Note: This page contains sample records for the topic improve lv function from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Hyperinsulinemia improves ischemic LV function in insulin resistant subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Glucose is a more efficient substrate for ATP production than free fatty acid (FFA). Insulin resistance (IR) results in higher FFA concentrations and impaired myocardial glucose use, potentially worsening ischemia. We hypothesized that metabolic manipulation with a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC) would affect a greater improvement in left ventricular (LV) performance during dobutamine stress echo (DSE) in subjects with IR. Methods 24 subjects with normal LV function and coronary disease (CAD) awaiting revascularization underwent 2 DSEs. Prior to one DSEs they underwent an HEC, where a primed infusion of insulin (rate 43 mU/m 2/min) was co-administered with 20% dextrose at variable rates to maintain euglycemia. At steady-state the DSE was performed and images of the LV were acquired with tissue Doppler at each stage for offline analysis. Segmental peak systolic velocities (Vs) were recorded, as well as LV ejection fraction (EF). Subjects were then divided into two groups based on their insulin sensitivity during the HEC. Results HEC changed the metabolic environment, suppressing FFAs and thereby increasing glucose use. This resulted in improved LV performance at peak stress, measured by EF (IS group mean difference 5.3 (95% CI 2.5-8) %, p = 0.002; IR group mean difference 8.7 (95% CI 5.8-11.6) %, p < 0.0001) and peak V s in ischemic segments (IS group mean improvement 0.7(95% CI 0.07-1.58) cm/s, p = 0.07; IR group mean improvement 1.0 (95% CI 0.54-1.5) cm/s, p < 0.0001) , that was greater in the subjects with IR. Conclusions Increased myocardial glucose use induced by HEC improves LV function under stress in subjects with CAD and IR. Cardiac metabolic manipulation in subjects with IR is a promising target for future therapy.

2010-01-01

2

Hyperinsulinemia improves ischemic LV function in insulin resistant subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Glucose is a more efficient substrate for ATP production than free fatty acid (FFA). Insulin resistance (IR) results in higher FFA concentrations and impaired myocardial glucose use, potentially worsening ischemia. We hypothesized that metabolic manipulation with a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC) would affect a greater improvement in left ventricular (LV) performance during dobutamine stress echo (DSE) in subjects with

Patrick M Heck; Stephen P Hoole; Sadia N Khan; David P Dutka

2010-01-01

3

Improved monitoring and control of distribution network by smart MV\\/LV substations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the key features and practical experience gained so far of a unique distribution network monitoring and control system. Intelligent components and communication equipment at MV\\/LV substations have enabled extension of SCADA and DMS systems from HV\\/MV substations down to LV level. The functionality includes e.g. power quality monitoring, control of MV switches, and MV fault indication. Putting

L. Kumpulainen; S. Pettissalo; P. Trygg; K. Malmberg; M. Loukkalahti; M. Hyvarinen

2011-01-01

4

Opening the pericardium during pulmonary artery constriction improves cardiac function.  

PubMed

During acute pulmonary hypertension, both the pericardium and the right ventricle (RV) constrain left ventricular (LV) filling; therefore, pericardiotomy should improve LV function. LV, RV, and pericardial pressures and RV and LV dimensions and LV stroke volume (SV) were measured in six anesthetized dogs. The pericardium was closed, the chest was left open, and the lungs were held away from the heart. Data were collected at baseline, during pulmonary artery constriction (PAC), and after pericardiotomy with PAC maintained. PAC decreased SV by one-half. RV diameter increased, and septum-to-LV free wall diameter and LV area (our index of LV end-diastolic volume) decreased. Compared with during PAC, pericardiotomy increased LV area and SV increased 35%. LV and RV compliance (pressure-dimension relations) and LV contractility (stroke work-LV area relations) were unchanged. Although series interaction accounts for much of the decreased cardiac output during acute pulmonary hypertension, pericardial constraint and leftward septal shift are also important. Pericardiotomy can improve LV function in the absence of other sources of external constraint to LV filling. PMID:14578366

Belenkie, Israel; Sas, Rozsa; Mitchell, Jamie; Smith, Eldon R; Tyberg, John V

2003-10-24

5

Hypertension in heart failure patients with normal LVEF is characterized by decreased atrial ejection function and two distinct patterns of abnormal LV filling in addition to LVH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertension (HTN) is associated with LVH, abnormal LV diastolic function and congestive heart failure (CHF) often with normal systolic function. Although LV size and function has been characterized in this group, left atrial (LA) volumes and function have not been well studied. Therefore, we characterized LA volumes and function in a group of hypertensive patients (HT) with acute CHF and

Ioannis A. Stathopoulos; Icilma V. Fergus; David Scott; Debashish Roychoudry; Frank C. Messineo

2002-01-01

6

Limitations of quantitative phase analysis for detection of coronary artery disease in patients with impaired LV-function  

SciTech Connect

Phase analysis of radionuclide ventriculograms is used for identifying ischemic wall motion abnormalities. Myocardial segments with an abnormal phase and the synchronicity of LV wall motion can be assessed from a histogram of LV phase distribution. We examined in this study the sensitivity of SDP-LV for identifying coronary artery disease and its specificity in patients with normal and various degrees of left ventricular impairment. A total of 84 patients were studied. In severe left ventricular impairment, phase analysis did not aid in distinguishing coronary artery disease from other causes of ventricular dysfunction. By contrast, phase analysis was highly sensitive and specific for coronary artery disease in patients with normal or moderately depressed left ventricular function.

Schwaiger, M.; Ratib, O.; Hanze, E.; Schelbert, H.R.

1983-01-01

7

Impact of preoperative positron emission tomography in patients with severely impaired LV-function undergoing surgical revascularization  

PubMed Central

In patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) offers an important therapeutic option but is still associated with high perioperative mortality. Although previous studies suggest a benefit from revascularization for patients with defined viability by a non-invasive technique, the role of viability assessment to determine suitability for revascularization in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy has not yet been defined. This study evaluates the hypothesis that the use of PET imaging in the decision-making process for CABG will improve postoperative patient survival. We reviewed 476 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (LV ejection fraction ?0.35) who were considered candidates for CABG between 1994 and 2004 on the basis of clinical presentation and angiographic data. In a Standard Care Group, 298 patients underwent CABG. In a second PET-assisted management group of 178 patients, 152 patients underwent CABG (PET-CABG) and 26 patients were excluded from CABG because of lack of viability (PET-Alternatives). Primary endpoint was postoperative survival. There were two in hospital deaths in the PET-CABG (1.3%) and 30 (10.1%) in the Standard Care Group (P = 0.018). The survival rate after 1, 5 and 9.3 years was 92.0, 73.3 and 54.2% in the PET-CABG and 88.9, 62.2 and 35.5% in the Standard Care Group, respectively (P = 0.005). Cox-regression analysis revealed a significant influence on long-term survival of patient selection by viability assessment via PET (P = 0.008), of LV-function (P = 0.017), and age >70 (P = 0.016). Preoperative assessment of myocardial viability via PET identifies patients, who will benefit most from CABG.

Haas, Felix; Bauernschmitt, Robert; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Voss, Bernhard; Schwaiger, Markus; Lange, Rudiger

2010-01-01

8

COMPLETE ASSESSMENT OF LV AND RV FUNCTION AND VOLUME IN A SINGLE BREATHOLD USING REAL-TIME, SPIRAL, STEADY-STATE FREE PRECESSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Purpose: Accurate, reproducible quantitation of LV and RV volumes and function is important for the care of heart failure patients. However, existing MR techniques are clinically cumbersome in the heart failure population given the need for long acquisition times, requirement for multiple patient breath-holds, and sensitivity to arrhythmias. Rapid, accurate, and respiration immune assessment of LV and RV

G. Narayan; K. Nayak; J. Pauly; B. Hu

2004-01-01

9

The effect of a peptide-modified thermo-reversible methylcellulose on wound healing and LV function in a chronic myocardial infarction rodent model.  

PubMed

Myocardial infarction is the main contributor to heart failure. In this study we examined whether modification of a thermo-reversible cellulose-based polymer with extracellular-matrix derived functional groups could promote wound healing and improve cardiac function in a chronic rodent model of ischemic cardiomyopathy. To beneficially influence the microenvironment of the injured myocardium, we conjugated either the RGD peptide or the HepIII peptide to the polymer. In vitro cell adhesion studies showed that the peptide-modified polymer promoted cell attachment to the polymer surface. Injection of the thermo-reversible polymer into the aneurismal infarct region of the left ventricle showed that the peptide-modified polymer exhibited significantly improved left ventricular function, increased angiogenesis, decreased infarct size, and an increase in cardiomyocytes within the infarct region at 5 weeks post-treatment (P < 0.05). The results of this study demonstrate that a peptide-modified thermo-reversible polymer has the capability to alter left ventricular (LV) geometry, increase LV function, and promote myocardial regeneration in a chronic model of ischemic cardiomyopathy. PMID:23895998

Mihardja, Shirley S; Gonzales, Jose A; Gao, Dongwei; Sievers, Richard E; Fang, Qizhi; Stillson, Carol A; Yu, Jiashing; Peng, Michelle; Lee, Randall J

2013-07-26

10

Limitations of Quantitative Phase Analysis for Detection of Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Impaired LV-Function.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phase analysis of radionuclide ventriculograms is used for identifying ischemic wall motion abnormalities. Myocardial segments with an abnormal phase and the synchronicity of LV wall motion can be assessed from a histogram of LV phase distribution. We exa...

M. Schwaiger O. Ratib E. Hanze H. R. Schelbert

1983-01-01

11

Anisotropic Reinforcement of Acute Anteroapical Infarcts Improves Pump Function  

PubMed Central

Background We hypothesize that a therapy that improves LV pump function early after infarction should decrease the need for compensation through sympathetic activation and dilation, thereby reducing the risk of developing heart failure. The mechanical properties of healing myocardial infarcts are an important determinant of left ventricular (LV) function, yet improving function by altering infarct properties has proven unexpectedly difficult. Using a computational model, we recently predicted that stiffening a large anterior infarct anisotropically (in only one direction) would improve LV function, while isotropic stiffening, the focus of previous studies and therapies, would not. The goal of this study was to test the novel strategy of anisotropic infarct reinforcement. Methods and Results We tested the effects of anisotropic infarct reinforcement in 10 open-chest dogs with large anteroapical infarcts that depressed LV pump function. We measured regional mechanics, LV volumes, and cardiac output at a range of preloads at Baseline, 45 minutes after coronary ligation (Ischemia), and 30 minutes later, following surgical reinforcement in the longitudinal direction (Anisotropic). Ischemia shifted the end-systolic pressure-volume relationship (ESPVR) and cardiac output curves rightward, decreasing cardiac output at matched end-diastolic pressure (EDP) by 44%. Anisotropic reinforcement significantly improved systolic function without impairing diastolic function, recovering half the deficit in overall LV function. Conclusions We conclude that anisotropic reinforcement is a promising new approach to improving LV function following a large myocardial infarction.

Fomovsky, Gregory M.; Clark, Samantha A.; Parker, Katherine M.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Holmes, Jeffrey W.

2012-01-01

12

RV filling modulates LV function by direct ventricular interaction during mechanical ventilation.  

PubMed

During mechanical ventilation, phasic changes in systemic venous return modulate right ventricular output but may also affect left ventricular function by direct ventricular interaction. In 13 anesthetized, closed-chest, normal dogs, we measured inferior vena cava flow and left and right ventricular dimensions and output during mechanical ventilation, during an inspiratory hold, and (during apnea) vena caval constriction and abdominal compression. During a single ventilation cycle preceded by apnea, positive pressure inspiration decreased caval flow and right ventricular dimension; the transseptal pressure gradient increased, the septum shifted rightward, reflecting an increased left ventricular volume (the anteroposterior diameter did not change); and stroke volume increased. The opposite occurred during expiration. Similarly, the maneuvers that decreased venous return shifted the septum rightward, and left ventricular volume and stroke volume increased. Increased venous return had opposite effects. Changes in left ventricular function caused by changes in venous return alone were similar to those during mechanical ventilation except for minor quantitative differences. We conclude that phasic changes in systemic venous return during mechanical ventilation modulate left ventricular function by direct ventricular interaction. PMID:15792988

Mitchell, Jamie R; Whitelaw, William A; Sas, Rozsa; Smith, Eldon R; Tyberg, John V; Belenkie, Israel

2005-03-25

13

Methods used for the assessment of LV systolic function: common currency or tower of Babel?  

PubMed

The last decade has produced a proliferation of techniques for the assessment of left ventricular systolic function, and there now seems to be more choice than seems rational for the questions that we need answers to. In some instances, simple estimation is all that is required-the risk stratification process is inexact, as emphasised by the variety of modalities used to characterise ejection fraction (EF) in studies that validated the efficacy of treatments selected on the basis of EF. Nonetheless, while technical advances often cause disruption and confusion, it would be wrong to dismiss them as lacking benefit. The purpose of this review is to try to provide rational grounds for selecting both test modality and physiological parameter in various specific clinical situations. PMID:23376947

Marwick, Thomas H

2013-02-02

14

Myocardial Perfusion Grade (MPG) After Late Infarct Artery Recanalization is Associated With Global and Regional LV Function at One Year; Analysis From the Total Occlusion Study of Canada-2  

PubMed Central

Background Whether myocardial perfusion grade (MPG) following late recanalization of infarct-related arteries (IRA) predicts left ventricular (LV) function recovery beyond the acute phase of myocardial infarction (MI) is unknown. Methods and Results The Total Occlusion Study of Canada-2 (TOSCA-2) enrolled stable patients with persistently occluded IRA beyond 24 h and up to 28 days post-MI. We studied the relationship between the initial MPG and changes in LV function and volume, and the change in MPG from immediate post-PCI to one year in 139 PCI patients with TIMI 3 epicardial flow post PCI and with paired values, grouped into impaired or good MPG groups (MPG 0/1 or MPG 2/3). MPG 0/1 patients were more likely to have received thrombolytic therapy and to have a LAD IRA. They had lower blood pressure and LV ejection fraction (LVEF), and a higher heart rate and systolic sphericity index at baseline. Changes in the MPG 0/1 and MPG 2/3 groups from baseline to 1 year were: LVEF 3.3±9.0 and 4.8±8.9 percent (p=0.42), LV end-systolic volume index (LVESVI) -1.1±9.2 and -4.7±12.3 ml/m2 (p=0.25), LV end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI) 0.08±19.1 and -2.4±22.2 ml/m2 (p=0.67), and standard deviations /chord for infarct zone wall motion index (WMI)) 0.38±0.70 and 0.84±1.11 (p=0.01). By covariate-adjusted analysis, post-PCI MPG 0/1 predicted lower WMI (p<0.001), lower LVEF (p<0.001) and higher LVESVI (p<0.01), but not LVEDVI at one year. Of the MPG 0/1 patients, 60% were MPG 2 or 3 at one year. Conclusions Preserved MPG is present in a high proportion of patients following late PCI of occluded IRAs post-MI. Poor MPG post-PCI frequently improves MPG over 1 year. MPG graded after IRA recanalization undertaken days to weeks post MI is associated with LV recovery indicating that MPG determined in the subacute post-MI period remains a marker of viability.

Steigen, Terje K.; Buller, Christopher E.; John Mancini, G. B.; Jorapur, Vinod; Cantor, Warren J.; Rankin, James M.; Thomas, Boban; Webb, John G.; Kronsberg, Shari S.; Atchison, Deborah J.; Lamas, Gervasio A.; Hochman, Judith S.; Dzavik, Vladimir

2012-01-01

15

Left ventricular function improvement after prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation in patients with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

AIMS: To assess the incidence and prognostic significance of left ventricular (LV) function improvement in patients with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD).METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 123 patients with DCM and echocardiographic follow-up assessments within 1 year after prophylactic ICD implant were retrospectively studied at our institution. All patients had New York Heart Association class II or III symptoms in the presence of a LV ejection fraction of 23 ± 6% (range: 9-35%) despite optimized medical therapy for at least 3 months prior to ICD implant. Left ventricular function improvement was defined as an increase of LV ejection fraction of more than 5% to more than 35% combined with a decrease LV end-diastolic diameter of at least 5 mm. Left ventricular function improvement after prophylactic ICD implant was found in 30 of 123 patients (24%). Multivariate logistic regression revealed recent onset DCM with symptoms ?9 months as the only significant predictor of LV function improvement [odds ratio: 6.89; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.43-21.99, P = 0.0002]. During 74 months mean follow-up, total mortality was higher in patients without vs. with LV function improvement [hazard ratio (HR): 3.75; 95% CI: 1.14-12.31, P = 0.0034], while the incidence of appropriate ICD therapies was similar in both groups in the early phase after prophylactic ICD implant (HR: 1.15; 95% CI: 0.57-2.33, P = 0.70). The incidence of appropriate ICD therapies decreased to ?1% per year after LV function improvement had occurred.CONCLUSION: Recently diagnosed DCM predicts LV function improvement after prophylactic ICD implant. Overall survival was significantly better in patients with vs. without LV function improvement, while appropriate ICD therapy rates were similar in both groups in the early phase after prophylactic ICD implantation before LV function improvement occurred. PMID:23639855

Grimm, Wolfram; Timmesfeld, Nina; Efimova, Elena

2013-05-01

16

Rest and redistribution thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy to predict improvement in left ventricular function after coronary arterial bypass grafting  

SciTech Connect

To examine the value of rest and redistribution thallium-201 imaging in predicting improvement in left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 26 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and abnormal LV function were studied. Nineteen patients had pathologic Q waves preoperatively. Rest and redistribution thallium-201 images and radionuclide ventriculograms were obtained before and after CABG, and the thallium scintigrams were evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively. The patients were divided according to the preoperative thallium scintigrams into 2 groups: Group I (16 patients) had either normal resting thallium-201 images or reversible resting perfusion defects, and Group II (10 patients) had fixed resting perfusion defects. The resting EF was less than 50% preoperatively in all patients. Fourteen patients (54%) showed improvement in EF postoperatively. Three patients (2 in Group I and 1 in Group II) showed new postoperative perfusion defects, and none of the 3 showed improvement in LV function. Of the remaining 14 patients in Group I, 12 (86%) showed improvement in LV function, compared with 2 of 9 patients in Group II (p less than 0.01). Improvement in LV function was observed in 8 of the 19 patients (42%) with abnormal Q waves. Nitroglycerin intervention radionuclide ventriculograms were obtained in 20 patients before CABG. Of the 6 patients who showed improvement in LV function with nitroglycerin, 4 also showed improvement postoperatively. Postoperative improvement in LV function was also observed in 6 of the 14 patients who did not improve with nitroglycerin.

Iskandrian, A.S.; Hakki, A.H.; Kane, S.A.; Goel, I.P.; Mundth, E.D.; Hakki, A.H.; Segal, B.L.

1983-05-01

17

Implantation of a three-dimensional fibroblast matrix improves left ventricular function and blood flow after acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine if a viable biodegradable three-dimensional fibroblast construct (3DFC) patch implanted on the left ventricle after myocardial infarction (MI) improves left ventricular (LV) function and blood flow. We ligated the left coronary artery of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats and implanted the 3DFC at the time of the infarct. Three weeks after MI, the 3DFC improved LV systolic function by increasing (p < 0.05) ejection fraction (37 +/- 3% to 62 +/- 5%), increasing regional systolic displacement of the infarcted wall (0.04 +/- 0.02 to 0.11 +/- 0.03 cm), and shifting the passive LV diastolic pressure volume relationship toward the pressure axis. The 3FDC improved LV remodeling by decreasing (p < 0.05) LV end-systolic and end-diastolic diameters with no change in LV systolic pressure. The 3DFC did not change LV end-diastolic pressure (LV EDP; 25 +/- 2 vs. 23 +/- 2 mmHg) but the addition of captopril (2mg/L drinking water) lowered (p < 0.05) LV EDP to 12.9 +/- 2.5 mmHg and shifted the pressure-volume relationship toward the pressure axis and decreased (p < 0.05) the LV operating end-diastolic volume from 0.49 +/- 0.02 to 0.34 +/- 0.03 ml. The 3DFC increased myocardial blood flow to the infarcted anterior wall after MI over threefold (p < 0.05). This biodegradable 3DFC patch improves LV function and myocardial blood flow 3 weeks after MI. This is a potentially new approach to cell-based therapy for heart failure after MI. PMID:19558777

Thai, Hoang M; Juneman, Elizabeth; Lancaster, Jordan; Hagerty, Tracy; Do, Rose; Castellano, Lisa; Kellar, Robert; Williams, Stuart; Sethi, Gulshan; Schmelz, Monika; Gaballa, Mohamed; Goldman, Steven

2009-01-01

18

Calpain 1 knockdown improves tissue sparing and functional outcomes after spinal cord injury in rats.  

PubMed

To evaluate the hypothesis that calpain 1 knockdown would reduce pathological damage and functional deficits after spinal cord injury (SCI), we developed lentiviral vectors encoding calpain 1 shRNA and eGFP as a reporter (LV-CAPN1 shRNA). The ability of LV-CAPN1 shRNA to knockdown calpain 1 was confirmed in rat NRK cells using Northern and Western blot analysis. To investigate the effects on spinal cord injury, LV-CAPN1shRNA or LV-mismatch control shRNA (LV-control shRNA) were administered by convection enhanced diffusion at spinal cord level T10 in Long-Evans female rats (200-250?g) 1 week before contusion SCI, 180 kdyn force, or sham surgery at the same thoracic level. Intraspinal administration of the lentiviral particles resulted in transgene expression, visualized by eGFP, in spinal tissue at 2 weeks after infection. Calpain 1 protein levels were reduced by 54% at T10 2 weeks after shRNA-mediated knockdown (p<0.05, compared with the LV-control group, n=3 per group) while calpain 2 levels were unchanged. Intraspinal administration of LV-CAPN1shRNA 1 week before contusion SCI resulted in a significant improvement in locomotor function over 6 weeks postinjury, compared with LV-control administration (p<0.05, n=10 per group). Histological analysis of spinal cord sections indicated that pre-injury intraspinal administration of LV-CAPN1shRNA significantly reduced spinal lesion volume and improved total tissue sparing, white matter sparing, and gray matter sparing (p<0.05, n=10 per group). Together, results support the hypothesis that calpain 1 activation contributes to the tissue damage and impaired locomotor function after SCI, and that calpain1 represents a potential therapeutic target. PMID:23102374

Yu, Chen Guang; Li, Yanzhang; Raza, Kashif; Yu, Xin Xin; Ghoshal, Sarbani; Geddes, James W

2013-03-26

19

Targeted Delivery of VEGF after a Myocardial Infarction Reduces Collagen Deposition and Improves Cardiac Function  

PubMed Central

The development of adjunctive therapies which attenuate adverse remodeling and improve LV function post myocardial infarction (MI) is of significant clinical interest. Previously, we have shown that targeted delivery of therapeutic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to the infarct border zone significantly increases vascular perfusion and results in improvements in LV function. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that improvements in cardiac function observed with this novel targeted drug delivery system strongly correlate with reductions in collagen deposition in the scar tissue after an MI. Rats received anti-P-selectin conjugated immunoliposomes containing VEGF immediately post-MI. Over 4 weeks, evolutionary changes in LV geometry and function were correlated with collagen deposition and infarct size quantified by Gomori's trichrome and picrosirius red staining. Targeted VEGF treated hearts showed a 37% decrease in collagen deposition in the anterior wall, as well as significant improvements in LV filling pressures. Multi-regression analysis showed that the extent of collagen deposition post MI can be predicted by a linear combination of normalized LV mass and ejection fraction. Targeted delivery of VEGF post-MI results in significant decreases in collagen deposition and adverse remodeling. Improvements in cardiac function in this model are related to degree of collagen deposition and extent of scar formation.

Rosano, Jenna M.; Cheheltani, Rabee; Wang, Bin; Vora, Hardik; Kiani, Mohammad F.; Crabbe, Deborah L.

2012-01-01

20

Relationship Between Preoperative Viability and Postoperative Improvement in LVEF and Heart Failure Symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of myocardial viability is predictive of improvement in regional left ventricular (LV) function after revascularization. Studies on predicting improvement in global LV function are scarce, and the amount of viable myocardium needed for improve- ment in LV ejection fraction (LVEF) after revascularization is un- known. Moreover, whether the presence of viability is associated with relief of heart failure

Jeroen J. Bax; Frans C. Visser; Don Poldermans; Abdou Elhendy; Jan H. Cornel; Eric Boersma; Roelf Valkema; Arthur van Lingen; Paolo M. Fioretti; Cees A. Visser

21

Enhanced intra-aortic balloon pump: markedly improved systemic hemodynamics and cardiac function in canines with severe, acute left ventricular failure.  

PubMed

Intra-aortic balloon pumps (IABPs) cannot sustain hemodynamics if the left heart is severely injured. An enhanced IABP was evaluated in 6 anesthetized dogs with acute stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery, regional left ventricular (LV) stunning, and global LV dysfunction. An IABP balloon was inserted into the descending aorta and an external chamber containing another IABP balloon was connected to the aorta through a catheter inserted into the left subclavian artery. This emulated the enhanced IABP with a conduit from its external chamber passing axially through an internal IABP balloon. Compared to IABP, enhanced IABP improved hemodynamics and LV function in all conditions. During severe LV dysfunction and circulatory failure, IABP failed to augment diastolic aortic pressure or improve coronary and carotid flows. Enhanced IABP augmented diastolic pressure from 32 +/- 3 mm Hg to 87 +/- 2 mm Hg and increased coronary and carotid flows. Enhanced IABP may be a lifesaving device for patients with severe LV failure. PMID:12139502

Bian, Xiaoming; Downey, H Fred

2002-08-01

22

Utility of NT-proBNP for Identifying LV Failure in Patients with Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Bronchitis  

PubMed Central

Background NT-proBNP has been widely regarded as a useful tool for diagnosis or exclusion of heart failure (HF) in many settings. However, in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis (AECB), its roles have not been well described. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of NT-proBNP for identifying left ventricular (LV) failure in such patients. Methods and Results 311 AECB patients and 102 stable chronic bronchitis patients with no history of HF were enrolled. Plasma NT-proBNP concentrations were measured using Roche Elecsys. The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) diagnostic principles were adopted to identify HF and the diagnostic performance of NT-proBNP was evaluated by ROC. Our results showed, the median NT-proBNP level in patients with LV failure [4828.4 (2044.4–9203.6) ng/L] was significantly higher than that in those without LV failure [519.2 (179.1–1409.8) ng/L, p<0.001] and stable controls [207.5 (186.5–318.2) ng/L, p<0.001]. LV failure, renal function, atrial fibrillation and systolic pulmonary artery pressure were independent predictors of NT-proBNP levels (all p<0.05). The area under ROC curve (AUC) of NT-proBNP for identifying LV failure was 0.884, significantly superior to clinical judgment alone (AUC 0.835, p?=?0.0294). At the optimal cutoff value of 935.0 ng/L, NT-proBNP yielded sensitivity 94.4%, specificity 68.2%, accuracy 74.3% and negative predictive value 97.6%. Adding the results of NT-proBNP to those of clinical judgment improved the diagnostic accuracy for LV failure. Conclusion As a tool for diagnosis or exclusion of HF, NT-proBNP can help physicians identify LV failure in patients with AECB.

Wang, Xue-dong; Gu, Juan; Wen, Li-min; Mao, Li-ming; Shan, Ping-nan; Tang, Ai-guo

2013-01-01

23

Glycemia, Lipidemia and Systolic Left Ventricular Function Evaluated by Myocardial Strain Rate: A Tissue Doppler Echocardiographic Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have indicated that hyperglycemia and insulin resistance are significantly correlated to left ventricular (LV) long-axis function, and it seems that optimized glycemic control is significantly related to improved LV function. The aim of the study was to investigate the relation between glucose metabolism, lipid levels and LV long-axis function in normal subjects. The study population consisted of 20

Niels Holmark Andersen; Anders Bojesen; Jens Sandahl Christiansen; Claus Højbjerg Gravholt

2008-01-01

24

Ranolazine combined with enalapril or metoprolol prevents progressive LV dysfunction and remodeling in dogs with moderate heart failure  

PubMed Central

Acute intravenous infusion of ranolazine (Ran), an anti-ischemic/antiangina drug, was previously shown to improve left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) without a concomitant increase in myocardial oxygen consumption in dogs with chronic heart failure (HF). This study examined the effects of treatment with Ran alone and in combination with metoprolol (Met) or enalapril (Ena) on LV function and remodeling in dogs with HF. Dogs (n = 28) with microembolization-induced HF were randomized to 3 mo oral treatment with Ran alone [375 mg twice daily (bid); n = 7], Ran (375 mg bid) in combination with Met tartrate (25 mg bid; n = 7), Ran (375 mg bid) in combination with Ena (10 mg bid; n = 7), or placebo (PL; Ran vehicle bid; n = 7). Ventriculographic measurements of LV end-diastolic volume (EDV) and end-systolic volume (ESV) and LV EF were obtained before treatment and after 3 mo of treatment. In PL-treated dogs, EDV and ESV increased significantly. Ran alone prevented the increase in EDV and ESV seen in the PL group and significantly increased EF, albeit modestly, from 35 ± 1% to 37 ± 2%. When combined with either Ena or Met, Ran prevented the increase in EDV, significantly decreased ESV, and markedly increased EF compared with those of PL. EF increased from 35 ± 1% to 40 ± 1% with Ran + Ena and from 34 ± 1% to 41 ± 1% with Ran + Met. Ran alone or in combination with Ena or Met was also associated with beneficial effects at the cellular level on histomorphometric parameters such as hypertrophy, fibrosis, and capillary density as well as the expression for pathological hypertrophy and Ca2+ cycling genes. In conclusion, Ran prevented progressive LV dysfunction and global and cellular myocardial remodeling, and Ran in combination with Ena or Met improved LV function beyond that observed with Ran alone.

Rastogi, Sharad; Sharov, Victor G.; Mishra, Sudhish; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Blackburn, Brent; Belardinelli, Luiz; Stanley, William C.; Sabbah, Hani N.

2008-01-01

25

Improved Heterogeneous Distance Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instance-based learning techniques typically handle continuous and linear input values well, but often do not handle nominal input attributes appropriately. The Value Difference Metric (VDM) was designed to find reasonable distance values between nominal attribute values, but it largely ignores continuous attributes, requiring discretization to map continuous values into nominal values. This paper proposes three new heterogeneous distance functions, called

D. Randall Wilson; Tony R. Martinez

1997-01-01

26

LV reverse remodeling imparted by aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis; is it durable? A cardiovascular MRI study sponsored by the American Heart Association  

PubMed Central

Background In patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS), long-term data tracking surgically induced effects of afterload reduction on reverse LV remodeling are not available. Echocardiographic data is available short term, but in limited fashion beyond one year. Cardiovascular MRI (CMR) offers the ability to serially track changes in LV metrics with small numbers due to its inherent high spatial resolution and low variability. Hypothesis We hypothesize that changes in LV structure and function following aortic valve replacement (AVR) are detectable by CMR and once triggered by AVR, continue for an extended period. Methods Tweny-four patients of which ten (67 ± 12 years, 6 female) with severe, but compensated AS underwent CMR pre-AVR, 6 months, 1 year and up to 4 years post-AVR. 3D LV mass index, volumetrics, LV geometry, and EF were measured. Results All patients survived AVR and underwent CMR 4 serial CMR's. LVMI markedly decreased by 6 months (157 ± 42 to 134 ± 32 g/m2, p < 0.005) and continued trending downwards through 4 years (127 ± 32 g/m2). Similarly, EF increased pre to post-AVR (55 ± 22 to 65 ± 11%,(p < 0.05)) and continued trending upwards, remaining stable through years 1-4 (66 ± 11 vs. 65 ± 9%). LVEDVI, initially high pre-AVR, decreased post-AVR (83 ± 30 to 68 ± 11 ml/m2, p < 0.05) trending even lower by year 4 (66 ± 10 ml/m2). LV stroke volume increased rapidly from pre to post-AVR (40 ± 11 to 44 ± 7 ml, p < 0.05) continuing to increase non-significantly through 4 years (49 ± 14 ml) with these LV metrics paralleling improvements in NYHA. However, LVmass/volume, a 3D measure of LV geometry, remained unchanged over 4 years. Conclusion After initial beneficial effects imparted by AVR in severe AS patients, there are, as expected, marked improvements in LV reverse remodeling. Via CMR, surgically induced benefits to LV structure and function are durable and, unexpectedly express continued, albeit markedly incomplete improvement through 4 years post-AVR concordant with sustained improved clinical status. This supports down-regulation of both mRNA and MMP activity acutely with robust suppression long term.

2011-01-01

27

3D quantitative visualization of altered LV wall thickening dynamics caused by coronary microembolization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional heart wall dynamics has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of LV wall ischemia. Rates of local LV wall thickening during a cardiac cycle can be measured and illustrated using functional parametric mappings. This display conveys the spatial distribution of dynamic strain in the myocardium and thereby provides a rapid qualitative appreciation of the severity and extent of

Christian D. Eusemann; Stefan Mohlenkamp; Erik L. Ritman; Richard A. Robb

2001-01-01

28

3D Quantitative Visualization of Altered LV wall Thickening Dynamics Caused by Coronary Microembolization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional heart wall dynamics has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of LV wall ischemia. Rates of local LV wall thickening during a cardiac cycle can be measured and illustrated using functional parametric mappings. This display conveys the spatial distribution of dynamic strain in the myocardium and thereby provides a rapid qualitative appreciation of the severity and extent of

Christian D. Eusemann; Stefan Mohlenkamp; Erik L. Ritman; Richard A. Robb

29

Cilnidipine improves left-ventricular midwall function independently of blood pressure changes in Chinese patients with hypertension.  

PubMed

Despite normal indices of left-ventricular (LV) chamber function, patients with hypertension are thought to have depressed LV midwall systolic shortening. This study was designed to investigate effects of short-term therapy with cilnidipine on LV midwall fractional shortening (mFS) in Chinese patients with hypertension. Thirty-seven patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension underwent a 2 week placebo run-in period, then received 5-10 mg/day of cilnidipine orally for 8 weeks. At the end of the placebo period and treatment, patients were examined by echocardiogram, measuring and calculating LV ejection fraction (EF), LV endocardial fraction shortening (eFS), and LV mFS. Compared with the normotensive group, the hypertensive group had a significantly higher eFS (P < 0.05) and EF (P < 0.01), both at the end of the placebo period and at 8 weeks; mFS of patients with hypertension was lower at the end of the placebo period (P < 0.05), but at the end of 8 weeks mFS was not different than that of the control group (P = 0.963). After cilnidipine treatment, EF and eFS did not change (P > 0.05); however, absolute mFS and corrected mFS were increased significantly (P < 0.01). Moreover, changes of mFS showed no correlation with changes of blood pressure (P > 0.05). Midwall fractional shortening is more reliable and sensitive than conventional systolic function measures in assessment of systolic function; cilnidipine can improve left-ventricular systolic function (mFS) independently of blood pressure changes in Chinese patients who have hypertension. PMID:17261961

Ma, Zhi-Yong; Li, Li; Zhong, Xue-Zhen; Tan, Hong-Wei; Wang, Rong; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yun

2007-01-01

30

Improvement of severely reduced left ventricular function after surgical revascularization in patients with preoperative myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, two pathophysiological conditions - stunned and hibernating myocardium - have been described showing how function may be depressed in myocardium that remains viable. The aims of the present study were postoper- ative assessment of LV function at rest and during exercise after CABG in patients with established pre;ious myocardial infarction and impaired preoperative LV function and evaluation

T. Carrel; R. Jenni; S. Haubold-Reuter; G VONSCHULTHESS; M. Pasic; M TURINA

1992-01-01

31

Meshless deformable models for LV motion analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel meshless deformable model for in vivo cardiac left ventricle (LV) 3D motion estimation. As a relatively new technology, tagged MRI (tMRI) provides a di- rect and noninvasive way to reveal local deformation of the myocardium, which creates a large amount of heart motion data which requiring quantitative analysis. In our study, we sample the heart motion

Xiaoxu Wang; Dimitris N. Metaxas; Ting Chen; Leon Axel

2008-01-01

32

Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition improves myocardial perfusion and function in experimental heart failure.  

PubMed

The study addressed the hypothesis that soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibition, which increases cardiovascular protective epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), exerts beneficial effects in an established chronic heart failure (CHF) model. In CHF rats, left ventricular (LV) function, perfusion and remodeling were assessed using MRI and invasive hemodynamics after 42-day (starting 8 days after coronary ligation) and delayed 3-day (starting 47 days after coronary ligation) treatments with the sEH inhibitor AUDA (twice 0.25 mg/day). Delayed 3-day and 42-day AUDA increased plasma EETs demonstrating the effective inhibition of sEH. Delayed 3-day and 42-day AUDA enhanced cardiac output without change in arterial pressure, thus reducing total peripheral resistance. Both treatment periods increased the slope of the LV end-systolic pressure-volume relation, but only 42-day AUDA decreased LV end-diastolic pressure, relaxation constant Tau and the slope of the LV end-diastolic pressure-volume relation, associated with a reduced LV diastolic volume and collagen density. Delayed 3-day and, to a larger extent, 42-day AUDA increased LV perfusion associated with a decreased LV hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha. Both treatment periods decreased reactive oxygen species level and increased reduced-oxidized glutathione ratio. Finally, MSPPOH, an inhibitor of the EET-synthesizing enzyme cytochrome epoxygenases, abolished the beneficial effects of 3-day AUDA on LV function and perfusion. Augmentation of EET availability by pharmacological inhibition of sEH increases LV diastolic and systolic functions in established CHF. This notably results from short-term processes, i.e. increased LV perfusion, reduced LV oxidative stress and peripheral vasodilatation, but also from long-term effects, i.e. reduced LV remodeling. PMID:22155238

Merabet, Nassiba; Bellien, Jeremy; Glevarec, Etienne; Nicol, Lionel; Lucas, Daniele; Remy-Jouet, Isabelle; Bounoure, Frederic; Dreano, Yvonne; Wecker, Didier; Thuillez, Christian; Mulder, Paul

2011-12-06

33

LV measurements with an advanced turboprop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonintrusive measurements of velocity about a spinner-propeller-nacelle configuration were made at a Mach number of 0.8. A laser velocimeter (LV) specifically developed for these measurements was used to determine the flow field of the advanced swept SR-3 propeller. The data will be used to study the flow and to verify computer prediction codes. The usefulness of the LV data in detecting flow anomalies and to substantiate the data quality was demonstrated. Some typical results are given. Mach number profiles at the entrance of the propeller are compared with theoretical predictions. The LV data is in excellent agreement with the axisymmetric, compressible, inviscid theory (without blades) ahead of the propeller except near the hub. The data indicate blade blockage near the spinner. Blade to blade variations in axial velocity for four radial positions at the propeller exist are also given. The large apparent wake near the hub is associated with the hub choking. The blade to blade variation of axial velocity ahead of a shock within the blade passage is given.

Neumann, H. E.; Serafini, J. S.

1982-09-01

34

Temporal pattern of left ventricular structural and functional remodeling following reversal of volume overload heart failure  

PubMed Central

Current surgical management of volume overload-induced heart failure (HF) leads to variable recovery of left ventricular (LV) function despite a return of LV geometry. The mechanisms that prevent restoration of function are unknown but may be related to the timing of intervention and the degree of LV contractile impairment. This study determined whether reduction of aortocaval fistula (ACF)-induced LV volume overload during the compensatory stage of HF results in beneficial LV structural remodeling and restoration of pump function. Rats were subjected to ACF for 4 wk; a subset then received a load-reversal procedure by closing the shunt using a custom-made stent graft approach. Echocardiography or in vivo pressure-volume analysis was used to assess LV morphology and function in sham rats; rats subjected to 4-, 8-, or 15-wk ACF; and rats subjected to 4-wk ACF followed by 4- or 11-wk reversal. Structural and functional changes were correlated to LV collagen content, extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, and hypertrophic markers. ACF-induced volume overload led to progressive LV chamber dilation and contractile dysfunction. Rats subjected to short-term reversal (4-wk ACF + 4-wk reversal) exhibited improved chamber dimensions (LV diastolic dimension) and LV compliance that were associated with ECM remodeling and normalization of atrial and brain natriuretic peptides. Load-independent parameters indicated LV systolic (preload recruitable stroke work, Ees) and diastolic dysfunction (tau, arterial elastance). These changes were associated with an altered ?/?-myosin heavy chain ratio. However, these changes were normalized to sham levels in long-term reversal rats (4-wk ACF + 11-wk reversal). Acute hemodynamic changes following ACF reversal improve LV geometry, but LV dysfunction persists. Gradual restoration of function was related to normalization of eccentric hypertrophy, LV wall stress, and ECM remodeling. These results suggest that mild to moderate LV systolic dysfunction may be an important indicator of the ability of the myocardium to remodel following the reversal of hemodynamic overload.

Hutchinson, Kirk R.; Guggilam, Anuradha; Cismowski, Mary J.; Galantowicz, Maarten L.; West, Thomas A.; Stewart, James A.; Zhang, Xiaojin; Lord, Kevin C.

2011-01-01

35

Low Dose Dobutamine Echocardiography Predicts Improvement in Functional Capacity After Exercise Training in Patients With Ischemic Cardiomyopathy: Prognostic Implication 1 1 This study was supported by the Azienda Ospedaliera “G. M. Lancisi,” Ancona, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. This study sought to investigate whether the identification of hibernating myocardium by low dose dobutamine stress echocardiography (LDSE) may predict an improvement in functional capacity after moderate exercise training in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. Another objective was to assess whether exercise training may affect the outcome.Background. There is evidence that exercise training improves left ventricular (LV) function as well

Romualdo Belardinelli; Demetrios Georgiou; Augusto Purcaro

1998-01-01

36

Noisy Ventilation Improves Lung Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been shown that mechanical ventilation in the setting of acute lung injury may propagate additional injury within the lung and numerous studies have been carried out to determine the optimal method of minimizing ventilator induced lung injury while still maintaining life-sustaining gas exchange. We have found that noise added to tidal volume and frequency, called noisy ventilation, during mechanical ventilation improves both lung mechanics and oxygenation in a rodent model of acute lung injury. Additionally, the standard deviation of the noise appears to be directly related to the magnitude of improvements seen with this ventilation modality in a manner similar to stochastic resonance. Furthermore, healthy guinea pigs that underwent with noisy ventilation exhibited increased surfactant content and reduced plasma proteins than their conventionally ventilated counterparts within the alveolar space of the lung. This suggests that not only did noisy ventilation induce endogenous surfactant release, but also served to reduce ventilator induced lung injury in this animal model. In conclusion, noisy ventilation improves blood oxygenation during acute lung injury and also serves to enhance lung function and reduce ventilator induced lung injury in healthy lungs.

Suki, Béla; Arold, Stephen P.; Alencar, Adriano; Lutchen, Kenneth R.; Ingenito, Edward P.

2003-05-01

37

Exercise training does not improve cardiac function in compensated or decompensated left ventricular hypertrophy induced by aortic stenosis.  

PubMed

There is ample evidence that regular exercise exerts beneficial effects on left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, remodeling and dysfunction produced by ischemic heart disease or systemic hypertension. In contrast, the effects of exercise on pathological LV hypertrophy and dysfunction produced by LV outflow obstruction have not been studied to date. Consequently, we evaluated the effects of 8 weeks of voluntary wheel running in mice (which mitigates post-infarct LV dysfunction) on LV hypertrophy and dysfunction produced by mild (mTAC) and severe (sTAC) transverse aortic constriction. mTAC produced ~40% LV hypertrophy and increased myocardial expression of hypertrophy marker genes but did not affect LV function, SERCA2a protein levels, apoptosis or capillary density. Exercise had no effect on global LV hypertrophy and function in mTAC but increased interstitial collagen, and ANP expression. sTAC produced ~80% LV hypertrophy and further increased ANP expression and interstitial fibrosis and, in contrast with mTAC, also produced LV dilation, systolic as well as diastolic dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, apoptosis and capillary rarefaction and decreased SERCA2a and ryanodine receptor (RyR) protein levels. LV diastolic dysfunction was likely aggravated by elevated passive isometric force and Ca(2+)-sensitivity of myofilaments. Exercise training failed to mitigate the sTAC-induced LV hypertrophy and capillary rarefaction or the decreases in SERCA2a and RyR. Exercise attenuated the sTAC-induced increase in passive isometric force but did not affect myofilament Ca(2+)-sensitivity and tended to aggravate interstitial fibrosis. In conclusion, exercise had no effect on LV function in compensated and decompensated cardiac hypertrophy produced by LV outflow obstruction, suggesting that the effect of exercise on pathologic LV hypertrophy and dysfunction depends critically on the underlying cause. PMID:21291889

van Deel, Elza D; de Boer, Martine; Kuster, Diederik W; Boontje, Nicky M; Holemans, Patricia; Sipido, Karin R; van der Velden, Jolanda; Duncker, Dirk J

2011-02-01

38

Improvement in pump function with endocardial biventricular pacing increases with activation time at the left ventricular pacing site in failing canine hearts  

PubMed Central

Recently, attention has been focused on comparing left ventricular (LV) endocardial (ENDO) with epicardial (EPI) pacing for cardiac resynchronization therapy. However, the effects of ENDO and EPI lead placement at multiple sites have not been studied in failing hearts. We hypothesized that differences in the improvement of ventricular function due to ENDO vs. EPI pacing in dyssynchronous (DYSS) heart failure may depend on the position of the LV lead in relation to the original activation pattern. In six nonfailing and six failing dogs, electrical DYSS was created by atrioventricular sequential pacing of the right ventricular apex. ENDO was compared with EPI biventricular pacing at five LV sites. In failing hearts, increases in the maximum rate of LV pressure change (dP/dt; r = 0.64), ejection fraction (r = 0.49), and minimum dP/dt (r = 0.51), relative to DYSS, were positively correlated (P < 0.01) with activation time at the LV pacing site during ENDO but not EPI pacing. ENDO pacing at sites with longer activation delays led to greater improvements in hemodynamic parameters and was associated with an overall reduction in electrical DYSS compared with EPI pacing (P < 0.05). These findings were qualitatively similar for nonfailing hearts. Improvement in hemodynamic function increased with activation time at the LV pacing site during ENDO but not EPI pacing. At the anterolateral wall, end-systolic transmural function was greater with local ENDO compared with EPI pacing. ENDO pacing and intrinsic activation delay may have important implications for management of DYSS heart failure.

Howard, Elliot J.; Covell, James W.; Mulligan, Lawrence J.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; Kerckhoffs, Roy C. P.

2011-01-01

39

Trimetazidine improves right ventricular function by increasing miR-21 expression.  

PubMed

Trimetazidine (TMZ) improves left ventricular (LV) function and alleviates angina. TMZ is a metabolism-related drug, but its molecular actions and non-metabolic effects have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether TMZ improves right ventricular (RV) function and decreases apoptosis in RV myocardial cells (RVMCs) by regulating miRNA-21 (miR-21) expression in vitro and in vivo. We used cultivated RVMCs and LV myocardial cells (LVMCs) and provided hypoxic stimulation for 24 h to induce MC apoptosis. RVMCs showed more severe apoptosis as indicated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining and caspase-3 protein and activity assays. The decrease in miR-21 expression was more dramatic in RVMCs. Subsequently, TMZ (10 µM) was added to the RVMCs prior to hypoxic stimulation. The TMZ-treated RVMCs showed less apoptosis and an increased expression of miR-21. The transfection of RVMCs with a miR-21-specific inhibitor weakened the protective effects of TMZ. To evaluate TMZ effectiveness in right heart failure, we used a combination treatment of hypoxia and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor blocker, Su5416, to construct a stable model, and administered TMZ. TMZ improved RV function (as indicated by an increase in tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion), and inhibited fibrosis. TMZ also protects RVMCs againts apoptosis and increases miR-21 expression. PMID:22842854

Liu, Fang; Yin, Li; Zhang, Lulu; Liu, Wenhua; Liu, Jingjin; Wang, Yongshun; Yu, Bo

2012-07-25

40

Improving functional value of meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, much attention has been paid to develop meat and meat products with physiological functions to promote health conditions and prevent the risk of diseases. This review focuses on strategies to improve the functional value of meat and meat products. Value improvement can be realized by adding functional compounds including conjugated linoneleic acid, vitamin E, n3 fatty acids

Wangang Zhang; Shan Xiao; Himali Samaraweera; Eun Joo Lee; Dong U. Ahn

2010-01-01

41

Growth hormone improves cardiac function in rats with experimental myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence suggests from experimental and clinical studies beneficial effects of growth hormone (GH) on contractility, although concomitant cardiac hypertrophy, generally considered to be a cardiovascular risk factor, has also been reported. In the present study, we combine a rat model with impaired cardiac performance after myocardial infarction (MI) with echocardiographic evaluation of GH effects on cardiac structure and function. We have used a rat model with ligation of the left coronary artery in normal, growing male rats resulting in subsequent impaired cardiac performance. After 6 weeks' recovery, blind transthoracic echocardiography was performed to determine infarction size, cardiac geometry and performance. Rats with no signs of myocardial infarction were excluded from the study. After randomization, the rats were treated with daily s.c. injections of saline (n = 8) or recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) (n = 6) at a dose of approximately 1 mg kg-1 body weight for 1 week. A new blind echocardiography examination was performed after treatment demonstrating a 13% increase in ejection fraction (EF) and a 50% increase in cardiac index in GH-treated rats compared with control rats (P < 0.01). Moreover, GH caused a significant decrease in end-systolic volume. There were no significant changes in left ventricular (LV) or interventricular wall thickness, LV dimensions, heart rate or diastolic function. No effects were seen on LV weight, cardiac insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I, IGF-I receptor and GH receptor mRNA content. GH in a physiological dose improves systolic function in an experimental model of heart failure without signs of hypertrophy, suggesting a potential role as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of heart failure and merits further investigation. PMID:9229233

Isgaard, J; Kujacic, V; Jennische, E; Holmäng, A; Sun, X Y; Hedner, T; Hjalmarson, A; Bengtsson, B A

1997-06-01

42

Neurotrophin3 Improves Functional Constipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is a neurotrophic factor involved in the growth, development, and function of the nervous system. In preliminary studies, s.c. recombinant methionyl-human NT-3 enhanced transit throughout the GI tract and increased stool frequency in normal and constipated subjects. Our aim was to assess 1) the dose-related effects of NT-3 on bowel function, colon transit, and symptoms of chronic constipation,

Henry P. Parkman; Satish S. C. Rao; James C. Reynolds; Lawrence R. Schiller; Arnold Wald; Philip B. Miner; Anthony J. Lembo; James M. Gordon; Douglas A. Drossman; Lynn Waltzman; Nancy Stambler; Jesse M. Cedarbaum

2003-01-01

43

[FeLV infection in the cat: clinically relevant aspects].  

PubMed

The feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a retrovirus of the domestic cat that was described almost 50 years ago. The FeLV-infection may lead to fatal diseases in domestic and small wild cats. The use of efficacious diagnostics assays and vaccines led to a reduction of the FeLV prevalence; however, FeLV still poses a problem for the cat presented with the infection. This article aims to describe recent developments in diagnostics and findings in the infection pathogenesis that are clinically relevant. PMID:22045454

Boretti, F S; Lutz, H; Hofmann-Lehmann, R

2011-11-01

44

Deamidation of food proteins to improve functionality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many proteins, particularly those in plants, require structural modifications to improve their functional properties for expanded use. Several chemical and enzymatic methods are described for food protein deamidation to improve solubility, emulsification, foaming, and other functional properties of the proteins. The use of enzymes in protein modification is more desirable than chemical treatments because of their speed, mild reaction conditions,

Jamel S. Hamada; Barry Swanson

1994-01-01

45

Early and late improvement of global and regional left ventricular function after transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients with severe aortic stenosis: an echocardiographic study  

PubMed Central

The recent development of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for severe aortic stenosis (AS) treatment offers a viable option for high-risk patient categories. Our aim is to evaluate whether 2D strain and strain rate can detect subtle improvement in global and regional LV systolic function immediately after TAVI. 2D conventional and 2D strain (speckle analysis) echocardiography was performed before, at discharge and after three months in thirty three patients with severe AS. After TAVI, we assessed by conventional echocardiography an immediate reduction of transaortic peak pressure gradient (p<0.0001), of mean pressure gradient (p<0.0001) and a concomitant increase in aortic valve area (AVA: 1.08±0.31 cm2/m2; p<0.0001). 2D longitudinal systolic strain showed a significant improvement in all patients, both at septal and lateral level, as early as 72 h after procedure (septal: -14.2±5.1 vs -16.7±3.7%, p<0.001; lateral: -9.4±3.9 vs -13.1±4.5%, p<0.001; respectively) and continued at 3 months follow-up (septal: -18.1±4.6%, p<0.0001; lateral: -14.8±4.4%, p<0.0001; respectively). Conventional echocardiography after TAVI proved a significant reduction of LV end-systolic volume and of LV mass with a mild improvement of LV ejection fraction (EF) (51.2±11.8 vs 52.9±6.4%; p<0.02) only after three months. 2D strain seems to be able to detect subtle changes in LV systolic function occurring early and late after TAVI in severe AS, while all conventional echo parameters seem to be less effective for this purpose. Further investigations are needed to prove the real prognostic impact of these echocardiographic findings.

