These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

A Targeted Mutation within the Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) Envelope Protein Immunosuppressive Domain To Improve a Canarypox Virus-Vectored FeLV Vaccine  

PubMed Central

We previously delineated a highly conserved immunosuppressive (IS) domain within murine and primate retroviral envelope proteins that is critical for virus propagation in vivo. The envelope-mediated immunosuppression was assessed by the ability of the proteins, when expressed by allogeneic tumor cells normally rejected by engrafted mice, to allow these cells to escape, at least transiently, immune rejection. Using this approach, we identified key residues whose mutation (i) specifically abolishes immunosuppressive activity without affecting the “mechanical” function of the envelope protein and (ii) significantly enhances humoral and cellular immune responses elicited against the virus. The objective of this work was to study the immunosuppressive activity of the envelope protein (p15E) of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and evaluate the effect of its abolition on the efficacy of a vaccine against FeLV. Here we demonstrate that the FeLV envelope protein is immunosuppressive in vivo and that this immunosuppressive activity can be “switched off” by targeted mutation of a specific amino acid. As a result of the introduction of the mutated envelope sequence into a previously well characterized canarypox virus-vectored vaccine (ALVAC-FeLV), the frequency of vaccine-induced FeLV-specific gamma interferon (IFN-?)-producing cells was increased, whereas conversely, the frequency of vaccine-induced FeLV-specific interleukin-10 (IL-10)-producing cells was reduced. This shift in the IFN-?/IL-10 response was associated with a higher efficacy of ALVAC-FeLV against FeLV infection. This study demonstrates that FeLV p15E is immunosuppressive in vivo, that the immunosuppressive domain of p15E can modulate the FeLV-specific immune response, and that the efficacy of FeLV vaccines can be enhanced by inhibiting the immunosuppressive activity of the IS domain through an appropriate mutation. PMID:24198407

Schlecht-Louf, Géraldine; Mangeney, Marianne; El-Garch, Hanane; Lacombe, Valérie; Poulet, Hervé

2014-01-01

2

Improved monitoring and control of distribution network by smart MV\\/LV substations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the key features and practical experience gained so far of a unique distribution network monitoring and control system. Intelligent components and communication equipment at MV\\/LV substations have enabled extension of SCADA and DMS systems from HV\\/MV substations down to LV level. The functionality includes e.g. power quality monitoring, control of MV switches, and MV fault indication. Putting

L. Kumpulainen; S. Pettissalo; P. Trygg; K. Malmberg; M. Loukkalahti; M. Hyvarinen

2011-01-01

3

A SMART MV\\/LV-STATION THAT IMPROVES POWER QUALITY, RELIABILITY AND SUBSTATION LOAD PROFILE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the increasing penetration of dispersed generation and developments in the power demand, the power flows in LV and MV distribution grids will increasingly fluctuate in the near future. To manage these fluctuations while maintaining power quality and reliability, a Smart MV\\/LV-station has been designed by a Dutch consortium. A prototype of this station will be built and tested.

C. P. KESTER; Peter J. M. HESKES; Gerard SCHOONENBERG; Erik C. W. DE; Ben J. WARGERS

4

A EUKARYOTIC GENE IS FUNCTIONALLY EXPRESSED ri\\i E.COLI Kevin Struhl and Rona1d lV. Davis  

E-print Network

A EUKARYOTIC GENE IS FUNCTIONALLY EXPRESSED ri\\i E.COLI Kevin Struhl and Rona1d lV. Davis expression of this eukaryotic DNA in E. coli ap- proaches the arnount resulting frorn the analogous E.- goli gene. This cloning of such a eukaryotic gene in E. coli represents a good rnodel systern ior synthesis

5

a-Adrenergic Blockade Improves Recovery of Myocardial Perfusion and Function After Coronary Stenting in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—AMI reperfusion by thrombolysis does not improve TIMI flow and LV function. The role of infarct-related artery (IRA) stenosis and superimposed changes in coronary vasomotor tone in maintaining LV dysfunction must be elucidated. Methods and Results—Forty patients underwent diagnostic angiography 24 hours after thrombolysis. Seventy-two hours after thrombolysis, the culprit lesion was dilated with coronary stenting. During angioplasty, LV function

Luisa Gregorini; Jean Marco; Carlo Palombo; Gian Battista Anguissola; Isabelle Marco; Monique Bernies; Bernard Cassagneau; Alessandro Distante; Irene M. Bossi; Jean Fajadet; Gerd Heusch

6

Implantation of a Three-Dimensional Fibroblast Matrix Improves Left Ventricular Function and Blood Flow After Acute Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to determine if a viable biodegradable three-dimensional fibroblast construct (3DFC) patch implanted on the left ventricle after myocardial infarction (MI) improves left ventricular (LV) function and blood flow. We ligated the left coronary artery of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats and implanted the 3DFC at the time of the infarct. Three weeks after MI, the 3DFC improved LV systolic function by increasing (p < 0.05) ejection fraction (37 ± 3% to 62 ± 5%), increasing regional systolic displacement of the infarcted wall (0.04 ± 0.02 to 0.11 ± 0.03 cm), and shifting the passive LV diastolic pressure volume relationship toward the pressure axis. The 3FDC improved LV remodeling by decreasing (p < 0.05) LV end-systolic and end-diastolic diameters with no change in LV systolic pressure. The 3DFC did not change LV end-diastolic pressure (LV EDP; 25 ± 2 vs. 23 ± 2 mmHg) but the addition of captopril (2mg/L drinking water) lowered (p < 0.05) LV EDP to 12.9 ± 2.5 mmHg and shifted the pressure–volume relationship toward the pressure axis and decreased (p < 0.05) the LV operating end-diastolic volume from 0.49 ± 0.02 to 0.34 ± 0.03 ml. The 3DFC increased myocardial blood flow to the infarcted anterior wall after MI over threefold (p < 0.05). This biodegradable 3DFC patch improves LV function and myocardial blood flow 3 weeks after MI. This is a potentially new approach to cell-based therapy for heart failure after MI. PMID:19558777

Thai, Hoang M.; Juneman, Elizabeth; Lancaster, Jordan; Hagerty, Tracy; Do, Rose; Castellano, Lisa; Kellar, Robert; Williams, Stuart; Sethi, Gulshan; Schmelz, Monika; Gaballa, Mohamed; Goldman, Steven

2009-01-01

7

Intra-Myocardial Injection of Both Growth Factors and Heart Derived Sca-1+/CD31? Cells Attenuates Post-MI LV Remodeling More Than Does Cell Transplantation Alone: Neither Intervention Enhances Functionally Significant Cardiomyocyte Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are two potent cell survival and regenerative factors in response to myocardial injury (MI). We hypothesized that simultaneous delivery of IGF+HGF combined with Sca-1+/CD31? cells would improve the outcome of transplantation therapy in response to the altered hostile microenvironment post MI. One million adenovirus nuclear LacZ-labeled Sca-1+/CD31? cells were injected into the peri-infarction area after left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) ligation in mice. Recombinant mouse IGF-1+HGF was added to the cell suspension prior to the injection. The left ventricular (LV) function was assessed by echocardiography 4 weeks after the transplantation. The cell engraftment, differentiation and cardiomyocyte regeneration were evaluated by histological analysis. Sca-1+/CD31? cells formed viable grafts and improved LV ejection fraction (EF) (Control, 54.5+/?2.4; MI, 17.6+/?3.1; Cell, 28.2+/?4.2, n?=?9, P<0.01). IGF+HGF significantly enhanced the benefits of cell transplantation as evidenced by increased EF (38.8+/?2.2; n?=?9, P<0.01) and attenuated adverse structural remodeling. Furthermore, IGF+HGF supplementation increased the cell engraftment rate, promoted the transplanted cell survival, enhanced angiogenesis, and minimally stimulated endogenous cardiomyocyte regeneration in vivo. The in vitro experiments showed that IGF+HGF treatment stimulated Sca-1+/CD31? cell proliferation and inhibited serum free medium induced apoptosis. Supperarray profiling of Sca-1+/CD31? cells revealed that Sca-1+/CD31? cells highly expressed various trophic factor mRNAs and IGF+HGF treatment altered the mRNAs expression patterns of these cells. These data indicate that IGF-1+HGF could serve as an adjuvant to cell transplantation for myocardial repair by stimulating donor cell and endogenous cardiac stem cell survival, regeneration and promoting angiogenesis. PMID:24919180

Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Qinglu; Hu, Qingsong; Suntharalingam, Piradeep; From, Arthur H. L.; Zhang, Jianyi

2014-01-01

8

? — ?? glueball mixing from photon-meson transition form factors and the decay ratio D s ? ?lv\\/??lv  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined (a) the ?\\/?? mixing angle and (b) the regions of the allowed admixture of the glueball component with JPC = 0?+ in ? and ??, based on transition form factors ? ? ??* and ?? ? ??* at 0 ? Q2 ? 20 GeV2\\/C2, and the branching ratio Ds ? ?lv\\/??lv. For ? and ?? wave functions,

V. V. Anisovich; D. V. Bugg; D. I. Melikhov; V. A. Nikonov

1997-01-01

9

Functionality Improvements to Overaero  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The functionality of the overset, static aeroelasticity, Navier-Stokes flow solver OVERAERO was increased by adding capability to the flow solver and enhancing code performance. Improvements were made to the fluids/structure interface, an MLP version of the parallel OVERAERO code was developed, and the OVERAERO-MPI code was ported to the Cray T3E. The OVERFLOW-MPI and OVERAERO-MPI codes were tested successfully on the IPG testbed and a means of reducing communication overhead within OVERFLOW-MPI was investigated. To solve an aeroelastic problem computationally, a structures grid surface definition and a fluids grid surface definition are required. Typically, the structures grid surface has a lower fidelity than the fluids grid surface. Thus, the methods developed to transfer data between the two grid systems are vital to the accuracy and efficiency of the aeroelasticity code. The fluids/structures interface developed for the OVERAERO code was improved to more accurately treat fluids surfaces that bridge between two different structural surfaces. For example, the method allowed the forward portion of a flap track fairing to deform with the wing and the aft end of the fairing to deform with the flap. A tightly-coupled version of the code based on OVERFLOW-MLP was developed to improve code performance on the SGI Origin 2000. This required a new parallelization strategy to couple the fluids and structures codes. The OVERAERO-MPI code was ported to the Cray T3E to extend the usability of the code. The port required extensive use of dynamic memory management techniques to fit large problems within the memory limitations of the T3E. The OVERFLOW-MPI and OVERAERO-MPI codes were tested on the IPG testbed being developed within NASA. For small problems with minimal data transfer between grids, there was little to no performance penalty spreading the computation across two machines. For very large problems, methods were developed to minimize intermachine communication via the grid partitioning scheme. By minimizing the intermachine communication requirements of the problem, it may still be beneficial to run a tightly-coupled flow solver across two machines within the IPG.

Gee, Ken; Rizk, Yehia M.

2000-01-01

10

Atorvastatin enhances interleukin-10 levels and improves cardiac function in rats after acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

LV (left ventricular) remodelling is the basic mechanism of HF (heart failure) following MI (myocardial infarction). Although there is evidence that pro-inflammatory cytokines [including TNF-alpha (tumour necrosis factor-alpha) and IL-6 (interleukin-6)] are involved in the remodelling process, only little is known about the role of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10. As accumulating evidence has revealed that statins possess anti-inflammatory properties, the aim of the present study was to elucidate the effect of atorvastatin on the modulation of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and its effect on LV function in rats with HF subsequent to MI. Rats with MI, induced by permanent LAD (left anterior descending) branch coronary artery ligation, were treated for 4 weeks with atorvastatin (10 mg x kg(-1) of body weight x day(-1) via oral gavage) starting on the first day after induction of MI. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and cardiac catheterization 4 weeks after MI induction. Membrane-bound and soluble fractions of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10 protein, the TNF-alpha/IL-10 ratio, serum levels of MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) as well as myocardial macrophage infiltration were analysed. Treatment with atorvastatin significantly improved post-MI LV function (fractional shortening, +120%; dP/dt(max), +147%; and LV end-diastolic pressure, -27%). Furthermore atorvastatin treatment markedly decreased the levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and MCP-1, reduced myocardial infiltration of macrophages and significantly increased myocardial and serum levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Thus the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines was shifted in the anti-inflammatory direction, as shown by a significantly decreased TNF-alpha/IL-10 ratio. Atorvastatin ameliorated early LV remodelling and improved LV function in rats with HF subsequent to MI. Our study suggests that the modulation of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines towards the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 is one salutary mechanism underlying how atorvastatin influences post-MI remodelling and thus improves LV function. PMID:18459941

Stumpf, Christian; Petzi, Sebastian; Seybold, Katrin; Wasmeier, Gerald; Arnold, Martin; Raaz, Dorette; Yilmaz, Atilla; Daniel, Werner G; Garlichs, Christoph D

2009-01-01

11

Relationship between early diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients, an index of elastic recoil, and improvements in systolic and diastolic function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Early diastolic intraventricular pressure gradients (IVPGs) have been proposed to relate to left ventricular (LV) elastic recoil and early ventricular "suction." Animal studies have demonstrated relationships between IVPGs and systolic and diastolic indices during acute ischemia. However, data on the effects of improvements in LV function in humans and the relationship to IVPGs are lacking. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight patients undergoing CABG and/or infarct exclusion surgery had a triple-sensor high-fidelity catheter placed across the mitral valve intraoperatively for simultaneous recording of left atrial (LA), basal LV, and apical LV pressures. Hemodynamic data obtained before bypass were compared with those with similar LA pressures and heart rates obtained after bypass. From each LV waveform, the time constant of LV relaxation (tau), +dP/dt(max), and -dP/dt(max) were determined. Transesophageal echocardiography was used to determined end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes and ejection fractions (EF). At similar LA pressures and heart rates, IVPG increased after bypass (before bypass 1.64+/-0.79 mm Hg; after bypass 2.67+/-1.25 mm Hg; P<0.01). Significant improvements were observed in ESV, as well as in apical and basal +dP/dt(max), -dP/dt(max), and tau (each P<0.05). Overall, IVPGs correlated inversely with both ESV (IVPG=-0.027[ESV]+3.46, r=-0.64) and EDV (IVPG=-0.027[EDV]+4.30, r=-0.70). Improvements in IVPGs correlated with improvements in apical tau (Deltatau =5.93[DeltaIVPG]+4.76, r=0.91) and basal tau (Deltatau =2.41[DeltaIVPG]+5.13, r=-0.67). Relative changes in IVPGs correlated with changes in ESV (DeltaESV=-0.97[%DeltaIVPG]+23.34, r=-0.79), EDV (DeltaEDV=-1.16[%DeltaIVPG]+34.92, r=-0.84), and EF (DeltaEF=0.38[%DeltaIVPG]-8.39, r=0.85). CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in LV function also increase IVPGs. These changes in IVPGs, suggestive of increases in LV suction and elastic recoil, correlate directly with improvements in LV relaxation and ESV.

Firstenberg, M. S.; Smedira, N. G.; Greenberg, N. L.; Prior, D. L.; McCarthy, P. M.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.

2001-01-01

12

Nicorandil improves myocardial function by regulating plasma nitric oxide and endothelin-1 in coronary slow flow  

PubMed Central

Background Coronary slow flow (CSF) is a special coronary microvascular disorder. The pathogenesis and effective therapeutics of CSF remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the global and regional functions of the left ventricle (LV) and investigate the efficacy of nicorandil in patients with CSF. Patients and methods Thirty-six patients with CSF in the left anterior descending (LAD) branch and 20 patients with normal coronary arteries were included. Global and regional functions of the LV supplied by LAD were measured using conventional Doppler echocardiography and two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, respectively, within 24?h after coronary angiography. Concentrations of plasma nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were detected using colorimetry and radioimmunoassay, respectively. The function of the LV and the levels of NO and ET-1 were also investigated before and 90 days after treatment with 15?mg/day of nicorandil. Results Compared with the control group, the early diastolic peak velocity (E), E/A ratio, and plasma NO levels were lower, whereas the late diastolic peak flow velocity (A) and plasma ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the CSF group (P<0.05). The longitudinal strain rate peak of the LV was reduced significantly in CSF patients (P<0.001). After treatment, 75% (27/36) of CSF patients were free of chest pain. The values of E peak, E/A ratio, longitudinal strain rate peak, and plasma NO level were increased (P<0.001), whereas the ET-1 level was decreased in CSF patients (P<0.001). Conclusion Nicorandil may improve chest pain symptoms and the impaired function of the LV, possibly by increasing plasma NO and reducing ET-1 in CSF. PMID:25325437

Chen, Xiuhua; Li, Shan; Huo, Xuezhen; Fu, Xiuxiu; Dong, Xiaonan

2015-01-01

13

Reduction in Left Ventricular Wall Stress and Improvement in Function in Failing Hearts using Algisyl-LVR  

PubMed Central

Injection of Algisyl-LVR, a treatment under clinical development, is intended to treat patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. This treatment was recently used for the first time in patients who had symptomatic heart failure. In all patients, cardiac function of the left ventricle (LV) improved significantly, as manifested by consistent reduction of the LV volume and wall stress. Here we describe this novel treatment procedure and the methods used to quantify its effects on LV wall stress and function. Algisyl-LVR is a biopolymer gel consisting of Na+-Alginate and Ca2+-Alginate. The treatment procedure was carried out by mixing these two components and then combining them into one syringe for intramyocardial injections. This mixture was injected at 10 to 19 locations mid-way between the base and apex of the LV free wall in patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), together with mathematical modeling, was used to quantify the effects of this treatment in patients before treatment and at various time points during recovery. The epicardial and endocardial surfaces were first digitized from the MR images to reconstruct the LV geometry at end-systole and at end-diastole. Left ventricular cavity volumes were then measured from these reconstructed surfaces. Mathematical models of the LV were created from these MRI-reconstructed surfaces to calculate regional myofiber stress. Each LV model was constructed so that 1) it deforms according to a previously validated stress-strain relationship of the myocardium, and 2) the predicted LV cavity volume from these models matches the corresponding MRI-measured volume at end-diastole and end-systole. Diastolic filling was simulated by loading the LV endocardial surface with a prescribed end-diastolic pressure. Systolic contraction was simulated by concurrently loading the endocardial surface with a prescribed end-systolic pressure and adding active contraction in the myofiber direction. Regional myofiber stress at end-diastole and end-systole was computed from the deformed LV based on the stress-strain relationship. PMID:23608998

Lee, Lik Chuan; Zhihong, Zhang; Hinson, Andrew; Guccione, Julius M.

2013-01-01

14

IMPROVING CARDIAC FUNCTION WITH NEW GENERATION PLASMA VOLUME EXPANDERS  

PubMed Central

Background Plasma expander (PE) based on polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugated to albumin has shown positive results maintaining blood volume (BV) during hemodilution and restoring BV during resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock. PEG conjugation to human serum albumin (HSA), PEG-HSA, increasing size, weigh and colloidal osmotic pressure (COP), with minor effects on solution viscosity. Methods This study was designed to test the hypothesis that PEG-HSA (2 g/dL) produced by direct PEGylation chemistry improves cardiac function during two experimental models, i) moderate hemodilution and ii) resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock, compared to a conventional colloidal plasma expander (dextran 70 kDa, D×70, 6 g/dL). Cardiac function was studied using a miniaturized pressure volume (PV) conductance catheter implanted in the left ventricle (LV) and evaluated in terms of cardiac indices derived from the PV measurements. Results PEG-HSA increased cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV) and stroke work (SW), and decreased systemic vascular resistance (SVR) compared to D×70, in both experimental models. The improvements induced by PEG-HSA in cardiac function were sustained over the observation time. PEG-HSA cardiac mechanoenergetics changes are the result of increased energy transferred per stroke, and decreased resistance of the vasculature connecting the heart. In summary, PEG-HSA decreased LV ejection impedance. Conclusion Ejection of blood diluted with PEG-HSA presented a reduced load to the heart, increased contractile function, and lowered the energy consumed per unit volume compared to D×70. Our results emphasize the importance of heart function as a parameter to be included in the evaluation changes induced by new PEs. PMID:22867830

Chatpun, Surapong; Nacharaju, Parimala; Cabrales, Pedro

2012-01-01

15

ENHANCED EXTERNAL COUNTERPULSATION IMPROVES ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION AND EXERCISE CAPACITY IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC LEFT VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION  

PubMed Central

Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) therapy decreases angina episodes and improves quality of life in patients with left ventricular dysfunction (LVD). However, studies have not elucidated the mechanisms of action and overall effects of EECP in patients with LVD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of EECP on endothelial function in peripheral conduit arteries and exercise capacity (peak VO2) in patients with LVD. Patients with ischemic LVD (EF 34.5±4.2%; n=9), and patients with symptomatic CAD and preserved LV function (EF 53.5±6.6%; n=15), were studied before and after 35 1-hr sessions of EECP. Brachial (bFMD) and femoral (fFMD) artery flow-mediated dilation were evaluated using high-resolution ultrasound. EECP elicited similar significant improvements in the following FMD parameters amongst the CAD and LVD groups, respectively: absolute bFMD (+53% and +70%); relative bFMD (+50% and +74 %); bFMD normalized for shear rate (+70% and +61%); absolute fFMD (+33% and +21%); and relative fFMD (+32% and +17%) (P?0.05 between groups). EECP significantly improved plasma levels of nitrate/nitrite (NOx) (+55% and +28%; ?mol/L) and prostacyclin (6-keto-PGF1?) (+50% and +70%); and improved peak VO2 (+36% and +21%), similarly in both the CAD and LVD groups, respectively; (P?0.05 between groups). Despite reduced LV function, EECP therapy significantly improved peripheral vascular function and functional capacity similar in magnitude to that observed in CAD patients with preserved LV function. PMID:24862172

Beck, DT; Martin, JS; Casey, DP; Avery, JC; Sardina, PD; Braith, RW

2014-01-01

16

16285/03 LV/mat 1 THE EUROPEAN UNION  

E-print Network

16285/03 LV/mat 1 DG I EN COUNCIL OF THE EUROPEAN UNION Brussels, 18 December 2003 16285/03 PROCIV cooperation in the European Union for preventing and limiting the consequences of chemical, biological December 2002, the programme to improve cooperation in the European Union for preventing and limiting

Sussex, University of

17

Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition improves myocardial perfusion and function in experimental heart failure.  

PubMed

The study addressed the hypothesis that soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibition, which increases cardiovascular protective epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), exerts beneficial effects in an established chronic heart failure (CHF) model. In CHF rats, left ventricular (LV) function, perfusion and remodeling were assessed using MRI and invasive hemodynamics after 42-day (starting 8 days after coronary ligation) and delayed 3-day (starting 47 days after coronary ligation) treatments with the sEH inhibitor AUDA (twice 0.25 mg/day). Delayed 3-day and 42-day AUDA increased plasma EETs demonstrating the effective inhibition of sEH. Delayed 3-day and 42-day AUDA enhanced cardiac output without change in arterial pressure, thus reducing total peripheral resistance. Both treatment periods increased the slope of the LV end-systolic pressure-volume relation, but only 42-day AUDA decreased LV end-diastolic pressure, relaxation constant Tau and the slope of the LV end-diastolic pressure-volume relation, associated with a reduced LV diastolic volume and collagen density. Delayed 3-day and, to a larger extent, 42-day AUDA increased LV perfusion associated with a decreased LV hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha. Both treatment periods decreased reactive oxygen species level and increased reduced-oxidized glutathione ratio. Finally, MSPPOH, an inhibitor of the EET-synthesizing enzyme cytochrome epoxygenases, abolished the beneficial effects of 3-day AUDA on LV function and perfusion. Augmentation of EET availability by pharmacological inhibition of sEH increases LV diastolic and systolic functions in established CHF. This notably results from short-term processes, i.e. increased LV perfusion, reduced LV oxidative stress and peripheral vasodilatation, but also from long-term effects, i.e. reduced LV remodeling. PMID:22155238

Merabet, Nassiba; Bellien, Jeremy; Glevarec, Etienne; Nicol, Lionel; Lucas, Daniele; Remy-Jouet, Isabelle; Bounoure, Frederic; Dreano, Yvonne; Wecker, Didier; Thuillez, Christian; Mulder, Paul

2012-03-01

18

3D Quantitative Visualization of Altered LV wall Thickening Dynamics Caused by Coronary Microembolization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional heart wall dynamics has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of LV wall ischemia. Rates of local LV wall thickening during a cardiac cycle can be measured and illustrated using functional parametric mappings. This display conveys the spatial distribution of dynamic strain in the myocardium and thereby provides a rapid qualitative appreciation of the severity and extent of

Christian D. Eusemann; Stefan Mohlenkamp; Erik L. Ritman; Richard A. Robb

19

3D quantitative visualization of altered LV wall thickening dynamics caused by coronary microembolization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regional heart wall dynamics has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of LV wall ischemia. Rates of local LV wall thickening during a cardiac cycle can be measured and illustrated using functional parametric mappings. This display conveys the spatial distribution of dynamic strain in the myocardium and thereby provides a rapid qualitative appreciation of the severity and extent of

Christian D. Eusemann; Stefan Mohlenkamp; Erik L. Ritman; Richard A. Robb

2001-01-01

20

Improvement of left ventricular longitudinal systolic function after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: a speckle-tracking prospective study.  

PubMed

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is able to determine a significant improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). The variations of LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) have not been yet investigated in TAVI patients with reduced LVEF. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of TAVI on LV function by 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) in patients with reduced LVEF. Eighteen consecutive patients undergoing TAVI in our centre were prospectively enrolled. Echocardiography was performed pre-procedurally the day of TAVI and at 40-day and 3-month follow-up (FU). The mean age of TAVI patients was 79.75 ± 7.68 years. The mean EuroSCORE was 26.59 ± 14.62%. A significant decrease of mean trans-aortic gradient was observed 40 days after TAVI (51.69 ± 18.82 vs. 9.62 ± 3.28 mmHg, p < 0.0001). LV mass index significantly decreased at 40-day FU (165.72 ± 37.75 vs. 145.52 ± 31.32 g/m(2), p < 0.001) with a further reduction at 3-month FU (136.91 ± 26.91 g/m(2), p < 0.05 in comparison with 40-day FU). The mean pre-procedural LVEF was 45.87 ± 7.95%. LVEF significantly increased at 40-day FU (55.20 ± 5.91%, p < 0.05) and remained stable at 3-month FU (55.58 ± 6.14%). Interestingly, an early improvement of LV GLS was observed at 40-day FU (-11.09 ± 3.40 vs. -14.40 ± 3.68%, p < 0.001) with a slight further increase at 3-month FU (-14.71 ± 3.56%). Our results indicate that significant improvements of LVEF and LV GLS can be observed in patients undergoing TAVI with impaired LVEF. Two-dimensional STE was able to detect the reverse remodeling of LV function, adding further insights into the assessment of LV mid-term recovery after TAVI. PMID:23271458

D'Ascenzi, Flavio; Cameli, Matteo; Iadanza, Alessandro; Lisi, Matteo; Zacà, Valerio; Reccia, Rosanna; Curci, Valeria; Torrisi, Andrea; Sinicropi, Giuseppe; Pierli, Carlo; Mondillo, Sergio

2013-06-01

21

Noisy Ventilation Improves Lung Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been shown that mechanical ventilation in the setting of acute lung injury may propagate additional injury within the lung and numerous studies have been carried out to determine the optimal method of minimizing ventilator induced lung injury while still maintaining life-sustaining gas exchange. We have found that noise added to tidal volume and frequency, called noisy ventilation, during mechanical ventilation improves both lung mechanics and oxygenation in a rodent model of acute lung injury. Additionally, the standard deviation of the noise appears to be directly related to the magnitude of improvements seen with this ventilation modality in a manner similar to stochastic resonance. Furthermore, healthy guinea pigs that underwent with noisy ventilation exhibited increased surfactant content and reduced plasma proteins than their conventionally ventilated counterparts within the alveolar space of the lung. This suggests that not only did noisy ventilation induce endogenous surfactant release, but also served to reduce ventilator induced lung injury in this animal model. In conclusion, noisy ventilation improves blood oxygenation during acute lung injury and also serves to enhance lung function and reduce ventilator induced lung injury in healthy lungs.

