in improving visual function in some individuals with NTG. PMID:22870951

Shim, Seong Hee; Kim, Joon Mo; Choi, Chul Young; Kim, Chan Yun; Park, Ki Ho

2012-09-01

283

Robotic Resistance/Assistance Training Improves Locomotor Function in Individuals Poststroke: A Randomized Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether providing a controlled resistance versus assistance to the paretic leg at the ankle during treadmill training will improve walking function in individuals poststroke. Design Repeated assessment of the same patients with parallel design and randomized controlled study between 2 groups. Setting Research units of rehabilitation hospitals. Participants Patients (N=30) with chronic stroke. Intervention Subjects were stratified based on self-selected walking speed and were randomly assigned to the resistance or assistance training group. For the resistance group, a controlled resistance load was applied to the paretic leg at the ankle to resist leg swing during treadmill walking. For the assistance group, a load that assists swing was applied. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcome measures were walking speed and 6-minute walking distance. Secondary measures included clinical assessments of balance, muscle tone, and quality of life. Outcome measures were evaluated before and after 6 weeks of training and at 8 weeks’ follow-up, and compared within group and between the 2 groups. Results After 6 weeks of robotic training, walking speed significantly increased for both groups, with no significant differences in walking speed gains observed between the 2 groups. In addition, 6-minute walking distance and balance significantly improved for the assistance group but not for the resistance group. Conclusions Applying a controlled resistance or an assistance load to the paretic leg during treadmill training may induce improvements in walking speed in individuals poststroke. Resistance training was not superior to assistance training in improving locomotor function in individuals poststroke. PMID:24440365

Wu, Ming; Landry, Jill M.; Kim, Janis; Schmit, Brian D.; Yen, Sheng-Che; MacDonald, Jillian

2014-01-01

284

Fucosyltransferase VII improves the function of selectin ligands on cord blood hematopoietic stem cells  

PubMed Central

Selectins and their carbohydrate ligands mediate the homing of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) to the bone marrow. We have previously shown that ex vivo fucosylation of selectin ligands on HSPCs by ?1,3 fucosyltransferase VI (FUT6) leads to improved human cord blood (CB)-HSPC engraftment in non-obese diabetic (NOD)/severe combined immune deficient (SCID) mice. In the present study, we determined whether surface fucosylation with ?1,3 fucosyltransferase VII (FUT7), which is primarily expressed by hematopoietic cells, improves the function of selectin ligands on CB-HSPCs in comparison with FUT6. A saturating amount of either FUT6 or FUT7, which generates comparable levels of expression of fucosylated epitopes on CB CD34+ cells, was used for these experiments. In vitro, FUT7-treated CB CD34+ cells exhibited greater binding to P- or E-selectin than that of FUT6-treated CB CD34+ cells under static or physiological flow conditions. In vivo, FUT7 treatment, like FUT6, improved the early engraftment of CB CD34+ cells in the bone marrow of sublethally irradiated NOD/SCID interleukin (IL)-2R?null (NSG) mice. FUT7 also exhibited marginally—yet statistically significant—increased engraftment at 4 and 6 weeks after transplantation. In addition, FUT7-treated CB CD34+ cells exhibited increased homing to the bone marrow of irradiated NSG mice relative to sham-treated cells. These data indicate that FUT7 is effective at improving the function of selectin ligands on CB-HSPCs in vitro and enhancing early engraftment of treated CB-HSPCs in the bone marrow of recipients. PMID:23899669

Wan, Xiang; Sato, Hidetaka; Miyaji, Hiromasa; McDaniel, J Michael; Wang, Yuesi; Kaneko, Etsuji; Gibson, BreeAnna; Mehta-D'Souza, Padmaja; Chen, Yiyuan; Dozmorov, Mikhail; Miller, Leonard P; Goodman, Jean; Sun, Zimin; Xia, Lijun

2013-01-01

285

Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 fatty acids improve systemic large artery endothelial function in subjects with hypercholesterolemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVEThis work was undertaken to determine whether dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 fatty acids improve systemic large artery endothelial function in subjects with hypercholesterolemia.BACKGROUNDMarine omega-3 fatty acids improve vascular function, but the underlying mechanism(s) are unclear. We studied the effects of marine omega-3 fatty acids on large artery endothelial function in subjects with hypercholesterolemia.METHODSHypercholesterolemic subjects with no other known cause

Jonathan Goodfellow; Michael F Bellamy; Mark W Ramsey; Christopher J. H Jones; Malcolm J Lewis

2000-01-01

286

Improving functional annotation for industrial microbes: a case study with Pichia pastoris.  

PubMed

The research communities studying microbial model organisms, such as Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are well served by model organism databases that have extensive functional annotation. However, this is not true of many industrial microbes that are used widely in biotechnology. In this Opinion piece, we use Pichia (Komagataella) pastoris to illustrate the limitations of the available annotation. We consider the resources that can be implemented in the short term both to improve Gene Ontology (GO) annotation coverage based on annotation transfer, and to establish curation pipelines for the literature corpus of this organism. PMID:24929579

Dikicioglu, Duygu; Wood, Valerie; Rutherford, Kim M; McDowall, Mark D; Oliver, Stephen G

2014-08-01

287

Improving Performance of the System Safety Function at Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) determined that organizational and management issues were significant contributors to the loss of Space Shuttle Columbia. In addition, the CAIB observed similarities between the organizational and management climate that preceded the Challenger accident and the climate that preceded the Columbia accident. To prevent recurrence of adverse organizational and management climates, effective implementation of the system safety function is suggested. Attributes of an effective system safety program are presented. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) system safety program is analyzed using the attributes. Conclusions and recommendations for improving the MSFC system safety program are offered in this case study.

Kiessling, Ed; Tippett, Donald D.; Shivers, Herb

2004-01-01

288

Reflex conditioning: A new strategy for improving motor function after spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

Spinal reflex conditioning changes reflex size, induces spinal cord plasticity, and modifies locomotion. Appropriate reflex conditioning can improve walking in rats after spinal cord injury (SCI). Reflex conditioning offers a new therapeutic strategy for restoring function in people with SCI. This approach can address the specific deficits of individuals with SCI by targeting specific reflex pathways for increased or decreased responsiveness. In addition, once clinically significant regeneration can be achieved, reflex conditioning could provide a means of re-educating the newly (and probably imperfectly) reconnected spinal cord. PMID:20590534

Chen, Xiang Yang; Chen, Yi; Wang, Yu; Thompson, Aiko; Carp, Jonathan S.; Segal, Richard L.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

2010-01-01

289

Cervical spinal cord injury: tailoring clinical trial endpoints to reflect meaningful functional improvements  

PubMed Central

Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) results in partial to full paralysis of the upper and lower extremities. Traditional primary endpoints for acute SCI clinical trials are too broad to assess functional recovery in cervical subjects, raising the possibility of false positive outcomes in trials for cervical SCI. Endpoints focused on the recovery of hand and arm control (e.g., upper extremity motor score, motor level change) show the most potential for use as primary outcomes in upcoming trials of cervical SCI. As the field moves forward, the most reliable way to ensure meaningful clinical testing in cervical subjects may be the development of a composite primary endpoint that measures both neurological recovery and functional improvement.

Bond, Lisa M.; McKerracher, Lisa

2014-01-01

290

Rational identification of diet-derived postbiotics for improving intestinal microbiota function.  

PubMed

The intestinal microbiota plays an important role in a wide range of functions and whole body homeostasis. Recent advances have linked microbiota dysbiosis to conditions ranging from Crohn's disease to cancer. The restoration or strengthening of the intestinal microbiota through diet-based approaches such as probiotics and prebiotics has been proposed for combating the onset or progression of these diseases. In this review, we highlight the importance of postbiotics for the manipulation of the intestinal microbiota, with special emphasis on systems biology computational tools and targeted metabolomics for the rational discovery and identification of these bioactive molecules. The identification of novel postbiotics and the pathways responsible for their production should lead to improved mechanistic understanding of the role that specific probiotics, prebiotics, and postbiotics have in restoring intestinal microbiota composition and function. PMID:24679263

Klemashevich, Cory; Wu, Charmian; Howsmon, Daniel; Alaniz, Robert C; Lee, Kyongbum; Jayaraman, Arul

2014-04-01

291

Cervical spinal cord injury: tailoring clinical trial endpoints to reflect meaningful functional improvements.  

PubMed

Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) results in partial to full paralysis of the upper and lower extremities. Traditional primary endpoints for acute SCI clinical trials are too broad to assess functional recovery in cervical subjects, raising the possibility of false positive outcomes in trials for cervical SCI. Endpoints focused on the recovery of hand and arm control (e.g., upper extremity motor score, motor level change) show the most potential for use as primary outcomes in upcoming trials of cervical SCI. As the field moves forward, the most reliable way to ensure meaningful clinical testing in cervical subjects may be the development of a composite primary endpoint that measures both neurological recovery and functional improvement. PMID:25317162

Bond, Lisa M; McKerracher, Lisa

2014-08-15

292

Engineering the heart: Evaluation of conductive nanomaterials for improving implant integration and cardiac function  

PubMed Central

Recently, carbon nanotubes together with other types of conductive materials have been used to enhance the viability and function of cardiomyocytes in vitro. Here we demonstrated a paradigm to construct ECTs for cardiac repair using conductive nanomaterials. Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were incorporated into gelatin hydrogel scaffolds to construct three-dimensional ECTs. We found that SWNTs could provide cellular microenvironment in vitro favorable for cardiac contraction and the expression of electrochemical associated proteins. Upon implantation into the infarct hearts in rats, ECTs structurally integrated with the host myocardium, with different types of cells observed to mutually invade into implants and host tissues. The functional measurements showed that SWNTs were essential to improve the performance of ECTs in inhibiting pathological deterioration of myocardium. This work suggested that conductive nanomaterials hold therapeutic potential in engineering cardiac tissues to repair myocardial infarction. PMID:24429673

Zhou, Jin; Chen, Jun; Sun, Hongyu; Qiu, Xiaozhong; Mou, Yongchao; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yuwei; Li, Xia; Han, Yao; Duan, Cuimi; Tang, Rongyu; Wang, Chunlan; Zhong, Wen; Liu, Jie; Luo, Ying; (Mengqiu) Xing, Malcolm; Wang, Changyong

2014-01-01

293

Global Profiling of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1: Expression of Hypothetical Genes and Improved functional annotations  

SciTech Connect

The y-proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 is a respiratory versatile organism that can reduce a wide range of organics, metals, and radionuclides. Similar to most other sequenced organisms, approximately 40% of the predicted ORFs in the MR-1 genome were annotated as uncharacterized ''hypothetical'' genes. We implemented an integrative approach using experimental and computational analyses to provide more detailed insight into their function. Global expression studies were conducted using RNA and protein expression profiling of cells cultivated under aerobic, suboxic, and fumarate reducing conditions, phosphate limitation and UV irradiation. transcriptomic and proteomic analyses confidently identified 538 ''hypothetical'' genes as expressed in S. oneidensis cells both as mRNAs and proteins (33% of all ''hypothetical'' proteins). Publicly available analysis tools and databases and our own expression data were applied to improve the annotation of these genes. The annotation results were scored using a seven-category schema that ranked both confidence and precision of the functional assignment. We identified homologs for nearly all of these ''hypothetical'' proteins (96%), thus allowing us to minimally classify them as ''conserved proteins''. Computational and/or experimental evidence provided more precise functional assignments for 297 genes (categories 1-4; 55%). These improved functional annotations will significantly widen our understanding of vital cellular processes including signal transduction, ion transport, secondary metabolism, and transcription, as well as structural elements, such as cellular membranes. We propose that this integrative approach offers a viable means to undertake the enormous challenge of characterizing the rapidly growing number of ''hypothetical'' proteins with each newly sequenced genome.

Kolker, Eugene; Picone, Alessandro F.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Romine, Margaret F.; Higdon, Roger; Makarova, Kira S.; Kolker, Natali; Anderson, Gordon A.; Qiu, Xiaoyun; Auberry, Kenneth J.; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Beliaev, Alex S.; Edlefsen, Paul; Elias, Dwayne A.; Gorby, Yuri A.; Holzman, Ted; Klappenbach, Joel; Konstantinidis, Kostas; Land, Miriam L.; Lipton, Mary S.; McCue, Lee-Ann; Monroe, Matthew E.; Pasa-Tolic, Liljiana; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Serres, Margaret; Tsapin, Sasha; Zakrajsek, Brian A.; Zhu, Wenhong; Zhou, Jizhong; Larimer, Frank; Lawrence, Charles; Riley, Monica; Collart, Frank R.; Yates, III, John R.; Smith, Richard D.; Giometti, Carol S.; Nealson, Kenneth; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Tiedje, James M.

2005-02-08

294

Supplementation of the thawing medium with reduced glutathione improves function of frozen-thawed goat spermatozoa.  

PubMed

Sperm cryopreservation represents a useful tool in the management of reproduction in goat production. However, freezing and thawing produce physical and chemical stress on the sperm membrane that reduces their viability and fertilizing ability. In this study, firstly we evaluated the effects of reduced glutathione (GSH, 1 and 5mM) supplementation of the thawing extender on parameters of frozen-thawed goat spermatozoa. We used a set of functional sperm tests that included sperm motility assayed by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA), membrane lipid packing disorder, spontaneous acrosome reaction, free radical production (ROS generation) and sperm chromatin condensation. The main findings from this study were that addition of GSH to the thawing medium resulted in: (1) a higher motility and progressive motility; (2) a higher number of non-capacitated viable spermatozoa; (3) higher number of viable spermatozoa with intact acrosome; (4) a reduction in ROS generation and (5) lower chromatin condensation. In a second study, the additions of reduced (GSH, 5mM) or oxidized glutathione (GSSG, 2.5mM) to the thawing media were evaluated. We confirmed the protective effect of GSH on the sperm functionality. The addition of GSSG to the thawing media was less protective to sperm functions compared to GSH. Addition of GSH to the thawing extender could be of significant benefit in improving the function and fertilizing capacity of frozen goat spermatozoa. The information derived from this study suggests the importance of oxidative stress as responsible for cryo-injury to spermatozoa and opens new windows to explore the practical application of antioxidants to improve the quality of post-thaw goat semen. PMID:23522068

Gadea, Joaquín; Gumbao, David; Gómez-Giménez, Belén; Gardón, Juan Carlos

2013-03-01

295

Essential Role of Estrogen for Improvements in Vascular Endothelial Function With Endurance Exercise in Postmenopausal Women  

PubMed Central

Objective: In contrast to age-matched men, endurance exercise training is not consistently associated with enhanced endothelial function in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women. We determined whether endurance exercise training improves endothelial function in postmenopausal women treated with estrogen. In a substudy, we determined if oxidative stress is mechanistically linked to endothelial function adaptations to endurance exercise training. Participants and Design: Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured in 36 sedentary, estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women (45–65 y) at study entry (baseline), after 12 weeks of either placebo, oral (1 mg/d) estradiol, or transdermal estradiol (0.05 mg/d) (randomized), and after an additional 12 weeks of continued estradiol or placebo treatment with concurrent endurance exercise training. In subgroups of women, FMD also was measured during the infusion of ascorbic acid at baseline and following estradiol/placebo plus endurance exercise training, and in seven habitually endurance-trained estrogen-deficient controls. Results: FMD increased in the estrogen-treated groups (both P < .01) after 12 weeks and remained unchanged in placebo. FMD further increased following 12 weeks of endurance exercise training in estrogen-treated (both P < .025), but not placebo-treated women (P = .55). In the substudy, baseline FMD was similar between sedentary and endurance-trained controls. Ascorbic acid increased FMD at baseline in sedentary women and endurance-trained controls, and following endurance exercise training in placebo-treated, but not in estrogen-treated women. Conclusions: Estrogen status appears to play an important modulatory role in improvements in endothelial function with endurance exercise training in postmenopausal women. The restored endurance exercise training adaptation in estrogen-treated postmenopausal women may be related to mitigation of oxidative stress. PMID:24092827

Stauffer, Brian L.; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Seals, Douglas R.