Giannini, Cristina; Petronio, Anna Sonia; Talini, Enrica; De Carlo, Marco; Guarracino, Fabio; Grazia, Maria; Donne, Delle; Nardi, Carmela; Conte, Lorenzo; Barletta, Valentina; Marzilli, Mario; Di Bello, Vitantonio

2011-01-01

46

Chronic Therapy with a Partial Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonist, Improves Left Ventricular Function and Remodeling in Dogs with Advanced Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background Adenosine (AD) elicits cardioprotection through A1-receptor (A1R) activation. Therapy with AD A1R agonists, however, is limited by undesirable actions of full agonism such as bradycardia. This study examined the effects of capadenoson (CAP), a partial AD A1R agonist, on left ventricular (LV) function and remodeling in dogs with heart failure (HF). Methods and Results 12 dogs with microembolization-induced HF were randomized to 12 weeks oral therapy with CAP (7.5 mg Bid, n=6) or to no therapy (Control, n=6). LV end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes, ejection fraction (EF), plasma norepinephrine (NE) and n-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (nt-pro BNP) were measured before (PRE) and 1 and 12 weeks after therapy (POST). LV tissue obtained at POST was used to assess volume fraction of interstitial fibrosis (VFIF), SERCA-2a activity, expression of mitochondria uncoupling proteins (UCP) and glucose transporters (GLUT). In controls, EDV and ESV increased and EF decreased significantly from PRE to POST (EF: 30±2 vs. 27±1 %, p<0.05). In CAP-treated dogs, EDV was unchanged; EF increased significantly after one week (36±2 vs. 27±2 %, p<0.05) with a further increase at POST (39±2 %, p<0.05) while ESV decreased. CAP significantly decreased VFIF, normalized SERCA-2a activity and expression of UCP-2 and -3, and GLUT-1 and -2 and significantly decreased NE and nt-pro BNP. Conclusion In HF dogs, CAP improves LV function and prevents progressive remodeling. Improvement of LV systolic function occurs early after initiating therapy. The results support development of partial AD A1R agonists for the treatment of chronic HF.

Sabbah, Hani N.; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Kohli, Smita; Wang, Mengjun; Rastogi, Sharad; Zhang, Kefei; Zimmermann, Katja; Diedrichs, Nicole; Albrecht-Kupper, Barbara E.

2013-01-01

47

Improvement of Left Ventricular Function After Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Is Predicted by Tissue Doppler Imaging Echocardiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Cardiac resynchronization therapy was shown to reverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). However, the prediction of benefit is controversial. We aimed to investigate predictive factors of LV functional recovery and reversed remodeling after biventricular pacing. Methods and Results—Forty-nine consecutive patients with CHF and a wide QRS complex (18232 ms) were studied by echocardiography before

Martin Penicka; Jozef Bartunek; Bernard De Bruyne; Marc Vanderheyden; Marc Goethals; Marc De Zutter; Pedro Brugada; Peter Geelen

2010-01-01

48

Patient-Specific MRI-Based 3D FSI RV/LV/Patch Models for Pulmonary Valve Replacement Surgery and Patch Optimization  

PubMed Central

A patient-specific right/left ventricle and patch (RV/LV/patch) combination model with fluid-structure interactions (FSIs) was introduced to evaluate and optimize human pulmonary valve replacement/insertion (PVR) surgical procedure and patch design. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging studies were performed to acquire ventricle geometry, flow velocity, and flow rate for healthy volunteers and patients needing RV remodeling and PVR before and after scheduled surgeries. CMR-based RV/LV/patch FSI models were constructed to perform mechanical analysis and assess RV cardiac functions. Both pre- and postoperation CMR data were used to adjust and validate the model so that predicted RV volumes reached good agreement with CMR measurements (error <3%). Two RV/LV/patch models were made based on preoperation data to evaluate and compare two PVR surgical procedures: (i) conventional patch with little or no scar tissue trimming, and (ii) small patch with aggressive scar trimming and RV volume reduction. Our modeling results indicated that (a) patient-specific CMR-based computational modeling can provide accurate assessment of RV cardiac functions, and (b) PVR with a smaller patch and more aggressive scar removal led to reduced stress/strain conditions in the patch area and may lead to improved recovery of RV functions. More patient studies are needed to validate our findings.

Tang, Dalin; Yang, Chun; Geva, Tal; del Nido, Pedro J.

2010-01-01

49

Automatic cardiac LV boundary detection and tracking using hybrid fuzzy temporal and fuzzy multiscale edge detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new fully automatic fuzzy multiresolution-based algorithm for cardiac left ventricular (LV) epicardial and endocardial boundary detection and tracking on a sequence of short axis (SA) echocardiographic images of a complete cardiac cycle. This is a necessary step for automatic quantification of cardiac function using echo images, The proposed method is a \\

S. Kamaledin Setarehdan; John J. Soraghan

1999-01-01

50

Short-Term Treatment with Angiotensin II Antagonist in Essential Hypertension: : : : Effects of Losartan on Left Ventricular Diastolic Function, Left Ventricular Mass, and Aortic Stiffness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Objectives:Even short-term treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor in essential hypertension has been known to improve left ventricular (LV diastolic function, LV hypertrophy (LVH, and aortic stiffness. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of angiotensin II receptor antagonist (Losartan on LV diastolic function, LVH, and aortic stiffness in essential hypertension. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three

Moo-Yong Rhee; Sung-Sik Han; Sen Lyu; Myoung-Yong Lee; Young-Kwon Kim; Sun-Mi Yu

2000-01-01

51

Reduced Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity and expression in LV myocardium of dogs with heart failure.  

PubMed

Studies on the status of multifunctional Ca(2+)-calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase-II (CaMKII) in failing hearts are limited and controversial. The study was performed in the left ventricular (LV) myocardium of six dogs with heart failure (HF) (LV ejection fraction, 23 +/- 2%) and six normal (NL) dogs. In the LV homogenate, CaMKII activity and its protein level were determined by using the CaMKII peptide and antibody, respectively. Furthermore, the protein level of CaM and phosphorylated phospholamban (PLB) at threonine-17 (PLB-Thr(17)) and serine-16 (PLB-Ser(16)) were also determined in the LV homogenate using a specific antibody. In addition, the level of zinc, which inhibits protein kinase A activity, was determined in the LV tissue by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. CaMKII activity and phosphorylated PLB-Thr(17) and PLB-Ser(16) levels, but not CaM and Zn levels, were significantly reduced in the LV homogenate of dogs with HF compared with NL dogs. These results suggest that CaMKII activity is reduced in the failing LV myocardium, and this abnormality is associated with reduced protein expression level of the enzyme but not due to changes in CaM and zinc levels. In conclusion, reduced CaMKII activity and phosphorylated PLB level may be partly responsible for impaired sarcoplasmic reticulum function in HF. PMID:12424092

Mishra, Sudhish; Sabbah, Hani N; Jain, Jinesh C; Gupta, Ramesh C

2002-11-07

52

Longstanding Hyperthyroidism Is Associated with Normal or Enhanced Intrinsic Cardiomyocyte Function despite Decline in Global Cardiac Function  

PubMed Central

Thyroid hormones (THs) play a pivotal role in cardiac homeostasis. TH imbalances alter cardiac performance and ultimately cause cardiac dysfunction. Although short-term hyperthyroidism typically leads to heightened left ventricular (LV) contractility and improved hemodynamic parameters, chronic hyperthyroidism is associated with deleterious cardiac consequences including increased risk of arrhythmia, impaired cardiac reserve and exercise capacity, myocardial remodeling, and occasionally heart failure. To evaluate the long-term consequences of chronic hyperthyroidism on LV remodeling and function, we examined LV isolated myocyte function, chamber function, and whole tissue remodeling in a hamster model. Three-month-old F1b hamsters were randomized to control or 10 months TH treatment (0.1% grade I desiccated TH). LV chamber remodeling and function was assessed by echocardiography at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 months of treatment. After 10 months, terminal cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and LV hemodynamics. Hyperthyroid hamsters exhibited significant cardiac hypertrophy and deleterious cardiac remodeling characterized by myocyte lengthening, chamber dilatation, decreased relative wall thickness, increased wall stress, and increased LV interstitial fibrotic deposition. Importantly, hyperthyroid hamsters demonstrated significant LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Despite the aforementioned remodeling and global cardiac decline, individual isolated cardiac myocytes from chronically hyperthyroid hamsters had enhanced function when compared with myocytes from untreated age-matched controls. Thus, it appears that long-term hyperthyroidism may impair global LV function, at least in part by increasing interstitial ventricular fibrosis, in spite of normal or enhanced intrinsic cardiomyocyte function.

Redetzke, Rebecca A.; Gerdes, A. Martin

2012-01-01

53

Improving functional value of meat products.  

PubMed

In recent years, much attention has been paid to develop meat and meat products with physiological functions to promote health conditions and prevent the risk of diseases. This review focuses on strategies to improve the functional value of meat and meat products. Value improvement can be realized by adding functional compounds including conjugated linoneleic acid, vitamin E, n3 fatty acids and selenium in animal diets to improve animal production, carcass composition and fresh meat quality. In addition, functional ingredients such as vegetable proteins, dietary fibers, herbs and spices, and lactic acid bacteria can be directly incorporated into meat products during processing to improve their functional value for consumers. Functional compounds, especially peptides, can also be generated from meat and meat products during processing such as fermentation, curing and aging, and enzymatic hydrolysis. This review further discusses the current status, consumer acceptance, and market for functional foods from the global viewpoints. Future prospects for functional meat and meat products are also discussed. PMID:20537806

Zhang, Wangang; Xiao, Shan; Samaraweera, Himali; Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong U

2010-04-29

54

Topology improves phylogenetic motif functional site predictions.  

PubMed

Prediction of protein functional sites from sequence-derived data remains an open bioinformatics problem. We have developed a phylogenetic motif (PM) functional site prediction approach that identifies functional sites from alignment fragments that parallel the evolutionary patterns of the family. In our approach, PMs are identified by comparing tree topologies of each alignment fragment to that of the complete phylogeny. Herein, we bypass the phylogenetic reconstruction step and identify PMs directly from distance matrix comparisons. In order to optimize the new algorithm, we consider three different distance matrices and 13 different matrix similarity scores. We assess the performance of the various approaches on a structurally nonredundant data set that includes three types of functional site definitions. Without exception, the predictive power of the original approach outperforms the distance matrix variants. While the distance matrix methods fail to improve upon the original approach, our results are important because they clearly demonstrate that the improved predictive power is based on the topological comparisons. Meaning that phylogenetic trees are a straightforward, yet powerful way to improve functional site prediction accuracy. While complementary studies have shown that topology improves predictions of protein-protein interactions, this report represents the first demonstration that trees improve functional site predictions as well. PMID:21071810

Kc, Dukka B; Livesay, Dennis R

55

Exhibit 2 SK13a LV lead complications Page 1  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... CRT Insulation breach - LV 7/16/2007 7/16/2007 7/16/2007 Change in ICD programming, battery, lead Resolved During procedure to revise RA ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

56

Cardiac stem cells delivered intravascularly traverse the vessel barrier, regenerate infarcted myocardium, and improve cardiac function  

PubMed Central

The ability of cardiac stem cells (CSCs) to promote myocardial repair under clinically relevant conditions (i.e., when delivered intravascularly after reperfusion) is unknown. Thus, rats were subjected to a 90-min coronary occlusion; at 4 h after reperfusion, CSCs were delivered to the coronary arteries via a catheter positioned into the aortic root. Echocardiographic analysis showed that injection of CSCs attenuated the increase in left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic dimensions and impairment in LV systolic performance at 5 weeks after myocardial infarction. Pathologic analysis showed that treated hearts exhibited a smaller increase in LV chamber diameter and volume and a higher wall thickness-to-chamber radius ratio and LV mass-to-chamber volume ratio. CSCs induced myocardial regeneration, decreasing infarct size by 29%. A diploid DNA content and only two chromosomes 12 were found in new cardiomyocytes, indicating that cell fusion did not contribute to tissue reconstitution. In conclusion, intravascular injection of CSCs after reperfusion limits infarct size, attenuates LV remodeling, and ameliorates LV function. This study demonstrates that CSCs are effective when delivered in a clinically relevant manner, a clear prerequisite for clinical translation, and that these beneficial effects are independent of cell fusion. The results establish CSCs as candidates for cardiac regeneration and support an approach in which the heart's own stem cells could be collected, expanded, and stored for subsequent therapeutic repair.

Dawn, Buddhadeb; Stein, Adam B.; Urbanek, Konrad; Rota, Marcello; Whang, Brian; Rastaldo, Raffaella; Torella, Daniele; Tang, Xian-Liang; Rezazadeh, Arash; Kajstura, Jan; Leri, Annarosa; Hunt, Greg; Varma, Jai; Prabhu, Sumanth D.; Anversa, Piero; Bolli, Roberto

2005-01-01

57

Prevention and reversal of LV remodeling with neurohormonal inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Left ventricular (LV) remodeling refers to alterations in ventricular mass, chamber size, and shape that result from myocardial\\u000a injury, pressure, or volume overload. Numerous studies have demonstrated that LV remodeling correlates with the incidence\\u000a of heart failure and death, supporting a causative role for remodeling in heart failure progression. Heart failure trials\\u000a have shown that neurohormonal antagonists, including angiotensin-converting

Richard D. Patten; Prem Soman

2004-01-01

58

Panleukopenia-like syndrome of FeLV caused by co-infection with FeLV and feline panleukopenia virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the effect of interferon on feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection, 30 specific pathogen free (SPF) cats were infected with the apathogenic FeLV A Glasgow. Unexpectedly, between 5 and 8 weeks after FeLV infection, all 19 cats with persistent FeLV infection but not the FeLV-negative cats died from a panleukopenia-like syndrome. No feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) antigen was found

H. Lutz; I. Castelli; F. Ehrensperger; A. Pospischil; M. Rosskopf; G. Siegl; M. Grob; S. Martinod

1995-01-01

59

Improved Approximate Profile Function of Hedgehog Skyrmion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The profile function for Skyrme model is investigated in Hedgehog ansatz. An improved analytical solution to the Hedgehog Skyrmion is obtained by using tentative function method. It is found that ensuing calculated static energy is smaller than that in Ref. 13, and the isoscalar electric mean square radius ? {< r2>}I=0 and the isoscalar magnetic mean square radius ? {< r2>}M,I=0 well agree with experiment results.

Ji, Yong-Lin; Jia, Duo-Jie; Xi, Guo-Zhu; Liu, Feng

60

3D quantitative visualization of altered LV wall thickening dynamics caused by coronary microembolization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Regional heart wall dynamics has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of LV wall ischemia. Rates of local LV wall thickening during a cardiac cycle can be measured and illustrated using functional parametric mappings. This display conveys the spatial distribution of dynamic strain in the myocardium and thereby provides a rapid qualitative appreciation of the severity and extent of the ischemic region. 3D reconstructions were obtained in an anesthetized pig from 8 adjacent, shortaxis, slices of the left ventricle imaged with an Electron Beam Computer Tomograph at 11 time points through one complete cardiac cycle. The 3D reconstructions were obtained before and after injection of 100 micrometer microspheres into the Left Anterior Descending (LAD) coronary artery. This injection causes microembolization of LAD artery branches within the heart wall. The image processing involved radially dividing the tomographic images of the myocardium into small subdivisions with color encoding of the local magnitude of regional thickness or regional velocities of LV wall thickening throughout the cardiac cycle. We compared the effectiveness of animation of wall thickness encoded in color versus a static image of computed rate of wall thickness change in color. The location, extent and severity of regional wall akinesis or dyskinesis, as determined from these displays, can then be compared to the region of embolization as indicated by the distribution of altered LV wall perfusion.

Eusemann, Christian D.; Mohlenkamp, Stefan; Ritman, Erik L.; Robb, Richard A.

2001-05-01

61

The surface glycoprotein of a natural feline leukemia virus subgroup A variant, FeLV-945, as a determinant of disease outcome.  

PubMed

Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a natural retrovirus of domestic cats associated with degenerative, proliferative and malignant diseases. Studies of FeLV infection in a cohort of naturally infected cats were undertaken to examine FeLV variation, the selective pressures operative in FeLV infection that lead to predominance of natural variants, and the consequences for infection and disease progression. A unique variant, designated FeLV-945, was identified as the predominant isolate in the cohort and was associated with non-T-cell diseases including multicentric lymphoma. FeLV-945 was assigned to the FeLV-A subgroup based on sequence analysis and receptor utilization, but was shown to differ in sequence from a prototype member of FeLV-A, designated FeLV-A/61E, in the long terminal repeat (LTR) and the surface glycoprotein gene (SU). A unique sequence motif in the FeLV-945 LTR was shown to function as a transcriptional enhancer and to confer a replicative advantage. The FeLV-945 SU protein was observed to differ in sequence as compared to FeLV-A/61E within functional domains known to determine receptor selection and binding. Experimental infection of newborn cats was performed using wild type FeLV-A/61E or recombinant FeLV-A/61E in which the LTR (61E/945L) or LTR and SU (61E/945SL) were exchanged for that of FeLV-945. Infection with either FeLV-A/61E or 61E/945L resulted in T-cell lymphoma of the thymus, although 61E/945L caused disease significantly more rapidly. In contrast, infection with 61E/945SL resulted in the rapid induction of a multicentric lymphoma of B-cell origin, thus recapitulating the outcome of natural infection and implicating FeLV-945 SU as a determinant of disease outcome. Recombinant FeLV-B was detected infrequently and at low levels in multicentric lymphomas, and was thereby not implicated in disease induction. Preliminary studies of receptor interaction indicated that virus particles bearing FeLV-945 SU bind to the FeLV-A receptor more efficiently than do particles bearing FeLV-A/61E SU, and that soluble SU proteins expressed from the viruses demonstrate the same differential binding phenotype. Preliminary mutational analysis of FeLV-945 was performed by exchanging regions containing either the primary receptor binding determinant, VRA, the secondary determinant, VRB, or a proline-rich region, PRR, with that of FeLV-A/61E. Results implicated a region containing VRA as a minor contributor, while a region containing VRB largely conferred increased binding efficiency. PMID:21764142

Bolin, Lisa L; Ahmad, Shamim; Levy, Laura S

2011-06-12

62

The surface glycoprotein of a natural feline leukemia virus subgroup A variant, FeLV-945, as a determinant of disease outcome  

PubMed Central

Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a natural retrovirus of domestic cats associated with degenerative, proliferative and malignant diseases. Studies of FeLV infection in a cohort of naturally infected cats were undertaken to examine FeLV variation, the selective pressures operative in FeLV infection that lead to predominance of natural variants, and the consequences for infection and disease progression. A unique variant, designated FeLV-945, was identified as the predominant isolate in the cohort and was associated with non-T-cell diseases including multicentric lymphoma. FeLV-945 was assigned to the FeLV-A subgroup based on sequence analysis and receptor utilization, but was shown to differ in sequence from a prototype member of FeLV-A, designated FeLV-A/61E, in the long terminal repeat (LTR) and the surface glycoprotein gene (SU). A unique sequence motif in the FeLV-945 LTR was shown to function as a transcriptional enhancer and to confer a replicative advantage. The FeLV-945 SU protein was observed to differ in sequence as compared to FeLV-A/61E within functional domains known to determine receptor selection and binding. Experimental infection of newborn cats was performed using wild type FeLV-A/61E or recombinant FeLV-A/61E in which the LTR (61E/945L) or LTR and SU (61E/945SL) were exchanged for that of FeLV-945. Infection with either FeLV-A/61E or 61E/945L resulted in T-cell lymphoma of the thymus, although 61E/945L caused disease significantly more rapidly. In contrast, infection with 61E/945SL resulted in the rapid induction of a multicentric lymphoma of B-cell origin, thus recapitulating the outcome of natural infection and implicating FeLV-945 SU as a determinant of disease outcome. Recombinant FeLV-B was detected infrequently and at low levels in multicentric lymphomas, and was thereby not implicated in disease induction. Preliminary studies of receptor interaction indicated that virus particles bearing FeLV-945 SU bind to the FeLV-A receptor more efficiently than do particles bearing FeLV-A/61E SU, and that soluble SU proteins expressed from the viruses demonstrate the same differential binding phenotype. Preliminary mutational analysis of FeLV-945 was performed by exchanging regions containing either the primary receptor binding determinant, VRA, the secondary determinant, VRB, or a proline-rich region, PRR, with that of FeLV-A/61E. Results implicated a region containing VRA as a minor contributor, while a region containing VRB largely conferred increased binding efficiency.

Bolin, Lisa L.; Ahmad, Shamim; Levy, Laura S.

2011-01-01

63

LvNumb works synergistically with Notch signaling to specify non-skeletal mesoderm cells in the sea urchin embryo  

PubMed Central

Activation of the Notch signaling pathway segregates the non-skeletogenic mesoderm (NSM) from the endomesoderm during sea urchin embryo development. Subsequently, Notch signaling helps specify the four subpopulations of NSM, and influences endoderm specification. To gain further insight into how the Notch signaling pathway is regulated during these cell specification events, we identified a sea urchin homologue of Numb (LvNumb). Previous work in other model systems showed that Numb functions as a Notch signaling pathway antagonist, possibly by mediating the endocytosis of other key Notch interacting proteins. In this study, we show that the vegetal endomesoderm expresses lvnumb during the blastula and gastrula stages, and that the protein is localized to the presumptive NSM. Injections of lvnumb mRNA and antisense morpholinos demonstrate that LvNumb is necessary for the specification of mesodermal cell types, including pigment cells, blastocoelar cells and muscle cells. Functional analysis of the N-terminal PTB domain and the C-terminal PRR domain of LvNumb shows that the PTB domain, but not the PRR domain, is sufficient to recapitulate the demonstrable function of full-length LvNumb. Experiments show that LvNumb requires an active Notch signal to function during NSM specification and that LvNumb functions in the cells responding to Delta and not in the cells presenting the Delta ligand. Furthermore, injection of mRNA encoding the intracellular domain of Notch rescues the LvNumb morpholino phenotype, suggesting that the constitutive intracellular Notch signal overcomes, or bypasses, the absence of Numb during NSM specification.

Range, Ryan C.; Glenn, Thomas D.; Miranda, Esther; McClay, David R.

2013-01-01

64

Autologous Cardiomyotissue Implant Promotes Myocardial Regeneration, Decreases Infarct Size and Improves Left Ventricular Function  

PubMed Central

Background Cell therapy for myocardial infarction (MI) may be limited by poor cell survival and lack of transdifferentiation. We report a novel technique of implanting whole autologous myocardial tissue from preserved myocardial regions into infarcted regions. Methods and Results Fourteen rats were used to optimize cardiomyotissue size using peritoneal wall implantation (300?M identified as optimal size). Thirty-nine pigs were used to investigate cardiomyotissue implantation in MI induced by LAD balloon occlusion [10 animals died, male to female transplantation for tracking with ISH for Y chromosome, n=4 (2-donors and 2-MI animals), acute MI implant cohort at 1 hour, n=13, and healed MI implant at 2 weeks, n=12]. Assessment included echocardiography, MRI, hemodynamics, TTC staining, histological, and molecular analysis. Tracking studies demonstrated viable implants with donor cells interspersed in the adjacent myocardium with gap junctions and desmosomes. In the acute MI cohort, treated animals compared to controls had improved perfusion by MRI (1.2±0.01 vs. 0.86±0.05,p<0.01), decreased MI size (MRI:%LV:2.2±0.5 vs. 5.4±1.5,p=0.04, TTC: %Anterior wall: 10.3±4.6 vs. 28.9±5.8,p<0.03), improved contractility (+dP/dt:1235±215 vs. 817±817,p<0.05). In healed MI cohort, treated animals had less decline in EF between 2 and 4 week assessment (-3±4% vs. -13±-4%,p<0.05), less decline in +/-dP/dt, and smaller MI (TTC: 21±11% vs. 3±8%,p=0.006) than control animals. Infarcts in the treated animals contained more mdr-1+ cells and fewer c-kit+ cells with a trend for decreased expression of MMP-2 and increased expression of TIMP-2. Conclusion Autologous cardiomyotissue implanted in myocardial infarction area remains viable, exhibits electromechanical coupling, decreases infarct size and improves LV function.

Wykrzykowska, Joanna J.; Rosinberg, Audrey; Lee, Seung U.; Voisine, Pierre; Wu, Guifu; Appelbaum, Evan; Boodhwani, Munir; Sellke, Frank W.; Laham, Roger J.

2011-01-01

65

Biofeedback improves functional outcome after sphincteroplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary treatment for obstetric sphincter injury is overlapping sphincteroplasty. However, despite restoration of the anatomy, only 65 percent of patients are fully continent. PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to determine if postoperative biofeedback improved continence in patients with poor functional outcomes after sphincteroplasty. METHOD: Outcomes of 28 patients who underwent electromyographic biofeedback training after sphincteroplasty for obstetric sphincter injury

L. L. Jensen; A. C. Lowry

1997-01-01

66

Isolation and Characterization of cLV25, a Bacteroides fragilis Chromosomal Transfer Factor Resembling Multiple Bacteroides sp. Mobilizable Transposons  

PubMed Central

Horizontal DNA transfer contributes significantly to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in Bacteroides fragilis. To further our understanding of DNA transfer in B. fragilis, we isolated and characterized a new transfer factor, cLV25. cLV25 was isolated from B. fragilis LV25 by its capture on the nonmobilizable Escherichia coli-Bacteroides shuttle vector pGAT400?BglII. Similar to other Bacteroides sp. transfer factors, cLV25 was mobilized in E. coli by the conjugative plasmid R751. Using Tn1000 mutagenesis and deletion analysis of cLV25, two mobilization genes, bmgA and bmgB, were identified, whose predicted proteins have similarity to DNA relaxases and mobilization proteins, respectively. In particular, BmgA and BmgB were homologous to MocA and MocB, respectively, the two mobilization proteins of the B. fragilis mobilizable transposon Tn4399. A cis-acting origin of transfer (oriT) was localized to a 353-bp region that included nearly all of the intergenic region between bmgB and orf22 and overlapped with the 3? end of orf22. This oriT contained a putative nic site sequence but showed no significant similarity to the oriT regions of other transfer factors, including Tn4399. Despite the lack of sequence similarity between the oriTs of cLV25 and Tn4399, a mutation in the cLV25 putative DNA relaxase, bmgA, was partially complemented by Tn4399. In addition to the functional cross-reaction with Tn4399, a second distinguishing feature of cLV25 is that predicted proteins have similarity to proteins encoded not only by Tn4399 but by several Bacteroides sp. transfer factors, including NBU1, NBU2, CTnDOT, Tn4555, and Tn5520.

Bass, Kathleen A.; Hecht, David W.

2002-01-01

67

Treatment of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection.  

PubMed

FeLV infection is still considered to account for most disease-related deaths in pet cats. Different treatment attempts with various drugs were performed in the past but none resulted in healing or complete virus elimination. Therefore, it caused a sensation when Horber and Mayr [Horber, D., Mayr, B., 1991. Prax. 19, 311-314; Horber, D., Schnabl, W., Mayr, B., 1992. Tierarztl. Umschau 47, 556-560; Mayr, B., Horber, D., 1992. Kleintierprax. 37, 515-518] published that they were able to cure 80 to 100% FeLV-infected cats from viremia by using an immunomodulating compound. Articles in cat breeder and cat owner journals appeared assuming that obviously there is a rescue for FeLV-infected cats suffering from this deadly infection. The immunomodulator [Buttner, M., 1993. Comp. Immun. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 18, 1-10] used in those studies was the so-called 'paramunity inducer' PIND-ORF (Baypamun, Bayer, Leverkusen, Germany) consisting of inactivated parapox ovis virus. Since that time, Baypamun is the most commonly used drug for treatment of FeLV infection in Germany and other European countries. Four placebo-controlled double-blind trials were performed to determine the therapeutic efficacy of Baypamun and other compounds in naturally FeLV-infected cats under controlled conditions. PMID:10515279

Hartmann, K; Block, A; Ferk, G; Beer, B; Vollmar, A; Lutz, H

1999-09-01

68

Treatment with a copper-selective chelator causes substantive improvement in cardiac function of diabetic rats with left-ventricular impairment  

PubMed Central

Background Defective copper regulation is implicated as a causative mechanism of organ damage in diabetes. Treatment with trientine, a divalent-copper-selective chelator, improves arterial and renal structure/function in diabetes, wherein it also ameliorates left-ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. However, direct in vivo evidence that trientine can improve cardiac function in heart failure has hitherto been lacking. Methods To determine whether trientine treatment could improve in vivo outcome, we measured cardiac function in groups of trientine-treated diabetic (TETA-DIA), non-drug-treated diabetic (DIA) and sham-treated control (SHAM) rats, by using in vivo high-field cardiac magnetic-resonance imaging (cMRI) and an ex vivo isolated-perfused working heart method. Forty age-matched animals underwent a cMRI scan after which 12 were randomized to the SHAM group and 28 underwent streptozotocin-injection; of these, 25 developed stable diabetes, and 12 were then randomized to receive no treatment for 16 weeks (DIA) and the other 13 to undergo 8-weeks’ untreated diabetes followed by 8-weeks’ drug treatment (TETA-DIA). Animals were studied again by cMRI at 8 and 16 weeks following disease induction, and finally by measurement of ex vivo cardiac function. Results After eight weeks diabetes, rats (DIA/TETA-DIA) had developed significant impairment of LV function, as judged by impairment of ejection fraction (LVEF), cardiac output (CO), and LV mass (LVM)/body-mass (all P?functional indexes. LVEF, CO (both P?improved cardiac function by elevating LVEF and CO (both P?improved in TETA-DIA animals (P?improved cardiac function in diabetic rats with substantive LV impairment. These results implicate impaired copper regulation in the pathogenesis of impaired cardiac function caused by diabetic cardiomyopathy, and support ongoing studies of trientine treatment in patients with heart failure.

2013-01-01

69

Restored cardiac conditions and left ventricular function after parathyroidectomy in a hemodialysis patient. Parathyroidectomy improves cardiac fatty acid metabolism assessed by 123I-BMIPP.  

PubMed

A 62 year-old female hemodialysis patient underwent parathyroidectomy to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism. On the preoperative assessment, the plasma levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) were elevated. Echocardiography showed reduced left ventricular (LV) contraction. Myocardial iodine-123-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R,S) methylpentadecanoic acid ((123)I-BMIPP) scintigraphy showed moderately reduced tracer uptake in the postero-inferior area on single-photon emission computed tomography and decreased washout on the planar images. After parathyroidectomy, the plasma levels of PTH and BNP decreased, followed by improvement in LV contraction. Myocardial (123)I-BMIPP scintigraphy revealed that the washout on planar images had increased, which suggests that myocardial (123)I-BMIPP scintigraphy is useful for estimating the effect of parathyroidectomy on cardiac function. PMID:19179778

Nanasato, Mamoru; Goto, Norihiko; Isobe, Satoshi; Unno, Kazumasa; Hirayama, Haruo; Sato, Tetsuhiko; Matsuoka, Susumu; Nagasaka, Takaharu; Tominaga, Yoshihiro; Uchida, Kazuharu; Murohara, Toyoaki

2009-01-27

70

Resveratrol: A Multifunctional Compound Improving Endothelial Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The red wine polyphenol resveratrol boosts endothelium-dependent and -independent vasorelaxations. The improvement of endothelial\\u000a function by resveratrol is largely attributable to nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). By stimulating\\u000a eNOS expression, eNOS phosphorylation and eNOS deacetylation, resveratrol enhances endothelial NO production. By upregulating\\u000a antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) and suppressing the expression and activity

Huige Li; Ulrich Förstermann

2009-01-01

71

Simvastatin Improves Disturbed Endothelial Barrier Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Recent clinical trials have established that inhibitors of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (statins) reduce the risk of acute coronary events. These effects of statins cannot be fully explained by their lipid-lowering potential. Improved endothelial function may contribute to the positive effects of statin treatment. Methods and Results—In the present study, we report that simvastatin reduces endothelial barrier dysfunction,

Mario A. Vermeer; Pascale Nègre-Aminou; Jan Lankelma; Jef J. Emeis; Victor W. M. van Hinsbergh

2010-01-01

72

Point Constrained Optical Flow For LV Motion Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new method for left ventricle (LV) motion estimation. The method is based on a point- constrained optical flow algorithm for heart motion estimation. The constrained points are the corresponding point pairs in subsequent images. The motion estimation of these characteristic points can be obtained using techniques such as shape- based tracking of perceptually salient

Tvrtko Macan

73

Point-constrained optical flow for LV motion detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new method for left ventricle (LV) motion estimation. The method is based on a point-constrained optical flow algorithm for heart motion estimation. The constrained points are the corresponding point pairs in subsequent images. The motion estimation of these characteristic points can be obtained using techniques such as shape-based tracking of perceptually salient points on

Sven Loncaric; Tvrtko Macan

2000-01-01

74

Daily prickly pear consumption improves platelet function.  

PubMed

Prickly pear is traditionally used by Pima Indians as a dietary nutrient against diabetes mellitus. We examined the effect of daily consumption of 250 g in 8 healthy volunteers and 8 patients with mild familial heterozygous hypercholesterolemia on various parameters of platelet function. Beside its action on lipids and lipoproteins, prickly pear consumption significantly reduced the platelet proteins (platelet factor 4 and beta-thromboglobulin), ADP-induced platelet aggregation and improved platelet sensitivity (against PGI2 and PGE1) in volunteers as well as in patients. Also plasma 11-DH-TXB2 and the WU-test showed a significant improvement in both patients and volunteers. In contrast, collagen-induced platelet aggregation and the number of circulating endothelial cells showed a significant response in patients only. No influence of prickly pear ingestion on peripheral platelet count was monitored. The dietary run-in period did not influence any of the parameters of haemostasis examined. No sex difference was seen. Prickly pear may induce at least part of its beneficial actions on the cardiovascular system via decreasing platelet activity and thereby improving haemostatic balance. PMID:12878452

Wolfram, R; Budinsky, A; Efthimiou, Y; Stomatopoulos, J; Oguogho, A; Sinzinger, H

2003-07-01

75

Endocardial versus epicardial electrical synchrony during LV free-wall pacing  

PubMed Central

Cardiac resynchronization therapy has been most typically achieved by biventricular stimulation. However, left ventricular (LV) free-wall pacing appears equally effective in acute and chronic clinical studies. Recent data suggest electrical synchrony measured epicardially is not required to yield effective mechanical synchronization, whereas endocardial mapping data suggest synchrony (fusion with intrinsic conduction) is important. To better understand this disparity, we simultaneously mapped both endocardial and epicardial electrical activation during LV free-wall pacing at varying atrioventricular delays (AV delay 0–150 ms) in six normal dogs with the use of a 64-electrode LV endocardial basket and a 128-electrode epicardial sock. The transition from dyssynchronous LV-paced activation to synchronous RA-paced activation was studied by constructing activation time maps for both endo- and epicardial surfaces as a function of increasing AV delay. The AV delay at the transition from dyssynchronous to synchronous activation was defined as the transition delay (AVt). AVt was variable among experiments, in the range of 44–93 ms on the epicardium and 47–105 ms on the endocardium. Differences in endo- and epicardial AVt were smaller (?17 to +12 ms) and not significant on average (?5.0 ± 5.2 ms). In no instance was the transition to synchrony complete on one surface without substantial concurrent transition on the other surface. We conclude that both epicardial and endocardial synchrony due to fusion of native with ventricular stimulation occur nearly concurrently. Assessment of electrical epicardial delay, as often used clinically during cardiac resynchronization therapy lead placement, should provide adequate assessment of stimulation delay for inner wall layers as well.

Faris, Owen P.; Evans, Frank J.; Dick, Alexander J.; Raman, Venkatesh K.; Ennis, Daniel B.; Kass, David A.; McVeigh, Elliot R.

2007-01-01

76

A phase II experience with neoadjuvant irinotecan (CPT11), 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and leucovorin (LV) for colorectal liver metastases  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chemotherapy may improve survival in patients undergoing resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy may help identify patients with occult extrahepatic disease (averting unnecessary metastasectomy), and it provides in vivo chemosensitivity data. METHODS: A phase II trial was initiated in which patients with resectable CLM received CPT-11, 5-FU and LV for 12 weeks. Metastasectomy was performed unless extrahepatic

Oliver F Bathe; Scott Ernst; Francis R Sutherland; Elijah Dixon; Charles Butts; David Bigam; David Holland; Geoffrey A Porter; Jennifer Koppel; Scot Dowden

2009-01-01

77

Decoupled external forces in a predictor-corrector segmentation scheme for LV contours in Tagged MR images.  

PubMed

Computation of functional regional scores requires proper identification of LV contours. On one hand, manual segmentation is robust, but it is time consuming and requires high expertise. On the other hand, the tag pattern in TMR sequences is a problem for automatic segmentation of LV boundaries. We propose a segmentation method based on a predictor-corrector (Active Contours - Shape Models) scheme. Special stress is put in the definition of the AC external forces. First, we introduce a semantic description of the LV that discriminates myocardial tissue by using texture and motion descriptors. Second, in order to ensure convergence regardless of the initial contour, the external energy is decoupled according to the orientation of the edges in the image potential. We have validated the model in terms of error in segmented contours and accuracy of regional clinical scores. PMID:21097294

Garcia-Barnes, Jaume; Andaluz, Albert; Carreras, Francesc; Gil, Debora

2010-01-01

78

Acute regional improvement of myocardial function after interventional transfemoral aortic valve replacement in aortic stenosis: A speckle tracking echocardiography study  

PubMed Central

Background Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a promising therapy for patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) and high perioperative risk. New echocardiographic methods, including 2D Strain analysis, allow the more accurate measurement of left ventricular (LV) systolic function. The goal of this study was to describe the course of LV reverse remodelling immediately after TAVI in a broad spectrum of patients with symptomatic severe aortic valve stenosis. Methods Thirty consecutive patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis and preserved LVEF underwent transfemoral aortic valve implantation. We performed echocardiography at baseline and one week after TAVI. Echocardiography included standard 2D and Doppler analysis of global systolic and diastolic function as well as 2D Strain measurements of longitudinal, radial and circumferential LV motion and Tissue Doppler echocardiography. Results The baseline biplane LVEF was 57 ± 8.2%, the mean pressure gradient was 46.8 ± 17.2 mmHg and the mean valve area was 0.73 ± 0.27 cm2. The average global longitudinal 2D strain of the left ventricle improved significantly from -15.1 (± 3.0) to -17.5 (± 2.4) % (p < .001). This was reflected mainly in improvement in the basal and medial segments while strain in the apex did not change significantly [-11.6 (± 5.2) % to -15.1 (± 5.5) % (p < .001), -13.9 (± 5.1) % to -16.8 (± 5.6) % (p < .001) and -19.2 (± 7.0) % to -20.0 (± 7.2) % (p = .481) respectively]. While circumferential strain [-18.1 (± 5.1) % vs. -18.9 (± 4.2) %, p = .607], radial strain [36.5 (± 13.7) % vs. 39.7 (± 17.2) %, p = .458] and the LVEF remained unchanged after one week [57.0 (± 8.2) % vs. 59.1 (± 8.1) %, p = .116]. Conclusion There is an acute improvement of myocardial longitudinal systolic function of the basal and medial segments measured by 2D Strain analysis immediately after TAVI. The radial, circumferential strain and LVEF does not change significantly in all patients acutely after TAVI. These data suggest that sensitive new echo methods can reliably detect early regional changes of myocardial function after TAVI before benefits in LVEF are detectable.

2012-01-01

79

US EPA, Pesticide Product Label, AIDEX LV4 WEED KILLER ...  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

... JJ>t:rdt1·")h. ·~·;LV4--LlqUld ~~~tfuql"fI (''lnl'1ndtHm :'plcy":;: ]l!l t~.P ':j..!'" t,Yl;" halt full with the li'lU1d nltr~~

2011-04-14

80

Treatment of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

FeLV infection is still considered to account for most disease-related deaths in pet cats. Different treatment attempts with various drugs were performed in the past but none resulted in healing or complete virus elimination. Therefore, it caused a sensation when Hörber and Mayr [Hörber, D., Mayr, B., 1991. Prax. 19, 311–314; Hörber, D., Schnabl, W., Mayr, B., 1992. Tierärztl. Umschau

K Hartmann; A Block; G Ferk; B Beer; A Vollmar; H Lutz

1999-01-01

81

Myocardial Oxygen Consumption Change Predicts Left Ventricular Relaxation Improvement in Obese Humans After Weight Loss  

PubMed Central

Obesity adversely affects myocardial metabolism, efficiency, and diastolic function. Our objective was to determine if weight loss can ameliorate obesity-related myocardial metabolism and efficiency derangements and that these improvements directly relate to improved diastolic function in humans. We studied 30 obese (body mass index [BMI]>30kg/m2) subjects with positron emission tomography (myocardial metabolism, blood flow) and echocardiography (structure, function) before and after marked weight loss from gastric bypass surgery (N=10) or moderate weight loss from diet (N=20). Baseline BMI, insulin resistance, hemodynamics, left ventricular (LV) mass, systolic function, myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2), and fatty acid (FA) metabolism were similar between the groups. MVO2/gram decreased after diet-induced weight loss (P=0.009). Total MVO2 decreased after dietary (P=0.02) and surgical weight loss (P=0.0006) and was related to decreased BMI (P=0.006). Total myocardial FA utilization decreased (P=0.03), and FA oxidation trended lower (P=0.06) only after surgery. FA esterification and LV efficiency were unchanged. After surgical weight loss, LV mass decreased by 23%, (Doppler-derived) E/E’ by 33%, and relaxation increased (improved) by 28%, and. Improved LV relaxation related significantly to decreased BMI, insulin resistance, total MVO2, and LV mass but not FA utilization. Decreased total MVO2 predicted LV relaxation improvement independent of BMI change (P=0.02). Weight loss can ameliorate the obesity-related derangements in myocardial metabolism and LV structure and diastolic function. Decreased total MVO2 independently predicted improved LV relaxation, suggesting that myocardial oxygen metabolism may be mechanistically important in determining cardiac relaxation.

Lin, C. H.; Kurup, Suraj; Herrero, Pilar; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Eagon, J. Christopher; Klein, Samuel; Davila-Roman, Victor G.; Stein, Richard I.; Dorn, Gerald W.; Gropler, Robert J.; Waggoner, Alan D.; Peterson, Linda R.

2011-01-01

82

Transcriptional promoter and enhancer elements in the long terminal repeats (LTR) of endogenous murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-related proviral sequences  

SciTech Connect

Mouse genome harbors 2 families of MuLV-related proviral sequences, which do not directly produce infectious virus, but may express RNA transcripts in a tissue-specific manner. The LTRS of MuLV-related sequences contain a mid-U3 inserted segment (IS) of approx. 200 bp not found in the LTR of infectious MuLVs. To test for the LTR promoter and enhancer activities, chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene, alone or carrying SV40 promoter, was linked to various LTR sequences of 2 MuLV and 6 representative MuLV-related DNA clones and the recombinant genes were examined for transient CAT expression in mouse NIH-3T3, mink CCL64 and human HT1080 cells by DNA transfection. While the CAT expression was high with the 2 ecotropic MuLV LTRs, very little to undetectable activities were obtained with all MuLV-related LTRs. To determine the basis for the very low activity of the MuLV-related LTRs, series of experiments were performed, which indicate that the TATA- and CCAAC-containing domain, downstream of the IS, is functionally intact as a promoter and that the IS sequences, while inactive as a promoter by itself, could provide a bi-directional enhancer-like activity to its own or MuLV LTR or SV40 promoter. Further studies suggest the presence of a cis-acting negative regulatory element in sequences upstream of the IS in both the 2 subfamilies of MuLV-related LTRs.

Ch'ang, L.Y.; Myer, F.E.; Yang, D.M.; Koh, C.K.; Yang, W.K.

1987-05-01

83

Role of HIV-2 envelope in Lv2-mediated restriction  

SciTech Connect

We have characterized envelope protein pseudotyped HIV-2 particles derived from two HIV-2 isolates termed prCBL23 and CBL23 in order to define the role of the envelope protein for the Lv2-mediated restriction to infection. Previously, it has been described that the primary isolate prCBL23 is restricted to infection of several human cell types, whereas the T cell line adapted isolate CBL23 is not restricted in these cell types. Molecular cloning of the two isolates revealed that the env and the gag gene are responsible for the observed phenotype and that this restriction is mediated by Lv2, which is distinct from Ref1/Lv1 (Schmitz, C., Marchant, D., Neil, S.J., Aubin, K., Reuter, S., Dittmar, M.T., McKnight, A., Kizhatil, K., Albritton, L.M., 2004. Lv2, a novel postentry restriction, is mediated by both capsid and envelope. J. Virol. 78 (4), 2006-2016). We generated pseudotyped viruses consisting of HIV-2 (ROD-A{delta}env-GFP, ROD-A{delta}env-RFP, or ROD-A{delta}env-REN) and the prCBL23 or CBL23 envelope proteins as well as chimeric proteins between these envelopes. We demonstrate that a single amino acid exchange at position 74 in the surface unit of CBL23-Env confers restriction to infection. This single point mutation causes tighter CD4 binding, resulting in a less efficient fusion into the cytosol of the restricted cell line. Prevention of endosome formation and prevention of endosome acidification enhance infectivity of the restricted particles for GHOST/X4 cells indicating a degradative lysosomal pathway as a cause for the reduced cytosolic entry. The described restriction to infection of the primary isolate prCBL23 is therefore largely caused by an entry defect. A remaining restriction to infection (19-fold) is preserved when endosomal acidification is prevented. This restriction to infection is also dependent on the presence of the point mutation at position 74 (G74E)

Reuter, Sandra [Department of Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Kaumanns, Patrick [Department of Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Buschhorn, Sabine B. [Department of Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Dittmar, Matthias T. [Department of Virology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)]. E-mail: Matthias_Dittmar@med.uni-heidelberg.de

2005-02-05

84

Improved Approximation of Linear Threshold Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract We prove two main results on how arbitrary linear threshold functions f(x) = sign(w ¢ x ¡ µ) over the n-dimensional Boolean hypercube can be approximated by simple threshold functions. Our flrst result shows that every n-variable threshold function f is †-close to a threshold function depending only on Inf(f)A preliminary version of this work appeared in the Proceedings

Ilias Diakonikolas; Rocco A. Servedio

2009-01-01

85

Curva de rotação óptica de ESO-LV 5100550  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESO-LV 5100550 é o membro mais fraco do par de galáxias austral SBG 357 (Soares et al. 1995). É classificada no catálogo RC3 como uma espiral ordinária de tipo inicial (early-type); porém, uma análise morfológica sugere que ela tenha uma grande barra. O objetivo do estudo é determinar sua cinemática de tal modo que possamos inferir mais a respeito de sua dinâmica, provavelmente perturbada, já que se espera que esteja sob forte influência da companheira ESO-LV 5100560. Apresentarei resultados parciais determinados a partir de espectros obtidos com o instrumento Double Spectrograph montado no telescópio Hale do Monte Palomar, EUA. As observações foram realizadas por D.S.L. Soares, P.M.V. Veiga e T.E. Nordgren, em 1998. Foram tomados espectros de fenda longa posicionada sobre a linha dos nodos do disco e ao longo da suposta barra. Os dados foram reduzidos com uso do pacote IRAF. Obtivemos o perfil de velocidades radiais na linha de visada ao longo das fendas e calculamos o desvio para o vermelho cosmológico do sistema, com base no espectro central. Determinamos as curvas de rotação deprojetadas, com base em cálculos para os valores teóricos esperados das componentes de velocidades puramente circulares em um disco inclinado. A inclinação do disco, dado fundamental nesta deprojeção, foi estimada através da média das elipticidades das isofotas mais externas.

Carvalho, D. B.; Soares, D. S. L.

2003-08-01

86

Assessment of left ventricular function using dobutamine stress echocardiography and myocardial scintigraphy in valvular heart disease.  

PubMed

To assess the left ventricular (LV) function in valvular heart disease, we employed the preoperative dobutamine stress echocardiography and the myocardial scintigraphy. During the past 13 years, 37 of 324 the patients showed LV dysfunction with the % fractional shortening (%FS) of 25% or less in the preoperative echocardiogram. These patients were retrospectively divided into two groups; Group A (n = 21): %FS has improved late after operation; Group B (n = 16): %FS has deteriorated or LV failure occurred. The mean follow-up period was 84 +/- 54 months after valve surgery. No significant differences were observed in the preoperative characteristics and operative variables between these two groups. The dobutamine stress test had been performed in 8 patients in Group A and 9 patients in Group B preoperatively, and the maximum increase ratio of %FS (delta %FS) was used for assessment. Seven patients in Group A had showed delta %FS of more than 9%, while all patients in Group B had showed delta %FS of less than 9%. Myocardial scintigraphy was performed in 11 patients of them, and another 22 patients with %FS of above 25% acted as the control group. The Defect Score, which was defined as the sum of defect scales in 25 LV segments, showed a significant difference between 11 patients with LV dysfunction and control group. The distribution of the Defect Score in each myocardial segment, showed significantly higher in the posterior and inferior LV segments. In addition, the perfusion defect on myocardial imaging was initiated in the junction between the septal and LV free wall, and extended from the posterior to the lateral wall along with deterioration of LV function. In conclusion, preoperative dobutamine stress echocardiography proved to be very useful for prediction of the postoperative LV function, and myocardial scintigraphy might be indicative of LV function even in valvular heart disease. PMID:10487034

Ozaki, N; Sugimoto, T; Okada, M

1999-02-01

87

Improved initial osteoblast functions on amino-functionalized titanium surfaces.  

PubMed

Adhesion and spreading of cells on biomaterials are integrin-mediated processes. But recent findings indicate a key role of the cell membrane associated matrix substance hyaluronan (HA) in interface interactions. Because HA is a negatively charged molecule we assume that a biomaterial surface with an opposed charge could boost the first contact of the cell to the surface. Polished cp titanium (R(a)=0.19 microm) was coated with an amino-group containing plasma polymer (Ti PPA). For this purpose, a microwave excited, pulsed, low-pressure plasma was used. Additionally, collagen was immobilized on Ti PPA with polyethylene glycol diacid (PEG-DA), catalyzed by carbodiimide (CDI). The physico-chemical surface analytical techniques like XPS, FT-IR, water contact angle and zeta-potential verified the retention of the allylamine precursor structure. Human osteoblasts were cultured in serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM). Adhesion and cell cycle phases were calculated by flow cytometry. Spreading and actin cytoskeleton were visualized by confocal microscopy. Gene expression of osteogenic markers was detected by real-time RT-PCR. Ti PPA is significantly advantageous concerning initial adhesion and spreading during the first hours of the cell contact to the surface. The proliferation of osteoblasts is positively influenced. Gene expression of the differentiation marker bone sialoprotein was upregulated after 24h. Our results demonstrate that functionalization of titanium with positively charged amino-groups is sufficiently enough to significantly improve initial steps of the cellular contact to the material surface. PMID:17825608

Nebe, Barbara; Finke, Birgit; Lüthen, Frank; Bergemann, Claudia; Schröder, Karsten; Rychly, Joachim; Liefeith, Klaus; Ohl, Andreas

2007-08-01

88

LV wall segmentation using the variational level set method (LSM) with additional shape constraint for oedema quantification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper an automatic algorithm for the left ventricle (LV) wall segmentation and oedema quantification from T2-weighted cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images is presented. The extent of myocardial oedema delineates the ischaemic area-at-risk (AAR) after myocardial infarction (MI). Since AAR can be used to estimate the amount of salvageable myocardial post-MI, oedema imaging has potential clinical utility in the management of acute MI patients. This paper presents a new scheme based on the variational level set method (LSM) with additional shape constraint for the segmentation of T2-weighted CMR image. In our approach, shape information of the myocardial wall is utilized to introduce a shape feature of the myocardial wall into the variational level set formulation. The performance of the method is tested using real CMR images (12 patients) and the results of the automatic system are compared to manual segmentation. The mean perpendicular distances between the automatic and manual LV wall boundaries are in the range of 1-2 mm. Bland-Altman analysis on LV wall area indicates there is no consistent bias as a function of LV wall area, with a mean bias of -121 mm2 between individual investigator one (IV1) and LSM, and -122 mm2 between individual investigator two (IV2) and LSM when compared to two investigators. Furthermore, the oedema quantification demonstrates good correlation when compared to an expert with an average error of 9.3% for 69 slices of short axis CMR image from 12 patients.

Kadir, K.; Gao, H.; Payne, A.; Soraghan, J.; Berry, C.

2012-10-01

89

Combinational logic approach for implementing an improved approximate squaring function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Viterbi algorithm is a fundamental signal-processing technique used in different communication systems. An improved, implemented, and tested approximate squaring function for the Viterbi algorithm is introduced in this paper. The implementation of this improved squaring function is based on combinational logic design. The performance of this new approach has been verified by implementing a 7-bit squaring function chip in

Ahmad A. Hiasat; Hoda S. Abdel-Aty-Zohdy

1999-01-01

90

Litopenaeus vannamei Sterile-Alpha and Armadillo Motif Containing Protein (LvSARM) Is Involved in Regulation of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors  

PubMed Central

The Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated NF-?B pathway is tightly controlled because overactivation may result in severe damage to the host, such as in the case of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. In mammals, sterile-alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein (SARM) plays an important role in negatively regulating this pathway. While Caenorhabditis elegans SARM is crucial for an efficient immune response against bacterial and fungal infections, it is still unknown whether Drosophila SARM participates in immune responses. Here, Litopenaeus vannamei SARM (LvSARM) was cloned and functionally characterized. LvSARM shared signature domains with and exhibited significant similarities to mammalian SARM. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression of LvSARM was responsive to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infections in the hemocyte, gill, hepatopancreas and intestine. In Drosophila S2 cells, LvSARM was widely distributed in the cytoplasm and could significantly inhibit the promoters of the NF-?B pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs). Silencing of LvSARM using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference increased the expression levels of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors, which are L.vannamei AMPs, and increased the mortality rate after V. alginolyticus infection. Taken together, our results reveal that LvSARM may be a novel component of the shrimp Toll pathway that negatively regulates shrimp AMPs, particularly Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors.

Wang, Pei-Hui; Gu, Zhi-Hua; Wan, Ding-Hui; Zhu, Wei-Bin; Qiu, Wei; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

2013-01-01

91

Antioxidant treatment improves neonatal survival and prevents impaired cardiac function at adulthood following neonatal glucocorticoid therapy.  