Suki, Béla; Arold, Stephen P.; Alencar, Adriano; Lutchen, Kenneth R.; Ingenito, Edward P.

2003-05-01

22

Intracoronary Delivery of Autologous Cardiac Stem Cells Improves Cardiac Function in a Porcine Model of Chronic Ischemic Cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Background Relevant preclinical models are necessary for further mechanistic and translational studies of c-kit+ cardiac stem cells (CSCs). The present study was undertaken to determine whether intracoronary CSCs are beneficial in a porcine model of chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy. Methods and Results Pigs underwent a 90-min coronary occlusion followed by reperfusion. Three months later, autologous CSCs (n=11) or vehicle (n=10) were infused into the infarct-related artery. At this time, all indices of LV function were similar in control and CSC-treated pigs, indicating that the damage inflicted by the infarct in the two groups was similar; one month later, however, CSC-treated pigs exhibited significantly greater LV ejection fraction (echocardiography) (51.7 ± 2.0% vs. 42.9 ± 2.3 %, P<0.01), systolic thickening fraction in the infarcted LV wall, and max LV dP/dt, as well as lower LVEDP. Confocal microscopy showed clusters of small ?-sarcomeric actin positive cells expressing Ki67 in the scar of treated pigs, consistent with cardiac regeneration. The origin of these cycling myocytes from the injected cells was confirmed in four pigs that received EGFP-labeled CSCs, which were positive for the cardiac markers troponin I, troponin T, myosin heavy chain, and connexin-43. Some engrafted CSCs also formed vascular structures and expressed ?-smooth muscle actin. Conclusions Intracoronary infusion of autologous CSCs improves regional and global LV function and promotes cardiac and vascular regeneration in pigs with old MI (scar). The results mimic those recently reported in humans (SCIPIO trial) and establish this porcine model of ischemic cardiomyopathy as a useful and clinically-relevant model for studying CSCs. PMID:23757309

Bolli, Roberto; Tang, Xian-Liang; Sanganalmath, Santosh K.; Rimoldi, Ornella; Mosna, Federico; Abdel-Latif, Ahmed; Jneid, Hani; Rota, Marcello; Leri, Annarosa; Kajstura, Jan

2013-01-01

23

LV software support for supersonic flow analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During 1991, the software developed allowed an operator to configure and checkout the TSI, Inc. laser velocimeter (LV) system prior to a run. This setup procedure established the operating conditions for the TSI MI-990 multichannel interface and the RMR-1989 rotating machinery resolver. In addition to initializing the instruments, the software package provides a means of specifying LV calibration constants, controlling the sampling process, and identifying the test parameters.

Bell, William A.

1991-01-01

24

LV measurements with an advanced turboprop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonintrusive measurements of velocity about a spinner-propeller-nacelle configuration were made at a Mach number of 0.8. A laser velocimeter (LV) specifically developed for these measurements was used to determine the flow field of the advanced swept SR-3 propeller. The data will be used to study the flow and to verify computer prediction codes. The usefulness of the LV data in

H. E. Neumann; J. S. Serafini

1982-01-01

25

Meshless Deformable Models for LV Motion Analysis Xiaoxu Wang Dimitis Metaxas  

E-print Network

110 Frelinghuysen Rd, Piscataway, NJ, 08854, USA xiwang@cs.rutgers.edu Ting Chen Leon Axel New York varying parameter functions to track the left ventricle (LV) motion. Haber et al. [6] and Park et al.[14

26

Acoustic quantification indexes of left ventricular size and function: Effects of signal averaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of using signal-averaged acoustic quantification (SAAQ) waveforms for improved assessment of left ventricular (LV) size and function. Methods and Results: Four separate protocols were performed in 47 subjects. SAAQ waveforms were used to assess alterations in LV function induced by dobutamine (15 ?g\\/kg per minute) and esmolol (200

Victor Mor-Avi; Philippe Vignon; Amy C. Bales; Kirk T. Spencer; Roberto M. Lang

1998-01-01

27

Myocardial Scar Identified by Magnetic Resonance Imaging Can Predict Left Ventricular Functional Improvement after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown that viable myocardium predicts recovery of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after revascularization. Our aim was to evaluate the prognostic value of myocardial scar assessed by late gadolinium-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (LGE-CMR) on functional recovery in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods From November 2009 to September 2012, 63 patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) referred for first-time isolated CABG were prospectively enrolled, 52 were included in final analysis. LV functional parameters and scar tissue were assessed by LGE-CMR at baseline and 6 months after surgery. Patency of grafts was evaluated by computed tomography angiography (CTA) 6 months post-CABG. Predictors for global functional recovery were analyzed. Results The baseline LVEF was 32.7±9.2%, which improved to 41.6±11.0% 6 months later and 32/52 patients improved LVEF by ?5%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the most significant negative predictor for global functional recovery was the number of scar segments (Odds ratio 2.864, 95% Confidence Interval 1.172–6.996, p?=?0.021). Receiver-Operator-Characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated that ?4 scar segments predicted global functional recovery with a sensitivity and specificity of 85.0% and 87.5%, respectively (AUC?=?0.91, p<0.001). Comparison of ROC curves also indicated that scar tissue was superior to viable myocardium in predicting cardiac functional recovery (p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings indicated that scar tissue on LGE-CMR is an independent negative predictor of cardiac functional recovery in patients with impaired LV function undergoing CABG. These observations may be helpful for clinicians and cardiovascular surgeons to determine which patients are most likely to benefit from surgical revascularization. PMID:24358136

Sun, Han-Song; Tang, Yue; Pan, Shi-Wei; Zhao, Shi-Hua

2013-01-01

28

Early and late improvement of global and regional left ventricular function after transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients with severe aortic stenosis: an echocardiographic study  

PubMed Central

The recent development of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for severe aortic stenosis (AS) treatment offers a viable option for high-risk patient categories. Our aim is to evaluate whether 2D strain and strain rate can detect subtle improvement in global and regional LV systolic function immediately after TAVI. 2D conventional and 2D strain (speckle analysis) echocardiography was performed before, at discharge and after three months in thirty three patients with severe AS. After TAVI, we assessed by conventional echocardiography an immediate reduction of transaortic peak pressure gradient (p<0.0001), of mean pressure gradient (p<0.0001) and a concomitant increase in aortic valve area (AVA: 1.08±0.31 cm2/m2; p<0.0001). 2D longitudinal systolic strain showed a significant improvement in all patients, both at septal and lateral level, as early as 72 h after procedure (septal: -14.2±5.1 vs -16.7±3.7%, p<0.001; lateral: -9.4±3.9 vs -13.1±4.5%, p<0.001; respectively) and continued at 3 months follow-up (septal: -18.1±4.6%, p<0.0001; lateral: -14.8±4.4%, p<0.0001; respectively). Conventional echocardiography after TAVI proved a significant reduction of LV end-systolic volume and of LV mass with a mild improvement of LV ejection fraction (EF) (51.2±11.8 vs 52.9±6.4%; p<0.02) only after three months. 2D strain seems to be able to detect subtle changes in LV systolic function occurring early and late after TAVI in severe AS, while all conventional echo parameters seem to be less effective for this purpose. Further investigations are needed to prove the real prognostic impact of these echocardiographic findings. PMID:22254204

Giannini, Cristina; Petronio, Anna Sonia; Talini, Enrica; De Carlo, Marco; Guarracino, Fabio; Grazia, Maria; Donne, Delle; Nardi, Carmela; Conte, Lorenzo; Barletta, Valentina; Marzilli, Mario; Di Bello, Vitantonio

2011-01-01

29

Lv's Distribution: Principle, Implementation, Properties, and Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel representation, known as Lv's distribution (LVD), of linear frequency modulated (LFM) signals. It has been well known that a monocomponent LFM signal can be uniquely determined by two important physical quantities, centroid frequency and chirp rate (CFCR). The basic reason for expressing a LFM signal in the CFCR domain is that these two quantities may

Xiaolei Lv; Guoan Bi; Chunru Wan; Mengdao Xing

2011-01-01

30

Chronic Therapy with a Partial Adenosine A1 Receptor Agonist, Improves Left Ventricular Function and Remodeling in Dogs with Advanced Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Background Adenosine (AD) elicits cardioprotection through A1-receptor (A1R) activation. Therapy with AD A1R agonists, however, is limited by undesirable actions of full agonism such as bradycardia. This study examined the effects of capadenoson (CAP), a partial AD A1R agonist, on left ventricular (LV) function and remodeling in dogs with heart failure (HF). Methods and Results 12 dogs with microembolization-induced HF were randomized to 12 weeks oral therapy with CAP (7.5 mg Bid, n=6) or to no therapy (Control, n=6). LV end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes, ejection fraction (EF), plasma norepinephrine (NE) and n-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (nt-pro BNP) were measured before (PRE) and 1 and 12 weeks after therapy (POST). LV tissue obtained at POST was used to assess volume fraction of interstitial fibrosis (VFIF), SERCA-2a activity, expression of mitochondria uncoupling proteins (UCP) and glucose transporters (GLUT). In controls, EDV and ESV increased and EF decreased significantly from PRE to POST (EF: 30±2 vs. 27±1 %, p<0.05). In CAP-treated dogs, EDV was unchanged; EF increased significantly after one week (36±2 vs. 27±2 %, p<0.05) with a further increase at POST (39±2 %, p<0.05) while ESV decreased. CAP significantly decreased VFIF, normalized SERCA-2a activity and expression of UCP-2 and -3, and GLUT-1 and -2 and significantly decreased NE and nt-pro BNP. Conclusion In HF dogs, CAP improves LV function and prevents progressive remodeling. Improvement of LV systolic function occurs early after initiating therapy. The results support development of partial AD A1R agonists for the treatment of chronic HF. PMID:23564604

Sabbah, Hani N.; Gupta, Ramesh C.; Kohli, Smita; Wang, Mengjun; Rastogi, Sharad; Zhang, Kefei; Zimmermann, Katja; Diedrichs, Nicole; Albrecht-Küpper, Barbara E.

2013-01-01

31

Interleukin-10 overexpression improves the function of endothelial progenitor cells stimulated with TNF-? through the activation of the STAT3 signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Lentivirus vector?interleukin?10 green fluorescent protein (LV?IL?10?GFP) was transfected into endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the present study. The aim was to detect the function of IL?10?modified EPCs and analyze the molecular mechanism. EPCs were cultured and identified by fluorescent labeling with the von Willebrand factor antibody, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor, Ulex europaeus agglutinin?1 and acetylated low?density lipoprotein. Subsequently, EPCs were transfected with LV?IL?10?GFP and lentivirus vector?noncontain?GFP as the control group. Enzyme?linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the concentrations of cytokines in the supernatant with or without tumor necrosis factor?? (TNF??). All types of cells were assessed by a tube formation assay, adhesion assay and migration assay induced with or without TNF??. Cell cycle was assessed by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was applied to detect the expression of proteins in the cells. ELISA analysis showed that the levels of TNF?? and IL?8 in the supernatant without TNF?? significantly decreased in EPC?LV?IL?10?GFP (P<0.05 for all). By contrast, the levels of IL?10 and VEGF were contrasting in association with these. The concentrations of cytokines in the supernatant with TNF?? were consistent to the supernatant without TNF??. There was no statistically significant difference in the average number of EPCs undergoing migration, adhesion, total length and cell growth among the EPC, EPC?LV?IL?10?GFP and EPC?LV?NC?GFP groups without TNF??. Further study showed that EPC?LV?IL?10?GFP with TNF?? significantly enhanced EPC migration, adhesion and promoted tube formation (P<0.05 for all). Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of VEGF, matrix metallopeptidase?9 and phosphorylated?signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p?STAT3) significantly increased in the EPC?LV?IL?10?GFP group. Conversely, STAT?3 expression decreased in the EPC?LV?IL?10?GFP group. The present study suggested that overexpression of IL?10 had no effect on migration, adhesion, tubule formation and cell growth of EPCs without TNF??. Furthermore, in EPCs stimulated with TNF??, the overexpression of IL?10 improved EPC function, including migration, adhesion and tubule formation by activating the STAT3 signal pathway. PMID:25504316

Wang, Ying; Chen, Qingzhong; Zhang, Zhuhong; Jiang, Feng; Meng, Xiangda; Yan, Hua

2015-02-01

32

Interleukin-10 improves left ventricular function in rats with heart failure subsequent to myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Evidence has shown that pro-inflammatory cytokines, especially TNF-alpha, are involved in the inflammatory response in the remodelling process after myocardial infarction (MI). Although IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, has been shown to antagonize some of the deleterious effects of TNF-alpha, little is known about its role in post-MI left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a therapy with rhIL-10 could be beneficial in an animal model of post-MI heart failure (HF). Rats with experimental MI were treated with rhIL-10 (75 microg/kg/d sc) starting directly after MI induction, and continuing for 4 weeks. Controls were untreated MI and sham-operated rats. Cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and cardiac catheterization 4 weeks after MI induction. Membrane-bound and soluble fractions of TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IL-10, the ratio of TNF-alpha to IL-10, serum levels of MCP-1 as well as myocardial macrophage infiltration, were analyzed. Treatment with rhIL-10 significantly improved post-MI LV function (FS +127%;, dP/dt(max) +131%; LVEDP -36%). This effect was associated with a significant decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels (TNF-alpha, IL-6, MCP-1) and furthermore resulted in a reduced myocardial infiltration of macrophages. PMID:18599346

Stumpf, Christian; Seybold, Katrin; Petzi, Sebastian; Wasmeier, Gerald; Raaz, Dorette; Yilmaz, Atilla; Anger, Thomas; Daniel, Werner G; Garlichs, Christoph D

2008-08-01

33

Fasudil improves short-term echocardiographic parameters of diastolic function in patients with type 2 diabetes with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction is observed frequently in patients with type 2 diabetes; however, few studies have focused on the effect of the Rho-associated kinase inhibitor fasudil on cardiac performance in humans. We conducted a prospective pilot study to assess the impact of fasudil on LV diastolic function in patients with diabetes without systolic dysfunction. Two hundred and fifty eligible patients with type 2 diabetes (149 men [61.3 %] and 94 women [38.7 %]) with a mean age of 57.2 years were randomly assigned to fasudil (n = 122, 30 mg intravenously twice a day for 14 days) or placebo (n = 121) groups. Echocardiographic variables were measured at the baseline and 1 month after the intervention. Compared with the placebo group, the fasudil group showed a significant decrease in diastolic blood pressure and in the peak of late diastolic transmitral flow (Am) (P < 0.05 for both). Deceleration time (DT), isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT), the peak of early diastolic annular velocity (e'), the peak of late diastolic annular velocity, and E/e' also exhibited a significant improvement (all, P < 0.05) after fasudil administration. Furthermore, the Em/Am ratio and IVRT, DT, and E/e' values recorded after fasudil treatment in the subgroup with impaired LV relaxation significantly differed from the corresponding values in the subgroup with normal LV relaxation (all, P < 0.05). Fasudil improves short-term echocardiographic parameters of LV diastolic function in patients with type 2 diabetes with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. PMID:24390764

Guo, Rong; Su, Yang; Yan, Jing; Sun, Hui; Wu, Jiakang; Liu, Weijing; Xu, Yawei

2015-01-01

34

Fiber optics transmission of LV signal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first use of a long optical fiber for transmitting megahertz frequencies in a laser velocimeter (LV) receiver system is reported. The fiber comprises a 600-micron diameter fused silica core, a silicon polymer cladding and a plastic jacket. The fiber numerical aperture is 0.22, corresponding to a maximum entrance half-angle of 0.22 rad. The 10-m length used results in a 5.6% attenuation loss. The fiber is found to transmit an 80-MHz signal with excellent resolution. It is established that an LV receiver using fiber optics sends a clean signal in electronically noisy and high-pressure environments and allows velocity measurements in places too small for a photomultiplier tube.

Young, A. D.; Gunter, W. D., Jr.

1981-01-01

35

LV measurements with an advanced turboprop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonintrusive measurements of velocity about a spinner-propeller-nacelle configuration were made at a Mach number of 0.8. A laser velocimeter (LV) specifically developed for these measurements was used to determine the flow field of the advanced swept SR-3 propeller. The data will be used to study the flow and to verify computer prediction codes. The usefulness of the LV data in detecting flow anomalies and to substantiate the data quality was demonstrated. Some typical results are given. Mach number profiles at the entrance of the propeller are compared with theoretical predictions. The LV data is in excellent agreement with the axisymmetric, compressible, inviscid theory (without blades) ahead of the propeller except near the hub. The data indicate blade blockage near the spinner. Blade to blade variations in axial velocity for four radial positions at the propeller exist are also given. The large apparent wake near the hub is associated with the hub choking. The blade to blade variation of axial velocity ahead of a shock within the blade passage is given.

Neumann, H. E.; Serafini, J. S.

1982-09-01

36

Sequential biventricular pacing improves regional contractility, longitudinal function and dyssynchrony in patients with heart failure and prolonged QRS  

PubMed Central

Aims Biventricular pacing (BiP) is an effective treatment in systolic heart failure (HF) patients with prolonged QRS. However, approximately 35% of the patients receiving BiP are classified as non-responders. The aim of this study is to evaluate the acute effects of VV-optimization on systolic heart function. Methods Twenty-one HF patients aged 72 (46-88) years, QRS 154 (120-190) ms, were studied with echocardiography, Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) and 3D-echo the first day after receiving a BiP device. TDI was performed; during simultaneous pacing (LV-lead pacing 4 ms before the RV-lead) and during sequential pacing (LV 20 and 40 ms before RV and RV 20 and 40 ms before LV-lead pacing). Systolic heart function was studied by tissue tracking (TT) for longitudinal function and systolic maximal velocity (SMV) for regional contractility and signs of dyssynchrony assessed by time-delays standard deviation of aortic valve opening to SMV, AVO-SMV/SD and tissue synchronization imaging (TSI). Results The TT mean value preoperatively was 4,2 ± 1,5 and increased at simultaneous pacing to 5,0 ± 1,2 mm (p < 0,05), and at best VV-interval to 5,4 ± 1,2 (p < 0,001). Simultaneous pacing achieved better TT distance compared with preoperative in 16 patients (76%). However, it was still higher after VV-optimization in 12 patients 57%. Corresponding figures for SMV were 3,0 ± 0,7, 3,5 ± 0,8 (p < 0,01), and 3,6 ± 0,8 (p < 0,001). Also dyssynchrony improved. Conclusions VV-optimization in the acute phase improves systolic heart function more than simultaneous BiP pacing. Long-term effects should be evaluated in prospective randomized trials. PMID:20384995

2010-01-01

37

Improved Approximate Profile Function of Hedgehog Skyrmion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The profile function for Skyrme model is investigated in Hedgehog ansatz. An improved analytical solution to the Hedgehog Skyrmion is obtained by using tentative function method. It is found that ensuing calculated static energy is smaller than that in Ref. 13, and the isoscalar electric mean square radius ? {< r2>}I=0 and the isoscalar magnetic mean square radius ? {< r2>}M,I=0 well agree with experiment results.

Ji, Yong-Lin; Jia, Duo-Jie; Xi, Guo-Zhu; Liu, Feng

38

Advances in Understanding Molecular Determinants in FeLV Pathology  

PubMed Central

Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) occurs in nature not as a single genomic species but as a family of closely related viruses. The disease outcome of natural FeLV infection is variable and likely reflects genetic variation both in the virus and the naturally outbreeding host population. A series of studies have been undertaken with the objectives of examining natural FeLV genetic variation, the selective pressures operative in FeLV infection that lead to predominance of natural variants, and the consequences for infection and disease progression. Genetic variation among FeLV isolates was examined in a cohort of naturally infected cats with thymic lymphoma of T-cell origin, non-T-cell multicentric lymphoma, myeloproliferative disorder or anemia. The predominant isolate in the cohort, designated FeLV-945, was identified exclusively in disorders of non-T-cell origin. The FeLV-945 LTR was shown to contain a unique 21-bp repeat element, triplicated in tandem downstream of enhancer. The 21-bp triplication was shown to act as a transcriptional enhancer and to confer a replicative advantage through the assembly of a distinctive transcription factor complex. Oncogene utilization during tumor induction by FeLV-945 was studied using a recombinant Moloney murine leukemia virus containing the FeLV-945 LTR. This approach identified novel loci of common proviral integration in tumors, including the regulatory subunit of PI-3Kgamma. Mutational changes identified in FeLV-945 SU were shown not to alter receptor usage as measured by host range and superinfection interference, but to significantly increase the efficiency of receptor binding. To determine whether the unique sequence elements of FeLV-945 influence the course of infection and disease in vivo, recombinant viruses were constructed in which the FeLV-945 LTR alone, or the FeLV-945 SU gene and LTR were substituted into the prototype isolate FeLV-A/61E. Longitudinal studies of infected animals showed that substitution of the FeLV-945 LTR into FeLV-A/61E resulted in a significantly more rapid disease onset, but did not alter the tumorigenic spectrum. In contrast, substitution of both the FeLV-945 LTR and SU gene changed the disease outcome entirely. Together, these observations indicate that the distinctive LTR and SU gene of FeLV-945 mediate a rapid pathogenesis with distinctive clinical features and oncogenic mechanisms. PMID:18289704

Levy, Laura S.

2008-01-01

39

Patient-Specific MRI-Based 3D FSI RV/LV/Patch Models for Pulmonary Valve Replacement Surgery and Patch Optimization  

PubMed Central

A patient-specific right/left ventricle and patch (RV/LV/patch) combination model with fluid-structure interactions (FSIs) was introduced to evaluate and optimize human pulmonary valve replacement/insertion (PVR) surgical procedure and patch design. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging studies were performed to acquire ventricle geometry, flow velocity, and flow rate for healthy volunteers and patients needing RV remodeling and PVR before and after scheduled surgeries. CMR-based RV/LV/patch FSI models were constructed to perform mechanical analysis and assess RV cardiac functions. Both pre- and postoperation CMR data were used to adjust and validate the model so that predicted RV volumes reached good agreement with CMR measurements (error <3%). Two RV/LV/patch models were made based on preoperation data to evaluate and compare two PVR surgical procedures: (i) conventional patch with little or no scar tissue trimming, and (ii) small patch with aggressive scar trimming and RV volume reduction. Our modeling results indicated that (a) patient-specific CMR-based computational modeling can provide accurate assessment of RV cardiac functions, and (b) PVR with a smaller patch and more aggressive scar removal led to reduced stress/strain conditions in the patch area and may lead to improved recovery of RV functions. More patient studies are needed to validate our findings. PMID:18601452

Tang, Dalin; Yang, Chun; Geva, Tal; del Nido, Pedro J.

2010-01-01

40

Left ventricle restoration in patients with non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy: risk factors and predictors of outcome and change of mid-term ventricular function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The partial left ventriculectomy (PLV) for end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) which worked in some patients has been reported, although the hospital mortality is high. To reduce hospital mortality, we selected operative procedures of left ventricular (LV) restoration to improve the operative results. We analyzed the risk factors and predictors of outcome, and the mid-term changes of the LV function

Tadashi Isomura; Hisayoshi Suma; Taiko Horii; Toru Sato; Teisei Kobashi; Hideo Kanemitsu; Joji Hoshino; Kouichi Hisatomi

2001-01-01

41

Simvastatin Improves Disturbed Endothelial Barrier Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Recent clinical trials have established that inhibitors of the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (statins) reduce the risk of acute coronary events. These effects of statins cannot be fully explained by their lipid-lowering potential. Improved endothelial function may contribute to the positive effects of statin treatment. Methods and Results—In the present study, we report that simvastatin reduces endothelial barrier dysfunction,

Mario A. Vermeer; Pascale Nègre-Aminou; Jan Lankelma; Jef J. Emeis; Victor W. M. van Hinsbergh

2010-01-01

42

Late Gadolinium Enhancement in Cardiac MRI in Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis and Preserved Left Ventricular Systolic Function Is Related to Attenuated Improvement of Left Ventricular Geometry and Filling Pressure after Aortic Valve Replacement  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives We investigated echocardiographic predictors: left ventricular (LV) geometric changes following aortic valve replacement (AVR) according to the late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) and preserved LV systolic function. Subjects and Methods We analyzed 41 patients (24 males, 63.1±8.7 years) with preserved LV systolic function who were scheduled to undergo AVR for severe AS. All patients were examined with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), CMR before and after AVR (in the hospital) and serial TTEs (at 6 and 12 months) were repeated. Results The group with LGE (LGE+) showed greater wall thickness (septum, 14.3±2.6 mm vs. 11.5±2.0 mm, p=0.001, posterior; 14.3±2.5 mm vs. 11.4±1.6 mm, p<0.001), lower tissue Doppler image (TDIS', 4.4±1.4 cm/s vs. 5.5±1.2 cm/s, p=0.021; TDI E', 3.2±0.9 cm/s vs. 4.8±1.4 cm/s, p=0.002), and greater E/e' (21.8±10.3 vs. 15.4±6.3, p=0.066) than those without LGE (LGE-). Multivariate analysis show that TDI e' (odds ratio=0.078, 95% confidence interval=0.007-0.888, p=0.040) was an independent determinant of LGE+. In an analysis of the 6- and 12-month follow-up compared with pre-AVR, LGE- showed decreased LV end-diastolic diameter (48.3±5.0 mm vs. 45.8±3.6 mm, p=0.027; 48.3±5.0 mm vs. 46.5±3.4 mm, p=0.019). Moreover, E/e' (at 12 months) showed further improved LV filling pressure (16.0±6.6 vs. 12.3±4.3, p=0.001) compared with pre-AVR. However, LGE+ showed no significant improvement. Conclusion The absence of LGE is associated with favorable improvements in LV geometry and filling pressure. TDI E' is an independent determinant of LGE in patients with severe AS and preserved LV systolic function. PMID:25278984

Park, Junbeom; Choi, Jung-Ho; Yang, Pil-Sung; Lee, Sang-Eun; Heo, Ran; Shin, Sanghoon; Cho, In-Jeong; Kim, Young-Jin; Shim, Chi Young; Hong, Geu-Ru; Chung, Namsik

2014-01-01

43

Umbilical-cord-blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells seeded onto fibronectin-immobilized polycaprolactone nanofiber improve cardiac function.  