2013-01-01

296

Strategies for improving early detection of glaucoma: the combined structure-function index  

PubMed Central

The early detection of glaucoma is important in order to enable appropriate monitoring and treatment, and to minimize the risk of irreversible visual field loss. Although advances in ocular imaging offer the potential for earlier diagnosis, the best method is likely to involve a combination of information from structural and functional tests. Recent studies have shown it is possible to estimate the number of retinal ganglion cells from optical coherence tomography and standard automated perimetry, and to then pool the results to produce a combined structure–function index (CSFI). The CSFI represents the estimated percentage of retinal ganglion cells lost compared to an age-matched healthy eye. Previous studies have suggested that the CSFI is better able to detect glaucoma than isolated measures of structure and function, and that it performs well even in preperimetric glaucoma. The purpose of this review is to describe new strategies, such as the CSFI, that have the potential to improve the early detection of glaucoma. We also describe how our ability to detect early glaucoma may be further enhanced by incorporating demographic risk factors, clinical examination findings, and imaging and functional test results into intuitive models that provide estimates of disease probability. PMID:24707166

Tatham, Andrew J; Weinreb, Robert N; Medeiros, Felipe A

2014-01-01

297

Improving the predictive value of mammography using a specialized evolutionary programming hybrid and fitness functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mammography is an effective tool for the early detection of breast cancer; however, most women referred for biopsy based on mammographic findings do not, have cancer. This study is part of an ongoing effort to reduce the number of benign cases referred for biopsy by developing tools to aid physicians in classifying suspicious lesions. Specifically, this study examines the use of an Evolutionary Programming (EP)/Adaptive Boosting (AB) hybrid, specifically modified to focus on improving the performance of computer-assisted diagnostic (CAD) tools at high specificity levels (missing few or no cancers). An EP/AB hybrid developed by the authors and used in previous studies was modified with two new fitness functions: 1) a function which favored networks with the high PPV values at thresholds corresponding to high sensitivities and 2) a function which favored networks with the highest partial ROC Az (normalized area about 90% sensitivity). The modified hybrid with specialized fitness functions was evaluated using k-fold cross-validation against two real-word mammogram data sets. Results indicate that the number of benign cases referred for biopsy might be reduced by over a third, while missing no cancers. If sensitivity is allowed to decrease to 97% (missing 3% of the cancers), the number of spared biopsies could be raised to over half.

Land, Walker H., Jr.; McKee, Daniel W.; Lo, Joseph Y.; Anderson, Frances R.

2003-05-01

298

Improving protein function prediction using domain and protein complexes in PPI networks  

PubMed Central

Background Characterization of unknown proteins through computational approaches is one of the most challenging problems in silico biology, which has attracted world-wide interests and great efforts. There have been some computational methods proposed to address this problem, which are either based on homology mapping or in the context of protein interaction networks. Results In this paper, two algorithms are proposed by integrating the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, proteins’ domain information and protein complexes. The one is domain combination similarity (DCS), which combines the domain compositions of both proteins and their neighbors. The other is domain combination similarity in context of protein complexes (DSCP), which extends the protein functional similarity definition of DCS by combining the domain compositions of both proteins and the complexes including them. The new algorithms are tested on networks of the model species of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to predict functions of unknown proteins using cross validations. Comparing with other several existing algorithms, the results have demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed methods in protein function prediction. Furthermore, the algorithm DSCP using experimental determined complex data is robust when a large percentage of the proteins in the network is unknown, and it outperforms DCS and other several existing algorithms. Conclusions The accuracy of predicting protein function can be improved by integrating the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, proteins’ domain information and protein complexes. PMID:24655481

2014-01-01

299

Specific identification of Lachesis muta muta snake venom using antibodies against the plasminogen activator enzyme, LV-PA.  

PubMed

Sandwich-type enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed to detect Lachesis muta muta (bushmaster) snake venom using antibodies against the plasminogen activator enzyme (LV-PA). Antibodies to LV-PA were obtained by immunization of one rabbit with the purified enzyme. The IgG fraction was purified from rabbit blood in a single step on a column of Sepharose-L. m. muta venom and used to coat the microtiter plates. The specificity of the assay was demonstrated by its capacity to correctly discriminate between the circulating antigens in mice that were experimentally inoculated with L. m. muta venom from those in mice inoculated with venoms from Bothrops atrox, B. brazili, B. castelnaudi, Bothriopsis taeniata, B. bilineata, Crotalus durissus ruruima and the antigenic Bothrops (AgB) and Crotalus (AgC) pools venoms used to produce Bothropic and Crotalic antivenoms at Fundacao Ezequiel Dias (FUNED). Measurable absorbance signals were obtained with 1.5 ng of venom per assay. The ELISA was used to follow the kinetic distribution of antigens in experimentally envenomed mice. PMID:15804530

Felicori, Liza F; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Sánchez, Eladio F

2005-05-01

300

Coffee polyphenols improve peripheral endothelial function after glucose loading in healthy male adults.  

PubMed

Brewed coffee is a widely consumed beverage, and many studies have examined its effects on human health. We investigated the vascular effects of coffee polyphenols (CPPs), hypothesizing that a single ingestion of CPP during glucose loading would improve endothelial function. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized acute clinical intervention study with crossover design and measured reactive hyperemia index (RHI) to assess the acute effects of a 75-g glucose load with CPP in healthy, nondiabetic adult men. Blood glucose and insulin levels were elevated after glucose loading with and without CPP, with no significant differences between treatments. The RHI did not significantly decrease after glucose loading without CPP. With CPP, however, RHI significantly (P < .05) increased over baseline after glucose loading. The difference between treatments was statistically significant (P < .05). No significant changes were observed in an oxidative stress marker after glucose loading with or without CPP. These findings suggest that a single ingestion of CPP improves peripheral endothelial function after glucose loading in healthy subjects. PMID:24461317

Ochiai, Ryuji; Sugiura, Yoko; Shioya, Yasushi; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Hashiguchi, Teruto

2014-02-01

301

Soybean-Derived Phosphatidylserine Improves Memory Function of the Elderly Japanese Subjects with Memory Complaints  

PubMed Central

Soybean-derived phosphatidylserine (Soy-PS) is a phosphatidylserine made from soybean lecithin by enzymatic reaction with L-serine. A double-blind, randomized controlled study was conducted to investigate the effects of Soy-PS on the cognitive functions of the elderly Japanese subjects with memory complaints. Seventy-eight elderly people with mild cognitive impairment (50–69 years old) were randomly allocated to take Soy-PS (100 mg, 300 mg/day) or placebo for 6 months. As a result, there was no difference in blood markers and vital signs during Soy-PS treatment and any side effect caused by Soy-PS treatment was not observed. Neuropsychological test scores were similarly increased in all groups including placebo group. However, in the subjects with relatively low score at baseline, the memory scores in PS treated groups were significantly increased against the baseline, while those of placebo group remained unchanged. And the memory improvements in Soy-PS-treated groups were mostly attributed to the increase in delayed verbal recall, a memory ability attenuated in the earliest stage of dementia. In conclusion, Soy-PS used in this study is considered as safety food ingredient and 6 months of Soy-PS supplementation could improve the memory functions of the elderly with memory complaints. PMID:21103034

Kato-Kataoka, Akito; Sakai, Masashi; Ebina, Rika; Nonaka, Chiaki; Asano, Tsuguyoshi; Miyamori, Takashi

2010-01-01

302

Zero-field splittings from density functional calculations: analysis and improvement of known methods.  

PubMed

Several different approaches have been proposed to calculate the zero-field splitting tensor with density functional methods. In this work, our own derivation is presented in some detail, to allow a theoretical analysis and a comparison with other methods [M. R. Pederson and S. N. Khanna, Phys. Rev. B 60, 9566 (1999); F. Neese, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 10213 (2006); J. Chem. Phys. 127, 164112 (2007)]. Pederson's method can be improved by properly taking into account the quantum nature of spin when extracting the zero field splitting tensor from the magnetic anisotropy. A closed-shell molecule at large distance from an open shell complex will have a spurious contribution to the zero-field splitting tensor calculated with Neese's methods. We thus have analyzed his approach in some detail and found that it can be corrected if one properly transforms the equations used in wave function based theory to a sum-over-states type expression before one interprets it as an energy derivative. If improved along these lines, Neese's and Pederson's methods become identical down to the working equations. The theoretical analysis is illustrated by sample calculations on the well-studied Mn(III)-tris-acetylacetonato complex Mn(acac)(3), both as an isolated molecule and with a Pd(II) dichloro diammine complex at large distance as an innocent spectator. PMID:21599050

Schmitt, Sebastian; Jost, Patrick; van Wüllen, Christoph

2011-05-21

303

Zero-field splittings from density functional calculations: Analysis and improvement of known methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several different approaches have been proposed to calculate the zero-field splitting tensor with density functional methods. In this work, our own derivation is presented in some detail, to allow a theoretical analysis and a comparison with other methods [M. R. Pederson and S. N. Khanna, Phys. Rev. B 60, 9566 (1999), 10.1103/PhysRevB.60.9566; F. Neese, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128, 10213 (2006), 10.1021/ja061798a; J. Chem. Phys. 127, 164112 (2007), 10.1063/1.2772857]. Pederson's method can be improved by properly taking into account the quantum nature of spin when extracting the zero field splitting tensor from the magnetic anisotropy. A closed-shell molecule at large distance from an open shell complex will have a spurious contribution to the zero-field splitting tensor calculated with Neese's methods. We thus have analyzed his approach in some detail and found that it can be corrected if one properly transforms the equations used in wave function based theory to a sum-over-states type expression before one interprets it as an energy derivative. If improved along these lines, Neese's and Pederson's methods become identical down to the working equations. The theoretical analysis is illustrated by sample calculations on the well-studied Mn(III)-tris-acetylacetonato complex Mn(acac)3, both as an isolated molecule and with a Pd(II) dichloro diammine complex at large distance as an innocent spectator.

Schmitt, Sebastian; Jost, Patrick; van Wüllen, Christoph

2011-05-01

304

Improving osteoblast functions and bone formation upon BMP-2 immobilization on titanium modified with heparin.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to develop bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) immobilization on titanium (Ti) modified by heparin for improving osteoblast function in vitro and bone formation in vivo. The Ti surface was first modified with heparin and then immobilized with BMP-2 (BMP-2/Hep-Ti). The Ti and modified Ti were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle. In vitro studies demonstrated that osteoblasts cultured on BMP-2/Hep-Ti substrate increased ALP activity, calcium deposition, osteocalcin (OCN) and osteopontin (OPN) levels as compared to those cultured on Ti or BMP-2/Ti. In addition, intra-thread bone density and bone to implant contact ratio of BMP-2/Hep-Ti were significantly greater than those of Ti in the in vivo study. In conclusion, BMP-2 immobilized Ti modified heparin implants seemed to be a suitable delivery system for BMP-2 to improve osteoblast functions and new bone formation at the defect area around an implant. PMID:25263872

Kim, Sung Eun; Kim, Chang-Seop; Yun, Young-Pil; Yang, Dae Hyeok; Park, Kyeongsoon; Kim, Se Eun; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Huh, Jung-Bo

2014-12-19

305

Arm weight support training improves functional motor outcome and movement smoothness after stroke  

PubMed Central

Summary The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness in acute stroke patients of a rehabilitation program performed with or without an arm weight support device. Twenty-eight acute, first-ever unilateral stroke patients were enrolled in a single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Clinical evaluation included Fugl-Mayer Assessment, Functional Independence Measure and kinematic analysis [maximum and mean hand velocity, maximum range of motion (Max RoM), normalized jerk (NJ)]. Patients received 12 daily 30-minute sessions (6/week) of additional upper limb therapy performed using an arm weight support device (study group) or additional traditional physiotherapy (control group). The patients were evaluated on admission and at the end of the rehabilitation intervention. The two groups were clinically comparable on admission (p>0.05). Both groups showed significant improvements in clinical scale scores and in Max RoM in flexion-extension, while only the study group showed improvements in NJ and in Max RoM in adduction-abduction. Rehabilitation training using an arm weight support device appears to be a useful method to supplement conventional therapy in acute stroke patients, increasing smoothness of movement and motor function. PMID:25014045

Bartolo, Michelangelo; De Nunzio, Alessandro Marco; Sebastiano, Fabio; Spicciato, Francesca; Tortola, Paolo; Nilsson, Jan; Pierelli, Francesco

2014-01-01

306

Influence of heart rate on stroke volume variability in atrial fibrillation in patients with normal and impaired left ventricular function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both resting tachycardia and irregular ventricular rhythm may contribute to impaired cardiac performance in atrial fibrillation (AF). This study assesses the relation between resting heart rate and beat-to-beat changes in left ventricular (LV) ejection and filling in patients with normal and impaired LV systolic function. Beat-to-beat variation in LV outflow and inflow velocity-time integral was measured using pulsed Doppler ultrasound

Andrew J Kerr; Mark B Simmonds; Ralph A. H Stewart

1998-01-01

307

Cancer type does not affect exercise-mediated improvements in cardiorespiratory function and fatigue.  