PubMed

Abstract? Glucocorticoids are widely used to treat chronic lung disease in premature infants but their longer-term adverse effects on the cardiovascular system raise concerns. We reported that neonatal dexamethasone treatment in rats induced in the short term molecular indices of cardiac oxidative stress and cardiovascular tissue remodelling at weaning, and that neonatal combined antioxidant and dexamethasone treatment was protective at this time. In this study, we investigated whether such effects of neonatal dexamethasone have adverse consequences for NO bioavailability and cardiovascular function at adulthood, and whether neonatal combined antioxidant and dexamethasone treatment is protective in the adult. Newborn rat pups received daily i.p. injections of a human-relevant tapering dose of dexamethasone (D; n = 8; 0.5, 0.3, 0.1 ?g g(-1)) or D with vitamins C and E (DCE; n = 8; 200 and 100 mg kg(-1), respectively) on postnatal days 1-3 (P1-3); vitamins were continued from P4 to P6. Controls received equal volumes of vehicle from P1 to P6 (C; n = 8). A fourth group received vitamins alone (CCE; n = 8). At P100, plasma NO metabolites (NOx) was measured and isolated hearts were assessed under both Working and Langendorff preparations. Relative to controls, neonatal dexamethasone therapy increased mortality by 18% (P < 0.05). Surviving D pups at adulthood had lower plasma NOx concentrations (10.6 ± 0.8 vs. 28.0 ± 1.5 ?m), an increased relative left ventricular (LV) mass (70 ± 2 vs. 63 ± 1%), enhanced LV end-diastolic pressure (14 ± 2 vs. 8 ± 1 mmHg) and these hearts failed to adapt output with increased preload (cardiac output: 2.9 ± 2.0 vs. 10.6 ± 1.2 ml min(-1)) or afterload (cardiac output: -5.3 ± 2.0 vs.1.4 ± 1.2 ml min(-1)); all P < 0.05. Combined neonatal dexamethasone with antioxidant vitamins improved postnatal survival, restored plasma NOx and protected against cardiac dysfunction at adulthood. In conclusion, neonatal dexamethasone therapy promotes cardiac dysfunction at adulthood. Combined neonatal treatment with antioxidant vitamins is an effective intervention. PMID:23940378

Niu, Youguo; Herrera, Emilio A; Evans, Rhys D; Giussani, Dino A

2013-08-12

92

Tissue kallikrein-modified human endothelial progenitor cell implantation improves cardiac function via enhanced activation of akt and increased angiogenesis.  

PubMed

Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have been shown to enhance angiogenesis not only by incorporating into the vasculature but also by secreting cytokines, thereby serving as an ideal vehicle for gene transfer. As tissue kallikrein (TK) has pleiotropic effects in inhibiting apoptosis and oxidative stress, and promoting angiogenesis, we evaluated the salutary potential of kallikrein-modified human EPCs (hEPCs; Ad.hTK-hEPCs) after acute myocardial infarction (MI). We genetically modified hEPCs with a TK gene and evaluated cell survival, engraftment, revascularization, and functional improvement in a nude mouse left anterior descending ligation model. hEPCs were manipulated to overexpress the TK gene. In vitro, the antiapoptotic and paracrine effects were assessed under oxidative stress. TK protects hEPCs from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis via inhibition of activation of caspase-3 and -9, induction of Akt phosphorylation, and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor. In vivo, the Ad.hTK-hEPCs were transplanted after MI via intracardiac injection. The surviving cells were tracked after transplantation using near-infrared optical imaging. Left ventricular (LV) function was evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography. Capillary density was quantified using immunohistochemical staining. Engrafted Ad.hTK-hEPCs exhibited advanced protection against ischemia by increasing LV ejection fraction. Compared with Ad.Null-hEPCs, transplantation with Ad.hTK-hEPCs significantly decreased cardiomyocyte apoptosis in association with increased retention of transplanted EPCs in the myocardium. Capillary density and arteriolar density in the infarct border zone was significantly higher in Ad.hTK-hEPC-transplanted mice than in Ad.Null-hEPC-treated mice. Transplanted hEPCs were clearly incorporated into CD31(+) capillaries. These results indicate that implantation of kallikrein-modified EPCs in the heart provides advanced benefits in protection against ischemia-induced MI by enhanced angiogenesis and reducing apoptosis. PMID:23508045

Yao, Yuyu; Sheng, Zulong; Li, YeFei; Fu, Cong; Ma, Genshan; Liu, Naifeng; Chao, Julie; Chao, Lee

2013-03-18

93

Daily prickly pear consumption improves platelet function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prickly pear is traditionally used by Pima Indians as a dietary nutrient against diabetes mellitus. We examined the effect of daily consumption of 250g in 8 healthy volunteers and 8 patients with mild familial heterozygous hypercholesterolemia on various parameters of platelet function. Beside its action on lipids and lipoproteins, prickly pear consumption significantly reduced the platelet proteins (platelet factor 4

R. Wolfram; A. Budinsky; Y. Efthimiou; J. Stomatopoulos; A. Oguogho; H. Sinzinger

2003-01-01

94

Neutron monitor yield function: New improved computations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A ground-based neutron monitor (NM) is a standard tool to measure cosmic ray (CR) variability near Earth, and it is crucially important to know its yield function for primary CRs. Although there are several earlier theoretically calculated yield functions, none of them agrees with experimental data of latitude surveys of sea-level NMs, thus suggesting for an inconsistency. A newly computed yield function of the standard sea-level 6NM64 NM is presented here separately for primary CR protons and ?-particles, the latter representing also heavier species of CRs. The computations have been done using the GEANT-4 PLANETOCOSMICS Monte-Carlo tool and a realistic curved atmospheric model. For the first time, an effect of the geometrical correction of the NM effective area, related to the finite lateral expansion of the CR induced atmospheric cascade, is considered, which was neglected in the previous studies. This correction slightly enhances the relative impact of higher-energy CRs (energy above 5-10 GeV/nucleon) in NM count rate. The new computation finally resolves the long-standing problem of disagreement between the theoretically calculated spatial variability of CRs over the globe and experimental latitude surveys. The newly calculated yield function, corrected for this geometrical factor, appears fully consistent with the experimental latitude surveys of NMs performed during three consecutive solar minima in 1976-1977, 1986-1987, and 1996-1997. Thus, we provide a new yield function of the standard sea-level NM 6NM64 that is validated against experimental data.

Mishev, A. L.; Usoskin, I. G.; Kovaltsov, G. A.

2013-06-01

95

New Algorithms for Improved Transcendental Functions on IA64  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IA-64 architecture provides new opportunities and challenges for implementing an improved set of transcendental functions. Using several novel polynomial-based table-driven techniques, we are able to provide new algorithms for the transcendental functions. Major improvements include an accuracy level of about 0.6 ulps (units in the last place) and forward trigonometric functions that have a period of 2 ? .

Shane Story; Ping Tak Peter Tang

1999-01-01

96

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibition Reduces Lipid Deposits in Myocardium and Improves Left Ventricular Function of Obese Zucker Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Alterations in the renin angiotensin system, cardiac lipotoxicity, and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction have been reported in obese rats. The present study examined whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition could ameliorate lipid deposition and ventricular function in the myocardium of obese Zucker rats (OZRs).Research Methods and Procedures: For 6 months, rats were treated as follows: Group (G) 1, OZR, no treatment;

Jorge Eduardo Toblli; Gabriel Cao; Carlos Rivas; Graciela DeRosa; Patricia Domecq

2006-01-01

97

Bone marrow stem cells implantation with alpha-cyclodextrin/MPEG-PCL-MPEG hydrogel improves cardiac function after myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Cellular transplantation represents a promising therapy for myocardial infarction (MI). However, it is limited by low transplanted cell retention and survival within the ischemic tissue. This study was designed to investigate whether injectable alpha-cyclodextrin/poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polycaprolactone-(dodecanedioic acid)-polycaprolactone-poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG-PCL-MPEG) hydrogel could improve cell transplant retention and survival, reduce infarct expansion and inhibit left ventricle (LV) remodeling. Bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) were encapsulated in alpha-cyclodextrin/MPEG-PCL-MPEG hydrogel and maintained their morphologies during the cell culturing. MTT assays were used for in vitro cell viability studies of the hydrogel and were shown to be non-cytotoxic. Seven days after MI, 100 microl of alpha-cyclodextrin solution containing 2 x 10(7) BMSCs and 100mul of MPEG-PCL-MPEG solution were injected into the infarcted myocardium simultaneously and the solutions solidified immediately. Injection of culture medium or cell alone served as controls. Four weeks after treatment, histological analysis indicated that the hydrogel was absorbed, and the injection of BMSCs with hydrogel had increased cell retention and vessel density around the infarct, and subsequently prevented scar expansion compared with BMSCs injection alone. Echocardiography studies showed that injection of BMSCs with hydrogel increased the LV ejection function and attenuated left ventricular dilatation. This study indicated that the injection of BMSCs with alpha-cyclodextrin/MPEG-PCL-MPEG hydrogel was an effective strategy which could enhance the effect of cellular transplantation therapy for myocardial infarction. PMID:19426843

Wang, Tao; Jiang, Xue-Jun; Tang, Qi-Zhu; Li, Xiao-Yan; Lin, Tao; Wu, De-Qun; Zhang, Xian-Zheng; Okello, Emmy

2009-05-06

98

LV dyssynchrony as assessed by phase analysis of gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate left ventricular (LV) mechanical dyssynchrony in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome pre- and post-radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) using phase analysis of gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Methods Forty-five WPW patients were enrolled and had gated SPECT MPI pre- and 2–3 days post-RFA. Electrophysiological study (EPS) was used to locate accessory pathways (APs) and categorize the patients according to the AP locations (septal, left and right free wall). Electrocardiography (ECG) was performed pre- and post-RFA to confirm successful elimination of the APs. Phase analysis of gated SPECT MPI was used to assess LV dyssynchrony pre- and post-RFA. Results Among the 45 patients, 3 had gating errors, and thus 42 had SPECT phase analysis. Twenty-two patients (52.4 %) had baseline LV dyssynchrony. Baseline LV dyssynchrony was more prominent in the patients with septal APs than in the patients with left or right APs (p<0.05). RFA improved LV synchrony in the entire cohort and in the patients with septal APs (p<0.01). Conclusion Phase analysis of gated SPECT MPI demonstrated that LV mechanical dyssynchrony can be present in patients with WPW syndrome. Septal APs result in the greatest degree of LV mechanical dyssynchrony and afford the most benefit after RFA. This study supports further investigation in the relationship between electrical and mechanical activation using EPS and phase analysis of gated SPECT MPI.

Chen, Chun; Miao, Changqing; Feng, Jianlin; Zhou, Yanli; Cao, Kejiang; Lloyd, Michael S.; Chen, Ji

2013-01-01

99

Improved endothelial function with metformin in type 2 diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThis study was designed to assess the effect of metformin on impaired endothelial function in type 2 diabetes mellitus.BACKGROUNDAbnormalities in vascular endothelial function are well recognized among patients with type 2 (insulin-resistant) diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance itself may be central to the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction. The effects of metformin, an antidiabetic agent that improves insulin sensitivity, on endothelial function

Kieren J. Mather; Subodh Verma; Todd J. Anderson

2001-01-01

100

Glucagon-like peptide-1 and the exenatide analogue AC3174 improve cardiac function, cardiac remodeling, and survival in rats with chronic heart failure  

PubMed Central

Background Accumulating evidence suggests glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) exerts cardioprotective effects in animal models of myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that chronic treatment with GLP-1 or the exenatide analog AC3174 would improve cardiac function, cardiac remodeling, insulin sensitivity, and exercise capacity (EC) in rats with MI-induced chronic heart failure (CHF) caused by coronary artery ligation. Methods Two weeks post-MI, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with GLP-1 (2.5 or 25 pmol/kg/min), AC3174 (1.7 or 5 pmol/kg/min) or vehicle via subcutaneous infusion for 11 weeks. Cardiac function and morphology were assessed by echocardiography during treatment. Metabolic, hemodynamic, exercise-capacity, and body composition measurements were made at study end. Results Compared with vehicle-treated rats with CHF, GLP-1 or AC3174 significantly improved cardiac function, including left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, and end diastolic pressure. Cardiac dimensions also improved as evidenced by reduced LV end diastolic and systolic volumes and reduced left atrial volume. Vehicle-treated CHF rats exhibited fasting hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. In contrast, GLP-1 or AC3174 normalized fasting plasma insulin and glucose levels. GLP-1 or AC3174 also significantly reduced body fat and fluid mass and improved exercise capacity and respiratory efficiency. Four of 16 vehicle control CHF rats died during the study compared with 1 of 44 rats treated with GLP-1 or AC3174. The cellular mechanism by which GLP-1 or AC3174 exert cardioprotective effects appears unrelated to changes in GLUT1 or GLUT4 translocation or expression. Conclusions Chronic treatment with either GLP-1 or AC3174 showed promising cardioprotective effects in a rat model of CHF. Hence, GLP-1 receptor agonists may represent a novel approach for the treatment of patients with CHF or cardiovascular disease associated with type 2 diabetes.

2010-01-01

101

Interaction of Bacteroides fragilis pLV22a relaxase and transfer DNA with Escherichia coli RP4-TraG coupling protein  

PubMed Central

Summary Many Bacteroides transfer factors are mobilizable in Escherichia coli when coresident with the IncP conjugative plasmid RP4, but not F. To begin characterization and potential interaction between Bacteroides mobilizable transfer factors and the RP4 mating channel, both mutants and deletions of the DNA processing (dtr), mating pair formation (mpf) and traG coupling genes of RP4 were tested for mobilization of Bacteroides plasmid pLV22a. All 10 mpf but none of the four dtr genes were required for mobilization of pLV22a. The RP4 TraG coupling protein (CP) was also required for mobilization of pLV22a, but could be substituted by a C-terminal deletion mutant of the F TraD CP. Potential interactions of the TraG CP with relaxase protein(s) and transfer DNA of both RP4 and pLV22a were assessed. Overlay assays identified productive interactions between TraG and the relaxase proteins of both MbpB and TraI from pLV22a and RP4 respectively. The Agrobacterium Transfer-ImmunoPrecipitation (TrIP) assay also identified an interaction between TraG and both RP4 and pLV22a transfer DNA. Thus, mobilization of the Bacteroides pLV22a in E. coli utilizes both RP4 Mpf and CP functions including an interaction between the relaxosome and the RP4 CP similar to that of cognate RP4 plasmid.

Thomas, Johnson; Hecht, David W.

2011-01-01

102

Scientific Benchmarks for Guiding Macromolecular Energy Function Improvement  

PubMed Central

Accurate energy functions are critical to macromolecular modeling and design. We describe new tools for identifying inaccuracies in energy functions and guiding their improvement, and illustrate the application of these tools to improvement of the Rosetta energy function. The feature analysis tool identifies discrepancies between structures deposited in the PDB and low energy structures generated by Rosetta; these likely arise from inaccuracies in the energy function. The optE tool optimizes the weights on the different components of the energy function by maximizing the recapitulation of a wide range of experimental observations. We use the tools to examine three proposed modifications to the Rosetta energy function: improving the unfolded state energy model (reference energies), using bicubic spline interpolation to generate knowledge based torisonal potentials, and incorporating the recently developed Dunbrack 2010 rotamer library (Shapovalov and Dunbrack, 2011).

Leaver-Fay, Andrew; O'Meara, Matthew J.; Tyka, Mike; Jacak, Ron; Song, Yifan; Kellogg, Elizabeth H.; Thompson, James; Davis, Ian W.; Pache, Roland A.; Lyskov, Sergey; Gray, Jeffrey J.; Kortemme, Tanja; Richardson, Jane S.; Havranek, James J.; Snoeyink, Jack; Baker, David; Kuhlman, Brian

2013-01-01

103

Scientific benchmarks for guiding macromolecular energy function improvement.  

PubMed

Accurate energy functions are critical to macromolecular modeling and design. We describe new tools for identifying inaccuracies in energy functions and guiding their improvement, and illustrate the application of these tools to the improvement of the Rosetta energy function. The feature analysis tool identifies discrepancies between structures deposited in the PDB and low-energy structures generated by Rosetta; these likely arise from inaccuracies in the energy function. The optE tool optimizes the weights on the different components of the energy function by maximizing the recapitulation of a wide range of experimental observations. We use the tools to examine three proposed modifications to the Rosetta energy function: improving the unfolded state energy model (reference energies), using bicubic spline interpolation to generate knowledge-based torisonal potentials, and incorporating the recently developed Dunbrack 2010 rotamer library (Shapovalov & Dunbrack, 2011). PMID:23422428

Leaver-Fay, Andrew; O'Meara, Matthew J; Tyka, Mike; Jacak, Ron; Song, Yifan; Kellogg, Elizabeth H; Thompson, James; Davis, Ian W; Pache, Roland A; Lyskov, Sergey; Gray, Jeffrey J; Kortemme, Tanja; Richardson, Jane S; Havranek, James J; Snoeyink, Jack; Baker, David; Kuhlman, Brian

2013-01-01

104

An Improved Hybrid Projection Function for Eye Precision Location  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved hybrid projection function (IHPF) for precise eye location is presented in this paper. This algorithm combined\\u000a the advantage of variance projection function (VPF) and hybrid projection function (HPF) by optimizing their weights in the\\u000a traditional integral projection function (IPF). Two different face databases, BioID face database downloaded from the internet\\u000a and PSFace database established by our laboratory, were

Yi Li; Peng-fei Zhao; Bai-kun Wan; Dong Ming

2007-01-01

105

Peripheral Sweat Gland Function Improves With Humid Heat Acclimation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Background: This study was conducted to determine if humid heat acclimation improves thermoregulatory function at the level of eccrine sweat gland. Methods: Thirteen male volunteers participated in this study, which consisted of 2 h of exercise in a therm...

J. H. Heaney M. J. Buono S. L. Martha

2009-01-01

106

Improving structure-based function prediction using molecular dynamics  

PubMed Central

Summary The number of molecules with solved three-dimensional structure but unknown function is increasing rapidly. Particularly problematic are novel folds with little detectable similarity to molecules of known function. Experimental assays can determine the functions of such molecules, but are time-consuming and expensive. Computational approaches can identify potential functional sites; however, these approaches generally rely on single static structures and do not use information about dynamics. In fact, structural dynamics can enhance function prediction: we coupled molecular dynamics simulations with structure-based function prediction algorithms that identify Ca2+ binding sites. When applied to 11 challenging proteins, both methods showed substantial improvement in performance, revealing 22 more sites in one case and 12 more in the other, with a modest increase in apparent false positives. Thus, we show that treating molecules as dynamic entities improves the performance of structure-based function prediction methods.

Glazer, Dariya S.; Radmer, Randall J.; Altman, Russ B.

2009-01-01

107

Improvement of brain function in hemodialysis patients treated with erythropoietin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvement of brain function in hemodialysis patients treated with erythropoietin. To evaluate the effects of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) on brain function, 15 chronic hemodialysis patients were studied by event-related P300, stimulus-related evoked potentials, and trailmaking before (hematocrit 22.7%) and after rHuEPO (hematocrit 30.6%). P300 peak latency elicited by a tone discrimination paradigm improved (391 before vs. 366 ms after;

Georg Grimm; Felix Stockenhuber; Bruno Schneeweiss; Christian Madl; Josef Zeitlhofer; Barbara Schneider

1990-01-01

108

Improved Accuracy by Relearning and Combining Distance Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The k-nearest neighbor(kNN) is improved by applying the distance functions with relearning and ensemble computations with\\u000a the higher accuracy values. In this study, the proposed relearning and combining ensemble computations are an effective technique\\u000a for improving accuracy. We develop a new approach to combine kNN classifier based on different distance functions with relearning\\u000a and ensemble computations. The proposed combining algorithm

Naohiro Ishii; Takahiro Yamada; Yongguang Bao

2008-01-01

109

Response of Eskom's MV\\/LV distribution networks to lightning transients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response of Eskom's MV\\/LV distribution transformers to lightning transients is examined and the results presented. A high frequency transformer model has been derived utilising measurements based on impulse testing techniques for use in ATP for Windows and is used to simulate the transfer of surges from the MV to the LV side. The model reproduces the frequency dependant response

R. A. Kelly; J. M. Van Coller; A. C. Britten

1996-01-01

110

Low-intensity interval exercise training attenuates coronary vascular dysfunction and preserves Ca2+-sensitive K+ current in miniature swine with LV hypertrophy  

PubMed Central

Coronary vascular dysfunction has been observed in several models of heart failure (HF). Recent evidence indicates that exercise training is beneficial for patients with HF, but the precise intensity and underlying mechanisms are unknown. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy can play a significant role in the development of HF; therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects of low-intensity interval exercise training on coronary vascular function in sedentary (HF) and exercise trained (HF-TR) aortic-banded miniature swine displaying LV hypertrophy. Six months postsurgery, in vivo coronary vascular responses to endothelin-1 (ET-1) and adenosine were measured in the left anterior descending coronary artery. Baseline and maximal coronary vascular conductance were similar between all groups. ET-1-induced reductions in coronary vascular conductance (P < 0.05) were greater in HF vs. sedentary control and HF-TR groups. Pretreatment with the ET type A (ETA) receptor blocker BQ-123 prevented ET-1 hypersensitivity in HF animals. Whole cell voltage clamp was used to characterize composite K+ currents (IK+) in coronary smooth muscle cells. Raising internal Ca2+ from 200 to 500 nM increased Ca2+-sensitive K+ current in HF-TR and control, but not HF animals. In conclusion, an ETA-receptor-mediated hypersensitivity to ET-1, elevated resting LV wall tension, and decreased coronary smooth muscle cell Ca2+-sensitive IK+ was found in sedentary animals with LV hypertrophy. Low-intensity interval exercise training preserved normal coronary vascular function and smooth muscle cell Ca2+-sensitive IK+, illustrating a potential mechanism underlying coronary vascular dysfunction in a large-animal model of LV hypertrophy. Our results demonstrate the potential clinical impact of exercise on coronary vascular function in HF patients displaying pathological LV hypertrophy.

Tharp, Darla L.; Ivey, Jan R.; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K.; Bowles, Douglas K.

2011-01-01

111

Identification of Peptide Lv, a Novel Putative Neuropeptide That Regulates the Expression of L-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Photoreceptors  

PubMed Central

Neuropeptides are small protein-like signaling molecules with diverse roles in regulating neural functions such as sleep/wake cycles, pain modulation, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory. Numerous drugs designed to target neuropeptides, their receptors, or relevant pathways have been developed in the past few decades. Hence, the discovery and characterization of new neuropeptides and their functions have received considerable attention from scientific research. Computational bioinformatics coupled with functional assays are powerful tools to address the difficulties in discovering new bioactive peptides. In this study, a new bioinformatic strategy was designed to screen full length human and mouse cDNA databases to search for novel peptides. One was discovered and named peptide Lv because of its ability to enhance L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (L-VGCC) currents in retinal photoreceptors. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), peptide Lv was detected in the culture media, which indicated that it was secreted from 661W cells transfected with the gene. In vitro treatments with either glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion peptide Lv or synthesized peptide Lv enhanced L-VGCC channel activities in cone photoreceptors. At the molecular level, peptide Lv stimulated cAMP production, enhanced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and increased the protein expression of L-VGCC?1 subunits in cone photoreceptors. Therefore, the biological activities of peptide Lv may be very important in the modulation of L-VGCC dependent neural plasticity.

Shi, Liheng; Ko, Michael L.; Abbott, Louise C.; Ko, Gladys Y. -P.

2012-01-01

112

Low-intensity interval exercise training attenuates coronary vascular dysfunction and preserves Ca²?-sensitive K? current in miniature swine with LV hypertrophy.  

PubMed

Coronary vascular dysfunction has been observed in several models of heart failure (HF). Recent evidence indicates that exercise training is beneficial for patients with HF, but the precise intensity and underlying mechanisms are unknown. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy can play a significant role in the development of HF; therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects of low-intensity interval exercise training on coronary vascular function in sedentary (HF) and exercise trained (HF-TR) aortic-banded miniature swine displaying LV hypertrophy. Six months postsurgery, in vivo coronary vascular responses to endothelin-1 (ET-1) and adenosine were measured in the left anterior descending coronary artery. Baseline and maximal coronary vascular conductance were similar between all groups. ET-1-induced reductions in coronary vascular conductance (P < 0.05) were greater in HF vs. sedentary control and HF-TR groups. Pretreatment with the ET type A (ET(A)) receptor blocker BQ-123 prevented ET-1 hypersensitivity in HF animals. Whole cell voltage clamp was used to characterize composite K(+) currents (I(K(+))) in coronary smooth muscle cells. Raising internal Ca(2+) from 200 to 500 nM increased Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) current in HF-TR and control, but not HF animals. In conclusion, an ET(A)-receptor-mediated hypersensitivity to ET-1, elevated resting LV wall tension, and decreased coronary smooth muscle cell Ca(2+)-sensitive I(K(+)) was found in sedentary animals with LV hypertrophy. Low-intensity interval exercise training preserved normal coronary vascular function and smooth muscle cell Ca(2+)-sensitive I(K(+)), illustrating a potential mechanism underlying coronary vascular dysfunction in a large-animal model of LV hypertrophy. Our results demonstrate the potential clinical impact of exercise on coronary vascular function in HF patients displaying pathological LV hypertrophy. PMID:21841018

Emter, Craig A; Tharp, Darla L; Ivey, Jan R; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Bowles, Douglas K

2011-08-12

113

Identification of Peptide lv, a novel putative neuropeptide that regulates the expression of L-type voltage-gated calcium channels in photoreceptors.  

PubMed

Neuropeptides are small protein-like signaling molecules with diverse roles in regulating neural functions such as sleep/wake cycles, pain modulation, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory. Numerous drugs designed to target neuropeptides, their receptors, or relevant pathways have been developed in the past few decades. Hence, the discovery and characterization of new neuropeptides and their functions have received considerable attention from scientific research. Computational bioinformatics coupled with functional assays are powerful tools to address the difficulties in discovering new bioactive peptides. In this study, a new bioinformatic strategy was designed to screen full length human and mouse cDNA databases to search for novel peptides. One was discovered and named peptide Lv because of its ability to enhance L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (L-VGCC) currents in retinal photoreceptors. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), peptide Lv was detected in the culture media, which indicated that it was secreted from 661W cells transfected with the gene. In vitro treatments with either glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion peptide Lv or synthesized peptide Lv enhanced L-VGCC channel activities in cone photoreceptors. At the molecular level, peptide Lv stimulated cAMP production, enhanced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and increased the protein expression of L-VGCC?1 subunits in cone photoreceptors. Therefore, the biological activities of peptide Lv may be very important in the modulation of L-VGCC dependent neural plasticity. PMID:22912796

Shi, Liheng; Ko, Michael L; Abbott, Louise C; Ko, Gladys Y-P

2012-08-13

114

Functionalized SWNT\\/polymer nanocomposites for dramatic property improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present results for polymer nanocomposites of poly- (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and amide-functionalized SWNTs. The results demon- strate that even at very low loadings, 1 wt % (0.5 vol %), the mechanical and electri- cal properties are significantly improved. The improvement over PMMA properties exceeds the theoretical bounds for composites with the same volume fraction loading of

T. Ramanathan; H. Liu; L. C. Brinson

2005-01-01

115

Activated Protein C Has a Protective Effect against Myocardial I/R Injury by Improvement of Endothelial Function and Activation of AKT1  

PubMed Central

Objectives Activated protein C (APC) has a protective efficacy against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in several organs. The objective of this study was to investigate effect of APC in myocardium with possible mechanism. Methods We used regional and global myocardial I/R injury models of rats. They consisted of I/R injuries (1) by ligation of left coronary artery, or (2) using Langendorff apparatus. Langendorff was used to focus the mechanism of APC excluding coagulation cascade in a working heart. Each experiment had an APC group (n?=?10) and a control group with normal saline (n?=?10). Injections of these solutions into rats were performed 30 minutes before the planned-I/R injury. Cardiac performance after the procedure was evaluated by echocardiography or indices with Langendorff apparatus. Coronary flow (CF) was measured in the global I/R injury model. Western blotting was performed to detect the change of AKT1 signal in myocardium after global I/R injury. Results LV function improved significantly in the APC group: %EF at 2 weeks after procedure, 70.8%±4.5% vs. 56.5%±0.7%; APC vs. control; p<0.01. Percent LV development pressure (LVDP) also improved in the APC group significantly, 88.8%±45.3% vs. 28.1%±15.4%; APC vs. control; p<0.01. In APC group, %CF improved significantly, 88.5%±15.8% vs. 65.0%±13.4%; APC vs. control; p<0.01. It was enhanced significantly when acetylcholine was administered; % CF: 103.5%±9.9% vs. 87.0%±12.1%; APC vs. control; p<0.05. Western blotting revealed that APC significantly induced activation of phosphorylated AKT1 in myocardium (p<0.05). Conclusions APC has a novel effect to protect myocardium and cardiac performance against I/R injury through improvement of endothelial function and activation of AKT1.

Maehata, Yoshito; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Sawa, Yoshiki

2012-01-01

116

Use of a 4D planispheric transformation for the tracking and analysis of LV motion with tagged MR images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major issue in cardiac imaging is the assessment of cardiac function and particularly the identification of ischemic or infarcted tissues. We present in this article a method to reconstruct the motion of the left ventricle (LV) using 4D planispheric transformations of time and space combined in a first step with B-spline tensor products. Because of the 4D modeling, (1) the use of planispheric coordinates makes the numerical evaluation more stable as compared to prolate spheroidal coordinates, the equivalent focal point being much further from the apical area of the heart. (2) In the temporal modeling, a simple adaptation is possible to changing temporal dynamics such as introduced by ectopic pacing or rapid filling after systole. (3) Finally, the strain analysis and displacement parameters that are used for the spatial modeling are computed at any point of the LV volume. Experiments are conducted on a normal and a pathological LV (posterior infarct) in order to assess the tuning of the parameters of the method. The mean RMS-distance error is less than 0.5 mm for both LVs. Finally, the motion is analyzed as smooth zeroth (displacement) and first order parameters (strain).

Declerck, Jerome; Ayache, Nicholas; McVeigh, Elliot R.

1999-05-01

117

Ameliorated stress related proteins are associated with improved cardiac function by sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase gene transfer in heart failure  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies showed that overexpression of sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA2a) in a variety of heart failure (HF) models was associated with greatly enhanced cardiac performance. However, it still undefined the effect of SERCA2a overexpression on the systemic inflammatory response and neuro-hormonal factors. Methods A rapid right ventricular pacing model of experimental HF was used in beagles. Then the animals underwent recombinant adeno-associated virus 1 (rAAV1) mediated gene transfection by direct intra-myocardium injection. HF animals were randomized to receive the SERCA2a gene, enhanced green fluorescent protein (control) gene, or equivalent phosphate buffered saline. Thirty days after gene delivery, the cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiographic testing. The protein level of SERCA2a was measured by western blotting. The proteomic analysis of left ventricular (LV) sample was determined using two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS. The serum levels of the systemic inflammatory and neuro-hormonal factors were assayed using radioimmunoassay kits. Results The cardiac function improved after SERCA- 2a gene transfer due to the significantly increased SERCA2a protein level. Beagles treated with SERCA2a had significantly decreased serum levels of the inflammatory markers (interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-?) and neuro-hormonal factors (brain natriuretic peptide, endothelin-1 and angiotensin II) compared with HF animals. The myocardial proteomic analysis showed that haptoglobin heavy chain, heat shock protein (alpha-crystallin-related, B6) were down-regulated, and galectin-1 was up-regulated in SERCA2a group compared with HF group, companied by up-regulated contractile proteins and NADH dehydrogenase. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that regional intramyocardial injections of rAAV1-SERCA2a vectors may improve global LV function, correlating with reverse activation of the systemic inflammatory, excessive neuroendocrine factors and the stress-associated myocardial proteins, suggesting that the beneficial effects of SERCA2a gene transfer may involve the attenuation of stress-associated reaction.

Fu, Zhi-Qing; Li, Xiao-Ying; Lu, Xiao-Chun; Mi, Ya-Fei; Liu, Tao; Ye, Wei-Hua

2012-01-01

118

An improved index function for (D)FCM predictors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most promising value predictors to date are the finite context method predictor and a recent improvement thereof, the differential finite context method predictor. Both predictors comprise two levels and the index into the second level is a function of the content of the first level. This index function is crucial for good performance. However, our research shows that the

Martin Burtscher

2002-01-01

119

Improving the ecological validity of executive functioning assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study investigated ways to improve the ecological validity of the neuropsychological assessment of executive functioning through the formal assessment of compensatory strategies and environmental cognitive demands. Results indicated that the group of executive functioning tests (i.e., Trail Making Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Stroop, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test) accounted for 18–20% of the variance in everyday

Naomi Chaytor; Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe; Robert Burr

2006-01-01

120

Improving marketing–operations cross-functional relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collaboration between marketing and operational areas is critical to business success. Despite this, in practice most companies suffer hostile and adversarial relationships between these functions. Existing research has not sufficiently addressed methods for improving this situation outside of the large corporation or manufacturing sector. This paper seeks to address this shortcoming, investigating mechanisms to support better cross-functional relationships in the

Niall Piercy

2010-01-01

121

Statin therapy improves brachial artery endothelial function in nephrotic syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statin therapy improves brachial artery endothelial function in nephrotic syndrome.Background:Patients with nephrotic syndrome have impaired endothelial function probably related to dyslipidemia. This study evaluated the effects of statin therapy on dyslipidemia and endothelial function in patients with nephrotic syndrome.Methods:A sequential, open-label study of the effects of statins on endothelial dysfunction in 10 nephrotic patients treated with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)

Gursharan K Dogra; Gerald F Watts; Susan Herrmann; Mark A B Thomas; Ashley B Irish

2002-01-01

122

Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of a new Amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV-1313)  

PubMed Central

Background The amphotropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLV-A's) are naturally occurring, exogenously acquired gammaretroviruses that are indigenous to the Southern California wild mice. These viruses replicate in a wide range of cell types including human cells in vitro and they can cause both hematological and neurological disorders in feral as well as in the inbred laboratory mice. Since MuLV-A's also exhibit discrete interference and neutralization properties, the envelope proteins of these viruses have been extremely useful for studying virus-host cell interactions and as vehicles for transfer of foreign genes into a variety of hosts including human cells. However, the genomic structure of any of the several known MuLV-A's has not been established and the evolutionary relationship of amphotropic retroviruses to the numerous exogenous or endogenous MuLV strains remains elusive. Herein we present a complete genetic structure of a novel amphotropic virus designated MuLV-1313 and demonstrate that this retrovirus together with other MuLV-A's belongs to a distinct molecular, biological and phylogenetic class among the MuLV strains isolated from a large number of the laboratory inbred or feral mice. Results The host range of MuLV-1313 is similar to the previously isolated MuLV-A's except that this virus replicates efficiently in mammalian as well as in chicken cells. Compared to ENV proteins of other MuLV-A's (4070A, 1504A and 10A-1), the gp70 protein of MuLV-1313 exhibits differences in its signal peptides and the proline-rich hinge regions. However, the MuLV-1313 envelope protein is totally unrelated to those present in a broad range of murine retroviruses that have been isolated from various inbred and feral mice globally. Genetic analysis of the entire MuLV-1313 genome by dot plot analyses, which compares each nucleotide of one genome with the corresponding nucleotide of another, revealed that the genome of this virus, with the exception of the env gene, is more closely related to the biologically distinct wild mouse ecotropic retrovirus (Cas-Br-E) isolated from another region of the Southern California, than to any of the 15 MuLV strains whose full-length sequences are present in the GenBank. This finding was corroborated by phylogenetic analyses and hierarchical clustering of the entire genomic sequence of MuLV-1313, which also placed all MULV-A's in a genetically distinct category among the large family of retroviruses isolated from numerous mouse strains globally. Likewise, construction of separate dendrograms for each of the Gag, Pol and Env proteins of MuLV-1313 demonstrated that the amphotropic retroviruses belong to a phylogenetically exclusive group of gammaretroviruses compared to all known MuLV strains. Conclusion The molecular, biological and phylogenetic properties of amphotropic retroviruses including MuLV-1313 are distinct compared to a large family of exogenously- or endogenously-transmitted ecotropic, polytropic and xenotropic MuLV strains of the laboratory and feral mice. Further, both the naturally occurring amphotropic and a biologically discrete ecotropic retrovirus of the Southern California wild mice are more closely related to each other on the evolutionary tree than any other mammalian gammaretrovirus indicating a common origin of these viruses. This is the first report of a complete genomic analysis of a unique group of phylogenetically distinct amphotropic virus.

Howard, Thomas M; Sheng, Zhijuan; Wang, Mingwu; Wu, Yongchun; Rasheed, Suraiya

2006-01-01

123

Text Mining Improves Prediction of Protein Functional Sites  

PubMed Central

We present an approach that integrates protein structure analysis and text mining for protein functional site prediction, called LEAP-FS (Literature Enhanced Automated Prediction of Functional Sites). The structure analysis was carried out using Dynamics Perturbation Analysis (DPA), which predicts functional sites at control points where interactions greatly perturb protein vibrations. The text mining extracts mentions of residues in the literature, and predicts that residues mentioned are functionally important. We assessed the significance of each of these methods by analyzing their performance in finding known functional sites (specifically, small-molecule binding sites and catalytic sites) in about 100,000 publicly available protein structures. The DPA predictions recapitulated many of the functional site annotations and preferentially recovered binding sites annotated as biologically relevant vs. those annotated as potentially spurious. The text-based predictions were also substantially supported by the functional site annotations: compared to other residues, residues mentioned in text were roughly six times more likely to be found in a functional site. The overlap of predictions with annotations improved when the text-based and structure-based methods agreed. Our analysis also yielded new high-quality predictions of many functional site residues that were not catalogued in the curated data sources we inspected. We conclude that both DPA and text mining independently provide valuable high-throughput protein functional site predictions, and that integrating the two methods using LEAP-FS further improves the quality of these predictions.

Cohn, Judith D.; Ravikumar, Komandur E.

2012-01-01

124

Characterization of Thiobacillus thioparus LV43 and its distribution in a chemoautotrophically based groundwater ecosystem.  

PubMed Central

Bacterial strain LV43 was previously isolated from a floating microbial mat located in Movile Cave, the access point to a chemoautotrophically based groundwater ecosystem in southern Romania. This gram-negative, rod-shaped organism grows autotrophically through the oxidation of thiosulfate and sulfide, but it does not grow heterotrophically. Strain LV43 grows over a pH range of 5.0 to 9.0, with an optimum near 7.5 at 28 degrees C. The pH of the medium decreased from 7.5 to 6.5 during growth on thiosulfate. Carbon isotope fractionation values for strain LV43 were within the previously reported range of fractionation values for the overall floating microbial mat in Movile Cave and were similar to values reported for chemoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing strains of Thiobacillus neapolitanus and Thiomicrospira sp. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain LV43 was determined, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain LV43 was most closely related to Thiobacillus thioparus and the uncultured bacterial strain Strip2, which is represented by a 16S rRNA clone obtained by direct PCR from the Stripa research mine in Sweden. This identification of strain LV43 is supported by its G+C content of 62%, which is within the range reported for strains of T. thioparus. Fluorescently labeled polyclonal antibodies specific for strain LV43 were used to locate and enumerate this strain at different locations in Movile Cave and in nearby surface-water and groundwater sources. Strain LV43 was found only at aerobic, neutral-pH sites within the cave. Strain LV43 was also found outside Movile Cave in surface waters and in groundwater believed to intercept the same sulfurous aquifer as Movile Cave.

Vlasceanu, L; Popa, R; Kinkle, B K

1997-01-01

125

[Bullectomy of giant bullae gave significant improvement of lung function].  

PubMed

A 49-year-old male smoker experienced acute deterioration of a progressive breathlessness. Spontaneous pneumothorax was diagnosed, and drainage was applied. Subsequent computed tomography revealed severe bilateral emphysematous bullae with right-sided predominance, and basal atelectasis. A lung function test showed severe obstructive disease. Right-sided bullectomy was performed through anterior thoracotomy with removal of giant bullae. Postoperative examination revealed markedly improved lung function and expansion of right-sided, previously consolidated lung tissue. PMID:23153470

Høltzermann, Mette; Borgberg Møller, Lars

2012-11-12

126

Does interferon-  improve pulmonary function in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does interferon-c improve pulmonary function in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis? A. Prasse, K-M.Muller, C. Kurz, H. Hamm, J.C. Virchow Jr. #ERS Journals Ltd 2003. ABSTRACT: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a disease with progressive and devastating deterioration of lung function and a fatal prognosis, despite aggressive therapeutic attempts, which, in the majority of cases are futile. Recently, a preliminary study of

A. Prasse; K. M. Muller; C. Kurz; H. Hammz; J. C. Virchow Jr

2003-01-01

127

Bone marrow stem cells implantation with ?-cyclodextrin\\/MPEG–PCL–MPEG hydrogel improves cardiac function after myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cellular transplantation represents a promising therapy for myocardial infarction (MI). However, it is limited by low transplanted cell retention and survival within the ischemic tissue. This study was designed to investigate whether injectable ?-cyclodextrin\\/poly(ethylene glycol)–b-polycaprolactone-(dodecanedioic acid)-polycaprolactone–poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG–PCL–MPEG) hydrogel could improve cell transplant retention and survival, reduce infarct expansion and inhibit left ventricle (LV) remodeling. Bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs)

Tao Wang; Xue-Jun Jiang; Qi-Zhu Tang; Xiao-Yan Li; Tao Lin; De-Qun Wu; Xian-Zheng Zhang; Emmy Okello

2009-01-01

128

In Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Reduction of Relative Resting Myocardial Blood Flow Is Related to Late Enhancement, T2-Signal and LV Wall Thickness  

PubMed Central

Objectives To quantify resting myocardial blood flow (MBF) in the left ventricular (LV) wall of HCM patients and to determine the relationship to important parameters of disease: LV wall thickness, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), T2-signal abnormalities (dark and bright signal), LV outflow tract obstruction and age. Materials and Methods Seventy patients with proven HCM underwent cardiac MRI. Absolute and relative resting MBF were calculated from cardiac perfusion MRI by using the Fermi function model. The relationship between relative MBF and LV wall thickness, T2-signal abnormalities (T2 dark and T2 bright signal), LGE, age and LV outflow gradient as determined by echocardiography was determined using simple and multiple linear regression analysis. Categories of reduced and elevated perfusion in relation to non- or mildly affected reference segments were defined, and T2-signal characteristics and extent as well as pattern of LGE were examined. Statistical testing included linear and logistic regression analysis, unpaired t-test, odds ratios, and Fisher’s exact test. Results 804 segments in 70 patients were included in the analysis. In a simple linear regression model LV wall thickness (p<0.001), extent of LGE (p<0.001), presence of edema, defined as focal T2 bright signal (p<0.001), T2 dark signal (p<0.001) and age (p?=?0.032) correlated inversely with relative resting MBF. The LV outflow gradient did not show any effect on resting perfusion (p?=?0.901). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that LGE (p<0.001), edema (p?=?0.026) and T2 dark signal (p?=?0.019) were independent predictors of relative resting MBF. Segments with reduced resting perfusion demonstrated different LGE patterns compared to segments with elevated resting perfusion. Conclusion In HCM resting MBF is significantly reduced depending on LV wall thickness, extent of LGE, focal T2 signal abnormalities and age. Furthermore, different patterns of perfusion in HCM patients have been defined, which may represent different stages of disease.

Hueper, Katja; Zapf, Antonia; Skrok, Jan; Pinheiro, Aurelio; Goldstein, Thomas A.; Zheng, Jie; Zimmerman, Stefan L.; Kamel, Ihab R.; Abraham, Roselle; Wacker, Frank; Bluemke, David A.; Abraham, Theodore; Vogel-Claussen, Jens

2012-01-01

129

Does Arthroscopic FAI Correction Improve Function with Radiographic Arthritis?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Previous studies reporting the impact of osteoarthritis (OA) on pain and function after hip arthroscopy largely predate resection\\u000a of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Questions\\/purposes  We determined (1) functional improvement after resection of FAI impingement lesions in patients with preoperative radiographic\\u000a joint space narrowing, and (2) identified preoperative predictors of pain, function, and failure rates in these patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and Methods  Between September 2004

Christopher M. Larson; M. Russell Giveans; Mehul Taylor

2011-01-01

130

Incorporation of an Improved Radial Distribution Function into Classical DFT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An expression for the radial distribution function g(r) for a fluid can be found using classical density functional theory. We use this expression in place of the mean-field value (e.g., g=1 for Lennard Jones fluids) in the excess Helmholtz free energy functional for the pair interactions to achieve self-consistent density profiles. We will discuss the differences found with this improved choice for g(r) compared to other, simpler approximations. We will show results for liquid-vapor systems containing hard-sphere fluids with Lennard-Jones and dipolar interactions.

de Gussem, Joost; McGarrity, Erin

2012-02-01

131

Maca (L. meyenii) for improving sexual function: a systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is an Andean plant of the brassica (mustard) family. Preparations from maca root have been reported to improve sexual function. The aim of this review was to assess the clinical evidence for or against the effectiveness of the maca plant as a treatment for sexual dysfunction. METHODS: We searched 17 databases from their inception to April

Byung-Cheul Shin; Myeong Soo Lee; Eun Jin Yang; Hyun-Suk Lim; Edzard Ernst

2010-01-01

132

Improved mapping functions for atmospheric refraction correction in SLR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. We present two new mapping functions (MFs) to model the elevation angle dependence of the atmospheric delay for satellite laser ranging (SLR) data analysis. The new MFs were derived from ray tracing through a set of data from 180 radiosonde stations globally distributed, for the year 1999, and are valid for elevation angles above 3,, representing a signiÞcant improvement

V. B. Mendes; G. Prates; E. C. Pavlis; D. E. Pavlis; R. B. Langley

2002-01-01

133

An Improved Job Shop Scheduling Algorithm Based on Efficiency Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Job-shop scheduling problem in small batch production modes is an important problem of production scheduling. It is one of the most important links on CIMS and widely applied to the engineering. In this paper, according to the feature of job-shop scheduling, an improved algorithms which is based on efficiency function is presented, the algorithms adopt \\

Luqiao Fan

2010-01-01

134

Modelling the Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in Natural Populations of Cats ( Felis catus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compartmental model was built in order to study the circulation and impact of Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) in populations of domestic cats. The model was tested with data from a long-term study of several feline populations. The study of stability shows that FeLV is maintained in the population with a stable equilibrium and a slight reduction of population size.

Emmanuelle Fromont; Marc Artois; Michel Langlais; Franck Courchamp; Dominique Pontier

1997-01-01

135

Hypertensive Heart Disease - Diagnosis, Prognostic Value and Changes During Antihypertensive Treatment, Left Ventricular Structure and Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypertensive heart disease is prevalent and during the last decade it has been determined that patients with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy have increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, many have doubted the effectiveness of LV mass assessment because it is difficult to measure, and there were no data showing a relation between reduced LV mass and improvement in LV systolic

Kristian Wachtell

2010-01-01

136

LV pressure-volume area and oxygen consumption: evaluation in intact dog by fast CT.  

PubMed

The relationship between left ventricular (LV) myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) and LV systolic pressure-volume area (PVA) was investigated in anesthetized closed-chest dogs with intact reflexes and subsequently with beta-adrenergic blockade, with or without simultaneous muscarinic blockade. LV chamber volumes were measured using a fast computerized tomography (CT) scanner (dynamic spatial reconstructor, DSR) at 33-ms intervals. Myocardial blood flow was measured from the DSR scans of aortic root angiograms. With intact reflexes, LV MVO2 (Y) related to PVA (X) values as Y = (4.28 +/- 1.81)X + (1.94 +/- 6.0) (n = 24) (mJ.g-1.cycle-1). With beta-adrenergic blockade, LV MVO2 (Y) related to PVA (X) value as Y = (4.24 +/- 1.03)X - (6.43 +/- 6.5), (n = 9) (mJ.g-1.cycle-1). With beta-adrenergic and muscarinic blockade, LV MVO2 (Y) related to PVA (X) value as Y = (2.84 +/- 1.72)X + (3.51 +/- 5.15), (n = 13) (mJ.g-1.cycle-1). The slopes of these regressions are higher than the slopes demonstrated by others in isolated ventricles but very similar to those demonstrated in open-chest dogs. PMID:1970453

Chung, N; Wu, X; Bailey, K R; Ritman, E L

1990-04-01

137

Left ventricular epicardial admittance measurement for detection of acute LV dilation.  

PubMed

There are two implanted heart failure warning systems incorporated into biventricular pacemakers/automatic implantable cardiac defibrillators and tested in clinical trials: right heart pressures, and lung conductance measurements. However, both warning systems postdate measures of the earliest indicator of impending heart failure: left ventricular (LV) volume. There are currently no proposed implanted technologies that can perform LV blood volume measurements in humans. We propose to solve this problem by incorporating an admittance measurement system onto currently deployed biventricular and automatic implantable cardiac defibrillator leads. This study will demonstrate that an admittance measurement system can detect LV blood conductance from the epicardial position, despite the current generating and sensing electrodes being in constant motion with the heart, and with dynamic removal of the myocardial component of the returning voltage signal. Specifically, in 11 pigs, it will be demonstrated that 1) a physiological LV blood conductance signal can be derived; 2) LV dilation in response to dose-response intravenous neosynephrine can be detected by blood conductance in a similar fashion to the standard of endocardial crystals when admittance is used, but not when only traditional conductance is used; 3) the physiological impact of acute left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion and resultant LV dilation can be detected by blood conductance, before the anticipated secondary rise in right ventricular systolic pressure; and 4) a pleural effusion simulated by placing saline outside the pericardium does not serve as a source of artifact for blood conductance measurements. PMID:21148342

Porterfield, John E; Larson, Erik R; Jenkins, James T; Escobedo, Daniel; Valvano, Jonathan W; Pearce, John A; Feldman, Marc D

2010-12-09

138

Functional fitness improvements after a worksite-based yoga initiative.  

PubMed

This study explored the benefits of yoga on functional fitness, flexibility, and perceived stress. A quasi-experimental design was used to measure benefits of yoga in sample of firefighters from a major metropolitan fire department. Yoga classes were conducted on-shift, in the fire stations over the period of 6 weeks. The classes included pranayama (breathing), asana (postures), and savasana (relaxation); 108 firefighters enrolled in the study, most were physically active but had no prior experience with yoga. Baseline and post-yoga assessments were completed by 77 participants. Paired t-tests revealed significant improvements in the Functional Movement Screen, a seven item test that measures functional fitness. Improvements were also noted in trunk flexibility and perceived stress. Participants also reported favorable perceptions of yoga: feeling more focused and less musculoskeletal pain. These findings - along with the retention of the majority of the participants - indicate that participants benefited from yoga. PMID:20006289

Cowen, Virginia S

2010-01-01

139

Improved variational many-body wave function in light nuclei  

SciTech Connect

We propose and implement a simple method for improving the variational wave function of a many-body system. We have obtained a significant improvement in the binding energies, wave functions, and variance for the light nuclei {sup 3}H, {sup 4}He, and {sup 6}Li, using the fully realistic Argonne (AV{sub 18}) two-body and Urbana-IX (UIX) three-body interactions. The energy of {sup 4}He was improved by about 0.2 MeV and the {sup 6}Li binding energy was increased by {approx_equal}1.7 MeV compared to earlier variational Monte Carlo results. The latter result demonstrates the significant progress achieved by our method, and detailed analyses of the improved results are given. With central interactions the results are found to be in agreement with the 'exact' calculations. Our study shows that the relative error in the many-body wave functions, compared to two-body pair correlations, increases rapidly at least proportionally to the number of pairs in the system. However, this error does not increase indefinitely since the pair interactions saturate owing to convergence of cluster expansion.

Usmani, Q. N.; Anwar, K. [Institute of Engineering Mathematics, University Malaysia Perlis (Malaysia); Singh, A. [Department of Physics, School of Technology, Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology, Bhubaneswar 751 024 (India); Rawitscher, G. [Department of Physics, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269-3046 (United States)

2009-09-15

140

Myocardial contractility improvement after coronary artery by-pass grafting in a 1-year observation: The role of myocardial viability assessment.  

PubMed

Background: Left ventricular (LV) contractility impairment in coronary artery disease patients may be the effect of heart muscle hibernation due to chronic ischemia. Revascularization is the only method to restore contractile function in these patients. The time and degree of LV function improvement have not been precisely determined, and the published data are discordant. The aim of our study was to evaluate the time of myocardial contractility recovery after surgical revascularization in patients with systolic LV dysfunction in relation to the results of echocardiography stress tests. Methods: The study included 50 patients with multivessel coronary artery disease and decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF < 40%) qualified for coronary artery by-pass grafting. The intervention was preceded by rest echocardiography, low dose dobutamine stress test (5-10 microg/kg/min) and by low dose dipyridamole stress test (0.24 mg/kg during 4 min) performed on the next day. Consecutive rest echocardiograms were performed immediately after the intervention and after 3, 6 and 12 months. LVEF and the index of left ventricular contractility (WMSI, wall motion score index) were evaluated at each examination. Results: During 1-year follow-up after coronary artery by-pass grafting (CABG), significant improvement in LV systolic function was observed (LVEF increased, WSMI reduced), with major changes occurring over the first 6 months. The correlation of echocardiography parameters (EF, WMSI) at stress tests and during 1-year follow-up showed that the strongest relationship exists between the change in WMSI both in dobutamine and dipyridamole stress tests and the improvement in WMSI observed after 6 months. Conclusions: LV function improvement after CABG in patients with systolic LV dysfunction was most pronounced 3 to 6 months after the intervention. Both types of stress tests are characterized by similar diagnostic value for assessing LV myocardial viability. WMSI calculated during stress was identified to have the strongest prognostic value. (Cardiol J 2007; 14: 246-251). PMID:18651468

Knapp, Ma?gorzata; Musia?, W?odzimierz J; Lisowska, Anna; Hinrle, Tomasz

2007-01-01

141

Arylsulfatase B Improves Locomotor Function after Mouse Spinal Cord Injury  

PubMed Central

Bacterial chondroitinase ABC (ChaseABC) has been used to remove the inhibitory chondroitin sulfate chains from chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans to improve regeneration after rodent spinal cord injury. We hypothesized that the mammalian enzyme arylsulfatase B (ARSB) would also enhance recovery after mouse spinal cord injury. Application of the mammalian enzyme would be an attractive alternative to ChaseABC because of its more robust chemical stability and reduced immunogenicity. A one-time injection of human ARSB into injured mouse spinal cord eliminated immunoreactivity for chondroitin sulfates within five days, and up to 9 weeks after injury. After a moderate spinal cord injury, we observed improvements of locomotor recovery assessed by the Basso Mouse Scale (BMS) in ARSB treated mice, compared to the buffer-treated control group, at 6 weeks after injection. After a severe spinal cord injury, mice injected with equivalent units of ARSB or ChaseABC improved similarly and both groups achieved significantly more locomotor recovery than the buffer-treated control mice. Serotonin and tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive axons were more extensively present in mouse spinal cords treated with ARSB and ChaseABC, and the immunoreactive axons penetrated further beyond the injury site in ARSB or ChaseABC treated mice than in control mice. These results indicate that mammalian ARSB improves functional recovery after CNS injury. The structural/molecular mechanisms underlying the observed functional improvement remain to be elucidated.