PubMed

Stem cells seeded onto biofunctional materials have greater potency for therapeutic applications. We investigated whether umbilical-cord-blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell (UCB-MSC)-seeded fibronectin (FN)-immobilized polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers could improve cardiac function and inhibit left ventricle (LV) remodeling in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI). Aligned nanofibers were uniformly coated with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) by initiated chemical vapor deposition followed by covalent immobilization of FN proteins. The degree of cell elongation and adhesion efficacy were improved by FN immobilization. Furthermore, genes related to angiogenesis and mesenchymal differentiations were up-regulated in the FN-immobilized PCL nanofibers in comparison to control PCL nanofibers in vitro. 4 weeks after the transplantation in the rat MI model, the echocardiogram showed that the UCB-MSC-seeded FN-immobilized PCL nanofiber group increased LV ejection fraction and fraction shortening as compared to the non-treated control and acellular FN-immobilized PCL nanofiber groups. Histological analysis indicated that the implantation of UCB-MSCs with FN-immobilized PCL nanofibers induced a decrease in MI size and fibrosis, and an increase in scar thickness. This study indicates that FN-immobilized biofunctional PCL nanofibers could be an effective carrier for UCB-MSC transplantation for the treatment of MI. PMID:24657671

Kang, Byung-Jae; Kim, Hwan; Lee, Seul Ki; Kim, Joohyun; Shen, Yiming; Jung, Sunyoung; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Im, Sung Gap; Lee, So Yeong; Choi, Mincheol; Hwang, Nathaniel S; Cho, Je-Yoel

2014-07-01

44

Percutaneous adventitial delivery of allogeneic bone marrow-derived stem cells via infarct-related artery improves long-term ventricular function in acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) results in ischemic damage and death of cardiomyocytes and loss of vasculature. Stem cell therapy has emerged as a potentially promising strategy for maximizing cardiac function following ischemic injury. Issues of cell source, delivery, and quantification of response have challenged development of clinically viable strategies. In this study we investigate the effects of a well-defined bone marrow-derived allogeneic cell product delivered by catheter directly to the myocardium via the infarct-related vessel on global and regional measures of left ventricular (LV) function in a porcine model of anterior wall myocardial infarction. Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) were derived and expanded from the bone marrow of a donor Yorkshire pig. Anterior wall myocardial infarction (AMI) was induced by 90 min of mid-LAD occlusion using a balloon catheter. Two days after AMI was induced, either vehicle (Plasma Lyte-A, n = 7), low-dose (20 million, n = 6), or high-dose (200 million, n = 6) MAPCs were delivered directly to the myocardium via the infarct-related vessel using a transarterial microsyringe catheter-based delivery system. Echocardiography was used to measure LV function as a function of time after AMI. Animals that received low-dose cell treatment showed significant improvement in regional and global LV function and remodeling compared to the high-dose or control animals. Direct myocardial delivery of allogeneic MAPCs 2 days following AMI through the vessel wall of the infarct-related vessel is safe and results in delivery of cells throughout the infarct zone and improved cardiac function despite lack of long-term cell survival. These data further support the hypothesis of cell-based myocardial tissue repair by a paracrine mechanism and suggest a clinically translatable strategy for delivering cells at any time after AMI to modulate cardiac remodeling and function. PMID:22004910

Medicetty, Satish; Wiktor, Dominik; Lehman, Nicholas; Raber, Amy; Popovic, Zoran B; Deans, Robert; Ting, Anthony E; Penn, Marc S

2012-01-01

45

Smart MV\\/LV transformer for future grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing amount of distributed generation in the future grid will be connected at the customer's point of connection. The generation within the low voltage grid will affect the power quality of customers connected to this grid. Hence, the concept of a Smart MV\\/LV transformer as a part of the Smart MV\\/LV substation is discussed in this paper. The main

P. Kadurek; J. F. G. Cobben; W. L. Kling

2010-01-01

46

Basic fibroblast growth factor improves myocardial function in chronically ischemic porcine hearts.  

PubMed Central

The effect of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) administration on regional myocardial function and blood flow in chronically ischemic hearts was studied in 26 pigs instrumented with proximal circumflex coronary artery (LCX) ameroid constrictors. In 13 animals bFGF was administered extraluminally to the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) and LCX arteries with heparin-alginate beads and 13 other animal served as controls. bFGF-treated pigs showed a fourfold reduction in left ventricular infarct size compared to untreated controls (infarct size: 1.2 +/- 0.4% vs. 5.1 +/- 1.3% of LV mass, mean +/- SEM, P < 0.05). Percent fractional shortening (% FS) in the LCX area at rest was reduced compared with the LAD region in both bFGF and control pigs. However, there was better recovery in the LCX area after rapid pacing in bFGF-treated pigs (% FSLCX/% FSLAD, 22.9 +/- 7.3%-->30.5 +/- 8.5%, P < 0.05 vs. prepacing) than in controls (16.0 +/- 7.8%-->14.3 +/- 7.0%, P = NS). Furthermore, LV end-diastolic pressure rise with rapid pacing was less in bFGF-treated than control pigs (pre-pacing; pacing; post-pacing, 10 +/- 1; 17 +/- 3; 11 +/- 1* mmHg vs 10 +/- 1; 24 +/- 4; 15 +/- 1 mmHg, *P < 0.05 vs. control). Coronary blood flow in the LCX territory (normalized for LAD flow) was also better during pacing in bFGF-treated pigs than in controls. Thus, periadventitial administration of bFGF in a gradual coronary occlusion model in pigs results in improvement of coronary flow and reduction in infarct size in the compromised territory as well as in prevention of pacing-induced hemodynamic deterioration. Images PMID:7518840

Harada, K; Grossman, W; Friedman, M; Edelman, E R; Prasad, P V; Keighley, C S; Manning, W J; Sellke, F W; Simons, M

1994-01-01

47

Effect of Microvascular Obstruction and Intramyocardial Hemorrhage by CMR on LV Remodeling and Outcomes After Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

The goal of this systematic analysis is to provide a comprehensive review of the current cardiac magnetic resonance data on microvascular obstruction (MVO) and intramyocardial hemorrhage (IMH). Data related to the association of MVO and IMH in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) with left ventricular (LV) function, volumes, adverse LV remodeling, and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were critically analyzed. MVO is associated with a lower ejection fraction, increased ventricular volumes and infarct size, and a greater risk of MACE. Late MVO is shown to be a stronger prognostic marker for MACE and cardiac death, recurrent MI, congestive heart failure/heart failure hospitalization, and follow-up LV end-systolic volumes than early MVO. IMH is associated with LV remodeling and MACE on pooled analysis, but because of limited data and heterogeneity in study methodology, the effects of IMH on remodeling require further investigation. PMID:25212800

Hamirani, Yasmin S.; Wong, Andrew; Kramer, Christopher M.; Salerno, Michael

2015-01-01

48

The surface glycoprotein of a natural feline leukemia virus subgroup A variant, FeLV-945, as a determinant of disease outcome.  

PubMed

Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a natural retrovirus of domestic cats associated with degenerative, proliferative and malignant diseases. Studies of FeLV infection in a cohort of naturally infected cats were undertaken to examine FeLV variation, the selective pressures operative in FeLV infection that lead to predominance of natural variants, and the consequences for infection and disease progression. A unique variant, designated FeLV-945, was identified as the predominant isolate in the cohort and was associated with non-T-cell diseases including multicentric lymphoma. FeLV-945 was assigned to the FeLV-A subgroup based on sequence analysis and receptor utilization, but was shown to differ in sequence from a prototype member of FeLV-A, designated FeLV-A/61E, in the long terminal repeat (LTR) and the surface glycoprotein gene (SU). A unique sequence motif in the FeLV-945 LTR was shown to function as a transcriptional enhancer and to confer a replicative advantage. The FeLV-945 SU protein was observed to differ in sequence as compared to FeLV-A/61E within functional domains known to determine receptor selection and binding. Experimental infection of newborn cats was performed using wild type FeLV-A/61E or recombinant FeLV-A/61E in which the LTR (61E/945L) or LTR and SU (61E/945SL) were exchanged for that of FeLV-945. Infection with either FeLV-A/61E or 61E/945L resulted in T-cell lymphoma of the thymus, although 61E/945L caused disease significantly more rapidly. In contrast, infection with 61E/945SL resulted in the rapid induction of a multicentric lymphoma of B-cell origin, thus recapitulating the outcome of natural infection and implicating FeLV-945 SU as a determinant of disease outcome. Recombinant FeLV-B was detected infrequently and at low levels in multicentric lymphomas, and was thereby not implicated in disease induction. Preliminary studies of receptor interaction indicated that virus particles bearing FeLV-945 SU bind to the FeLV-A receptor more efficiently than do particles bearing FeLV-A/61E SU, and that soluble SU proteins expressed from the viruses demonstrate the same differential binding phenotype. Preliminary mutational analysis of FeLV-945 was performed by exchanging regions containing either the primary receptor binding determinant, VRA, the secondary determinant, VRB, or a proline-rich region, PRR, with that of FeLV-A/61E. Results implicated a region containing VRA as a minor contributor, while a region containing VRB largely conferred increased binding efficiency. PMID:21764142

Bolin, Lisa L; Ahmad, Shamim; Levy, Laura S

2011-10-15

49

The surface glycoprotein of a natural feline leukemia virus subgroup A variant, FeLV-945, as a determinant of disease outcome  

PubMed Central

Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a natural retrovirus of domestic cats associated with degenerative, proliferative and malignant diseases. Studies of FeLV infection in a cohort of naturally infected cats were undertaken to examine FeLV variation, the selective pressures operative in FeLV infection that lead to predominance of natural variants, and the consequences for infection and disease progression. A unique variant, designated FeLV-945, was identified as the predominant isolate in the cohort and was associated with non-T-cell diseases including multicentric lymphoma. FeLV-945 was assigned to the FeLV-A subgroup based on sequence analysis and receptor utilization, but was shown to differ in sequence from a prototype member of FeLV-A, designated FeLV-A/61E, in the long terminal repeat (LTR) and the surface glycoprotein gene (SU). A unique sequence motif in the FeLV-945 LTR was shown to function as a transcriptional enhancer and to confer a replicative advantage. The FeLV-945 SU protein was observed to differ in sequence as compared to FeLV-A/61E within functional domains known to determine receptor selection and binding. Experimental infection of newborn cats was performed using wild type FeLV-A/61E or recombinant FeLV-A/61E in which the LTR (61E/945L) or LTR and SU (61E/945SL) were exchanged for that of FeLV-945. Infection with either FeLV-A/61E or 61E/945L resulted in T-cell lymphoma of the thymus, although 61E/945L caused disease significantly more rapidly. In contrast, infection with 61E/945SL resulted in the rapid induction of a multicentric lymphoma of B-cell origin, thus recapitulating the outcome of natural infection and implicating FeLV-945 SU as a determinant of disease outcome. Recombinant FeLV-B was detected infrequently and at low levels in multicentric lymphomas, and was thereby not implicated in disease induction. Preliminary studies of receptor interaction indicated that virus particles bearing FeLV-945 SU bind to the FeLV-A receptor more efficiently than do particles bearing FeLV-A/61E SU, and that soluble SU proteins expressed from the viruses demonstrate the same differential binding phenotype. Preliminary mutational analysis of FeLV-945 was performed by exchanging regions containing either the primary receptor binding determinant, VRA, the secondary determinant, VRB, or a proline-rich region, PRR, with that of FeLV-A/61E. Results implicated a region containing VRA as a minor contributor, while a region containing VRB largely conferred increased binding efficiency. PMID:21764142

Bolin, Lisa L.; Ahmad, Shamim; Levy, Laura S.

2011-01-01

50

Revealing Domain Structure through Linker-Scanning Analysis of the Murine Leukemia Virus (MuLV) RNase H and MuLV and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Integrase Proteins  

PubMed Central

Linker-scanning libraries were generated within the 3? terminus of the Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV) pol gene encoding the connection-RNase H domains of reverse transcriptase (RT) as well as the structurally related M-MuLV and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase (IN) proteins. Mutations within the M-MuLV proviral vectors were Tn7 based and resulted in 15-bp insertions. Mutations within an HIV-1 IN bacterial expression vector were based on Tn5 and resulted in 57-bp insertions. The effects of the insertions were examined in vivo (M-MuLV) and in vitro (HIV-1). A total of 178 individual M-MuLV constructs were analyzed; 40 in-frame insertions within RT connection-RNase H, 108 in-frame insertions within IN, 13 insertions encoding stop codons within RNase H, and 17 insertions encoding stop codons within IN. For HIV-1 IN, 56 mutants were analyzed. In both M-MuLV and HIV-1 IN, regions are identified which functionally tolerate multiple-linker insertions. For MuLV, these correspond to the RT-IN proteolytic junction, the junction between the IN core and C terminus, and the C terminus of IN. For HIV-1 IN, in addition to the junction between the IN core and C terminus and the C terminus of IN, insertions between the N terminus and core domains maintained integration and disintegration activity. Of the 40 in-frame insertions within the M-MuLV RT connection-RNase H domains, only the three C-terminal insertions mapping to the RT-IN proteolytic junction were viable. These results correlate with deletion studies mapping the domain and subdomain boundaries of RT and IN. Importantly, these genetic footprints provide a means to identify nonessential regions within RT and IN for targeted gene therapy applications. PMID:16973554

Puglia, Jennifer; Wang, Tan; Smith-Snyder, Christine; Cote, Marie; Scher, Michael; Pelletier, Joelle N.; John, Sinu; Jonsson, Colleen B.; Roth, Monica J.

2006-01-01

51

Isolation and Characterization of cLV25, a Bacteroides fragilis Chromosomal Transfer Factor Resembling Multiple Bacteroides sp. Mobilizable Transposons  

PubMed Central

Horizontal DNA transfer contributes significantly to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in Bacteroides fragilis. To further our understanding of DNA transfer in B. fragilis, we isolated and characterized a new transfer factor, cLV25. cLV25 was isolated from B. fragilis LV25 by its capture on the nonmobilizable Escherichia coli-Bacteroides shuttle vector pGAT400?BglII. Similar to other Bacteroides sp. transfer factors, cLV25 was mobilized in E. coli by the conjugative plasmid R751. Using Tn1000 mutagenesis and deletion analysis of cLV25, two mobilization genes, bmgA and bmgB, were identified, whose predicted proteins have similarity to DNA relaxases and mobilization proteins, respectively. In particular, BmgA and BmgB were homologous to MocA and MocB, respectively, the two mobilization proteins of the B. fragilis mobilizable transposon Tn4399. A cis-acting origin of transfer (oriT) was localized to a 353-bp region that included nearly all of the intergenic region between bmgB and orf22 and overlapped with the 3? end of orf22. This oriT contained a putative nic site sequence but showed no significant similarity to the oriT regions of other transfer factors, including Tn4399. Despite the lack of sequence similarity between the oriTs of cLV25 and Tn4399, a mutation in the cLV25 putative DNA relaxase, bmgA, was partially complemented by Tn4399. In addition to the functional cross-reaction with Tn4399, a second distinguishing feature of cLV25 is that predicted proteins have similarity to proteins encoded not only by Tn4399 but by several Bacteroides sp. transfer factors, including NBU1, NBU2, CTnDOT, Tn4555, and Tn5520. PMID:11889096

Bass, Kathleen A.; Hecht, David W.

2002-01-01

52

Isolation and characterization of cLV25, a Bacteroides fragilis chromosomal transfer factor resembling multiple Bacteroides sp. mobilizable transposons.  

PubMed

Horizontal DNA transfer contributes significantly to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in Bacteroides fragilis. To further our understanding of DNA transfer in B. fragilis, we isolated and characterized a new transfer factor, cLV25. cLV25 was isolated from B. fragilis LV25 by its capture on the nonmobilizable Escherichia coli-Bacteroides shuttle vector pGAT400DeltaBglII. Similar to other Bacteroides sp. transfer factors, cLV25 was mobilized in E. coli by the conjugative plasmid R751. Using Tn1000 mutagenesis and deletion analysis of cLV25, two mobilization genes, bmgA and bmgB, were identified, whose predicted proteins have similarity to DNA relaxases and mobilization proteins, respectively. In particular, BmgA and BmgB were homologous to MocA and MocB, respectively, the two mobilization proteins of the B. fragilis mobilizable transposon Tn4399. A cis-acting origin of transfer (oriT) was localized to a 353-bp region that included nearly all of the intergenic region between bmgB and orf22 and overlapped with the 3' end of orf22. This oriT contained a putative nic site sequence but showed no significant similarity to the oriT regions of other transfer factors, including Tn4399. Despite the lack of sequence similarity between the oriTs of cLV25 and Tn4399, a mutation in the cLV25 putative DNA relaxase, bmgA, was partially complemented by Tn4399. In addition to the functional cross-reaction with Tn4399, a second distinguishing feature of cLV25 is that predicted proteins have similarity to proteins encoded not only by Tn4399 but by several Bacteroides sp. transfer factors, including NBU1, NBU2, CTnDOT, Tn4555, and Tn5520. PMID:11889096

Bass, Kathleen A; Hecht, David W

2002-04-01

53

Acute changes of left ventricular hemodynamics and function during percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with unprotected left main coronary artery disease.  

PubMed

Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) are increasingly being used to treat unprotected left main coronary artery (ULMCA) lesions. However, research is sparse on the acute changes of left ventricular (LV) hemodynamics and function during PCI in patients with ULMCA stenosis. We aimed to assess the acute changes of LV function using speckle-tracking imaging during PCI in these patients. Fifteen consecutive patients who underwent elective PCI for ULMCA stenosis were enrolled. Echocardiographic studies and pressure measurement were performed at baseline, during PCI and after PCI. LMCA occlusion with a first balloon inflation induced a marked reduction in the peak positive derivative of LV pressure (dP/dt max), LV global longitudinal strain (GLS), and systolic and diastolic strain rates, and a marked increase in LV end-diastolic pressure (EDP) (all P < 0.01). During the second inflation, the degrees of LV hemodynamic and functional changes were similar to those of the first inflation, even with a higher inflation pressure. During the third inflation, the values of GLS and dP/dt max were higher than those of the second inflation (P = 0.03 and P = 0.05, respectively). After optimal PCI, dP/dt max, LVEDP, and strain parameters were improved to baseline values. LV hemodynamics and function were considerably impaired with the first ballooning during PCI for ULMCA stenosis. However, the degrees of LV hemodynamic and functional changes decreased with each successive balloon inflation, which can be explained by ischemic preconditioning. After all procedures were safely completed, LV systolic function was improved without LV diastolic stunning. PMID:24633497

Park, Seong-Mi; Ahn, Chul-Min; Hong, Soon-Jun; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Park, Jae-Hyoung; Shim, Wan-Joo; Lim, Do-Sun

2014-03-15

54

Changes in myofilament proteins, but not Ca²? regulation, are associated with a high-fat diet-induced improvement in contractile function in heart failure.  

PubMed

Pathological conditions such as diabetes, insulin resistance, and obesity are characterized by elevated plasma and myocardial lipid levels and have been reported to exacerbate the progression of heart failure (HF). Alterations in cardiomyocyte Ca(2+) regulatory properties and myofilament proteins have also been implicated in contractile dysfunction in HF. However, our prior studies reported that high saturated fat (SAT) feeding improves in vivo myocardial contractile function, thereby exerting a cardioprotective effect in HF. Therefore, we hypothesized that SAT feeding improves contractile function by altering Ca(2+) regulatory properties and myofilament protein expression in HF. Male Wistar rats underwent coronary artery ligation (HF) or sham surgery (SH) and were fed normal chow (SHNC and HFNC groups) or a SAT diet (SHSAT and HFSAT groups) for 8 wk. Contractile properties were measured in vivo [echocardiography and left ventricular (LV) cannulation] and in isolated LV cardiomyocytes. In vivo measures of contractility (peak LV +dP/dt and -dP/dt) were depressed in the HFNC versus SHNC group but improved in the HFSAT group. Isolated cardiomyocytes from both HF groups were hypertrophied and had decreased percent cell shortening and a prolonged time to half-decay of the Ca(2+) transient versus the SH group; however, SAT feeding reduced in vivo myocyte hypertrophy in the HFSAT group only. The peak velocity of cell shortening was reduced in the HFNC group but not the HFSAT group and was positively correlated with in vivo contractile function (peak LV +dP/dt). The HFNC group demonstrated a myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform switch from fast MHC-? to slow MHC-?, which was prevented in the HFSAT group. Alterations in Ca(2+) transients, L-type Ca(2+) currents, and protein expression of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase and phosphorylated phospholamban could not account for the changes in the in vivo contractile properties. In conclusion, the cardioprotective effects associated with SAT feeding in HF may occur at the level of the isolated cardiomyocyte, specifically involving changes in myofilament function but not sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) regulatory properties. PMID:21765056

Cheng, Y; Li, W; McElfresh, T A; Chen, X; Berthiaume, J M; Castel, L; Yu, X; Van Wagoner, D R; Chandler, M P

2011-10-01

55

Improved algorithm for calculating the Chandrasekhar function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Theoretical models of electron transport in condensed matter require an effective source of the Chandrasekhar H(x,omega) function. A code providing the H(x,omega) function has to be both accurate and very fast. The current revision of the code published earlier [A. Jablonski, Comput. Phys. Commun. 183 (2012) 1773] decreased the running time, averaged over different pairs of arguments x and omega, by a factor of more than 20. The decrease of the running time in the range of small values of the argument x, less than 0.05, is even more pronounced, reaching a factor of 30. The accuracy of the current code is not affected, and is typically better than 12 decimal places. New version program summaryProgram title: CHANDRAS_v2 Catalogue identifier: AEMC_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMC_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC license, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 976 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11416 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90 Computer: Any computer with a Fortran 90 compiler Operating system: Windows 7, Windows XP, Unix/Linux RAM: 0.7 MB Classification: 2.4, 7.2 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEMC_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Commun. 183 (2012) 1773 Does the new version supersede the old program: Yes Nature of problem: An attempt has been made to develop a subroutine that calculates the Chandrasekhar function with high accuracy, of at least 10 decimal places. Simultaneously, this subroutine should be very fast. Both requirements stem from the theory of electron transport in condensed matter. Solution method: Two algorithms were developed, each based on a different integral representation of the Chandrasekhar function. The final algorithm is edited by mixing these two algorithms by selecting ranges of the argument omega in which the performance is the fastest. Reasons for the new version: Some of the theoretical models describing electron transport in condensed matter need a source of the Chandrasekhar H function values with an accuracy of at least 10 decimal places. Additionally, calculations of this function should be as fast as possible since frequent calls to a subroutine providing this function are made (e.g., numerical evaluation of a double integral with a complicated integrand containing the H function). Both conditions were satisfied in the algorithm previously published [1]. However, it has been found that a proper selection of the quadrature in an integral representation of the Chandrasekhar function may considerably decrease the running time. By suitable selection of the number of abscissas in Gauss-Legendre quadrature, the execution time was decreased by a factor of more than 20. Simultaneously, the accuracy of results has not been affected. Summary of revisions: (1) As in previous work [1], two integral representations of the Chandrasekhar function, H(x,omega), were considered: the expression published by Dudarev and Whelan [2] and the expression published by Davidovi? et al. [3]. The algorithms implementing these representations were designated A and B, respectively. All integrals in these implementations were previously calculated using Romberg quadrature. It has been found, however, that the use of Gauss-Legendre quadrature considerably improved the performance of both algorithms. Two conditions have to be satisfied. (i) The number of abscissas, N, has to be rather large, and (ii) the abscissas and corresponding weights should be determined with accuracy as high as possible. The abscissas and weights are available for N=16, 20, 24, 32, 40, 48, 64, 80, and 96 with accuracy of 20 decimal places [4], and all these values were introduced into a new procedure GAUSS replacing procedure ROMBERG. Due to the fact that the implemented tables are rather extensive, they were recalculated using the Rybicki algorithm (Re

Jablonski, A.

2013-02-01

56

Improving Sensorimotor Function Using Stochastic Vestibular Stimulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during spaceflight, particularly during G-transition phases. Post flight sensorimotor changes may include postural and gait instability, spatial disorientation, and visual performance decrements, all of which can degrade operational capabilities of the astronauts and endanger the crew. Crewmember safety would be improved if these detrimental effects of spaceflight could be mitigated by a sensorimotor countermeasure and even further if adaptation to baseline could be facilitated. The goal of this research is to investigate the potential use of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a technology to improve sensorimotor function. We hypothesize that low levels of SVS will improve sensorimotor performance through stochastic resonance (SR). The SR phenomenon occurs when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is optimized by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. Two studies have been initiated to investigate the beneficial effects and potential practical usage of SVS. In both studies, electrical vestibular stimulation is applied via electrodes on the mastoid processes using a constant current stimulator. The first study aims to determine the repeatability of the effect of vestibular stimulation on sensorimotor performance and perception in order to better understand the practical use of SVS. The beneficial effect of low levels of SVS on balance performance has been shown in the past. This research uses the same balance task repeated multiple times within a day and across days to study the repeatability of the stimulation effects. The balance test consists of 50 sec trials in which the subject stands with his or her feet together, arms crossed, and eyes closed on compliant foam. Varying levels of SVS, ranging from 0-700 micro A, are applied across different trials. The subject-specific optimal SVS level is that which results in the best balance performance as measured by inertial measurement units placed on the upper and lower torso of the subjects. Additionally, each individual’s threshold for illusory motion perception of suprasensory electrical vestibular stimulation is measured multiple times within and across days to better understand how multiple SVS test methods compare. The second study aims to demonstrate stochastic resonance in the vestibular system using a perception based motion recognition task. This task measures an individual’s velocity threshold of motion recognition using a 6-degree of freedom Stewart platform and a 3-down/1-up staircase procedure. For this study, thresholds are determined using 150 trials in the upright, head-centered roll tilt motion direction at a 0.2 Hz frequency. We aim to demonstrate the characteristic bell shaped curve associated with stochastic resonance with each subject’s motion recognition thresholds at varying SVS levels ranging from 0 to 1500 micro A. The curve includes the individual’s baseline threshold with no SVS, optimal or minimal threshold at some mid-level of SVS, and finally degraded or increased threshold at a high SVS level. An additional aim is to formally retest each subject at his or her individual optimal SVS level on a different day than the original testing for additional validity. The overall purpose of this research is to further quantify the effects of SVS on various sensorimotor tasks and investigate the practical implications of its use in the context of human space flight so that it may be implemented in the future as a component of a comprehensive countermeasure plan for adaptation to G-transitions.