PubMed

Purpose. Despite mounting evidence indicating that exercise training has a positive effect on cancer recovery, the influence of cancer type on the response to exercise training remains uncharacterized. Therefore, the adaptations to exercise training were compared between groups composed of 7 different forms of cancer. Methods. A total of 319 cancer survivors completed fatigue inventories and participated in assessments of cardiorespiratory function, which encompassed aerobic capacity (VO2peak), pulmonary function (forced vital capacity [FVC] and forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]), and resting blood pressure and heart rate. Participants were divided into 7 groups based on cancer type, including breast cancer (BC, n = 170), prostate cancer and other male urogenital neoplasia (PC, n = 38), hematological malignancies (HM, n = 34), colorectal cancer (CC, n = 25), gynecological cancers (GC, n = 20), glandular and epithelial neoplasms (GEN, n = 20), and lung cancer (LC, n = 12). All participants completed an individualized, multimodal exercise intervention consisting of cardiorespiratory, flexibility, balance, and muscular strength training 3 days per week for 3 months. Following the intervention, all subjects were reassessed. Generalized Estimating Equations with exchangeable working correlation structure was used to model each response; the group by time interaction effect represented the effect of cancer type on exercise-associated improvements. Results. No significant (P > .05) group by time interaction effects were observed between different types of cancer for any parameter. Pre- to postexercise contrasts revealed significant improvements in VO2peak in BC, PC, HM, and GEN at the Bonferroni adjusted significance level (.00714). Heart rate was significantly lowered in the BC and CC groups. Mean fatigue indices decreased by at least 17% in all groups, but these changes were only significant in the BC, HM, CC, and GC groups. Systolic blood pressure decreased significantly in BC and GC, and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly only in the BC group while pulmonary function remained unchanged in all cancer types. Conclusion. Although trends toward improved cardiorespiratory and fatigue parameters only reached significance in some groups, there were no significant differences between cancer types. This suggests that cardiorespiratory and fatigue improvements following rehabilitative exercise are not dependent on cancer type. Further research investigating alternative physiological parameters are needed to confirm the relationship between cancer type and exercise-mediated rehabilitation. PMID:25148839

Repka, Chris P; Peterson, Brent M; Brown, Jessica M; Lalonde, Trent L; Schneider, Carole M; Hayward, Reid

2014-11-01

308

Posttraumatic reduction of edema with aquaporin-4 RNA interference improves acute and chronic functional recovery  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common in young children and adolescents and is associated with long-term disability and mortality. The neuropathologic sequelae that result from juvenile TBI are a complex cascade of events that include edema formation and brain swelling. Brain aquaporin-4 (AQP4) has a key role in edema formation. Thus, development of novel treatments targeting AQP4 to reduce edema could lessen the neuropathologic sequelae. We hypothesized that inhibiting AQP4 expression by injection of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting AQP4 (siAQP4) after juvenile TBI would decrease edema formation, neuroinflammation, neuronal cell death, and improve neurologic outcomes. The siAQP4 or a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)-free control siRNA (siGLO) was injected lateral to the trauma site after controlled cortical impact in postnatal day 17 rats. Magnetic resonance imaging, neurologic testing, and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess outcomes. Pups treated with siAQP4 showed acute (3 days after injury) improvements in motor function and in spatial memory at long term (60 days after injury) compared with siGLO-treated animals. These improvements were associated with decreased edema formation, increased microglial activation, decreased blood–brain barrier disruption, reduced astrogliosis and neuronal cell death. The effectiveness of our treatment paradigm was associated with a 30% decrease in AQP4 expression at the injection site. PMID:23899928

Fukuda, Andrew M; Adami, Arash; Pop, Viorela; Bellone, John A; Coats, Jacqueline S; Hartman, Richard E; Ashwal, Stephen; Obenaus, Andre; Badaut, Jerome

2013-01-01

309

Immediate and delayed nerve repair: improved muscle mass and function with leukemia inhibitory factor.  

PubMed

In this study we examined the effect of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) on delayed repair of injured nerves. In a standard entubulation gap repair model of sciatic nerve in the rat, repair was performed immediately and after delays of 1 day, 1 week, and 4 weeks. Repaired nerves were treated with either LIF (10 ng) or saline, and assessment was by muscle mass and force contraction at 12 weeks after repair. After immediate nerve repair LIF administration resulted in 2.5- to 3-fold improvements compared with saline. In the 1-day delayed group, both saline and LIF treatment groups were comparable with that achieved with immediate repair combined with LIF. This result is consistent with the concept of preconditioning. In the 1-week delayed repair groups with LIF, muscle mass recovery and maximum force contraction were improved by 32% and 55%, respectively, compared with saline, whereas repairs delayed for 4 weeks showed increases of 50% and 36%. All delayed repairs treated with LIF were more effective than immediate repair with saline, but not as effective as primary repair with LIF. Our findings support the view that factors such as LIF may be efficacious for improving recovery of function in cases of delayed peripheral nerve repair. PMID:12457356

Brown, David L; Bennett, Timothy M; Dowsing, Bruce J; Hayes, Alan; Abate, Massimo; Morrison, Wayne A

2002-11-01

310

Posttraumatic reduction of edema with aquaporin-4 RNA interference improves acute and chronic functional recovery.  

PubMed

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common in young children and adolescents and is associated with long-term disability and mortality. The neuropathologic sequelae that result from juvenile TBI are a complex cascade of events that include edema formation and brain swelling. Brain aquaporin-4 (AQP4) has a key role in edema formation. Thus, development of novel treatments targeting AQP4 to reduce edema could lessen the neuropathologic sequelae. We hypothesized that inhibiting AQP4 expression by injection of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting AQP4 (siAQP4) after juvenile TBI would decrease edema formation, neuroinflammation, neuronal cell death, and improve neurologic outcomes. The siAQP4 or a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)-free control siRNA (siGLO) was injected lateral to the trauma site after controlled cortical impact in postnatal day 17 rats. Magnetic resonance imaging, neurologic testing, and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess outcomes. Pups treated with siAQP4 showed acute (3 days after injury) improvements in motor function and in spatial memory at long term (60 days after injury) compared with siGLO-treated animals. These improvements were associated with decreased edema formation, increased microglial activation, decreased blood-brain barrier disruption, reduced astrogliosis and neuronal cell death. The effectiveness of our treatment paradigm was associated with a 30% decrease in AQP4 expression at the injection site. PMID:23899928

Fukuda, Andrew M; Adami, Arash; Pop, Viorela; Bellone, John A; Coats, Jacqueline S; Hartman, Richard E; Ashwal, Stephen; Obenaus, Andre; Badaut, Jerome

2013-10-01

311

Stimulation of trigeminal afferents improves motor recovery after facial nerve injury: functional, electrophysiological and morphological proofs.  

PubMed

Recovery of mimic function after facial nerve transection is poor: the successful regrowth of axotomized motoneurons to their targets is compromised by (1) poor axonal navigation and excessive collateral branching, (2) abnormal exchange of nerve impulses between adjacent regrowing axons, and (3) insufficient synaptic input to facial motoneurons. As a result, axotomized motoneurons get hyperexcitable and unable to discharge. Since improvement of growth cone navigation and reduction of the ephaptic cross talk between axons turn out be very difficult, we concentrated our efforts on the third detrimental component and proposed that an intensification of the trigeminal input to axotomized electrophysiologically silent facial motoneurons might improve specificity of reinnervation. To test our hypothesis we compared behavioral, electrophysiological, and morphological parameters after single reconstructive surgery on the facial nerve (or its buccal branch) with those obtained after identical facial nerve surgery but combined with direct or indirect stimulation of the ipsilateral infraorbital (ION) nerve. We found that in all cases, trigeminal stimulation was beneficial for the outcome by improving the quality of target reinnervation and recovery of vibrissa! motor performance. PMID:23322155

Skouras, Emmanouil; Pavlov, Stoyan; Bendella, Habib; Angelov, Doychin N

2013-01-01

312

Dexamethasone and recombinant human activated protein C improve myocardial function and efficiency during experimental septic shock.  

PubMed

Corticosteroids have been shown to reduce short-term mortality during septic shock and therefore recommended in the most severe patients as adjuvant therapy. Until recently, recombinant human activated protein C (APC) was also considered in the management of more severe cases. As myocardial depression has long been recognized as a manifestation of organ dysfunction during septic shock, we examined whether corticosteroids (dexamethasone, 150 µg/kg per hour) and/or APC (33 µg/kg per hour) treatments improve sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction during cecal ligature and puncture-induced septic shock in Wistar rats. All rats received intravenous saline resuscitation (10 mL/kg per hour) and antibiotics. Eighteen hours after surgery, anesthesia was performed (isoflurane), and myocardial function was assessed using a conductance catheter introduced into the left ventricle. Rats were then killed; blood and heart were harvested for biological analysis, including radical oxygen species determination. Cecal ligature and puncture induced hypotension, depression of myocardial systolic performance (demonstrated by significant decreases in dP/dtmax [first derivative of maximal developed pressure during isovolumetric contraction], end-systolic pressure-volume relationship, and preload recruitable stroke work) and alteration of diastolic function (dP/dtmin [first derivative of minimal developed pressure during isovolumetric relaxation]), whereas dexamethasone, APC, and their combination thereof allowed correction of hemodynamic disorders and improved myocardial mechanical efficiency. Cecal ligature and puncture was associated with higher levels of nitric oxide and superoxide anion (O2) in heart (electron paramagnetic resonance studies) and consequently peroxynitrite. Dexamethasone and APC also improved cardiac dysfunction by downregulating the inducible nitric oxide synthase pathway and reducing myocardial oxidative stress. PMID:24837202

Lemarie, Jeremie; Blet, Alice; Bouazza, Youcef; Boisrame-Helms, Julie; Meziani, Ferhat; Levy, Bruno

2014-06-01

313

CCR2 Deficiency Impairs Macrophage Infiltration and Improves Cognitive Function after Traumatic Brain Injury.  

PubMed

Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) provokes inflammatory responses, including a dramatic rise in brain macrophages in the area of injury. The pathway(s) responsible for macrophage infiltration of the traumatically injured brain and the effects of macrophages on functional outcomes are not well understood. C-C-chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) is known for directing monocytes to inflamed tissues. To assess the role of macrophages and CCR2 in TBI, we determined outcomes in CCR2-deficient (Ccr2(-/-)) mice in a controlled cortical impact model. We quantified brain myeloid cell numbers post-TBI by flow cytometry and found that Ccr2(-/-) mice had greatly reduced macrophage numbers (?80-90% reduction) early post-TBI, compared with wild-type mice. Motor, locomotor, and cognitive outcomes were assessed. Lack of Ccr2 improved locomotor activity with less hyperactivity in open field testing, but did not affect anxiety levels or motor coordination on the rotarod three weeks after TBI. Importantly, Ccr2(-/-) mice demonstrated greater spatial learning and memory, compared with wild-type mice eight weeks after TBI. Although there was no difference in the volume of tissue loss, Ccr2(-/-) mice had significantly increased neuronal density in the CA1-CA3 regions of the hippocampus after TBI, compared with wild-type mice. These data demonstrate that Ccr2 directs the majority of macrophage homing to the brain early after TBI and indicates that Ccr2 may facilitate harmful responses. Lack of Ccr2 improves functional recovery and neuronal survival. These results suggest that therapeutic blockade of CCR2-dependent responses may improve outcomes following TBI. PMID:24806994

Hsieh, Christine L; Niemi, Erene C; Wang, Sarah H; Lee, Chih Cheng; Bingham, Deborah; Zhang, Jiasheng; Cozen, Myrna L; Charo, Israel; Huang, Eric J; Liu, Jialing; Nakamura, Mary C

2014-10-15

314

Functional Improvement of Regulatory T Cells from Rheumatoid Arthritis Subjects Induced by Capsular Polysaccharide Glucuronoxylomannogalactan  

PubMed Central

Objective Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a critical role in the prevention of autoimmunity, and the suppressive activity of these cells is impaired in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the present study was to investigate function and properties of Treg of RA patients in response to purified polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannogalactan (GXMGal). Methods Flow cytometry and western blot analysis were used to investigate the frequency, function and properties of Treg cells. Results GXMGal was able to: i) induce strong increase of FOXP3 on CD4+ T cells without affecting the number of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Treg cells with parallel increase in the percentage of non-conventional CD4+CD25?FOXP3+ Treg cells; ii) increase intracellular levels of TGF-?1 in CD4+CD25?FOXP3+ Treg cells and of IL-10 in both CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ and CD4+CD25?FOXP3+ Treg cells; iii) enhance the suppressive activity of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ and CD4+CD25?FOXP3+ Treg cells in terms of inhibition of effector T cell activity and increased secretion of IL-10; iv) decrease Th1 response as demonstrated by inhibition of T-bet activation and down-regulation of IFN-? and IL-12p70 production; v) decrease Th17 differentiation by down-regulating pSTAT3 activation and IL-17A, IL-23, IL-21, IL-22 and IL-6 production. Conclusion These data show that GXMGal improves Treg functions and increases the number and function of CD4+CD25?FOXP3+ Treg cells of RA patients. It is suggested that GXMGal may be potentially useful for restoring impaired Treg functions in autoimmune disorders and for developing Treg cell-based strategies for the treatment of these diseases. PMID:25338013

Alunno, Alessia; Bartoloni Bocci, Elena; Perito, Stefano; Chow, Siu-Kei; Cenci, Elio; Casadevall, Arturo; Gerli, Roberto; Vecchiarelli, Anna

2014-01-01

315

Method of Improving a Digital Image as a Function of its Dynamic Range  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention is a method of processing a digital image that is initially represented by digital data indexed to represent position on a display. The digital data is indicative of an intensity value I(sub i)(x,y) for each position (x,y) in each i-th spectral band. A classification of the image based on its dynamic range is then defined in each of the image's S spectral bands. The intensity value for each position in each i-th spectral band is adjusted to generate an adjusted intensity value for each position in each i-th spectral band in accordance with SIGMA (sup n)(sub n=1) W(sub n)(log I (sub i)(x,y) - log[I(sub i)(x,y)*F(sub n)(x,y)]), i=1,...,S where W(sub n) is a weighting factor, "*" is the convolution operator and S is the total number of unique spectral bands. For each n, the function F(sub n)(x,y) is a unique surround function applied to each position (x,y) and N is the total number of unique surround functions. Each unique surround function is scaled to improve some aspect of the digital image, e.g., dynamic range compression, color constancy, and lightness rendition. The adjusted intensity value to each position in each i-th spectral band of the image is then filtered with a filter function that is based on the dynamic range classification of the image.