Yoo, Myungsik; Khaled, Muntasir; Gibbs, Kurt M.; Kim, Jonghun; Kowalewski, Bjorn; Dierks, Thomas; Schachner, Melitta

2013-01-01

142

Targeted reduction of advanced glycation improves renal function in obesity.  

PubMed

Obesity is highly prevalent in Western populations and is considered a risk factor for the development of renal impairment. Interventions that reduce the tissue burden of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have shown promise in stemming the progression of chronic disease. Here we tested if treatments that lower tissue AGE burden in patients and mice would improve obesity-related renal dysfunction. Overweight and obese individuals (body mass index (BMI) 26-39 kg/m(2)) were recruited to a randomized, crossover clinical trial involving 2 weeks each on a low- and a high-AGE-containing diet. Renal function and an inflammatory profile (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)) were improved following the low-AGE diet. Mechanisms of advanced glycation-related renal damage were investigated in a mouse model of obesity using the AGE-lowering pharmaceutical, alagebrium, and mice in which the receptor for AGE (RAGE) was deleted. Obesity, resulting from a diet high in both fat and AGE, caused renal impairment; however, treatment of the RAGE knockout mice with alagebrium improved urinary albumin excretion, creatinine clearance, the inflammatory profile, and renal oxidative stress. Alagebrium treatment, however, resulted in decreased weight gain and improved glycemic control compared with wild-type mice on a high-fat Western diet. Thus, targeted reduction of the advanced glycation pathway improved renal function in obesity. PMID:21412218

Harcourt, Brooke E; Sourris, Karly C; Coughlan, Melinda T; Walker, Karen Z; Dougherty, Sonia L; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Morley, Amy L; Thallas-Bonke, Vicki; Chand, Vibhasha; Penfold, Sally A; de Courten, Maximilian P J; Thomas, Merlin C; Kingwell, Bronwyn A; Bierhaus, Angelika; Cooper, Mark E; de Courten, Barbora; Forbes, Josephine M

2011-03-16

143

Improving the ecological validity of executive functioning assessment.  

PubMed

The current study investigated ways to improve the ecological validity of the neuropsychological assessment of executive functioning through the formal assessment of compensatory strategies and environmental cognitive demands. Results indicated that the group of executive functioning tests (i.e., Trail Making Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Stroop, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test) accounted for 18-20% of the variance in everyday executive ability as measured by the Dysexecutive Questionnaire and Brock Adaptive Functioning Questionnaire. The addition of extra-test variables significantly increased the variance in everyday executive ability accounted for. The current study adds to the literature on the ecological validity of executive functioning assessment by highlighting the importance of extra-test variables when trying to understand the complex relationship between cognitive testing and real world performance. PMID:16554143

Chaytor, Naomi; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Burr, Robert

2006-03-22

144

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activation improves endothelial function.  

PubMed

Diminished release and function of endothelium-derived nitric oxide coupled with increases in reactive oxygen species production is critical in endothelial dysfunction. Recent evidences have shown that activation of the protective axis of the renin-angiotensin system composed by angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, angiotensin-(1-7), and Mas receptor promotes many beneficial vascular effects. This has led us to postulate that activation of intrinsic angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 would improve endothelial function by decreasing the reactive oxygen species production. In the present study, we tested 1-[[2-(dimetilamino)etil]amino]-4-(hidroximetil)-7-[[(4-metilfenil)sulfonil]oxi]-9H-xantona-9 (XNT), a small molecule angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activator, on endothelial function to validate this hypothesis. In vivo treatment with XNT (1 mg/kg per day for 4 weeks) improved the endothelial function of spontaneously hypertensive rats and of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats when evaluated through the vasorelaxant responses to acetylcholine/sodium nitroprusside. Acute in vitro incubation with XNT caused endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation in aortic rings of rats. This vasorelaxation effect was attenuated by the Mas antagonist D-pro7-Ang-(1-7), and it was reduced in Mas knockout mice. These effects were associated with reduction in reactive oxygen species production. In addition, Ang II-induced reactive oxygen species production in human aortic endothelial cells was attenuated by preincubation with XNT. These results showed that chronic XNT administration improves the endothelial function of hypertensive and diabetic rat vessels by attenuation of the oxidative stress. Moreover, XNT elicits an endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation response, which was mediated by Mas. Thus, this study indicated that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activation promotes beneficial effects on the endothelial function and it is a potential target for treating cardiovascular disease. PMID:23608648

Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A; Costa-Fraga, Fabiana P; Murça, Tatiane M; Moraes, Patrícia L; Martins Lima, Augusto; Lautner, Roberto Q; Castro, Carlos H; Soares, Célia Maria A; Borges, Clayton L; Nadu, Ana Paula; Oliveira, Marilene L; Shenoy, Vinayak; Katovich, Michael J; Santos, Robson A S; Raizada, Mohan K; Ferreira, Anderson J

2013-04-22

145

Etifoxine improves peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery  

PubMed Central

Peripheral nerves show spontaneous regenerative responses, but recovery after injury or peripheral neuropathies (toxic, diabetic, or chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy syndromes) is slow and often incomplete, and at present no efficient treatment is available. Using well-defined peripheral nerve lesion paradigms, we assessed the therapeutic usefulness of etifoxine, recently identified as a ligand of the translocator protein (18 kDa) (TSPO), to promote axonal regeneration, modulate inflammatory responses, and improve functional recovery. We found by histologic analysis that etifoxine therapy promoted the regeneration of axons in and downstream of the lesion after freeze injury and increased axonal growth into a silicone guide tube by a factor of 2 after nerve transection. Etifoxine also stimulated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, and the effect was even stronger than for specific TSPO ligands. Etifoxine treatment caused a marked reduction in the number of macrophages after cryolesion within the nerve stumps, which was rapid in the proximal and delayed in the distal nerve stumps. Functional tests revealed accelerated and improved recovery of locomotion, motor coordination, and sensory functions in response to etifoxine. This work demonstrates that etifoxine, a clinically approved drug already used for the treatment of anxiety disorders, is remarkably efficient in promoting acceleration of peripheral nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Its possible mechanism of action is discussed, with reference to the neurosteroid concept. This molecule, which easily enters nerve tissues and regulates multiple functions in a concerted manner, offers promise for the treatment of peripheral nerve injuries and axonal neuropathies.

Girard, Christelle; Liu, Song; Cadepond, Francoise; Adams, David; Lacroix, Catherine; Verleye, Marc; Gillardin, Jean-Marie; Baulieu, Etienne-Emile; Schumacher, Michael; Schweizer-Groyer, Ghislaine

2008-01-01

146

Executive function improvement upon remissionof recurrent unipolar depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to investigate the\\u000a improvement of executive function measures upon recovery\\u000a from unipolar depression. Thirty patients who\\u000a suffered from recurrent major unipolar depression were\\u000a retested with regard to their executive function approximately\\u000a two years after an initial baseline examination.\\u000a At baseline, patients were depressed (average 17–item\\u000a HAM–D score 21.8), at retesting they were partially or

Eva Biringer; Astri Lundervold; Kirsten Stordal; Arnstein Mykletun; Jens Egeland; Ronald Bottlender; Anders Lund

2005-01-01

147

Insulin-like growth factor-1 enhances ventricular hypertrophy and function during the onset of experimental cardiac failure.  

PubMed Central

To determine whether additional hypertrophy would be beneficial or maladaptive in cardiac failure, the effects of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) were investigated in rats with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. In normal rats, 3 mg/kg per d of recombinant human IGF-1 for 14 d augmented LV wt (32%) and increased LV/body wt ratio (P < 0.01). 2 d after coronary occlusion, rats were randomized to IGF-1 (3 mg/kg per d) or placebo. After 2 wk, IGF-1-treated rats showed significant increases in LV wt (13%) and LV wt/tibial length ratio, but LV/body wt ratio was unchanged. By microangiography, compared with controls (n = 12) IGF-1-treated rats (n = 16) showed increased LV end-diastolic volume (19%) and stroke volume (31%) (both significant normalized to tibial length, but not to body wt). Average infarct size did not differ between groups. The LV ejection fraction (EF) was not significantly different between groups, but estimated cardiac output was higher in treated rats; there was a significant interaction for the EF between infarct size and treatment (P = 0.029) and a trend for EF to be higher in treated rats with large infarctions (EF 33.4 vs 25.1% in controls). Myocyte cross-sectional areas in noninfarcted LV zones tended to be larger in treated rats (232.1 vs 205.4 microns 2; P = 0.10), but there was no difference in capillary density and collagen content did not differ between groups. In conclusion, IGF-1 administration caused hypertrophy of the normal heart in vivo. When stimulated by IGF-1, the severely dysfunctional heart in evolving myocardial infarction is capable of undergoing additional hypertrophy with evidence of improved function, suggesting a beneficial effect. Further investigation of the potential role of growth factor therapy in heart failure appears warranted.

Duerr, R L; Huang, S; Miraliakbar, H R; Clark, R; Chien, K R; Ross, J

1995-01-01

148

Physiologic basis for improved pulmonary function after lung volume reduction.  

PubMed

It is not readily apparent how pulmonary function could be improved by resecting portions of the lung in patients with emphysema. In emphysema, elevation in residual volume relative to total lung capacity reduces forced expiratory volumes, increases inspiratory effort, and impairs inspiratory muscle mechanics. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) better matches the size of the lungs to the size of the thorax containing them. This restores forced expiratory volumes and the mechanical advantage of the inspiratory muscles. In patients with heterogeneous emphysema, LVRS may also allow space occupied by cysts to be reclaimed by more normal lung. Newer, bronchoscopic methods for lung volume reduction seek to achieve similar ends by causing localized atelectasis, but may be hindered by the low collateral resistance of emphysematous lung. Understanding of the mechanisms of improved function after LVRS can help select patients more likely to benefit from this approach. PMID:18453348

Fessler, Henry E; Scharf, Steven M; Ingenito, Edward P; McKenna, Robert J; Sharafkhaneh, Amir

2008-05-01

149

Physiologic Basis for Improved Pulmonary Function after Lung Volume Reduction  

PubMed Central

It is not readily apparent how pulmonary function could be improved by resecting portions of the lung in patients with emphysema. In emphysema, elevation in residual volume relative to total lung capacity reduces forced expiratory volumes, increases inspiratory effort, and impairs inspiratory muscle mechanics. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) better matches the size of the lungs to the size of the thorax containing them. This restores forced expiratory volumes and the mechanical advantage of the inspiratory muscles. In patients with heterogeneous emphysema, LVRS may also allow space occupied by cysts to be reclaimed by more normal lung. Newer, bronchoscopic methods for lung volume reduction seek to achieve similar ends by causing localized atelectasis, but may be hindered by the low collateral resistance of emphysematous lung. Understanding of the mechanisms of improved function after LVRS can help select patients more likely to benefit from this approach.

Fessler, Henry E.; Scharf, Steven M.; Ingenito, Edward P.; McKenna, Robert J.; Sharafkhaneh, Amir

2008-01-01

150

Improved regional ventricular function after successful surgical revascularization  

SciTech Connect

Left ventricular segments with reversible asynergy at rest demonstrate reversible myocardial perfusion defects on exercise thallium-201 scintigrams. To determine if improved perfusion eliminates asynergy at rest, 23 patients with angina (stable in 21, unstable in 2) were studied before and after coronary artery bypass surgery. All patients underwent exercise myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, contrast ventriculography and coronary arteriography before and after surgery. Selective graft angiography was performed during the postoperative catheterization to determine graft patency. Segmental ventricular function was quantitated by a regional fraction method. The scintigrams were divided into five regions and compared with the corresponding regions of the ventriculogram. Seventy-one of a possible 142 ventricular segments exhibited exercise-induced perfusion deficits. Preoperative regional ejection fraction was normal in 42 of these segments and abnormal in 29. Postoperatively, in 19 of the abnormal segments, function improved or normalized. All these segments had improved perfusion during exercise after surgery and were supplied by a patent bypass graft. Nine of the 10 segments in which abnormal wall motion persisted postoperatively continued to have exercise-induced perfusion deficits, and 9 of the 10 segments were supplied by an occluded or stenotic graft or one with poor run off. Of the 42 segments with normal wall motion preoperatively, 30 had improved perfusion after surgery and 35 maintained normal function. This study indicates that asynergy at rest is permanently reversed after coronary bypass surgery if improved myocardial perfusion can be documented. These findings are consistent with but do not prove the concept that reversible rest asynergy may reflect chronic ischemia or a prolonged effect from previous ischemic episodes.

Brundage, B.H.; Massie, B.M.; Botvinick, E.H.

1984-04-01

151

Are Clinicians' Assessments of Improvements in Children's Functioning “Global”?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the authors examined the relations among clinician ratings of treatment improvement and discrepancies between parent and blinded laboratory rater reports of child social functioning administered before and after treatment for social anxiety disorder. Participants included a clinic sample of 101 children (7–16 years old; M = 11.67, SD = 2.57; 51 girls, 81% Caucasian) receiving treatment as part of a two-site

Andres De Los Reyes; Candice A. Alfano; Deborah C. Beidel

2011-01-01

152

Normalizing hematocrit in dialysis patients improves brain function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) treatment has been shown to improve brain and cognitive function in anemic dialysis patients. Significant debate continues, however, regarding the appropriate target hematocrit (Hct) that will lead to the greatest benefits while considering possible side effects and costs of rHuEPO. Current practice results in an Hct averaging only 31% to 32% in dialysis patients, a level

Janiece L. Pickett; David C. Theberge; Warren S. Brown; Suzanne U. Schweitzer; Allen R. Nissenson

1999-01-01

153

Anabolic agents for improving muscle regeneration and function after injury.  

PubMed

1. In the present review, we describe how muscles can be injured by external factors, internal factors or during the performance of some actions during sports. In addition, we describe the injury to a muscle that occurs when its blood supply is interrupted, an occurrence common in clinical settings. An overview of muscle regeneration is presented, as well as a discussion of some of the potential complications that can compromise successful muscle repair and lead to impaired function and permanent disability. 2. Improving muscle regeneration is important for hastening muscle repair and restoring muscle function and the present review describes ways in which this can be achieved. We describe recent advances in tissue engineering that offer considerable promise for treating muscle damage, but highlight the fact that these techniques require rigorous evaluation before they can become mainstream clinical treatments. 3. Growth-promoting agents are purported to increase the size of existing and newly regenerating muscle fibres and, therefore, could be used to improve muscle function if administered at appropriate times during the repair process. The present review provides an update on the efficacy of some growth-promoting agents, including anabolic steroids, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonists, to improve muscle function after injury. Although these approaches have clinical merit, a better understanding of the androgenic, IGF-I and b-adrenoceptor signalling pathways in skeletal muscle is important if we are to devise safe and effective therapies to enhance muscle regeneration and function after injury. PMID:18498534

Lynch, Gordon S; Schertzer, Jonathan D; Ryall, James G

2008-07-01

154

An improved density matrix functional by physically motivated repulsive corrections  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved density matrix functional [correction to Buijse and Baerends functional (BBC)] is proposed, in which a hierarchy of physically motivated repulsive corrections is employed to the strongly overbinding functional of Buijse and Baerends (BB). The first correction C1 restores the repulsive exchange-correlation (xc) interaction between electrons in weakly occupied natural orbitals (NOs) as it appears in the exact electron pair density ?2 for the limiting two-electron case. The second correction C2 reduces the xc interaction of the BB functional between electrons in strongly occupied NOs to an exchange-type interaction. The third correction C3 employs a similar reduction for the interaction of the antibonding orbital of a dissociating molecular bond. In addition, C3 applies a selective cancellation of diagonal terms in the Coulomb and xc energies (not for the frontier orbitals). With these corrections, BBC still retains a correct description of strong nondynamical correlation for the dissociating electron pair bond. BBC greatly improves the quality of the BB potential energy curves for the prototype few-electron molecules and in several cases BBC reproduces very well the benchmark ab initio potential curves. The average error of the self-consistent correlation energies obtained with BBC3 for prototype atomic systems and molecular systems at the equilibrium geometry is only ca. 6%.

Gritsenko, Oleg; Pernal, Katarzyna; Baerends, Evert Jan

2005-05-01

155

Regular ingestion of black tea improves brachial artery vasodilator function.  

PubMed

A higher intake of black tea has been associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk. The antioxidant effects of tea polyphenols may enhance endothelial function and thereby reduce the risk of coronary events. The objective of the present study was to determine whether regular ingestion of black tea can improve brachial artery vasodilator function. The effects of regular ingestion of 5 cups per day of black tea for 4 weeks were compared with control conditions (hot water ingestion) in 21 subjects with mild elevations in serum cholesterol or triacylglycerol (triglyceride) concentrations in a parallel designed study. Endothelial function of the brachial artery was assessed ultrasonographically by measurement of post-ischaemic (endothelium-dependent) dilatation of the brachial artery. Endothelium-independent dilatation of the brachial artery was measured following administration of 400 microg of sublingual glyceryl trinitrate. Regular ingestion of black tea resulted in a significant and consistent increase in endothelium-dependent dilatation (2.3%; P=0.008) and in a significant increase in endothelium-independent dilatation (4.2%; P=0.03), compared with ingestion of hot water. These differences remained after adjustment for age, sex and body mass index. These results suggest that one mechanism by which black tea may reduce cardiovascular risk is via improved vasodilator function of conduit arteries. PMID:11834139

Hodgson, Jonathan M; Puddey, Ian B; Burke, Valerie; Watts, Gerald F; Beilin, Lawrence J

2002-02-01

156

Rosuvastatin improves pulse wave reflection by restoring endothelial function.  

PubMed

One of the major indicators of intact endothelial function is basal nitric oxide (NO) activity. Further, it seems to be likely that statin therapy exerts beneficial effects on vascular function, at least in part via an improvement of NO bioavailability. In the present double-blind crossover study 29 hypercholesterolemic patients were randomly assigned to receive rosuvastatin and placebo for 42days. Pulse wave analysis was assessed after 30min of rest (baseline) and after infusion of N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA) at the end of 42days treatment period. The magnitude of the increase in central augmentation index (cAIx) in response to inhibition of NO synthase (NOS) by l-NMMA is indicative of basal NO activity. CAIx was significantly lower (18.3±10 versus 21.9±12%, p=0.027) with rosuvastatin compared to placebo. There was no increment of cAIx in response to l-NMMA in placebo group. In contrast, cAIx increased significantly in response to l-NMMA (20.5±11 versus 25.7±10mm Hg, p=0.001) in rosuvastatin group. The percentage of increase of cAIx tended to be more pronounced after treatment with rosuvastatin compared to placebo (53.7±92 versus 14.1±36%, p=0.087). Pulse pressure amplification (PPA) improved (1.31±0.2 versus 1.26±0.2%, p=0.016) after rosuvastatin compared to placebo. Regression analyses revealed that both LDL-cholesterol and CRP-levels are independent determinants of basal NO activity improvement, which itself is an independent determinant of vascular function, expressed by an improvement of pulse wave reflection and PPA. In this placebo controlled study, treatment with rosuvastatin improved vascular and endothelial function. Determinants for improved NO production in patients with hypercholesterolemia were the achieved levels of LDL-cholesterol and CRP. Overall, in patients without CV disease, rosuvastatin exerted beneficially effect on vascular dysfunction, one of the earliest manifestation of atherosclerosis. PMID:22484031

Ott, C; Schneider, M P; Schlaich, M P; Schmieder, R E

2012-03-29

157

Preoperative perfusion of bypassed ileum does not improve postoperative function.  

PubMed

This study evaluated whether twice daily isotonic perfusion of the bypassed ileum for six weeks would enhance its motor activity and its absorption of fluids, electrolytes, and vitamin B12. The study also determined if patients undergoing perfusion had improved bowel function and decreased hospital stay after ileostomy closure. Following proctocolectomy, ileal pouch-anal canal anastomosis, and diverting loop ileostomy, six patients self-infused an isotonic solution (sucrose and sodium chloride) into the bypassed ileum twice daily, while seven patients did not (controls). Two months following proctocolectomy, and just prior to ileostomy closure, a manometric catheter assembly was placed into the unused distal ileum via the stoma and the distal ileum perfused with an isotonic sodium chloride solution for 3 hr during fasting and 3 hr after a meal. Absorption was measured, single and clustered pressure waves were identified, and a motility index was calculated. Water absorption, motility index, and cluster parameters did not improve in perfused patients compared to controls during fasting or after a meal, nor did perfused patients have improved vitamin B12 absorption. The perfused patients also did no better clinically following ileostomy takedown; the onset of bowel movements, their frequency, time to tolerate a diet, and hospital stay were similar to controls. We conclude that six weeks of twice daily isotonic perfusion did not improve motor activity or water, electrolyte, and vitamin B12 absorption in the bypassed distal ileum after proctocolectomy, ileal pouch-anal canal anastomosis, and loop ileostomy. The perfusion also did not improve bowel function after ileostomy takedown. PMID:9512141

Miedema, B W; Köhler, L; Smith, C D; Phillips, S F; Kelly, K A

1998-02-01

158

Improved memory function two years after bariatric surgery.  

PubMed

Objective: Obesity is as an independent risk factor for poor neurocognitive outcomes, including Alzheimer's disease. Bariatric surgery has recently been shown to result in improved memory at 12-weeks post-operatively. However, the long-term effects of bariatric surgery on cognitive function remain unclear. Design and Methods: 86 individuals (63 bariatric surgery patients, 23 obese controls) were recruited from a prospective study examining the neurocognitive effects of bariatric surgery. All participants completed self-report measurements and a computerized cognitive test battery prior to surgery and at 12-week and 24-month follow-up; obese controls completed measures at equivalent time points. Results: Bariatric surgery patients exhibited high rates of pre-operative cognitive impairments in attention, executive function, memory, and language. Relative to obese controls, repeated measures ANOVA showed improvements in memory from baseline to 12-weeks and 24-months post-operatively (p <.05). Regression analyses controlling for baseline factors revealed that a lower BMI at 24-months demonstrated a trend toward significance for improved memory (? = -.30, p =.075). Conclusion: These findings suggest that cognitive benefits of bariatric surgery may extend to 24-months post-operatively. Larger prospective studies with extended follow-up periods are needed to elucidate whether bariatric surgery decreases risk for cognitive decline and possibly the development of dementia. PMID:23625587

Alosco, Michael L; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Paul, Robert; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Gunstad, John

2013-04-27

159

A dual propagation contours technique for semi-automated assessment of systolic and diastolic cardiac function by CMR  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is frequently performed to measure accurate LV volumes and ejection fractions, LV volume-time curves (VTC) derived ejection and filling rates are not routinely calculated due to lack of robust LV segmentation techniques. VTC derived peak filling rates can be used to accurately assess LV diastolic function, an important clinical parameter. We developed a novel

Wei Feng; Hosakote Nagaraj; Himanshu Gupta; Steven G Lloyd; Inmaculada Aban; Gilbert J Perry; David A Calhoun; Louis J Dell'Italia; Thomas S Denney Jr

2009-01-01

160

Effects of levosimendan versus dobutamine on left atrial function in decompensated heart failure  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Although the effects of levosimendan on the left ventricle (LV) have been studied, its effect on left atrial (LA) function is poorly understood, despite its key role in optimizing LV function. OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of levosimendan and dobutamine on LA and LV function in patients with decompensated heart failure (DHF). METHODS: Seventy-four patients (mean [± SD] age 64±10 years) with DHF and an LV ejection fraction of 35% or lower were randomly assigned to receive levosimendan (n=37) or dobutamine (n=37). LA active emptying fraction, LA passive emptying fraction (PEF) and the ratio of mitral inflow early diastolic velocity to annulus velocity (E/e) were evaluated with pulsed wave and tissue Doppler imaging along with plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level measurements before and after drug infusion. RESULTS: The ejection fraction was significantly increased in both groups. The levosimendan group had a greater decrease in BNP and a greater increase in active emptying fraction at 24 h compared with the dobutamine group. The PEF, E/e and deceleration time of the E wave were significantly improved in the levosimendan group, but not in the dobutamine group. Levosimendan-induced percentage change of BNP was significantly correlated with the percentage change of E/e and PEF (r=0.48 [P<0.005] and r=?0.38 [P<0.05], respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with DHF, levosimendan and dobutamine both improve LV systolic function. However, levosimendan also improves LV diastolic function and LA performance in parallel with a greater improvement in neurohormonal activation compared with dobutamine.

Duman, Dursun; Palit, Fatih; Simsek, Ergun; Bilgehan, Karadag; Sacide, Atalay

2009-01-01

161

Active robotic training improves locomotor function in a stroke survivor  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical outcomes after robotic training are often not superior to conventional therapy. One key factor responsible for this is the use of control strategies that provide substantial guidance. This strategy not only leads to a reduction in volitional physical effort, but also interferes with motor relearning. Methods We tested the feasibility of a novel training approach (active robotic training) using a powered gait orthosis (Lokomat) in mitigating post-stroke gait impairments of a 52-year-old male stroke survivor. This gait training paradigm combined patient-cooperative robot-aided walking with a target-tracking task. The training lasted for 4-weeks (12 visits, 3?×?per week). The subject’s neuromotor performance and recovery were evaluated using biomechanical, neuromuscular and clinical measures recorded at various time-points (pre-training, post-training, and 6-weeks after training). Results Active robotic training resulted in considerable increase in target-tracking accuracy and reduction in the kinematic variability of ankle trajectory during robot-aided treadmill walking. These improvements also transferred to overground walking as characterized by larger propulsive forces and more symmetric ground reaction forces (GRFs). Training also resulted in improvements in muscle coordination, which resembled patterns observed in healthy controls. These changes were accompanied by a reduction in motor cortical excitability (MCE) of the vastus medialis, medial hamstrings, and gluteus medius muscles during treadmill walking. Importantly, active robotic training resulted in substantial improvements in several standard clinical and functional parameters. These improvements persisted during the follow-up evaluation at 6?weeks. Conclusions The results indicate that active robotic training appears to be a promising way of facilitating gait and physical function in moderately impaired stroke survivors.

2012-01-01

162

Dietary restriction started after spinal cord injury improves functional recovery.  

PubMed

Spinal cord injury typically results in limited functional recovery. Here we investigated whether therapeutic dietary restriction, a multi-faceted, safe, and clinically-feasible treatment, can improve outcome from cervical spinal cord injury. The well-established notion that dietary restriction increases longevity has kindled interest in its potential benefits in injury and disease. When followed for several months prior to insult, prophylactic dietary restriction triggers multiple molecular responses and improves outcome in animal models of stroke and myocardial infarction. However, the efficacy of the clinically-relevant treatment of post-injury dietary restriction is unknown. Here we report that "every-other-day fasting" (EODF), a form of dietary restriction, implemented after rat cervical spinal cord injury was neuroprotective, promoted plasticity, and improved behavioral recovery. Without causing weight loss, EODF improved gait-pattern, forelimb function during ladder-crossing, and vertical exploration. In agreement, EODF preserved neuronal integrity, dramatically reduced lesion volume by >50%, and increased sprouting of corticospinal axons. As expected, blood beta-hydroxybutyrate levels, a ketone known to be neuroprotective, were increased by 2-3 fold on the fasting days. In addition, we found increased ratios of full-length to truncated trkB (receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor) in the spinal cord by 2-6 folds at both 5 days (lesion site) and 3 weeks after injury (caudal to lesion site) which may further enhance neuroprotection and plasticity. Because EODF is a safe, non-invasive, and low-cost treatment, it could be readily translated into the clinical setting of spinal cord injury and possibly other insults. PMID:18585708

Plunet, Ward T; Streijger, Femke; Lam, Clarrie K; Lee, Jae H T; Liu, Jie; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

2008-04-22

163

Detection of AKR MuLV-specific RNA in AKR mouse cells by in situ hybridization.  

PubMed Central

Conditions for the detection of complex RNA sequences by in situ hybridization have been investigated by using a single-stranded 3H-cDNA probe complementary to the AKR MuLV genome and in vitro cultured AKR mouse cells which spontaneously produce AKR MuLV. It is shown that fixation with glutaraldehyde at low concentration allows cellular RNA to be sufficiently well retained during the annealing process and that stringent conditions in situ can be maintained by means of formamide. Some conditions which promote atypical and non-specific binding of the probe have been identified.

Godard, C; Jones, K W

1979-01-01

164

Cellular, but not direct, adenoviral delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor results in improved left ventricular function and neovascularization in dilated ischemic cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesWe sought to compare the effects on angiogenesis and left ventricular (LV) function of adenoviral vascular endothelial growth factor-165 (AdVEGF-165) gene delivery by direct injection of AdVEGF-165 to the transplantation of skeletal myoblasts (SKMB) transfected with AdVEGF-165 in a rat model of ischemic cardiomyopathy.

Arman Askari; Samuel Unzek; Corey K Goldman; Stephen G Ellis; James D Thomas; Paul E DiCorleto; Eric J Topol; Marc S Penn

2004-01-01

165

IL 10 Treatment Attenuates Pressure Overload-Induced Hypertrophic Remodeling and Improves Heart Function via STAT3 Dependent Inhibition of NF?B  

PubMed Central

Background Inflammation plays a critical role in adverse cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Therefore, approaches geared towards inhibiting inflammation may provide therapeutic benefits. We tested the hypothesis that genetic deletion of interleukin-10 (IL10), a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, exacerbates pressure-overload induced adverse cardiac remodeling and hypertrophy and that IL10 therapy inhibits this pathology. Methods and Results Cardiac hypertrophy was induced in Wild-type (WT) and IL10-knockout (KO) mice by isoproterenol (ISO) infusion. ISO-induced left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and hypertrophic remodeling, including fibrosis and fetal gene expression, were further exaggerated in KO mice compared to WT. Systemic recombinant mouse IL10 administration markedly improved LV function and not only inhibited but also reversed ISO-induced cardiac remodeling. Intriguingly, very similar cardio-protective response of IL10 was found in transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced hypertrophy and heart failure model. In neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRCM) and H9c2 myoblasts, ISO activated NF?B while it inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation. Interestingly, IL10 suppressed ISO-induced NF?B activation and attenuated STAT3 inhibition. Moreover, pharmacological and genetic inhibition of STAT3 reversed the protective effects of IL10 while ectopic expression of constitutively active STAT3 mimicked the IL10 responses on the ISO effects, confirming that IL10 mediated inhibition of NF?B is STAT3 dependent. Conclusions Taken together our studies suggest IL10 treatment as a potential therapeutic approach to limit the progression of pressure overload-induced adverse cardiac remodeling.

Verma, Suresh Kumar; Krishnamurthy, Prasanna; Barefield, David; Singh, Neha; Gupta, Rajesh; Lambers, Erin; Thal, Melissa; Mackie, Alexander; Hoxha, Eneda; Ramirez, Veronica; Qin, Gangjian; Sadayappan, Sakthivel; Ghosh, Asish; Kishore, Raj

2012-01-01

166

Intravenous Glial Growth Factor 2 (GGF2) Isoform of Neuregulin-1? Improves Left Ventricular Function, Gene and Protein Expression in Rats after Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Aims Recombinant Neuregulin (NRG)-1? has multiple beneficial effects on cardiac myocytes in culture, and has potential as a clinical therapy for heart failure (HF). A number of factors may influence the effect of NRG-1? on cardiac function via ErbB receptor coupling and expression. We examined the effect of the NRG-1? isoform, glial growth factor 2 (GGF2), in rats with myocardial infarction (MI) and determined the impact of high-fat diet as well as chronicity of disease on GGF2 induced improvement in left ventricular systolic function. Potential mechanisms for GGF2 effects on the remote myocardium were explored using microarray and proteomic analysis. Methods and Results Rats with MI were randomized to receive vehicle, 0.625 mg/kg, or 3.25 mg/kg GGF2 in the presence and absence of high-fat feeding beginning at day 7 post-MI and continuing for 4 weeks. Residual left ventricular (LV) function was improved in both of the GGF2 treatment groups compared with the vehicle treated MI group at 4 weeks of treatment as assessed by echocardiography. High-fat diet did not prevent the effects of high dose GGF2. In experiments where treatment was delayed until 8 weeks after MI, high but not low dose GGF2 treatment was associated with improved systolic function. mRNA and protein expression analysis of remote left ventricular tissue revealed a number of changes in myocardial gene and protein expression altered by MI that were normalized by GGF2 treatment, many of which are involved in energy production. Conclusions This study demonstrates that in rats with MI induced systolic dysfunction, GGF2 treatment improves cardiac function. There are differences in sensitivity of the myocardium to GGF2 effects when administered early vs. late post-MI that may be important to consider in the development of GGF2 in humans.

Murphy, Abigail; Smith, Holly M.; Galindo, Cristi L.; Pentassuglia, Laura; Peng, Xuyang; Lenneman, Carrie G.; Odiete, Oghenerukevwe; Friedman, David B.; Kronenberg, Marvin W.; Zheng, Siyuen; Zhao, Zhongming; Song, Yanna; Harrell, Frank E.; Srinivas, Maya; Ganguly, Anindita; Iaci, Jennifer; Parry, Tom J.; Caggiano, Anthony O.; Sawyer, Douglas B.

2013-01-01

167

Testing and Improving ENSO Models by Process using Transfer Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some key elements of ENSO are not consistently well captured in GCMs. However, modifying the wrong parameters may lead to the right result for the wrong reason. We introduce “transfer functions” to quantify the input/ output relationship of individual processes from model output, to compare them to the corresponding observed processes. Two key transfer functions have been calculated: first, the relationship between western Pacific Rossby waves and the reflecting Kelvin waves; second, the frequency-dependent relation between Kelvin waves traveling toward the eastern boundary and the sea surface temperature response. These are estimated for TAO array data, the Cane-Zebiak model, and the GFDL CM2.1 coupled GCM. Both models have significant biases in the east Pacific SST response to arriving Kelvin waves. Specifically, the GCM showed too strong an excitation of SST by the Kelvin waves, possibly partially compensated by having a too large dissipation of east Pacific SST. In the CZ model, we were able to modify some model parameters to make this process more compatible with the observed one, but this resulted in a severe deterioration of the ENSO simulation. This is a direct evidence of the existence of compensating errors, as well as an example of how these tools may be used to more consistently tune and improve climate models in general and ENSO models in particular. The advantage of the transfer function approach over a straightforward least-squares fit is in the ability to identify the underlying frequency-dependent relationship between the variables, and in understanding what part of the frequency regime is useful for estimating the relationship and what part is caused by noise or other processes. In addition to the relationships noted above, transfer functions can also be evaluated for any other input/output relationship in order to better understand differences between models and data, not only for ENSO (e.g. relationships between SST and wind, wind and ocean waves or thermocline depth, etc), but for other dynamic aspects of the climate. Our future plans are to use the transfer-function based approach to inter-compare models in the CMIP5/IPCC database, and compare with observationally-based transfer functions where possible, in order to evaluate differences and potential compensating errors in capturing ENSO, decadal variability of ENSO, and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. This approach should be broadly useful in making climate model improvement more systematic and observation-driven.

Tziperman, E.; Macmynowski, D. G.

2010-12-01

168

Exercise Training Improves Plantarflexor Muscle Function in mdx Mice  

PubMed Central

Purpose We tested the hypothesis that low intensity exercise in mdx mice improves plantarflexor muscle contractile function, resistance to fatigue, and mitochondrial adaptations without exacerbating muscular dystrophy. Methods We subjected mdx mice to 12 wk of voluntary, low-resistance wheel running (Run, n=17) or normal cage activities (sedentary; Sed, n=16) followed by in vivo analyses for plantarflexor torque generation and fatigue resistance, or running capacity on a treadmill. Gastrocnemius muscles were further evaluated for exercise-induced mitochondrial adaptations and fiber type distribution and central nuclei. T-tests were used to determine differences between the Sed and Run groups. Results Plantarflexor submaximal isometric torques and maximal isometric torque at multiple ankle joint angles, and resistance to fatigue were greater in Run compared to Sed mdx mice (P<0.05). Citrate synthase and ?-HAD enzyme activities and COX IV protein expression in gastrocnemius muscles were greater in Run than Sed mdx mice (P?0.04), along with a trend of fiber type transformation from type IIb to type 2x fibers. Exercise training in mdx mice did not elevate serum creatine kinase levels, but led to a significant reduction of centrally-nucleated myofibers. Conclusion Voluntary, low-resistance wheel running in mdx mice can result in skeletal muscle adaptation, leading to improved contractile function and reduced fatigability, with no indication that exercise was detrimental. This study supports the need for further investigation of low intensity exercise as an early therapeutic intervention in ambulatory boys with DMD.

Baltgalvis, Kristen A.; Call, Jarrod A.; Cochrane, Gregory D.; Laker, Rhianna C.; Yan, Zhen; Lowe, Dawn A.

2012-01-01

169

Are Clinicians' Assessments of Improvements in Children's Functioning "Global"?  

PubMed Central

In this study, the authors examined the relations among clinician ratings of treatment improvement and discrepancies between parent and blinded laboratory rater reports of child social functioning administered before and after treatment for social anxiety disorder. Participants included a clinic sample of 101 children (7–16 years old [M = 11.67, SD = 2.57]; 51 girls; 81% Caucasian) receiving treatment as part of a two site controlled trial. Overall, clinician ratings reflected lack of improvement when parents reported persistent (i.e., pre-to-posttreament) social functioning deficits not reported by blinded raters. However, when blinded raters reported persistent social skill deficits not reported by parents, we did not observe the same effect on clinician ratings as we did when the direction of discrepant reports was reversed. We replicated these observations in a subset of participants (n = 81) providing parent and child pre-post reports of social anxiety symptoms. These findings have implications for the interpretations of clinical ratings as “primary outcome measures” within controlled trials.

De Los Reyes, Andres; Alfano, Candice A.; Beidel, Deborah C.

2011-01-01

170

Maca (L. meyenii) for improving sexual function: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Maca (Lepidium meyenii) is an Andean plant of the brassica (mustard) family. Preparations from maca root have been reported to improve sexual function. The aim of this review was to assess the clinical evidence for or against the effectiveness of the maca plant as a treatment for sexual dysfunction. Methods We searched 17 databases from their inception to April 2010 and included all randomised clinical trials (RCTs) of any type of maca compared to a placebo for the treatment of healthy people or human patients with sexual dysfunction. The risk of bias for each study was assessed using Cochrane criteria, and statistical pooling of data was performed where possible. The selection of studies, data extraction, and validations were performed independently by two authors. Discrepancies were resolved through discussion by the two authors. Results Four RCTs met all the inclusion criteria. Two RCTs suggested a significant positive effect of maca on sexual dysfunction or sexual desire in healthy menopausal women or healthy adult men, respectively, while the other RCT failed to show any effects in healthy cyclists. The further RCT assessed the effects of maca in patients with erectile dysfunction using the International Index of Erectile Dysfunction-5 and showed significant effects. Conclusion The results of our systematic review provide limited evidence for the effectiveness of maca in improving sexual function. However, the total number of trials, the total sample size, and the average methodological quality of the primary studies were too limited to draw firm conclusions. More rigorous studies are warranted.

2010-01-01

171

Does L-carnitine improve endothelial function in hemodialysis patients?  

PubMed Central

Background: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in hemodialysis patients. These patients are also very prone to L-carnitine deficiency due to kidney disease. In this clinical trial, we investigated the effect of oral L-carnitine on endothelial function of these patients. Materials ans Methods: We studied 31 adult chronic hemodialysis patients in our center and divided them into two groups. The first group (n = 20) received 1500 mg/dialysis interval (every other day) oral L-carnitine. The control group (n = 11) received placebo for one month. Ultrasonographic measurements of flow mediated dilation and carotid intima-media thickness were performed before and after one month of L-carnitine and placebo therapy. Results: This study showed that after one month of L-carnitine or placebo therapy there was no significant improvement in flow mediated dilation (p = 0.80 and p = 0.59, respectively) or decrease in carotid intima-media thickness (p = 0.12 and p = 0.50, respectively). Conclusions: Our study revealed that one month of oral L-carnitine therapy did not improve endothelial function in hemodialysis patients. Long-term studies with large sample size using intravenous form and higher doses of the drug are required to clarify the questionable role of L-carnitine in hemodialysis patients.

Sabri, Mohammad Reza; Fahimi, Farnaz; Hajialiasgar, Soheila; Etminan, Abbas; Nazemi, Sarir; Salehi, Farzaneh

2012-01-01

172

Valuing preferences over stormwater management outcomes including improved hydrologic function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stormwater runoff causes environmental problems such as flooding, soil erosion, and water pollution. Conventional stormwater management has focused primarily on flood reduction, while a new generation of decentralized stormwater solutions yields ancillary benefits such as healthier aquatic habitat, improved surface water quality, and increased water table recharge. Previous research has estimated values for flood reduction from stormwater management, but no estimates exist for the willingness to pay (WTP) for some of the other environmental benefits of alternative approaches to stormwater control. This paper uses a choice experiment survey of households in Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, to estimate the values of several attributes of stormwater management outcomes. We analyzed data from 131 surveyed households in randomly selected neighborhoods. We find that people value reduced basement flooding more than reductions in yard or street flooding, but WTP for basement flood reduction in the area only exists if individuals are currently experiencing significant flooding themselves. Citizens value both improved water quality and improved hydrologic function and aquatic habitat from runoff reduction. Thus, widespread investment in low impact development stormwater solutions could have very large total benefits, and stormwater managers should be wary of policies and infrastructure plans that reduce flooding at the expense of water quality and aquatic habitat.

LondoñO Cadavid, Catalina; Ando, Amy W.

2013-07-01

173

Shape analysis of the left ventricular surface using three-dimensional echocardiography: validation and application to LV remodeling following myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of LV shape can aid in characterizing LV remodeling following myocardial infarction. The authors developed and validated a method of detecting abnormalities in left ventricular (LV) shape using three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography. LV endocardial surfaces were reconstructed by piecewise smooth subdivision method from traced echocardiographic scans in end diastole. Artificially distorted surfaces were created to test the method which aligns

M. Hubka; B. Hoppe; J. A. McDonald; S. Wong; E. L. Bolson; K. L. Coady; F. H. Sheehan

2000-01-01

174

Schwann cells seeded in acellular nerve grafts improve functional recovery.  

PubMed

Introduction: This study evaluated whether Schwann cells (SCs) from different nerve sources transplanted into cold-preserved acellular nerve grafts (CP-ANGs) would improve functional regeneration compared to nerve isografts. Methods: SCs isolated and expanded from motor and sensory branches of rat femoral and sciatic nerves were seeded into 14mm CP-ANGs. Growth factor expression, axonal regeneration, and functional recovery were evaluated in a14 mm rat sciatic injury model and compared to isografts. Results: At 14 days, motor or sensory-derived SCs increased expression of growth factors in CP-ANGs versus isografts. After 42 days, histomorphometric analysis found CP-ANGs with SCs and isografts had similar numbers of regenerating nerve fibers. At 84 days, muscle force generation was similar for CP-ANGs with SCs and isografts. SC source did not affect nerve fiber counts or muscle force generation. Discussion: SCs transplanted into CP-ANGs increase functional regeneration to isograft levels; however SC nerve source did not have an effect. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23625513

Jesuraj, Nithya J; Santosa, Katherine B; Macewan, Matthew R; Moore, Amy M; Kasukurthi, Rahul; Ray, Wilson Z; Flagg, Eric R; Hunter, Daniel A; Borschel, Gregory H; Johnson, Philip J; Mackinnon, Susan E; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E

2013-04-26

175

Research on LV's Chinese marketing strategy based on the STV triangle model  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the open economy and the economic globalization's deep influence, the age of the Chinese luxury consumption has come. This paper analyzes LV's marketing strategy in Chinese market based on Philip Kotler's STV triangle model, and finds the key reasons behind its success. According to the research results, this paper also gives Chinese local luxury enterprises some suggestions to help

Xinman Lu; Lei Fang

2011-01-01

176

L.V. Koos: His Contribution to American Education During Half a Century.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This dissertation is a study of the life and works of L.V. Koos. It covers his personal history, the course of his education, and his professional qualifications. It discusses his influence, both personal and professional, on other educators, as shown by the quoted opinions of his students and colleagues. He first gave his attention to the grades…

Conger, George R.

177

Modeling and Field Measurements of Photovoltaic Units Connected to LV Grid. Study of Penetration Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

The operation of photovoltaic (PV) units connected to thegridischaracterizedbyseveraluncertaintiesduetothenumber of currently operating units, the points where these units are sited, the exported power, and the injection of harmonic currents. The objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of the penetra- tion of PV units in the low-voltage (LV) network. Thus, a model has been developed for the computation

Ioulia T. Papaioannou; Minas C. Alexiadis; Charis S. Demoulias; Dimitris P. Labridis; Petros S. Dokopoulos

2011-01-01

178

Insulation Characteristics of MV/LV Transformers Protected by Spark Gaps.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report examines the behavior of MV/LV transformers under chopped-wave impulse stresses with reference to the use of spark gaps for lightning surge protection. From analysis of the voltage distribution obtained with recurrent impulses on typical distr...

G. Mazza E. Sesto

1986-01-01

179

A Stability Algorithm for the Dynamic Analysis of Inverter Dominated Unbalanced LV Microgrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an algorithm is presented, suitable for simulating the dynamic behavior of LV Microgrids both under grid connected and autonomous operation. The algorithm follows the stability approach, focusing on low-frequency dynamics, and adjusts the standard methodology so that the dynamic analysis of the system can be carried out, even in the absence of a synchronous machine when all

Nikos L. Soultanis; Stavros A. Papathanasiou; Nikos D. Hatziargyriou

2007-01-01

180

Voltage and frequency control of inverter based weak LV network microgrid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper voltage and frequency control of islanded microgrid after intentional and unintentional switching events are investigated. The weak low voltage (LV) network based microgrid consists of two inverter based distributed generation (DG) units. One unit is a storage (battery) unit and the other is a photovoltaic (PV) cell. In this case the battery inverter with rapid response is

H. Laaksonen; P. Saari; R. Komulainen

2005-01-01

181

Optimizing LV Voltage Profile by Intelligent MV Control in Autonomously Controlled Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase of distributed power generation can result in equilibrium of local produced and consumed electrical energy. Power electronics and storage can transform networks in which such equilibrium exists into autonomously controlled networks. These networks remain part of the rest of the power grid. An example of such a network contains several MV feeders and their LV networks. One of

Frans Provoost; Johanna M. A. Myrzik; Wil L. Kling

2006-01-01

182

Terminalia arjuna enhances baroreflex sensitivity and myocardial function in isoproterenol-induced chronic heart failure rats.  

PubMed

Chronic heart failure (CHF) is characterized by left ventricular (LV) dysfunction along with impaired autonomic control functions. Herbal drugs are increasingly being used in the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. The present study was designed to examine the protective effect of Terminalia arjuna (T arjuna) bark extract on LV and baroreflex function in CHF and to elucidate the possible mechanistic clues in its cardioprotective action. The baroreflex was evaluated by measuring the changes in heart rate (HR) with changes in arterial blood pressure induced by bolus injections of phenylephrine (vasoconstrictor) and sodium nitroprusside (vasodilator). T arjuna bark extract and fluvastatin were tested/administered therapeutically and prophylactically in isoproterenol-induced rat model of CHF. Fifteen days after isoproterenol administration, rats exhibited cardiac dysfunction, hypertrophy, and LV remodeling along with reduced baroreflex sensitivity. Prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with T arjuna improved cardiac functions and baroreflex sensitivity. It also attenuated hypertrophy and fibrosis of the LV. Fluvastatin treatment exerted a similar protective effect against myocardial remodeling and heart failure. Further, T arjuna and fluvastatin significantly reduced oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine level in CHF rats. In conclusion, T arjuna exerts beneficial effect on LV functions, myocardial remodeling, and autonomic control in CHF possibly through maintaining endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities, inhibiting lipid peroxidation and cytokine levels. PMID:21828283

Parveen, Adila; Babbar, Rashmi; Agarwal, Sarita; Kotwani, Anita; Fahim, Mohammad

2011-08-09

183

Shortening of atrioventricular delay at increased atrial paced heart rates improves diastolic filling and functional class in patients with biventricular pacing  

PubMed Central

Background Use of rate adaptive atrioventricular (AV) delay remains controversial in patients with biventricular (Biv) pacing. We hypothesized that a shortened AV delay would provide optimal diastolic filling by allowing separation of early and late diastolic filling at increased heart rate (HR) in these patients. Methods 34 patients (75 ± 11 yrs, 24 M, LVEF 34 ± 12%) with Biv and atrial pacing had optimal AV delay determined at baseline HR by Doppler echocardiography. Atrial pacing rate was then increased in 10 bpm increments to a maximum of 90 bpm. At each atrial pacing HR, optimal AV delay was determined by changing AV delay until best E and A wave separation was seen on mitral inflow pulsed wave (PW) Doppler (defined as increased atrial duration from baseline or prior pacemaker setting with minimal atrial truncation). Left ventricular (LV) systolic ejection time and velocity time integral (VTI) at fixed and optimal AV delay was also tested in 13 patients. Rate adaptive AV delay was then programmed according to the optimal AV delay at the highest HR tested and patients were followed for 1 month to assess change in NYHA class and Quality of Life Score as assessed by Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire. Results 81 AV delays were evaluated at different atrial pacing rates. Optimal AV delay decreased as atrial paced HR increased (201 ms at 60 bpm, 187 ms at 70 bpm, 146 ms at 80 bpm and 123 ms at 90 bpm (ANOVA F-statistic = 15, p = 0.0010). Diastolic filling time (P < 0.001 vs. fixed AV delay), mitral inflow VTI (p < 0.05 vs fixed AV delay) and systolic ejection time (p < 0.02 vs. fixed AV delay) improved by 14%, 5% and 4% respectively at optimal versus fixed AV delay at the same HR. NYHA improved from 2.6 ± 0.7 at baseline to 1.7 ± 0.8 (p < 0.01) 1 month post optimization. Physical component of Quality of Life Score improved from 32 ± 17 at baseline to 25 ± 12 (p < 0.05) at follow up. Conclusions Increased heart rate by atrial pacing in patients with Biv pacing causes compromise in diastolic filling time which can be improved by AV delay shortening. Aggressive AV delay shortening was required at heart rates in physiologic range to achieve optimal diastolic filling and was associated with an increase in LV ejection time during optimization. Functional class improved at 1 month post optimization using aggressive AV delay shortening algorithm derived from echo-guidance at the time of Biv pacemaker optimization.

2012-01-01

184

Inhibition of neutrophil activity improves cardiac function after cardiopulmonary bypass  

PubMed Central

Background The arterial in line application of the leukocyte inhibition module (LIM) in the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) limits overshooting leukocyte activity during cardiac surgery. We studied in a porcine model whether LIM may have beneficial effects on cardiac function after CPB. Methods German landrace pigs underwent CPB (60 min myocardial ischemia; 30 min reperfusion) without (group I; n = 6) or with LIM (group II; n = 6). The cardiac indices (CI) and cardiac function were analyzed pre and post CPB with a Swan-Ganz catheter and the cardiac function analyzer. Neutrophil labeling with technetium, scintigraphy, and histological analyses were done to track activated neutrophils within the organs. Results LIM prevented CPB-associated increase of neutrophil counts in peripheral blood. In group I, the CI significantly declined post CPB (post: 3.26 ± 0.31; pre: 4.05 ± 0.45 l/min/m2; p < 0.01). In group II, the CI was only slightly reduced (post: 3.86 ± 0.49; pre 4.21 ± 1.32 l/min/m2; p = 0.23). Post CPB, the intergroup difference showed significantly higher CI values in the LIM group (p < 0.05) which was in conjunction with higher pre-load independent endsystolic pressure volume relationship (ESPVR) values (group I: 1.57 ± 0.18; group II: 1.93 ± 0.16; p < 0.001). Moreover, the systemic vascular resistance and pulmonary vascular resistance were lower in the LIM group. LIM appeared to accelerate the sequestration of hyperactivated neutrophils in the spleen and to reduce neutrophil infiltration of heart and lung. Conclusion Our data provides strong evidence that LIM improves perioperative hemodynamics and cardiac function after CPB by limiting neutrophil activity and inducing accelerated sequestration of neutrophils in the spleen.

Abdel-Rahman, Ulf; Margraf, Stefan; Aybek, Tayfun; Logters, Tim; Bitu-Moreno, Jose; Francischetti, Ieda; Kranert, Tilmann; Grunwald, Frank; Windolf, Joachim; Moritz, Anton; Scholz, Martin

2007-01-01

185

Global longitudinal strain: a novel index of left ventricular systolic function  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEchocardiographic estimation of global left ventricular (LV) function is subjective and time consuming. Our aim was to develop a novel approach for assessment of global LV function from 2-dimensional echocardiographic images

Shimon A Reisner; Peter Lysyansky; Yoram Agmon; Diab Mutlak; Jonathan Lessick; Zvi Friedman

2004-01-01

186

Ginkgo biloba does not improve cognitive function in MS  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine whether Ginkgo biloba extract (ginkgo) improves cognitive function in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Persons with MS from the Seattle and Portland VA clinics and adjacent communities who scored 1 SD or more below the mean on one of 4 neuropsychological tests (Stroop Test, California Verbal Learning Test II [CVLT-II], Controlled Oral Word Association Test [COWAT], and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task [PASAT]) were randomly assigned to receive either one 120-mg tablet of ginkgo (EGb-761; Willmar Schwabe GmbH & Co, Germany) or one placebo tablet twice a day for 12 weeks. As the primary outcome, we compared the performance of the 2 groups on the 4 tests at exit after adjusting for baseline performance. Results: Fifty-nine subjects received placebo and 61 received ginkgo; 1 participant receiving placebo and 3 receiving ginkgo were lost to follow-up. Two serious adverse events (AEs) (myocardial infarction and severe depression) believed to be unrelated to the treatment occurred in the ginkgo group; otherwise, there were no significant differences in AEs. The differences (ginkgo ? placebo) at exit in the z scores for the cognitive tests were as follows: PASAT ?0.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] ?0.5 to 0.1); Stroop Test ?0.5 (95% CI ?0.9 to ?0.1); COWAT 0.0 (95% CI ?0.2 to 0.3); and CVLT-II 0.0 (95% CI ?0.3 to 0.3); none was statistically significant. Conclusions: Treatment with ginkgo 120 mg twice a day did not improve cognitive performance in persons with MS. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that treatment with ginkgo 120 mg twice a day for 12 weeks does not improve cognitive performance in people with MS.