Galvan, R. C.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Oman, C. M.

2014-01-01

57

New Algorithms for Improved Transcendental Functions on IA-64  

E-print Network

1 New Algorithms for Improved Transcendental Functions on IA-64 Shane Story Ping Tak Peter Tang of transcendental functions. Using several novel polynomial-based table-driven techniques, we are able to provide new algorithms for the transcendental functions. Major improvements include an accuracy level of about

California at Davis, University of

58

Antioxidant treatment improves neonatal survival and prevents impaired cardiac function at adulthood following neonatal glucocorticoid therapy.  

PubMed

Glucocorticoids are widely used to treat chronic lung disease in premature infants but their longer-term adverse effects on the cardiovascular system raise concerns. We reported that neonatal dexamethasone treatment in rats induced in the short term molecular indices of cardiac oxidative stress and cardiovascular tissue remodelling at weaning, and that neonatal combined antioxidant and dexamethasone treatment was protective at this time. In this study, we investigated whether such effects of neonatal dexamethasone have adverse consequences for NO bioavailability and cardiovascular function at adulthood, and whether neonatal combined antioxidant and dexamethasone treatment is protective in the adult. Newborn rat pups received daily i.p. injections of a human-relevant tapering dose of dexamethasone (D; n = 8; 0.5, 0.3, 0.1 ?g g(-1)) or D with vitamins C and E (DCE; n = 8; 200 and 100 mg kg(-1), respectively) on postnatal days 1-3 (P1-3); vitamins were continued from P4 to P6. Controls received equal volumes of vehicle from P1 to P6 (C; n = 8). A fourth group received vitamins alone (CCE; n = 8). At P100, plasma NO metabolites (NOx) was measured and isolated hearts were assessed under both Working and Langendorff preparations. Relative to controls, neonatal dexamethasone therapy increased mortality by 18% (P < 0.05). Surviving D pups at adulthood had lower plasma NOx concentrations (10.6 ± 0.8 vs. 28.0 ± 1.5 ?M), an increased relative left ventricular (LV) mass (70 ± 2 vs. 63 ± 1%), enhanced LV end-diastolic pressure (14 ± 2 vs. 8 ± 1 mmHg) and these hearts failed to adapt output with increased preload (cardiac output: 2.9 ± 2.0 vs. 10.6 ± 1.2 ml min(-1)) or afterload (cardiac output: -5.3 ± 2.0 vs.1.4 ± 1.2 ml min(-1)); all P < 0.05. Combined neonatal dexamethasone with antioxidant vitamins improved postnatal survival, restored plasma NOx and protected against cardiac dysfunction at adulthood. In conclusion, neonatal dexamethasone therapy promotes cardiac dysfunction at adulthood. Combined neonatal treatment with antioxidant vitamins is an effective intervention. PMID:23940378

Niu, Youguo; Herrera, Emilio A; Evans, Rhys D; Giussani, Dino A

2013-10-15

59

Molecular characterization of M1146, an American isolate of Ljungan virus (LV) reveals the presence of a new LV genotype.  

PubMed

Ljungan virus (LV) is a suspected human pathogen recently isolated from bank voles in Sweden. This study describes the genetic characterization of a virus, M1146, which was isolated in 1962 from another vole species (Microtus montanus), trapped in Oregon, USA. Based on antigenic properties, M1146 was postulated previously as a putative member of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE: The near complete genomic sequence verifies that M1146 is a member of the Picornaviridae, most closely related to LVs isolated in Sweden. The strain M1146 possesses typical LV genomic organization, including a cluster of two 2A homologues. There are significant differences throughout the capsid protein region, while the non-structural region of M1146 is closely related to the Swedish LV genomes. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses show that M1146 represents a new genotype within the distinct LV cluster. Isolation of LV from both Swedish and American voles trapped over a period of 30 years suggests a continuous worldwide presence. PMID:12655084

Johansson, E Susanne; Niklasson, Bo; Tesh, Robert B; Shafren, Darren R; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Lindberg, A Michael

2003-04-01

60

A model to determine the effect of collagen fiber alignment on heart function post myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Background Adverse remodeling of the left ventricle (LV) following myocardial infarction (MI) leads to heart failure. Recent studies have shown that scar anisotropy is a determinant of cardiac function post-MI, however it remains unclear how changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) organization and structure contribute to changes in LV function. The objective of this study is to develop a model to identify potential mechanisms by which collagen structure and organization affect LV function post-MI. Methods A four-region, multi-scale, cylindrical model of the post-MI LV was developed. The mechanical properties of the infarct region are governed by a constitutive equation based on the uncrimping of collagen fibers. The parameters of this constitutive equation include collagen orientation, angular dispersion, fiber stiffness, crimp angle, and density. Parametric variation of these parameters was used to elucidate the relationship between collagen properties and LV function. Results The mathematical model of the LV revealed several factors that influenced cardiac function post-MI. LV function was maximized when collagen fibers were aligned longitudinally. Increased collagen density was also found to improve stroke volume for longitudinal alignments while increased fiber stiffness decreased stroke volume for circumferential alignments. Conclusions The results suggest that cardiac function post-MI is best preserved through increased circumferential compliance. Further, this study identifies several collagen fiber-level mechanisms that could potentially regulate both infarct level and organ level mechanics. Improved understanding of the multi-scale relationships between the ECM and LV function will be beneficial in the design of new diagnostic and therapeutic technologies. PMID:24456675

2014-01-01

61

Improved association in a classical density functional theory for water  

SciTech Connect

We present a modification to our recently published statistical associating fluid theory-based classical density functional theory for water. We have recently developed and tested a functional for the averaged radial distribution function at contact of the hard-sphere fluid that is dramatically more accurate at interfaces than earlier approximations. We now incorporate this improved functional into the association term of our free energy functional for water, improving its description of hydrogen bonding. We examine the effect of this improvement by studying two hard solutes (a hard hydrophobic rod and a hard sphere) and a Lennard-Jones approximation of a krypton atom solute. The improved functional leads to a moderate change in the density profile and a large decrease in the number of hydrogen bonds broken in the vicinity of the hard solutes. We find an improvement of the partial radial distribution for a krypton atom in water when compared with experiment.

Krebs, Eric J.; Schulte, Jeff B.; Roundy, David [Department of Physics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

2014-03-28

62

14627/02 LV/tm 1 THE EUROPEAN UNION  

E-print Network

and biological terrorism 1 . 1 SN 4296/2/01 REV 2. #12;14627/02 LV/tm 2 DG I EN The Laeken European Council nuclear and radiological terrorism as well 3 . The Seville European Council on 21/22 June 2002 reiterated its determination to combat terrorism 4 . 3. The Permanent Representatives Committee agreed, at its

Sussex, University of

63

Neutron monitor yield function: New improved computations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A ground-based neutron monitor (NM) is a standard tool to measure cosmic ray (CR) variability near Earth, and it is crucially important to know its yield function for primary CRs. Although there are several earlier theoretically calculated yield functions, none of them agrees with experimental data of latitude surveys of sea-level NMs, thus suggesting for an inconsistency. A newly computed yield function of the standard sea-level 6NM64 NM is presented here separately for primary CR protons and ?-particles, the latter representing also heavier species of CRs. The computations have been done using the GEANT-4 PLANETOCOSMICS Monte-Carlo tool and a realistic curved atmospheric model. For the first time, an effect of the geometrical correction of the NM effective area, related to the finite lateral expansion of the CR induced atmospheric cascade, is considered, which was neglected in the previous studies. This correction slightly enhances the relative impact of higher-energy CRs (energy above 5-10 GeV/nucleon) in NM count rate. The new computation finally resolves the long-standing problem of disagreement between the theoretically calculated spatial variability of CRs over the globe and experimental latitude surveys. The newly calculated yield function, corrected for this geometrical factor, appears fully consistent with the experimental latitude surveys of NMs performed during three consecutive solar minima in 1976-1977, 1986-1987, and 1996-1997. Thus, we provide a new yield function of the standard sea-level NM 6NM64 that is validated against experimental data.

Mishev, A. L.; Usoskin, I. G.; Kovaltsov, G. A.

2013-06-01

64

New Algorithms for Improved Transcendental Functions on IA64  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IA-64 architecture provides new opportunities and challenges for implementing an improved set of transcendental functions. Using several novel polynomial-based table-driven techniques, we are able to provide new algorithms for the transcendental functions. Major improvements include an accuracy level of about 0.6 ulps (units in the last place) and forward trigonometric functions that have a period of 2 ? .

Shane Story; Ping Tak Peter Tang

1999-01-01

65

?3 adrenergic receptor selective stimulation during ischemia/reperfusion improves cardiac function in translational models through inhibition of mPTP opening in cardiomyocytes.  

PubMed

Selective stimulation of ?3 adrenergic-receptor (?3AR) has been shown to reduce infarct size in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. However, its functional long-term effect and the cardioprotective mechanisms at the level of cardiomyocytes have not been elucidated, and the impact of ?3AR stimulation has not been evaluated in a more translational large animal model. This study aimed at evaluating pre-perfusion administration of BRL37344 both in small and large animal models of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. Pre-reperfusion administration of the ?3AR agonist BRL37344 (5 ?g/kg) reduced infarct size at 2-and 24-h reperfusion in wild-type mice. Long-term (12-weeks) left ventricular (LV) function assessed by echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) was significantly improved in ?3AR agonist-treated mice. Incubation with ?3AR agonist (BRL37344, 7 ?mol/L) significantly reduced cell death in isolated adult mouse cardiomyocytes during hypoxia/reoxygenation and decreased susceptibility to deleterious opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP), via a mechanism dependent on the Akt-NO signaling pathway. Pre-reperfusion BRL37344 administration had no effect on infarct size in cyclophilin-D KO mice, further implicating mPTP in the mechanism of protection. Large-white pigs underwent percutaneous coronary ischemia/reperfusion and 3-T CMR at 7 and 45 days post-infarction. Pre-perfusion administration of BRL37344 (5 ?g/kg) decreased infarct size and improved long-term LV contractile function. A single-dose administration of ?3AR agonist before reperfusion decreased infarct size and resulted in a consistent and long-term improvement in cardiac function, both in small and large animal models of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. This protection appears to be executed through inhibition of mPTP opening in cardiomyocytes. PMID:24951958

García-Prieto, Jaime; García-Ruiz, Jose Manuel; Sanz-Rosa, David; Pun, Andrés; García-Alvarez, Ana; Davidson, Sean M; Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Nuno-Ayala, Mario; Fernández-Jiménez, Rodrigo; Bernal, Juan A; Izquierdo-Garcia, José Luis; Jimenez-Borreguero, Jesús; Pizarro, Gonzalo; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús; Macaya, Carlos; Fuster, Valentín; Yellon, Derek M; Ibanez, Borja

2014-07-01

66

Improved Density Functionals for Water University of Minnesota  

E-print Network

Improved Density Functionals for Water University of Minnesota NSF ITR-0428774 The ubiquitous attention has focused on using density functional theory (DFT) as a means to study these systems, however the high expense of these simulations has restricted the choice of available density functionals to less

Truhlar, Donald G

67

Improved endothelial function with metformin in type 2 diabetes mellitus  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThis study was designed to assess the effect of metformin on impaired endothelial function in type 2 diabetes mellitus.BACKGROUNDAbnormalities in vascular endothelial function are well recognized among patients with type 2 (insulin-resistant) diabetes mellitus. Insulin resistance itself may be central to the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction. The effects of metformin, an antidiabetic agent that improves insulin sensitivity, on endothelial function

Kieren J. Mather; Subodh Verma; Todd J. Anderson

2001-01-01

68

Pharmacoeconomic analysis of adjuvant oral capecitabine vs intravenous 5-FU/LV in Dukes' C colon cancer: the X-ACT trial  

PubMed Central

Oral capecitabine (Xeloda®) is an effective drug with favourable safety in adjuvant and metastatic colorectal cancer. Oxaliplatin-based therapy is becoming standard for Dukes' C colon cancer in patients suitable for combination therapy, but is not yet approved by the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) in the adjuvant setting. Adjuvant capecitabine is at least as effective as 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (5-FU/LV), with significant superiority in relapse-free survival and a trend towards improved disease-free and overall survival. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of adjuvant capecitabine from payer (UK National Health Service (NHS)) and societal perspectives. We used clinical trial data and published sources to estimate incremental direct and societal costs and gains in quality-adjusted life months (QALMs). Acquisition costs were higher for capecitabine than 5-FU/LV, but higher 5-FU/LV administration costs resulted in 57% lower chemotherapy costs for capecitabine. Capecitabine vs 5-FU/LV-associated adverse events required fewer medications and hospitalisations (cost savings £3653). Societal costs, including patient travel/time costs, were reduced by >75% with capecitabine vs 5-FU/LV (cost savings £1318), with lifetime gain in QALMs of 9 months. Medical resource utilisation is significantly decreased with capecitabine vs 5-FU/LV, with cost savings to the NHS and society. Capecitabine is also projected to increase life expectancy vs 5-FU/LV. Cost savings and better outcomes make capecitabine a preferred adjuvant therapy for Dukes' C colon cancer. This pharmacoeconomic analysis strongly supports replacing 5-FU/LV with capecitabine in the adjuvant treatment of colon cancer in the UK. PMID:16622438

Cassidy, J; Douillard, J-Y; Twelves, C; McKendrick, J J; Scheithauer, W; Bustová, I; Johnston, P G; Lesniewski-Kmak, K; Jelic, S; Fountzilas, G; Coxon, F; Díaz-Rubio, E; Maughan, T S; Malzyner, A; Bertetto, O; Beham, A; Figer, A; Dufour, P; Patel, K K; Cowell, W; Garrison, L P

2006-01-01

69

Original article Exposure of cats to low doses of FeLV: seroconversion  

E-print Network

Original article Exposure of cats to low doses of FeLV: seroconversion as the sole parameter for low FeLV infectious doses. Nai¨ve cats exposed to faeces of persistently infected cats seroconverted for disease progression. To investigate the impact of low FeLV doses on young cats and to test the hypothesis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

70

Joint faults detection in LV switchboard and its global diagnosis, through a Temperature Monitoring System.  

E-print Network

Joint faults detection in LV switchboard and its global diagnosis, through a Temperature Monitoring of monitoring and diagnosis of LV switchboards based on the measurements of currents, ambient temperatures and local temperatures of electrical joints. This system meets the needs to prevent the breakdowns of LV

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

71

Long-term levosimendan treatment improves systolic function and myocardial relaxation in mice with cardiomyocyte-specific disruption of the Serca2 gene.  

PubMed

In human heart failure (HF), reduced cardiac function has, at least partly, been ascribed to altered calcium homeostasis in cardiomyocytes. The effects of the calcium sensitizer levosimendan on diastolic dysfunction caused by reduced removal of calcium from cytosol in early diastole are not well known. In this study, we investigated the effect of long-term levosimendan treatment in a murine model of HF where the sarco(endo)plasmatic reticulum ATPase (Serca) gene is specifically disrupted in the cardiomyocytes, leading to reduced removal of cytosolic calcium. After induction of Serca2 gene disruption, these mice develop marked diastolic dysfunction as well as impaired contractility. SERCA2 knockout (SERCA2KO) mice were treated with levosimendan or vehicle from the time of KO induction. At the 7-wk end point, cardiac function was assessed by echocardiography and pressure measurements. Vehicle-treated SERCA2KO mice showed significantly diminished left-ventricular (LV) contractility, as shown by decreased ejection fraction, stroke volume, and cardiac output. LV pressure measurements revealed a marked increase in the time constant (?) of isovolumetric pressure decay, showing impaired relaxation. Levosimendan treatment significantly improved all three systolic parameters. Moreover, a significant reduction in ? toward normalization indicated improved relaxation. Gene-expression analysis, however, revealed an increase in genes related to production of the ECM in animals treated with levosimendan. In conclusion, long-term levosimendan treatment improves both contractility and relaxation in a heart-failure model with marked diastolic dysfunction due to reduced calcium transients. However, altered gene expression related to fibrosis was observed. PMID:24072410

Hillestad, Vigdis; Kramer, Frank; Golz, Stefan; Knorr, Andreas; Andersson, Kristin B; Christensen, Geir

2013-11-01

72

Astakine LvAST binds to the ? subunit of F1-ATP synthase and likely plays a role in white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei defense against white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

Cytokines play a critical role in innate and adaptive immunity. Astakines represent a group of invertebrate cytokines that are related to vertebrate prokineticin and function in promoting hematopoiesis in crustaceans. We have identified an astakine from the white shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei and named it LvAST in a previous research. In the present research, we investigated the interactions among LvAST, the envelope protein VP37 of white spot syndrome virus (i.e., WSSV), and the ? subunit of F1-ATP synthase (ATPsyn-?) of the white shrimp (i.e., BP53) using binding assays and co-precipitations. We also examined the effects of LvAST on shrimp susceptibility to WSSV. We found that LvAST and VP37 competitively bound to BP53, but did not bind to each other. Shrimps that had been injected with recombinant LvAST exhibited significantly lower mortality and longer survival time in experimental infections by WSSV. In contrast, shrimps whose LvAST gene expression had been inhibited by RNA interference showed significantly higher WSSV infection intensity and shorter survival time following viral challenges. These results suggested that LvAST and WSSV both likely use ATPsyn-? as a receptor and LvAST plays a role in shrimp defense against WSSV infection. This represented the first research showing the involvement of astakines in host antiviral immunity. PMID:25536411

Liang, Gao-Feng; Liang, Yan; Xue, Qinggang; Lu, Jin-Feng; Cheng, Jun-Jun; Huang, Jie

2015-03-01

73

Characterization and DNA sequence of the mobilization region of pLV22a from Bacteroides fragilis.  

PubMed Central

A 4.2-kb plasmid (pLV22a) native to Bacteroides fragilis LV22 became fused to a transfer-deficient Bacteroides spp.-Escherichia coli shuttle vector by an inverse transposition event, resulting in a transferrable phenotype. The transfer phenotype was attributable to pLV22a, which was also capable of mobilization within E. coli when coresident with the IncP beta R751 plasmid. Transposon mutagenesis with Tn1000 localized the mobilization region to a 1.5-kb DNA segment in pLV22a. The mobilization region has been sequenced, and five open reading frames have been identified. Mutants carrying disruptions in any of the three genes designated mbpA, mbpB, and mbpC and coding for deduced products of 11.3, 30.4, and 17.1 kDa, respectively, cannot be mobilized when coresident with R751. Mutations in all three genes can be complemented in the presence of the respective wild-type genes, indicating that the products of mbpA, mbpB, and mbpC have roles in the mobilization process and function in trans. The deduced 30.4-kDa MbpB protein contains a 14-amino-acid conserved motif that is also found in the DNA relaxases of a variety of conjugal and mobilizable plasmids and the conjugative transposon Tn4399. Deletion analysis and complementation experiments have localized a cis-acting region of pLV22a within mbpA. PMID:7635830

Novicki, T J; Hecht, D W

1995-01-01

74

Will Incremental Hemodialysis Preserve Residual Function and Improve Patient Survival?  

PubMed Central

The progressive loss of residual renal function in peritoneal dialysis patients is associated with increased mortality. It has been suggested that incremental dialysis may help preserve residual renal function and improve patient survival. Residual renal function depends upon both patient related and dialysis associated factors. Maintaining patients in an over-hydrated state may be associated with better preservation of residual renal function but any benefit comes with a significant risk of cardiovascular consequences. Notably, it is only observational studies that have reported an association between dialysis patient survival and residual renal function; causality has not been established for dialysis patient survival. The tenuous connections between residual renal function and outcomes and between incremental hemodialysis and residual renal function should temper our enthusiasm for interventions in this area. PMID:25385441

Davenport, Andrew

2015-01-01

75

Thyroid hormone improves function and Ca2+ handling in pressure overload hypertrophy. Association with increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase and alpha-myosin heavy chain in rat hearts.  

PubMed Central

We asked whether thyroid hormone (T4) would improve heart function in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) induced by pressure overload (aortic banding). After banding for 10-22 wk, rats were treated with T4 or saline for 10-14 d. Isovolumic LV pressure and cytosolic [Ca2+] (indo-1) were assessed in perfused hearts. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), phospholamban, and alpha- and beta-myosin heavy chain (MHC) proteins were assayed in homogenates of myocytes isolated from the same hearts. Of 14 banded hearts treated with saline, 8 had compensated LVH with normal function (LVHcomp), whereas 6 had abnormal contraction, relaxation, and calcium handling (LVHdecomp). In contrast, banded animals treated with T4 had no myocardial dysfunction; these hearts had increased contractility, and faster relaxation and cytosolic [Ca2+] decline compared with LVHcomp and LVHdecomp. Myocytes from banded hearts treated with T4 were hypertrophied but had increased concentrations of alpha-MHC and SERCA proteins, similar to physiological hypertrophy induced by exercise. Thus thyroid hormone improves LV function and calcium handling in pressure overload hypertrophy, and these beneficial effects are related to changes in myocyte gene expression. Induction of physiological hypertrophy by thyroid hormone-like signaling might be a therapeutic strategy for treating cardiac dysfunction in pathological hypertrophy and heart failure. PMID:9312172

Chang, K C; Figueredo, V M; Schreur, J H; Kariya, K; Weiner, M W; Simpson, P C; Camacho, S A

1997-01-01

76

Prediction of global left ventricular functional recovery in patients with heart failure undergoing surgical revascularisation, based on late gadolinium enhancement Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance  

PubMed Central

Background The new gold standard for myocardial viability assessment is late gadolinium enhancement-cardiovascular magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR); this technique has demonstrated that the transmural extent of scar predicts segmental functional recovery. We now asked how the number of viable and number of viable+normal, segments predicted recovery of global left ventricular (LV) function in patients undergoing CABG. Finally, we examined which segmental transmural threshold of scarring best predicted global LV recovery. Methods and Results Fifty patients with reduced LV ejection fraction (EF) referred for CABG were recruited, and 33 included in this analysis. Patients underwent CMR to assess LV function and viability pre-operatively at 6 days and 6 months. Mean LVEF 38% ± 11, which improved to 43% ± 12 after surgery. 21/33 patients improved EF by ?3% (EF before 38% ± 13, after 47% ± 13), 12/33 did not (EF before 39% ± 6, after 37% ± 8). The only independent predictor for global functional recovery after revascularisation was the number of viable+normal segments: Based on a segmental transmural viability cutoff of <50%, ROC analysis demonstrated ?10 viable+normal segments predicted ?3% improvement in LVEF with a sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 75% (AUC = 0.9, p < 0.001). Transmural viability cutoffs of <25 and <75% and a cutoff of ?4 viable segments were less useful predictors of global LV recovery. Conclusions Based on a 50% transmural viability cutoff, patients with ?10 viable+normal segments improve global LV function post revascularisation, while patients with fewer such segments do not. LGE-CMR is a simple and powerful tool for identifying which patients with impaired LV function will benefit from CABG. Trial registration Research Ethics Committee Unique Identifier: NRES:05/Q1603/42. The study is listed on the Current Controlled Trials Registry: ISRCTN41388968. URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com PMID:20929540

2010-01-01

77

Functional and pathological improvements of the hearts in diabetes model by the combined therapy of bFGF-loaded nanoparticles with ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction.  

PubMed

Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among the diabetic patients and currently there is no effective means to reverse its pathological progress. Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has shown promise as a molecular therapy for DCM, but its delivery is inefficient and non-specific. In the present study, a therapy combining nanoparticle (NP) carrier and ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) was reported the first time for bFGF delivery to the heart of diabetic rats. bFGF-loaded NP (bFGF-NP) were prepared with Poloxamer 188-grafted heparin copolymer using water-in-water technique, and the morphology, encapsulation efficiency, and bioactivity of bFGF-NP were studied. The cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of bFGF-NP were evaluated with primary cultures of the left ventricular (LV) cardiomyocytes in vitro. Therapeutic effects of bFGF-NP/UTMD on the heart of DCM rats were studied by measuring LV systolic and diastolic functions, hemodynamic characteristics and indicators of cardiac remodeling including myocardial collagen volume fraction and capillary density. Results demonstrated that bFGF-NP showed good round morphology, efficient bFGF encapsulation and stable bioactivity of bFGF in vitro. bFGF-NP/UTMD combined treatment significantly enhanced the efficiency of bFGF cellular uptake (P<0.05) without obvious cytotoxicity. Significant improvements (P<0.05) in both cardiac functions and tissue morphology in the DCM rats were observed in bFGF-NP/UTMD group. These were not achievable using free bFGF, bFGF-NP or UTMD treatment alone. Our results show that combining a non-viral vector with UTMD technique is an effective strategy to deliver bFGF to the heart, and the resulting growth factor therapy has demonstrated potential to reverse the progress of DCM by restoring the cardiac functions and even the structure of damaged cardiac tissues. PMID:24815422

Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Tian, Xin-Qiao; Zhang, Ming; Cai, Lu; Ru, Ao; Shen, Xiao-Tong; Jiang, Xi; Jin, Rong-Rong; Zheng, Lei; Hawkins, Kyle; Charkrabarti, Subrata; Li, Xiao-Kun; Lin, Qian; Yu, Wen-Ze; Ge, Shuping; Lu, Cui-Tao; Wong, Ho Lun

2014-07-28

78

Surface glycosaminoglycans mediate adherence between HeLa cells and Lactobacillus salivarius Lv72  

PubMed Central

Background The adhesion of lactobacilli to the vaginal surface is of paramount importance to develop their probiotic functions. For this reason, the role of HeLa cell surface proteoglycans in the attachment of Lactobacillus salivarius Lv72, a mutualistic strain of vaginal origin, was investigated. Results Incubation of cultures with a variety of glycosaminoglycans (chondroitin sulfate A and C, heparin and heparan sulfate) resulted in marked binding interference. However, no single glycosaminoglycan was able to completely abolish cell binding, the sum of all having an additive effect that suggests cooperation between them and recognition of specific adhesins on the bacterial surface. In contrast, chondroitin sulfate B enhanced cell to cell attachment, showing the relevance of the stereochemistry of the uronic acid and the sulfation pattern on binding. Elimination of the HeLa surface glycosaminoglycans with lyases also resulted in severe adherence impairment. Advantage was taken of the Lactobacillus-glycosaminoglycans interaction to identify an adhesin from the bacterial surface. This protein, identify as a soluble binding protein of an ABC transporter system (OppA) by MALDI-TOF/(MS), was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and shown to interfere with L. salivarius Lv72 adhesion to HeLa cells. Conclusions These data suggest that glycosaminoglycans play a fundamental role in attachment of mutualistic bacteria to the epithelium that lines the cavities where the normal microbiota thrives, OppA being a bacterial adhesin involved in the process. PMID:24044741

2013-01-01

79

Improving type-error messages in functional languages  

E-print Network

;5-1-2001 Improving type-error messages in functional languages 9 a tp a tpi for i [1..n] b tei for i [1..n; ... ; pn en;) : b , Type inference rules a and b are fresh |- p : tp , Ap |- pi : tpi , Api for i [1..n

Heeren, Bastiaan

80

Are Clinicians' Assessments of Improvements in Children's Functioning "Global"?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors examined the relations among clinician ratings of treatment improvement and discrepancies between parent and blinded laboratory rater reports of child social functioning administered before and after treatment for social anxiety disorder. Participants included a clinic sample of 101 children (7-16 years old; M = 11.67,…

De Los Reyes, Andres; Alfano, Candice A.; Beidel, Deborah C.