Woodell, Glenn (Inventor); Jobson, Daniel J. (Inventor); Rahman, Zia-ur (Inventor)

2004-01-01

316

Injectable Biodegradable Hydrogels for Embryonic Stem Cell Transplantation: Improved Cardiac Remodeling and Function of Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

In this study, an injectable, biodegradable hydrogel composite of oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF) was investigated as a carrier of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). 10K OPF hydrogels were used to encapsulate mESCs. The cell differentiation in vitro over 14 days was determined via immunohistochemical examination. Then, mESCs encapsulated in OPF hydrogels were injected into the left ventricular wall of a rat myocardial infarction model. Detailed histological analysis and echocardiography were used to determine the structural and functional consequences after 4 weeks of transplantation. With ascorbic acid induction, mESCs could differentiate into cardiomyocytes and other cell types in all three lineages in the OPF hydrogel. After transplantation, both the 24h-cell retention and 4-week graft size were significantly greater in the OPF + ESC group than that of the PBS + ESC group (p<0.01). Four weeks after transplantation, OPF hydrogel alone significantly reduced the infarct size and collagen deposition and improved the cardiac function. The heart function and revascularization improved significantly, while the infarct size and fibrotic area decreased significantly in the OPF + ESC group compared with that of the PBS +ESC group, OPF group and PBS group (p<0.01). All treatments had significantly reduced MMP2 and MMP9 protein levels compared to the PBS control group, and the OPF + ESC group decreased most by Western blotting. Transplanted mESCs expressed cardiovascular markers. This study suggest the potential of a method for heart regeneration involving oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) hydrogels for stem cell encapsulation and transplantation. PMID:21838774

Wang, Haibin; Liu, Zhiqiang; Li, Dexue; Guo, Xuan; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Duan, Cuimi; Zhou, Jin; Mikos, Antonios G.; Wang, Changyong

2011-01-01

317

Impaired left ventricular function in the presence of preserved ejection in chronic hypertensive conscious pigs  

PubMed Central

Systolic function is often evaluated by measuring ejection fraction and its preservation is often assimilated with the lack of impairment of systolic left ventricular (LV) function. Considering the left ventricle as a muscular pump, we explored LV function during chronic hypertension independently from increased afterload conditions. Fourteen conscious and chronically instrumented pigs received continuous infusion of either angiotensin II (n=8) or saline (n=6) during 28 days. Hemodynamic recordings were regularly performed in the presence and 1h after stopping angiotensin II infusion to evaluate intrinsic LV function. Throughout the protocol, mean arterial pressure steadily increased by 55±4 mmHg in angiotensin II-treated animals. There were no significant changes in stroke volume, LV fractional shortening or LV wall thickening, indicating the lack of alterations in LV ejection. In contrast, we observed maladaptive changes with 1) the lack of reduction in isovolumic contraction and relaxation durations with heart rate increases, 2) abnormally blunted isovolumic contraction and relaxation responses to dobutamine and 3) a linear correlation between isovolumic contraction and relaxation durations. None of these changes were observed in saline-infused animals. In conclusion, we provide evidence of impaired LV function with concomitant isovolumic contraction and relaxation abnormalities during chronic hypertension while ejection remains preserved and no sign of heart failure is present. The evaluation under unloaded conditions shows intrinsic LV abnormalities. PMID:22961595

Rienzo, Mario; Bize, Alain; Pongas, Dionyssis; Michineau, Stephanie; Melka, Jonathan; Chan, Hon Lai; Sambin, Lucien; Su, Jin Bo; Dubois-Rande, Jean-Luc; Hittinger, Luc; Berdeaux, Alain; Ghaleh, Bijan

2012-01-01

318

Assessment of left ventricular twist mechanics by speckle tracking echocardiography reveals association between LV twist and myocardial fibrosis in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

We aimed to investigate whether left ventricular (LV) twist analysis can detect the extent of myocardial fibrosis in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). This prospective case-control study recruited 81 consecutive patients with HCM examined between January 2012 and April 2013. Data of 76 patients were analyzed after excluding 5 patients whose echocardiographic images were of poor quality. Healthy volunteers (n = 46) served as controls. Both groups underwent comprehensive echocardiographic examination (i.e., Bas-Rotation, AP-Rotation, LVEF, LADs, IVST, LAVi, E/Em, LVMI, advanced LV-twist analysis by speckle tracking echocardiography) and magnetic resonance imaging. Between-group differences were analyzed by independent t test; logistic regression analysis was performed to identify effect factors. No significant differences were found between baseline characteristics of HCM and control groups (all p > 0.05). HCM patients had significantly higher Bas-Rotation, AP-Rotation, LV Twist, LVEF, LADs, IVST, LAVi, E/Em and LVMI than controls (all p < 0.0001) and significantly lower LVDd and E/A (both p < 0.001). Bas-Rotation, AP-Rotation, LV-Twist, LADs, IVST, LAVi, E/Em and LVMI were significantly higher in HCM patients with fibrosis than in those without fibrosis (p < 0.001), but no significant differences in other echocardiographic parameters were found between those with and without fibrosis. Age, Bas-Rotation, AP-Rotation, LV twist, LADs, IVST, LAVi, E/A, E/Em, and LVMI were significant effect factors for fibrosis. AUROC analysis showed that LV twist had high discriminatory power to detect extent of myocardial fibrosis (AUC 0.996, 95 % CI 0.989-1.004, p < 0.001). Left ventricular twist mechanics are associated with the extent of myocardial fibrosis. LV-twist assessment by STE may be clinically useful. PMID:25106760

Zhang, Hong-Ju; Wang, Hao; Sun, Tao; Lu, Min-Jie; Xu, Nan; Wu, Wei-Chun; Sun, Xin; Wang, Wu-Gang; Lin, Qiong-Wen

2014-12-01

319

Immunopathology of B-cell lymphomas induced in C57BL/6 mice by dualtropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV).  

PubMed Central

Combined clinicopathologic and immunomorphologic evidence is presented that would indicate that a murine leukemia virus (MuLV) with the dualtropic host range is capable of producing a clinically malignant lesion composed of immunoblasts and associated plasma cells in C57BL/6 mice. This process, morphologically diagnosed as an immunoblastic lymphoma of B cells using standard histopathologic criteria, was found to be distinctly polyclonal with regard to immunoglobulin (Ig) isotype when analyzed for both surface and cytoplasmic Ig. Further studies demonstrated that this clinicopathologically malignant, dualtropic MuLV-induced, polyclonal immunoblastic lymphoma of B cells in C57BL/6 mice was normal diploid and unable to be successfully transplanted to nonimmunosuppressed syngeneic recipients. Although all serum heavy and light chain components were found to be progressively elevated as the tumor load increased, the polyclonal increase in serum immunoglobulins was most pronounced for mu heavy and kappa light chains (ie, mu greater than gamma 2A greater than alpha greater than gamma 2B greater than gamma 1; kappa greater than lamba). The dissociation of clinicopathologic and biologic criteria for malignancy in the presently described dualtropic (RadLV) MuLV-induced B-cell lesion is sharply contrasted with the thymotropic (RadLV), MuLV-induced T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma in C57BL/6 mice. This process is also a clinicopathologically malignant lesion but, when one uses biologic criteria, is found to be distinctly monoclonal, aneuploid, and easily transplanted to nonimmunosuppressed syngeneic recipients. The close clinicopathologic and biologic similarities of the dualtropic MuLV-induced animal model to corresponding human B-cell lymphoproliferative diseases are stressed. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:6282131

Pattengale, P. K.; Taylor, C. R.; Twomey, P.; Hill, S.; Jonasson, J.; Beardsley, T.; Haas, M.

1982-01-01

320

Can Prevention Classification be Improved by Considering the Function of Prevention?  

PubMed

Universal, selective and indicated forms of prevention have been adopted as improvements on previous notions of primary and secondary prevention. However, some conceptual confusion remains concerning the placing of environmental, community-based or mass media preventive interventions within this typology. It is suggested that a new dimension of functional types of prevention, namely environmental, developmental and informational prevention should be specified alongside the forms of prevention in a taxonomy matrix. The main advantage of this new taxonomy is that a matrix combining the form and function dimensions of prevention can be used to identify and map out prevention strategies, to consider where research evidence is present and where more is needed, and to evaluate the relative effectiveness of different categories and components of prevention for specific health and social issues. Such evaluations would provide empirical evidence as to whether the different categories of prevention are related to outcomes or processes of prevention in ways that suggest the value of the taxonomy for understanding and increasing the impact of prevention science. This new prevention taxonomy has been useful for conceptualising and planning prevention activities in a case study involving the Swedish National Institute for Public Health. Future work should assess (1) the robustness of this new taxonomy and (2) the theoretical and empirical basis for profiling prevention investments across the various forms and functions of prevention. PMID:24052320

Foxcroft, David R

2014-12-01

321

Rifaximin improves systemic hemodynamics and renal function in patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis and ascites.  

PubMed

Circulating levels of endotoxin, interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? increase with intestinal bacterial overgrowth and translocation, and are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of hyperdynamic circulatory syndrome and functional renal failure in patients with advanced cirrhosis. We investigated the effects of the antibiotic rifaximin on systemic hemodynamics and renal function in patients with alcohol-related cirrhosis and ascites. We measured mean arterial pressure, cardiac output (CO) by Doppler ultrasound, systemic vascular resistance (as the ratio of mean arterial pressure:CO), plasma renin activity, levels of plasma aldosterone, the glomerular filtration rate by plasma clearance of technetium-99m-DTPA, natriuresis, levels of plasma endotoxin, and serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-? in 13 patients at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment with rifaximin. Rifaximin treatment significantly reduced CO and significantly increased systemic vascular resistance, in association with a significant decrease in plasma rennin activity. The therapy also significantly increased the glomerular filtration rate and natriuresis while reducing levels of endotoxin, IL-6, and TNF-?. Intestinal decontamination with rifaximin improved systemic hemodynamics and renal function in patients with advanced cirrhosis. PMID:22391344

Kalambokis, Georgios N; Mouzaki, Athanasia; Rodi, Maria; Pappas, Konstantinos; Fotopoulos, Andreas; Xourgia, Xanthi; Tsianos, Epameinondas V

2012-07-01

322

Curcumin ingestion and exercise training improve vascular endothelial function in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

Vascular endothelial function is declines with aging and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Lifestyle modification, particularly aerobic exercise and dietary adjustment, has a favorable effect on vascular aging. Curcumin is a major component of turmeric with known anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. We investigated the effects of curcumin ingestion and aerobic exercise training on flow-mediated dilation as an indicator endothelial function in postmenopausal women. A total of 32 postmenopausal women were assigned to 3 groups: control, exercise, and curcumin groups. The curcumin group ingested curcumin orally for 8 weeks. The exercise group underwent moderate aerobic exercise training for 8 weeks. Before and after each intervention, flow-mediated dilation was measured. No difference in baseline flow-mediated dilation or other key dependent variables were detected among the groups. Flow-mediated dilation increased significantly and equally in the curcumin and exercise groups, whereas no changes were observed in the control group. Our results indicated that curcumin ingestion and aerobic exercise training can increase flow-mediated dilation in postmenopausal women, suggesting that both can potentially improve the age-related decline in endothelial function. PMID:23146777

Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Choi, Youngju; Miyaki, Asako; Tanabe, Yoko; Sugawara, Jun; Ajisaka, Ryuichi; Maeda, Seiji

2012-10-01

323

Electronic structures and optical properties of TiO2: Improved density-functional-theory investigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

TiO2 has been recently used to realize high-temperature ferromagnetic semiconductors. In fact, it has been widely used for a long time as white pigment and sunscreen because of its whiteness, high refractive index, and excellent optical properties. However, its electronic structures and the related properties have not been satisfactorily understood. Here, we use Tran and Blaha's modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) exchange potential (plus a local density approximation correlation potential) within the density functional theory to investigate electronic structures and optical properties of rutile and anatase TiO2. Our comparative calculations show that the energy gaps obtained from mBJ method agree better with the experimental results than that obtained from local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA), in contrast with substantially overestimated values from many-body perturbation (GW) calculations. As for optical dielectric functions (both real and imaginary parts), refractive index, and extinction coefficients as functions of photon energy, our mBJ calculated results are in excellent agreement with the experimental curves. Our further analysis reveals that these excellent improvements are achieved because mBJ potential describes accurately the energy levels of Ti 3d states. These results should be helpful to understand the high temperature ferromagnetism in doped TiO2. This approach can be used as a standard to understand electronic structures and the related properties of such materials as TiO2.

Gong, Sai; Liu, Bang-Gui

2012-05-01

324

Improved response function calculations for scintillation detectors using an extended version of the MCNP code  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of (e,e'n) experiments at the Darmstadt superconducting electron linear accelerator S-DALINAC required the calculation of neutron response functions for the NE213 liquid scintillation detectors used. In an open geometry, these response functions can be obtained using the Monte Carlo codes NRESP7 and NEFF7. However, for more complex geometries, an extended version of the Monte Carlo code MCNP exists. This extended version of the MCNP code was improved upon by adding individual light-output functions for charged particles. In addition, more than one volume can be defined as a scintillator, thus allowing the simultaneous calculation of the response for multiple detector setups. With the implementation of 12C(n,n'3?) reactions, all relevant reactions for neutron energies En<20 MeV are now taken into consideration. The results of these calculations were compared to experimental data using monoenergetic neutrons in an open geometry and a 252Cf neutron source in the complex Darmstadt setup, where in both cases excellent agreement was found.

Schweda, K.; Schmidt, D.