Kim, Edward; Heriza, Elizabeth; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Hunziker, James; Turner, Aaron P.; Adams, Joshua; Stover, Thomas; Sangeorzan, Adam; Sloan, Alicia; Howieson, Diane; Wild, Katherine; Haselkorn, Jodie; Bourdette, Dennis

2012-01-01

187

Two Litopenaeus vannamei HMGB proteins interact with transcription factors LvSTAT and LvDorsal to activate the promoter of white spot syndrome virus immediate-early gene ie1  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused great economic damage to shrimp aquaculture. Previous studies have shown that WSSV successfully usurps the immunity system of the host for its own gene regulation. To investigate the role of shrimp high mobility group box (HMGB) proteins in WSSV gene regulation, two Litopenaeus vannamei HMGB genes, LvHMGBa and LvHMGBb, were isolated by rapid

Yi-Hong Chen; Xiao-Ting Jia; Xian-De Huang; Shuang Zhang; Mei Li; Jun-Feng Xie; Shao-Ping Weng; Jian-Guo He

2011-01-01

188

?-Opioid Receptor Stimulation Improves Endothelial Function in Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to investigate the effect of ?-opioid receptor stimulation with U50,488H on endothelial function and underlying mechanism in rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH). Chronic hypoxia-induced HPH was simulated by exposing the rats to 10% oxygen for 2 wk. After hypoxia, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), right ventricular pressure (RVP) and right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI) were measured. Relaxation of pulmonary artery in response to acetylcholine (ACh) was determined. Expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) with NO production, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), gp91phox expression and nitrotyrosine content were measured. The effect of U50,488H administration during chronic hypoxia was investigated. Administration of U50,488H significantly decreased mPAP and right ventricular hypertrophy as evidenced by reduction in RVP and RVHI. These effects were mediated by ?-opioid receptor. In the meantime, treatment with U50,488H significantly improved endothelial function as evidenced by enhanced relaxation in response to ACh. Moreover, U50,488H resulted in a significant increase in eNOS phosphorylation, NO content in serum, and T-AOC in pulmonary artery of HPH rats. In addition, the activity of eNOS was enhanced, but the activity of iNOS was attenuated in the pulmonary artery of chronic hypoxic rats treated with U50,488H. On the other hand, U50,488H markedly blunted HPH-induced elevation of gp91phox expression and nitrotyrosine content in pulmonary artery, and these effects were blocked by nor-BNI, a selective ?-opioid receptor antagonist. These data suggest that ?-opioid receptor stimulation with U50,488H improves endothelial function in rats with HPH. The mechanism of action might be attributed to the preservation of eNOS activity, enhancement of eNOS phosphorylation, downregulation of iNOS activity and its antioxidative/nitrative effect.

Zhou, Peng; Wang, Qiu-Lin; Zhao, Lei; Fan, Rong; Wang, Yue-Min; Xu, Xue-Zeng; Yi, Ding-Hua; Yu, Shi-Qiang; Pei, Jian-Ming

2013-01-01

189

?-opioid receptor stimulation improves endothelial function in hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to investigate the effect of ?-opioid receptor stimulation with U50,488H on endothelial function and underlying mechanism in rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH). Chronic hypoxia-induced HPH was simulated by exposing the rats to 10% oxygen for 2 wk. After hypoxia, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), right ventricular pressure (RVP) and right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI) were measured. Relaxation of pulmonary artery in response to acetylcholine (ACh) was determined. Expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) with NO production, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), gp91(phox) expression and nitrotyrosine content were measured. The effect of U50,488H administration during chronic hypoxia was investigated. Administration of U50,488H significantly decreased mPAP and right ventricular hypertrophy as evidenced by reduction in RVP and RVHI. These effects were mediated by ?-opioid receptor. In the meantime, treatment with U50,488H significantly improved endothelial function as evidenced by enhanced relaxation in response to ACh. Moreover, U50,488H resulted in a significant increase in eNOS phosphorylation, NO content in serum, and T-AOC in pulmonary artery of HPH rats. In addition, the activity of eNOS was enhanced, but the activity of iNOS was attenuated in the pulmonary artery of chronic hypoxic rats treated with U50,488H. On the other hand, U50,488H markedly blunted HPH-induced elevation of gp91(phox) expression and nitrotyrosine content in pulmonary artery, and these effects were blocked by nor-BNI, a selective ?-opioid receptor antagonist. These data suggest that ?-opioid receptor stimulation with U50,488H improves endothelial function in rats with HPH. The mechanism of action might be attributed to the preservation of eNOS activity, enhancement of eNOS phosphorylation, downregulation of iNOS activity and its antioxidative/nitrative effect. PMID:23667430

Wu, Qi; Wang, Hai-Yan; Li, Juan; Zhou, Peng; Wang, Qiu-Lin; Zhao, Lei; Fan, Rong; Wang, Yue-Min; Xu, Xue-Zeng; Yi, Ding-Hua; Yu, Shi-Qiang; Pei, Jian-Ming

2013-05-07

190

Intracoronary administration of cardiac stem cells in mice: a new, improved technique for cell therapy in murine models  

PubMed Central

A model of intracoronary stem cell delivery that enables transgenesis/gene targeting would be a powerful tool but is still lacking. To address this gap, we compared intracoronary and intramyocardial delivery of lin?/c-kit+/GFP+ cardiac stem cells (CSCs) in a murine model of reperfused myocardial infarction (MI). Lin?/c-kit+/GFP+ CSCs were successfully expanded from GFP transgenic hearts and cultured with no detectable phenotypic change for up to ten passages. Intracoronary delivery of CSCs 2 days post-MI resulted in significant alleviation of adverse LV remodeling and dysfunction, which was at least equivalent, if not superior, to that achieved with intramyocardial delivery. Compared with intramyocardial injection, intracoronary infusion was associated with a more homogeneous distribution of CSCs in the infarcted region and a greater increase in viable tissue in this region, suggesting greater formation of new cardiomyocytes. Intracoronary CSC delivery resulted in improved function in the infarcted region, as well as in improved global LV systolic and diastolic function, and in decreased LV dilation and LV expansion index; the magnitude of these effects was similar to that observed after intramyocardial injection. We conclude that, in the murine model of reperfused MI, intracoronary CSC infusion is at least as effective as intramyocardial injection in limiting LV remodeling and improving both regional and global LV function. The intracoronary route appears to be superior in terms of uniformity of cell distribution, myocyte regeneration, and amount of viable tissue in the risk region. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report that intracoronary infusion of stem cells in mice is feasible and effective.

Li, Qianhong; Guo, Yiru; Ou, Qinghui; Chen, Ning; Wu, Wen-Jian; Yuan, Fangping; O'Brien, Erin; Wang, Tao; Luo, Li; Hunt, Gregory N.; Zhu, Xiaoping

2013-01-01

191

Intracoronary administration of cardiac stem cells in mice: a new, improved technique for cell therapy in murine models.  

PubMed

A model of intracoronary stem cell delivery that enables transgenesis/gene targeting would be a powerful tool but is still lacking. To address this gap, we compared intracoronary and intramyocardial delivery of lin(-)/c-kit(+)/GFP(+) cardiac stem cells (CSCs) in a murine model of reperfused myocardial infarction (MI). Lin(-)/c-kit(+)/GFP(+) CSCs were successfully expanded from GFP transgenic hearts and cultured with no detectable phenotypic change for up to ten passages. Intracoronary delivery of CSCs 2 days post-MI resulted in significant alleviation of adverse LV remodeling and dysfunction, which was at least equivalent, if not superior, to that achieved with intramyocardial delivery. Compared with intramyocardial injection, intracoronary infusion was associated with a more homogeneous distribution of CSCs in the infarcted region and a greater increase in viable tissue in this region, suggesting greater formation of new cardiomyocytes. Intracoronary CSC delivery resulted in improved function in the infarcted region, as well as in improved global LV systolic and diastolic function, and in decreased LV dilation and LV expansion index; the magnitude of these effects was similar to that observed after intramyocardial injection. We conclude that, in the murine model of reperfused MI, intracoronary CSC infusion is at least as effective as intramyocardial injection in limiting LV remodeling and improving both regional and global LV function. The intracoronary route appears to be superior in terms of uniformity of cell distribution, myocyte regeneration, and amount of viable tissue in the risk region. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report that intracoronary infusion of stem cells in mice is feasible and effective. PMID:21516491

Li, Qianhong; Guo, Yiru; Ou, Qinghui; Chen, Ning; Wu, Wen-Jian; Yuan, Fangping; O'Brien, Erin; Wang, Tao; Luo, Li; Hunt, Gregory N; Zhu, Xiaoping; Bolli, Roberto

2011-04-24

192

Improved lentiviral transduction of human mesenchymal stem cells for therapeutic intervention in pancreatic cancer.  

PubMed

Genetic modification of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) is highly valuable for their exploitation in basic science and therapeutic applications, for example in cancer. We present here a new, fast and easy-to-use method to enrich a functional population of lentiviral (LV)-transduced MSC expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP). We replaced the eGFP gene by a fusion gene of puromycin acetyltransferase and eGFP. Upon LV gene transfer and puromycin selection, we quickly obtained a pure transduced MSC population, in which growth, differentiation capacity and migration preferences were not compromised. Furthermore, we are the first to report the migration velocity of MSC among which 30% were moving and velocity of about 15 mum h(-1) was not altered by LV transduction. Manipulated MSC underwent senescence one passage earlier than non-transduced cells, suggesting the use for therapeutic intervention in early passage numbers. Upon tail vein application in nude mice, the majority of LV-transduced MSC could be detected in human orthotopic pancreatic tumor xenografts and to a minor extent in mouse liver, kidney and lung. Together, LV transduction of genes to MSC followed by puromycin selection is a powerful tool for basic research and improves the therapeutic prospects of MSC as vehicles in gene therapy. PMID:18202717

Kallifatidis, G; Beckermann, B M; Groth, A; Schubert, M; Apel, A; Khamidjanov, A; Ryschich, E; Wenger, T; Wagner, W; Diehlmann, A; Saffrich, R; Krause, U; Eckstein, V; Mattern, J; Chai, M; Schütz, G; Ho, A D; Gebhard, M M; Büchler, M W; Friess, H; Büchler, P; Herr, I

2008-01-18

193

Exercise training does not improve cardiac function in compensated or decompensated left ventricular hypertrophy induced by aortic stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is ample evidence that regular exercise exerts beneficial effects on left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, remodeling and dysfunction produced by ischemic heart disease or systemic hypertension. In contrast, the effects of exercise on pathological LV hypertrophy and dysfunction produced by LV outflow obstruction have not been studied to date. Consequently, we evaluated the effects of 8weeks of voluntary wheel running

Elza D. van Deel; Martine de Boer; Diederik W. Kuster; Nicky M. Boontje; Patricia Holemans; Karin R. Sipido; Jolanda van der Velden; Dirk J. Duncker

2011-01-01

194

TIMP-2 mutant decreases MMP-2 activity and augments pressure overload induced LV dysfunction and heart failure.  

PubMed

Pressure overload induces cardiac extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling and results in heart failure. ECM remodelling by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) is primarily regulated by their target inhibitors, tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs). It is known that TIMP-2 is highly expressed in myocardium and is required for cell surface activation of pro-MMP-2. We and others have reported that imbalance between angiogenic growth factors and anti-angiogenic factors results in transition from compensatory cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure. We previously reported the pro-angiogenic role of MMP-2 in cardiac compensation, however, the specific role of TIMP-2 during pressure overload is yet unclear. We hypothesize that genetic ablation of TIMP-2 exacerbates the adverse cardiac matrix remodelling due to lack of pro-angiogenic MMP-2 and increase in anti-angiogenic factors during pressure overload stress and results in severe heart failure. To verify this, ascending aortic banding (AB) was created to mimic pressure overload, in wild type C57BL6/J and TIMP-2-/- (model of MMP-2 deficiency) mice. Left ventricular (LV) function assessed by echocardiography and pressure-volume loop studies showed severe LV dysfunction in TIMP-2-/- AB mice compared to controls. Expression of MMP-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was decreased and expression of MMP-9, anti-angiogenic factors endostatin and angiostatin was increased in TIMP-2-/- AB mice compared with wild type AB mice. Connexins (Cx) are the gap junction proteins that are widely present in the myocardium and play an important role in endothelial-myocyte coupling. Our results showed that expression of Cx 37 and 43 was decreased in TIMP-2-/- AB mice compared with corresponding wild type controls. These results suggest that genetic ablation of TIMP-2 decrease the expression of pro-angiogenic MMP-2, VEGF and increases anti-angiogenic factors that results in exacerbated abnormal ventricular remodelling leading to severe heart failure. PMID:23398532

Givvimani, S; Kundu, S; Narayanan, N; Armaghan, F; Qipshidze, N; Pushpakumar, S; Vacek, T P; Tyagi, S C

2013-02-11

195

Development and evaluation of a semiautomatic segmentation method for the estimation of LV parameters on cine MR images.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a semiautomatic method for left ventricular (LV) segmentation on cine MR images and subsequent estimation of cardiac parameters. The study group comprised cardiac MR examinations of 18 consecutive patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. The new method allowed the automatic detection of the LV endocardial and epicardial boundaries on each short-axis cine MR image using a Bayesian flooding segmentation algorithm and weighted least-squares B-splines minimization. Manual editing of the automatic contours could be performed for unsatisfactory segmentation results. The end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), ejection fraction (EF) and LV mass estimated by the new method were compared with the reference values obtained by manually tracing the LV cavity borders. The reproducibility of the new method was determined using data from two independent observers. The mean number of endocardial and epicardial outlines not requiring any manual adjustment was more than 80% and 76% of the total contour number per study, respectively. The mean segmentation time including the required manual corrections was 2.3 +/- 0.7 min per patient. LV volumes estimated by the semiautomatic method were significantly lower than those by manual tracing (P < 0.05), whereas no difference was found for EF and LV mass (P > 0.05). LV indices estimated by the two methods were well correlated (r 0.80). The mean difference between manual and semiautomatic method for estimating EDV, ESV, EF and LV mass was 6.1 +/- 7.2 ml, 3.0 +/- 5.2 ml, -0.6 +/- 4.3% and -6.2 +/- 12.2 g, respectively. The intraobserver and interobserver variability associated with the semiautomatic determination of LV indices was 0.5-1.2% and 0.8-3.9%, respectively. The estimation of LV parameters with the new semiautomatic segmentation method is technically feasible, highly reproducible and time effective. PMID:20107252

Mazonakis, Michalis; Grinias, Elias; Pagonidis, Konstantin; Tziritas, George; Damilakis, John

2010-01-28

196

Using SVD for improved interferometric Green's function retrieval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic interferometry (SI) is a technique used to estimate the Green's function (GF) between two receiver locations, as if there were a source at one of the receiver locations. However, in many applications, the requirements to recover the exact GF are not satisfied and SI yields a poor estimate of the GF. For these non-ideal cases, we improve the interferometric GFs, by applying singular value decomposition (SVD) to the cross-correlations before stacking. The SVD approach preserves energy that is stationary in the cross-correlations, which is the energy that contributes most to the GF recovery, and attenuates non-stationary energy, which leads to artefacts in the interferometric GF. We apply this method to construct virtual shot gathers (for both synthetic and field data) and demonstrate how using SVD enhances physical arrivals in these gathers. We also find that SVD is robust with respect to weakly correlated random noise, allowing a better recovery of events from noisy data, in some cases recovering energy that would otherwise be completely lost in the noise and that the standard SI technique fails to recover.

Melo, Gabriela; Malcolm, Alison; Mikesell, Dylan; van Wijk, Kasper

2013-09-01

197

A device for the functional improvement of lagophthalmos.  

PubMed

A new device was tested on rabbits for the improvement of lagophthalmos, which causes dryness and irritation of the eye and may cause blindness if untreated. In the presented study, 14 rabbits were injected with local anesthetic to induce temporary facial palsy leading to lagophthalmos on one side. To provide functionality to the upper eyelids, ferromagnetic steel plates were either implanted within the eyelid or taped on the eyelid surface. The device detected blinking in the nonparalytic side and moved the anesthetized paralytic eyelid by pulling the steel plate electromagnetically. The control group (n = 5) did not wear the device, and they could not shut their paralytic eyelids. The treatment group with the external placement of the metal plate (n = 4) and the treatment group with the implant (n = 5) wore the device for artificial blinking. All animals were observed during the experiments, and blinking was recorded on digital video. The data collected from video records were analyzed to test the statistical difference of blinking between control and the treated groups. The results showed that the treatment groups could artificially move their paralytic eyelids. Furthermore, the treatment group with the implant showed a noticeable similarity in eyelid position compared with healthy (nonparalytic) eyes. PMID:23851837

A?ik, Mehmet Do?an; Yaprak, Bülent; Güven, Erdem; Karabulut, Aylin Bilgin; Güçlü, Burak

2013-07-01

198

Functional improvements in dried egg white through the Maillard reaction.  

PubMed

The effects of the Maillard reaction on the functional properties of dried egg white (DEW) were investigated. Maillard-reacted DEW (M-DEW) was prepared by storing sugar-preserved DEW (SP-DEW) at 55 degrees C and 35% relative humidity for 0-12 days. The M-DEW developed an excellent gelling property, and hydrogen sulfide production from heat-induced M-DEW gels decreased. Surface sulfhydryl (SH) group content of M-DEW increased while total SH group and alpha-helix contents decreased with increasing heating time in the dry state. Breaking strength, breaking strain, water-holding capacity, and hydrogen sulfide of heat-induced M-DEW gels significantly correlated with surface and total SH group contents in M-DEW. SDS-PAGE revealed that M-DEW proteins were polymerized in which covalent bonds were involved. The present study demonstrated that the Maillard reaction partially unfolds and polymerizes proteins of SP-DEW and, consequently, improved gelling property of SP-DEW under certain controlled conditions. PMID:10552460

Handa, A; Kuroda, N

1999-05-01

199

Description of LV pressure-volume relations by time-varying elastance and source resistance.  

PubMed

If the left ventricle (LV) behaves as a time-varying elastance [E(t)] that is independent of load, then definition of E(t) during normal ejecting beats should permit accurate prediction of LV pressure (LVP) during a maximally afterloaded (isovolumic) beat. We tested this hypothesis in six dogs preinstrumented to measure LVP and aortic flow (Q) and to determine LV volume (V) from three dimensions. LVP and V were varied by caval occlusions. These data were used to determine E(t) and minimal volume required to generate pressure (Vo) at 10-ms intervals during systole using a simple E(t) model, P(t) = E(t) [V(t)-Vo], where P(t) is LVP at any time after the onset of contraction, and V(t) is the LV volume at t. LVP was measured during isovolumic beats generated by sudden balloon occlusion of the ascending aorta. The simple E(t) model accurately predicted isovolumic LVP during the first 70 ms of systole (r = 0.99) and also the end-systolic LVP but underestimated LVP during midsystole by 48 +/- 5 (SD) mmHg (P less than 0.05). When a pressure-dependent source resistance (K = 0.0015 s/ml) was added to the model to reduce LVP in proportion to Q, such that P(t) = E(t) [V(t)-Vo] X [1 - KQ]), LVP during the isovolumic beat was accurately predicted throughout systole (r = 0.99). However, the time to develop peak isovolumic pressure was 22 +/- 7 ms less than predicted. Similar results were obtained during inotropic stimulation with dobutamine in five animals. PMID:3605373

Little, W C; Freeman, G L

1987-07-01

200

On the Interpretation of the l-v Features in the Milky Way Galaxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We modeled the gas dynamics of barred galaxies using a three-dimensional, high-resolution, N-body + hydrodynamical simulation, and applied it to the Milky Way in an attempt to reproduce both the large-scale structure and the clumpy morphology observed in galactic HI and CO l-v diagrams. Owing to including of the multi-phase interstellar medium, self-gravity, star-formation, and supernovae feedback, the clumpy morphology,

Junichi Baba; Takayuki R. Saitoh; Keiichi Wada

2010-01-01

201

X-ray potentiation of MuLV infection in vitro. [Murine leukemia virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical and chemical agents which cause DNA strand breakage enhance infection by DNA and RNA oncogenic viruses, presumably by facilitating the incorporation of viral genetic information into the host cell genome. X-irradiation has now been shown to potentiate infectious center formation by radiation leukemia virus (RadLV*). The potentiation was dose-dependent with a peak in the range of 300 to 450

E. P. Gelmann; O. Niwa; A. Decleve; H. S. Kaplan

1976-01-01

202

Effects of verapamil and propranolol on left ventricular systolic function and diastolic filling in patients with coronary artery disease: radionuclide angiographic studies at rest and during exercise  

SciTech Connect

To determine the effects of verapamil on left ventricular (LV) systolic function and diastolic filling in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), researchers performed gated radionuclide angiography at rest and during exercise in 16 symptomatic patients before and during oral verapamil therapy (480 mg/day). Twelve patients were also studied during oral propranolol. LV ejection fraction at rest was normal in 13 patients, but abnormal diastolic filling at rest, defined as peak filling rate (PFR) less than 2.5 end-diastolic volumes (EDV)/sec or time to PFR greater than 180 msec, was present in 15. During verapamil, resting ejection fraction decreased, but resting diastolic filling improved: PFR increased and time to PFR decreased. Exercise ejection fraction did not change during verapamil, but exercise PFR increased, and exercise time to PFR decreased. In contrast, propranolol did not alter ejection fraction, PFR, or time to PFR at rest or during exercise. Thus, LV ejection fraction is decreased by verapamil at rest but is unchanged during exercise. While LV systolic function is not improved by verapamil, LV diastolic filling is enhanced by verapamil, both at rest and during exercise. These mechanisms may account in part for the symptomatic improvement in many patients during verapamil therapy.

Bonow, R.O.; Leon, M.B.; Rosing, D.R.; Kent, K.M.; Lipson, L.C.; Bacharach, S.L.; Green, M.V.; Epstein, S.E.

1982-06-01

203

Exercise effects on cardiac size and left ventricular diastolic function: relationships to changes in fitness, fatness, blood pressure and insulin resistance  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine exercise training effects on cardiac size and left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and relationships of exercise induced changes in physiological and body composition parameters with cardiac parameters. Design Prospective, randomised controlled trial. Subjects Men and women (63.6 (5.7) years, body mass index 29.5 (4.4)?kg/m2) with untreated hypertension (systolic blood pressure (BP) 130–159 or diastolic BP 85–99?mm?Hg). Main outcome measures Cardiac size and LV diastolic function, peak oxygen uptake (Vo2), muscle strength, general and abdominal fatness, and insulin resistance. Interventions 6 months of exercise training versus usual care. Results When analysed by group at six months, cardiac size and LV diastolic function did not differ between exercisers (n??=??51) and controls (n??=??53), whereas exercisers had significantly higher peak Vo2 (28 v 24?ml/kg/min) and strength (383 v 329?kg), and lower fatness (34% v 37%), diastolic BP (73 v 75?mm?Hg) and insulin resistance (quantitative insulin sensitivity check index 0.35 v 0.34) versus controls (all p???0.05). By regression analysis, among six month changes, increased peak Vo2 and reduced abdominal fat were associated with increased cardiac size. Increased peak Vo2 and reduced abdominal fat, BP and insulin resistance were associated with improved LV diastolic function. r Values ranged from 0.20 to 0.32 (p???0.05). Conclusions When examined by group assignment, exercise had no effect on cardiac size or LV diastolic function. When individual variations in six month changes were examined, participants attaining the greatest increases in fitness and reductions in abdominal fatness, insulin resistance and BP showed a modest trend towards physiological hypertrophy characterised by increased cardiac size and improved LV diastolic function. These results suggest that decreased abdominal fatness may have a role in improving cardiovascular health.

Stewart, K J; Ouyang, P; Bacher, A C; Lima, S; Shapiro, E P

2006-01-01

204

Comparison of left ventricular function during interval versus steady-state exercise training in patients with chronic congestive heart failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to assess the safety of interval exercise training in patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF) with respect to left ventricular (LV) function. For effective rehabilitation in CHF, both aerobic capacity and muscle strength need to be improved. We have previously demonstrated in both coronary artery bypass surgery and patients with CHF that interval exercise training (IET)

Katharina Meyer; Carl Foster; Nikolaos Georgakopoulos; Ramiz Hajric; Samuel Westbrook; Amy Ellestad; Ken Tilman; Dani Fitzgerald; Heidi Young; Howard Weinstein; Helmut Roskamm

1998-01-01

205

Diaphragmatic plication offers functional improvement in dyspnoea and better pulmonary function with low morbidity.  

PubMed

A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was as follows: In adults with unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis, does diaphragmatic plication offer functional improvement in dyspnoea, better pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and return to activity? A total of 126 papers were found using the reported search, of which 13 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, date and country of publication, patient group studied, surgical approach, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these articles are tabulated. Those articles reporting improvement in PFTs following plication, documented this benefit in the following parameters: mean forced vital capacity (range 17-40%), forced expiratory volume at 1 sec (range 21-27%), functional residual capacity (range 20-21%) and total lung capacity (range 16-19%). The percentage of postoperative improvement in shortness of breath as measured by a dyspnoea score was reported to be between 90 and 96% in the thoracotomy group and 100% in the Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) group, the dyspnoea score that was used in all the studies was a visual analogue scale between 0 and 10 where 0 is no dyspnoea and 10 is the worst dyspnoea a patient can have. One of the studies reported postoperative normalization in ventilation perfusion scan (VQ) scan parameters when compared with the preoperative mismatch. Complication rate was similar between the two groups, while the mortality rate was 4% in the thoracotomy group and 0% in the VATS group. The total number of patients included in all the studies combined was 161. All reports included in this review are observational studies (one cohort study and the remainder being case series); therefore, the risk of selection, information and publication biases are high and conclusions should be implemented with caution. We conclude that diaphragmatic plication can improve the functional status, shortness of breath and PFTs of patients with unilateral diaphragm paralysis. Patients undergoing a VATS approach appear to have more advantages in objective and subjective measures (including PFTs, dyspnoea score, length of hospital stay and postoperative complications). Further research with high-quality study designs is advised, focussing mainly on the long-term benefits and assessment of health-related quality of life. PMID:22691375

Gazala, Sayf; Hunt, Ian; Bédard, Eric L R

2012-06-12

206

Diaphragmatic plication offers functional improvement in dyspnoea and better pulmonary function with low morbidity  

PubMed Central

A best evidence topic in thoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was as follows: In adults with unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis, does diaphragmatic plication offer functional improvement in dyspnoea, better pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and return to activity? A total of 126 papers were found using the reported search, of which 13 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, date and country of publication, patient group studied, surgical approach, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these articles are tabulated. Those articles reporting improvement in PFTs following plication, documented this benefit in the following parameters: mean forced vital capacity (range 17–40%), forced expiratory volume at 1 sec (range 21–27%), functional residual capacity (range 20–21%) and total lung capacity (range 16–19%). The percentage of postoperative improvement in shortness of breath as measured by a dyspnoea score was reported to be between 90 and 96% in the thoracotomy group and 100% in the Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgery (VATS) group, the dyspnoea score that was used in all the studies was a visual analogue scale between 0 and 10 where 0 is no dyspnoea and 10 is the worst dyspnoea a patient can have. One of the studies reported postoperative normalization in ventilation perfusion scan (VQ) scan parameters when compared with the preoperative mismatch. Complication rate was similar between the two groups, while the mortality rate was 4% in the thoracotomy group and 0% in the VATS group. The total number of patients included in all the studies combined was 161. All reports included in this review are observational studies (one cohort study and the remainder being case series); therefore, the risk of selection, information and publication biases are high and conclusions should be implemented with caution. We conclude that diaphragmatic plication can improve the functional status, shortness of breath and PFTs of patients with unilateral diaphragm paralysis. Patients undergoing a VATS approach appear to have more advantages in objective and subjective measures (including PFTs, dyspnoea score, length of hospital stay and postoperative complications). Further research with high-quality study designs is advised, focussing mainly on the long-term benefits and assessment of health-related quality of life.

Gazala, Sayf; Hunt, Ian; Bedard, Eric L.R.

2012-01-01

207

An improved version of the Green's function molecular dynamics method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents an improved version of the Green's function molecular dynamics method (Kong et al., 2009; Campañá and Müser, 2004 [1,2]), which enables one to study the elastic response of a three-dimensional solid to an external stress field by taking into consideration only atoms near the surface. In the previous implementation, the effective elastic coefficients measured at the ?-point were altered to reduce finite size effects: their eigenvalues corresponding to the acoustic modes were set to zero. This scheme was found to work well for simple Bravais lattices as long as only atoms within the last layer were treated as Green's function atoms. However, it failed to function as expected in all other cases. It turns out that a violation of the acoustic sum rule for the effective elastic coefficients at ? (Kong, 2010 [3]) was responsible for this behavior. In the new version, the acoustic sum rule is enforced by adopting an iterative procedure, which is found to be physically more meaningful than the previous one. In addition, the new algorithm allows one to treat lattices with bases and the Green's function slab is no longer confined to one layer.New version program summaryProgram title: FixGFC/FixGFMD v1.12Catalogue identifier: AECW_v1_1Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECW_v1_1.htmlProgram obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. IrelandLicensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.htmlNo. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 206?436No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4?314?850Distribution format: tar.gzProgramming language: C++Computer: AllOperating system: LinuxHas the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes. Code has been parallelized using MPI directives.RAM: Depends on the problemClassification: 7.7External routines: LAMMPS (http://lammps.sandia.gov/), MPI (http://www.mcs.anl.gov/research/projects/mpi/), FFT (http://www.fftw.org/)Catalogue identifier of previous version: AECW_v1_0Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 1004Does the new version supersede the previous version?: YesNature of problem: Green's function molecular dynamics (GFMD) is a coarse-graining method that enables one to investigate the full elastic response of an interface between a semi-infinite solid and a contact while taking only the surface atoms in the solid into consideration. The effect of long-range elastic deformations on the surface atoms from the semi-infinite solid is replaced by effective elastic interactions, thus reducing the problem from three dimensions to two dimensions without compromising the physical essence of the problem.Solution method: See “Nature of problem”.Reasons for new version: The basic theory underlying the new version is essentially the same as the previous one, while the special treatment to reduce the finite size effect on effective elastic coefficients at the ?-point is now realized in a physically meaningful manner. Finite size effects are an important issue in molecular dynamics simulations, particularly for GFMD, they result in a violation of the acoustic sum rule (ASR) for the effective elastic coefficients measured at the ?-point (??). In the previous implementation, the effective elastic coefficients measured at the ?-point were altered by setting their eigenvalues corresponding to the acoustic modes to zero. This scheme was found to work well for simple Bravais lattices as long as only atoms within the last layer were treated as Green's function atoms. However, it failed to function as expected in all other cases. We therefore adopt a new algorithm to enforce the ASR for ?? (Kong, 2010 [3]) which is implemented in this revision.Summary of revisions: Assuming the lattice under study consists of surface unit cells with n basis atoms labeled by k=1,2,…,n. When all atoms in the lattice are moved by the same amount, i.e., the crystal is rigidly translated, the force on any atom must be zero. This is known as the

Kong, Ling Ti; Denniston, Colin; Müser, Martin H.

2011-02-01

208

High prevalence of non-productive FeLV infection in necropsied cats and significant association with pathological findings.  

PubMed

Applying a combination of semi-nested PCR and immunohistology (IHC), the presence of exogenous feline leukemia virus infection was studied in 302 necropsied cats with various disorders. 9% showed the classical outcome of persistent productive FeLV infection which was represented by FeLV antigen expression in different organs. 152 cats (50%) harboured exogenous FeLV-specific proviral sequences in the bone marrow but did not express viral antigen. These cats were considered as horizontally but non-productively infected. Statistical evaluation showed a significant association of non-productive horizontal FeLV infection with a variety of parameters. Non-productively infected cats were statistically significantly older and more often originated from animal shelters than cats without exogenous FeLV infection. Furthermore, some pathological disorders like anemia, panleukopenia, and purulent inflammation showed significant association with non-productive FeLV infection. No significant association was found with lymphosarcoma, known for a long time to be induced by productive FeLV infection. PMID:20398945

Suntz, M; Failing, K; Hecht, W; Schwartz, D; Reinacher, M

2010-03-25

209

Impact of Untreated Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Left and Right Ventricular Myocardial Function and Effects of CPAP Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has deteriorating effect on LV function, whereas its impact on RV function is controversial. We aimed to determine the effect of OSA and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on left and right ventricular (LV, RV) function using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and 2 dimensional speckle tracking (2D ST) analysis of RV deformation capability. Methods and Results 82 patients with OSA and need for CPAP therapy were prospectively enrolled and underwent TTE at study inclusion and after 6 months of follow up (FU). Multivariate regression analysis revealed an independent association between baseline apical right ventricular longitudinal strain (RV-Sl), BMI and the severity of OSA (apical RV-Sl: P?=?0.0002, BMI: P?=?0.02). After CPAP therapy, LV functional parameters (LVEF: P<0.0001, LV performance index: P?=?0.03, stroke volume: P?=?0.042), and apical RV-Sl (P?=?0.001) improved significantly. The effect of CPAP therapy was related to severity of OSA (LVEF: AHI 5–14, 66.4±8.8%, 68.5±10.6% [P?=?ns]; AHI 15–30?59.8±7.7%, 68.6±9.3% [P?=?0.002]; AHI>30?54.1±12.4%, 68.2±13.6%[P<0.0001]; apical RV-Sl: AHI 5–14: ?17.3±8.7%, ?16.0±10.8% [P?=?ns], AHI 15–30: ?9.8±6.0%, ?15.4±10.9% [P?=?0.028], AHI>30: ?6.3±5.7%, ?17.9±11.2% [P<0.0001]). Conclusions OSA seems to have deteriorating effect on LV and RV function. We found a beneficial effect of CPAP on LV and RV functional parameters predominately in patients with severe OSA. 2D speckle tracking might be of value to determine early changes in global and regional right ventricular function.

Wiesen, Martin; Momcilovic, Diana; Pabst, Stefan; Nickenig, Georg; Skowasch, Dirk

2013-01-01

210

Physical capacity and functional abilities improve in young adults with intellectual disabilities after functional training.  

PubMed

Individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) have higher rates of obesity, lower rates of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular endurance than do typically developed individuals (TDI) and are twice as likely to develop chronic disease, living half as long as TDIs do. The purpose of this study was to examine the improvements in physical capacity and functional ability in Special Olympic Athletes (SOAs) aged 19-22 years after participating in a functional training (FT) program and compare these scores with those of the SOAs in a resistance weight training (WT) program. Twenty SOAs (13 men, 7 women with mild to moderate ID) participated in a 1-hour FT program, twice a week, for 10 weeks, compared with 22 same-aged SOAs (14 men, 8 women) participating in a 1-hour WT program (2× week for 8 weeks). Prefitness and postfitness tests consisting of heart rate (HR) for the 3-minute step test, static plank, body weight squats, static bar hang, and knee push-ups were conducted. Two-tailed, paired sample t-tests (p < 0.05) were used to evaluate the differences in the FT group. Change scores were used to compare FTG with the WT group. The HR decreased by 31.8 b·min?¹ pre-post in the FTG (p < 0.001). Static plank duration improved by 22.4 seconds in the FTG (p = 0.016); static plank change scores improved (p = 0.037) for the FTG (26.5 ± 32.1 seconds compared with that for the WT group (4.6 ± 22 seconds). Height and weight values were unchanged in both the groups. The results of this study demonstrate the value of FT programs for this population, because weight equipment is not always available in many settings. PMID:21912297

Barwick, Ryan B; Tillman, Mark D; Stopka, Christine B; Dipnarine, Krishna; Delisle, Anthony; Sayedul Huq, Mona

2012-06-01

211

A novel approach to improve the function of FGF21  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has potent effects on normalizing glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis, and represents an attractive novel therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. Approaches to improve the pharmacokinetic properties of FGF21, such as conjugation with polyethylene glycol, have been explored for therapeutic development. However, not only is there room for further pharmacokinetic improvements, additional re-engineering

R. Smith; A. Duguay; J. Weiszmann; S. Stanislaus; E. Belouski; L. Cai; J. Yie; J. Xu; J. Gupte; X. Wu; Y. Li

2013-01-01

212

A cell surface antigen of the mouse related to xenotropic MuLv defined by naturally occurring antibody and monoclonal antibody. Relation to Gix G(rada1), G(aksl2) systems of MuLV-related antigens  

PubMed Central

A new cell surface antigen of the mouse related to xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV) is described. The antigen, designated G(erld), is defined by cytotoxic tests with the B6-x-ray-induced ERLD and naturally occurring antibody. G(erld) is distinct from all previously defined cell surface antigens. Monoclonal antibody with the same specificity has been developed. Inbred mouse strains are classified as G(erld)+ or G(erld)- according to the presence of absence of the antigen on lymphoid cells. G(erld)+ strains differ with regard to quantitative expression of G(erld) on normal thymocytes. The emergence of G(erld)+ tumors in G(erld)- strains indicates the presence of genes coding for the antigen even in strains not normally expressing the antigen. G(erld) has the characteristic of a differentiation antigen in normal mice. In G(erld)+ strains, high levels of the antigen are found on thymocytes with lower levels being detected on cells of spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow. No G(erld) was detected in brain or kidney or on erythrocytes. The segregation ratios for G(erld) expression on thymocytes in backcross and F2 mice of crosses between G(erld)+ (B6, 129, and B6-Gix+) and G(erld)- (BALB/c) strains suggest that G(erld) expression is controlled by a single locus in B6, by two unlinked loci in 129, and by three unlinked loci in B6-Gix+ mice. Induction of the antigen by MuLV infection of permissive cells in vitro indicates that G(erld) is closely related to xenotropic and dualtropic MuLV; all xenotropic and dualtropic MuLV tested induced the antigen, whereas the majority of ecotropic and the two amphotropic MuLV failed to do so. As dualtropic MuLV are thought to be recombinants between ecotropic and xenotropic MuLV sequences, G(erld) coding by dualtropic MuLV may signify the contribution of the xenotropic part in the recombinational event. Serological and biochemical characterization indicates that G(erld) is related to the gp 70 component of the MuLV envelope. The relation of G(erld) to the previously defined gp 70-related cell surface antigens (Gix, G(rada), and G(aksl2) is discussed, particularly with regard to their characteristics as differentiation antigens, the genetic origin of dualtropic MuLV, and the leukemogenicity of MuLV.

1981-01-01

213

Cardiac function assessed by attenuation-corrected radionuclide pressure-volume indices  

SciTech Connect

Using attenuation-corrected radionuclide volumes and arm-cuff peak systolic pressures, the authors established the mean value for the ratio of left ventricular (LV) peak systolic pressure/end systolic volume at rest for 15 healthy persons. In 43 patients with coronary disease, this ratio was more sensitive as an indicator of abnormal LV function and for predicting coronary artery disease than the resting ejection fraction. The slope of an end systolic pressure-volume line was also calculated from data obtained under three loading conditions: at rest, during isometric handgrip testing, and after the sublingual administration of nitroglycerin. These results represent an improvement over previous radionuclide pressure-volume measurements that have not used attenuation correction and show the need for accurate, nongeometric measurements of the LV end systolic volume.

Maurer, A.H.; Siegel, J.A.; Blasius, K.M.; Deneberg, B.S.; Spann, J.F.; Malmud, L.S.

1985-07-01

214

Improved variational wave functions for simple quantum liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review variational calculations with a Jastrow wave function and show they are inadequate to calculate the zero-temperature equation of state E(rho) for liquid helium. The importance of the Feynman-Cohen backflow around a moving particle is then discussed, and a variational wave function incorporating backflow is proposed. Results with this wave function are discussed for 3He, 4He and the v2

K. E. Schmidt; V. R. Pandharipande

1979-01-01

215

An improved method of constructing binned luminosity functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that binned differential luminosity functions constructed using the 1/Va method have a significant systematic error for objects close to the flux limit(s) of their parent sample. This is particularly noticeable when luminosity functions are produced for a number of different redshift ranges as is common in the study of AGN or galaxy evolution. We present a simple method of constructing a binned luminosity function which overcomes this problem and has a number of other advantages over the traditional 1/Va method. We also describe a practical method for comparing binned and model luminosity functions, by calculating the expectation values of the binned luminosity function from the model. Binned luminosity functions produced by the two methods are compared for simulated data and for the Large Bright QSO Survey (LBQS). It is shown that the 1/Va method produces a very misleading picture of evolution in the LBQS. The binned luminosity function of the LBQS is then compared with a model two-power-law luminosity function undergoing pure luminosity evolution from Boyle et al. The comparison is made using a model luminosity function averaged over each redshift shell, and using the expectation values for the binned luminosity function calculated from the model. The luminosity function averaged in each redshift shell gives a misleading impression that the model over predicts the number of QSOs at low luminosity even for 1.0< z<1.5, when model and data are consistent. The expectation values show that there are significant differences between model and data: the model overpredicts the number of low luminosity sources at both low and high redshift. The luminosity function does not appear to steepen relative to the model as redshift increases.

Page, M. J.; Carrera, F. J.

2000-01-01

216

Cellular entry via an actin and clathrin-dependent route is required for Lv2 restriction of HIV-2  

SciTech Connect

Lv2 is a human factor that restricts infection of some HIV-2 viruses after entry into particular target cells. HIV-2 MCR is highly susceptible to Lv2 whereas HIV-2 MCN is not. The block is after reverse transcription but prior to nuclear entry. The viral determinants for this restriction have been mapped to the HIV-2 envelope and the capsid genes. Our model of Lv2 restriction suggests that the route taken into a cell is important in determining whether a productive infection occurs. Here we characterised the infectious routes used by MCN and MCR using chemical compounds and molecular techniques to distinguish between potential pathways. Our results suggest that susceptible MCR can enter restrictive HeLa{sup CD4} cells via two pathways; a clathrin/AP2 mediated endocytic route that is sensitive to Lv2 restriction and an alternative, non-clathrin mediated route, which results in more efficient infection.

Harrison, I.P., E-mail: ian.harrison@medsch.ucl.ac.uk [Queen Mary, University of London, Whitechapel, London (United Kingdom); School of Medicine and Dentistry, Centre for Immunology and Infectious Disease, Blizard Institute for Cell and Molecular Science, 4 Newark Street, Whitechapel, London E1 2AT (United Kingdom); McKnight, A., E-mail: a.mcknight@qmul.ac.uk [Queen Mary, University of London, Whitechapel, London (United Kingdom)

2011-06-20

217

Temperature safety profile of laparoscopic devices: Harmonic ACE (ACE), Ligasure V (LV), and plasma trisector (PT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Reports of iatrogenic thermal injuries during laparoscopic surgery using new generation vessel-sealing devices, as well as\\u000a anecdotal reports of hand burn injuries during hand-assisted surgeries, have evoked questions about the temperature safety\\u000a profile and the cooling properties of these instruments.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This study involved video recording of temperatures generated by different instruments (Harmonic ACE [ACE], Ligasure V [LV],\\u000a and plasma trisector

F. J. Kim; M. F. Chammas Jr; E. Gewehr; M. Morihisa; F. Caldas; E. Hayacibara; M. Baptistussi; F. Meyer; A. C. Martins

2008-01-01

218

Improving the Generalization Properties of Radial Basis Function Neural Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important feature of radial basis function neural networks is the existence of a fast, linear learning algorithm in a network capable of representing complex nonlinear mappings. Satisfactory generalization in these networks requires that the network mapping be sufficiently smooth. We show that a modification to the error functional allows smoothing to be introduced explicitly without significantly affecting the speed

Christopher M. Bishop

1991-01-01

219

Effect of successful thrombolytic therapy on right ventricular function in acute inferior wall myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

In 19 patients undergoing intracoronary fibrinolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction, the site of coronary obstruction was in the proximal right coronary artery. Time between onset of symptoms and hospitalization was less than 4 hours. These patients were studied prospectively by radionuclide techniques immediately after admission, 48 hours and 4 weeks after AMI. Right and left ventricular (RV and LV) ejection fractions (EF) were calculated from gated blood pool scintigrams and the size of the LV perfusion defect was assessed by thallium-201 scintigraphy. Before the intervention, RV performance was significantly lower (RVEF 29 +/- 8%) than normal (53 +/- 7%). The size of the LV perfusion defect was relatively small (less than 25% of LV circumference), and as a consequence, LV pump function was only marginally impaired (LVEF 54 +/- 11%). Recanalization of the infarct artery was achieved in 12 patients (group A); in 7 patients the infarct artery remained occluded (group B). Early after the intervention (48 hours), RV performance in group A recovered significantly (RVEF: 30 +/- 9% vs 39 +/- 7%, p less than 0.01), and further improvement was noted at 4 weeks (RVEF 43 +/- 5%, p less than 0.01).

Schuler, G.; Hofmann, M.; Schwarz, F.; Mehmel, H.; Manthey, J.; Tillmanns, H.; Hartmann, S.; Kuebler, W.

1984-11-01

220

Isolated soy protein improves endothelial function in postmenopausal hypercholesterolemic women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Postmenopausia and hypercholesterolemia are related to endothelial dysfunction, a pathogenic event in atherosclerosis. Soy protein reduces plasma cholesterol, but there is scanty information about its effect on endothelial function.Objective: To evaluate the effect of isolated soy protein compared to caseinate on plasma lipoproteins and endothelial function in postmenopausal hypercholesterolemic women.Design: Randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial.Setting: Outpatient clinic of the Catholic

A M Cuevas; V L Irribarra; O A Castillo; M D Yañez; A M Germain

2003-01-01

221

Improving Cognitive Function in Older Adults: Nontraditional Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers two nontraditional approaches for developing interventions to improve cognition in older adults. Neither of these approaches relies on traditional explicit training of specific abilities in the laboratory. The first technique involves the activation of automatic processes through the formation of implementation intentions that enhance the probability that a desired action will be completed, such as remembering to

Denise C. Park; Angela H. Gutchess; Michelle L. Meade; Elizabeth A. L. Stine-Morrow

2007-01-01

222

Neurofeedback Improves Executive Functioning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Seven autistic children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) received a neurofeedback treatment that aimed to improve their level of executive control. Neurofeedback successfully reduced children's heightened theta/beta ratio by inhibiting theta activation and enhancing beta activation over sessions. Following treatment, children's…

Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Congedo, Marco; van Schie, Hein T.

2009-01-01

223

Dietary pattern, the metabolic syndrome, and left ventricular mass and systolic function: the MultiEthnic Study of Atherosclerosis1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Little is known about the relations between dietary patterns, metabolic dysfunction, and left ventricular (LV) function. Objective: The objective was to examine associations of dietary patterns with LV mass and function and to explore the potential role of metabolic dysfunction in the association between diet and LV function. Design: Dietary patterns that maximally explained the variation in metabolic syndrome

Longjian Liu; Jennifer A Nettleton; Alain G Bertoni; David A Bluemke; Joao A Lima; Moyses Szklo

224

Improving the function of dopamine electrodes with novel carbon materials.  

PubMed

For therapeutic purposes, an accurate measurement of dopamine level in situ would be highly desirable. A novel strategy for the selective determination of dopamine concentration based on the diamond-like carbon (DLC) electrode is presented in this abstract. The developed DLC electrode is able to detect 10 µM dopamine and has improved sensitivity compared to platinum. Compared to carbon fiber electrodes, the DLC electrode is more stable because the background current is much lower. PMID:24109766

Kaivosoja, Emilia; Berg, Emilia; Rautiainen, Antti; Palomaki, Tommi; Koskinen, Jari; Paulasto-Krockel, Mervi; Laurila, Tomi

2013-07-01

225

Improving balance function using vestibular stochastic resonance: optimizing stimulus characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a non-linear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized\\u000a by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. Stochastic resonance using imperceptible stochastic vestibular electrical\\u000a stimulation, when applied to normal young and elderly subjects, has been shown to significantly improve ocular stabilization\\u000a reflexes in response to whole-body

Ajitkumar P. Mulavara; Matthew J. Fiedler; Igor S. Kofman; Scott J. Wood; Jorge M. Serrador; Brian Peters; Helen S. Cohen; Millard F. Reschke; Jacob J. Bloomberg

2011-01-01

226

ENHANCING INTESTINAL FUNCTION TO IMPROVE GROWTH AND EFFICIENCY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In postnatal life, the growth rate of the pig is most rapid during the neonatal and weaning periods. Nutrition and gastrointestinal function play a critical role in the survival, health and growth of the young pig during this transition from suckling to weaning. The high metabolic rate and cellula...

227

Improving Joint Function Using Photochemical Hydrogels for Articular Surface Repair.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of our research is to introduce a novel means to regenerate the articular cartilage and restore normal function of the joint A strategy that can generate durable hyaline articular cartilage, which will be predominantly type II collagen, and is ca...

T. J. Gill

2012-01-01

228

Improved mapping functions for atmospheric refraction correction in SLR  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present two new mapping functions (MFs) to model the elevation angle dependence of the atmospheric delay for satellite laser ranging (SLR) data analysis. The new MFs were derived from ray tracing through a set of data from 180 radiosonde stations globally distributed, for the year 1999, and are valid for elevation angles above 3°. When compared against ray tracing

V. B. Mendes; G. Prates; E. C. Pavlis; D. E. Pavlis; R. B. Langley

2002-01-01

229

Inhibition of neutrophil activity improves cardiac function after cardiopulmonary bypass  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The arterial in line application of the leukocyte inhibition module (LIM) in the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) limits overshooting leukocyte activity during cardiac surgery. We studied in a porcine model whether LIM may have beneficial effects on cardiac function after CPB. METHODS: German landrace pigs underwent CPB (60 min myocardial ischemia; 30 min reperfusion) without (group I; n = 6)

Ulf Abdel-Rahman; Stefan Margraf; Tayfun Aybek; Tim Lögters; José Bitu-Moreno; Ieda Francischetti; Tilmann Kranert; Frank Grünwald; Joachim Windolf; Anton Moritz; Martin Scholz

2007-01-01

230

Improved statistical quark model for the nucleon structure function  

SciTech Connect

An improved statistical quark model, with quark energy levels given by a central linear confining potential, is used to obtain the light sea-quark asymmetry, d-bar/u-bar, and also for the corresponding difference d-bar-u-bar, inside the nucleon. In the model, a temperature parameter is adjusted by recent results obtained for the Gottfried sum rule violation, with two chemical potentials adjusted by the valence up and down quark normalizations. The results are compared with available recent experimental data.

Mirez, Carlos [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz, 271, Barra-Funda, 01140-070, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2010-05-21

231

Valsartan improves mitochondrial function in hearts submitted to acute ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of valsartan, an angiotensin II-type I receptor blocker, on the mitochondrial function, was studied using an ex vivo animal model (hearts from Wistar rats), perfused in a Langendorff system and then submitted to global acute ischemia. Parameters evaluated were: membrane electrical potential (??, using a tetraphenylphosphonium-TPP+-electrode), oxygen consumption by the respiratory chain (Clark-type O2 electrode), phosphorylation lag phase

Pedro Monteiro; Ana I. Duarte; Lino M. Gonçalves; Luís A. Providência

2005-01-01

232

Preoperative Perfusion of Bypassed Ileum Does Not Improve Postoperative Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated whether twice dailyisotonic perfusion of the bypassed ileum for six weekswould enhance its motor activity and its absorption offluids, electrolytes, and vitamin B12. Thestudy also determined if patients undergoing perfusion hadimproved bowel function and decreased hospital stayafter ileostomy closure. Following proctocolectomy,ileal pouchanal canal anastomosis, and diverting loop ileostomy, six patients self-infused anisotonic solution (sucrose and sodium chloride)

Brent W. Miedema; Lothar Kohler; C. Daniel Smith; Sidney F. Phillips; Keith A. Kelly

1998-01-01

233

Does obesity surgery improve psychosocial functioning? A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to present a review of the psychosocial outcome of bariatric surgery with special consideration of psychiatric comorbidity, psychopathology, psychosocial functioning, econometric data, and general quality of life (QoL).PURPOSE: A review of all (non-) controlled trials of the last two decades both with a retrospective and prospective design and a follow-up period of at

S Herpertz; R Kielmann; A M Wolf; M Langkafel; W Senf; J Hebebrand; S Herpertz

2003-01-01

234

Partially hydrolyzed rapeseed protein isolates with improved functional properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited rapeseed protein hydrolysates ranging from 3.1 to 7.7% hydrolysis were produced from isoelectric-precipitated protein\\u000a isolate. Water absorption, oil absorption, whippability, foam capacity and stability, emulsifying activity, and emulsion stability\\u000a of the hydrolysates were determined. All protein hydrolysates showed better functional properties than the original protein\\u000a isolate. Foam and emulsion stability decreased as the degree of hydrolysis increased. The hydrolysate

Javier Vioque; Raul Sánchez-Vioque; Alfonso Clemente; Josto Pedroche; Francisco Millán

2000-01-01

235

Tuning Anion-Functionalized Ionic Liquids for Improved SO2 Capture.  

PubMed

You can have your cake and eat it too: A "dual-tuning" strategy for improving the capture of SO2 was developed by introducing electron-withdrawing sites on the anions to produce several kinds of functionalized ionic liquids. Those functionalized with a halogen group exhibited improved performance over their non-halogenated counterparts, leading to highly efficient and reversible capture. PMID:23939870

Cui, Guokai; Zheng, Junjie; Luo, Xiaoyan; Lin, Wenjun; Ding, Fang; Li, Haoran; Wang, Congmin

2013-08-12

236

Functional lipids and lipoplexes for improved gene delivery  

PubMed Central

Cationic lipids are the most common non-viral vectors used in gene delivery with a few currently being investigated in clinical trials. However, like most other synthetic vectors, these vectors suffer from low transfection efficiencies. Among the various approaches to address this challenge, functional lipids (i.e., lipids responding to a stimuli) offer a myriad of opportunities for basic studies of nucleic acid–lipid interactions and for in vitro and in vivo delivery of nucleic acid for a specific biological/medical application. This manuscript reviews recent advances in pH, redox, and charge-reversal sensitive lipids.