2011-01-01

81

Long-term Improvement in Functional Dyspepsia Using Hypnotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

See editorial on page 2132. Background & Aims: We have shown hypnotherapy (HT) to be effective in irritable bowel syndrome, with long- term improvements in symptomatology andquality of life (QOL). This study aimed to assess the efficacy of HT in functional dyspepsia (FD). Methods: A total of 126 FD patients were randomized to HT, supportive therapy plus placebo medication, or

EMMA LOUISE CALVERT; LESLEY ANNE HOUGHTON; PATRICIA COOPER; JULIE MORRIS; PETER JAMES WHORWELL

2002-01-01

82

Long-term improvement in functional dyspepsia using hypnotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: We have shown hypnotherapy (HT) to be effective in irritable bowel syndrome, with long-term improvements in symptomatology and quality of life (QOL). This study aimed to assess the efficacy of HT in functional dyspepsia (FD). Methods: A total of 126 FD patients were randomized to HT, supportive therapy plus placebo medication, or medical treatment for 16 weeks.

Emma Louise Calvert; Lesley Anne Houghton; Patricia Cooper; Julie Morris; Peter James Whorwell

2002-01-01

83

Training improves visual processing speed and generalizes to untrained functions.  

PubMed

Studies show that manipulating certain training features in perceptual learning determines the specificity of the improvement. The improvement in abnormal visual processing following training and its generalization to visual acuity, as measured on static clinical charts, can be explained by improved sensitivity or processing speed. Crowding, the inability to recognize objects in a clutter, fundamentally limits conscious visual perception. Although it was largely considered absent in the fovea, earlier studies report foveal crowding upon very brief exposures or following spatial manipulations. Here we used GlassesOff's application for iDevices to train foveal vision of young participants. The training was performed at reading distance based on contrast detection tasks under different spatial and temporal constraints using Gabor patches aimed at testing improvement of processing speed. We found several significant improvements in spatio-temporal visual functions including near and also non-trained far distances. A remarkable transfer to visual acuity measured under crowded conditions resulted in reduced processing time of 81 ms, in order to achieve 6/6 acuity. Despite a subtle change in contrast sensitivity, a robust increase in processing speed was found. Thus, enhanced processing speed may lead to overcoming foveal crowding and might be the enabling factor for generalization to other visual functions. PMID:25431233

Lev, Maria; Ludwig, Karin; Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Voss, Stephanie; Sterzer, Philipp; Hesselmann, Guido; Polat, Uri

2014-01-01

84

Training improves visual processing speed and generalizes to untrained functions  

PubMed Central

Studies show that manipulating certain training features in perceptual learning determines the specificity of the improvement. The improvement in abnormal visual processing following training and its generalization to visual acuity, as measured on static clinical charts, can be explained by improved sensitivity or processing speed. Crowding, the inability to recognize objects in a clutter, fundamentally limits conscious visual perception. Although it was largely considered absent in the fovea, earlier studies report foveal crowding upon very brief exposures or following spatial manipulations. Here we used GlassesOff's application for iDevices to train foveal vision of young participants. The training was performed at reading distance based on contrast detection tasks under different spatial and temporal constraints using Gabor patches aimed at testing improvement of processing speed. We found several significant improvements in spatio-temporal visual functions including near and also non-trained far distances. A remarkable transfer to visual acuity measured under crowded conditions resulted in reduced processing time of 81?ms, in order to achieve 6/6 acuity. Despite a subtle change in contrast sensitivity, a robust increase in processing speed was found. Thus, enhanced processing speed may lead to overcoming foveal crowding and might be the enabling factor for generalization to other visual functions. PMID:25431233

Lev, Maria; Ludwig, Karin; Gilaie-Dotan, Sharon; Voss, Stephanie; Sterzer, Philipp; Hesselmann, Guido; Polat, Uri

2014-01-01

85

Radionuclide left ventricular dV\\/dt for the assessment of cardiac function in patients with coronary disease. [\\/sup 99m\\/Ic-labelled red blood cells and contrast radiography  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate potential uses of left-ventricular (LV) systolic ejection rate (LV dV\\/dt) in the evaluation of LV function, we examined the effect of exercise, angiotensin, and leg raising on LV ejection fraction and LV dV\\/dt in patients with coronary-artery disease. The following observations were made: (a) LV ejection fraction and dV\\/dt changed proportionately, but in opposite directions, during supine exercise;

J. A. Bianco; D. G. Makey; W. K. Laskey; R. B. Shafer

1979-01-01

86

Cardiovascular function is better in veteran football players than age-matched untrained elderly healthy men.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to determine whether lifelong football training may improve cardiovascular function, physical fitness, and body composition. Our subjects were 17 male veteran football players (VPG; 68.1?±?2.1 years) and 26 healthy age-matched untrained men who served as a control group (CG; 68.2?±?3.2 years). Examinations included measurements of cardiac function, microvascular endothelial function [reactive hyperemic index (RHI)], maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max ), and body composition. In VPG, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume was 20% larger (P?LV ejection fraction was higher (P?LV longitudinal displacement, i.e., LV shortening of 21% (P?LV systolic function, physical fitness, microvascular function, and a healthier body composition. Overall, VPG have better cardiovascular function compared with CG, which may reduce their cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:24303918

Schmidt, J F; Andersen, T R; Andersen, L J; Randers, M B; Hornstrup, T; Hansen, P R; Bangsbo, J; Krustrup, P

2015-02-01

87

Identification of Peptide Lv, a Novel Putative Neuropeptide That Regulates the Expression of L-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels in Photoreceptors  

PubMed Central

Neuropeptides are small protein-like signaling molecules with diverse roles in regulating neural functions such as sleep/wake cycles, pain modulation, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory. Numerous drugs designed to target neuropeptides, their receptors, or relevant pathways have been developed in the past few decades. Hence, the discovery and characterization of new neuropeptides and their functions have received considerable attention from scientific research. Computational bioinformatics coupled with functional assays are powerful tools to address the difficulties in discovering new bioactive peptides. In this study, a new bioinformatic strategy was designed to screen full length human and mouse cDNA databases to search for novel peptides. One was discovered and named peptide Lv because of its ability to enhance L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (L-VGCC) currents in retinal photoreceptors. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), peptide Lv was detected in the culture media, which indicated that it was secreted from 661W cells transfected with the gene. In vitro treatments with either glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion peptide Lv or synthesized peptide Lv enhanced L-VGCC channel activities in cone photoreceptors. At the molecular level, peptide Lv stimulated cAMP production, enhanced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and increased the protein expression of L-VGCC?1 subunits in cone photoreceptors. Therefore, the biological activities of peptide Lv may be very important in the modulation of L-VGCC dependent neural plasticity. PMID:22912796

Shi, Liheng; Ko, Michael L.; Abbott, Louise C.; Ko, Gladys Y. -P.

2012-01-01

88

Berberine improves kidney function in diabetic mice via AMPK activation.  

PubMed

Diabetic nephropathy is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Effective therapies to prevent the development of this disease are required. Berberine (BBR) has several preventive effects on diabetes and its complications. However, the molecular mechanism of BBR on kidney function in diabetes is not well defined. Here, we reported that activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is required for BBR-induced improvement of kidney function in vivo. AMPK phosphorylation and activity, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), kidney function including serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine clearance (Ccr), and urinary protein excretion, morphology of glomerulus were determined in vitro or in vivo. Exposure of cultured human glomerulus mesangial cells (HGMCs) to BBR time- or dose-dependently activates AMPK by increasing the thr172 phosphorylation and its activities. Inhibition of LKB1 by siRNA or mutant abolished BBR-induced AMPK activation. Incubation of cells with high glucose (HG, 30 mM) markedly induced the oxidative stress of HGMCs, which were abolished by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside, AMPK gene overexpression or BBR. Importantly, the effects induced by BBR were bypassed by AMPK siRNA transfection in HG-treated HGMCs. In animal studies, streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemia dramatically promoted glomerulosclerosis and impaired kidney function by increasing serum BUN, urinary protein excretion, and decreasing Ccr, as well as increased oxidative stress. Administration of BBR remarkably improved kidney function in wildtype mice but not in AMPK?2-deficient mice. We conclude that AMPK activation is required for BBR to improve kidney function in diabetic mice. PMID:25409232

Zhao, Long; Sun, Li-Na; Nie, Hui-Bin; Wang, Xue-Ling; Guan, Guang-Ju

2014-01-01

89

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activation improves endothelial function.  

PubMed

Diminished release and function of endothelium-derived nitric oxide coupled with increases in reactive oxygen species production is critical in endothelial dysfunction. Recent evidences have shown that activation of the protective axis of the renin-angiotensin system composed by angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, angiotensin-(1-7), and Mas receptor promotes many beneficial vascular effects. This has led us to postulate that activation of intrinsic angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 would improve endothelial function by decreasing the reactive oxygen species production. In the present study, we tested 1-[[2-(dimetilamino)etil]amino]-4-(hidroximetil)-7-[[(4-metilfenil)sulfonil]oxi]-9H-xantona-9 (XNT), a small molecule angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activator, on endothelial function to validate this hypothesis. In vivo treatment with XNT (1 mg/kg per day for 4 weeks) improved the endothelial function of spontaneously hypertensive rats and of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats when evaluated through the vasorelaxant responses to acetylcholine/sodium nitroprusside. Acute in vitro incubation with XNT caused endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation in aortic rings of rats. This vasorelaxation effect was attenuated by the Mas antagonist D-pro7-Ang-(1-7), and it was reduced in Mas knockout mice. These effects were associated with reduction in reactive oxygen species production. In addition, Ang II-induced reactive oxygen species production in human aortic endothelial cells was attenuated by preincubation with XNT. These results showed that chronic XNT administration improves the endothelial function of hypertensive and diabetic rat vessels by attenuation of the oxidative stress. Moreover, XNT elicits an endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation response, which was mediated by Mas. Thus, this study indicated that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 activation promotes beneficial effects on the endothelial function and it is a potential target for treating cardiovascular disease. PMID:23608648

Fraga-Silva, Rodrigo A; Costa-Fraga, Fabiana P; Murça, Tatiane M; Moraes, Patrícia L; Martins Lima, Augusto; Lautner, Roberto Q; Castro, Carlos H; Soares, Célia Maria A; Borges, Clayton L; Nadu, Ana Paula; Oliveira, Marilene L; Shenoy, Vinayak; Katovich, Michael J; Santos, Robson A S; Raizada, Mohan K; Ferreira, Anderson J

2013-06-01

90

Normalizing hematocrit in dialysis patients improves brain function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) treatment has been shown to improve brain and cognitive function in anemic dialysis patients. Significant debate continues, however, regarding the appropriate target hematocrit (Hct) that will lead to the greatest benefits while considering possible side effects and costs of rHuEPO. Current practice results in an Hct averaging only 31% to 32% in dialysis patients, a level

Janiece L. Pickett; David C. Theberge; Warren S. Brown; Suzanne U. Schweitzer; Allen R. Nissenson

1999-01-01

91

Salmeterol improves pulmonary function in persons with tetraplegia.  

PubMed

beta(2)-Adrenergic agonists are known to improve muscle strength because of anabolic properties. The purpose of this study was to determine if long-term administration of a long-acting beta(2)-adrenergic agonist to subjects with tetraplegia is associated with improvement in pulmonary function parameters and maximal static inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures (MIP and MEP, respectively), measures of respiratory muscle strength. The study was a randomized, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial and conducted at the James J. Peters Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Thirteen subjects who had complete or incomplete tetraplegia for more than one year participated in the study. Eleven subjects completed the study. All were clinically stable outpatients without any history of asthma or use of inhaled bronchodilators. Following baseline measurements, patients were randomized to receive salmeterol or placebo from identically marked Diskus containers for 4 weeks. Following a 4-week washout period, the subjects were randomized to receive the alternate preparation for 4 weeks. Pulmonary function parameters and static mouth pressure were measured during baseline and during the fourth week of the two study periods. During the 4-week period of salmeterol administration, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, peak expiratory flow, MIP, and MEP improved significantly compared with placebo and baseline. Expiratory reserve volume increased significantly compared to baseline. Increases in MIP and MEP during salmeterol administration suggest improvement in respiratory muscle strength. However, this cannot be stated with certainty because MIP and MEP are dependent on volume parameters at which they are measured. Regardless of the mechanism, improvement in static mouth pressures indicates that salmeterol should benefit these individuals by improving cough effectiveness. PMID:17096182

Grimm, David R; Schilero, Gregory J; Spungen, Ann M; Bauman, William A; Lesser, Marvin

2006-01-01

92

Activities and Programs That Improve Children's Executive Functions.  

PubMed

Executive functions (EFs; e.g., reasoning, working memory, and self-control) can be improved. Good news indeed, since EFs are critical for school and job success and for mental and physical health. Various activities appear to improve children's EFs. The best evidence exists for computer-based training, traditional martial arts, and two school curricula. Weaker evidence, though strong enough to pass peer review, exists for aerobics, yoga, mindfulness, and other school curricula. Here I address what can be learned from the research thus far, including that EFs need to be progressively challenged as children improve and that repeated practice is key. Children devote time and effort to activities they love; therefore, EF interventions might use children's motivation to advantage. Focusing narrowly on EFs or aerobic activity alone appears not to be as efficacious in improving EFs as also addressing children's emotional, social, and character development (as do martial arts, yoga, and curricula shown to improve EFs). Children with poorer EFs benefit more from training; hence, training might provide them an opportunity to "catch up" with their peers and not be left behind. Remaining questions include how long benefits of EF training last and who benefits most from which activities. PMID:25328287

Diamond, Adele

2012-10-01

93

Viral DNA tethering domains complement replication-defective mutations in the p12 protein of MuLV Gag  

PubMed Central

The p12 protein of murine leukemia virus (MuLV) group-specific antigen (Gag) is associated with the preintegration complex, and mutants of p12 (PM14) show defects in nuclear entry or retention. Here we show that p12 proteins engineered to encode peptide sequences derived from known viral tethering proteins can direct chromatin binding during the early phase of viral replication and rescue a lethal p12-PM14 mutant. Peptides studied included segments of Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA)1–23, human papillomavirus 8 E2, and prototype foamy virus chromatin-binding sequences. Amino acid substitutions in Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus LANA and prototype foamy virus chromatin-binding sequences that blocked nucleosome association failed to rescue MuLV p12-PM14. Rescue by a larger LANA peptide, LANA1–32, required second-site mutations that are predicted to reduce peptide binding affinity to chromosomes, suggesting that excessively high binding affinity interfered with Gag/p12 function. This is supported by confocal microscopy of chimeric p12-GFP fusion constructs showing the reverted proteins had weaker association to condensed mitotic chromosomes. Analysis of the integration-site selection of these chimeric viruses showed no significant change in integration profile compared with wild-type MuLV, suggesting release of the tethered p12 post mitosis, before viral integration. PMID:23661057

Schneider, William M.; Brzezinski, Jonathon D.; Aiyer, Sriram; Malani, Nirav; Gyuricza, Mercedes; Bushman, Frederic D.; Roth, Monica J.

2013-01-01

94

LV wall segmentation using the variational level set method (LSM) with additional shape constraint for oedema quantification.  

PubMed

In this paper an automatic algorithm for the left ventricle (LV) wall segmentation and oedema quantification from T2-weighted cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images is presented. The extent of myocardial oedema delineates the ischaemic area-at-risk (AAR) after myocardial infarction (MI). Since AAR can be used to estimate the amount of salvageable myocardial post-MI, oedema imaging has potential clinical utility in the management of acute MI patients. This paper presents a new scheme based on the variational level set method (LSM) with additional shape constraint for the segmentation of T2-weighted CMR image. In our approach, shape information of the myocardial wall is utilized to introduce a shape feature of the myocardial wall into the variational level set formulation. The performance of the method is tested using real CMR images (12 patients) and the results of the automatic system are compared to manual segmentation. The mean perpendicular distances between the automatic and manual LV wall boundaries are in the range of 1-2 mm. Bland-Altman analysis on LV wall area indicates there is no consistent bias as a function of LV wall area, with a mean bias of -121 mm(2) between individual investigator one (IV1) and LSM, and -122 mm(2) between individual investigator two (IV2) and LSM when compared to two investigators. Furthermore, the oedema quantification demonstrates good correlation when compared to an expert with an average error of 9.3% for 69 slices of short axis CMR image from 12 patients. PMID:22968138

Kadir, K; Gao, H; Payne, A; Soraghan, J; Berry, C

2012-10-01

95

Improving functional disability and cognition in Parkinson disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To examine the efficacy of an integrative cognitive training program (REHACOP) to improve cognition, clinical symptoms, and functional disability of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: Forty-two patients diagnosed with PD in Hoehn & Yahr stages 1 to 3 were randomly assigned to either the cognitive training group (REHACOP) or the control group (occupational activities) for 3 months (3 sessions, 60 min/wk). Primary outcomes were change on processing speed, verbal memory, visual memory, executive functioning, and theory of mind. Secondary outcomes included changes on neuropsychiatric symptoms, depression, apathy, and functional disability. The trial was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02118480). Results: No baseline group differences were found. Bootstrapped analysis of variance results showed significant differences in the mean change scores between the REHACOP group and control group in processing speed (0.13 [SE = 0.07] vs ?0.15 [SE = 0.09], p = 0.025), visual memory (0.10 [SE = 0.10] vs ?0.24 [SE = 0.09], p = 0.011), theory of mind (1.00 [SE = 0.37] vs ?0.27 [SE = 0.29], p = 0.013), and functional disability (?5.15 [SE = 1.35] vs 0.53 [SE = 1.49], p = 0.012). Conclusions: Patients with PD receiving cognitive training with REHACOP demonstrated statistically significant and clinically meaningful changes in processing speed, visual memory, theory of mind, and functional disability. Future studies should consider the long-term effect of this type of intervention. These findings support the integration of cognitive training into the standard of care for patients with PD. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with PD, an integrative cognitive training program improves processing speed, visual memory, theory of mind, and functional disability. PMID:25361785

Peña, Javier; García-Gorostiaga, Inés; Gomez-Beldarrain, Maria Angeles; Díez-Cirarda, María; Ojeda, Natalia

2014-01-01

96

Assessment of the LV-S2 & LV-S3 Stack Sampling Probe Locations for Compliance with ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999  

SciTech Connect

This document reports on a series of tests conducted to assess the proposed air sampling locations for the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Group 1-2A exhaust stacks with respect to the applicable criteria regarding the placement of an air sampling probe. The LV-C2, LV-S2, and LV-S3 exhaust stacks were tested together as a group (Test Group 1-2A). This report only covers the results of LV-S2 and LV-S3; LV-C2 will be reported on separately. Federal regulations1 require that a sampling probe be located in the exhaust stack according to the criteria established by the American National Standards Institute/Health Physics Society (ANSI/HPS) N13.1-1999, Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities. 2 These criteria address the capability of the sampling probe to extract a sample that represents the effluent stream.

Glissmeyer, John A.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Flaherty, Julia E.; Amidan, Brett G.

2014-09-30

97

Intravenous Glial Growth Factor 2 (GGF2) Isoform of Neuregulin-1? Improves Left Ventricular Function, Gene and Protein Expression in Rats after Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Aims Recombinant Neuregulin (NRG)-1? has multiple beneficial effects on cardiac myocytes in culture, and has potential as a clinical therapy for heart failure (HF). A number of factors may influence the effect of NRG-1? on cardiac function via ErbB receptor coupling and expression. We examined the effect of the NRG-1? isoform, glial growth factor 2 (GGF2), in rats with myocardial infarction (MI) and determined the impact of high-fat diet as well as chronicity of disease on GGF2 induced improvement in left ventricular systolic function. Potential mechanisms for GGF2 effects on the remote myocardium were explored using microarray and proteomic analysis. Methods and Results Rats with MI were randomized to receive vehicle, 0.625 mg/kg, or 3.25 mg/kg GGF2 in the presence and absence of high-fat feeding beginning at day 7 post-MI and continuing for 4 weeks. Residual left ventricular (LV) function was improved in both of the GGF2 treatment groups compared with the vehicle treated MI group at 4 weeks of treatment as assessed by echocardiography. High-fat diet did not prevent the effects of high dose GGF2. In experiments where treatment was delayed until 8 weeks after MI, high but not low dose GGF2 treatment was associated with improved systolic function. mRNA and protein expression analysis of remote left ventricular tissue revealed a number of changes in myocardial gene and protein expression altered by MI that were normalized by GGF2 treatment, many of which are involved in energy production. Conclusions This study demonstrates that in rats with MI induced systolic dysfunction, GGF2 treatment improves cardiac function. There are differences in sensitivity of the myocardium to GGF2 effects when administered early vs. late post-MI that may be important to consider in the development of GGF2 in humans. PMID:23437060

Murphy, Abigail; Smith, Holly M.; Galindo, Cristi L.; Pentassuglia, Laura; Peng, Xuyang; Lenneman, Carrie G.; Odiete, Oghenerukevwe; Friedman, David B.; Kronenberg, Marvin W.; Zheng, Siyuen; Zhao, Zhongming; Song, Yanna; Harrell, Frank E.; Srinivas, Maya; Ganguly, Anindita; Iaci, Jennifer; Parry, Tom J.; Caggiano, Anthony O.; Sawyer, Douglas B.

2013-01-01

98

A statistical approach to the calculation of harmonics in MV systems caused by dispersed LV customers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problems usually arise when predicting harmonics in public supply systems due to the varying characteristics of the loads connected. Based on comprehensive measurements, a statistical load model is set up providing the harmonic parameters of all LV systems fed by the same HV\\/MV feeder. Harmonic distortion in the MV system caused by the variety of stochastic LV customers is determined

T. Goeke

1995-01-01

99

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves cognitive functioning after brain injury  

PubMed Central

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been widely applied and recognized in the treatment of brain injury; however, the correlation between the protective effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and changes of metabolites in the brain remains unclear. To investigate the effect and potential mechanism of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cognitive functioning in rats, we established traumatic brain injury models using Feeney's free falling method. We treated rat models with hyperbaric oxygen therapy at 0.2 MPa for 60 minutes per day. The Morris water maze test for spatial navigation showed that the average escape latency was significantly prolonged and cognitive function decreased in rats with brain injury. After treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy for 1 and 2 weeks, the rats’ spatial learning and memory abilities were improved. Hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis showed that the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased at 1 week, and the N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio was significantly increased at 2 weeks after hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Nissl staining and immunohistochemical staining showed that the number of nerve cells and Nissl bodies in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased, and glial fibrillary acidic protein positive cells were decreased after a 2-week hyperbaric oxygen therapy treatment. Our findings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen therapy significantly improves cognitive functioning in rats with traumatic brain injury, and the potential mechanism is mediated by metabolic changes and nerve cell restoration in the hippocampal CA3 region. PMID:25206655

Liu, Su; Shen, Guangyu; Deng, Shukun; Wang, Xiubin; Wu, Qinfeng; Guo, Aisong

2013-01-01

100

Improving the Local Radio Luminosity Function at Low Luminosities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted a VLA survey at 20 cm wavelength covering part of the 15-16h, +29-30 degree, field of the CfA Century survey. At flux levels down to 0.2 mJy, we detected 854 radio sources. Our radio flux densities, combined with redshifts from both the CfA surveys (Wegner, et al., astro-ph 0109101) and the KISS survey (Salzer, et al., AJ 120, p. 80, 2000), allow us to calculate radio luminosities, and thus to improve the Radio Luminosity Function for local (z < 0.1) galaxies.

Caler, M.; Partridge, R. B.

2001-12-01

101

Schrödinger functional boundary conditions and improvement for N >3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The standard method to calculate non-perturbatively the evolution of the running coupling of a SU( N ) gauge theory is based on the Schrödinger functional (SF). In this paper we construct a family of boundary fields for general values of N which enter the standard definition of the SF coupling. We provide spatial boundary conditions for fermions in several representations which reduce the condition number of the squared Dirac operator. In addition, we calculate the improvement coefficients for N >3 needed to remove boundary cutoff effects from the gauge action. After this, residual cutoff effects on the step scaling function are shown to be very small even when considering non-fundamental representations. We also calculate the ratio of ? parameters between the and SF schemes.

Hietanen, Ari; Karavirta, Tuomas; Vilaseca, Pol

2014-11-01

102

Nucleotide sequence and mode of transmission of the wild mouse ecotropic virus, HoMuLV.  

PubMed

HoMuLV is an NB-tropic wild mouse leukemia virus (MuLV) with ecotropic host range which induces lymphoma, erythroleukemia, and myelogenous leukemia in NIH Swiss mice. Although HoMuLV uses the same cell surface receptor as other ecotropic MuLVs, hybridization studies suggested that the HoMuLV envelope glycoprotein differs from that of other ecotropic MuLVs. We have now molecularly cloned HoMuLV and sequenced its LTR, gag, and env regions. HoMuLV differs markedly from other MuLVs in the LTR U3 region, in the SU protein of env, and in p12gag. U3 contains a single copy of a sequence analogous to the direct repeat found in other LTRs, and this region includes several previously defined protein binding sites. The predicted amino acid sequence for the coding regions of env and gag reveal that p12 and the SU protein show less than 59 and 65% sequence identity, respectively, with those of other MuLVs. A 0.6-kb segment of the 5' region of the HoMuLV env was used as a hybridization probe to examine inbred and wild mouse genomic DNAs for proviral sequences. HoMuLV env sequences were not present in the germline of any of the inbred strains or wild mice examined including the Mus hortulanus mice which harbored infectious virus. Therefore, HoMuLV represents an evolutionarily related, but distinct, subgroup of ecotropic MuLV which is not genetically transmitted in its natural host. PMID:2554579

Voytek, P; Kozak, C A

1989-11-01

103

Do Improvements in Balance Relate to Improvements in Long-Distance Walking Function after Stroke?  