2002-01-01

325

Chronic Intermittent Fasting Improves Cognitive Functions and Brain Structures in Mice  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a major health issue. Obesity started from teenagers has become a major health concern in recent years. Intermittent fasting increases the life span. However, it is not known whether obesity and intermittent fasting affect brain functions and structures before brain aging. Here, we subjected 7-week old CD-1 wild type male mice to intermittent (alternate-day) fasting or high fat diet (45% caloric supplied by fat) for 11 months. Mice on intermittent fasting had better learning and memory assessed by the Barnes maze and fear conditioning, thicker CA1 pyramidal cell layer, higher expression of drebrin, a dendritic protein, and lower oxidative stress than mice that had free access to regular diet (control mice). Mice fed with high fat diet was obese and with hyperlipidemia. They also had poorer exercise tolerance. However, these obese mice did not present significant learning and memory impairment or changes in brain structures or oxidative stress compared with control mice. These results suggest that intermittent fasting improves brain functions and structures and that high fat diet feeding started early in life does not cause significant changes in brain functions and structures in obese middle-aged animals. PMID:23755298

Li, Liaoliao; Wang, Zhi; Zuo, Zhiyi

2013-01-01

326

KCF-S: KEGG Chemical Function and Substructure for improved interpretability and prediction in chemical bioinformatics  

PubMed Central

Background In order to develop hypothesis on unknown metabolic pathways, biochemists frequently rely on literature that uses a free-text format to describe functional groups or substructures. In computational chemistry or cheminformatics, molecules are typically represented by chemical descriptors, i.e., vectors that summarize information on its various properties. However, it is difficult to interpret these chemical descriptors since they are not directly linked to the terminology of functional groups or substructures that the biochemists use. Methods In this study, we used KEGG Chemical Function (KCF) format to computationally describe biochemical substructures in seven attributes that resemble biochemists' way of dealing with substructures. Results We established KCF-S (KCF-and-Substructures) format as an additional structural information of KCF. Applying KCF-S revealed the specific appearance of substructures from various datasets of molecules that describes the characteristics of the respective datasets. Structure-based clustering of molecules using KCF-S resulted the clusters in which molecular weights and structures were less diverse than those obtained by conventional chemical fingerprints. We further applied KCF-S to find the pairs of molecules that are possibly converted to each other in enzymatic reactions, and KCF-S clearly improved predictive performance than that presented previously. Conclusions KCF-S defines biochemical substructures with keeping interpretability, suggesting the potential to apply more studies on chemical bioinformatics. KCF and KCF-S can be automatically converted from Molfile format, enabling to deal with molecules from any data sources. PMID:24564846

2013-01-01

327

Functionalized carbon nanotubes as a filler for dielectric elastomer composites with improved actuation performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the broad class of electro-active polymers, dielectric elastomer actuators represent a rapidly growing technology for electromechanical transduction. In order to further develop this applied science, the high driving voltages currently needed must be reduced. For this purpose, one of the most widely considered approaches is based on making elastomeric composites with highly polarizable fillers in order to increase the dielectric constant while maintaining both low dielectric losses and high-mechanical compliance. In this work, multi-wall carbon nanotubes were first functionalized by grafting either acrylonitrile or diurethane monoacrylate oligomers, and then dispersed into a polyurethane matrix to make dielectric elastomer composites. The procedures for the chemical functionalization of carbon nanotubes and proper characterizations of the obtained products are provided in detail. The consequences of the use of chemically modified carbon nanotubes as a filler, in comparison to using unmodified ones, were studied in terms of dielectric, mechanical and electromechanical response. In particular, an increment of the dielectric constant was observed for all composites throughout the investigated frequency spectrum, but only in the cases of modified carbon nanotubes did the loss factor remain almost unchanged with respect to the simple matrix, indicating that conductive percolation paths did not arise in such systems. An effective improvement in the actuation strain was observed for samples loaded with functionalized carbon nanotubes.

Galantini, Fabia; Bianchi, Sabrina; Castelvetro, Valter; Gallone, Giuseppe

2013-05-01

328

Improving adsorption and activation of the lipase immobilized in amino-functionalized ordered mesoporous SBA-15  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ordered mesoporous SBA-15 was prepared by hydrothermal process and was functionalized with(3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) by post-synthesis-grafting method. The materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS), small-angle X-ray powder diffraction (SAXRD), N 2 adsorption-desorption and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicated that SBA-15 had a 2-dimensional hexagonal p6 mm mesoscopic structure and the mesoscopic structure was remained after the functionalization procedure. The activities of porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) immobilized in SBA-15 by physical adsorption and in APTES functionalized SBA-15 by chemical adsorption were studied by hydrolysis of triacetin. Chemically adsorbed PPL showed higher loading amount and catalytic activity comparing with physically adsorbed PPL. The stability of immobilized PPL against thermal and pH of reaction medium was significantly improved. Recycling experiments showed that chemically adsorbed PPL exhibited better reusability than physically adsorbed PPL.

Xu, Yun-qiang; Zhou, Guo-wei; Wu, Cui-cui; Li, Tian-duo; Song, Hong-bin

2011-05-01

329

An Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy TOPSIS Method Based on an Improved Score Function  

PubMed Central

This paper proposes an improved score function for the effective ranking order of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IVIFSs) and an interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy TOPSIS method based on the score function to solve multicriteria decision-making problems in which all the preference information provided by decision-makers is expressed as interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy decision matrices where each of the elements is characterized by IVIFS value and the information about criterion weights is known. We apply the proposed score function to calculate the separation measures of each alternative from the positive and negative ideal solutions to determine the relative closeness coefficients. According to the values of the closeness coefficients, the alternatives can be ranked and the most desirable one(s) can be selected in the decision-making process. Finally, two illustrative examples for multicriteria fuzzy decision-making problems of alternatives are used as a demonstration of the applications and the effectiveness of the proposed decision-making method. PMID:24459449

2013-01-01

330

Improvements in Immune Function and Activation with 48-Week Darunavir/Ritonavir-Based Therapy: GRACE Substudy.  

PubMed

Objective. During the course of HIV infection, progressive immune deficiency occurs. The aim of this prospective substudy was to evaluate the recovery of functional immunity in a subset of patients from the GRACE (Gender, Race, And Clinical Experience) study treated with a DRV/r-based regimen. Methods. The recovery of functional immunity with a darunavir/ritonavir-based regimen was assessed in a subset of treatment-experienced, HIV-1 infected patients from the GRACE study. Results. 19/32 patients (59%) enrolled in the substudy were virologically suppressed (<50 copies/mL). In these patients, median (range) CD4+ cell count increased from 222 (2, 398) cells/mm(3) at baseline to 398 (119, 812) cells/mm(3) at Week 48. CD8+% decreased significantly from baseline to Week 48 (P = .03). Proliferation of CD4+ lymphocytes in response to CD3+/CD28+, phytohemagglutinin, and pokeweed was significantly increased (P < .01) by Week 12. Proliferation in response to Candida and tetanus was significantly increased by Week 48 (P < .01 and P = .014, resp.). Staphylococcal enterotoxin B-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-2 in CD4+ cells was significantly increased by Week 12 (P = .046) and Week 48 (P < .01), respectively. Conclusions. Darunavir/ritonavir-based therapy demonstrated improvements in CD4+ cell recovery and association with progressive functional immune recovery over 48 weeks. This trial is registered with NCT00381303. PMID:24396625

Tsoukas, Christos; Gilbert, Louise; Lewis, Trevor; Hatzakis, George; Falcon, Ron; Mrus, Joseph

2013-01-01

331

Improvements in Immune Function and Activation with 48-Week Darunavir/Ritonavir-Based Therapy: GRACE Substudy  

PubMed Central

Objective. During the course of HIV infection, progressive immune deficiency occurs. The aim of this prospective substudy was to evaluate the recovery of functional immunity in a subset of patients from the GRACE (Gender, Race, And Clinical Experience) study treated with a DRV/r-based regimen. Methods. The recovery of functional immunity with a darunavir/ritonavir-based regimen was assessed in a subset of treatment-experienced, HIV-1 infected patients from the GRACE study. Results. 19/32 patients (59%) enrolled in the substudy were virologically suppressed (<50 copies/mL). In these patients, median (range) CD4+ cell count increased from 222 (2, 398) cells/mm3 at baseline to 398 (119, 812) cells/mm3 at Week 48. CD8+% decreased significantly from baseline to Week 48 (P = .03). Proliferation of CD4+ lymphocytes in response to CD3+/CD28+, phytohemagglutinin, and pokeweed was significantly increased (P < .01) by Week 12. Proliferation in response to Candida and tetanus was significantly increased by Week 48 (P < .01 and P = .014, resp.). Staphylococcal enterotoxin B-stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-2 in CD4+ cells was significantly increased by Week 12 (P = .046) and Week 48 (P < .01), respectively. Conclusions. Darunavir/ritonavir-based therapy demonstrated improvements in CD4+ cell recovery and association with progressive functional immune recovery over 48 weeks. This trial is registered with NCT00381303. PMID:24396625

Tsoukas, Christos; Gilbert, Louise; Lewis, Trevor; Hatzakis, George

2013-01-01

332

Improving optical contact for functional near-infrared brain spectroscopy and imaging with brush optodes  

PubMed Central

A novel brush optode was designed and demonstrated to overcome poor optical contact with the scalp that can occur during functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and imaging due to light obstruction by hair. The brush optodes were implemented as an attachment to existing commercial flat-faced (conventional) fiber bundle optodes. The goal was that the brush optodes would thread through hair and improve optical contact on subjects with dense hair. Simulations and experiments were performed to assess the magnitude of these improvements. FNIRS measurements on 17 subjects with varying hair colors (blonde, brown, and black) and hair densities (0–2.96 hairs/mm2) were performed during a finger tapping protocol for both flat and brush optodes. In addition to reaching a study success rate of almost 100% when using the brush optode extensions, the measurement setup times were reduced by a factor of three. Furthermore, the brush optodes enabled improvements in the activation signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by up to a factor of ten as well as significant (p < 0.05) increases in the detected area of activation (dAoA). The measured improvements in SNR were matched by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of photon propagation through scalp and hair. In addition, an analytical model was derived to mathematically estimate the observed light power losses due to different hair colors and hair densities. Interestingly, the derived analytical formula produced excellent estimates of the experimental data and MC simulation results despite several simplifying assumptions. The analytical model enables researchers to readily estimate the light power losses due to obstruction by hair for both flat-faced fiber bundles and individual fibers for a given subject. PMID:22567582

Khan, Bilal; Wildey, Chester; Francis, Robert; Tian, Fenghua; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Liu, Hanli; MacFarlane, Duncan; Alexandrakis, George

2012-01-01

333

Vestibular Stochastic Resonance as a Method to Improve Balance Function: Optimization of Stimulus Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stochastic resonance (SR) is a mechanism by which noise can assist and enhance the response of neural systems to relevant sensory signals. Application of imperceptible SR noise coupled with sensory input through the proprioceptive, visual, or vestibular sensory systems has been shown to improve motor function. Specifically, studies have shown that that vestibular electrical stimulation by imperceptible stochastic noise, when applied to normal young and elderly subjects, significantly improved their ocular stabilization reflexes in response to whole-body tilt as well as balance performance during postural disturbances. The goal of this study was to optimize the characteristics of the stochastic vestibular signals for balance performance during standing on an unstable surface. Subjects performed a standardized balance task of standing on a block of 10 cm thick medium density foam with their eyes closed for a total of 40 seconds. Stochastic electrical stimulation was applied to the vestibular system through electrodes placed over the mastoid process behind the ears during the last 20 seconds of the test period. A custom built constant current stimulator with subject isolation delivered the stimulus. Stimulation signals were generated with frequencies in the bandwidth of 1-2 Hz and 0.01-30 Hz. Amplitude of the signals were varied in the range of 0- +/-700 micro amperes with the RMS of the signal increased by 30 micro amperes for each 100 micro amperes increase in the current range. Balance performance was measured using a force plate under the foam block and inertial motion sensors placed on the torso and head segments. Preliminary results indicate that balance performance is improved in the range of 10-25% compared to no stimulation conditions. Subjects improved their performance consistently across the blocks of stimulation. Further the signal amplitude at which the performance was maximized was different in the two frequency ranges. Optimization of the frequency and amplitude of the signal characteristics of the stochastic noise signals on maximizing balance performance will have a significant impact in its development as a unique system to aid recovery of function in astronauts after long duration space flight or for people with balance disorders.

Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott; Serrador, Jorge; Cohen, Helen; Reschke, Millard; Bloomberg, Jacob

2010-01-01

334

A machine learning based method to improve docking scoring functions and its application to drug repurposing  

PubMed Central

Docking scoring functions are notoriously weak predictors of binding affinity. They typically assign a common set of weights to the individual energy terms that contribute to the overall energy score, however, these weights should be gene family-dependent. In addition, they incorrectly assume that individual interactions contribute towards the total binding affinity in an additive manner. In reality, noncovalent interactions often depend on one another in a nonlinear manner. In this paper we show how the use of support vector machines (SVMs), trained by associating sets of individual energy terms retrieved from molecular docking with the known binding affinity of each compound from high-throughput screening experiments, can be used to improve the correlation between known binding affinities and those predicted by the docking program eHiTS. We construct two prediction models; a regression model trained using IC50 values from BindingDB, and a classification model trained using active and decoy compounds from the Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD). Moreover, to address the issue of overrepresentation of negative data in high-throughput screening data sets, we have designed a multiple-planar SVM training procedure for the classification model. The increased performance that both SVMs give when compared with the original eHiTS scoring function highlights the potential for using nonlinear methods when deriving overall energy scores from their individual components. We apply the above methodology to train a new scoring function for direct inhibitors of M.tuberculosis (M.tb) InhA. By combining ligand binding site comparison with the new scoring function, we propose that phosphodiesterase inhibitors can potentially be repurposed to target M.tb InhA. Our methodology may be applied to other gene families for which target structures and activity data are available, as demonstrated in the work presented here. PMID:21291174

Kinnings, Sarah L.; Liu, Nina; Tonge, Peter J.; Jackson, Richard M.; Xie, Lei; Bourne, Philip E.

2011-01-01

335

Ecosystem function in waste stabilisation ponds: Improving water quality through a better understanding of biophysical coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wastewater stabilisation ponds (WSPs) are highly productive systems designed to treat wastewater using only natural biological and chemical processes. Phytoplankton, microbial communities and hydraulics play important roles for ecosystem functionality of these pond systems. Although WSPs have been used for many decades, they are still considered as 'black box' systems as very little is known about the fundamental ecological processes which occur within them. However, a better understanding of how these highly productive ecosystems function is particularly important for hydrological processes, as treated wastewater is commonly discharged into streams, rivers, and oceans, and subject to strict water quality guidelines. WSPs are known to operate at different levels of efficiency, and treatment efficiency of WSPs is dependent on physical (flow characteristics and sludge accumulation and distribution) and biological (microbial and phytoplankton communities) characteristics. Thus, it is important to gain a better understanding of the role and influence of pond hydraulics and vital microbial communities on pond performance and WSP functional stability. The main aim of this study is to investigate the processes leading to differences in treatment performance of WSPs. This study uses a novel and innovative approach to understand these factors by combining flow cytometry and metabolomics to investigate various biochemical characteristics, including the metabolite composition and microbial community within WSPs. The results of these analyses will then be combined with results from the characterisation of pond hydrodynamics and hydraulic performance, which will be performed using advanced hydrodynamic modelling and advanced sludge profiling technology. By understanding how hydrodynamic and biological processes influence each other and ecosystem function and stability in WSPs, we will be able to propose ways to improve the quality of the treatment using natural processes, with less reliance on chemical treatment. This will in turn contribute to the reduction in the cost of operation, but more importantly reduce the impact on the environment (i.e., discharge, GHGs), and increase water quality and the potential for water reuse worldwide.