Zhang, Xiao-Xiang; McIntosh, Thomas J.; Grinstaff, Mark W.

2013-01-01

237

Curcumin improves early functional results after experimental spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Curcumin is a polyphenol extracted from the rhizome of Curcuma longa and well known as a multifunctional drug with anti-oxidative, anticancerous, and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of\\u000a the study was to evaluate and compare the effects of the use of the curcumin and the methylprednisolone sodium succinate (MPSS)\\u000a functionally, biochemically, and pathologically after experimental spinal cord injury (SCI).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Forty rats

Berker Cemil; Kivanc Topuz; Mehmet Nusret Demircan; Gokhan Kurt; Kagan Tun; Murat Kutlay; Osman Ipcioglu; Zafer Kucukodaci

2010-01-01

238

Can stronger pelvic muscle floor improve sexual function?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and hypothesis  This study aims to evaluate the association between pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength and sexual functioning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Retrospective chart review of consecutive all women who were referred with a primary complaint of sexual dysfunction. Women\\u000a underwent standardized clinical evaluation including pelvic muscle strength which was ranked from 0 (weak) to 2 (strong).\\u000a The duration of pelvic muscle contraction was

Lior Lowenstein; Ilan Gruenwald; Irena Gartman; Yoram Vardi

2010-01-01

239

Improvement of motor function in early Parkinson disease by safinamide.  

PubMed

A median safinamide (SAF) dose of 70 mg/day (range 40 to 90 mg/day) increased the percentage of parkinsonian patients improving their motor scores by > or =30% from baseline (responders) after 3 months from 21.4% (placebo) to 37.5% (p < 0.05, calculated by logistic regression analysis). In a subgroup of 101 patients under stable treatment with a single dopamine agonist, addition of SAF magnified the response (47.1% responders, mean 4.7-point motor score decrease; p > or = 0.05). These results suggest that doses of SAF exerting ion channel block and glutamate release inhibition add to its symptomatic effect and warrant exploration of higher doses. PMID:15326260

Stocchi, F; Arnold, G; Onofrj, M; Kwiecinski, H; Szczudlik, A; Thomas, A; Bonuccelli, U; Van Dijk, A; Cattaneo, C; Sala, P; Fariello, R G

2004-08-24

240

Improved Memory Function 12 Weeks after Bariatric Surgery  

PubMed Central

Background There is growing evidence that obesity is associated with poor neurocognitive outcome. Bariatric surgery is an effective intervention for morbid obesity and improves many comorbid medical conditions that are associated with cognitive dysfunction. The effects of bariatric surgery on cognition are unknown. Methods Prospective study total of 150 individuals (109 bariatric surgery patients enrolled in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) project and 41 obese controls that did not undergo surgery) completed cognitive evaluation at baseline and 12 week follow-up. Demographic, medical, and psychosocial information was also collected to elucidate possible mechanisms of change. Results Many bariatric surgery patients exhibited impaired performance on cognitive testing at baseline (range from 4.6%–23.9%). However, surgery patients were no more likely to exhibit decline on two or more cognitive tests at 12-week follow-up than obese controls [12.84% vs. 23.26%; ?2 (1) = 2.51, p = .11]. Group comparisons using repeated measures MANOVA showed surgery patients had improved memory performance at 12 week follow-up [? = .86, F(4, 147) = 5.88, p<.001], whereas obese controls actually declined. Regression analyses showed surgery patients without hypertension had better short delay recall at 12 weeks than those that did [? = 0.31, p = .005], though other demographic and medical variables were largely unrelated to test performance. Conclusion The current results suggest that cognitive impairment is common in bariatric surgery patients, though these deficits may be at least partly reversible. Future studies are needed to clarify underlying mechanisms, particularly longitudinal studies employing neuroimaging and blood markers.

Gunstad, John; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael J.; Wing, Rena; Cohen, Ronald A.; Paul, Robert H.; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, James E.

2010-01-01

241

Eigenmode Tests of Improved Basis Functions for NIMROD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectral-element basis functions used in the standard NIMROD implementation are appropriate for fluid-based models with dissipation in each equation [JCP 195, p 355]. However, realistic levels of dissipation can be negligible at computationally practical spatial resolution. One- and two-dimensional ideal-MHD eigenmode computations with the CYLSPEC and NIMEIG codes demonstrate the effectiveness of different numerical representations for extended-MHD. Keeping all variables that are required for a dissipative, first-order in time system constrains the possible formulations. The eigenmode computations produce favorable results for a vector representation that responds to divergence at all scales. A numerical penalty term that is sensitive to parallel vorticity is adapted from the penalty method described in [Degtyarev and Medvedev, CPC 43, p 29]. The new method retains the first-order in time formulation, responds only to scales near the limit of the spatial representation, and yields convergence on localized interchange from the stable side.

Sovinec, C. R.

2012-10-01

242

Exercise training improves peripheral chemoreflex function in heart failure rabbits  

PubMed Central

An enhancement of peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity contributes to sympathetic hyperactivity in chronic heart failure (CHF) rabbits. The enhanced chemoreflex function in CHF involves augmented carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor activity via upregulation of the angiotensin II (ANG II) type 1 (AT1)-receptor pathway and downregulation of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the CB. Here we investigated whether exercise training (EXT) normalizes the enhanced peripheral chemoreflex function in CHF rabbits and possible mechanisms mediating this effect. EXT partially, but not fully, normalized the exaggerated baseline renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and the response of RSNA to hypoxia in CHF rabbits. EXT also decreased the baseline CB nerve single-fiber discharge (4.9 ± 0.4 vs. 7.7 ± 0.4 imp/s at Po2 = 103 ± 2.3 Torr) and the response to hypoxia (20.6 ± 1.1 vs. 36.3 ± 1.3 imp/s at Po2 = 41 ± 2.2 Torr) from CB chemoreceptors in CHF rabbits, which could be reversed by treatment of the CB with ANG II or a nNOS inhibitor. Our results also showed that NO concentration and protein expression of nNOS were increased in the CBs from EXT + CHF rabbits, compared with that in CHF rabbits. On the other hand, elevated ANG II concentration and AT1-receptor overexpression of the CBs in CHF state were blunted by EXT. These results indicate that EXT normalizes the CB chemoreflex in CHF by preventing an increase in afferent CB chemoreceptor activity. EXT reverses the alterations in the nNOS-NO and ANG II-AT1-receptor pathways in the CB responsible for chemoreceptor sensitization in CHF.

Li, Yu-Long; Ding, Yanfeng; Agnew, Chad; Schultz, Harold D.

2008-01-01

243

Improving the quality of internal audit functions through total quality management  

Microsoft Academic Search

In today’s fast-paced and ever-changing audit environment, an improved quality of the internal audit function is essential to the success of internal auditors. Suggests total quality management (TQM) as a means of achieving continuous quality improvements in internal audit functions. Proposes primarily to: examine TQM principles and their relevance for internal audit functions; and discuss the benefits of proper implementation

Zabihollah Rezaee

1996-01-01

244

Distinct Functional Networks Associated with Improvement of Affective Symptoms and Cognitive Function During Citalopram Treatment in Geriatric Depression  

PubMed Central

Variability in the affective and cognitive symptom response to antidepressant treatment has been observed in geriatric depression. The underlying neural circuitry is poorly understood. The current study evaluated the cerebral glucose metabolic effects of citalopram treatment and applied multivariate, functional connectivity analyses to identify brain networks associated with improvements in affective symptoms and cognitive function. Sixteen geriatric depressed patients underwent resting Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies of cerebral glucose metabolism and assessment of affective symptoms and cognitive function before and after eight weeks of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment (citalopram). Voxel-wise analyses of the normalized glucose metabolic data showed decreased cerebral metabolism during citalopram treatment in the anterior cingulate gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, precuneus, amygdala, and parahippocampal gyrus. Increased metabolism was observed in the putamen, occipital cortex and cerebellum. Functional connectivity analyses revealed two networks which were uniquely associated with improvement of affective symptoms and cognitive function during treatment. A subcortical-limbic-frontal network was associated with improvement in affect (depression and anxiety), while a medial temporal-parietal-frontal network was associated with improvement in cognition (immediate verbal learning/memory and verbal fluency). The regions that comprise the cognitive network overlap with the regions that are affected in Alzheimer’s dementia. Thus, alterations in specific brain networks associated with improvement of affective symptoms and cognitive function are observed during citalopram treatment in geriatric depression.

Diaconescu, Andreea Oliviana; Kramer, Elisse; Hermann, Carol; Ma, Yilong; Dhawan, Vijay; Chaly, Thomas; Eidelberg, David; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Smith, Gwenn S.

2010-01-01

245

Neuroprotection by bilobalide in ischemia: improvement of mitochondrial function.  

PubMed

Bilobalide, an active constituent of Ginkgo biloba, is known to have neuroprotective properties, but its mode of action remains unclear. In this study, bilobalide significantly reduced brain damage in mice (indicated by TTC staining) when given before transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). As measured by microdialysis in the ischemic striatum, local perfusion with bilobalide (10 microM) reduced ischemia-induced glutamate release by 70% while glucose levels were not affected. Mitochondria isolated from ischemic brain showed a decrease of respiration compared to non-ischemic controls. Treatment with bilobalide (10 mg/kg) before tMCAO improved respiratory capacity of complex I significantly when measured ex vivo. In addition, mitochondrial swelling induced ex vivo by calcium was used to estimate opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. In this assay, the changes induced by tMCAO were completely reversed when mice had received pretreatment with bilobalide. We conclude that neuroprotection by bilobalide involves a mechanism in which the drug reverses ischemia-induced changes in mitochondria, leading to a reduction of glutamate release. PMID:23923641

Schwarzkopf, T M; Hagl, S; Eckert, G P; Klein, J

2013-07-01

246

Improved Statistical Processing for Common Conversion Point Stacked Receiver Functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interpretation of teleseismic receiver functions is typically limited by poor constraints on the uncertainty of amplitudes of converted phases. In continental regions these problems are overcome by stacking large amounts of data. In oceanic regions, however, data quality is notoriously noisy and the number of events are limited by significantly shorter station deployment times. In order to obtain maximum value from a data set, it is necessary to have estimates of uncertainty. Here we combine a common-conversion point stacking technique with multiple-taper correlation RF estimates that allow frequency domain weighting. We then compute jackknife uncertainties to estimate local uncertainties in RF amplitude. We apply this technique to a continental station in Arabia (RAYN) as a benchmark, and also to the ocean island station at Raratonga, Cook Islands (RAR). The structure we recover matches previous crustal studies at both stations, and provides new interpretations of conversions in the upper mantle. At single stations, this technique works well to resolve crust and mantle structure up to a depth of 100 km. Geographical dispersion of raypaths at larger depths decreases the number of events per bin, and therefore increases the uncertainty in converted amplitude. We therefore propose that this method will be well suited to the analysis of data from seismic arrays.

Leahy, G. M.; Collins, J. A.

2008-12-01

247

Oral Sodium Bicarbonate Improves Thyroid Function in Predialysis Chronic Kidney Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Metabolic acidosis (MA) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) associates with protein energy malnutrition, osteoporosis, abnormal endocrine function and increased mortality. Oral sodium bicarbonate has been shown to improve nutritional status and preserve renal function in CKD. Depressed thyroid function has been described in CKD and was believed to be related to MA. This is a prospective randomized study that

Sinee Disthabanchong; Akarapong Treeruttanawanich

2010-01-01

248

An improved method for extracting matrix elements from lattice three-point functions  

SciTech Connect

The extraction of matrix elements from baryon three-point functions is complicated by the fact that the signal-to-noise drops rapidly as a function of time. Using a previously discussed method to improve the signal-to-noise for lattice two-point functions, we use this technique to do so for lattice three-point functions, using electromagnetic form factors for the nucleon and Delta as an example.

C. Aubin, K. Orginos

2011-12-01

249

Usefulness of three-dimensional automated quantification of left ventricular mass, volume, and function by 64-slice computed tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesQuantification of left ventricular (LV) mass has important prognostic implications. However, accurate measurement of LV mass has been difficult, in part because of the oblique angle at which the heart lies within the chest and the continuous movement of the heart itself. Multislice computed tomography (MSCT) allows assessment not only of coronary stenosis but LV volume, function, and mass. A

Takuhiro Okuyama; Shoichi Ehara; Nobuyuki Shirai; Kenichi Sugioka; Keitaro Ogawa; Hiroki Oe; Hitoe Kitamura; Toshihide Itoh; Katharina Otani; Toshiyuki Matsuoka; Yuichi Inoue; Makiko Ueda; Takeshi Hozumi; Minoru Yoshiyama

2008-01-01

250

Improved Methods to Invert the Particle Size Distribution Function from Mie Scattering Measurements.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two previously report methods to invert the particle size distribution function (PSDF) from Mie scattering measurements on aerosol clouds are reconsidered and improvements are made in both. One of these methods - nonlinear regression - is described in gre...

B. P. Curry E. L. Kiech

1984-01-01

251

An improved FORTRAN program for calculating modulation transfer functions: concise communication.  

PubMed

An improved FORTRAN II program for calculating modulation transfer functions (MTFs) is presented. The program features (A) simplified input-data specifications; (B) a conversational mode of use; and (C) graphic printout of the MTF curve. PMID:830835

Benedetto, A R; Nusynowitz, M L

1977-01-01

252

Novel invasion determinant of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli plasmid pLV501 encodes the ability to invade intestinal epithelial cells and HEp-2 cells.  

PubMed

An Escherichia coli K-12 transformant carrying 96.5-kb plasmid pLV501 from enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) strain K798 is able to produce the same characteristic attaching-effacing lesions in a rabbit ileal biopsy explant model as its parent strain. Cloned EcoRI-SalI DNA restriction fragments from this plasmid failed to reproduce the attaching-effacing lesions, but one recombinant plasmid, pLV527, containing 4.5 kb of pLV501 DNA, conferred on E. coli DH1 transformants the ability to invade enterocytes in the rabbit explant model. DH1(pLV527) was also able to adhere to and invade HEp-2 cells. The relative invasive ability of DH1(pLV527) was quantified by recovery of internalized bacteria following gentamicin treatment of infected HEp-2 monolayers. DH1(pLV527) was 1,000-fold more invasive than DH1 carrying pBR322 or a recombinant plasmid which had no physiological effect on ileal biopsy explants but was less invasive than an enteroinvasive E. coli strain or a transformant carrying the cloned invasion genes of Shigella flexneri. Invasion by DH1(pLV501) could also be detected but occurred at a level 30 times lower than that by DH1(pLV527). Colony-hybridization of the pLV527 insert against a panel of 49 EPEC and related strains revealed that only 11 contained pLV527-hybridizing sequences; thus, the invasion determinant is not an essential component of the attachment-effacement pathogenic mechanism. One pLV527-hybridizing strain displayed both attachment-effacement and invasiveness in the rabbit ileal biopsy explant model. No significant hybridization was observed to non-EPEC invasive pathogenic enteric bacteria, indicating that the invasion determinant encoded on pLV527 is distinct from those used by these organisms. PMID:1587591

Fletcher, J N; Embaye, H E; Getty, B; Batt, R M; Hart, C A; Saunders, J R

1992-06-01

253

Does induction of plastic change in motor cortex improve leg function after stroke?  

PubMed

Combined peripheral nerve and brain stimulation ("dual stimulation") induces changes in the excitability of normal motor cortex. The authors sought to establish whether dual stimulation would also induce motor cortex plasticity and associated functional improvements in nine stroke patients with chronic stable hemiparesis. Following 4 weeks of daily dual stimulation, improvements were seen in some neurophysiological and functional measures. This technique may offer therapeutic opportunities in some stroke patients. PMID:14557574

Uy, J; Ridding, M C; Hillier, S; Thompson, P D; Miles, T S

2003-10-14

254

EFFECT OF SEIZURE CONTROL ON IMPROVEMENT OF COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS IN EPILEPTIC PATIENTS  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY A group of fifty epileptic patients were tested with neuropsychological tools for cognitive functions like memory, intelligence, visuomotor coordination, spatial perception and body schema perception. Patients were on carbamazepine and were tested after three months. Seizure improvement was shown to have different effects on different cognitive functions. Memory and intellectual deficits improved, while no difference was observed in visuomotor coordination, spatial and personal perception.

Nainian, M.R.; Behere, P.B.; Mohanti, S.

1993-01-01

255

Repeated thermal therapy improves impaired vascular endothelial function in patients with coronary risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESWe sought to determine whether sauna therapy, a thermal vasodilation therapy, improves endothelial function in patients with coronary risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and smoking.BACKGROUNDExposure to heat is widely used as a traditional therapy in many different cultures. We have recently found that repeated sauna therapy improves endothelial and cardiac function in patients with chronic heart failure.METHODSTwenty-five

Masakazu Imamura; Sadatoshi Biro; Takashi Kihara; Shiro Yoshifuku; Kunitsugu Takasaki; Yutaka Otsuji; Shinichi Minagoe; Yoshifumi Toyama; Chuwa Tei

2001-01-01

256

Improvement in social-interpersonal functioning after cognitive therapy for recurrent depression  

PubMed Central

Background. Cognitive therapy reduces depressive symptoms of major depressive disorder, but little is known about concomitant reduction in social-interpersonal dysfunction. Method. We evaluated social-interpersonal functioning (self-reported social adjustment, interpersonal problems and dyadic adjustment) and depressive symptoms (two self-report and two clinician scales) in adult outpatients (n=156) with recurrent major depressive disorder at several points during a 20-session course of acute phase cognitive therapy. Consenting acute phase responders (n=84) entered a 2-year follow-up phase, which included an 8-month experimental trial comparing continuation phase cognitive therapy to assessment-only control. Results. Social-interpersonal functioning improved after acute phase cognitive therapy (dyadic adjustment d=0.47; interpersonal problems d=0.91; social adjustment d=1.19), but less so than depressive symptoms (d=1.55). Improvement in depressive symptoms and social-interpersonal functioning were moderately to highly correlated (r=0.39–0.72). Improvement in depressive symptoms was partly independent of social-interpersonal functioning (r=0.55–0.81), but improvement in social-interpersonal functioning independent of change in depressive symptoms was not significant (r=0.01–0.06). In acute phase responders, continuation phase therapy did not further enhance social-interpersonal functioning, but improvements in social-interpersonal functioning were maintained through the follow-up. Conclusions. Social-interpersonal functioning is improved after acute phase cognitive therapy and maintained in responders over 2 years. Improvement in social-interpersonal functioning is largely accounted for by decreases in depressive symptoms.

VITTENGL, J. R.; CLARK, L. A.; JARRETT, R. B.

2005-01-01

257

Combination rule for belief functions based on improved measure of conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming at the invalidation of Dempster's rule for combining belief functions with high conflict, this paper proposes a new combination rule. Firstly, the limitation of classical conflict measure is pointed out, and improved measure for degree of conflict is presented and proved. Based on this improved measure, a new combination rule which is composed of three steps is proposed. The

Ying Peng; Huairong Shen

2010-01-01

258

Transplantation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells improves myelination and promotes functional recovery after spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss of oligodendrocytes and demyelination further impair neural function after spinal cord injury (SCI). Replacement of lost oligodendrocytes and improvement of myelination have a therapeutic significance in treatment of SCI. Here, we transplanted oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) to improve myelination in a rat model of contusive SCI. The labelled OPCs were transplanted to injured cord 7 days after injury. As

Bo Wu; Lei Sun; Peijia Li; Min Tian; Yongzhong Luo; Xianjun Ren

259

Difficulties in demonstrating long term immunity in FeLV vaccinated cats due to increasing age-related resistance to infection  

PubMed Central

Background Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) is a pathogen causing fatal illness in cats worldwide, and as such there is a high demand for products to protect against disease. The duration of immunity provided by an inactivated FeLV vaccine, Versifel FeLV, when administered to cats of the target age was determined. Kittens received two vaccinations when aged 7 to 9 weeks old, and were subsequently challenged up to 36 months later with the FeLV-A Glasgow isolate. Results In all studies, all of the younger aged control kittens showed persistent FeLV p27 antigenaemia confirming that the challenge virus was severe and efficacious. In contrast, the control cats did not show the required level of persistent antigenaemia, with a maximum of 45% cats affected in the middle duration study and only 10% in the longer study. However, apart from one animal in the short duration study, all of the cats vaccinated with Versifel FeLV were negative for persistent antigenaemia and can be considered treatment successes. Conclusion In conclusion, we have shown that although age-related resistance to infection with a virulent FeLV challenge is evident from as early as 10 months of age, vaccination with Versifel FeLV may aid in the protection of cats from FeLV related disease up to three years after primary vaccination as kittens.

2012-01-01

260

High- and moderate-intensity training normalizes ventricular function and mechanoenergetics in mice with diet-induced obesity.  

PubMed

Although exercise reduces several cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity/diabetes, the metabolic effects of exercise on the heart are not well-known. This study was designed to investigate whether high-intensity interval training (HIT) is superior to moderate-intensity training (MIT) in counteracting obesity-induced impairment of left ventricular (LV) mechanoenergetics and function. C57BL/6J mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO mice) displaying a cardiac phenotype with altered substrate utilization and impaired mechanoenergetics were subjected to a sedentary lifestyle or 8-10 weeks of isocaloric HIT or MIT. Although both modes of exercise equally improved aerobic capacity and reduced obesity, only HIT improved glucose tolerance. Hearts from sedentary DIO mice developed concentric LV remodeling with diastolic and systolic dysfunction, which was prevented by both HIT and MIT. Both modes of exercise also normalized LV mechanical efficiency and mechanoenergetics. These changes were associated with altered myocardial substrate utilization and improved mitochondrial capacity and efficiency, as well as reduced oxidative stress, fibrosis, and intracellular matrix metalloproteinase 2 content. As both modes of exercise equally ameliorated the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy by preventing LV remodeling and mechanoenergetic impairment, this study advocates the therapeutic potential of physical activity in obesity-related cardiac disorders. PMID:23493573

Hafstad, Anne D; Lund, Jim; Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Höper, Anje C; Larsen, Terje S; Aasum, Ellen

2013-03-14

261

Increased matrix metalloproteinase activity and selective upregulation in LV myocardium from patients with end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—One of the hallmarks of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is left ventricular (LV) remodeling. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of enzymes that contribute to extracellular remodeling in several disease states. Additionally, a family of inhibitors called tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) has been shown to exist and to tightly regulate MMP activity. However, the types of MMPs and TIMPs

Chadwick V. Thomas; Mytsi L. Coker; James L. Zellner; John R. Handy; Jackson Crumbley III; Francis G. Spinale

1998-01-01

262

ABSOLUTE PROPERTIES OF THE HIGHLY ECCENTRIC ECLIPSING BINARY STAR LV HERCULIS  

SciTech Connect

We report extensive spectroscopic and differential V-band photometric observations of the 18.4 day detached double-lined eclipsing binary LV Her (F9 V), which has the highest eccentricity (e {approx_equal} 0.613) among the systems with well-measured properties. We determine the absolute masses and radii of the components to be M {sub 1} = 1.193 {+-} 0.010 M {sub sun}, M {sub 2} = 1.1698 {+-} 0.0081 M {sub sun}, R {sub 1} = 1.358 {+-} 0.012 R {sub sun}, and R {sub 2} = 1.313 {+-} 0.011 R {sub sun}, with fractional errors of 0.9% or better. The effective temperatures are 6060 {+-} 150 K and 6030 {+-} 150 K, respectively, and the overall metallicity is estimated to be [m/H] = +0.08 {+-} 0.21. A comparison with current stellar evolution models for this composition indicates an excellent fit for an age between 3.8 and 4.2 Gyr, with both stars being near the middle of their main-sequence lifetimes. Full integration of the equations for tidal evolution is consistent with the high eccentricity, and suggests that the stars' spin axes are aligned with the orbital axis, and that their rotations should be pseudo-synchronized. The latter prediction is not quite in agreement with the measured projected rotational velocities.

Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Claret, Antonio [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Apartado 3004, 18080 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: clacy@uark.edu, E-mail: claret@iaa.es

2009-12-15

263

Early predictors of alterations in left atrial structure and function related to left ventricular dysfunction in asymptomatic patients with hypertension.  

PubMed

Our aim was to investigate the relationships between left atrial (LA) structural and functional changes and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction related to LV pressure overload in asymptomatic patients with hypertension. One hundred and twenty-six asymptomatic patients with hypertension and LV ejection fraction (EF) ? 60% were studied. Conventional, pulsed and tissue Doppler, and two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) were performed to seek the independent determinants for alterations in LA structure and function. LA volume index (LAVI) correlated with age, body mass index (BMI), end-diastolic ventricular septal thickness (VSth), end-diastolic LV posterior wall thickness, relative LV wall thickness (RWT), LV mass index, peak A velocity of transmitral flow, E/e', and peak systolic and early diastolic LA strains and strain rates. Peak LA strain during ventricular systole (S-LAs) correlated with age, BMI, heart rate (HR), end-systolic LV diameter, LAVI, VSth, RWT, LVEF, e', E/e', peak systolic LV radial strain, and peak early diastolic LV longitudinal strain rate. Multivariate regression analyses indicated that LV mass index, peak A velocity, E/e', and S-LAs are defined as strong predictors related to LAVI, and that BMI, HR, LAVI, and peak systolic LV radial strain are defined as strong predictors related to S-LAs. In conclusion, 2DSTE demonstrated that alterations in LA structure and function are mainly associated with LV diastolic and systolic dysfunction, respectively, in preclinical patients with hypertension. PMID:23538140

Miyoshi, Hirokazu; Oishi, Yoshifumi; Mizuguchi, Yukio; Iuchi, Arata; Nagase, Norio; Ara, Nusrat; Oki, Takashi

2013-03-26

264

Cognitive Adaptation Training: Establishing Environmental Supports to Bypass Cognitive Deficits and Improve Functional Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several approaches to the treatment of cognitive impairments and their functional consequences for persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder have been developed in recent years. This article focuses on the use of Cognitive adaptation training (CAT), a psychosocial intervention that seeks to bypass cognitive impairments in schizophrenia in an effort to improve functional outcomes. CAT relies on the use

NATALIE J. MAPLES; DAWN I. VELLIGAN

2008-01-01

265

Neurocognitive functioning and improvement in quality of life following participation in cardiac rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the relationship between neurocognitive functioning and quality of life\\/self-perceived health status (QOL) among cardiac rehabilitation (CR) patients to determine whether level of neurocognitive functioning is related to baseline QOL and improvement following CR. CR patients (n = 35) were given a neurocognitive screening before participation in CR, and also completed a behavioral inventory (SF-36) before and after CR

Ronald A Cohen; David J Moser; Matthew M Clark; Mark S Aloia; Byron R Cargill; Sandra Stefanik; Anna Albrecht; Peter Tilkemeier; Daniel E Forman

1999-01-01

266

Improving the density functional theory description of water with self-consistent polarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied the self-consistent polarization density functional theory (SCP-DFT) to water. SCP-DFT requires only minimal parametrization, self-consistently includes the dispersion interaction neglected by standard DFT functionals, and has a cost similar to standard DFT despite its improved performance. Compared to the DFT functionals BLYP and BLYP-D (where the latter contains a simple dispersion correction), SCP-DFT yields interaction energies per molecule

Garold Murdachaew; Christopher J. Mundy; Gregory K. Schenter

2010-01-01

267

Pioglitazone Improves Endothelial Function in Non-Diabetic Patients with Coronary Artery Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To test the hypothesis that pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist, will improve endothelial function in non-diabetic subjects with coronary artery disease, we conducted a prospective study to evaluate the effect of this medication on the brachial artery vasomotor function and circulating markers of endothelial activation. Methods: Baseline characteristics were collected. After initial endothelial function assessment, patients were treated

C. Staniloae; V. Mandadi; D. Kurian; J. Coppola; E. Bernaski; Z. El-Khally; M. Morlote; E. Pinassi; J. Ambrose

2007-01-01

268

Developing models of how cognitive improvements change functioning: Mediation, moderation and moderated mediation  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive remediation (CRT) affects functioning but the extent and type of cognitive improvements necessary are unknown. Aim To develop and test models of how cognitive improvement transfers to work behaviour using the data from a current service. Method Participants (N49) with a support worker and a paid or voluntary job were offered CRT in a Phase 2 single group design with three assessments: baseline, post therapy and follow-up. Working memory, cognitive flexibility, planning and work outcomes were assessed. Results Three models were tested (mediation — cognitive improvements drive functioning improvement; moderation — post treatment cognitive level affects the impact of CRT on functioning; moderated mediation — cognition drives functioning improvements only after a certain level is achieved). There was evidence of mediation (planning improvement associated with improved work quality). There was no evidence that cognitive flexibility (total Wisconsin Card Sorting Test errors) and working memory (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III digit span) mediated work functioning despite significant effects. There was some evidence of moderated mediation for planning improvement if participants had poorer memory and/or made fewer WCST errors. The total CRT effect on work quality was d = 0.55, but the indirect (planning-mediated CRT effect) was d = 0.082 Conclusion Planning improvements led to better work quality but only accounted for a small proportion of the total effect on work outcome. Other specific and non-specific effects of CRT and the work programme are likely to account for some of the remaining effect. This is the first time complex models have been tested and future Phase 3 studies need to further test mediation and moderated mediation models.

Wykes, Til; Reeder, Clare; Huddy, Vyv; Taylor, Rumina; Wood, Helen; Ghirasim, Natalia; Kontis, Dimitrios; Landau, Sabine

2012-01-01

269

Biventricular Pacing in End-Stage Heart Failure Improves Functional Capacity and Left Ventricular Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Asynchronous patterns of contraction and relaxation may contribute to hemodynamic and functional impairment in heart failure. In 1993, we introduced biventricular pacing as a novel method to treat heart failure by synchronous stimulation of the right and left ventricles after an appropriate atrioventricular delay. The objectives of this study were to assess the early and long-term effects of this

Patricia F. Bakker; Huub W. Meijburg; Jaap W. de Vries; Morton M. Mower; Andra C. Thomas; Michael L. Hull; Etienne O. Robles de Medina; Johan J. Bredée

2000-01-01

270

Left ventricular systolic function and systolic asynchrony in patients with septic shock and normal left ventricular ejection fraction.  

PubMed

Few studies were performed to investigate the association between tissue Doppler imaging parameters about left ventricular (LV) systolic function and LV systolic asynchrony and prognosis in patients with septic shock and normal LV ejection fraction (LVEF). This prospective study was performed from January 2010 to April 2012 in a medical intensive care unit. Fifty-one patients with septic shock and LVEF greater than or equal to 50% were analyzed. The clinical variables and transthoracic echocardiography data were obtained on admission. The mean value of the peak myocardial systolic velocity (Sm-mean) was measured in the four LV basal segments. Tissue Doppler imaging-based parameter (Ts-SD) was used to evaluate LV intraventricular asynchrony. The 28-day all-cause mortality was 43.1%. The nonsurvivors exhibited higher baseline heart rate and Sm-mean and lower mean arterial blood pressure and Ts-SD. A cutoff value of Sm-mean greater than or equal to 6.2 cm/s in identifying 28-day mortality was determined by the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The patients with Sm-mean greater than or equal to 6.2 cm/s or Ts-SD less than 33 ms had higher 28-day mortality. In the Cox multivariate analysis, Sm-mean, Ts-SD, and mean arterial blood pressure emerged as independent predictors for 28-day mortality. We concluded that LV systolic dysfunction and systolic asynchrony assessed by tissue Doppler imaging were associated with improved 28-day all-cause mortality in patients with septic shock and normal LVEF. PMID:23807249

Weng, Li; Liu, Yongtai; Zhou, Jianfang; Guo, Xiaoxiao; Peng, Jinmin; Hu, Xiaoyun; Fang, Quan; Zhu, Wenling; Li, Huijuan; Du, Bin; Zhang, Shuyang

2013-09-01

271

Evaluation of left ventricular function and volumes in patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy: gated single-photon emission computed tomography versus two-dimensional echocardiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to perform a head-to-head comparison between two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography and gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPET) for the evaluation of left ventricular (LV) function and volumes in patients with severe ischaemic LV dysfunction. Thirty-two patients with chronic ischaemic LV dysfunction [mean LV ejection fraction (EF) 25%Lj%] were studied with gated SPET and 2D echocardiography.

Eleni C. Vourvouri; Don Poldermans; Jeroen J. Bax; Georgios Sianos; Fabiola B. Sozzi; Arend F. Schinkel; Johan Sutter; Georgios Parcharidis; Roelf Valkema; Jos R. Roelandt

2001-01-01

272

Comparison of left ventricular function at rest and post-stress in patients with myocardial infarction: Evaluation with gated SPECT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Quantitative electrocardiogram-gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial imaging (QGS) is a means\\u000a of providing functional information about the left ventricle and myocardial perfusion. However, the functional information\\u000a derived 30 minutes post-stress may be different from the left ventricular (LV) function determined at rest. This study determined\\u000a whether LV function post-stress would be different from LV function at rest

Carine D. L. Bavelaar-Croon; Yves G. C. J. America; Douwe E. Atsma; Petra Dibbets-Schneider; Aelco H. Zwinderman; Marcel P. M. Stokkel; Ernest K. J. Pauwels; Ernst E. van der Wall

2001-01-01

273

Recovery of Otoacoustic Emission Function in Luetic Endolymphatic Hydrops: A Possible Measure of Improvement in Cochlear Function  

PubMed Central

Syphilis is a preventable and curable multi-organ disease caused by Treponema pallidum that may also affect the inner ear. First reported in 1887 by Adam Politzer, luetic endolymphatic hydrops (LEH) is a treatable complication of syphilis which causes a potentially reversible sensorineural hearing loss. Symptoms of LEH include fluctuating hearing loss (often low frequency), tinnitus, and vertigo. Though audiometric parameters have been examined in patients with otosyphilis, few studies have examined the use of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) as a tool to measure improvement in cochlear function. Here we report an improvement in hearing loss, speech discrimination, and OAEs following treatment of LEH.

Chun, Robert H.; Pinto, Jayant M.; Blankenhorn, Rebecca; Dayal, Vijay S.

2009-01-01

274

Surfactant treatment before reperfusion improves the immediate function of lung transplants in rats.  

PubMed

An impaired function of alveolar surfactant can cause lung transplant dysfunction early after reperfusion. In this study it was investigated whether treatment with surfactant before reperfusion improves the immediate function of lung transplants and whether an improved transplant function was associated with an increase in alveolar surfactant components. Left lungs with 6-h (n = 8) or prolonged 20-h ischemia (n = 10) were transplanted syngeneically in rats. In both ischemia groups half of the lung transplants were treated with surfactant just before reperfusion. Lung function was measured during reperfusion for 1 h. Thereafter, the rats were killed and bronchoalveolar lavage was performed to measure alveolar surfactant components. We found that surfactant treatment improved the immediate function of lung transplants in parallel with a higher amount of total surfactant phospholipids, a higher percentage of the heavy subtype of surfactant, a normalized percentage of phosphatidylcholine, and a higher amount of endogenous surfactant protein A (SP-A). We conclude that surfactant treatment before reperfusion does improve the immediate lung transplant function in rats in association with an increase in alveolar surfactant components. More particularly, the amount of (endogenous) SP-A is thought to be crucial for the efficacy of surfactant treatment after lung transplantation. PMID:8564115

Erasmus, M E; Petersen, A H; Hofstede, G; Haagsman, H P; Bambang Oetomo, S; Prop, J

1996-02-01

275

Improving the prediction of the functional impact of cancer mutations by baseline tolerance transformation.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT: High-throughput prioritization of cancer-causing mutations (drivers) is a key challenge of cancer genome projects, due to the number of somatic variants detected in tumors. One important step in this task is to assess the functional impact of tumor somatic mutations. A number of computational methods have been employed for that purpose, although most were originally developed to distinguish disease-related nonsynonymous single nucleotide variants (nsSNVs) from polymorphisms. Our new method, transformed Functional Impact score for Cancer (transFIC), improves the assessment of the functional impact of tumor nsSNVs by taking into account the baseline tolerance of genes to functional variants. PMID:23181723

Gonzalez-Perez, Abel; Deu-Pons, Jordi; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria

2012-11-26

276

Impact of preserved myocardial contractile function in the segments attached to the papillary muscles on reduction in functional mitral regurgitation.  

PubMed

Background: Effectiveness of functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) in heart failure patients is of growing importance for patient prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether regional myocardial contractile function as assessed by tissue Doppler strain rate imaging can predict reduction in FMR caused by dobutamine. Methods: Fifty-one patients with depressed left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (32 ± 9%) secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy and FMR underwent evaluation of effective regurgitant orifice (ERO) of FMR, mitral valve deformation, global LV remodeling, and regional myocardial contractile function assessed by longitudinal peak systolic strain rate (Ssr) in 6 mid-LV segments from standard apical views. We also determined the average Ssr of segments attached to the papillary muscles, that is, the inferior, inferolateral, and anterolateral segments (PM segments Ssr). Low-dose (10 ?g/kg per minute) dobutamine-induced reduction in ERO was compared with baseline variables. Results: Baseline valve tenting was associated with dobutamine-induced reduction in ERO (r = -0.30, P < 0.05). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that baseline valve tenting, LV sphericity index, inferior Ssr, inferolateral Ssr, and PM segments Ssr were predictors of dobutamine-induced ?30% reduction in ERO. Importantly, only PM segments Ssr predicted dobutamine-induced ?20% reduction in valve tenting with area under the curve of 0.67 (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Preserved myocardial contractile function in the segments attached to the PMs was associated with dobutamine-induced reduction in mitral valve tenting and FMR, suggesting that our findings are important for improvement in cardiac function and FMR with medical treatment. PMID:23167507

Tatsumi, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Kataoka, Toshiya; Norisada, Kazuko; Onishi, Tetsuari; Kawai, Hiroya; Hirata, Ken-ichi

2012-11-20

277

Early functional improvement after a modified ligament reconstruction tendon interposition arthroplasty for thumb basal joint arthritis.  

PubMed

Many modifications to trapeziectomy have been proposed for the treatment of thumb basal joint arthritis. Their final outcomes have been discussed intensively, whereas functional changes in the early post-operative period have not been fully documented. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate an early functional change following our modified ligament reconstruction with tendon interposition (LRTI) arthroplasty. Nine patients (ten thumbs) were included in this study. Pain levels, strength, and mobility were assessed before and after surgery at intervals of two months. Pain level significantly improved at two months after surgery. Grip and pinch strengths had increased gradually after a temporal decrease at two-month follow-up, and were significantly stronger at six months after surgery. Palmar abduction improved significantly at six months after surgery, whereas opposition did not change significantly. A modified LRTI is an effective procedure in terms of early functional improvement of pain, strength, and mobility. PMID:19378359

Miura, Toshiki; Osuka, Koji; Itoh, Shozo; Nakagawa, Takumi; Kawano, Hirotaka; Nakamura, Kozo

2008-01-01

278

Further improvement in the variational many-body wave functions for light nuclei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved variational ansatz is proposed and implemented for variational many-body wave functions for light nuclei with nucleons interacting through Argonne (AV18) and Urbana IX (UIX) three-nucleon interactions. The new ansatz is based upon variationally distinguishing between the various components of the two-body Jastrow and operatorial correlations, which are operated upon by three-body and spin-orbit correlations. We obtain noticeable improvement in the quality of the wave function and lowering of the energies compared to earlier results. The new energies are -8.38(1), -28.07(1), and -29.90(1) MeV for 3H, 4He, and 6Li, respectively. Though, the present improved ansatz still fails to stabilize the 6Li nucleus against a breakup into an ? particle and a deuteron by 390 KeV; nonetheless, it is an improvement over previous studies.

Usmani, Q. N.; Anwar, K.; Abdullah, Nooraihan

2012-09-01

279

New functional families (FunFams) in CATH to improve the mapping of conserved functional sites to 3D structures  

PubMed Central

CATH version 3.5 (Class, Architecture, Topology, Homology, available at http://www.cathdb.info/) contains 173 536 domains, 2626 homologous superfamilies and 1313 fold groups. When focusing on structural genomics (SG) structures, we observe that the number of new folds for CATH v3.5 is slightly less than for previous releases, and this observation suggests that we may now know the majority of folds that are easily accessible to structure determination. We have improved the accuracy of our functional family (FunFams) sub-classification method and the CATH sequence domain search facility has been extended to provide FunFam annotations for each domain. The CATH website has been redesigned. We have improved the display of functional data and of conserved sequence features associated with FunFams within each CATH superfamily.

Sillitoe, Ian; Cuff, Alison L.; Dessailly, Benoit H.; Dawson, Natalie L.; Furnham, Nicholas; Lee, David; Lees, Jonathan G.; Lewis, Tony E.; Studer, Romain A.; Rentzsch, Robert; Yeats, Corin; Thornton, Janet M.; Orengo, Christine A.

2013-01-01

280

Improvement of endothelial function in patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes after treatment with telmisartan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Telmisartan, a selective antagonist for angiotensin type1 receptor and a partial agonist for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?, decreases blood pressure and has been shown to improve glucose and lipid metabolism, suggesting potential cardiovascular protective effects. In this study, we investigated whether long-term treatment with telmisartan improved endothelial function in 35 hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Office and home

Takehiko Wago; Takanobu Yoshimoto; Itaru Akaza; Kyoichiro Tsuchiya; Hajime Izumiyama; Masaru Doi; Yukio Hirata

2010-01-01

281

DVB-T Signal Cross-Ambiguity Functions Improvement for Passive Radar  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a digital video broadcasting-terrestrial (DVB-T) signal cross-ambiguity functions (CAF) improvement technique by modifying the guard interval and the pilots in the direct channel, which can remove the unwanted deterministic peaks in the DVB-T passive radar effectively. The key of CAF improvement is the pilots modification directly on the pilot carriers based on the DVB-T signal (fs=64\\/7 MHz),

Zhiwen Gao; Ran Tao; Yongfeng Ma; Tao Shao

2006-01-01

282

Once daily nebulized beclomethasone is effective in maintaining pulmonary function and improving symptoms in asthmatic children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Once daily nebulized beclomethasone is effective in maintaining pulmonary function and improving symptoms in asthmatic children. S. La Grutta, G. Nicolini, C. Capristo, S.C. Bellodi, G.A. Rossi. Background and Aim. Compliance with long-term in- haled therapy in asthma is often poor, but it is likely to be improved with a simplified administration, once daily.The present study was designed to assess

S. La Grutta; G. Nicolini; C. Capristo; S. C. Bellodi; G. A. Rossi

283

Capsular neuronal elements and their relation to pain reduction and functional improvement following total hip replacement  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied changes of pain intensity and functional impairment in 22 patients with osteoarthrosis undergoing total hip replacement. Using a visual analogue scale, the mean scores for pain and disability before surgery were 71.7 and 70.9 respectively. Both scores showed gradual improvement during a 1-year follow-up period, with more than 90% of the total improvement occurring within the first 3

Levente Gáspár; Balázs Dezs?; Zoltán Csernátony; Lilla Gáspár; János Szabó; Zoltán Szekanecz; Kálmán Szepesi; Klára Matesz

2004-01-01

284

Improving the convergence rate of the conjugate gradient FFT method using subdomain basis functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A technique to improve the convergence rate of the conjugate-gradient/fast-Fourier-transform (CG-FFT) method is presented. The procedure involves the incorporation of subdomain basis functions associated with the current representation of linear and planar radiating elements. It is shown that significant improvements are achieved in the convergence of the CG-FFT when using sinusoidal bases functions. Numerical results are presented for thin cylindrical dipoles, conducting strips, and material plates of various sizes. In all cases, an increase in the rate of convergence by a factor of two or better was observed.

Barkeshli, Kasra; Volakis, John L.

1989-07-01

285

Time-dependent improvement in functional outcome following Oxford medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose 10-year survival rates after unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR) have been up to 97% in single-center studies, but they have been as low as 80% in studies from arthroplasty registers. Few studies have evaluated short-term functional outcome and its improvement with time. We determined the time course of functional outcome as evaluated by the knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS) over the first 2 years after Oxford medial UKR. Patients and methods In a prospective multicenter study, we included 99 unselected knees (96 patients, mean age 65 (51–80) years, 57 women) operated with Oxford medial UKR at 3 hospitals in the southeast of Norway between November 2003 and October 2006. Data were collected by independent investigators preoperatively and at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years postoperatively. KOOS and range of motion (ROM) were determined at all follow-ups. Results Mean KOOS values for pain and activities of daily living were improved already after 6 weeks, and increased between each time point up to 2 years postoperatively. However, no statistically significant improvements were seen after 6 months. Mean active and passive ROM gradually improved up to 2 years after UKR, and were then better than before surgery. Interpretation Most of the expected improvements in pain and function after UKR are achieved within 6 months of surgery. Only minimal improvement can be expected beyond this time.

2012-01-01

286

Improved constraint satisfaction in a simple generalized gradient approximation exchange functional  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Though there is fevered effort on orbital-dependent approximate exchange-correlation functionals, generalized gradient approximations, especially the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) form, remain the overwhelming choice in calculations. A simple generalized gradient approximation (GGA) exchange functional [A. Vela, V. Medel, and S. B. Trickey, J. Chem. Phys. 130, 244103 (2009)] was developed that improves substantially over PBE in energetics (on a typical test set) while being almost as simple in form. The improvement came from constraining the exchange enhancement factor to be below the Lieb-Oxford bound for all but one value of the exchange dimensionless gradient, s, and to go to the uniform electron gas limit at both s = 0 and s --> ?. Here we discuss the issue of asymptotic constraints for GGAs and show that imposition of the large s constraint, lims-->?s1/2Fxc(n,s)functional yields modest further improvement. The resulting exchange functional, denoted VT{8,4}, is only slightly more complicated than VMT and easy to program. Additional improvement is obtained by combining VT{8,4} or VMT exchange with the Lee-Yang-Parr correlation functional. Extensive computational results on several datasets are provided as verification of the overall performance gains of both versions.

Vela, Alberto; Pacheco-Kato, Juan C.; Gázquez, José L.; del Campo, Jorge M.; Trickey, S. B.

2012-04-01

287

Eucalyptus increases ceramide levels in keratinocytes and improves stratum corneum function.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to identify a plant extract that would improve stratum corneum functions and to elucidate the mechanism(s) involved. Based on the information that stratum corneum functions depend on the level of ceramide in the stratum corneum, we identified a Eucalyptus extract that was able to increase the level of ceramide in human keratinocytes in culture and in human stratum corneum and that improves the stratum corneum water holding and barrier functions. Addition of the Eucalyptus extract to human keratinocytes in culture increased the level of ceramide in a dose-dependent manner and also increased the biosynthesis of ceramide, glucosylceramide and sphingomyelin. Topical application of the Eucalyptus extract on the dry skin of human subjects induced by acetone and diethylether treatment resulted in a significant increase in ceramide level in the stratum corneum, a significant improvement in its water-holding function and an improvement in its barrier function. The addition of macrocarpal A, one of the main components of the Eucalyptus extract, to human keratinocytes in culture increased the level of ceramide and the mRNA expression of serine palmitoyltransferase, acid sphingomyelinase, neutral sphingomyelinase, glucosylceramide synthase and glucocerebrosidase in a dose-dependent manner. Our results indicate that the increased content of ceramides in the stratum corneum may underlie the therapeutic effect of the Eucalyptus extract. Our results also indicate the possibility that macrocarpal A is the key component that stimulates the synthesis of ceramide in the stratum corneum. PMID:21696405

Ishikawa, J; Shimotoyodome, Y; Chen, S; Ohkubo, K; Takagi, Y; Fujimura, T; Kitahara, T; Takema, Y

2011-06-23

288

Immediate improvement of motor function after epilepsy surgery in congenital hemiparesis.  

PubMed

Hemispherectomy often leads to a loss of contralateral hand function. In some children with congenital hemiparesis, however, paretic hand function remains unchanged. An immediate improvement of hand function has never been reported. A 17-year-old boy with congenital hemiparesis and therapy-refractory seizures due to a large infarction in the territory of the middle cerebral artery underwent epilepsy surgery. Intraoperatively, electrical cortical stimulation of the affected hemisphere demonstrated preserved motor projections from the sensorimotor cortex to the (contralateral) paretic hand. A frontoparietal resection was performed, which included a complete disconnection of all motor projections originating in the sensorimotor cortex of the affected hemisphere. Surprisingly, the paretic hand showed a significant functional improvement immediately after the operation. This observation demonstrates that, in congenital hemiparesis, crossed motor projections from the affected hemisphere are not always beneficial, but can be dysfunctional, interfering with ipsilateral motor control over the paretic hand by the contralesional hemisphere. PMID:23758538

Pascoal, Tharick; Paglioli, Eliseu; Palmini, André; Menezes, Rafael; Staudt, Martin

2013-06-12

289

Left Ventricular Pacing Minimizes Diastolic Ventricular Interaction, Allowing Improved Preload-Dependent Systolic Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Left ventricular (LV) pacing improves hemodynamics in patients with heart failure. We hypothesized that at least part of this benefit occurs by minimization of external constraint to LV filling from ventricular interaction. Methods and Results—We present median values (interquartile ranges) for 13 heart failure patients with LV pacing systems implanted for New York Heart Association class III\\/IV limitation. We used

R. A. Bleasdale; M. S. Turner; C. E. Mumford; P. Steendijk; V. Paul; J. V. Tyberg; J. A. Morris-Thurgood; M. P. Frenneaux

2004-01-01

290

Protective effects of Ping-Lv-Mixture (PLM), a medicinal formula on arrhythmias induced by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ping-Lv-Mixture (PLM) is a Chinese medicinal formula. The present study aimed to determine the effects of PLM on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI\\/R) induced arrhythmias in rats. Arrhythmia model was established by occlusion of the left arterial descending coronary artery and thereafter reperfusion. A lead II electrocardiogram was monitored throughout the experiment. The results showed that pretreatment of PLM to MI\\/R rats

Wei An; Jing Yang

2006-01-01

291

Haematopoietic stem cells improve cardiac function after infarction without permanent cardiac engraftment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Transplantation of bone marrow derived adult stem cells (BMC) improves cardiac function after acute myocardial infarction (MI). However, the cell population mediating myocardial recovery and the fate of the transplanted cells are still controversial. Aims: We determined the effects of Sca-1+ c-kit+ lin haematopoietic BMC on cardiac function after MI and the cell fate after transplantation. Methods: Sca-1+ c-kit+

Florian P. Limbourg; Stefanie Ringes-Lichtenberg; Arnd Schaefer; Christoph Jacoby; Yasmin Mehraein; Mark D. Jager; Anne Limbourg; Martin Fuchs; Gunnar Klein; Matthias Ballmaier; Juergen Schrader

2005-01-01

292

Vitamin C improves resistance but not conduit artery endothelial function in patients with chronic renal failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vitamin C improves resistance but not conduit artery endothelial function in patients with chronic renal failure.BackgroundChronic renal failure is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation and accelerated atherogenesis. To examine whether endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) modify endothelial function in renal failure, we evaluated the effect of the antioxidant vitamin C on endothelium-dependent responses in both the conduit and resistance vasculature

Jenny M Cross; Ann E Donald; Sarah L Nuttall; John E Deanfield; Robin G Woolfson; Raymond J Macallister

2003-01-01

293

Perturbative renormalization in parton distribution functions using overlap fermions and Symanzik improved gluons  

SciTech Connect

We calculate the 1-loop renormalization of the fermion self-energy, all local fermion bilinears, as well as a set of extended bilinears which form a basis corresponding to moments of the parton distribution functions. We use the overlap action for fermions and Symanzik improved action for gluons. Our results are presented as a function of the overlap parameter {rho} and the parameters entering the Symanzik action.

Ioannou, M.; Panagopoulos, H. [Department of Physics, University of Cyprus, Nicosia CY-1678 (Cyprus)

2006-03-01

294

Contribution of cross-functional teams to the improvement in operational performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of cross-functional teams in the alignment between system effectiveness and operational effectiveness after the implementation of enterprise information systems (EIS). In addition, it aims to explore the contribution of cross-functional teams to improvement in operational performance. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The research uses a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods,

Ricardo Santa; Mario Ferrer; Phil Bretherton; Paul Hyland

2010-01-01

295

A decentralized mechanism for improving the functional robustness of distribution networks.  

PubMed

Most real-world distribution systems can be modeled as distribution networks, where a commodity can flow from source nodes to sink nodes through junction nodes. One of the fundamental characteristics of distribution networks is the functional robustness, which reflects the ability of maintaining its function in the face of internal or external disruptions. In view of the fact that most distribution networks do not have any centralized control mechanisms, we consider the problem of how to improve the functional robustness in a decentralized way. To achieve this goal, we study two important problems: 1) how to formally measure the functional robustness, and 2) how to improve the functional robustness of a network based on the local interaction of its nodes. First, we derive a utility function in terms of network entropy to characterize the functional robustness of a distribution network. Second, we propose a decentralized network pricing mechanism, where each node need only communicate with its distribution neighbors by sending a "price" signal to its upstream neighbors and receiving "price" signals from its downstream neighbors. By doing so, each node can determine its outflows by maximizing its own payoff function. Our mathematical analysis shows that the decentralized pricing mechanism can produce results equivalent to those of an ideal centralized maximization with complete information. Finally, to demonstrate the properties of our mechanism, we carry out a case study on the U.S. natural gas distribution network. The results validate the convergence and effectiveness of our mechanism when comparing it with an existing algorithm. PMID:22547458

Shi, Benyun; Liu, Jiming

2012-04-25

296

High Resolution H? Images of the Binary Low-mass Proplyd LV 1 with the Magellan AO System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We utilize the new Magellan adaptive optics system (MagAO) to image the binary proplyd LV 1 in the Orion Trapezium at H?. This is among the first AO results in visible wavelengths. The H? image clearly shows the ionization fronts, the interproplyd shell, and the cometary tails. Our astrometric measurements find no significant relative motion between components over ~18 yr, implying that LV 1 is a low-mass system. We also analyze Large Binocular Telescope AO observations, and find a point source which may be the embedded protostar's photosphere in the continuum. Converting the H magnitudes to mass, we show that the LV 1 binary may consist of one very-low-mass star with a likely brown dwarf secondary, or even plausibly a double brown dwarf. Finally, the magnetopause of the minor proplyd is estimated to have a radius of 110 AU, consistent with the location of the bow shock seen in H?. This paper includes data gathered with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

Wu, Y.-L.; Close, L. M.; Males, J. R.; Follette, K.; Morzinski, K.; Kopon, D.; Rodigas, T. J.; Hinz, P.; Puglisi, A.; Esposito, S.; Pinna, E.; Riccardi, A.; Xompero, M.; Briguglio, R.