PubMed Central

Stroke survivors identify a reduced capacity to walk farther distances as a factor limiting their engagement at home and in community. Previous observational studies have shown that measures of balance ability and balance self-efficacy are strong predictors of long-distance walking function after stroke. Consequently, recommendations to target balance during rehabilitation have been put forth. The purpose of this study was to determine if the changes in balance and long-distance walking function observed following a 12-week poststroke walking rehabilitation program were related. For thirty-one subjects with hemiparesis after stroke, this investigation explored the cross-sectional (i.e., before training) and longitudinal (i.e., changes due to intervention) relationships between measures of standing balance, walking balance, and balance self-efficacy versus long-distance walking function as measured via the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). A regression model containing all three balance variables accounted for 60.8% of the variance in 6MWT performance (adjR2 = .584; F(3,27) = 13.931; P < .001); however, only dynamic balance (FGA) was an independent predictor (? = .502) of 6MWT distance. Interestingly, changes in balance were unrelated to changes in the distance walked (each correlation coefficient <.17, P > .05). For persons after stroke similar to those studied, improving balance may not be sufficient to improve long-distance walking function. PMID:25120939

Awad, Louis N.; Reisman, Darcy S.; Binder-Macleod, Stuart A.

2014-01-01

104

Fish oil supplementation improves neutrophil function during cancer chemotherapy.  

PubMed

Cancer chemotherapy is associated with neutropenia and impaired neutrophil function. This study aimed to investigate whether supplementation with low dose fish oil (FO), providing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy after surgical tumor (mainly gastrointestinal) removal is able to improve the function of blood neutrophils. Patients (n = 38) receiving chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil and leucovorin) were randomized into two groups; one group (control) did not receive a supplement, while the other group (FO) received 2 g FO/day for 8 weeks; the FO provided 0.3 g eicosapentaenoic acid plus 0.4 g docosahexaenoic acid per day. Patients in the control group lost an average of 2.5 kg of weight over the 8 weeks of the study. The number of blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNC), mainly neutrophils, and their functions (phagocytosis and hydrogen peroxide production) decreased in the control group (average decreases of approximately 30, 45 and 17%, respectively). FO prevented these decreases and actually increased body weight (average of 1.7 kg weight gain; p < 0.002 vs. control group), PMNC number (average 29% increase), phagocytosis (average 14% increase) and superoxide production (average 28% increase). FO may be useful in preventing chemotherapy-induced decline in neutrophil number and function. PMID:22160495

Bonatto, Sandro J R; Oliveira, Heloisa H P; Nunes, Everson A; Pequito, Daniele; Iagher, Fabiola; Coelho, Isabela; Naliwaiko, Katya; Kryczyk, Marcelo; Brito, Gleisson A P; Repka, João; Sabóia, Luciano V; Fukujima, George; Calder, Philip C; Fernandes, Luiz C

2012-04-01

105

Angiotensin II blockade improves mitochondrial function in spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Angiotensin II can induce oxidant stress by stimulating vascular superoxide production. Hypertension promotes mitochondrial function decline in brain, liver and heart. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a) hypertension is associated to kidney mitochondrial dysfunction, and b) angiotensin II blockade can reverse potential mitochondrial changes in hypertension. Four-month-old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) received drinking water containing candesartan (7.5 mg/kg/day, SHR+Cand), or no additions (SHR) for 4-months. Eight-month-old Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), that received water with no additions, were used as control. Systolic blood pressure, proteinuria, cortical glomerular area, and glomerular and tubulointerstitial alpha-smooth muscle actin labeling, were significantly higher, and creatinine clearance was significantly lower, in SHR relative to WKY and SHR+Cand. In SHR, kidney mitochondria membrane potential, and nitric oxide synthase and cytochrome oxidase activities were significantly lower than in WKY and SHR+Cand. In SHR, mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production was significantly higher than in WKY and SHR+Cand. The results suggest that, in hypertension, increased mitochondrial oxidant production may mediate kidney mitochondria dysfunction. Candesartan preserved mitochondrial function, probably favoring the maintenance of adequate cellular and tissue function in the kidney. The known renal protective effects of candesartan in hypertension may be related to the improvement of mitochondrial function. This may be an additional or alternative explanation for some of the beneficial effects of AT1 receptor antagonists. PMID:16309582

De Cavanagh, E M V; Toblli, J E; Ferder, L; Piotrkowski, B; Stella, I; Fraga, C G; Inserra, F

2005-11-01

106

Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of a new Amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MuLV-1313)  

PubMed Central

Background The amphotropic murine leukemia viruses (MuLV-A's) are naturally occurring, exogenously acquired gammaretroviruses that are indigenous to the Southern California wild mice. These viruses replicate in a wide range of cell types including human cells in vitro and they can cause both hematological and neurological disorders in feral as well as in the inbred laboratory mice. Since MuLV-A's also exhibit discrete interference and neutralization properties, the envelope proteins of these viruses have been extremely useful for studying virus-host cell interactions and as vehicles for transfer of foreign genes into a variety of hosts including human cells. However, the genomic structure of any of the several known MuLV-A's has not been established and the evolutionary relationship of amphotropic retroviruses to the numerous exogenous or endogenous MuLV strains remains elusive. Herein we present a complete genetic structure of a novel amphotropic virus designated MuLV-1313 and demonstrate that this retrovirus together with other MuLV-A's belongs to a distinct molecular, biological and phylogenetic class among the MuLV strains isolated from a large number of the laboratory inbred or feral mice. Results The host range of MuLV-1313 is similar to the previously isolated MuLV-A's except that this virus replicates efficiently in mammalian as well as in chicken cells. Compared to ENV proteins of other MuLV-A's (4070A, 1504A and 10A-1), the gp70 protein of MuLV-1313 exhibits differences in its signal peptides and the proline-rich hinge regions. However, the MuLV-1313 envelope protein is totally unrelated to those present in a broad range of murine retroviruses that have been isolated from various inbred and feral mice globally. Genetic analysis of the entire MuLV-1313 genome by dot plot analyses, which compares each nucleotide of one genome with the corresponding nucleotide of another, revealed that the genome of this virus, with the exception of the env gene, is more closely related to the biologically distinct wild mouse ecotropic retrovirus (Cas-Br-E) isolated from another region of the Southern California, than to any of the 15 MuLV strains whose full-length sequences are present in the GenBank. This finding was corroborated by phylogenetic analyses and hierarchical clustering of the entire genomic sequence of MuLV-1313, which also placed all MULV-A's in a genetically distinct category among the large family of retroviruses isolated from numerous mouse strains globally. Likewise, construction of separate dendrograms for each of the Gag, Pol and Env proteins of MuLV-1313 demonstrated that the amphotropic retroviruses belong to a phylogenetically exclusive group of gammaretroviruses compared to all known MuLV strains. Conclusion The molecular, biological and phylogenetic properties of amphotropic retroviruses including MuLV-1313 are distinct compared to a large family of exogenously- or endogenously-transmitted ecotropic, polytropic and xenotropic MuLV strains of the laboratory and feral mice. Further, both the naturally occurring amphotropic and a biologically discrete ecotropic retrovirus of the Southern California wild mice are more closely related to each other on the evolutionary tree than any other mammalian gammaretrovirus indicating a common origin of these viruses. This is the first report of a complete genomic analysis of a unique group of phylogenetically distinct amphotropic virus. PMID:17147829

Howard, Thomas M; Sheng, Zhijuan; Wang, Mingwu; Wu, Yongchun; Rasheed, Suraiya

2006-01-01

107

Improved CLARAty Functional-Layer/Decision-Layer Interface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved interface software for communication between the CLARAty Decision and Functional layers has been developed. [The Coupled Layer Architecture for Robotics Autonomy (CLARAty) was described in Coupled-Layer Robotics Architecture for Autonomy (NPO-21218), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 12 (December 2002), page 48. To recapitulate: the CLARAty architecture was developed to improve the modularity of robotic software while tightening coupling between planning/execution and basic control subsystems. Whereas prior robotic software architectures typically contained three layers, the CLARAty contains two layers: a decision layer (DL) and a functional layer (FL).] Types of communication supported by the present software include sending commands from DL modules to FL modules and sending data updates from FL modules to DL modules. The present software supplants prior interface software that had little error-checking capability, supported data parameters in string form only, supported commanding at only one level of the FL, and supported only limited updates of the state of the robot. The present software offers strong error checking, and supports complex data structures and commanding at multiple levels of the FL, and relative to the prior software, offers a much wider spectrum of state-update capabilities.

Estlin, Tara; Rabideau, Gregg; Gaines, Daniel; Johnston, Mark; Chouinard, Caroline; Nessnas, Issa; Shu, I-Hsiang

2008-01-01

108

The Use of Functional Electrical Stimulation to Improve Function in People with Spinal Cord Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Clinical Bottom Line: Currently there is no evidence to support the notion that in people with spinal cord injury, the use of FES as a physical therapy intervention results in improved functional outcomes. All of the articles we critically analyzed had significant threats to internal validity preventing us from generalizing the results to our clinical scenarios. Higher quality research

April R. Baker; Candace M. Callison

2007-01-01

109

Improving balance function using vestibular stochastic resonance: optimizing stimulus characteristics.  

PubMed

Stochastic resonance (SR) is a phenomenon whereby the response of a non-linear system to a weak periodic input signal is optimized by the presence of a particular non-zero level of noise. Stochastic resonance using imperceptible stochastic vestibular electrical stimulation, when applied to normal young and elderly subjects, has been shown to significantly improve ocular stabilization reflexes in response to whole-body tilt; improved balance performance during postural disturbances and optimize covariance between the weak input periodic signals introduced via venous blood pressure receptors and the heart rate responses. In our study, 15 subjects stood on a compliant surface with their eyes closed. They were given low-amplitude binaural bipolar stochastic electrical stimulation of the vestibular organs in two frequency ranges of 1-2 and 0-30 Hz over the amplitude range of 0 to ±700 ?A. Subjects were instructed to maintain an upright stance during 43-s trials, which consisted of baseline (zero amplitude) and stimulation (non-zero amplitude) periods. Measures of stability of the head and trunk using inertial motion unit sensors attached to these segments and the whole body using a force plate were measured and quantified in the mediolateral plane. Using a multivariate optimization criterion, our results show that the low levels of vestibular stimulation given to the vestibular organs improved balance performance in normal healthy subjects in the range of 5-26% consistent with the stochastic resonance phenomenon. In our study, 8 of 15 and 10 of 15 subjects were responsive for the 1-2- and 0-30-Hz stimulus signals, respectively. The improvement in balance performance did not differ significantly between the stimulations in the two frequency ranges. The amplitude of optimal stimulus for improving balance performance was predominantly in the range of ±100 to ±400 ?A. A device based on SR stimulation of the vestibular system might be useful as either a training modality to enhance adaptability or skill acquisition, or as a miniature patch-type stimulator that may be worn by people with disabilities due to aging or disease to improve posture and locomotion function. PMID:21442221

Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Fiedler, Matthew J; Kofman, Igor S; Wood, Scott J; Serrador, Jorge M; Peters, Brian; Cohen, Helen S; Reschke, Millard F; Bloomberg, Jacob J

2011-04-01

110

Spontaneous improvement in oculomotor function of children with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

Eye movements are essential to get a clear vision of moving objects. In the present study, we assessed quantitatively the oculomotor deficits of children with cerebral palsy (CP). We recorded eye movements of 51 children with cerebral palsy (aged 5-16 years) with relatively mild motor impairment and compared their performance with age-matched control and premature children. Overall eye movements of children with CP are unexpectedly close to those of controls even though some oculomotor parameters are biased by the side of hemiplegia. Importantly, the difference in performance between children with CP and controls decreases with age, demonstrating that the oculomotor function of children with CP develops as fast as or even faster than controls for some visual tracking parameters. That is, oculomotor function spontaneously improves over the course of childhood. This evolution highlights the ability of lesioned brain of children with CP to compensate for impaired motor function beyond what would be achieved by normal development on its own. PMID:25462523

Ego, Caroline; Orban de Xivry, Jean-Jacques; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile; Yüksel, Demet; Lefèvre, Philippe

2014-11-20

111

Schwann Cells Seeded in Acellular Nerve Grafts Improve Functional Recovery  

PubMed Central

Introduction This study evaluated whether Schwann cells (SCs) from different nerve sources transplanted into cold-preserved acellular nerve grafts (CP-ANGs) would improve functional regeneration compared to nerve isografts. Methods SCs isolated and expanded from motor and sensory branches of rat femoral and sciatic nerves were seeded into 14mm CP-ANGs. Growth factor expression, axonal regeneration, and functional recovery were evaluated in a14 mm rat sciatic injury model and compared to isografts. Results At 14 days, motor or sensory-derived SCs increased expression of growth factors in CP-ANGs versus isografts. After 42 days, histomorphometric analysis found CP-ANGs with SCs and isografts had similar numbers of regenerating nerve fibers. At 84 days, muscle force generation was similar for CP-ANGs with SCs and isografts. SC source did not affect nerve fiber counts or muscle force generation. Discussion SCs transplanted into CP-ANGs increase functional regeneration to isograft levels; however SC nerve source did not have an effect. PMID:23625513

Jesuraj, Nithya J.; Santosa, Katherine B.; MacEwan, Matthew R.; Moore, Amy M.; Kasukurthi, Rahul; Ray, Wilson Z.; Flagg, Eric R.; Hunter, Daniel A.; Borschel, Gregory H.; Johnson, Philip J.; Mackinnon, Susan E.; Sakiyama-Elbert, Shelly E.

2014-01-01

112

Incomplete Recovery of Myocyte Contractile Function Despite Improvement of Myocardial Architecture With Left Ventricular Assist Device Support  

PubMed Central

Background Unloading a failing heart with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) can improve ejection fraction (EF) and left ventricular (LV) size; however, recovery with LVAD explantation is rare. We hypothesized that evaluation of myocyte contractility and biochemistry at the sarcomere level before and after LVAD may explain organ level changes. Methods and Results Paired LV tissue samples were frozen from 8 patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy at LVAD implantation (Before LVAD) and prior to transplant (After LVAD). These were compared to 8 nonfailing hearts. Isolated skinned myocytes were purified, attached to a force transducer, and dimensions, maximal calcium saturated force (Fmax), calcium sensitivity, and myofilament cooperativity were assessed. Relative isoform abundance and phosphorylation levels of sarcomeric contractile proteins were measured. With LVAD support, the unloaded EF improved (10.0±1.0 to 25.6±11.0%, p=0.007), LV size decreased (LVIDd 7.6±1.2 to 4.9±1.4cm, p<0.001), and myocyte dimensions decreased (cross-sectional area 1247±346 to 638±254?m2, p=0.001). Fmax improved after LVAD (3.6±0.9 to 7.3±1.8mN/mm2, p<0.001), but was still lower than nonfailing (7.3±1.8 vs. 17.6±1.8mN/mm2, p<0.001). An increase in troponin I (TnI) phosphorylation after LVAD was noted, but protein kinase C phosphorylation of TnI decreased. Biochemical changes of other sarcomeric proteins were not observed after LVAD. Conclusions There is significant improvement in LV and myocyte size with LVAD, but there is only partial recovery of EF and myocyte contractility. LVAD support was only associated with biochemical changes in TnI. This suggests that alternate mechanisms might contribute to contractile changes after LVAD and that additional interventions may be needed to alter biochemical remodeling of the sarcomere to further enhance myofilament and organ level recovery. PMID:21540356

Ambardekar, Amrut V.; Walker, John S.; Walker, Lori A.; Cleveland, Joseph C.; Lowes, Brian D.; Buttrick, Peter M.

2012-01-01

113

Epidemiology and Natural History of Recovery of Left Ventricular Function in Recent Onset Dilated Cardiomyopathies  

PubMed Central

Although the long term prognosis of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) remains poor, approximately 25% of DCM patients with recent onset of heart failure (< 6 months) have a relatively benign clinical course with a spontaneously improvement in symptoms and partial, or in some cases complete, recovery of left ventricular (LV) function. Despite the longstanding recognition of the clinical phenomenon of LV recovery, relatively little attention has been paid to the etiology and natural history of this important group of DCM patients. Accordingly, in the present review we will focus on the epidemiology and natural history of recent onset DCM in patients who undergo spontaneous resolution of symptoms that is accompanied by recovery of LV function. PMID:24014141

Givertz, Michael M.; Mann, Douglas L.

2013-01-01

114

?Conotoxin ArIB[V11L,V16D] is a potent and selective antagonist at rat and human native ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors  

PubMed Central

A recently developed ?-conotoxin, ?-CtxArIB[V11L,V16D] is a potent and selective competitive antagonist at rat recombinant ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), making it an attractive probe for this receptor subtype. ?7 nAChRs are potential therapeutic targets that are widely expressed in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissues where they are implicated in a variety of functions. Here we evaluate this toxin at rat and human native nAChRs. Functional ?7 nAChR responses were evoked by choline plus the allosteric potentiator PNU-120596 in rat PC12 cells and human SHSY5Y cells loaded with calcium indicators. ?-CtxArIB[V11L,V16D] specifically inhibited ?7 nAChR-mediated increases in Ca2+ in PC12 cells. Responses to other stimuli (5-iodo-A-85380, nicotine or KCl) that did not activate ?7 nAChRs were unaffected. Human ?7 nAChRs were also sensitive to ?-CtxArIB[V11L,V16D]: ACh-evoked currents in X. laevis oocytes expressing human ?7 nAChRs were inhibited by ?-CtxArIB[V11L,V16D] (IC50 3.4 nM) in a slowly reversible manner, with full recovery taking 15 min. This is consistent with the timecourse of recovery from blockade of rat ?7 nAChRs in PC12 cells. ?-CtxArIB[V11L,V16D] inhibited human native ?7 nAChRs in SHSY5Y cells, activated by either choline or AR-R17779 plus PNU-120596. Rat brain ?7 nAChRs contribute to dopamine release from striatal minces: ?-CtxArIB[V11L,V16D] (300 nM) selectively inhibited choline-evoked dopamine release without affecting responses evoked by nicotine that activates heteromeric nAChRs. This study establishes that ?-CtxArIB[V11L,V16D] selectively inhibits human and rat native ?7 nAChRs with comparable potency, making this a potentially useful antagonist for investigating ?7 nAChR functions. PMID:18664588

Innocent, Neal; Livingstone, Phil D.; Hone, Arik; Kimura, Atsuko; Young, Tracey; Whiteaker, Paul; McIntosh, J. Michael; Wonnacott, Susan

2008-01-01

115

Characterization of Thiobacillus thioparus LV43 and its distribution in a chemoautotrophically based groundwater ecosystem.  

PubMed Central

Bacterial strain LV43 was previously isolated from a floating microbial mat located in Movile Cave, the access point to a chemoautotrophically based groundwater ecosystem in southern Romania. This gram-negative, rod-shaped organism grows autotrophically through the oxidation of thiosulfate and sulfide, but it does not grow heterotrophically. Strain LV43 grows over a pH range of 5.0 to 9.0, with an optimum near 7.5 at 28 degrees C. The pH of the medium decreased from 7.5 to 6.5 during growth on thiosulfate. Carbon isotope fractionation values for strain LV43 were within the previously reported range of fractionation values for the overall floating microbial mat in Movile Cave and were similar to values reported for chemoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing strains of Thiobacillus neapolitanus and Thiomicrospira sp. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain LV43 was determined, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain LV43 was most closely related to Thiobacillus thioparus and the uncultured bacterial strain Strip2, which is represented by a 16S rRNA clone obtained by direct PCR from the Stripa research mine in Sweden. This identification of strain LV43 is supported by its G+C content of 62%, which is within the range reported for strains of T. thioparus. Fluorescently labeled polyclonal antibodies specific for strain LV43 were used to locate and enumerate this strain at different locations in Movile Cave and in nearby surface-water and groundwater sources. Strain LV43 was found only at aerobic, neutral-pH sites within the cave. Strain LV43 was also found outside Movile Cave in surface waters and in groundwater believed to intercept the same sulfurous aquifer as Movile Cave. PMID:9251199

Vlasceanu, L; Popa, R; Kinkle, B K

1997-01-01

116

HoMuLV: a novel pathogenic ecotropic virus isolated from the European mouse, Mus hortulanus.  

PubMed

We isolated a novel infectious murine leukemia virus (HoMuLV) from the wild mouse Mus hortulanus. HoMuLV has an ecotropic virus host range, but the viral DNA fails to hybridize to viral envelope segments specific for the known inbred and wild mouse ecotropic as well as nonecotropic MuLVs. Despite this difference in its env gene, HoMuLV appears to use the same ecotropic cell-surface receptor since it infects only hamster and mouse somatic cell hybrids which contain the Rec-1 ecotropic virus receptor on chromosome 5. Furthermore, HoMuLV does not infect mice carrying the Fv-4r allele which is thought to prevent ecotropic virus infection through an interference mechanism. HoMuLV is NB-tropic and, unlike other infectious MuLVs, does not grow in cells derived from the wild mouse species. M. dunni. Five to ten months after neonatal inoculation with HoMuLV, 72% of female NIH Swiss mice (8/11) contracted lymphoma or erythroid leukemia, but 33% of the inoculated males (5/15) developed erythroid or myelogenous leukemia within 8-16 months. These data suggest that NIH Swiss males and females differ in their susceptibility to HoMuLV-induced disease. Furthermore, NIH Swiss mice were found to be more susceptible to HoMuLV-induced disease than NFS/N mice. Tumors contained infectious MCF virus, which is consistent with the hypothesis that MCF virus may mediate tumorigenesis by HoMuLV. PMID:2841796

Voytek, P; Kozak, C

1988-08-01

117

Design management of functional foods for quality of life improvement.  

PubMed

The paper examines the benefit of bread enriched with antioxidants on oxidative stress, and on the quantities of hydrosoluble antioxidants in a group of human subjects. The home-management of functional foods strategy seeks to improve prompt and effective basic nutrition using additional attributes that are directly positively beneficial for health and well-being. The purpose of this clinical study was to test the tolerance and benefits of multicomponent functional foods enriched with antioxidant compounds obtained from plant extracts on healthy adult volunteers. A detailed protocol was created to formalize and standardize the procedures for data collection, e.g. filling out standardized forms and functional diet questionnaires. For the research method, Group A was given the special diet enriched with multicomponent antioxidant foods and Group B (control). The data were analysed using the quantitative methods. They showed significant increase of hydrosoluble antioxidants in group A compared to control, from 220.61+/-27.92 - 313.56+/-37.09 micrograms/mL (p=0.05), compared to 280.47+/-32.1 - 238.27+/-44.93 micrograms/mL (p=0.45). Also, oxidative stress values showed a decrease in the diet group compared to control that reached statistical significance. Oxidative stress decreased in the diet group to 244 +/- 89 compared to 308+/-108 UFORT in the control group. The responses of the prevention of chronic diseases to a functional foods strategy depend on how they are absorbed and utilized in the body. An anti-oxidant diet with natural bioactive components could become an interesting solution for degenerative disorders in which oxidative stress is increased. PMID:24364445

Butnariu, Monica; Caunii, Angela

2013-01-01

118

Improved Fibroblast Functionalities by Microporous Pattern Fabricated by Microelectromechanical Systems  

PubMed Central

Fibroblasts, which play an important role in biological seal formation and maintenance, determine the long-term success of percutaneous implants. In this study, well-defined microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm were fabricated by microelectromechanical systems and their influence on the fibroblast functionalities was observed. The results show that the microporous structures with micropore diameters of 10–60 µm did not influence the initial adherent fibroblast number; however, those with diameters of 40 and 50 µm improved the spread, actin stress fiber organization, proliferation and fibronectin secretion of the fibroblasts. The microporous structures with micropore diameters of 40–50 µm may be promising for application in the percutaneous part of an implant. PMID:25054322

Wei, Hongbo; Zhao, Lingzhou; Chen, Bangdao; Bai, Shizhu; Zhao, Yimin

2014-01-01

119

Improvement of the functional properties of sucrose stearate by phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Phosphorylated sucrose stearate (SE-P) was prepared by dry-heating sucrose stearate (SE) with metaphosphoric acid. The main product was deduced to be a monophosphosucrose monostearate by chemical analysis and mass spectrometry. SE-P exhibited remarkably higher solubility and emulsifying properties than SE, especially in the acidic region and in the presence of NaCl, and SE-P bound Ca2+ at a 1:1 molar ratio (SE-P/Ca2+). SE-P markedly reduced the viscosity of potato starch paste and inhibited retrogradation, whereas SE did not reduce it so much. It is thus expected that phosphorylation would be an appropriate method for improving the functional properties of SE and that SE-P could be used as a novel emulsifier and modifier with Ca2+-binding ability for starchy foods. PMID:15612793

Yamagishi, Yukako; Hattori, Makoto; Yoshida, Tadashi; Takahashi, Koji

2004-12-29

120

Improved myocardial function with supplement of levosimendan to celsior solution.  

PubMed

Levosimendan is a calcium-sensitizing agent shown to prevent myocardical contractile depression in various heart diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of levosimendan on cardiac dysfunction and apoptosis in hypothermic preservation rat hearts. Isolated rat hearts were preserved in Celsior solution with or without levosimendan. The left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) recovery rate of isolated rat heart significantly decreased, and the apoptosis index increased after 9 hours of hypothermic preservation. Supplement Celsior solution with levosimendan (10 and 10 mole/L) enhanced the LVDP recovery rate and reduced apoptosis. Levosimendan inhibited the hypothermic preservation-induced calpain activation and cleavage of Bid. Levosimendam induced increased myocardial inducible nitric oxide synthase but not endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression. A selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 1400W, and a mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel blocker 5-hydroxydecanoate but not a sarcolemmal KATP channel blocker HMR-1098 prevented improvement effect of levosimendam on LVDP recovery rate, abolished the inhibitory effect of levosimendan on hypothermic preservation-induced activation of calpain, cleavage of Bid, and apoptosis. These data suggested that Celsior solution supplement with levosimendan improved cardiac function recovery and reduced myocyte apoptosis in hypothermic preservation rat hearts. PMID:24785343

Zhou, Hai-yan; Zhang, Li-na; Zheng, Ming-zhi; Wang, Lin-lin; Chen, Ying-ying; Shen, Yue-Liang

2014-09-01

121

Effects of verapamil and propranolol on left ventricular systolic function and diastolic filling in patients with coronary artery disease: radionuclide angiographic studies at rest and during exercise  

SciTech Connect

To determine the effects of verapamil on left ventricular (LV) systolic function and diastolic filling in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), researchers performed gated radionuclide angiography at rest and during exercise in 16 symptomatic patients before and during oral verapamil therapy (480 mg/day). Twelve patients were also studied during oral propranolol. LV ejection fraction at rest was normal in 13 patients, but abnormal diastolic filling at rest, defined as peak filling rate (PFR) less than 2.5 end-diastolic volumes (EDV)/sec or time to PFR greater than 180 msec, was present in 15. During verapamil, resting ejection fraction decreased, but resting diastolic filling improved: PFR increased and time to PFR decreased. Exercise ejection fraction did not change during verapamil, but exercise PFR increased, and exercise time to PFR decreased. In contrast, propranolol did not alter ejection fraction, PFR, or time to PFR at rest or during exercise. Thus, LV ejection fraction is decreased by verapamil at rest but is unchanged during exercise. While LV systolic function is not improved by verapamil, LV diastolic filling is enhanced by verapamil, both at rest and during exercise. These mechanisms may account in part for the symptomatic improvement in many patients during verapamil therapy.