Ghadouani, Anas; Reichwaldt, Elke S.; Coggins, Liah X.; Ivey, Gregory N.; Ghisalberti, Marco; Zhou, Wenxu; Laurion, Isabelle; Chua, Andrew

2014-05-01

336

A bias-corrected covariance estimate for improved inference with quadratic inference functions.  

PubMed

The method of quadratic inference functions (QIF) is an increasingly popular method for the analysis of correlated data because of its multiple advantages over generalized estimating equations (GEE). One advantage is that it is more efficient for parameter estimation when the working covariance structure for the data is misspecified. In the QIF literature, the asymptotic covariance formula is used to obtain standard errors. We show that in small to moderately sized samples, these standard error estimates can be severely biased downward, therefore inflating test size and decreasing coverage probability. We propose adjustments to the asymptotic covariance formula that eliminate finite-sample biases and, as shown via simulation, lead to substantial improvements in standard error estimates, inference, and coverage. The proposed method is illustrated in application to a cluster randomized trial and a longitudinal study. Furthermore, QIF and GEE are contrasted via simulation and these applications. PMID:22807168

Westgate, Philip M

2012-12-20

337

Cranial electrical stimulation improves symptoms and functional status in individuals with fibromyalgia.  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of microcurrent cranial electrical stimulation (CES) therapy on reducing pain and its associated symptoms in fibromyalgia (FM), we conducted a randomized, controlled, three-group (active CES device, sham device, and usual care alone [UC]), double-blind study to determine the potential benefit of CES therapy for symptom management in FM. Those individuals using the active CES device had a greater decrease in average pain (p = .023), fatigue (p = .071), and sleep disturbance (p = .001) than individuals using the sham device or those receiving usual care alone over time. Additionally, individuals using the active CES device had improved functional status versus the sham device and UC groups over time (p = .028). PMID:24315255

Taylor, Ann Gill; Anderson, Joel G; Riedel, Shannon L; Lewis, Janet E; Kinser, Patricia A; Bourguignon, Cheryl

2013-12-01

338

Improved high-order ambiguity-function method for the estimation of phase from interferometric fringes.  

PubMed

Interferometers often encode the information on the measurand in the phase of a fringe pattern, which is usually recorded by an imaging device. Accuracy of measurements carried out by interferometric techniques is thus strongly dependent on the accuracy with which the underlying phase distribution of these fringe patterns is estimated. Fringe analysis methods, which have been developed to accomplish this task, are in general characterized by their performance in terms of both accuracy of phase estimation and associated computational complexity. We propose an improved high-order ambiguity-function-based fringe-analysis method that is demonstrated to provide an accurate and direct estimation of the unwrapped phase distribution in a highly computationally efficient manner. Presented simulation and experimental results in digital holographic interferometry depict the potential utility of the proposed method. PMID:19724494

Gorthi, Sai Siva; Rastogi, Pramod

2009-09-01

339

A dynamic FRET reporter of gene expression improved by functional screening.  

PubMed

Here, we describe a reporter system that consists of a FRET biosensor and its corresponding aptamer. The FRET biosensor employs the synthetic aptamer binding peptide Rsg1.2 sandwiched between mutants of the Green Fluorescent Protein and undergoes FRET when binding its corresponding Rev Responsive Element (RRE) RNA aptamer. We developed a novel approach to engineer FRET biosensors by linker extension and screening to improve signal strength of the biosensor which we called VAmPIRe (Viral Aptamer binding Peptide based Indicator for RNA detection). We demonstrate that the system is quantitative, reversible and works with high specificity in vitro and in vivo in living bacteria and mammalian cells. Thus, VAmPIRe may become valuable for RNA localizations and as a dynamic RNA-based reporter for live cell imaging. Moreover, functional screening of large libraries as demonstrated here may become applicable to optimize some of the many FRET biosensors of cellular signaling. PMID:22946509

Schifferer, Martina; Griesbeck, Oliver

2012-09-19

340

Resistance Training Improves Hemodynamic Function, Collagen Deposition and Inflammatory Profiles: Experimental Model of Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

The role of resistance training on collagen deposition, the inflammatory profile and muscle weakness in heart failure remains unclear. Therefore, this study evaluated the influence of a resistance training program on hemodynamic function, maximum strength gain, collagen deposition and inflammatory profile in chronic heart failure rats. Thirty-two male Wistar rats submitted to myocardial infarction by coronary artery ligation or sham surgery were assigned into four groups: sedentary sham (S-Sham, n?=?8); trained sham (T-Sham, n?=?8); sedentary chronic heart failure (S-CHF, n?=?8) and trained chronic heart failure (T-CHF, n?=?8). The maximum strength capacity was evaluated by the one maximum repetition test. Trained groups were submitted to an 8-week resistance training program (4 days/week, 4 sets of 10–12 repetitions/session, at 65% to 75% of one maximum repetition). After 8 weeks of the resistance training program, the T-CHF group showed lower left ventricular end diastolic pressure (P<0.001), higher left ventricular systolic pressure (P<0.05), higher systolic blood pressure (P<0.05), an improvement in the maximal positive derivative of ventricular pressure (P<0.05) and maximal negative derivative of ventricular pressure (P<0.05) when compared to the S-CHF group; no differences were observed when compared to Sham groups. In addition, resistance training was able to reduce myocardial hypertrophy (P<0.05), left ventricular total collagen volume fraction (P<0.01), IL-6 (P<0.05), and TNF-?/IL-10 ratio (P<0.05), as well as increasing IL-10 (P<0.05) in chronic heart failure rats when compared to the S-CHF group. Eight weeks of resistance training promotes an improvement of cardiac function, strength gain, collagen deposition and inflammatory profile in chronic heart failure rats. PMID:25340545

Alves, Jadson P.; Nunes, Ramiro B.; Stefani, Giuseppe P.; Dal Lago, Pedro

2014-01-01

341

Improvements to executive function during exercise training predict maintenance of physical activity over the following year  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that exercise training benefits cognitive, neural, and physical health markers in older adults. It is likely that these positive effects will diminish if participants return to sedentary lifestyles following training cessation. Theory posits that that the neurocognitive processes underlying self-regulation, namely executive function (EF), are important to maintaining positive health behaviors. Therefore, we examined whether better EF performance in older women would predict greater adherence to routine physical activity (PA) over 1 year following a 12-month resistance exercise training randomized controlled trial. The study sample consisted of 125 community-dwelling women aged 65–75 years old. Our primary outcome measure was self-reported PA, as measured by the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE), assessed on a monthly basis from month 13 to month 25. Executive function was assessed using the Stroop Test at baseline (month 0) and post-training (month 12). Latent growth curve analyses showed that, on average, PA decreased during the follow-up period but at a decelerating rate. Women who made greater improvements to EF during the training period showed better adherence to PA during the 1-year follow-up period (? = ?0.36, p < 0.05); this association was unmitigated by the addition of covariates (? = ?0.44, p < 0.05). As expected, EF did not predict changes in PA during the training period (p > 0.10). Overall, these findings suggest that improving EF plays an important role in whether older women maintain higher levels of PA following exercise training and that this association is only apparent after training when environmental support for PA is low. PMID:24904387

Best, John R.; Nagamatsu, Lindsay S.; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

2014-01-01

342

Improved renal function following aggressive treatment of urolithiasis and concurrent mild to moderate renal insufficiency.  

PubMed

To our knowledge the prevalence of urinary stone disease and concurrent mild to moderate renal insufficiency has never been reported. A review of our last 2,000 urinary stone patients identified 33 (1.65%) with serum creatinine levels of 2.0 mg./dl. or greater at presentation. Chemical composition, location and complexity of the calculi, types of procedures required to render the patient stone-free and the effect of surgical intervention (independent of relief of obstruction) on renal function were evaluated. Mean serum creatinine level before surgical intervention and after placement of a ureteral stent or percutaneous nephrostomy tube in patients with evidence of obstruction was 3.2 mg./dl. (range 2.0 to 7.5). Complete or partial staghorn calculi were found in 21 of the 33 patients (64%), including 8 with bilateral staghorn calculi. Seven patients required 1 procedure, 1 required urinary alkalization alone and the other 25 required an average of 3.5 procedures each. Stone analysis revealed struvite, mixed calcium and uric acid to be the most common types. Followup creatinine values (the latest available within 1 year) and corresponding creatinine clearances showed remarkable improvement. The mean decrease in serum creatinine level was 1.2 mg./dl. (p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of decrease between patients with pretreatment serum creatinine levels of 2.0 to 2.9 mg./dl. and those with initial values of 3.0 or more. Renal calculi and concurrent mild to moderate renal insufficiency warrant aggressive treatment. Patients demonstrate significant improvement in renal function independent of relief of obstruction. PMID:8072069

Gupta, M; Bolton, D M; Gupta, P N; Stoller, M L

1994-10-01

343

Prone positioning improves pulmonary function in obese patients during general anesthesia.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of prone position on functional residual capacity (FRC), the mechanical properties (compliance and resistance) of the total respiratory system, lung and chest wall, and the gas exchange in 10 anesthetized and paralyzed obese (body mass index more than 30 kg/m2) patients, undergoing elective surgery. We used the esophageal balloon technique together with rapid airway occlusions during constant inspiratory flow to partition the mechanics of the respiratory system into its pulmonary and chest wall components. FRC was measured by the helium dilution technique. Measurements were taken in the supine position and after 15-30 min of prone position maintaining the same respiratory pattern (tidal volume 12 mL/kg ideal body weight, respiratory rate 14 breaths/ min, fraction of inspired oxygen [FIO2]0.4). We found that FRC and lung compliance significantly (P < 0.01) increased from the supine to prone position (0.894 +/- 0.327 L vs 1.980 +/- 0.856 L and 91.4 +/- 55.2 mL/cm H2O vs 109.6 +/- 52.4 mL/cm H2O, respectively). On the contrary, the prone position reduced chest wall compliance (199.5 +/- 58.7 mL/cm H2O vs 160.5 +/- 45.4 mL/cm H2O, P < 0.01), thus total respiratory system compliance did not change. Resistance of the total respiratory system, lung, and chest wall were not modified on turning the patients prone. The increase in FRC and lung compliance was paralleled by a significant (P < 0.01) improvement of PaO2 from supine to prone position (130 +/- 31 vs 181 +/- 28 mm Hg, P < 0.01), while PaCO2 was unchanged. We conclude that, in anesthetized and paralyzed obese subjects, the prone position improves pulmonary function, increasing FRC, lung compliance, and oxygenation. PMID:8780285

Pelosi, P; Croci, M; Calappi, E; Mulazzi, D; Cerisara, M; Vercesi, P; Vicardi, P; Gattinoni, L

1996-09-01

344

Inhibition of Gsk3? activity improves ?-cell function in c-KitWv/+ male mice  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that the stem cell marker, c-Kit, is involved in glucose homeostasis. We recently reported that c-KitWv/+ male mice displayed onset of diabetes at 8 weeks of age; however, the mechanisms by which c-Kit regulates ?-cell proliferation and function are unknown. The purpose of the present study is to examine if c-KitWv/+ mutation-induced ?-cell dysfunction is associated with down-regulation of the phospho-Akt/Gsk3? pathway in c-KitWv/+ male mice. Histology and cell signaling were examined in C57BL/6J/KitWv/+ (c-KitWv/+) and wild-type (c-Kit+/+) mice using immunofluorescence and western blotting approaches. The Gsk3? inhibitor, 1-azakenpaullone (1-AKP), was administered to c-KitWv/+ and c-Kit+/+ mice for 2 weeks, whereby alterations in glucose metabolism were examined and morphometric analyses were performed. A significant reduction in phosphorylated Akt was observed in the islets of c-KitWv/+ mice (P<0.05) along with a decrease in phosphorylated Gsk3? (P<0.05), and cyclin D1 protein level (P<0.01) when compared to c-Kit+/+ mice. However, c-KitWv/+ mice that received 1-AKP treatment demonstrated normal fasting blood glucose with significantly improved glucose tolerance. 1-AKP treated c-KitWv/+ mice also showed increased ?-catenin, cyclin D1 and Pdx-1 levels in islets demonstrating that inhibition of Gsk3? activity led to increased ?-cell proliferation and insulin secretion. These data suggest that c-KitWv/+ male mice had alterations in the Akt/Gsk3? signaling pathway, which lead to ?-cell dysfunction by decreasing Pdx-1 and cyclin D1 levels. Inhibition of Gsk3? could prevent the onset of diabetes by improving glucose tolerance and ?-cell function. PMID:22249311

Feng, Zhi-Chao; Donnelly, Lisa; Li, Jinming; Krishnamurthy, Mansa; Riopel, Matthew; Wang, Rennian

2014-01-01

345

Regulation of Isotopic Composition of Water - way of Improvement of Cosmonauts Drinking Water Functional Properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem in providing drinking water to cosmonauts is solved - at this moment there is a task to improve the functional properties of the water. One of the perspectives of this trend is the use of light isotopic water. The animal studies have shown that long-term consumption of water with a depletion of deuterium and oxygen heavy isotopes accelerates the rise of mass non-irradiated mice, the phase fluctuations reducing or increasing hematological parameters were having adaptive nature. These fluctuations didn’t overcome values beyond the physiological norm of this type of animal. It is established that the therapeutic use of light isotopic water with 35 - 90 ppm in deuterium increases the survival of irradiated mice by an average of 30%, contributes to the preservation of irradiated animals body weight. Treatment of acute radiation sickness with light isotopic water stimulates hematopoietic recovery. At the same time, keeping mice drinking light isotopic water for 7 - 8 days before the irradiation (from 4 to 8.5 Gr) has no effect on the level of radio resistance. Longer keeping mice on light isotopic water, for 14 -21 days - reduction in life expectancy, animal mass, bone marrow cellularity and the level of white blood cells in irradiated animals is noted. It was established that keeping mice on light isotopic water for 14 days before exposure in experimental animals causes an increase in the mitotic index and the frequency of formation of aberrant mitosis after 24 hours of Co(60) gamma radiation in doses of 1 , 2, and 4 Gr. Thus, it is clear that the regulation of the isotopic composition of drinking water - way to improve its functional properties.