2013-09-01

297

Intracranial arachnoid cysts: impairment of higher cognitive functions and postoperative improvement  

PubMed Central

Background Intracranial arachnoid cysts have been shown to yield cognitive impairment over a range of basic mental functions, and these functions normalize after surgical cyst decompression. We wanted to investigate whether such cysts may also impair executive cognitive functions, and whether surgical cyst decompression leads to an improvement. Methods This study included 22 patients with arachnoid cysts and 13 control patients scheduled for low back surgery. All subjects were tested with Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS) tests, assessing executive function 1 day before surgery and a minimum of 3 months after surgery. The data were analyzed according to scaled score computations based on raw scores provided by D-KEFS, adjusted for age, gender, and educational norms. Results Preoperatively, the patients with cysts group performed worse than the control group in verbal knowledge, mental flexibility, inhibitory capacity, problem solving, and planning skills. Postoperatively, the patients with cysts group significantly improved performance and were no longer different from the control group in the following subtests: inhibition, inhibition/switching, letter fluency, category switching, and total switching accuracy. The patients with cysts group also significantly improved performance in color naming, category fluency, and in the Tower test, but nevertheless remained impaired at follow-up compared with the control group. The control group did not show a similar improvement, except for the Tower test. Cyst size or postoperative volume reduction did not correlate with cognitive performance or postoperative improvement. Patients with left-sided temporal cysts performed poorer than patients with right-sided cysts on a complex verbal task demanding mental flexibility. Conclusions Arachnoid cysts seem to impair not only basic cognition, but also executive functions. Most of this impairment appears to be reversible after surgical cyst decompression. These results may have implications for future preoperative considerations for patients with intracranial arachnoid cysts.

2013-01-01

298

Cardiac autonomic function in patients with diabetes improves with practice of comprehensive yogic breathing program  

PubMed Central

Background: The aim of this study was to observe the effect comprehensive yogic breathing (Sudarshan Kriya Yoga [SKY] and Pranayam) had on cardiac autonomic functions in patients with diabetes. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective randomized controlled intervention trial. Cardiac autonomic functions were assessed in 64 diabetics. Patients were randomized into two groups, one group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and the other group receiving standard therapy for diabetes and comprehensive yogic breathing program. Standard therapy included dietary advice, brisk walking for 45 min daily, and administration of oral antidiabetic drugs. Comprehensive yogic breathing program was introduced to the participants through a course of 12 h spread over 3 days. It was an interactive session in which SKY, a rhythmic cyclical breathing, preceded by Pranayam is taught under the guidance of a certified teacher. Cardiac autonomic function tests were done before and after 6 months of intervention. Results: In the intervention group, after practicing the breathing techniques for 6 months, the improvement in sympathetic functions was statistically significant (P 0.04). The change in sympathetic functions in the standard therapy group was not significant (P 0.75). Parasympathetic functions did not show any significant change in either group. When both parasympathetic and sympathetic cardiac autonomic functions were considered, there was a trend toward improvement in patients following comprehensive yogic breathing program (P 0.06). In the standard therapy group, no change in cardiac autonomic functions was noted (P 0.99). Conclusion: Cardiac autonomic functions improved in patients with diabetes on standard treatment who followed the comprehensive yogic breathing program compared to patients who were on standard therapy alone.

Jyotsna, Viveka P.; Ambekar, Smita; Singla, Rajiv; Joshi, Ansumali; Dhawan, Anju; Kumar, Neeta; Deepak, K. K.; Sreenivas, V.

2013-01-01

299

Improvement of Eustachian Tube Function by Tissue-Engineered Regeneration of Mastoid Air Cells  

PubMed Central

Objectives/Hypothesis Most cases of chronic otitis media (OMC) are associated with poor development of the mastoid air cells (MACs) and poor Eustachian tube (ET) function. We have previously reported that MAC regeneration can effectively eliminate intractable OMC. In this study, we assessed the ability of regenerated MACs to restore normal gas exchange function and contribute to improved ET function. Study Design Clinical trial with control. Setting General hospitals. Materials and Methods Seventy-six patients with OMC, including cholesteatoma and adhesive otitis media, received tympanoplasty and MAC regeneration therapy. At the first-stage of tympanoplasty, artificial pneumatic bones and/or autologous bone fragments were implanted into the opened mastoid cavity. At the 2nd-stage operation, a nitrous oxide (N2O) gas study was performed in 10 patients to measure middle ear pressure (MEP). For the control group, MEP was measured in five patients with good MAC development during cochlear implantation or facial nerve decompression. ET function was measured twice in each patient, once before the 1st operation and 6 months after the second operation. Results At the 2nd-stage operation, in all cases with regenerated MACs and in the normal control group, MEP changed after administration of N2O. In contrast, no change in MEP was observed in cases with unregenerated MACs. In 70% (n = 37/53) of the regenerated MAC group, ET function was improved, whereas improvement of ET function was observed in only 13% (n = 3/23) of the unregenerated MAC group. Conclusions Tissue-engineered regeneration of MACs improves ET function and gas exchange in the middle ear. Laryngoscope, 2012 Level of Evidence 3b

Kanemaru, Shin-ichi; Umeda, Hiroo; Yamashita, Masaru; Hiraumi, Harukazu; Hirano, Shigeru; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Ito, Juichi

2013-01-01

300

Weak Convergence and Banach Space-Valued Functions: Improving the Stability Theory of Feynman's Operational Calculi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we investigate the relation between weak convergence of a sequence left\\{ ?nright\\} of probability measures on a Polish space S converging weakly to the probability measure ? and continuous, norm-bounded functions into a Banach space X. We show that, given a norm-bounded continuous function f: S? X, it follows that lim_{ntoinfty}intSf d?n=intSf d?—the limit one has for bounded and continuous real (or complex)—valued functions on S. This result is then applied to the stability theory of Feynman's operational calculus where it is shown that the theory can be significantly improved over previous results.

Nielsen, Lance

2011-12-01

301

Ingestion of Broccoli Sprouts Does Not Improve Endothelial Function in Humans with Hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ingestion of glucosinolates has previously been reported to improve endothelial function in spontaneously hypertensive rats, possibly because of an increase in NO availability in the endothelium due to an attenuation of oxidative stress; in our study we tried to see if this also would be the case in humans suffering from essential hypertension.Methods40 hypertensive individuals without diabetes and with normal

Buris Christiansen; Natalia Bellostas Muguerza; Atheline Major Petersen; Britt Kveiborg; Christian Rask Madsen; Hermann Thomas; Nikolaj Ihlemann; Jens Christian Sørensen; Lars Køber; Hilmer Sørensen; Christian Torp-Pedersen; Helena Domínguez

2010-01-01

302

Animal Source Foods to Improve Micronutrient Nutrition and Human Function in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous longitudinal three-country study in Egypt, Kenya and Mexico found significant positive associations between intake of animal source foods (ASF) and growth, cognitive development and physical activity. To test for a causal relationship, a controlled school feeding intervention study was designed to test the hypotheses that ASF would improve micronutrient status, growth and cognitive function in Kenyan primary school

Charlotte G. Neumann; Nimrod O. Bwibo; Suzanne P. Murphy; Marian Sigman; Lindsay H. Allen; Donald Guthrie; Montague W. Demment

303

Does Folic Acid Decrease Plasma Homocysteine and Improve Endothelial Function in Patients With Predialysis Renal Failure?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Considerable evidence suggests that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent vascular risk factor that promotes atherosclerosis by inducing endothelial dysfunction. Although folic acid reduces hyperhomocysteinemia, the effect on adverse vascular events is unknown. We hypothesized that in patients with chronic renal failure, a condition associated with both hyperhomocysteinemia and atherosclerosis, treatment with folic acid would improve endothelial function. Methods and Results—In a

J. Thambyrajah; M. J. Landray; F. J. McGlynn; H. J. Jones; D. C. Wheeler; J. N. Townend

2010-01-01

304

PPAR Agonist Rosiglitazone Improves Vascular Function and Lowers Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Transgenic Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) agonist rosiglitazone has been reported to yield cardiovascular benefits in patients by a mechanism that is not completely understood. We tested whether oral rosiglitazone (25 mg\\/kg per day, 21 days) treatment improves blood pressure and vascular function in a transgenic mouse expressing both human renin and human angiotensinogen transgenes (RA). Rosiglitazone decreased systolic (1385

Michael J. Ryan; Sean P. Didion; Satya Mathur; Frank M. Faraci; Curt D. Sigmund

305

Playing Piano Can Improve Upper Extremity Function after Stroke: Case Studies  

PubMed Central

Music-supported therapy (MST) is an innovative approach that was shown to improve manual dexterity in acute stroke survivors. The feasibility of such intervention in chronic stroke survivors and its longer-term benefits, however, remain unknown. The objective of this pilot study was to estimate the short- and long-term effects of a 3-week piano training program on upper extremity function in persons with chronic stroke. A multiple pre-post sequential design was used, with measurements taken at baseline (week0, week3), prior to (week6) and after the intervention (week9), and at 3-week follow-up (week12). Three persons with stroke participated in the 3-week piano training program that combined structured piano lessons to home practice program. The songs, played on an electronic keyboard, involved all 5 digits of the affected hand and were displayed using a user-friendly MIDI program. After intervention, all the three participants showed improvements in their fine (nine hole peg test) and gross (box and block test) manual dexterity, as well as in the functional use of the upper extremity (Jebsen hand function test). Improvements were maintained at follow-up. These preliminary results support the feasibility of using an MST approach that combines structured lessons to home practice to improve upper extremity function in chronic stroke.

Villeneuve, Myriam; Lamontagne, Anouk

2013-01-01

306

An evaluation of functional improvement following surgical corrections of severe burn scar contracture in the axilla  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report present an evaluation 13 consecutive cases of severe burn scar contracture of the axilla and investigates the factors that influence functional improvement. The operation was performed at various times during the period from 3 months to 63 years after the initial burn wound healed. The active range of shoulder abduction before the operation in these patients was restricted

Aya Tanaka; Mitsuo Hatoko; Hideyuki Tada; Masamitsu Kuwahara

2003-01-01

307

Simultaneous effects of functional involvement and improvement programs on manufacturing and financial performance in Chinese firms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the simultaneous effects of two process variables: functional involvement in strategy formulation, and manufacturing improvement programs, on manufacturing performance and financial performance of manufacturing firms in China. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Rigorous empirical research methods are used to ensure proper data collection process, and reliability and validity of constructs. Structural equation modeling

Yinan Qi; Chee-Chuong Sum; Xiande Zhao

2009-01-01

308

Improvement of Processing Speed in Executive Function Immediately following an Increase in Cardiovascular Activity  

PubMed Central

This study aims to identify the acute effects of physical exercise on specific cognitive functions immediately following an increase in cardiovascular activity. Stair-climbing exercise is used to increase the cardiovascular output of human subjects. The color-naming Stroop Test was used to identify the cognitive improvements in executive function with respect to processing speed and error rate. The study compared the Stroop results before and immediately after exercise and before and after nonexercise, as a control. The results show that there is a significant increase in processing speed and a reduction in errors immediately after less than 30?min of aerobic exercise. The improvements are greater for the incongruent than for the congruent color tests. This suggests that physical exercise induces a better performance in a task that requires resolving conflict (or interference) than a task that does not. There is no significant improvement for the nonexercise control trials. This demonstrates that an increase in cardiovascular activity has significant acute effects on improving the executive function that requires conflict resolution (for the incongruent color tests) immediately following aerobic exercise more than similar executive functions that do not require conflict resolution or involve the attention-inhibition process (for the congruent color tests).

Tam, Nicoladie D.

2013-01-01

309

Integrating Function Point Project Information for Improving the Accuracy of Effort Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software organizations are putting efforts to improve the accuracy of the project cost estimation. This in turn helps them to allocate resources. Software cost estimation has been an area of key interest in software engineering community. Many estimation models divided among various categories have been proposed over a period of time. Function Point (FP) is one of the useful software

Faheem Ahmed; Salah Bouktif; Adel Serhani; Issa Khalil

2008-01-01

310

Cardiovascular response to functional electrical stimulation and dynamic tilt table therapy to improve orthostatic tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthostatic hypotension is a common condition for individuals with stroke or spinal cord injury. The inability to regulate the central nervous system will result in pooling of blood in the lower extremities leading to orthostatic intolerance. This study compared the use of functional electrical stimulation (FES) and passive leg movements to improve orthostatic tolerance during head-up tilt. Four trial conditions

Lorne Chi; Kei Masani; Masae Miyatani; T. Adam Thrasher; K. Wayne Johnston; Alexandra Mardimae; Cathie Kessler; Joseph A. Fisher; Milos R. Popovic

2008-01-01

311

Cardiovascular response to functional electrical stimulation and dynamic tilt table therapy to improve orthostatic tolerance q  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthostatic hypotension is a common condition for individuals with stroke or spinal cord injury. The inability to regulate the central nervous system will result in pooling of blood in the lower extremities leading to orthostatic intolerance. This study compared the use of functional electrical stimulation (FES) and passive leg movements to improve orthostatic tolerance during head-up tilt. Four trial con-

Lorne Chi; Kei Masani; Masae Miyatani; T. Adam Thrasher; K. Wayne Johnston; Alexandra Mardimae; Cathie Kessler; Joseph A. Fisher; Milos R. Popovic

312

Comparative effects of propranolol and verapamil alone and in combination on left ventricular function and volumes in patients with chronic exertional angina: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study with radionuclide ventriculography  

SciTech Connect

With the use of equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography the effects on left ventricular (LV) function of 160 mg oral propranolol daily and 360 mg verapamil daily alone and in combination were compared in 18 patients with chronic exertional angina. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover protocol was used. The reduction in exercise rate-pressure product induced by the combination (118 +/- 28 mm Hg/min) was significantly greater than that by propranolol (135 +/- 27 mm Hg/min) or verapamil alone (163 +/- 28 mm Hg/min). In patients at rest, neither single nor combined therapy altered global or regional left ventricular ejection fractions (EFs). Verapamil, but not propranolol, increased cardiac volumes of resting subjects; used in combination, no further increase in LV volume occurred. With placebo, exercise global EF did not decrease from the level at rest and therefore no drug effect could be demonstrated for this parameter of LV function. By an evaluation of normalized regional EF measurements the combination was shown to reduce exercise-induced hypokinesis (placebo 52 +/- 20%, combination 61 +/- 23%. No significant improvement was noted with propranolol or verapamil alone; only the combination prevented a significant increase in end-systolic and end-diastolic volumes during exercise. Thus, propranolol and verapamil, used alone in moderate doses, exert no beneficial effect on exercise LV function as measured by EF and volume changes, and resting function deteriorates slightly with verapamil.

Johnston, D.L.; Gebhardt, V.A.; Donald, A.; Kostuk, W.J.

1983-12-01

313

Hibernating myocardium: clinical and functional response to revascularisation 1 Presented at the 10th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery, Prague, Czech Republic, 6–9 October 1996. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We assessed the effects of coronary bypass grafting on left ventricular (LV) function, exercise capacity and symptom profile in patients with LV impairment and evaluated the role of identifying myocardial hibernation in a prospective non-randomised study. Methods: Of 120 patients screened, 47 patients with LV ejection fraction <35% and three vessel coronary artery disease were studied. All underwent stress\\/redistribution

M. G. Gunning; T. P. Chua; D. Harrington; C. J. Knight; E. Burman; D. J. Pennell; J. Pepper; K. Fox; S. R. Underwood

1997-01-01

314

Improving the prediction of yeast protein function using weighted protein-protein interactions  

PubMed Central

Background Bioinformatics can be used to predict protein function, leading to an understanding of cellular activities, and equally-weighted protein-protein interactions (PPI) are normally used to predict such protein functions. The present study provides a weighting strategy for PPI to improve the prediction of protein functions. The weights are dependent on the local and global network topologies and the number of experimental verification methods. The proposed methods were applied to the yeast proteome and integrated with the neighbour counting method to predict the functions of unknown proteins. Results A new technique to weight interactions in the yeast proteome is presented. The weights are related to the network topology (local and global) and the number of identified methods, and the results revealed improvement in the sensitivity and specificity of prediction in terms of cellular role and cellular locations. This method (new weights) was compared with a method that utilises interactions with the same weight and it was shown to be superior. Conclusions A new method for weighting the interactions in protein-protein interaction networks is presented. Experimental results concerning yeast proteins demonstrated that weighting interactions integrated with the neighbor counting method improved the sensitivity and specificity of prediction in terms of two functional categories: cellular role and cell locations.

2011-01-01

315

Improving Function in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Design and Methods of a Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe vision loss in older adults and impairs the ability to read, drive, and live independently and increases the risk for depression, falls, and earlier mortality. Although new medical treatments have improved AMD’s prognosis, vision-related disability remains a major public health problem. Improving Function in AMD (IF-AMD) is a two-group randomized, parallel design, controlled clinical trial that compares the efficacy of Problem-Solving Therapy (PST) with Supportive Therapy (ST) (an attention control treatment) to improve vision function in 240 patients with AMD. PST and ST therapists deliver 6 one-hour respective treatment sessions to subjects in their homes over 2 months. Outcomes are assessed masked to treatment assignment at 3 months (main trial endpoint) and 6 months (maintenance effects). The primary outcome is targeted vision function (TVF), which refers to specific vision-dependent functional goals that subjects highly value but find difficult to achieve. TVF is an innovative outcome measure in that it is targeted and tailored to individual subjects yet is measured in a standardized way. This paper describes the research methods, theoretical and clinical aspects of the study treatments, and the measures used to evaluate functional and psychiatric outcomes in this population.

Rovner, Barry W.; Casten, Robin J.; Hegel, Mark T.; Massof, Robert W.; Leiby, Benjamin E.; Tasman, William S.

2010-01-01

316

Functional recovery of hibernating myocardium after coronary bypass surgery: Does it coincide with improvement in perfusion  

SciTech Connect

To determine the relationship between functional recovery and improvement in perfusion after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG), 49 patients were studied. Radionuclide angiography was performed before, 1 month after, and 6 to 12 months after CABG to evaluate regional wall motion. Exercise thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging was done before and 1 month after CABG to assess regional perfusion. Preoperative asynergy was observed in 108 segments, and 74 of them showed an improvement in wall motion 1 month after CABG (segment A). Sixty-six of these segments (89%) were associated with an improvement in perfusion. Eight segments that had not improved 1 month after CABG demonstrated a delayed recovery of wall motion 6 to 12 months after CABG (segment B). However, seven of eight segments (88%) already showed an improvement in perfusion 1 month after CABG. A total of 82 segments exhibited functional recovery after CABG and were considered hibernating segments. In the preoperative study segment B more frequently had areas of akinesis or dyskinesis than segment A (75% vs 34%, p less than 0.05). The mean percent thallium-201 uptake in segment B was lower than that in segment A (74% {plus minus} 9% vs 83% {plus minus} 8%, p less than 0.05). Functional recovery of hibernating myocardium usually coincided with an improvement in perfusion. However, delayed functional recovery after reperfusion was observed in some instances. Severe asynergy and severe thallium-201 defects were more frequently observed in these segments with delayed recovery. Hibernating myocardium might remain stunned during those recovery periods.

Takeishi, Y.; Tono-oka, I.; Kubota, I.; Ikeda, K.; Masakane, I.; Chiba, J.; Abe, S.; Tsuiki, K.; Komatani, A.; Yamaguchi, I. (First Department of Internal Medicine, Yamagata University School of Medicine (Japan))

1991-09-01

317

Improving the charge density normalization in Korringa Kohn Rostoker Green-function calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The truncation of angular momentum expansions in the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green-function method introduces a charge normalization error and disallows calculation of the Fermi level and the charge density in a consistent manner. It is shown how this error can be compensated by Lloyd's formula, in particular if this formula is applied to normalize the Green function everywhere along the complex energy contour used for the integration of the charge density. The advantages of the improved normalization over the conventional one are illustrated by density-functional calculations for CrAs, the dilute magnetic semiconductor Ga1-xMnxN and a Si12Fe8 multilayer. It is shown that only the improved normalization leads to correct integer values of the magnetic moments in the half-metallic state of CrAs and Ga1-xMnxN and to a correct band alignment of Fe and Si states in the multilayer.

Zeller, Rudolf

2008-01-01

318

Neurologic music therapy improves executive function and emotional adjustment in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation.  

PubMed

This study examined the immediate effects of neurologic music therapy (NMT) on cognitive functioning and emotional adjustment with brain-injured persons. Four treatment sessions were held, during which participants were given a pre-test, participated in 30 min of NMT that focused on one aspect of rehabilitation (attention, memory, executive function, or emotional adjustment), which was followed by post-testing. Control participants engaged in a pre-test, 30 min of rest, and then a post-test. Treatment participants showed improvement in executive function and overall emotional adjustment, and lessening of depression, sensation seeking, and anxiety. Control participants improved in emotional adjustment and lessening of hostility, but showed decreases in measures of memory, positive affect, and sensation seeking. PMID:19673815

Thaut, Michael H; Gardiner, James C; Holmberg, Dawn; Horwitz, Javan; Kent, Luanne; Andrews, Garrett; Donelan, Beth; McIntosh, Gerald R

2009-07-01

319

Recent trends in robot-assisted therapy environments to improve real-life functional performance after stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Upper and lower limb robotic tools for neuro-rehabilitation are effective in reducing motor impairment but they are limited in their ability to improve real world function. There is a need to improve functional outcomes after robot-assisted therapy. Improvements in the effectiveness of these environments may be achieved by incorporating into their design and control strategies important elements key to inducing

Michelle J Johnson; Clement J. Zablocki

2006-01-01

320

Effects of recanalisation on global left ventricular function in acute myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

302 patients (pts) with acute myocardial infarction (MI) were enrolled in a multicentre trial, comparing conventional treatment (C) with attempted recanalisation by intracoronary streptokinase (SK). Out of 153 pts allocated to SK 17 refused intervention. The infarct related vessel was patent in 26 pts, recanalisation was achieved in 87 out of 110 pts with an occluded vessel. Median interval between onset of symptoms and recanalization was 220 minutes. Data were analyzed according to the original treatment allocation. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was measured by radionuclide angiography within 48 hours in 232 pts, at 2 weeks in 179 pts and after 3 months in 128 pts. Paired data both within 48 hours and at 2 weeks were available in 152 pts. Global LV function remains unchanged C between 48 hr and at 3 months. Recanalisation by earlier intracoronary SK improves global LV function at 2 weeks in inferior MI and both at 2 weeks and 3 months in anterior MI.

van der Wall, E.E.; Res, J.; Verheugt, F.W.A.; Simoons, M.L.; Wijns, W.; Braat, S.; de Zwaan, C.; Remme, P.; Vermeer, F.

1985-05-01

321

Transplantation of neuronal and glial precursors dramatically improves sensorimotor function but not cognitive function in the traumatically injured brain.  

PubMed

Embryonic stem (ES) cells have been investigated in various animal models of neurodegenerative disease; however, few studies have examined the ability of ES cells to improve functional outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The purpose of the present study was to examine the ability of pre-differentiated murine ES cells (neuronal and glial precursors) to improve functional outcome. Rats were prepared with a unilateral controlled cortical impact injury or sham and then transplanted 7 days later with 100K ES cells (WW6G) (~30% neurons) or media. Two days following transplantation rats were tested on a battery of behavioral tests. It was found that transplantation of ES cells improved behavioral outcome by reducing the initial magnitude of the deficit on the bilateral tactile removal and locomotor placing tests. ES cells also induced almost complete recovery on the vibrissae --> forelimb placing test, whereas, media-transplanted rats failed to show recovery. Acquisition of a reference memory task in the Morris water maze was not improved by transplantation of ES cells. Histological analysis revealed a large number of surviving ES cells in the lesion cavity and showed migration of ES cells into subcortical structures. It was found that transplantation of ES cells prevented the occurrence of multiple small necrotic cavities that were seen in the cortex adjacent to the lesion cavity in media transplanted rats. Additionally, ES cells transplants also significantly reduced lesion size. Results of this study suggest that ES cells that have been pre-differentiated into neuronal precursors prior to transplantation have therapeutic potential. PMID:15000757

Hoane, Michael R; Becerra, G Daniel; Shank, J Elizabeth; Tatko, Lisa; Pak, Elena S; Smith, Michael; Murashov, Alexander K

2004-02-01

322

The effect of hydrogel injection on cardiac function and myocardial mechanics in a computational post-infarction model.  

PubMed

An emerging therapy to limit adverse heart remodelling following myocardial infarction (MI) is the injection of polymers into the infarcted left ventricle (LV). In the few numerical studies carried out in this field, the definition and distribution of the hydrogel in the infarcted myocardium were simplified. In this computational study, a more realistic biomaterial distribution was simulated after which the effect on cardiac function and mechanics was studied. A validated finite element heart model was used in which an antero-apical infarct was defined. Four infarct models were created representing different temporal phases in the progression of a MI. Hydrogel layers were simulated in the infarcted myocardium in each model. Biomechanical and functional improvement of the LV was found after hydrogel inclusion in the ischaemic models representing the early phases of MI. In contrast, only functional but no mechanical restitution was shown in the scar model due to hydrogel presence. PMID:22439799

Kortsmit, Jeroen; Davies, Neil H; Miller, Renee; Macadangdang, Jesse R; Zilla, Peter; Franz, Thomas

2012-03-22

323

Aerobic exercise improves hippocampal function and increases BDNF in the serum of young adult males.  

PubMed

Physical activity has been reported to improve cognitive function in humans and rodents, possibly via a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-regulated mechanism. In this study of human subjects, we have assessed the effects of acute and chronic exercise on performance of a face-name matching task, which recruits the hippocampus and associated structures of the medial temporal lobe, and the Stroop word-colour task, which does not, and have assessed circulating concentrations of BDNF and IGF-1 in parallel. The results show that a short period of high-intensity cycling results in enhancements in performance of the face-name matching, but not the Stroop, task. These changes in cognitive function were paralleled by increased concentration of BDNF, but not IGF-1, in the serum of exercising subjects. 3 weeks of cycling training had no effect on cardiovascular fitness, as assessed by VO2 scores, cognitive function, or serum BDNF concentration. Increases in fitness, cognitive function and serum BDNF response to acute exercise were observed following 5 weeks of aerobic training. These data indicate that both acute and chronic exercise improve medial temporal lobe function concomitant with increased concentrations of BDNF in the serum, suggesting a possible functional role for this neurotrophic factor in exercise-induced cognitive enhancement in humans. PMID:21722657

Griffin, Éadaoin W; Mullally, Sinéad; Foley, Carole; Warmington, Stuart A; O'Mara, Shane M; Kelly, Aine M

2011-06-23

324

A Novel and Efficient Gene Transfer Strategy Reduces Glial Reactivity and Improves Neuronal Survival and Axonal Growth In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Background The lack of axonal regeneration in the central nervous system is attributed among other factors to the formation of a glial scar. This cellular structure is mainly composed of reactive astrocytes that overexpress two intermediate filament proteins, the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin. Indeed, in vitro, astrocytes lacking GFAP or both GFAP and vimentin were shown to be the substrate for increased neuronal plasticity. Moreover, double knockout mice lacking both GFAP and vimentin presented lower levels of glial reactivity in vivo, significant axonal regrowth and improved functional recovery in comparison with wild-type mice after spinal cord hemisection. From these results, our objective was to develop a novel therapeutic strategy for axonal regeneration, based on the targeted suppression of astroglial reactivity and scarring by lentiviral-mediated RNA-interference (RNAi). Methods and Findings In this study, we constructed two lentiviral vectors, Lv-shGFAP and Lv-shVIM, which allow efficient and stable RNAi-mediated silencing of endogenous GFAP or vimentin in vitro. In cultured cortical and spinal reactive astrocytes, the use of these vectors resulted in a specific, stable and highly significant decrease in the corresponding protein levels. In a second model — scratched primary cultured astrocytes — Lv-shGFAP, alone or associated with Lv-shVIM, decreased astrocytic reactivity and glial scarring. Finally, in a heterotopic coculture model, cortical neurons displayed higher survival rates and increased neurite growth when cultured with astrocytes in which GFAP and vimentin had been invalidated by lentiviral-mediated RNAi. Conclusions Lentiviral-mediated knockdown of GFAP and vimentin in astrocytes show that GFAP is a key target for modulating reactive gliosis and monitoring neuron/glia interactions. Thus, manipulation of reactive astrocytes with the Lv-shGFAP vector constitutes a promising therapeutic strategy for increasing glial permissiveness and permitting axonal regeneration after central nervous system lesions.

Desclaux, Mathieu; Teigell, Marisa; Amar, Lahouari; Vogel, Roland; Gimenez y Ribotta, Minerva; Privat, Alain; Mallet, Jacques

2009-01-01

325

Enhanced response inhibition during intensive meditation training predicts improvements in self-reported adaptive socioemotional functioning.  

PubMed

We examined the impact of training-induced improvements in self-regulation, operationalized in terms of response inhibition, on longitudinal changes in self-reported adaptive socioemotional functioning. Data were collected from participants undergoing 3 months of intensive meditation training in an isolated retreat setting (Retreat 1) and a wait-list control group that later underwent identical training (Retreat 2). A 32-min response inhibition task (RIT) was designed to assess sustained self-regulatory control. Adaptive functioning (AF) was operationalized as a single latent factor underlying self-report measures of anxious and avoidant attachment, mindfulness, ego resilience, empathy, the five major personality traits (extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience), difficulties in emotion regulation, depression, anxiety, and psychological well-being. Participants in Retreat 1 improved in RIT performance and AF over time whereas the controls did not. The control participants later also improved on both dimensions during their own retreat (Retreat 2). These improved levels of RIT performance and AF were sustained in follow-up assessments conducted approximately 5 months after the training. Longitudinal dynamic models with combined data from both retreats showed that improvement in RIT performance during training influenced the change in AF over time, which is consistent with a key claim in the Buddhist literature that enhanced capacity for self-regulation is an important precursor of changes in emotional well-being. PMID:21500899

Sahdra, Baljinder K; MacLean, Katherine A; Ferrer, Emilio; Shaver, Phillip R; Rosenberg, Erika L; Jacobs, Tonya L; Zanesco, Anthony P; King, Brandon G; Aichele, Stephen R; Bridwell, David A; Mangun, George R; Lavy, Shiri; Wallace, B Alan; Saron, Clifford D

2011-04-01

326

Chronic activation of a designer G(q)-coupled receptor improves ? cell function.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has emerged as a major threat to human health in most parts of the world. Therapeutic strategies aimed at improving pancreatic ? cell function are predicted to prove beneficial for the treatment of T2D. In the present study, we demonstrate that drug-mediated, chronic, and selective activation of ? cell G(q) signaling greatly improve ? cell function and glucose homeostasis in mice. These beneficial metabolic effects were accompanied by the enhanced expression of many genes critical for ? cell function, maintenance, and differentiation. By employing a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches, we identified a novel ? cell pathway through which receptor-activated G(q) leads to the sequential activation of ERK1/2 and IRS2 signaling, thus triggering a series of events that greatly improve ? cell function. Importantly, we found that chronic stimulation of a designer G(q)-coupled receptor selectively expressed in ? cells prevented both streptozotocin-induced diabetes and the metabolic deficits associated with the consumption of a high-fat diet in mice. Since ? cells are endowed with numerous receptors that mediate their cellular effects via activation of G(q)-type G proteins, our findings provide a rational basis for the development of novel antidiabetic drugs targeting this class of receptors. PMID:23478411

Jain, Shalini; Ruiz de Azua, Inigo; Lu, Huiyan; White, Morris F; Guettier, Jean-Marc; Wess, Jürgen

2013-03-08

327

Chronic activation of a designer Gq-coupled receptor improves ? cell function  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has emerged as a major threat to human health in most parts of the world. Therapeutic strategies aimed at improving pancreatic ? cell function are predicted to prove beneficial for the treatment of T2D. In the present study, we demonstrate that drug-mediated, chronic, and selective activation of ? cell Gq signaling greatly improve ? cell function and glucose homeostasis in mice. These beneficial metabolic effects were accompanied by the enhanced expression of many genes critical for ? cell function, maintenance, and differentiation. By employing a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches, we identified a novel ? cell pathway through which receptor-activated Gq leads to the sequential activation of ERK1/2 and IRS2 signaling, thus triggering a series of events that greatly improve ? cell function. Importantly, we found that chronic stimulation of a designer Gq-coupled receptor selectively expressed in ? cells prevented both streptozotocin-induced diabetes and the metabolic deficits associated with the consumption of a high-fat diet in mice. Since ? cells are endowed with numerous receptors that mediate their cellular effects via activation of Gq-type G proteins, our findings provide a rational basis for the development of novel antidiabetic drugs targeting this class of receptors.

Jain, Shalini; de Azua, Inigo Ruiz; Lu, Huiyan; White, Morris F.; Guettier, Jean-Marc; Wess, Jurgen

2013-01-01

328

Functional improvements desired by patients before and in the first year after total hip arthroplasty  

PubMed Central

Background In the field of rehabilitation, patients are supposed to be experts on their own lives, but the patient’s own desires in this respect are often not reported. Our objectives were to describe the patients’ desires regarding functional improvements before and after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Methods Sixty-four patients, 34 women and 30 men, with a mean age of 65 years, were asked to describe in free text which physical functions they desired to improve. They were asked before surgery and at three and 12 months after surgery. Each response signified one desired improvement. The responses were coded according to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) to the 1st, 2nd and 3rd category levels. The frequency of the codes was calculated as a percentage of the total number of responses of all assessments times and in percentage of each time of assessment. Results A total of 333 responses were classified under Part 1 of the ICF, Functioning and Disability, and 88% of the responses fell into the Activities and Participation component. The numbers of responses classified into the Activities and Participation component were decreasing over time (p < 0.001). The categories of Walking (d450), Moving around (d455), and Recreation and leisure (d920) included more than half of the responses at all the assessment times. At three months after surgery, there was a trend that fewer responses were classified into the Recreation and leisure category, while more responses were classified into the category of Dressing (d540). Conclusions The number of functional improvements desired by the patients decreased during the first postoperative year, while the content of the desires before and one year after THA were rather consistent over time and mainly concerned with the ability to walk and participate in recreation and leisure activities. At three months, however, there was a tendency that the patients were more concerned about the immediate problems with putting on socks and shoes.

2013-01-01

329

Sildenafil citrate improves erectile function after castration in a rat model.  

PubMed

TAKE HOME MESSAGE: The administration of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor commencing at the time of castration might preserve erectile function. OBJECTIVE: To determine if sildenafil citrate treatment could improve erectile function after castration. To determine if sildenafil citrate treatment reduces collagenisation and apoptosis in erectile tissue after castration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In all, 60 Sprague-Dawley rats were studied; the rats were divided into the following groups: sham - no orchidectomy (S), control - orchidectomy only (O) and treatment - orchidectomy plus sildenafil treatment (V), with 10 rats per group. Erectile haemodynamics assessment was done at 7 days (S7, O7, V7) and at 28 days (S28, O28, V28) yielding a total of six groupings. Functional assessment measured the mean maximum intracavernosal pressure-mean arterial pressure (ICP/MAP) ratio. TUNEL assay was used to define apoptotic indices (AIs) and Masson's trichrome staining was used to evaluate smooth muscle-collagen (SM-C) ratios. RESULTS: The S28 group had the highest and the O7 group the lowest ICP/MAP ratio, at a mean (sd) of 70 (6)% and 36 (6)%, respectively. Both treatment groups, V7 [42 (12)%] and V28 [49 (13)%] showed statistically significant improvements over their corresponding control groups: O7 [36 (6)%] and O28 [37 (9)%] (P < 0.05). However, ICP/MAP values for V7 and V28 remained significantly below the S28 group (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in ICP/MAP values between the 28-day and 7-day ICP/MAP ratios within each group (S, O, V). There were no significant differences in SM-C ratio between the O and V groups (O7 vs V7, P = 0.45; O28 vs V28, P = 0.16). There were no significant differences in AIs between the O and V groups (O7 vs V7, P = 0.54; O28 vs V28, P = 0.8). CONCLUSIONS: Daily treatment with sildenafil improved erectile function in rats after castration. ICP/MAP ratios increased significantly in the treatment groups compared with the control groups with the greatest erectile function occurring 28 days from administration. In this series of experiments the improved erectile function recovery with sildenafil after surgical castration cannot be explained by smooth muscle protection and decreased collagenisation. The improved erectile function with sildenafil after surgical castration cannot be explained by reduced apoptosis in erectile tissue. PMID:23773301

Mulhall, John P; Verma, Nipun; Deveci, Serkan; Tal, Raanan; Kobylarz, Keith; Müller, Alexander

2013-06-14

330

Physical improvements to the solar wind reconnection control function for the Earth's magnetosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a 2008 publication a first principles calculation of the dayside reconnection rate expressed in terms of upstream-solar wind parameters led to a rudimentary solar wind coupling function R1 for the Earth's magnetosphere. Four improvements to that derivation are added in the present paper, resulting in a more correct solar wind control function describing the rate at which solar wind magnetic field lines connect into the Earth's magnetosphere. The first is the inclusion of the effect of ?-dependent plasma compressibility on the reconnection rate. The second is a corrected calculation of the inflow of magnetic field lines into the reconnection X-line. The third is a more accurate estimate of the orientation of the reconnection X-line for asymmetric reconnection. The fourth correction accounts for the compression ratio of the Earth's bow shock for arbitrary orientation of the solar wind magnetic field. Two solar wind control functions result: one function, R2CS, is based on the Cassak-Shay equation and another function, R2CSB, is based on the Cassak-Shay-Birn equation. The control functions are tested using solar wind measurements and geomagnetic indices from 1980 to 2012, and some improved correlation coefficients over the rudimentary function R1 are found. Simplified approximations to the new control functions are supplied: one is R2CS-approx = 1.68 × 10-2 sin2(?/2)no1/2vo2MA-0.3044exp(-[MA/3.18]1/2), where the subscript "o" denotes the solar wind upstream of the bow shock and MA is the solar wind Alfvén Mach number.

Borovsky, Joseph E.

2013-05-01

331

Modifying expression of EphA4 and its downstream targets improves functional recovery after stroke.  

PubMed

Functional recovery after stroke varies greatly between patients, potentially due to differences in gene expression. Several processes like angiogenesis, neurogenesis, axonal reorganization and synaptic plasticity act in concert to restore neurological functions. The ephrin family has known roles in all these processes. EphA4 is the most abundant ephrin receptor in the nervous system. Therefore, we investigated whether EphA4 affects functional recovery from stroke, and evaluated the potential of this receptor as a therapeutic target. Motor recovery after photothrombotic stroke was studied in transgenic mice in which expression of EphA4 was reduced. Furthermore, blocking a downstream target of EphA4, ROCK (Rho-associated kinase), by two different compounds was evaluated in the same model. Motor recovery after photothrombotic stroke was markedly enhanced in transgenic mice with reduced levels of EphA4, whereas infarct sizes were similar compared with non-transgenic controls. Pharmacological inhibition of the EphA4 signaling cascade using two ROCK inhibitors,Y-27632 and fasudil, improved motor function of mice after stroke. Infarct size was comparable in all groups studied, suggesting that the benefit obtained by EphA4 inhibition is not neuroprotective in nature but due to an effect on the mechanisms underlying recovery. Our findings show that reduction of EphA4 improves motor function after experimental stroke and demonstrate that ROCK inhibition is a promising therapeutic strategy to enhance recovery after ischemic stroke. PMID:23418304

Lemmens, Robin; Jaspers, Tom; Robberecht, Wim; Thijs, Vincent N

2013-02-14

332

[An outstanding feature of traditional Chinese medicine: improving local pathology by regulating holistic function].  

PubMed

Holistic conception reflects that "Syndrome" summarizes all aspects and conditions related to occurrence of disease referring to different constitutions. "Treatment according to syndrome differentiation" improves local pathological changes through regulating holistic function, which is the practical application of holistic conception and an outstanding feature of TCM. According to syndrome differentiation, treatment shows favorable effects on local pathological changes as restenosis after coronary artery intervention therapy, excessive inflammation, vascular endothelial injury in coronary artery disease and hypoadrenocortical function with drugs for promoting blood to remove blood stasis, clearing heat and detoxifying toxin, and warming Shen-yang, and aromatic drugs for warming meridian to dredge obstruction. PMID:17205828

Shen, Zi-Yin

2006-12-01

333

Randomised control trial of tongue acupuncture versus sham acupuncture in improving functional outcome in cerebral palsy  

PubMed Central

Methods: A randomised control trial was conducted to assess the effect of tongue acupuncture (TAC) in 33 CP children. The subjects were randomised to treatment (n = 22) with TAC or control (n = 11). Clinical outcome was evaluated using the gross motor function measure (GMFM) and the pediatric evaluation of disability inventory (PEDI). Results: The increase in mean GMFM score was significantly greater in the treatment than in the control group (p = 0.042). Conclusion: An improvement in motor function of CP subjects is seen following a short course of acupuncture.

Sun, J; Ko, C; Wong, V; Sun, X

2004-01-01

334

Beneficial health properties of psyllium and approaches to improve its functionalities.  

PubMed

Psyllium is an excellent dietary source for both soluble and insoluble fibers and has been used in supplemental and food products for its beneficial health effects. The strong water-absorbing and gelling capacities have made it a great challenge to incorporate psyllium in foods at the level needed to claim health benefits on the label. This review is focused on the approaches to improve the functionality, sensory property, and bioactivity of psyllium. Also included is a brief summary of the health beneficial effects of psyllium, along with its possible adverse effects. The information may be useful for those in psyllium research and functional food development. PMID:18772105

Yu, Liangli Lucy; Lutterodt, Herman; Cheng, Zhihong

2009-01-01

335

Improvement of the poly-3-hexylthiophene transistor performance using small molecule contact functionalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate an approach to improve poly-3-hexylthiophene field effect transistors by modifying the gold contacts with monolayer thick pentacenequinone (PQ) or naphthalene (NL). The effective contact resistance is reduced by a factor of two and sixteen for interlayers of PQ and NL, respectively. The observation is attributed to different injection barriers at the metal-organic interface caused by the functionalization and to an additional tunneling barrier enhancing the on/off ratios. This barrier yields to activation energies of 37 meV (NL) and 104 meV (PQ) below 190 K, which are smaller than without functionalization, 117 meV.

Winter, Rebecca; Hammer, Maria S.; Deibel, Carsten; Pflaum, Jens

2009-12-01

336

DPP4-inhibitor improves neuronal insulin receptor function, brain mitochondrial function and cognitive function in rats with insulin resistance induced by high-fat diet consumption.  

PubMed

High-fat diet (HFD) consumption has been demonstrated to cause peripheral and neuronal insulin resistance, and brain mitochondrial dysfunction in rats. Although the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, vildagliptin, is known to improve peripheral insulin sensitivity, its effects on neuronal insulin resistance and brain mitochondrial dysfunction caused by a HFD are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that vildagliptin prevents neuronal insulin resistance, brain mitochondrial dysfunction, learning and memory deficit caused by HFD. Male rats were divided into two groups to receive either a HFD or normal diet (ND) for 12 weeks, after which rats in each group were fed with either vildagliptin (3 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 21 days. The cognitive function was tested by the Morris Water Maze prior to brain removal for studying neuronal insulin receptor (IR) and brain mitochondrial function. In HFD rats, neuronal insulin resistance and brain mitochondrial dysfunction were demonstrated, with impaired learning and memory. Vildagliptin prevented neuronal insulin resistance by restoring insulin-induced long-term depression and neuronal IR phosphorylation, IRS-1 phosphorylation and Akt/PKB-ser phosphorylation. It also improved brain mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive function. Vildagliptin effectively restored neuronal IR function, increased glucagon-like-peptide 1 levels and prevented brain mitochondrial dysfunction, thus attenuating the impaired cognitive function caused by HFD. PMID:23240760

Pipatpiboon, Noppamas; Pintana, Hiranya; Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

2012-12-12

337

The Small Molecule Wnt Signaling Modulator ICG-001 Improves Contractile Function in Chronically Infarcted Rat Myocardium.  

PubMed

The adult mammalian heart has limited capability for self-repair after myocardial infarction. Therefore, therapeutic strategies that improve post-infarct cardiac function are critically needed. The small molecule ICG-001 modulates Wnt signaling and increased the expression of genes beneficial for cardiac regeneration in epicardial cells. Lineage tracing experiments, demonstrated the importance of ?-catenin/p300 mediated transcription for epicardial progenitor contribution to the myocardium. Female rats given ICG-001 for 10 days post-occlusion significantly improved ejection fraction by 8.4%, compared to controls (P<0.05). Taken together, Wnt modulation via ?-catenin/CBP inhibition offers a promising therapeutic strategy towards restoration of myocardial tissues and an enhancement of cardiac functions following infarction. PMID:24069374

Sasaki, Tomoyo; Hwang, Hyosook; Nguyen, Cu; Kloner, Robert A; Kahn, Michael

2013-09-12

338

The Small Molecule Wnt Signaling Modulator ICG-001 Improves Contractile Function in Chronically Infarcted Rat Myocardium  

PubMed Central

The adult mammalian heart has limited capability for self-repair after myocardial infarction. Therefore, therapeutic strategies that improve post-infarct cardiac function are critically needed. The small molecule ICG-001 modulates Wnt signaling and increased the expression of genes beneficial for cardiac regeneration in epicardial cells. Lineage tracing experiments, demonstrated the importance of ?-catenin/p300 mediated transcription for epicardial progenitor contribution to the myocardium. Female rats given ICG-001 for 10 days post-occlusion significantly improved ejection fraction by 8.4%, compared to controls (P<0.05). Taken together, Wnt modulation via ?-catenin/CBP inhibition offers a promising therapeutic strategy towards restoration of myocardial tissues and an enhancement of cardiac functions following infarction.

Nguyen, Cu; Kloner, Robert A.; Kahn, Michael

2013-01-01

339

Longer Term Improvement in Neurocognitive Functioning and Affective Distress Among Methamphetamine Users Who Achieve Stable Abstinence  

PubMed Central

Chronic use of methamphetamine (MA) is associated with neuropsychological dysfunction and affective distress. Some normalization of function has been reported after abstinence, but little data is available on the possible added benefits of long-term sobriety. To address this, we performed detailed neuropsychological and affective evaluations in 83 MA-dependent individuals at a baseline visit and following an average one-year interval period. Among the 83 MA-dependent participants, 25 remained abstinent and 58 used MA at least once during the interval period. Thirty-eight non-MA-addicted, demographically matched healthy comparison (i.e., HC) participants were also examined. At baseline, both MA-dependent participants who were able to maintain abstinence and those who were not performed significantly worse than the healthy comparison subjects on global neuropsychological functioning and were significantly more distressed. At the one-year follow-up, both the long term abstainers and healthy comparison groups showed comparable global neuropsychological performance and affective distress levels, whereas the MA-dependent group who continued to use were worse than the comparison participants in terms of global neuropsychological functioning and affective distress. An interaction was observed between neuropsychological impairment at baseline, MA abstinence, and cognitive improvement, with abstinent MA-dependent participants who were neuropsychologically impaired at baseline demonstrating significantly and disproportionately greater improvement in processing speed and slightly greater improvement in motor abilities relative to the other participants. These results suggest partial recovery of neuropsychological functioning and improvement in affective distress upon sustained abstinence from MA that may extend beyond a year or more.

IUDICELLO, JENNIFER E.; WOODS, STEVEN PAUL; VIGIL, OFILIO; SCOTT, J. COBB; CHERNER, MARIANA; HEATON, ROBERT K.; ATKINSON, J. HAMPTON; GRANT, IGOR

2010-01-01

340

Plant sterols lower LDL cholesterol without improving endothelial function in prepubertal children with familial hypercholesterolaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In adults with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), cholesterol lowering with statins has been shown to improve the endothelial\\u000a function, a hallmark of early atherogenesis. Currently, therapeutic options for treating high cholesterol levels in FH children\\u000a are limited. Plant sterols safely and effectively reduce serum cholesterol concentrations by inhibiting cholesterol absorption.\\u000a Therefore, we evaluated the effect of plant sterols on cholesterol and

S. De Jongh; M. N. Vissers; P. Rol; H. D. Bakker; J. J. P. Kastelein; E. S. G. Stroes

2003-01-01

341

Enhanced Response Inhibition During Intensive Meditation Training Predicts Improvements in Self-Reported Adaptive Socioemotional Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the impact of training-induced improvements in self-regulation, operationalized in terms of response inhibition, on longitudinal changes in self-reported adaptive socioemotional functioning. Data were collected from participants undergoing 3 months of intensive meditation training in an isolated retreat setting (Retreat 1) and a wait-list control group that later underwent identical training (Retreat 2). A 32-min response inhibition task (RIT)

Baljinder K. Sahdra; Katherine A. MacLean; Emilio Ferrer; Phillip R. Shaver; Erika L. Rosenberg; Tonya L. Jacobs; Anthony P. Zanesco; Brandon G. King; Stephen R. Aichele; David A. Bridwell; George R. Mangun; Shiri Lavy; B. Alan Wallace; Clifford D. Saron

2011-01-01

342

Polymerization of soy protein digests by microbial transglutaminase for improvement of the functional properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protease- and acid-treated soy proteins were polymerized by microbial transglutaminase (TGase) in order to improve their functional properties. Although the protease digests and acid hydrolysates were considerably insoluble, the soy protein digests or hydrolysates polymerized by TGase were soluble, despite being composed of higher molecular weight fractions ((11.8–99.4) × 106) compared to that of the native soy protein (0.48

El Fadil E. Babiker; M. A. S. Khan; Naotoshi Matsudomi; Akio Kato

1996-01-01

343

Aerobic exercise improves hippocampal function and increases BDNF in the serum of young adult males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical activity has been reported to improve cognitive function in humans and rodents, possibly via a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-regulated mechanism. In this study of human subjects, we have assessed the effects of acute and chronic exercise on performance of a face–name matching task, which recruits the hippocampus and associated structures of the medial temporal lobe, and the Stroop word–colour

Éadaoin W. Griffin; Sinéad Mullally; Carole Foley; Stuart A. Warmington; Shane M. O'Mara; Áine M. Kelly

2011-01-01

344

Distraction osteogenesis to improve limb function in congenital bilateral humeroradioulnar synostosis.  

PubMed

Congenital bilateral humeroradioulnar fusion of the elbow is rare. Many patients tolerate unilateral elbow stiffness very well, but bilateral fixed elbows are very disabling. We report the management of a 13-year-old patient using the Ilizarov technique. The left elbow was ankylosed in 70 degrees flexion. It was gradually lengthened through an osteotomy across the fused elbow and flexed through the regenerate to 110 degrees. This has improved the function of the left arm. PMID:17260617

Kakarala, Gopikrishna; Kavarthapu, Venu; Lahoti, Om

2006-12-01

345

Improvement of cognitive functions in chronic schizophrenic patients by recombinant human erythropoietin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizophrenia is increasingly recognized as a neurodevelopmental disease with an additional degenerative component, comprising cognitive decline and loss of cortical gray matter. We hypothesized that a neuroprotective\\/neurotrophic add-on strategy, recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) in addition to stable antipsychotic medication, may be able to improve cognitive function even in chronic schizophrenic patients. Therefore, we designed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, multicenter, proof-of-principle

H Ehrenreich; D Hinze-Selch; S Stawicki; C Aust; S Knolle-Veentjer; S Wilms; G Heinz; S Erdag; H Jahn; D Degner; M Ritzen; A Mohr; M Wagner; U Schneider; M Bohn; M Huber; A Czernik; T Pollmächer; W Maier; A-L Sirén; J Klosterkötter; P Falkai; E Rüther; J B Aldenhoff; H Krampe

2007-01-01

346

RESISTANCE TRAINING IMPROVES METABOLIC ECONOMY DURING FUNCTIONAL TASKS IN OLDER ADULTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hartman, M.J., D.A. Fields, N.M. Byrne, and G.R. Hunter. Resistance training improves metabolic economy during functional tasks in older adults. J. Strength Cond. Res. 21(1):91- 95. 2007.—The purpose of this study was to determine the effect resistance training has on metabolic economy during typical ac- tivities of daily living in a geriatric population. Twenty-nine men and women (age: 66.7 4.4

MICHAEL J. HARTMAN; DAVID A. FIELDS; NUALA M. BYRNE; GARY R. HUNTER

2007-01-01

347

Pelvic floor muscle training improves sexual function of women with stress urinary incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a program of supervised pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) on sexual function,\\u000a in a group of women with urodynamically diagnosed stress urinary incontinence (SUI), using a validated questionnaire. Incontinence\\u000a episodes frequency and continence pads used per week were measured before and after treatment using a 7-day bladder diary.\\u000a Improvements

Athanasios G. Zahariou; Maria V. Karamouti; Polyanthi D. Papaioannou

2008-01-01

348

Longer term improvement in neurocognitive functioning and affective distress among methamphetamine users who achieve stable abstinence.  