Bonow, R.O.; Leon, M.B.; Rosing, D.R.; Kent, K.M.; Lipson, L.C.; Bacharach, S.L.; Green, M.V.; Epstein, S.E.

1982-06-01

122

Rationale and Design of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial to Evaluate the Efficacy of B-type Natriuretic Peptide For the Preservation of Left Ventricular Function Post Anterior Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Background B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a hormone with pleiotropic cardio-protective properties. Previously in our non-placebo controlled, un-blinded pilot study (BELIEVE) in human ST-elevation anterior acute myocardial infarction (AMI), a 72 hour intravenous infusion (IV) of recombinant human BNP (nesiritide) at a dose of 0.006 ug/kg/min suppressed plasma aldosterone and reduced cardiac dilatation while improved left ventricular ejection fraction (LV EF) at 1 month compared to baseline. Methods and Design The BELIEVE II study is a phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single center clinical trial to assess the efficacy of 72 hour IV infusion of nesiritide therapy (0.006 ug/kg/min), in humans with first time ST-elevation anterior AMI and successful reperfusion, in preventing adverse LV remodeling and preserving LV function. A total of 60 patients will be randomized to placebo or nesiritide therapy. The primary efficacy endpoint is LV end-systolic and end-diastolic dimensions determined by MUGA scan between placebo and nesiritide group at 30 days; secondary endpoints include 30 day LV EF, diastolic function, infarct size, LV mass and combined total mortality and heart failure hospitalization. Conclusion This will be the first randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial that will assess the clinical efficacy of nesiritide in human ST-elevation anterior AMI. PMID:23910581

Sangaralingham, S. Jeson; Burnett, John C.; McKie, Paul M.; Schirger, John A.; Chen, Horng H.

2013-01-01

123

Cardiomyocyte-specific expression of CRNK, the C-terminal domain of PYK2, maintains ventricular function and slows ventricular remodeling in a mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

Up-regulation and activation of PYK2, a member of the FAK family of protein tyrosine kinases, is involved in the pathogenesis of left ventricular (LV) remodeling and heart failure (HF). PYK2 activation can be prevented by CRNK, the C-terminal domain of PYK2. We previously demonstrated that adenoviral-mediated CRNK gene transfer improved survival and LV function, and slowed LV remodeling in a rat model of coronary artery ligation-induced HF. We now interrogate whether cardiomyocyte-specific, transgenic CRNK expression prevents LV remodeling and HF in a mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) caused by constitutively active Protein Kinase C? (caPKC?). Transgenic (TG; FVB/N background) mice were engineered to express rat CRNK under control of the ?-myosin heavy chain promoter, and crossed with FVB/N mice with cardiomyocyte-specific expression of caPKC? to create double TG mice. LV structure, function, and gene expression were evaluated in all 4 groups (nonTG FVB/N; caPKC?(+/-); CRNK(+/-); and caPKC?×CRNK (PXC) double TG mice) at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12mo of age. CRNK expression followed a Mendelian distribution, and CRNK mice developed and survived normally through 12mo. Cardiac structure, function and selected gene expression of CRNK mice were similar to nonTG littermates. CRNK had no effect on caPKC? expression and vice versa. PYK2 was up-regulated ~6-fold in caPKC? mice, who developed a non-hypertrophic, progressive DCM with reduced systolic (Contractility Index=151±5 vs. 90±4s(-1)) and diastolic (Tau=7.5±0.5 vs. 14.7±1.3ms) function, and LV dilatation (LV Remodeling Index (LVRI)=4.2±0.1 vs. 6.0±0.3 for FVB/N vs. caPKC? mice, respectively; P<0.05 for each at 12mo). In double TG PXC mice, CRNK expression significantly prolonged survival, improved contractile function (Contractile Index=115±8s(-1); Tau=9.5±1.0ms), and reduced LV remodeling (LVRI=4.9±0.1). Cardiomyocyte-specific expression of CRNK improves contractile function and slows LV remodeling in a mouse model of DCM. PMID:24713463

Koshman, Yevgeniya E; Chu, Miensheng; Kim, Taehoon; Kalmanson, Olivia; Farjah, Mariam; Kumar, Mohit; Lewis, William; Geenen, David L; de Tombe, Pieter; Goldspink, Paul H; Solaro, R John; Samarel, Allen M

2014-07-01

124

In vivo MRI-Based 3D FSI RV/LV Models for Human Right Ventricle and Patch Design for Potential Computer-Aided Surgery Optimization  

PubMed Central

Right ventricular dysfunction is one of the more common causes of heart failure in patients with congenital heart defects. Use of computer-assisted procedures is becoming more popular in clinical decision making process and computer-aided surgeries. A 3D in vivo MRI-based RV/LV combination model with fluid-structure interaction (FSI), RV-LV interaction, and RV-patch interaction was introduced to perform mechanical analysis for human right ventricle with potential clinical applications. Patient-specific RV/LV morphologies were acquired by using planar tagged MRI. The 3D RV/LV FSI model was solved using a commercial finite element package ADINA. Our results indicated that flow and stress/strain distributions in the right ventricle are closely related to RV morphology, material properties and blood pressure conditions. Patches with material properties better matching RV tissue properties and smaller size lead to better RV function recoveries. Computational RV volumes showed very good agreement with MRI data (error < 3%). More patient studies are needed to establish baseline database so that computational simulations can be used to replace empirical and often risky clinical experimentation to examine the efficiency and suitability of various reconstructive procedures in diseased hearts and optimal design can be found. PMID:19809530

Yang, Chun; Tang, Dalin; Haber, Idith; Geva, Tal; del Nido, Pedro J.

2009-01-01

125

Improved Functionality and Curation Support in the ADS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this poster we describe the developments of the new ADS platform over the past year, focusing on the functionality which improves its discovery and curation capabilities.The ADS Application Programming Interface (API) is being updated to support authenticated access to the entire suite of ADS services, in addition to the search functionality itself. This allows programmatic access to resources which are specific to a user or class of users.A new interface, built directly on top of the API, now provides a more intuitive search experience and takes into account the best practices in web usability and responsive design. The interface now incorporates in-line views of graphics from the AAS Astroexplorer and the ADS All-Sky Survey image collections.The ADS Private Libraries, first introduced over 10 years ago, are now being enhanced to allow the bookmarking, tagging and annotation of records of interest. In addition, libraries can be shared with one or more ADS users, providing an easy way to collaborate in the curation of lists of papers. A library can also be explicitly made public and shared at large via the publishing of its URL.In collaboration with the AAS, the ADS plans to support the adoption of ORCID identifiers by implementing a plugin which will simplify the import of papers in ORCID via a query to the ADS API. Deeper integration between the two systems will depend on available resources and feedback from the community.

Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin A.; Grant, Carolyn S.; Thompson, Donna; Chyla, Roman; Holachek, Alexandra; Sudilovsky, Vladimir; Murray, Stephen S.

2015-01-01

126

Repeated Low-dose of Erythropoietin is Associated with Improved Left Ventricular Function in Rat Acute Myocardial Infarction Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To evaluate the potential protective affects of Epo on left ventricular (LV) function and remodeling after acute myocardial\\u000a infarction (MI).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Epo was injected into the peritoneum of male Wistar rats (250 g) during 6 weeks post induction of MI. Rats were divided into\\u000a five groups: MI treated with single high dose (MT1, 5,000 U\\/kg, n?=?10), single high dose (5,000 U\\/kg) and repeated high doses

Itsik Ben-Dor; Britta Hardy; Shmuel Fuchs; Ella Kaganovsky; Ehud Kadmon; Alex Sagie; Raymond Coleman; Mali Mansur; Boaz Politi; Abigail Fraser; Daniela Harell; Elimelech Okon; Alexander Battler; Moti Haim

2007-01-01

127

?-Opioid Receptor Stimulation Improves Endothelial Function in Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension  

PubMed Central

The present study was designed to investigate the effect of ?-opioid receptor stimulation with U50,488H on endothelial function and underlying mechanism in rats with hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH). Chronic hypoxia-induced HPH was simulated by exposing the rats to 10% oxygen for 2 wk. After hypoxia, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), right ventricular pressure (RVP) and right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI) were measured. Relaxation of pulmonary artery in response to acetylcholine (ACh) was determined. Expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) with NO production, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), gp91phox expression and nitrotyrosine content were measured. The effect of U50,488H administration during chronic hypoxia was investigated. Administration of U50,488H significantly decreased mPAP and right ventricular hypertrophy as evidenced by reduction in RVP and RVHI. These effects were mediated by ?-opioid receptor. In the meantime, treatment with U50,488H significantly improved endothelial function as evidenced by enhanced relaxation in response to ACh. Moreover, U50,488H resulted in a significant increase in eNOS phosphorylation, NO content in serum, and T-AOC in pulmonary artery of HPH rats. In addition, the activity of eNOS was enhanced, but the activity of iNOS was attenuated in the pulmonary artery of chronic hypoxic rats treated with U50,488H. On the other hand, U50,488H markedly blunted HPH-induced elevation of gp91phox expression and nitrotyrosine content in pulmonary artery, and these effects were blocked by nor-BNI, a selective ?-opioid receptor antagonist. These data suggest that ?-opioid receptor stimulation with U50,488H improves endothelial function in rats with HPH. The mechanism of action might be attributed to the preservation of eNOS activity, enhancement of eNOS phosphorylation, downregulation of iNOS activity and its antioxidative/nitrative effect. PMID:23667430

Zhou, Peng; Wang, Qiu-Lin; Zhao, Lei; Fan, Rong; Wang, Yue-Min; Xu, Xue-Zeng; Yi, Ding-Hua; Yu, Shi-Qiang; Pei, Jian-Ming

2013-01-01

128

The Rapalogue, CCI-779, Improves Salivary Gland Function following Radiation  

PubMed Central

The standard of care for head and neck cancer typically includes surgical resection of the tumor followed by targeted head and neck radiation. However depending on tumor location and stage, some cases may not require surgical resection while others may be treated with chemoradiation. Unfortunately, these radiation treatments cause chronic negative side effects for patients. These side effects are associated with damage to surrounding normal salivary gland tissue and include xerostomia, changes in taste and malnutrition. The underlying mechanisms of chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction are unknown, however, in rodent models persistently elevated proliferation is correlated with reduced stimulated salivary flow. The rapalogue, CCI-779, has been used in other cell systems to induce autophagy and reduce proliferation, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if CCI-779 could be utilized to ameliorate chronic radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. Four to six week old Atg5f/f; Aqp5-Cre, Atg5+/+; Aqp5-Cre and FVB mice were treated with targeted head and neck radiation. FVB mice were treated with CCI-779, chloroquine, or DMSO post-radiation. Stimulated salivary flow rates were determined and parotid and submandibular salivary gland tissues were collected for analyses. Mice with a defect in autophagy, via a conditional knockout of Atg5 in the salivary glands, display increased compensatory proliferation in the acinar cell compartment and hypertrophy at 24-72 hours following radiation. FVB mice treated with post-therapy CCI-779 have significant improvements in salivary gland physiology as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates, proliferation indices and amylase production and secretion. Consequently, post-radiation use of CCI-779 allows for improvement of salivary gland function and reestablishment of glandular homeostasis. As CCI-779 is already FDA approved for other uses, it could have a secondary use to alleviate the chronic side effects in head and neck cancer patients who have completed anti-tumor therapy. PMID:25437438

Morgan-Bathke, Maria; Harris, Zoey I.; Arnett, Deborah G.; Klein, Rob R.; Burd, Randy; Ann, David K.; Limesand, Kirsten H.

2014-01-01

129

Improved Medium Resolution Line Spread Functions for COS FUV Spectra  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed an improved line spread function (LSF) for the medium resolution farultraviolet gratings (G130M and G160M) of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) by taking into account scattering in the far wings due to microroughness on the HST primary mirror. We start with the preliminary model LSFs that include the broad, non-Gaussian wings caused by mid-frequency wave-front errors (MFWFEs) that are produced by the zonal polishing errors on the HST primary and secondary mirrors. Since these LSFs only extend to ±50 pixels from line center, we extend these profiles to the full width of ±100 pixels observed for geocoronal Ly? using a power law profile. We optimize the normalization and index of the power-law extension by convolving a grid of model PSFs with high-resolution STIS echelle spectra of the star Sk-155 and comparing these to onorbit COS spectra. The best fits give a power-law index of -2.25 and show that additional light of ~3% in the extended wings is required. This low level of scattering is less than prelaunch expectations for HST, as also found by Hasan & Burroughs (1993) in longerwavelength WFPC observations. It also implies that COS internal scattering is nearly negligible. Overall, the system as a whole has impressively low scattering. We demonstrate the improvement in our characterization of the LSFs by deconvolving the Sk 155 COS spectrum in regions of saturated interstellar absorption lines. These lines are black and saturated in the deconvolved spectra, as seen in high-resolution STIS echelle spectra of the same target. We have placed the new model LSFs online for use by COS observers in analyzing their COS spectra.

Kriss, Gerard A.

2011-03-01

130

Improving influence of insulin on cognitive functions in humans.  

PubMed

Insulin receptors have been identified in limbic brain structures, but their functional relevance is still unclear. In order to characterize some of their effects, we evaluated auditory evoked brain potentials (AEP) in a vigilance task, behavioral measures of memory (recall of words) and selective attention (Stroop test) during infusion of insulin. The hormone was infused at two different rates (1.5 mU/kg x min, "low insulin", and 15 mU/kg x min, "high insulin"), inducing respectively serum levels of 543 +/- 34 and 24,029 +/- 1,595 pmol/l. This experimental design allowed to compare cognitive parameters under two conditions presenting markedly different insulin levels, but with minimal incidence on blood glucose concentrations since these were kept constant by glucose infusion. A "no insulin treatment" group was not included in order to avoid leaving patients infused with glucose without insulin treatment. Measures were taken during a baseline phase preceding insulin infusion and every 90 min during the 360 min of insulin infusion. Compared with "low insulin", "high insulin" induced a slow negative potential shift in the AEP over the frontal cortex (average amplitude, high insulin: 0.27 +/- 0.48 microV; low insulin: 1.87 +/- 0.48 microV, p < 0.005), which was paralleled by enhanced memory performance (words recalled, high insulin: 22.04 +/- 0.93; low insulin: 19.29 +/- 0.92, p < 0.05). Also, during "high insulin" subjects displayed enhanced performance on the Stroop test (p < 0.05) and expressed less difficulty in thinking than during "low insulin" (p < 0.03). Results indicate an improving effect of insulin on cognitive function, and may provide a frame for further investigations of neurobehavioral effects of insulin in patients with lowered or enhanced brain insulin, i.e., patients with Alzheimer's disease or diabetes mellitus. PMID:11598383

Kern, W; Peters, A; Fruehwald-Schultes, B; Deininger, E; Born, J; Fehm, H L

2001-10-01

131

Impact of Untreated Obstructive Sleep Apnea on Left and Right Ventricular Myocardial Function and Effects of CPAP Therapy  

PubMed Central

Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has deteriorating effect on LV function, whereas its impact on RV function is controversial. We aimed to determine the effect of OSA and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on left and right ventricular (LV, RV) function using transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and 2 dimensional speckle tracking (2D ST) analysis of RV deformation capability. Methods and Results 82 patients with OSA and need for CPAP therapy were prospectively enrolled and underwent TTE at study inclusion and after 6 months of follow up (FU). Multivariate regression analysis revealed an independent association between baseline apical right ventricular longitudinal strain (RV-Sl), BMI and the severity of OSA (apical RV-Sl: P?=?0.0002, BMI: P?=?0.02). After CPAP therapy, LV functional parameters (LVEF: P<0.0001, LV performance index: P?=?0.03, stroke volume: P?=?0.042), and apical RV-Sl (P?=?0.001) improved significantly. The effect of CPAP therapy was related to severity of OSA (LVEF: AHI 5–14, 66.4±8.8%, 68.5±10.6% [P?=?ns]; AHI 15–30?59.8±7.7%, 68.6±9.3% [P?=?0.002]; AHI>30?54.1±12.4%, 68.2±13.6%[P<0.0001]; apical RV-Sl: AHI 5–14: ?17.3±8.7%, ?16.0±10.8% [P?=?ns], AHI 15–30: ?9.8±6.0%, ?15.4±10.9% [P?=?0.028], AHI>30: ?6.3±5.7%, ?17.9±11.2% [P<0.0001]). Conclusions OSA seems to have deteriorating effect on LV and RV function. We found a beneficial effect of CPAP on LV and RV functional parameters predominately in patients with severe OSA. 2D speckle tracking might be of value to determine early changes in global and regional right ventricular function. PMID:24146857

Wiesen, Martin; Momcilovic, Diana; Pabst, Stefan; Nickenig, Georg; Skowasch, Dirk

2013-01-01

132

Magnetic Alignment and Charge Transport Improvement in Functional Soft Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The realization of nanostructured functional materials by self-assembly in polymers and polymer nanocomposites is adversely affected by persisting structural defects which greatly diminish the performance of the material. The use of magnetic fields to impose long-range order is investigated in three distinct systems - ion-conducting block copolymers, semiconducting nanowire-polymer composites and lyotropic surfactant mesophases. The alignment process is quantitatively studied with X-ray scattering and microscopic methods. Time and temperature resolved data collected in situ during the magnetic experiments provide an insight into the thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the process. These data together with simultaneous electrical conductivity measurements allow relating fundamental structural properties (e.g., morphology and long-range order) to transport properties (i.e., conductivity). In particular, it is demonstrated that magnetic fields offer a viable route for improvement of electric conductivity in these systems. More than an order of magnitude increase in conductivity is recorded in magnetically-annealed materials. The resulting aligned nanostructured systems are attractive for ordered solid polymer electrolyte membranes, heterojunction photovoltaic devices and generally help to understand charge transport mechanisms in anisotropic heterogeneous systems.

Majewski, Pawel W.

133

Emulsion design to improve the delivery of functional lipophilic components.  

PubMed

The food industry has used emulsion science and technology for many years to create a diverse range of food products, such as milk, cream, soft drinks, nutritional beverages, dressings, mayonnaise, sauces, dips, deserts, ice cream, margarine, and butter. The majority of these food products are conventional oil-in-water (O/W) or water-in-oil (W/O) type emulsions. Recently, there has been increasing interest within the food industry in either improving or extending the functional performance of foods using novel structured emulsions. This article reviews recent developments in the creation of structured emulsions that could be used by the food and other industries, including nanoemulsions, multiple emulsions, multilayer emulsions, solid lipid particles, and filled hydrogel particles. These structured emulsions can be produced from food-grade [generally recognized as safe (GRAS)] ingredients (e.g., lipids, proteins, polysaccharides, surfactants, and minerals), using simple processing operations (e.g., mixing, homogenizing, and thermal processing). The structure, production, performance, and potential applications of each type of structured emulsion system are discussed. PMID:22129337

McClements, David Julian

2010-01-01

134

Stimulus Characteristics for Vestibular Stochastic Resonance to Improve Balance Function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stochastic resonance (SR) is a mechanism by which noise can enhance the response of neural systems to relevant sensory signals. Studies have shown that imperceptible stochastic vestibular electrical stimulation, when applied to normal young and elderly subjects, significantly improved their ocular stabilization reflexes in response to whole-body tilt as well as balance performance during postural disturbances. The goal of this study was to optimize the amplitude characteristics of the stochastic vestibular signals for balance performance during standing on an unstable surface. Subjects performed a standard balance task of standing on a block of foam with their eyes closed. Bipolar stochastic electrical stimulation was applied to the vestibular system using constant current stimulation through electrodes placed over the mastoid process behind the ears. Amplitude of the signals varied in the range of 0-700 microamperes. Balance performance was measured using a force plate under the foam block, and inertial motion sensors were placed on the torso and head. Balance performance with stimulation was significantly greater (10%-25%) than with no stimulation. The signal amplitude at which performance was maximized was in the range of 100-300 microamperes. Optimization of the amplitude of the stochastic signals for maximizing balance performance will have a significant impact on development of vestibular SR as a unique system to aid recovery of function in astronauts after long-duration space flight or in patients with balance disorders.

Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Peters, Brian; Wood, Scott; Serrado, Jorge; Cohen, Helen; Reschke, Millard; Bloomberg, Jacob

2010-01-01

135

Left ventricular modelling: a quantitative functional assessment tool based on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging  

PubMed Central

We present the development and testing of a semi-automated tool to support the diagnosis of left ventricle (LV) dysfunctions from cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). CMR short-axis images of the LVs were obtained in 15 patients and processed to detect endocardial and epicardial contours and compute volume, mass and regional wall motion (WM). Results were compared with those obtained from manual tracing by an expert cardiologist. Nearest neighbour tracking and finite-element theory were merged to calculate local myocardial strains and torsion. The method was tested on a virtual phantom, on a healthy LV and on two ischaemic LVs with different severity of the pathology. Automated analysis of CMR data was feasible in 13/15 patients: computed LV volumes and wall mass correlated well with manually extracted data. The detection of regional WM abnormalities showed good sensitivity (77.8%), specificity (85.1%) and accuracy (82%). On the virtual phantom, computed local strains differed by less than 14 per cent from the results of commercial finite-element solver. Strain calculation on the healthy LV showed uniform and synchronized circumferential strains, with peak shortening of about 20 per cent at end systole, progressively higher systolic wall thickening going from base to apex, and a 10° torsion. In the two pathological LVs, synchronicity and homogeneity were partially lost, anomalies being more evident for the more severely injured LV. Moreover, LV torsion was dramatically reduced. Preliminary testing confirmed the validity of our approach, which allowed for the fast analysis of LV function, even though future improvements are possible. PMID:22670208

Conti, C. A.; Votta, E.; Corsi, C.; De Marchi, D.; Tarroni, G.; Stevanella, M.; Lombardi, M.; Parodi, O.; Caiani, E. G.; Redaelli, A.

2011-01-01

136

Changes in collagen metabolism account for ventricular functional recovery following beta-blocker therapy in patients with chronic heart failure.  

PubMed

While beta blockade improves left ventricular (LV) function in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), the mechanisms are not well known. This study aimed to examine whether changes in myocardial collagen metabolism account for LV functional recovery following beta-blocker therapy in 62 CHF patients with reduced ejection fraction (EF). LV function was echocardiographically measured at baseline and 1, 6, and 12 months after bisoprolol therapy along with serum markers of collagen metabolism including C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (CITP) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2. Deceleration time of mitral early velocity (DcT) increased even in the early phase, but LVEF gradually improved throughout the study period. Heart rate (HR) was reduced from the early stage, and CITP gradually decreased. LVEF and DcT increased more so in patients with the larger decreases in CITP (r = -0.33, p < 0.05; r = -0.28, p < 0.05, respectively), and HR (r = -0.31, p < 0.05; r = -0.38, p < 0.05, respectively). In addition, there were greater decreases in CITP, MMP-2 and HR from baseline to 1, 6, or 12 months in patients with above-average improvement in LVEF than in those with below-average improvement in LVEF. Similar results were obtained in terms of DcT. There was no significant correlation between the changes in HR and CITP. In conclusion, improvement in LV systolic/diastolic function was greatest in patients with the larger inhibition of collagen degradation. Changes in myocardial collagen metabolism are closely related to LV functional recovery somewhat independently from HR reduction. PMID:25351137

Fukui, Miho; Goda, Akiko; Komamura, Kazuo; Nakabo, Ayumi; Masaki, Mitsuru; Yoshida, Chikako; Hirotani, Shinichi; Lee-Kawabata, Masaaki; Tsujino, Takeshi; Mano, Toshiaki; Masuyama, Tohru

2014-10-29

137

Exercise training improves endothelial function in young prehypertensives.  