Kulikova, Ekaterina; Utina, Dina; Vorozhtsova, Svetlana; Severyuhin, Yuri; Abrosimova, Anna; Sinyak, Yuri; Ivanov, Alexander

346

Duration of rheumatoid arthritis influences the degree of functional improvement in clinical trials  

PubMed Central

Background Functional capacity is an important outcome in rheumatoid arthritis and is generally measured using the Health Assessment Questionnaire disability index (HAQ). Functional limitation incorporates both activity and damage. Because irreversible damage increases over time, the HAQ may be less likely to show improvement in late than in early rheumatoid arthritis. Objective To determine the relation between sensitivity to change of the HAQ and duration of rheumatoid arthritis in reports of clinical trials. Methods Data were pooled from clinical trials that measured responses of HAQ scores at three or six months. The effect size of the HAQ was calculated and linear regression used to predict the effect size by duration of rheumatoid arthritis at group level. Treatment effect was adjusted for by including the effect sizes of pain scores and of tender joint counts as additional independent variables in separate models. Subgroup analysis employed contemporary regimens (methotrexate, leflunomide, combination therapies, and TNF inhibitors) only. Results 36 studies with 64 active treatment arms and 7628 patients (disease duration 2.5 months to 12.2 years) were included. The effect sizes of the HAQ decreased by 0.02 for each additional year of mean disease duration using all trials, and by 0.04/year in the subgroup analysis (p?0.01 for both analyses, except for pain adjusted models at three months). Conclusions In individual trials, less improvement in the HAQ might be expected in late than in early rheumatoid arthritis. Comparison of changes in HAQ among rheumatoid arthritis trials should take into consideration the disease stage of the treated groups. PMID:15975967

Aletaha, D

2006-01-01

347

Improved cardiovascular function with aminoguanidine in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats  

PubMed Central

The ability of aminoguanidine (AG), an inhibitor of collagen crosslinking, to prevent changes in cardiac and vascular structure and function has been determined in the deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rat as a model of the cardiovascular remodelling observed in chronic human hypertension. Uninephrectomized rats (UNX) administered DOCA (25?mg every fourth day s.c.) and 1% NaCl in drinking water for 28 days developed cardiovascular remodelling shown as systolic hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, increased thoracic aortic and left ventricular wall thickness, increased left ventricular inflammatory cell infiltration together with increased interstitial collagen and increased passive diastolic stiffness, impaired contractility, prolongation of the action potential duration and vascular dysfunction. Treatment with AG (0.05–0.1% in drinking water; average 182±17?mg?kg?1?day?1 in DOCA-salt rats) decreased blood pressure (DOCA-salt 176±4; +AG 144±5?mmHg; *P<0.05 vs DOCA-salt), decreased left ventricular wet weights (DOCA-salt 3.17±0.07; +AG 2.66±0.08?mg?g?1 body wt*), reduced diastolic stiffness constant (DOCA-salt 30.1±1.2; +AG 24.3±1.2* (dimensionless)), improved cardiac contractility (DOCA-salt 1610±130; +AG 2370±100?mmHg?s?1*) and vascular reactivity (3.4-fold increase in maximal contractile response to noradrenaline, 3.2-fold increase in maximal relaxation response to acetylcholine, twofold increase in maximal relaxation response to sodium nitroprusside) and prolonged the action potential duration at 50% repolarization without altering collagen content or inflammatory cell infiltration. Thus, cardiovascular function in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats can be improved by AG independent of changes in collagen content. This suggests that collagen crosslinking is an important cause of cardiovascular dysfunction during cardiovascular remodelling in hypertension. PMID:16783413

Chan, Vincent; Hoey, Andrew; Brown, Lindsay

2006-01-01

348

Thoracic epidural anesthesia improves functional recovery from myocardial stunning in conscious dogs.  

PubMed

The effects of thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA) on the contractile performance of ischemic and postischemic myocardium have not been well investigated. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of TEA on severity and duration of myocardial stunning in an experimental model for sublethal acute myocardial ischemia. Seven dogs were chronically instrumented for measurement of heart rate (HR), left atrial (LAP), aortic and left ventricular pressure (LVP), LV dP/dtmax' and myocardial wall-thickening fraction (WTF). An occluder around the left anterior descending artery (LAD) allowed induction of reversible LAD ischemia. TEA was performed with lidocaine 4 mg/kg through a chronically implanted epidural catheter at the second thoracic level. Regional myocardial blood flow was determined with colored microspheres. Two experiments were performed in a cross-over design on separate days: Experiment 1, induction of 10 min of LAD ischemia without TEA; and Experiment 2, induction of 10 min of LAD ischemia with TEA. WTF was measured at baseline (BL) and predetermined time points until complete recovery from ischemic dysfunction occurred. LAD ischemia caused a significant decrease of LAD-WTF with (-28% +/- 5.1% versus BL) and without TEA (-15.5% +/- 5.3% versus BL). After 3 h of reperfusion, WTF as percent of BL values was significantly higher with TEA (P < 0.001). BL values of WTF were reached after 24 h with TEA and after more than 48 h without TEA (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences for mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), LVP, LAP, and LVdP/dtmax between the groups during ischemia and reperfusion. In nonischemic myocardium TEA caused an increase of subendocardial blood flow. During ischemia neither the subendocardial/subepicardial nor the occluded/ normal zone blood flow was affected by TEA. TEA attenuates myocardial stunning in conscious dogs. This finding is consistent with data regarding a reduction of infarct size due to TEA. PMID:8895266

Rolf, N; Van de Velde, M; Wouters, P F; Möllhoff, T; Weber, T P; Van Aken, H K

1996-11-01

349

Jatropha curcas, a biofuel crop: Functional genomics for understanding metabolic pathways and genetic improvement  

PubMed Central

Jatropha curcas is currently attracting much attention as an oilseed crop for biofuel, as Jatropha can grow under climate and soil conditions that are unsuitable for food production. However, little is known about Jatropha, and there are a number of challenges to be overcome. In fact, Jatropha has not really been domesticated; most of the Jatropha accessions are toxic, which renders the seedcake unsuitable for use as animal feed. The seeds of Jatropha contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which negatively impact the biofuel quality. Fruiting of Jatropha is fairly continuous, thus increasing costs of harvesting. Therefore, before starting any improvement program using conventional or molecular breeding techniques, understanding gene function and the genome scale of Jatropha are prerequisites. This review presents currently available and relevant information on the latest technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) to decipher important metabolic pathways within Jatropha, such as oil and toxin synthesis. Further, it discusses future directions for biotechnological approaches in Jatropha breeding and improvement. PMID:24092674

Maghuly, Fatemeh; Laimer, Margit

2013-01-01

350

Antioxidants Improve Anti-Bacterial Function in Hyperoxia-Exposed Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Hyperoxia and pulmonary infections are well known to increase the risk of acute and chronic lung injury in newborn infants, but it is not clear whether hyperoxia directly increases the risk of pneumonia. The purpose of this study was to examine: 1) the effects of hyperoxia and antioxidant enzymes on inflammation and bacterial clearance in mononuclear cells; and 2) developmental differences between adult and neonatal mononuclear cells in response to hyperoxia. Mouse macrophages were exposed to either room air (RA) or 95% O2 for 24 h and then incubated with P. aeruginosa (PA). After 1 h, bacterial adherence, phagocytosis and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1? production were analyzed. Bacterial adherence increased 5.8 fold (P<0.0001), phagocytosis decreased 60% (P<0.05), and MIP-1? production increased 49% (P<0.05) in response to hyperoxia. Overexpression of MnSOD or catalase significantly decreased bacterial adherence by 30.5%, but only MnSOD significantly improved bacterial phagocytosis and attenuated MIP-1? production. When monocytes from newborns and adults were exposed to hyperoxia, phagocytosis was impaired in both groups. However, adult monocytes were significantly more impaired than neonatal monocytes. Data indicate that hyperoxia significantly increases bacterial adherence while impairing function of mononuclear cells, with adult cells more impaired than neonatal cells. MnSOD reduces bacterial adherence and inflammation and improves bacterial phagocytosis in mononuclear cells in response to hyperoxia, which should minimize the development of oxidant-induced lung injury as well as reduce nosocomial infections. PMID:17448898

Arita, Yuko; Kazzaz, Jeffrey A.; Joseph, Ansamma; Koo, Hshi-chi; Li, Yuchi; Davis, Jonathan M.

2007-01-01

351

Exercise, Fitness, and Neurocognitive Function in Older Adults: The “Selective Improvement” and “Cardiovascular Fitness” Hypotheses  

PubMed Central

Background Although basic research has uncovered biological mechanisms by which exercise could maintain and enhance adult brain health, experimental human studies with older adults have produced equivocal results. Purpose This randomized clinical trial aimed to investigate the hypotheses that (a) the effects of exercise training on the performance of neurocognitive tasks in older adults is selective, influencing mainly tasks with a substantial executive control component and (b) performance in neurocognitive tasks is related to cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods Fifty-seven older adults (65?79 years) participated in aerobic or strength-and-flexibility exercise training for 10 months. Neurocognitive tasks were selected to reflect a range from little (e.g., simple reaction time) to substantial (i.e., Stroop Word–Color conflict) executive control. Results Performance in tasks requiring little executive control was unaffected by participating in aerobic exercise. Improvements in Stroop Word–Color task performance were found only for the aerobic exercise group. Changes in aerobic fitness were unrelated to changes in neurocognitive function. Conclusions Aerobic exercise in older adults can have a beneficial effect on the performance of speeded tasks that rely heavily on executive control. Improvements in aerobic fitness do not appear to be a prerequisite for this beneficial effect. PMID:18825471

Lowry, Kristin A.; Francois, Sara J.; Kohut, Marian L.; Ekkekakis, Panteleimon

2009-01-01

352

Short-term treatment with tolfenamic acid improves cognitive functions in Alzheimer's disease mice.  

PubMed

Tolfenamic acid lowers the levels of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid beta (A?) when administered to C57BL/6 mice by lowering their transcriptional regulator specificity protein 1 (SP1). To determine whether changes upstream in the amyloidogenic pathway that forms A? plaques would improve cognitive outcomes, we administered tolfenamic acid for 34 days to hemizygous R1.40 transgenic mice. After the characterization of cognitive deficits in these mice, assessment of spatial learning and memory functions revealed that treatment with tolfenamic acid attenuated long-term memory and working memory deficits, determined using Morris water maze and the Y-maze. These improvements occurred within a shorter period of exposure than that seen with clinically approved drugs. Cognitive enhancement was accompanied by reduction in the levels of the SP1 protein (but not messenger RNA [mRNA]), followed by lowering both the mRNA and the protein levels of APP and subsequent A? levels. These findings provide evidence that tolfenamic acid can disrupt the pathologic processes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and are relevant to its scheduled biomarker study in AD patients. PMID:23639209

Subaiea, Gehad M; Adwan, Lina I; Ahmed, Aseef H; Stevens, Karen E; Zawia, Nasser H

2013-10-01

353

Novel Television-Based Cognitive Training Improves Working Memory and Executive Function  

PubMed Central

The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60–87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of “adequate” to “high” system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition. PMID:24992187

Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecka, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bures, Vladimir

2014-01-01

354

Engineering Upper Hinge Improves Stability and Effector Function of a Human IgG1  

PubMed Central

Upper hinge is vulnerable to radical attacks that result in breakage of the heavy-light chain linkage and cleavage of the hinge of an IgG1. To further explore mechanisms responsible for the radical induced hinge degradation, nine mutants were designed to determine the roles that the upper hinge Asp and His play in the radical reactions. The observation that none of these substitutions could inhibit the breakage of the heavy-light chain linkage suggests that the breakage may result from electron transfer from Cys231 directly to the heavy-light chain linkage upon radical attacks, and implies a pathway separate from His229-mediated hinge cleavage. On the other hand, the substitution of His229 with Tyr showed promising advantages over the native antibody and other substitutions in improving the stability and function of the IgG1. This substitution inhibited the hinge cleavage by 98% and suggests that the redox active nature of Tyr did not enable it to replicate the ability of His to facilitate radical induced degradation. We propose that the lower redox potential of Tyr, a residue that may be the ultimate sink for oxidizing equivalents in proteins, is responsible for the inhibition. More importantly, the substitution increased the antibody's binding to Fc?RIII receptors by 2–3-fold, and improved ADCC activity by 2-fold, while maintaining a similar pharmacokinetic profile with respect to the wild type. Implications of these observations for antibody engineering and development are discussed. PMID:22203673

Yan, Boxu; Boyd, Daniel; Kaschak, Timothy; Tsukuda, Joni; Shen, Amy; Lin, Yuwen; Chung, Shan; Gupta, Priyanka; Kamath, Amrita; Wong, Anne; Vernes, Jean-Michel; Meng, Gloria Y.; Totpal, Klara; Schaefer, Gabriele; Jiang, Guoying; Nogal, Bartek; Emery, Craig; Vanderlaan, Martin; Carter, Paul; Harris, Reed; Amanullah, Ashraf

2012-01-01

355

Exercise Improves Immune Function, Antidepressive Response, and Sleep Quality in Patients with Chronic Primary Insomnia  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of moderate aerobic exercise training on sleep, depression, cortisol, and markers of immune function in patients with chronic primary insomnia. Twenty-one sedentary participants (16 women aged 44.7 ± 9 years) with chronic primary insomnia completed a 4-month intervention of moderate aerobic exercise. Compared with baseline, polysomnographic data showed improvements following exercise training. Also observed were reductions in depression symptoms and plasma cortisol. Immunologic assays revealed a significant increase in plasma apolipoprotein A (140.9 ± 22 to 151.2 ± 22?mg/dL) and decreases in CD4 (915.6 ± 361 to 789.6 ± 310?mm3) and CD8 (532.4 ± 259 to 435.7 ± 204?mm3). Decreases in cortisol were significantly correlated with increases in total sleep time (r = ?0.51) and REM sleep (r = ?0.52). In summary, long-term moderate aerobic exercise training improved sleep, reduced depression and cortisol, and promoted significant changes in immunologic variables. PMID:25328886

Passos, Giselle Soares; Poyares, Dalva; Santana, Marcos Goncalves; Teixeira, Alexandre Abilio de Souza; Lira, Fabio Santos; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; dos Santos, Ronaldo Vagner Thomatieli; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

2014-01-01

356

Silicon application increases drought tolerance of kentucky bluegrass by improving plant water relations and morphophysiological functions.  

PubMed

Drought stress encumbers the growth of turfgrass principally by disrupting the plant-water relations and physiological functions. The present study was carried out to appraise the role of silicon (Si) in improving the drought tolerance in Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Drought stress and four levels (0, 200, 400, and 800?mg?L(-1)) of Si (Na2SiO3·9H2O) were imposed after 2 months old plants cultured under glasshouse conditions. Drought stress was found to decrease the photosynthesis, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, leaf water content, relative growth rate, water use efficiency, and turf quality, but to increase in the root/shoot and leaf carbon/nitrogen ratio. Such physiological interferences, disturbances in plant water relations, and visually noticeable growth reductions in Kentucky bluegrass were significantly alleviated by the addition of Si after drought stress. For example, Si application at 400?mg?L(-1) significantly increased the net photosynthesis by 44%, leaf water contents by 33%, leaf green color by 42%, and turf quality by 44% after 20 days of drought stress. Si application proved beneficial in improving the performance of Kentucky bluegrass in the present study suggesting that manipulation of endogenous Si through genetic or biotechnological means may result in the development of drought resistance in grasses. PMID:25054178

Saud, Shah; Li, Xin; Chen, Yang; Zhang, Lu; Fahad, Shah; Hussain, Saddam; Sadiq, Arooj; Chen, Yajun

2014-01-01

357

Jatropha curcas, a biofuel crop: functional genomics for understanding metabolic pathways and genetic improvement.  