PubMed

Chronic use of methamphetamine (MA) is associated with neuropsychological dysfunction and affective distress. Some normalization of function has been reported after abstinence, but little in the way of data is available on the possible added benefits of long-term sobriety. To address this, we performed detailed neuropsychological and affective evaluations in 83 MA-dependent individuals at a baseline visit and following an average one-year interval period. Among the 83 MA-dependent participants, 25 remained abstinent, and 58 used MA at least once during the interval period. A total of 38 non-MA-addicted, demographically matched healthy comparison (i.e., HC) participants were also examined. At baseline, both MA-dependent participants who were able to maintain abstinence and those who were not performed significantly worse than the healthy comparison subjects on global neuropsychological functioning and were significantly more distressed. At the one-year follow-up, both the long-term abstainers and healthy comparison groups showed comparable global neuropsychological performance and affective distress levels, whereas the MA-dependent group who continued to use MA were worse than the comparison participants in terms of global neuropsychological functioning and affective distress. An interaction was observed between neuropsychological impairment at baseline, MA abstinence, and cognitive improvement, with abstinent MA-dependent participants who were neuropsychologically impaired at baseline demonstrating significantly and disproportionately greater improvement in processing speed and slightly greater improvement in motor abilities than the other participants. These results suggest partial recovery of neuropsychological functioning and improvement in affective distress upon sustained abstinence from MA that may extend beyond a year or more. PMID:20198527

Iudicello, Jennifer E; Woods, Steven P; Vigil, Ofilio; Scott, J Cobb; Cherner, Mariana; Heaton, Robert K; Atkinson, J Hampton; Grant, Igor

2010-03-02

349

Pyridoxamine improves functional, structural, and biochemical alterations of peritoneal membranes in uremic peritoneal dialysis rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pyridoxamine improves functional, structural, and biochemical alterations of peritoneal membranes in uremic peritoneal dialysis rats.BackgroundWe previously suggested that biochemical alterations of peritoneal membrane associated with long-term peritoneal dialysis might be, at least in part, accounted for by reactive carbonyl compounds overload originating both from uremic circulation and heat sterilization of glucose peritoneal dialysis fluid. In the present study, we utilized

TAKATOSHI KAKUTA; REIKA TANAKA; YOSHINOBU SATOH; YUKO IZUHARA; REIKO INAGI; MASAOMI NANGAKU; AKIRA SAITO; TOSHIO MIYATA

2005-01-01

350

rHuEPO treatment improves brain and cognitive function of anemic dialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

rHuEPO treatment improves brain and cognitive function of anemic dialysis patients. Twenty-four patients with chronic renal failure, stabilized on hemodialysis, were treated with recombinant human erythropoietin. Before treatment, all patients were anemic (mean Hct = 23.7%). Hematocrits reached normal levels (36.5%) after three months of treatment. Brain event-related potentials and neuropyschological tests were used to assess changes in brain and

James T Marsh; Warren S Brown; Deane Wolcott; Clifford R Carr; Rebecca Harper; Suzanne V Schweitzer; Allen R Nissenson

1991-01-01

351

Algorithmic depth compensation improves quantification and noise suppression in functional diffuse optical tomography.  

PubMed

Accurate depth localization and quantitative recovery of a regional activation are the major challenges in functional diffuse optical tomography (DOT). The photon density drops severely with increased depth, for which conventional DOT reconstruction yields poor depth localization and quantitative recovery. Recently we have developed a depth compensation algorithm (DCA) to improve the depth localization in DOT. In this paper, we present an approach based on the depth-compensated reconstruction to improve the quantification in DOT by forming a spatial prior. Simulative experiments are conducted to demonstrate the usefulness of this approach. Moreover, noise suppression is a key to success in DOT which also affects the depth localization and quantification. We present quantitative analysis and comparison on noise suppression in DOT with and without depth compensation. The study reveals that appropriate combination of depth-compensated reconstruction with the spatial prior can provide accurate depth localization and improved quantification at variable noise levels. PMID:21258479

Tian, Fenghua; Niu, Haijing; Khadka, Sabin; Lin, Zi-Jing; Liu, Hanli

2010-08-02

352

Algorithmic depth compensation improves quantification and noise suppression in functional diffuse optical tomography  

PubMed Central

Accurate depth localization and quantitative recovery of a regional activation are the major challenges in functional diffuse optical tomography (DOT). The photon density drops severely with increased depth, for which conventional DOT reconstruction yields poor depth localization and quantitative recovery. Recently we have developed a depth compensation algorithm (DCA) to improve the depth localization in DOT. In this paper, we present an approach based on the depth-compensated reconstruction to improve the quantification in DOT by forming a spatial prior. Simulative experiments are conducted to demonstrate the usefulness of this approach. Moreover, noise suppression is a key to success in DOT which also affects the depth localization and quantification. We present quantitative analysis and comparison on noise suppression in DOT with and without depth compensation. The study reveals that appropriate combination of depth-compensated reconstruction with the spatial prior can provide accurate depth localization and improved quantification at variable noise levels.

Tian, Fenghua; Niu, Haijing; Khadka, Sabin; Lin, Zi-Jing; Liu, Hanli

2010-01-01

353

Stimulating beta cell replication and improving islet graft function by GPR119 agonists.  

PubMed

G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) is predominantly expressed in ? cells and intestinal L cells. In this study, we investigated whether oleoylethanolamide (OEA), a GPR119 endogenous ligand, and PSN632408, a GPR119 synthetic agonist, can stimulate ?-cell replication in vitro and in vivo and improve islet graft function in diabetic mice. We found that OEA and PSN632408 significantly increased numbers of insulin(+)/5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)(+) ? cells in cultured mouse islets in a dose-dependent manner. All diabetic recipient mice, given marginal syngeneic islet transplants with OEA or PSN632408 or vehicle, achieved normoglycemia at 4 weeks after transplantation. However, normoglycemia was achieved significantly faster in OEA- or PSN632408-treated diabetic mice than in vehicle-treated diabetic mice (P < 0.05). The percentage of insulin(+)/BrdU(+) ? cells in islet grafts in OEA- and PSN632408-treated mice was significantly higher than in vehicle-treated mice (P < 0.01). Our data demonstrated that OEA and PSN632408 can stimulate ?-cell replication in vitro and in vivo and improve islet graft function. Targeting GPR119 is a novel therapeutic approach to increase ?-cell mass and to improve islet graft function by stimulating ?-cell replication. PMID:21902730

Gao, Jie; Tian, Lei; Weng, Guobin; Bhagroo, Nicholas V; Sorenson, Robert L; O'Brien, Timothy D; Luo, Jian; Guo, Zhiguang

2011-09-08

354

Bone marrow transplantation in dysferlin-deficient mice results in a mild functional improvement.  

PubMed

Dysferlinopathies are caused by mutations in the DYSF gene. Dysferlin is a protein mainly expressed in the skeletal muscle and monocytes. Cell therapy constitutes a promising tool for the treatment of muscular dystrophies. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) using the A/J Dysf(prmd) mouse model of dysferlinopathy. For that purpose, we studied dysferlin expression by western blot and/or immunohistochemistry in transplanted mice and controls. Computerized analyses of locomotion and electrophysiological techniques were also performed to test the functional improvement. We observed dysferlin expression in splenocytes, but not in the skeletal muscle of the transplanted mice. However, the locomotion test, electromyography studies, and muscle histology showed an improvement in all transplanted mice that was more significant in the animals transplanted with dysferlin(+/+) cells. In conclusion, although BMT restores dysferlin expression in monocytes, but not in skeletal muscle, muscle function was partially recovered. We propose that the slight improvement observed in the functional studies could be related with factors, such as the hepatocyte growth factor, released after BMT that prevented muscle degeneration. PMID:23777246

Flix, Bàrbara; Suárez-Calvet, Xavier; Díaz-Manera, Jordi; Santos-Nogueira, Eva; Mancuso, Renzo; Barquinero, Jordi; Navas, Miquel; Navarro, Xavier; Illa, Isabel; Gallardo, Eduard

2013-07-26

355

Importance of specificity, amount, and intensity of locomotor training to improve ambulatory function in patients poststroke.  

PubMed

The majority of individuals poststroke recover the ability to walk overground, although residual impairments contribute to reduced walking speed, spatiotemporal asymmetries, inefficient gait, and limited walking activity in the home and community. A substantial number of studies have investigated the effects of various interventions on locomotor function in individuals poststroke; these studies vary widely in types of tasks practiced, the amount of practiced activities, and the intensity or workload during the intervention. In contrast, basic and applied studies have identified specific parameters of training that could be applied towards treatment of patients poststroke. More directly, the specificity, amount, and intensity of walking practice are thought to be critical variables of rehabilitation interventions that can facilitate plasticity of neuromuscular and cardiopulmonary systems and result in improved locomotor function. In the present commentary, we delineate the evidence and physiological rationale for providing large amounts of high-intensity locomotor training to improve ambulatory function in individuals poststroke. Additional evidence is presented to indicate that improvements in non-walking tasks, such as static balance and performance of transfers, may also occur following locomotor training. We further evaluate previous and more recent studies in the context of these parameters and provide suggestions for providing locomotor training for patients with stroke in the clinical setting. PMID:21914594

Hornby, T George; Straube, Donald S; Kinnaird, Catherine R; Holleran, Carey L; Echauz, Anthony J; Rodriguez, Kelly S; Wagner, Eric J; Narducci, Elizabeth A

356

Exenatide pretreatment improved graft function in nonhuman primate islet recipients compared to treatment after transplant only.  

PubMed

The GLP-1 receptor agonist, exenatide, has previously been shown to improve insulin secretion, protect beta cells from apoptosis, and promote beta cell regeneration. We propose that pretreatment with exenatide will promote islet graft survival and improve graft function. Pancreatectomized cynomolgus monkeys underwent islet allotransplantation and were treated with exenatide beginning on day 0 or day -2. A third group of animals was treated with an immunosuppressive regimen while a fourth group remained untreated. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) was used to evaluate graft function along with intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs) performed at study endpoint (day 10 for untreated and posttransplant exenatide or day 90 for pretreatment exenatide and immunosuppression). The average FBG for pre-treated animals day 5 following transplant was 52.7 ± 14.8?mg/dl, compared to 154.3 ± 105.5?mg/dl for animals treated only following transplant, 59.4?mg/dl ±12.1 for animals treated with immunosuppression, and 265.5 ± 172.3?mg/dl for untreated animals. IVGTTs performed at study endpoint showed normal glucose and insulin curves in the pre-treated exenatide and immunosuppression groups only, with beta cell function actually improving after transplant in the pre-treated group. We conclude, therefore, that exenatide pre-treatment can successfully maintain islet graft survival in nonhuman primates. PMID:23056916

Buss, Jill L; Rajab, Amer; Essig, Elizabeth D; Bergdall, Valerie K; Wang, Jie; Osei, Kwame

2012-09-27

357

Physical Exercise Improves The Functional Capacity and Quality of Life in Patients With Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of physical exercise on the functional capacity and quality of life in heart failure patients. METHODS Forty-two patients of both sexes with heart failure of NYHA class II and III with different etiologies were randomly divided into untrained or trained groups. The six-month exercise program consisted of aerobic training, muscle strength training, agility and joint flexibility activities. Physical fitness was evaluated by testing the performance on these trained components. Quality of life was evaluated by scored answers to a standardized questionnaire involving multiple domains. RESULTS Baseline values did not differ between groups. Improvement in the trained group was identified in all components of functional capacity when compared to the untrained group (p < 0.001). Quality of life improved in the trained patients concerning physical, psychological, social and environmental domains (p < 0.001), whereas no significant change was found in the untrained patients. CONCLUSIONS Guided and monitored physical exercise is safe and has the potential to improve functional capacity and quality of life in heart failure patients with multiple etiologies.

Bocalini, Danilo Sales; dos Santos, Leonardo; Serra, Andrey Jorge

2008-01-01

358

Functional impairment in peripheral artery disease and how to improve it in 2013.  

PubMed

Lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects 8 million men and women in the United States and will be increasingly common as the U.S. population lives longer with chronic disease. People with PAD have poorer walking endurance, slower walking velocity, and poorer balance, compared with individuals without PAD. People with PAD may reduce their walking activity to avoid leg symptoms. Thus, clinicians should not equate stabilization or improvement in exertional leg symptoms with stabilization or improvement in walking performance in PAD. In addition, even asymptomatic PAD patients have greater functional impairment and faster functional decline than individuals without PAD. Of the 2 FDA-approved medications for treating claudication symptoms, pentoxifylline may not be more efficacious than placebo, whereas cilostazol confers a modest improvement in treadmill walking performance. Supervised treadmill walking exercise is associated with substantial improvement in walking endurance, but many PAD patients do not have access to supervised exercise programs. Unsupervised walking exercise programs may be beneficial in PAD, but data are mixed. PMID:23420443

McDermott, Mary McGrae

2013-04-01

359

Early rehabilitation after surgery improves functional outcome in inpatients with brain tumours.  

PubMed

Clinical experience suggests that application of the fundamental principles of rehabilitation medicine can improve the care of patients with cancer. Despite the high incidence of neurological and functional deficits in patients affected by brain tumours (BTs), rehabilitation treatment of this population is not as well established as it is for patients with other neurological conditions. To assess functional outcome in brain tumour inpatients who underwent early rehabilitation after surgery. 75 patients who had undergone neurosurgery for primary BTs and 75 patients affected by stroke were enrolled in a case-control study. All patients were evaluated by means of a core set of clinical scales (Functional Independence Measure, Sitting Balance score, Standing Balance score, Hauser Index, Massachusetts General Hospital Functional Ambulation Classification). Patients were evaluated before the beginning (T0) and at the end (T1) of rehabilitation treatment. The neurorehabilitation programme consisted of individual 60-min sessions of treatment, administered once a day, six days a week, for four consecutive weeks. Speech therapy was included when aphasia was diagnosed. All the measures of outcome were indicative of substantial improvements for neuro-oncological and for stroke patients (P = 0.000). Analysis of subgroups showed that patients affected by meningioma achieved better results (in efficiency terms) as regards independence in activities of daily living (P = 0.02) and mobility (P = 0.04) compared with patients affected by glioblastoma or stroke. Rehabilitation after surgery can improve functional outcome, justifying the delivery of rehabilitation services, even during the acute phase, to BTs inpatients, irrespective of tumour type. PMID:22124725

Bartolo, Michelangelo; Zucchella, Chiara; Pace, Andrea; Lanzetta, Gaetano; Vecchione, Carmine; Bartolo, Marcello; Grillea, Giovanni; Serrao, Mariano; Tassorelli, Cristina; Sandrini, Giorgio; Pierelli, Francesco

2011-11-29

360

Treating orthostatic hypotension in patients with Parkinson's disease and atypical parkinsonism improves function.  

PubMed

Background: Patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) or atypical Parkinsonism (AP) often present with orthostatic hypotension (OH) as a result of the dysautonomia associated with the disease or as a side effect of the dopaminergic medications used to treat it. Our recent study suggested that OH negatively impacts gross motor, balance, and cognitive functions in patients with PD. Objective: To determine if correcting the orthostatic hypotension (OH) of patients with PD or AP improves their gross motor, balance, and cognitive functions. Methods: Forty patients with PD or AP were assessed before and after correcting their OH using a staged approach with a goal of SBP >80 when standing and SBP <180 when laying. Step 1 of treatment included reducing antihypertensive medications, as possible, maintaining hydration with 1500cc/day, decreasing dietary salt, wearing high compression stockings, and keeping the head of bed elevated at 30 degrees when supine. If SBP <80 with standing after step 1, then treatment was started with fludrocortisone and/or midodrine. Results: Patients' OH was managed as part of a rehabilitation program. Tests such as the Motor and Cognitive Functional Independence Measures, Berg Balance Scale, Two Minute Walking test, and the Finger Tapping test showed significant improvements (p < 0.05) in their gross motor, walking, balance and cognitive function with our OH management plan. No significant differences between admission and discharge were found in the Timed Up and Go test. Conclusion: Our data suggest that monitoring and correcting the OH of patients with PD or AP improves their gross motor, balance, and cognitive function. PMID:23938231

Hohler, Anna D; Amariei, Diana Elena; Katz, Douglas I; Depiero, T Joy; Allen, Valerie B; Boyle, Suzanne; Phenix, Heidi Alison; Deangelis, Tara Ashley; Geibel, Carrie Denise; Smith, Karla M; Saint-Hilaire, Marie; Ellis, Terry

2012-01-01

361

Functional complementation of a model target to study Vpu sensitivity.  

PubMed

HIV-1 forms infectious particles with Murine Leukemia virus (MLV) Env, but not with the closely related Gibbon ape Leukemia Virus (GaLV) Env. We have determined that the incompatibility between HIV-1 and GaLV Env is primarily caused by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu, which prevents GaLV Env from being incorporated into particles. We have characterized the 'Vpu sensitivity sequence' in the cytoplasmic tail domain (CTD) of GaLV Env using a chimeric MLV Env with the GaLV Env CTD (MLV/GaLV Env). Vpu sensitivity is dependent on an alpha helix with a positively charged face containing at least one Lysine. In the present study, we utilized functional complementation to address whether all the three helices in the CTD of an Env trimer have to contain the Vpu sensitivity motif for the trimer to be modulated by Vpu. Taking advantage of the functional complementation of the binding defective (D84K) and fusion defective (L493V) MLV and MLV/GaLV Env mutants, we were able to assay the activity of mixed trimers containing both MLV and GaLV CTDs. Mixed trimers containing both MLV and GaLV CTDs were functionally active and remained sensitive to Vpu. However, trimers containing an Env with the GaLV CTD and an Env with no CTD remained functional but were resistant to Vpu. Together these data suggest that the presence of at least one GaLV CTD is sufficient to make an Env trimer sensitive to Vpu, but only if it is part of a trimeric CTD complex. PMID:23840857

Janaka, Sanath Kumar; Faurot, Jared; Johnson, Marc C

2013-06-28

362

Quantification of left ventricular size and function using contrast-enhanced real-time 3D imaging with power modulation: comparison with cardiac MRI.  

PubMed

In patients with optimal images, real-time 3-D echocardiography (RT3DE) allows accurate evaluation of left ventricular (LV) volumes and ejection fraction (EF). However, in patients with poor acoustic windows, lower correlations were reported despite the use of contrast. We hypothesized that power modulation (PM) RT3DE imaging that uses low mechanical indices and provides uniform LV opacification could overcome this problem. Accordingly, we sought to: (i) Test the feasibility of quantification of LV volumes and EF from contrast-enhanced (CE) PM RT3DE images, (ii) validate this technique against cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) reference and (iii) test its clinical value by quantifying the improvement in accuracy and reproducibility. We studied 20 patients who underwent CMR, harmonic nonenhanced RT3DE and CE PM RT3DE imaging on the same day. All images were analyzed to obtain end-systolic and end-diastolic LV volumes (EDV, ESV) and calculate EF. To determine the reproducibility of each RT3DE technique, imaging was repeated in the same setting by a second sonographer. In addition, patients were divided according to the quality of their RT3DE images into two groups, for which agreement with CMR and reproducibility were calculated separately. CE PM RT3DE imaging improved the accuracy of EDV, ESV and EF measurements in patients with poor acoustic windows without significantly affecting those in patients with optimal images. In addition, CE PM RT3DE imaging improved the reproducibility of the measurements, as reflected by a twofold decrease in intermeasurement variability. Importantly, the variability in CE PM RT3DE-derived volumes and EF was under 10%, irrespective of image quality. This methodology may become the new standard for LV size and function, which will be particularly important in patients with poor acoustic windows or contraindications to CMR. PMID:22906750

Coon, Patrick D; Pollard, Heidi; Furlong, Kathleen; Lang, Roberto M; Mor-Avi, Victor

2012-08-17

363

Cortical Depth Dependent Functional Responses in Humans at 7T: Improved Specificity with 3D GRASE  

PubMed Central

Ultra high fields (7T and above) allow functional imaging with high contrast-to-noise ratios and improved spatial resolution. This, along with improved hardware and imaging techniques, allow investigating columnar and laminar functional responses. Using gradient-echo (GE) (T2* weighted) based sequences, layer specific responses have been recorded from human (and animal) primary visual areas. However, their increased sensitivity to large surface veins potentially clouds detecting and interpreting layer specific responses. Conversely, spin-echo (SE) (T2 weighted) sequences are less sensitive to large veins and have been used to map cortical columns in humans. T2 weighted 3D GRASE with inner volume selection provides high isotropic resolution over extended volumes, overcoming some of the many technical limitations of conventional 2D SE-EPI, whereby making layer specific investigations feasible. Further, the demonstration of columnar level specificity with 3D GRASE, despite contributions from both stimulated echoes and conventional T2 contrast, has made it an attractive alternative over 2D SE-EPI. Here, we assess the spatial specificity of cortical depth dependent 3D GRASE functional responses in human V1 and hMT by comparing it to GE responses. In doing so we demonstrate that 3D GRASE is less sensitive to contributions from large veins in superficial layers, while showing increased specificity (functional tuning) throughout the cortex compared to GE.

Muckli, Lars; Ugurbil, Kamil; Yacoub, Essa; Goebel, Rainer

2013-01-01

364

Soybean and green tea polyphenols improve immune function and redox status in very old ovariectomized mice.  

PubMed

In previous work we have observed that ovariectomy in rodents, a good model of mimicking human ovarian hormone loss, causes premature aging of the immune system. The prooxidative and inflammatory state that underlies the aging process is the base of that premature immunosenescence. It has been found that nutritional interventions with polyphenolic antioxidants constitute a good alternative to rejuvenate age-affected immune functions. In this study, we administered a diet supplemented with polyphenols (coming from soybean isoflavones and green tea) to sham-operated and ovariectomized mature mice for 15 weeks, until they reached a very old age. We have studied the effect of this supplementation on a broad range of parameters of immune function (in macrophages and lymphocytes) and oxidative stress (enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant defences, oxidant compounds, and lipid peroxidation damage) in peritoneal leukocytes. The results showed that ovariectomy accelerates the age-related impairment of immune functions in very old mice as well as the oxidative and proinflammatory imbalance, and that the administration of soybean isoflavones and green tea improve the immune and redox state in these animals. Because the immune system is a good marker of health and a predictor of longevity, we suggest that an adequate nutritional treatment with polyphenols could be a highly recommended tool to fight against the detrimental effects of the lack of female sex hormones, through an improvement of the immune cell functions and redox state. PMID:20818935

Baeza, Isabel; De Castro, Nuria M; Arranz, Lorena; De la Fuente, Mónica

2010-09-06

365

[Three children with Rasmussen encephalitis showing marked improvement in daily life activity following the functional hemispherectomy].  

PubMed

We investigated seizure, intelligence quotient (IQ), and neurological outcomes including the process of motor function recovery after functional right hemispherectomy in 3 children with Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE). Before the procedure, they were unable to walk, nor sit without support due to progressive worsening of left hemiplegia and relentless epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) of the left extremities, which were refractory to antiepileptic drug and immunological treatment. After functional right hemispherectomy, EPC completely disappeared, although complete left hemiplegia was sustained. However, they recovered up to being able to walk independently with assistance devices, and to have an ordinary life with family support within 1.5 to 5 months through rehabilitation. At the same time, the interictal EEG improved on the unaffected side of hemisphere, exhibiting a posterior alpha rhythm. Their IQ also improved, and they were able to attend school. Early functional hemispherectomy should be considered before patients with RE are left in a serious condition due to progressive worsening of hemiplegia and seizures refractory to the available treatment. PMID:21941844

Shioda, Mutsuki; Oguni, Hirokazu; Ito, Yasushi; Ochiai, Taku; Hori, Tomokatsu; Muto, Ayako; Takahashi, Satornu; Miyamoto, Akie; Osaka, Hitoshi; Osawa, Makiko

2011-09-01

366

Accounting for epistatic interactions improves the functional analysis of protein structures  

PubMed Central

Motivation: The constraints under which sequence, structure and function coevolve are not fully understood. Bringing this mutual relationship to light can reveal the molecular basis of binding, catalysis and allostery, thereby identifying function and rationally guiding protein redesign. Underlying these relationships are the epistatic interactions that occur when the consequences of a mutation to a protein are determined by the genetic background in which it occurs. Based on prior data, we hypothesize that epistatic forces operate most strongly between residues nearby in the structure, resulting in smooth evolutionary importance across the structure. Methods and Results: We find that when residue scores of evolutionary importance are distributed smoothly between nearby residues, functional site prediction accuracy improves. Accordingly, we designed a novel measure of evolutionary importance that focuses on the interaction between pairs of structurally neighboring residues. This measure that we term pair-interaction Evolutionary Trace yields greater functional site overlap and better structure-based proteome-wide functional predictions. Conclusions: Our data show that the structural smoothness of evolutionary importance is a fundamental feature of the coevolution of sequence, structure and function. Mutations operate on individual residues, but selective pressure depends in part on the extent to which a mutation perturbs interactions with neighboring residues. In practice, this principle led us to redefine the importance of a residue in terms of the importance of its epistatic interactions with neighbors, yielding better annotation of functional residues, motivating experimental validation of a novel functional site in LexA and refining protein function prediction. Contact: lichtarge@bcm.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Wilkins, Angela D.; Venner, Eric; Marciano, David C.; Erdin, Serkan; Atri, Benu; Lua, Rhonald C.; Lichtarge, Olivier

2013-01-01

367

Effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy on diastolic function: evaluation by radionuclide angiography.  

PubMed

While the beneficial effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) on left ventricular (LV) systolic function have been demonstrated, no information is available regarding its effects on LV diastolic function during exercise. Using radionuclide angiography, we prospectively evaluated the effects of CRT on diastolic function at rest and during exercise in 15 patients consecutively referred for CRT. All patients underwent equilibrium Tc(99) radionuclide angiography with bicycle exercise performed (1) at baseline; (2) immediately after CRT implantation, in spontaneous rhythm and during CRT; and (3) after 3 months of biventricular stimulation. Diastolic function was assessed by measurements of peak filling rate (PFR). At baseline, activation of biventricular stimulation influenced PFR neither at rest (1.06 +/- 0.34 vs 1.07 +/- 0.50 mL/s during spontaneous rhythm, P = 0.9) nor during exercise (1.45 +/- 0.62 vs 1.33 +/- 0.48 mL/s, P = 0.3). At 3 months, improvements were observed in New York Heart Association functional class and systolic function. By contrast, no improvement in diastolic function was observed either at rest (PFR = 1.11 +/- 0.45 vs 1.07 +/- 0.50 mL/s in spontaneous rhythm at baseline, P = 0.6) or during exercise (1.23 +/- 0.50 vs 1.33 +/- 0.48 mL/s, P = 0.2). These observations indicate that the intermediate benefits conferred by CRT on LV systolic function at rest and during exercise were not accompanied by similar improvements in diastolic function. PMID:17302715

Boriani, Giuseppe; Valzania, Cinzia; Fallani, Francesco; Biffi, Mauro; Martignani, Cristian; Saporito, Davide; Ziacchi, Matteo; Diemberger, Igor; Greco, Cristiano; Bertini, Matteo; Domenichini, Giulia; Levorato, Maurizio; Franchi, Roberto; Branzi, Angelo

2007-01-01

368

The evidence of occult hypervolemia; improvement of cardiac functions after kidney transplantation.  

PubMed

The term cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) has been used to define interactions between acute or chronic dysfunction of the heart or kidney. When primary chronic kidney disease contribute to cardiac dysfunction, it is classified as type 4 CRS. Cardiac dilatation, valve regurgitations, and left ventricular dysfunction are observed in end-stage renal failure patients with uremic cardiomyopathy. Because of perioperative risks in these patients, they may not be considered a candidate for kidney transplantation. However, uremic cardiomyopathy can be corrected when volume control is achieved by appropriate dose and duration of ultrafiltration. By presenting two cases with occult hypervolemia in uremic cardiomyopathy whose cardiac functions improved early after kidney transplantation, attention is drawn to the importance of kidney transplantation on cardiac function in such patients primarily and the importance of strict volume control on cardiac function in dialysis patients waiting for kidney transplantation. PMID:23560874

Turan, Mehmet Nuri; Yaprak, Mustafa; Bilgin, Murat; Tatar, Erhan; Tamer, Abdülkerim Furkan; Nalbantgil, Sanem; Özkahya, Mehmet; Töz, Hüseyin

2013-04-08

369

Individual differences in executive functioning predict preschoolers' improvement from theory-of-mind training.  

PubMed

Twenty-four 3.5-year-old children who initially showed poor performance on false-belief tasks participated in a training protocol designed to promote performance on these tasks. Our aim was to determine whether the extent to which children benefited from training was predicted by their performance on a battery of executive functioning tasks. Findings indicated that individual differences in executive functioning performance strongly and consistently predicted improvement in children's false-belief performance and their ability to appropriately explain false-belief-based behavior, both during the training period and during the posttest. These findings were robust after statistically controlling for several relevant covariates. These results are consistent with the suggestion that executive functioning skills promote developments in theory of mind by facilitating the ability to reflect upon and learn from relevant experience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23244411

Benson, Jeannette E; Sabbagh, Mark A; Carlson, Stephanie M; Zelazo, Philip David

2012-12-17

370

Alveolar recruitment strategy during cardiopulmonary bypass does not improve postoperative gas exchange and lung function.  

PubMed

Pulmonary dysfunction with impairment of lung function and oxygenation is one of the most serious problems in the early postoperative period after cardiac surgery. In this study we investigated the effect of alveolar recruitment strategy during cardiopulmonary bypass on postoperative gas exchange and lung function. This prospective randomized study included 32 patients undergoing elective myocardial revascularization with cardiopulmonary bypass. In 16 patients 5 cm H(2)O of positive end-expiratory pressure was applied after intubation and maintained until extubation (Group I). In the other 16 patients (group II) a positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 5 cm H(2)O was maintained as well but was increased to 14 cm H(2)O every 20 min for 2 min during cross clamp. Measurements were taken preoperatively, before skin incision, before and after (3, 24, 48 h) cardiopulmonary bypass and before discharge (6th postoperative day). Postoperative gas exchange, extravascular lung water and lung function showed no significant difference between the groups. Postoperative pulmonary function variables were lower in both groups compared to baseline values. In patients with normal preoperative pulmonary function, application of an alveolar recruitment strategy during cardiopulmonary bypass does not improve postoperative gas exchange and lung function after cardiac surgery. PMID:19259813

Scherer, Mirela; Dettmer, Sebastian; Meininger, Dirk; Deschka, Heinz; Geyer, Galina; Regulla, Caroline; Moritz, Anton

2009-03-01

371

Functional Clustering Drives Encoding Improvement in a Developing Brain Network during Awake Visual Learning  

PubMed Central

Sensory experience drives dramatic structural and functional plasticity in developing neurons. However, for single-neuron plasticity to optimally improve whole-network encoding of sensory information, changes must be coordinated between neurons to ensure a full range of stimuli is efficiently represented. Using two-photon calcium imaging to monitor evoked activity in over 100 neurons simultaneously, we investigate network-level changes in the developing Xenopus laevis tectum during visual training with motion stimuli. Training causes stimulus-specific changes in neuronal responses and interactions, resulting in improved population encoding. This plasticity is spatially structured, increasing tuning curve similarity and interactions among nearby neurons, and decreasing interactions among distant neurons. Training does not improve encoding by single clusters of similarly responding neurons, but improves encoding across clusters, indicating coordinated plasticity across the network. NMDA receptor blockade prevents coordinated plasticity, reduces clustering, and abolishes whole-network encoding improvement. We conclude that NMDA receptors support experience-dependent network self-organization, allowing efficient population coding of a diverse range of stimuli.

Haas, Kurt

2012-01-01

372

Infliximab improves health related quality of life and physical function in patients with psoriatic arthritis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the effect of infliximab on health related quality of life (HRQoL) and physical function in patients with active psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in the IMPACT 2 trial. Methods 200 patients with PsA unresponsive to conventional treatment were randomised to intravenous infusions of infliximab 5?mg/kg or placebo at weeks 0, 2, 6, 14, and 22; patients with inadequate response entered early escape at week 16. HRQoL was assessed using the Short Form?36 (SF?36) at weeks 0, 14, and 24. Functional disability was assessed using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) at every visit through week 24. Associations between changes in quality of life (SF?36) and articular (American College of Rheumatology (ACR)) and dermatological (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI)) responses were examined. Results Mean percentage improvement from baseline in HAQ was 48.6% in the infliximab group compared with worsening of 18.4% in the placebo group at week 14 (p<0.001). Furthermore, 58.6% and 19.4% of infliximab and placebo treated patients, respectively, achieved a clinically meaningful improvement in HAQ (that is, ?0.3 unit decrease) at week 14 (p<0.001). Increases in physical and mental component summary (PCS and MCS) scores and all eight scales of the SF?36 in the infliximab group were greater than those in the placebo group at week 14 (p?0.001). These benefits were sustained through week 24. Patients achieving ACR20 and PASI75 responses had the greatest improvements in PCS and MCS scores. Conclusions In patients with PsA, infliximab 5 mg/kg significantly improved HRQoL and physical function compared with placebo through 24?weeks.

Kavanaugh, A; Antoni, C; Krueger, G G; Yan, S; Bala, M; Dooley, L T; Beutler, A; Guzzo, C; Gladman, D

2006-01-01

373

Improvement of attentional function with antagonism of nicotinic receptors in female rats.  

PubMed

Nicotinic agonists have been shown in a variety of studies to improve cognitive function. Since nicotinic receptors are easily desensitized by agonists, it is not completely clear to what degree receptor desensitization or receptor activation are responsible for nicotinic agonist-induced cognitive improvement. In the current study, the effect of the neuronal nicotinic cholinergic ?4?2 receptor antagonist dihydro-?-erythroidine (DH?E) and the ?7 nicotinic receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) on attentional function was determined. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on the visual signal detection task. They were required to discriminate whether or not a light signal occurred on a trial and respond with a lever press on one side after a signal and the opposite side after the absence of a signal in order to receive a food pellet reinforcer. Acute administration of the ?4?2 antagonist DH?E improved attentional function either alone or in reversing the attentional impairment caused by the NMDA glutamate antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801). Acute administration of MLA also significantly attenuated the dizocilpine-induced attentional impairment. In previous research we have shown that the ?4?2 nicotinic desensitizing agent and partial agonist sazetidine-A also was effective in reversing dizocilpine-induced attentional impairments on the signal detection task and that low doses of the general nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine improved learning and memory. The current studies indicate that blockade of nicotinic receptors can effectively attenuate attentional impairments. Development of drugs that provide a net decrease in nicotinic receptor activity either through antagonism or desensitization could be worth exploring for beneficial effects for treating cognitive impairments. PMID:23399762

Levin, Edward D; Cauley, Marty; Rezvani, Amir H

2013-02-08

374

Mitral valve repair is superior to valve replacement for the early preservation of cardiac function: Relation of ventricular geometry to function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immediate effect of mitral valve repair (MVP) or replacement (MVR) on cardiac function was compared in patients with mitral regurgitation in relation to the changes in left ventricular (LV) function and geometry by using intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography in 29 patients with MVP and 21 patients with MVR, before and immediately after cardiopulmonary bypass. The LV volumes, ejection fraction, and

Jian-Fang Ren; Seydi Aksut; George W. Lighty; Gary J. Vigilante; James D. Sink; Bernard L. Segal; W. Clark Hargrove

1996-01-01

375

Improved Description of Stereoelectronic Effects Using Semi-local Density Functional Theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proper description of stereoelectronic (SE) effects is desirable for any theoretical method to be used in organic chemistry. The SE design rules are frequently used in synthetic organic chemistry to design and explain new reactions by electron donating and withdrawing effects or steric interactions. These effects are often poorly described by standard generalized gradient approximations for exchange and correlation. Many popular exchange-correlation functionals are biased toward the correct description of free atoms and fail to improve upon LSDA for solids. Changing two parameters within the PBE form to satisfy different constraints leads to a new non-empirical GGA, PBEsol [1], that performs well for solids and improves the description of large organic systems and reactions. We present examples where this new non-empirical functional provides considerable improvements for molecules. [1] J.P. Perdew, A. Ruzsinszky, G.I. Csonka, O.A. Vydrov, G.E. Scuseria, L.A. Constantin, X. Zhou, and K. Burke, http://arxiv.org/abs/0711.0156

Csonka, Gabor I.; Perdew, John P.; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn

2008-03-01

376

Neovascularization of Ischemic Myocardium by Newly Isolated Tannins Prevents Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis and Improves Cardiac Function  

PubMed Central

During remodeling progress post myocardial infarction, the contribution of neoangiogenesis to the infarct-bed capillary is insufficient to support the greater demands of the hypertrophied but viable myocardium resulting in further ischemic injury to the viable cardiomyocytes at risk. Here we reported the bio-assay-guided identification and isolation of angiogenic tannins (angio-T) from Geum japonicum that induced rapid revascularization of infarcted myocardium and promoted survival potential of the viable cardiomyocytes at risk after myocardial infarction. Our results demonstrated that angio-T displayed potent dual effects on up-regulating expression of angiogenic factors, which would contribute to the early revascularization and protection of the cardiomyocytes against further ischemic injury, and inducing antiapoptotic protein expression, which inhibited apoptotic death of cardiomyocytes in the infarcted hearts and limited infarct size. Echocardiographic studies demonstrated that angio-T-induced therapeutic effects on acute infarcted myocardium were accompanied by significant functional improvement by 2 days after infarction. This improvement was sustained for 14 days. These therapeutic properties of angio-T to induce early reconstitution of a blood supply network, prevent apoptotic death of cardiomyocytes at risk, and improve heart function post infarction appear entirely novel and may provide a new dimension for therapeutic angiogenesis medicine for the treatment of ischemic heart diseases.

Gu, Xuemei; Cheng, Lei; Chueng, Winghong L; Yao, Xinsheng; Liu, Hongwei; Qi, Guoqing; Li, Ming

2006-01-01

377

Targeting oxidized LDL improves insulin sensitivity and immune cell function in obese Rhesus macaques?  

PubMed Central

Oxidation of LDL (oxLDL) is a crucial step in the development of cardiovascular disease. Treatment with antibodies directed against oxLDL can reduce atherosclerosis in rodent models through unknown mechanisms. We demonstrate that through a novel mechanism of immune complex formation and Fc-? receptor (Fc?R) engagement, antibodies targeting oxLDL (MLDL1278a) are anti-inflammatory on innate immune cells via modulation of Syk, p38 MAPK phosphorylation and NF?B activity. Subsequent administration of MLDL1278a in diet-induced obese (DIO) nonhuman primates (NHP) resulted in a significant decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines and improved overall immune cell function. Importantly, MLDL1278a treatment improved insulin sensitivity independent of body weight change. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which an anti-oxLDL antibody improves immune function and insulin sensitivity independent of internalization of oxLDL. This identifies MLDL1278a as a potential therapy for reducing vascular inflammation in diabetic conditions.

Li, Shijie; Kievit, Paul; Robertson, Anna-Karin; Kolumam, Ganesh; Li, Xiumin; von Wachenfeldt, Karin; Valfridsson, Christine; Bullens, Sherry; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Bader, Lindsay; Cowan, Kyra J.; Kamath, Amrita; van Bruggen, Nicholas; Bunting, Stuart; Frendeus, Bjorn; Grove, Kevin L.

2013-01-01

378

The Use of Diagnostic Frequency Continuous Ultrasound to Improve Microcirculatory Function After Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury  

PubMed Central

Objective: Damage to the circulatory system resulting from ischemia–reperfusion injury (I/R injury) occurs during heart attacks and hemorrhagic shock. The authors report a method for mitigating microcirculatory injury, using diagnostic frequency continuous-mode ultrasound and how effects are influenced by nitric oxide production impairment. Methods: Five groups of hamsters were studied using the dorsal skin fold window chamber: (1) I/R; (2) I/R + ultrasound during ischemia; (3) I/R + ultrasound after ischemia; (4) I/R + N?-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME); and (5) I/R + l-NAME + ultrasound. Functional capillary density (FCD) and microvascular diameter, flow velocity, and flow were monitored. During the exposures 2.49 MHz continuous ultrasound was used. Results: Significant improvements in animals exposed to ultrasound after ischemia were found at 24 h of reperfusion in FCD, arteriolar diameter, and arteriolar and venular flow velocity and flow. Animals exposed to ultrasound during ischemia showed significantly improved FCD. l-NAME treatment reduced the improvement of microvascular function, compared to animals exposed after ischemia. Conclusions: The use of continuous-mode diagnostic frequency ultrasound is beneficial in preventing long-term ischemia–reperfusion effects in the microcirculation as shown by the return of microvascular parameters to baseline values, an effect not attained in the absence of ultrasound treatment. The effects may be in part due to the production of nitric oxide consequent to locally induced shear stress effects by ultrasound exposure.

HIGHTOWER, C. MAKENA; INTAGLIETTA, MARCOS

2008-01-01

379

Adeno-associated Virus 9 Mediated FKRP Gene Therapy Restores Functional Glycosylation of ?-dystroglycan and Improves Muscle Functions.  

PubMed

Mutations in the FKRP gene are associated with a wide range of muscular dystrophies from mild limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) 2I to severe Walker-Warburg syndrome and muscle-eye-brain disease. The characteristic biochemical feature of these diseases is the hypoglycosylation of ?-dystroglycan (?-DG). Currently there is no effective treatment available. In this study, we examined the adeno-associated virus serotype 9 vector (AAV9)-mediated gene therapy in the FKRP mutant mouse model with a proline to leucine missense mutation (P448L). Our results showed that intraperitoneal administration of AAV9-FKRP resulted in systemic FKRP expression in all striated muscles examined with the highest levels in cardiac muscle. Consistent with our previous observations, FKRP protein is localized in the Golgi apparatus in myofibers. Expression of FKRP consequently restored functional glycosylation of ?-DG in the skeletal and cardiac muscles. Significant improvement in dystrophic pathology, serum creatine kinase levels and muscle function was observed. Only limited FKRP transgene expression was detected in kidney and liver with no detectable toxicity. Our results provided evidence for the utility of AAV-mediated gene replacement therapy for FKRP-related muscular dystrophies.Molecular Therapy (2013); 21 10, 1832-1840. doi:10.1038/mt.2013.156. PMID:23817215

Xu, Lei; Lu, Pei Juan; Wang, Chi-Hsien; Keramaris, Elizabeth; Qiao, Chunping; Xiao, Bin; Blake, Derek J; Xiao, Xiao; Lu, Qi Long

2013-07-02

380

Global profiling of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1: Expression of hypothetical genes and improved functional annotations  

SciTech Connect

The gamma-proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 is a metabolically versatile organism that can reduce a wide range of organic compounds, metal ions, and radionuclides. Similar to most other sequenced organisms, approximate to40% of the predicted ORFs in the S. oneidensis genome were annotated as uncharacterized "hypothetical" genes. We implemented an integrative approach by using experimental and computational analyses to provide more detailed insight into gene function. Global expression profiles were determined for cells after UV irradiation and under aerobic and suboxic growth conditions. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses confidently identified 538 hypothetical genes as expressed in S. oneidensis cells both as mRNAs and proteins (33% of all predicted hypothetical proteins). Publicly available analysis tools and databases and the expression data were applied to improve the annotation of these genes. The annotation results were scored by using a seven-category schema that ranked both confidence and precision of the functional assignment. We were able to identify homologs for nearly all of these hypothetical proteins (97%), but could confidently assign exact biochemical functions for only 16 proteins (category 1; 3%). Altogether, computational and experimental evidence provided functional assignments or insights for 240 more genes (categories 2-5; 45%). These functional annotations advance our understanding of genes involved in vital cellular processes, including energy conversion, ion transport, secondary metabolism, and signal transduction. We propose that this integrative approach offers a valuable means to undertake the enormous challenge of characterizing the rapidly growing number of hypothetical proteins with each newly sequenced genome.

Picone, Alex F. [Biatech, Bothell WA; Galperin, Michael Y. [National Center for Biotechnology Information; Romine, Margaret [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Higdon, Roger [Biatech, Bothell WA; Makarova, Kira S. [National Center for Biotechnology Information; Kolker, Natali [Biatech, Bothell WA; Anderson, Gordon A [ORNL; Qiu, Xiaoyun [ORNL; Babnigg, Gyorgy [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Beliaev, Alexander S [ORNL; Edlefsen, Paul [Biatech, Bothell WA; Elias, Dwayne A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Gorby, Dr. Yuri A. [J. Craig Venter Institute; Holzman, Ted [Biatech, Bothell WA; Klappenbach, Joel [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Lipton, Mary S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); McCue, Lee Ann [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Monroe, Matthew [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Pinchuk, Grigoriy [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Purvine, Samuel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Serres, Margrethe H. [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Tsapin, Sasha [University of Southern California; Zakrajsek, Brian A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Zhu, Wenguang [Harvard University; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Lawrence, Charles E. [Wadsworth Center, Albany, NY; Riley, Monica [Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), Woods Hole, MA; Collart, Frank [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); YatesIII, John R. [Scripps Research Institute, The, La Jolla, CA; Smith, Richard D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Nealson, Kenneth H. [University of Southern California; Fredrickson, James K [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Tiedje, James M. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

2005-01-01

381

B cell-specific lentiviral gene therapy leads to sustained B-cell functional recovery in a murine model of X-linked agammaglobulinemia.  

PubMed

The immunodeficiency disorder, X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), results from mutations in the gene encoding Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk). Btk is required for pre-B cell clonal expansion and B-cell antigen receptor signaling. XLA patients lack mature B cells and immunoglobulin and experience recurrent bacterial infections only partially mitigated by life-long antibody replacement therapy. In pursuit of definitive therapy for XLA, we tested ex vivo gene therapy using a lentiviral vector (LV) containing the immunoglobulin enhancer (Emu) and Igbeta (B29) minimal promoter to drive B lineage-specific human Btk expression in Btk/Tec(-/-) mice, a strain that reproduces the features of human XLA. After transplantation of EmuB29-Btk-LV-transduced stem cells, treated mice showed significant, albeit incomplete, rescue of mature B cells in the bone marrow, peripheral blood, spleen, and peritoneal cavity, and improved responses to T-independent and T-dependent antigens. LV-treated B cells exhibited enhanced B-cell antigen receptor signaling and an in vivo selective advantage in the peripheral versus central B-cell compartment. Secondary transplantation showed sustained Btk expression, viral integration, and partial functional responses, consistent with long-term stem cell marking; and serial transplantation revealed no evidence for cellular or systemic toxicity. These findings strongly support pursuit of B lineage-targeted LV gene therapy in human XLA. PMID:20093406

Kerns, Hannah M; Ryu, Byoung Y; Stirling, Brigid V; Sather, Blythe D; Astrakhan, Alexander; Humblet-Baron, Stephanie; Liggitt, Denny; Rawlings, David J

2010-01-21

382

[Sphincter-preserving surgery for lower rectal cancer aimed at improving postoperative bowel function].  

PubMed

Much attention has been focused on sphincter-preserving surgery for patients with lower rectal cancer, leading to renewed interest in the outcome of postoperative bowel function. Some patients who undergo sphincter-preserving surgery experience bowel dysfunction, such as frequent stools, severe constipation, soiling, and incontinence. These symptoms were thought to be correlate with lower resting pressure, lower rectal compliance, sensory disturbance of the anal canal, spasm, and delayed transit in the colon above the anastomosis. To improve postoperative bowel function, reconstruction with the colonic J-pouch has been performed, which results in a satisfactory functional outcome. About 80% of patients with a J-pouch were able to tolerate over 10 minutes after feeling the desire to defecate. An anorectal manometric study showed no abnormal spastic movement of the neorectum and a transit study showed that the J-pouch group was superior to the straight group with respect to the smoothness of movement of radiopaque markers from the cecum to anal ring, although a small number of markers were retained in the colonic J-pouch. Patients who received a colonic J-pouch had fewer defecation problems in daily life. Further study is need to improve postoperative bowel movement in patients who undergo sphincter-preserving surgery. PMID:10919155

Morita, T; Suzuki, J; Yoshizaki, T; Kimura, Y; Nakamura, F; Itoh, T; Murata, A; Nishi, T; Koyama, M; Sasaki, M

2000-06-01

383

Necrostatin-1 protects photoreceptors from cell death and improves functional outcome after experimental retinal detachment.  

PubMed

Necroptosis is a recently discovered programmed necrosis. Evidence demonstrated the importance of necroptosis in neuronal cell death. Necrostatin-1 is a specific inhibitor of necroptosis. In this study, we investigated the role of necrostatin-1 on photoreceptor survival and functional protection after experimental retinal detachment (RD) in rats. Necrostatin-1/inactive analogue of necrostatin-1 was introduced into the subretinal space at RD induction and 6 hours afterward, respectively. We found that necrostatin-1 attenuated retinal histopathological damage and reduced plasma membrane breakdown (a morphological hallmark of necroptosis) in outer retinal layers. Transmission electron microscopy showed that necrostatin-1 directly protected neurons by inhibiting necroptotic, not apoptotic, cell death. Treatment with necrostatin-1 inhibited the induction of receptor-interacting protein kinase phosphorylation after RD (a biomarker of necroptosis). Finally, electroretinographic recording proved that necrostatin-1 contributed to objective functional improvement after RD. These findings indicate that necrostatin-1 is a promising therapeutic agent that protects photoreceptors from necroptosis and improves functional outcome. PMID:22940440

Dong, Kai; Zhu, Hong; Song, Zhengyu; Gong, Yuanyuan; Wang, Fenghua; Wang, Wenqiu; Zheng, Zhi; Yu, Zhang; Gu, Qing; Xu, Xun; Sun, Xiaodong

2012-08-30

384

Embryonic Stem Cell-Based Cardiopatches Improve Cardiac Function in Infarcted Rats  

PubMed Central

Pluripotent stem cell-seeded cardiopatches hold promise for in situ regeneration of infarcted hearts. Here, we describe a novel cardiopatch based on bone morphogenetic protein 2-primed cardiac-committed mouse embryonic stem cells, embedded into biodegradable fibrin matrices and engrafted onto infarcted rat hearts. For in vivo tracking of the engrafted cardiac-committed cells, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were magnetofected into the cells, thus enabling detection and functional evaluation by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Six weeks after transplantation into infarcted rat hearts, both local (p < .04) and global (p < .015) heart function, as well as the left ventricular dilation (p < .0011), were significantly improved (p < .001) as compared with hearts receiving cardiopatches loaded with iron nanoparticles alone. Histological analysis revealed that the fibrin scaffolds had degraded over time and clusters of myocyte enhancer factor 2-positive cardiac-committed cells had colonized most of the infarcted myocardium, including the fibrotic area. De novo CD31-positive blood vessels were formed in the vicinity of the transplanted cardiopatch. Altogether, our data provide evidence that stem cell-based cardiopatches represent a promising therapeutic strategy to achieve efficient cell implantation and improved global and regional cardiac function after myocardial infarction.

Vallee, Jean-Paul; Hauwel, Mathieu; Lepetit-Coiffe, Matthieu; Bei, Wang; Montet-Abou, Karin; Meda, Paolo; Gardier, Stephany; Zammaretti, Prisca; Kraehenbuehl, Thomas P.; Herrmann, Francois; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.

2012-01-01

385

Embryonic stem cell-based cardiopatches improve cardiac function in infarcted rats.  

PubMed

Pluripotent stem cell-seeded cardiopatches hold promise for in situ regeneration of infarcted hearts. Here, we describe a novel cardiopatch based on bone morphogenetic protein 2-primed cardiac-committed mouse embryonic stem cells, embedded into biodegradable fibrin matrices and engrafted onto infarcted rat hearts. For in vivo tracking of the engrafted cardiac-committed cells, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were magnetofected into the cells, thus enabling detection and functional evaluation by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Six weeks after transplantation into infarcted rat hearts, both local (p < .04) and global (p < .015) heart function, as well as the left ventricular dilation (p < .0011), were significantly improved (p < .001) as compared with hearts receiving cardiopatches loaded with iron nanoparticles alone. Histological analysis revealed that the fibrin scaffolds had degraded over time and clusters of myocyte enhancer factor 2-positive cardiac-committed cells had colonized most of the infarcted myocardium, including the fibrotic area. De novo CD31-positive blood vessels were formed in the vicinity of the transplanted cardiopatch. Altogether, our data provide evidence that stem cell-based cardiopatches represent a promising therapeutic strategy to achieve efficient cell implantation and improved global and regional cardiac function after myocardial infarction. PMID:23197784

Vallée, Jean-Paul; Hauwel, Mathieu; Lepetit-Coiffé, Matthieu; Bei, Wang; Montet-Abou, Karin; Meda, Paolo; Gardier, Stephany; Zammaretti, Prisca; Kraehenbuehl, Thomas P; Herrmann, Francois; Hubbell, Jeffrey A; Jaconi, Marisa E

2012-03-07

386

Functionally dependent veterans. Issues related to providing and improving their oral health care.  

PubMed

This article discusses issues related to the quality and effectiveness of new, emerging, and existing oral health delivery mechanisms and models for the functionally dependent veteran. It describes the particular needs and unique qualities of functionally dependent veterans and enumerates the clinical dental interventions and delivery systems available to this group. Barriers specific to The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) regarding this population and suggestions for improved access to care are summarized. Suggestions for further research are proposed with the intent that limited resources be utilized so that maximum benefits are provided to the functionally dependent veterans who need care most. What we know: Among the veteran population and the general population, the oldest cohort of elderly (those age 85 and older) are growing faster than any other age group. The rate of functional dependency increases dramatically with age, from about 10% at age 65 to 69 to about 57% after age 85. Functionally dependent elderly are the most likely group to be home-bound or in nursing homes. Compared with independent elderly, the oral status of functionally dependent elderly tends to be poorer. Functionally dependent elderly have higher rates of tooth loss, greater prevalence of denture-related problems, greater prevalence and severity of dental caries, higher prevalence of gingival and periodontal disease, and typically not seen a dentist in at least 5 years. The Department of Veterans Affairs has several advantages over non-VA settings in delivering dental care to the functionally dependent including the presence and availability of dental clinics at VA medical centers and outpatient facilities, the fact that they are free to eligible VA patients, and the greater knowledge base of the dentists. Although VA is effective in delivering oral care to a small percentage of the total population, it is likely that demand will increase and resources exhausted if certain anticipated changes occur (eg, greater demand for dental care and/or changing dental status, such as more elderly with teeth). Questions that need to be answered: What quality of oral care is VA providing to the functionally dependent veteran? What delivery systems are the most effective in providing care to the functionally dependent elderly? Is there a difference in oral health outcomes when dental personnel serve on patient care teams? What barriers exist for delivering quality oral care for the functionally dependent elderly? How can we eliminate or minimize these barriers? PMID:7475426

Henry, R G

1995-11-01