PubMed

Jatropha curcas is currently attracting much attention as an oilseed crop for biofuel, as Jatropha can grow under climate and soil conditions that are unsuitable for food production. However, little is known about Jatropha, and there are a number of challenges to be overcome. In fact, Jatropha has not really been domesticated; most of the Jatropha accessions are toxic, which renders the seedcake unsuitable for use as animal feed. The seeds of Jatropha contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which negatively impact the biofuel quality. Fruiting of Jatropha is fairly continuous, thus increasing costs of harvesting. Therefore, before starting any improvement program using conventional or molecular breeding techniques, understanding gene function and the genome scale of Jatropha are prerequisites. This review presents currently available and relevant information on the latest technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) to decipher important metabolic pathways within Jatropha, such as oil and toxin synthesis. Further, it discusses future directions for biotechnological approaches in Jatropha breeding and improvement. PMID:24092674

Maghuly, Fatemeh; Laimer, Margit

2013-10-01

358

THE PEROXYNITRITE CATALYST WW-85 IMPROVES PULMONARY FUNCTION IN OVINE SEPTIC SHOCK  

PubMed Central

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is associated with excessive production of nitric oxide (NO•) and superoxide (O2?), forming peroxynitrite (ONOO?), which in turn, acts as a terminal mediator of cellular injury by producing cell necrosis and apoptosis. We examined the effect of the ONOO? decomposition catalyst WW-85 in a sheep model of acute lung injury (ALI) and septic shock. Eighteen sheep were operatively prepared and randomly allocated, either to the sham, control, or WW-85 group (n=6 each). Following a tracheotomy, ALI was produced in the control and WW-85 group by insufflation of four sets of 12 breaths of cotton smoke. Then, a 30 mL suspension of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria (containing 2–5×1011 cfu) was instilled into the lungs according to an established protocol. The sham group received only the vehicle (30 mL saline). The sheep were studied in awake state for 24 hrs and ventilated with 100% oxygen. WW-85 was administered 1 h post injury as bolus infusion (0.1 mg/kg), followed by a continuous infusion of 0.02 mg•kg?1•h?1 until the end of the 24-h experimental period. Compared to injured but untreated controls, WW-85-treated animals had significantly improved gas exchange, reductions in airway obstruction, shunt formation, lung myeloperoxidase-, lung malondialdehyde-, lung 3-nitrotyrosine concentrations, and plasma nitrate-to-nitrite (NOx) levels. Animals treated with WW-85 exhibited less microvascular leakage and improvements in pulmonary function. These results provide evidence that blockade of the nitric oxide - peroxynitrite pathway improves disturbances from septic shock, as demonstrated in a clinically relevant ovine experimental model. PMID:20577150

Maybauer, Dirk M.; Maybauer, Marc O.; Szabo, Csaba; Cox, Robert A.; Westphal, Martin; Kiss, Levente; Horvath, Eszter M.; Traber, Lillian D.; Hawkins, Hal K.; Salzman, Andrew L.; Southan, Garry J.; Herndon, David N.; Traber, Daniel L.

2013-01-01

359

Ingestion of sodium plus water improves cardiovascular function and performance during dehydrating cycling in the heat.  

PubMed

We studied if salt and water ingestion alleviates the physiological strain caused by dehydrating exercise in the heat. Ten trained male cyclists (VO2max?: 60 ± 7 mL/kg/min) completed three randomized trials in a hot-dry environment (33 °C, 30% rh, 2.5 m/s airflow). Ninety minutes before the exercise, participants ingested 10 mL of water/kg body mass either alone (CON trial) or with salt to result in concentrations of 82 or 164 mM Na(+) (ModNa(+) or HighNa(+) trial, respectively). Then, participants cycled at 63% of VO2 m ? a x for 120 min immediately followed by a time-trial. After 120 min of exercise, the reduction in plasma volume was lessened with ModNa(+) and HighNa(+) trials (-11.9 ± 2.1 and -9.8 ± 4.2%) in comparison with CON (-16.4 ± 3.2%; P < 0.05). However, heat accumulation or dissipation (forearm skin blood flow and sweat rate) were not improved by salt ingestion. In contrast, both salt trials maintained cardiac output (? 1.3 ± 1.4 L/min; P < 0.05) and stroke volume (? 10 ± 11 mL/beat; P < 0.05) above CON after 120 min of exercise. Furthermore, the salt trials equally improved time-trial performance by 7.4% above CON (? 289 ± 42 vs 269 ± 50 W, respectively; P < 0.05). Our data suggest that pre-exercise ingestion of salt plus water maintains higher plasma volume during dehydrating exercise in the heat without thermoregulatory effects. However, it maintains cardiovascular function and improves cycling performance. PMID:23253191

Hamouti, N; Fernández-Elías, V E; Ortega, J F; Mora-Rodriguez, R

2014-06-01

360

Improved deposition and deprotection of silane tethered 3,4 hydroxypyridinone (HOPO) ligands on functionalized nanoporous silica  

PubMed Central

An improved synthesis of a 3,4 hydroxypyridinone (HOPO) functionalized mesoporous silica is described. Higher 3,4-HOPO monolayer ligand loadings have been achieved, resulting in better performance. Performance improvements were demonstrated with the capture of U(VI) from human blood, plasma and filtered river water. PMID:22942668

Davidson, Joseph D.; Wiacek, Robert J.; Burton, Sarah; Li, Xiaohong S.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Addleman, R. Shane; Yantasee, Wassana; Sangvanich, Thanapon; Pattamakomsan, Kanda

2012-01-01

361

Changes in executive functions and self-efficacy are independently associated with improved usual gait speed in older women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Improved usual gait speed predicts substantial reduction in mortality. A better understanding of the modifiable factors that are independently associated with improved gait speed would ensure that intervention strategies are developed based on a valid theoretical framework. Thus, we examined the independent association of change in executive functions and change in falls-related self-efficacy with improved gait speed among community-dwelling

Teresa Liu-Ambrose; Jennifer C Davis; Lindsay S Nagamatsu; Chun Liang Hsu; Lindsay A Katarynych; Karim M Khan

2010-01-01

362

Bovine Milk as a Source of Functional Oligosaccharides for Improving Human Health12  

PubMed Central

Human milk oligosaccharides are complex sugars that function as selective growth substrates for specific beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal system. Bovine milk is a potentially excellent source of commercially viable analogs of these unique molecules. However, bovine milk has a much lower concentration of these oligosaccharides than human milk, and the majority of the molecules are simpler in structure than those found in human milk. Specific structural characteristics of milk-derived oligosaccharides are crucial to their ability to selectively enrich beneficial bacteria while inhibiting or being less than ideal substrates for undesirable and pathogenic bacteria. Thus, if bovine milk products are to provide human milk–like benefits, it is important to identify specific dairy streams that can be processed commercially and cost-effectively and that can yield specific oligosaccharide compositions that will be beneficial as new food ingredients or supplements to improve human health. Whey streams have the potential to be commercially viable sources of complex oligosaccharides that have the structural resemblance and diversity of the bioactive oligosaccharides in human milk. With further refinements to dairy stream processing techniques and functional testing to identify streams that are particularly suitable for enriching beneficial intestinal bacteria, the future of oligosaccharides isolated from dairy streams as a food category with substantiated health claims is promising. PMID:22332060

Zivkovic, Angela M.; Barile, Daniela

2011-01-01

363

Fibrin glue improves the therapeutic effect of MSCs by sustaining survival and paracrine function.  

PubMed

Fibrin glue has been widely investigated as a cell delivery vehicle for improving the therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Implanted MSCs produce their therapeutic effects by secreting paracrine factors and by replacing damaged tissues after differentiation. While the influence of fibrin glue on the differentiation potential of MSCs has been well documented, its effect on paracrine function of MSCs is largely unknown. Herein we investigated the influence of fibrin glue on the paracrine effects of MSCs. MSCs were isolated from human adipose tissue. The effects of fibrin glue on survival, migration, secretion of growth factors, and immune suppression of MSCs were investigated in vitro. MSCs in fibrin glue survived and secreted growth factors such as the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) over 14 days. VEGF and immune modulators, including the transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 and prostaglandin E2, secreted from MSCs in fibrin glue significantly increased under inflammatory conditions. Thus, MSCs in fibrin glue effectively suppressed immune reactions. In addition, fibrin glue protected the MSCs from oxidative stress and prevented human dermal fibroblast death induced by exposure to extreme stress. In contrast, MSCs within fibrin glue hardly migrated. These results suggest that fibrin glue may sustain survival of implanted MSCs and their paracrine function. Our results provide a mechanistic data to allow further development of MSCs with fibrin glue as a clinical treatment. PMID:23701237

Kim, Inok; Lee, Sung Koo; Yoon, Jung In; Kim, Da Eun; Kim, Mihyung; Ha, Hunjoo

2013-11-01

364

Myogenic Endothelial Cells Purified from Human Skeletal Muscle Improve Cardiac Function after Transplantation into Infarcted Myocardium  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of human skeletal muscle-derived myoendothelial cells for myocardial infarct repair. Background We have recently identified and purified a novel population of myoendothelial cells from human skeletal muscle. These cells co-express myogenic and endothelial cell markers and produce robust muscle regeneration when injected into cardiotoxin-injured skeletal muscle. Methods Myoendothelial cells were isolated from biopsies of human skeletal muscle using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter along with populations of regular myoblasts and endothelial cells. Acute myocardial infarction was induced in male immune-deficient mice, and cells were directly injected into the ischemic area. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography, and donor cell engraftment, angiogenesis, scar tissue, endogenous cardiomyocyte proliferation and apoptosis were all evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results A greater improvement in left ventricular function was observed after intramyocardial injection of myoendothelial cells when compared to hearts injected with myoblast or endothelial cells. Transplanted myoendothelial cells generated robust engraftments within the infarcted myocardium, and also stimulated angiogenesis, attenuation of scar tissue and proliferation and survival of endogenous cardiomyocytes more effectively than transplanted myoblasts or endothelial cells. Conclusions Our findings suggest that myoendothelial cells represent a novel cell population from human skeletal muscle that may hold promise for cardiac repair. PMID:19038685

Okada, Masaho; Payne, Thomas R.; Zheng, Bo; Oshima, Hideki; Momoi, Nobuo; Tobita, Kimimasa; Keller, Bradley B.; Phillippi, Julie A.; Péault, Bruno; Huard, Johnny

2009-01-01

365

Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and -3 improves cardiac function in an ischemic cardiomyopathy model rat.  

PubMed

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and a family of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) may contribute to myocardial remodeling in heart failure. TIMPs are the main inhibitors of MMPs and have other MMP-independent functions. Because little is known of the role of TIMPs in the heart, we examined the effects of TIMPs on cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) and cardiomyocytes. In vitro, TIMP-1-4 enhanced smooth muscle actin (SMA) expression in CFs, and TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 enhanced the expression of phosphorylated Smad-3 and phosphorylated transforming growth factor (TGF)-? type 1 receptor in CFs; this effect was inhibited by TGF-? receptor blocker SB-505124. TIMPs-1, -3, and -4 also inhibited the FAK, AKT, and ERK pathways that induce cardiac hypertrophy. TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 suppressed apoptosis in cardiomyocytes; in contrast, TIMP-4 induced apoptosis in CFs. TIMP-2 stimulated collagen synthesis. Collagen gels containing TIMP-1 or TIMP-3, which exhibit cardioprotective effects in vitro, were transplanted to the left ventricular anterior wall of a rat heart model of myocardial infarction. Gel-released TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 significantly improved cardiac function and myocardial remodeling and enhanced SMA expression in the infarcted area in ischemic cardiomyopathy model rats. Further, the transplantation of TIMP-1 or TIMP-3 gels inhibited apoptosis in the ischemic myocardium and reduced MMP-2 activity. TIMPs may be an ideal target of cardiac regeneration therapy. PMID:24814095

Uchinaka, Ayako; Kawaguchi, Naomasa; Mori, Seiji; Hamada, Yoshinosuke; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Saito, Atsuhiro; Sawa, Yoshiki; Matsuura, Nariaki

2014-11-01

366

Hydrogen sulfide improves left ventricular function in smoking rats via regulation of apoptosis and autophagy.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) against cigarette smoking-induced left ventricular dysfunction in rats. Left ventricular structure and function were assessed using two-dimensional echocardiography. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was determined by Annexin V/PI and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining. Cardiac autophagy was evaluated by detection of autophagy-related protein expression and observation of autophagosomes. Our results indicated that administration of NaHS (a donor of H2S) could protect against smoking-induced left ventricular systolic dysfunction. H2S was found to exert anti-apoptotic effects in the myocardium of smoking rats by inhibiting JNK and P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases pathways and activating PI3K/Akt signaling. Moreover, H2S could also reduce smoking-induced autophagic cell death via regulation of AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that H2S can improve left ventricular systolic function in smoking rats via regulation of apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:24658667

Zhou, Xiang; An, Guoyin; Chen, Jianchang

2014-06-01

367

An improved method for oriT-directed cloning and functionalization of large bacterial genomic regions.  

PubMed

We have made significant improvements to a broad-host-range system for the cloning and manipulation of large bacterial genomic regions based on site-specific recombination between directly repeated oriT sites during conjugation. Using two suicide capture vectors carrying flanking homology regions, oriT sites are recombined on either side of the target region. Using a broad-host-range conjugation helper plasmid, the region between the oriT sites is conjugated into an Escherichia coli recipient strain, where it is circularized and maintained as a chimeric mini-F vector. The cloned target region is functionalized in multiple ways to accommodate downstream manipulation. The target region is flanked with Gateway attB sites for recombination into other vectors and by rare 18-bp I-SceI restriction sites for subcloning. The Tn7-functionalized target can also be inserted at a naturally occurring chromosomal attTn7 site(s) or maintained as a broad-host-range plasmid for complementation or heterologous expression studies. We have used the oriTn7 capture technique to clone and complement Burkholderia pseudomallei genomic regions up to 140 kb in size and have created isogenic Burkholderia strains with various combinations of genomic islands. We believe this syste