PubMed

Prehypertensives exhibit marked endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for future cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the ability of exercise to ameliorate endothelial dysfunction in prehypertensives is grossly underinvestigated. This prospective randomized and controlled study examined the separate effects of resistance and endurance training on conduit artery endothelial function in young prehypertensives. Forty-three unmedicated prehypertensive (systolic blood pressure [SBP]=120-139 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure [DBP]=80-89 mmHg) but otherwise healthy men and women and 15 normotensive matched time-controls (NMTC); n = 15) between 18 and 35 y of age met screening requirements and participated in the study. Prehypertensive subjects were randomly assigned to either a resistance exercise training (PHRT; n = 15), endurance exercise training (PHET; n = 13) or time-control group (PHTC; n = 15). The treatment groups performed exercise training three days per week for eight weeks. The control groups did not initiate exercise programs throughout the study. Flow mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, biomarkers of enodothelial function and peripheral blood pressure were evaluated before and after exercise intervention or time-matched control. PHRT and PHET reduced resting SBP (9.6 ± 3.6 and 11.9 ± 3.4 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05) and DBP (8.0 ± 5.1 and 7.2 ± 3.4 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). Exercise training improved brachial artery FMD absolute diameter, percent dilation and normalized percent dilation by 30%, 34% and 19% for PHRT, P < 0.05; and by 54%, 63% and 75% for PHET, P < 0.05; respectively. PHRT and PHET increased plasma concentrations of 6-keto prostaglandin F1? (19% and 22%, respectively; P < 0.05), NO x (19% and 23%, respectively; P < 0.05), and reduced endothelin-1 by (16% and 24%, respectively; P < 0.01). This study provides novel evidence that resistance and endurance exercise separately have beneficial effects on resting peripheral blood pressure, brachial artery FMD and endothelial-derived vasoactive agents in young prehypertensives. PMID:23760009

Beck, Darren T; Casey, Darren P; Martin, Jeffrey S; Emerson, Blaze D; Braith, Randy W

2013-04-01

138

An improved version of the Green's function molecular dynamics method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents an improved version of the Green's function molecular dynamics method (Kong et al., 2009; Campañá and Müser, 2004 [1,2]), which enables one to study the elastic response of a three-dimensional solid to an external stress field by taking into consideration only atoms near the surface. In the previous implementation, the effective elastic coefficients measured at the ?-point were altered to reduce finite size effects: their eigenvalues corresponding to the acoustic modes were set to zero. This scheme was found to work well for simple Bravais lattices as long as only atoms within the last layer were treated as Green's function atoms. However, it failed to function as expected in all other cases. It turns out that a violation of the acoustic sum rule for the effective elastic coefficients at ? (Kong, 2010 [3]) was responsible for this behavior. In the new version, the acoustic sum rule is enforced by adopting an iterative procedure, which is found to be physically more meaningful than the previous one. In addition, the new algorithm allows one to treat lattices with bases and the Green's function slab is no longer confined to one layer. New version program summaryProgram title: FixGFC/FixGFMD v1.12 Catalogue identifier: AECW_v1_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECW_v1_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 206 436 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 314 850 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: All Operating system: Linux Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: Yes. Code has been parallelized using MPI directives. RAM: Depends on the problem Classification: 7.7 External routines: LAMMPS ( http://lammps.sandia.gov/), MPI ( http://www.mcs.anl.gov/research/projects/mpi/), FFT ( http://www.fftw.org/) Catalogue identifier of previous version: AECW_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 180 (2009) 1004 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Green's function molecular dynamics (GFMD) is a coarse-graining method that enables one to investigate the full elastic response of an interface between a semi-infinite solid and a contact while taking only the surface atoms in the solid into consideration. The effect of long-range elastic deformations on the surface atoms from the semi-infinite solid is replaced by effective elastic interactions, thus reducing the problem from three dimensions to two dimensions without compromising the physical essence of the problem. Solution method: See "Nature of problem". Reasons for new version: The basic theory underlying the new version is essentially the same as the previous one, while the special treatment to reduce the finite size effect on effective elastic coefficients at the ?-point is now realized in a physically meaningful manner. Finite size effects are an important issue in molecular dynamics simulations, particularly for GFMD, they result in a violation of the acoustic sum rule (ASR) for the effective elastic coefficients measured at the ?-point ( ?). In the previous implementation, the effective elastic coefficients measured at the ?-point were altered by setting their eigenvalues corresponding to the acoustic modes to zero. This scheme was found to work well for simple Bravais lattices as long as only atoms within the last layer were treated as Green's function atoms. However, it failed to function as expected in all other cases. We therefore adopt a new algorithm to enforce the ASR for ? (Kong, 2010 [3]) which is implemented in this revision. Summary of revisions: Assuming the lattice under study consists of surface unit cells with n basis atoms labeled by k=1,2,…,n. When all atoms in the lattice are moved by the same amount, i.e., the crystal is rigidly translated, the force on any atom must be zero

Kong, Ling Ti; Denniston, Colin; Müser, Martin H.

2011-02-01

139

Left ventricular dimensions and function during right ventricular pressure overload.  

PubMed

The effects of right ventricular (RV) pressure overload on left ventricular (LV) function is controversial. Therefore, we examined LV dimensions and shortening after acute and chronic pulmonary artery (PA) constriction in six conscious dogs, preinstrumented with LV and RV catheters, an LV micromanometer, a PA inflatable cuff occluder, and ultrasonic crystals to measure an LV anteroposterior, a septal-lateral, and a free wall segment chord. Studies were performed before, immediately after, and 2, 4, and 6 wk after PA constriction. With acute cuff inflation, RV systolic- and end-diastolic pressures rose, but LV end-diastolic pressure fell. Both septal-lateral end-diastolic length and systolic shortening declined 4.1 +/- 0.7 mm and 5.9 +/- 2.3% respectively (P less than 0.01), whereas the anteroposterior and segment chords were unaffected. With chronic RV pressure overload septal-lateral shortening but not end-diastolic length returned to control levels. Also the first derivative of LV pressure (LV dP/dt) fell 540 +/- 164 mmHg/s by 6 wk compared with control, but this decline was reversed by volume expansion with dextran. We conclude that RV pressure overload displaces the septum toward the LV free wall; acutely this displacement is primarily at end diastole, but chronically it occurs at end systole as well, maintaining the septal contribution to LV ejection. Thus chronic RV pressure overload is associated with significant changes in LV diastolic shape but maintenance of normal LV function. PMID:7065274

Badke, F R

1982-04-01

140

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance assessment of ventricular function and myocardial scarring before and early after repair of anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery  

PubMed Central

Background In patients with anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) left ventricular (LV) dilatation and dysfunction evolves due to diminished myocardial perfusion caused by coronary steal phenomenon. Using late gadolinium enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) imaging, myocardial scarring has been shown in ALCAPA patients late after repair, however the incidence of scarring before surgery and its impact on postoperative course after surgical repair remained unknown. Methods 8 ALCAPA-patients (mean age 10.0?±?5.8 months) underwent CMR before and early after (mean 4.9?±?2.5 months) coronary reimplantation procedures. CMR included functional analysis and LGE for detection of myocardial scars. Results LV dilatation (mean LVEDVI 171?±?94 ml/m2) and dysfunction (mean LV-EF 22?±?10 %) was present in all patients and improved significantly after surgery (mean LVEDV 68?±?42 ml/m2, p?=?0.02; mean LV-EF 58?±?19 %, p?LV function while myocardial scarring was still present in both patients. In two patients new-onset transmural scarring was found, although functional recovery after operation was sufficient. One of them showed a stenosis of the left coronary artery and required resurgery. Conclusions Despite diminished myocardial perfusion and severely compromised LV function, myocardial scarring was preoperatively only infrequently present. Improvement of myocardial function was independent of new-onset scarring while the impact of preoperative scarring still needs to be defined. PMID:24387660

2014-01-01

141

Physical capacity and functional abilities improve in young adults with intellectual disabilities after functional training.  

PubMed

Individuals with an intellectual disability (ID) have higher rates of obesity, lower rates of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and muscular endurance than do typically developed individuals (TDI) and are twice as likely to develop chronic disease, living half as long as TDIs do. The purpose of this study was to examine the improvements in physical capacity and functional ability in Special Olympic Athletes (SOAs) aged 19-22 years after participating in a functional training (FT) program and compare these scores with those of the SOAs in a resistance weight training (WT) program. Twenty SOAs (13 men, 7 women with mild to moderate ID) participated in a 1-hour FT program, twice a week, for 10 weeks, compared with 22 same-aged SOAs (14 men, 8 women) participating in a 1-hour WT program (2× week for 8 weeks). Prefitness and postfitness tests consisting of heart rate (HR) for the 3-minute step test, static plank, body weight squats, static bar hang, and knee push-ups were conducted. Two-tailed, paired sample t-tests (p < 0.05) were used to evaluate the differences in the FT group. Change scores were used to compare FTG with the WT group. The HR decreased by 31.8 b·min?¹ pre-post in the FTG (p < 0.001). Static plank duration improved by 22.4 seconds in the FTG (p = 0.016); static plank change scores improved (p = 0.037) for the FTG (26.5 ± 32.1 seconds compared with that for the WT group (4.6 ± 22 seconds). Height and weight values were unchanged in both the groups. The results of this study demonstrate the value of FT programs for this population, because weight equipment is not always available in many settings. PMID:21912297

Barwick, Ryan B; Tillman, Mark D; Stopka, Christine B; Dipnarine, Krishna; Delisle, Anthony; Sayedul Huq, Mona

2012-06-01

142

Adaptive Encoding Strongly Improves Function Approximation with CMAC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cerebellar Model Arithmetic Computer (CMAC) (Albus 1981) is well known as a good function approximator with local generalization abilities. Depending on the smoothness of the function to be approximated, the resolution as the smallest distinguishable part of the input domain plays a crucial role. If the binary quantizing functions in CMAC are dropped in favor of more general, continuous-valued

Martin Eldracher; Alexander Staller; René Pompl

1997-01-01

143

MuLV IN Mutants Responsive to HDAC Inhibitors Enhance Transcription from Unintegrated Retroviral DNA  

PubMed Central

For Moloney murine leukemia virus (M-MuLV), sustained viral infections require expression from an integrated provirus. For many applications, non-integrating retroviral vectors have been utilized to avoid the unwanted effects of integration, however, the level of expression from unintegrated DNA is significantly less than that of integrated provirus. We find that unintegrated DNA expression can be increased in the presence of HDAC inhibitors, such as TSA, when applied in combination with integrase (IN) mutations. These mutants include an active site mutation as well as catalytically active INs bearing mutations of K376 in the MuLV C-terminal domain of IN. MuLV IN K376 is homologous to K266 in HIV-1 IN, a known substrate for acetylation. The MuLV IN protein is acetylated by p300 in vitro, however, the effect of HDAC inhibitors on gene expression from unintegrated DNA is not dependent on the acetylation state of MuLV IN K376. PMID:22365328

Schneider, William M.; Wu, Dai-tze; Amin, Vaibhav; Aiyer, Sriram; Roth, Monica J.

2012-01-01

144

Real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic study of left ventricular function after infarct exclusion surgery for ischemic cardiomyopathy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Infarct exclusion (IE) surgery, a technique of left ventricular (LV) reconstruction for dyskinetic or akinetic LV segments in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, requires accurate volume quantification to determine the impact of surgery due to complicated geometric changes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty patients who underwent IE (mean age 61+/-8 years, 73% men) had epicardial real-time 3-dimensional echocardiographic (RT3DE) studies performed before and after IE. RT3DE follow-up was performed transthoracically 42+/-67 days after surgery in 22 patients. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare the values before and after IE surgery and at follow-up. Significant decreases in LV end-diastolic (EDVI) and end-systolic (ESVI) volume indices were apparent immediately after IE and in follow-up (EDVI 99+/-40, 67+/-26, and 71+/-31 mL/m(2), respectively; ESVI 72+/-37, 40+/-21, and 42+/-22 mL/m(2), respectively; P:<0.05). LV ejection fraction increased significantly and remained higher (0.29+/-0.11, 0.43+/-0.13, and 0.42+/-0.09, respectively, P:<0.05). Forward stroke volume in 16 patients with preoperative mitral regurgitation significantly improved after IE and in follow-up (22+/-12, 53+/-24, and 58+/-21 mL, respectively, P:<0.005). New York Heart Association functional class at an average 285+/-144 days of clinical follow-up significantly improved from 3.0+/-0.8 to 1.8+/-0.8 (P:<0.0001). Smaller end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes measured with RT3DE immediately after IE were closely related to improvement in New York Heart Association functional class at clinical follow-up (Spearman's rho=0.58 and 0.60, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: RT3DE can be used to quantitatively assess changes in LV volume and function after complicated LV reconstruction. Decreased LV volume and increased ejection fraction imply a reduction in LV wall stress after IE surgery and are predictive of symptomatic improvement.

Qin, J. X.; Shiota, T.; McCarthy, P. M.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Greenberg, N. L.; Tsujino, H.; Bauer, F.; Travaglini, A.; Hoercher, K. J.; Buda, T.; Smedira, N. G.; Thomas, J. D.

2000-01-01

145

Effects of oral mexiletine on left and right ventricular function.  

PubMed

Malignant ventricular arrhythmias often occur in patients with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Antiarrhythmic drugs may further impair LV function in these patients. Mexiletine, a lidocaine congener, is an effective antiarrhythmic drug, but when administered orally, its effect on LV and right ventricular (RV) function is unknown. To determine the hemodynamic effects of mexiletine, LV and RV ejection fraction (EF) were measured by radionuclide ventriculography in 10 patients with LV dysfunction (LVEF less than 50%). Symptom-limited exercise tests were also performed. Patients were studied before and during therapy with oral mexiletine. There was no significant change in LVEF (28% vs 27%) or RVEF (46% vs 41%). Also, heart rate at rest, exercise duration and peak heart rate during exercise were unchanged. Thus, in patients with LV dysfunction, oral mexiletine does not significantly affect LV or RV function. PMID:6475776

Stein, J; Podrid, P; Lown, B

1984-09-01

146

Combining specificity determining and conserved residues improves functional site prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Predicting the location of functionally important sites from protein sequence and\\/or structure is a long-standing problem in computational biology. Most current approaches make use of sequence conservation, assuming that amino acid residues conserved within a protein family are most likely to be functionally important. Most often these approaches do not consider many residues that act to define specific sub-functions

Olga V. Kalinina; Mikhail S. Gelfand; Robert B. Russell

2009-01-01

147

Left ventricular function studied with MDCT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate determination of left ventricular (LV) myocardial function is fundamental for clinical diagnosis, risk stratification, and estimation of prognosis in patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Primarily, multi-detector-row spiral CT (MDCT) of the heart aimed at detecting coronary artery obstruction and cardiac morphology. Multiple studies have demonstrated that retrospectively, ECG-gated MDCT determination of LV volumes and consequently global LV function

Kai Uwe Juergens; Roman Fischbach

2006-01-01

148

Recurrence of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and development of fatal lymphoma in a cat with feline immunodeficiency (FIV) induced immune suppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a long-term study with the goal to determine the clinical outcome of late-stage FeLV and FIV infections, we observed in one of the ostensibly FeLV recovered cats that FeLV may reappear and lead to fatal disease many years after FeLV exposure. The cat had been infected with FIV, vaccinated against FeLV and challenged with the latter virus. Analysis of

V. Cattori; R. Tandon; F. S. Boretti; M. L. Meli; B. Riond; H. Lutz; Regina Hofmann-Lehmann

149

Effects of a myofilament calcium sensitizer on left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in rats with volume overload heart failure.  

PubMed

Aortocaval fistula (ACF)-induced volume overload (VO) heart failure (HF) results in progressive left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Hemodynamic load reversal during pre-HF (4 wk post-ACF; REV) results in rapid structural but delayed functional recovery. This study investigated myocyte and myofilament function in ACF and REV and tested the hypothesis that a myofilament Ca(2+) sensitizer would improve VO-induced myofilament dysfunction in ACF and REV. Following the initial sham or ACF surgery in male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-240 g) at week 0, REV surgery and experiments were performed at weeks 4 and 8, respectively. In ACF, decreased LV function is accompanied by impaired sarcomeric shortening and force generation and decreased Ca(2+) sensitivity, whereas, in REV, impaired LV function is accompanied by decreased Ca(2+) sensitivity. Intravenous levosimendan (Levo) elicited the best inotropic and lusitropic responses and was selected for chronic oral studies. Subsets of ACF and REV rats were given vehicle (water) or Levo (1 mg/kg) in drinking water from weeks 4-8. Levo improved systolic (% fractional shortening, end-systolic elastance, and preload-recruitable stroke work) and diastolic (?, dP/dtmin) function in ACF and REV. Levo improved Ca(2+) sensitivity without altering the amplitude and kinetics of the intracellular Ca(2+) transient. In ACF-Levo, increased cMyBP-C Ser-273 and Ser-302 and cardiac troponin I Ser-23/24 phosphorylation correlated with improved diastolic relaxation, whereas, in REV-Levo, increased cMyBP-C Ser-273 phosphorylation and increased ?-to-?-myosin heavy chain correlated with improved diastolic relaxation. We concluded that Levo improves LV function, and myofilament composition and regulatory protein phosphorylation likely play a key role in improving function. PMID:25260618

Wilson, Kristin; Guggilam, Anuradha; West, T Aaron; Zhang, Xiaojin; Trask, Aaron J; Cismowski, Mary J; de Tombe, Pieter; Sadayappan, Sakthivel; Lucchesi, Pamela A

2014-12-01

150

Improved preservation of function during acoustic neuroma surgery.  

PubMed

OBJECT Restoration of cranial nerve functions during acoustic neuroma (AN) surgery is crucial for good outcome. The effects of minimizing the injury period and maximizing the recuperation period were investigated in 89 patients who consecutively underwent retrosigmoid unilateral AN surgery. METHODS Cochlear nerve and facial nerve functions were evaluated during AN surgery by use of continuous auditory evoked dorsal cochlear nucleus action potential monitoring and facial nerve root exit zone-elicited compound muscle action potential monitoring, respectively. Factors affecting preservation of function at the same (preoperative) grade were analyzed. RESULTS A total of 23 patients underwent standard treatment and investigation of the monitoring threshold for preservation of function; another 66 patients underwent extended recuperation treatment and assessment of its effect on recovery of nerve function. Both types of final action potential monitoring response and extended recuperation treatment were associated with preservation of function at the same grade. CONCLUSIONS Preservation of function was significantly better for patients who received extended recuperation treatment. PMID:25343177

Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Miyazaki, Hidemi; Tanaka, Minoru; Kin, Taichi; Yoshino, Masanori; Oyama, Hiroshi; Usui, Masaaki; Moriyama, Hiroshi; Kojima, Hiromi; Kaga, Kimitaka; Saito, Nobuhito

2015-01-01

151

Speckle-Tracking and Tissue-Doppler Stress Echocardiography in Arterial Hypertension: A Sensitive Tool for Detection of Subclinical LV Impairment  

PubMed Central

Early diagnosis of cardiac alterations in hypertensive heart disease is still challenging. Since such patients might have depressed global LV systolic strain or strain rate when EF is still normal, speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) and tissue-Doppler imaging (TDI) combined with stress echocardiography might improve early diagnosis of cardiac alterations. In this prospective study standard 2D Doppler echocardiography, STE, and TDI were performed at rest and during bicycle exercise in 92 consecutive patients—46 hypertensive subjects with normal ejection fraction and 46 healthy controls. STE and TDI were used to measure global peak systolic LV circumferential strain (CS), longitudinal strain (LS), and longitudinal strain rate (SR). Mean arterial blood pressure was significantly higher in hypertensive patients at rest (100.8?mmHg SD 13.5?mmHg; P = 0.002) and during physical exercise testing (124.2?mmHg SD 13.4?mmHg; P = 0.003). Hypertensive patients had significantly reduced values of systolic CS (P = 0.001), LS (P = 0.014), and SR (P < 0.001) at rest as well as during physical exercise—CS (P < 0.001), LS (P < 0.001), and SR (P < 0.001). Using STE and TDI, reduced LV systolic strain and strain rate consistent with early cardiac alterations can be detected in patients with arterial hypertension. These findings were evident at rest and markedly pronounced during exercise echocardiography. PMID:25389528

Hensel, Kai O.; Leischik, Roman

2014-01-01

152

Uncertainty Modeling of Improved Fuzzy Functions With Evolutionary Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduce a type-2 fuzzy function system for uncertainty modeling using evolutionary algorithms (ET2FF). The type-1 fuzzy inference systems (FISs) with fuzzy functions, which do not entail if ... then rule bases, have demonstrated better performance compared to traditional FIS. Nonetheless, the performance of these approaches is usually affected by their uncertain parameters. The proposed method implements a three-phase

Asli Çelikyilmaz; I. Burhan Türksen

2008-01-01

153

Novel MRI-derived quantitative biomarker for cardiac function applied to classifying ischemic cardiomyopathy within a Bayesian rule learning framework  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterization of regional left ventricular (LV) function may have application in prognosticating timely response and informing choice therapy in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. The purpose of this study is to characterize LV function through a systematic analysis of 4D (3D + time) endocardial motion over the cardiac cycle in an effort to define objective, clinically useful metrics of pathological remodeling and declining cardiac performance, using standard cardiac MRI data for two distinct patient cohorts accessed from CardiacAtlas.org: a) MESA - a cohort of asymptomatic patients; and b) DETERMINE - a cohort of symptomatic patients with a history of ischemic heart disease (IHD) or myocardial infarction. The LV endocardium was segmented and a signed phase-to-phase Hausdorff distance (HD) was computed at 3D uniformly spaced points tracked on segmented endocardial surface contours, over the cardiac cycle. An LV-averaged index of phase-to-phase endocardial displacement (P2PD) time-histories was computed at each tracked point, using the HD computed between consecutive cardiac phases. Average and standard deviation in P2PD over the cardiac cycle was used to prepare characteristic curves for the asymptomatic and IHD cohort. A novel biomarker of RMS error between mean patient-specific characteristic P2PD over the cardiac cycle for each individual patient and the cumulative P2PD characteristic of a cohort of asymptomatic patients was established as the RMS-P2PD marker. The novel RMS-P2PD marker was tested as a cardiac function based feature for automatic patient classification using a Bayesian Rule Learning (BRL) framework. The RMS-P2PD biomarker indices were significantly different for the symptomatic patient and asymptomatic control cohorts (p<0.001). BRL accurately classified 83.8% of patients correctly from the patient and control populations, with leave-one-out cross validation, using standard indices of LV ejection fraction (LV-EF) and LV end-systolic volume index (LV-ESVI). This improved to 91.9% with inclusion of the RMS-P2PD biomarker and was congruent with improvements in both sensitivity for classifying patients and specificity for identifying asymptomatic controls from 82.6% up to 95.7%. RMS-P2PD, when contrasted against a collective normal reference, is a promising biomarker to investigate further in its utility for identifying quantitative signs of pathological endocardial function which may boost standard image makers as precursors of declining cardiac performance.

Menon, Prahlad G.; Morris, Lailonny; Staines, Mara; Lima, Joao; Lee, Daniel C.; Gopalakrishnan, Vanathi

2014-03-01

154

Modulation of Astrocytic Mitochondrial Function by Dichloroacetate Improves Survival and Motor  

E-print Network

), an orphan drug that improves the functional status of mitochondria through the stimulation of the pyruvateModulation of Astrocytic Mitochondrial Function by Dichloroacetate Improves Survival and Motor by mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, indicating a critical role of mitochondria in the neurotoxic phenotype

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

155

Leukocyte depletion results in improved lung function and reduced inflammatory response after cardiac surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leukocyte depletion during cardiopulmonary bypass has been demonstrated in animal experiments to improve pulmonary function. Conflicting results have been reported, however, with clinical depletion by arterial line filter of leukocytes at the beginning of cardiopulmonary bypass. In this study, we examined whether leukocyte depletion from the residual heart-lung machine blood at the end of cardiopulmonary bypass would improve lung function

Y. J. Gu; A. J. deVries; P. W. Boonstra; W. van Oeveren

1996-01-01

156

Improvement of Ejection Fraction After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery in Patients with Impaired Left Ventricular Function  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objectives: The present study evaluates our experience with aorto-coronary bypass grafting in patients with severe dysfunction of left ventricle (LV) and low ejection fraction-EF(<35%). Revascularization of myocardium in this settings remains contraversial because of concerns over morbidity, mortality and quality of life. Material and Methodes: Forty patients with severe coronary artery disease and dysfunction of LV (low ejection fraction <35%) underwent coronary artery bypass grafting in period of 3 years. Preoperative diagnostic of 40 patients was consisted of anamnesis, clinical exam, non-invasive methods EHO, MR and invasive diagnostic methods-cateterization. The major indication for surgery was severe anginal pain, heart failure symptoms and low ejection fraction. Internal mammary artery was used in all operated patients. Results: Average age of patients who have been operated was 59,8. In the present study, 81,3% were male and 18,8% female. We found one-vessel disease present in 2,5% (1/40) of patients, two -vessel disease in 40% (16/40), three-vessel disease in 42,5% (17/40) and four -vessel disease in 15% (6/40) of patients. One bypass grafting we implanted in 2,5% patients, two bypasses in 42,5%, three bypasses in 45 5%, and four bypasses in 10% of patients. Left ventricular ejection fraction assessed preoperativly was 18%-27% and postoperatively was improved to 31, 08% in period of 30 days. Conclusion: In patients with left ventricular dysfunction, coronary artery bypass grafting can be performed safely with improvement in quality of life and in left ventricular ejection fraction. PMID:25568566

Haxhibeqiri-Karabdic, Ilirijana; Hasanovic, Aida; Kabil, Emir; Straus, Slavenka

2014-01-01

157

proteinsSTRUCTURE O FUNCTION O BIOINFORMATICS Improving NMR protein structure quality  

E-print Network

proteinsSTRUCTURE O FUNCTION O BIOINFORMATICS Improving NMR protein structure quality by Rosetta restraints, resulted in significant improve- ments not only in structure quality, but also in molecular recently been shown to be generally applicable with improved MR performance demonstrated for eight NMR

Baker, David

158

Improved siRNA/shRNA Functionality by Mismatched Duplex  

PubMed Central

siRNA (small interfering RNA) and shRNA (small hairpin RNA) are powerful and commonly used tools in biomedical research. Currently, siRNAs are generally designed as two 21 nt strands of RNA that include a 19 nt completely complementary part and a 2 nt overhang. However, since the si/shRNAs use the endogenous miRNA machinery for gene silencing and the miRNAs are generally 22 nt in length and contain multiple internal mismatches, we tested if the functionality can be increased by designing the si/shRNAs to mimic a miRNA structure. We systematically investigated the effect of single or multiple mismatches introduced in the passenger strand at different positions on siRNA functionality. Mismatches at certain positions could significantly increase the functionality of siRNAs and also, in some cases decreased the unwanted passenger strand functionality. The same strategy could also be used to design shRNAs. Finally, we showed that both si and miRNA structured oligos (siRNA with or without mismatches in the passenger strand) can repress targets in all individual Ago containing cells, suggesting that the Ago proteins do not differentiate between si/miRNA-based structure for silencing activity. PMID:22174840

Wu, Haoquan; Ma, Hongming; Ye, Chunting; Ramirez, Danielle; Chen, Shuiping; Montoya, Jessica; Shankar, Premlata; Wang, Xiaozhong A.; Manjunath, N.

2011-01-01

159

Functional Improvement Between Brain Death Declaration and Organ Harvesting  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionThe quality of harvested organs is crucial for graft survival and for posttransplant evolution. This study sought to investigate the evolution of the functional status of brain death (BD) patients during the period between declaration and organ harvesting (BD duration).

I. Grigoras; M. Blaj; O. Chelarescu; C. Craus; G. Florin

2010-01-01

160

Improving Communication and Decision Making within Quality Function Deployment 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main problems within concurrent engineer- ing is the visibility of activities and knowledge across perspectives. Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is a method to enhance communication between developers of different views. It is based on reconciled planning and communication procedures arranged around a form called House-of-Quality (HoQ). Descriptions like \\

Stephan Jacobs; Stefanie Kethers

1994-01-01

161

Green Tea Reduces LDL Oxidability and Improves Vascular Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Several different epidemiological studies have examined the association between the consump- tion of tea and coronary heart disease. Some, though not all, support the view that tea or flavonoids reduce the risk of cardiovascular heart disease. The aim of this study was to determine the short-to medium-term effect of a green tea extract on vascular function and lipid peroxidation

F. J. Tinahones; M. A. Rubio; L. Garrido-Sanchez; C. Ruiz; E. Gordillo; L. Cabrerizo; F. Cardona

2008-01-01

162

Abnormalities of left ventricular long-axis function predict the onset of hypertension independent of blood pressure: a 7-year prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased blood pressure and left ventricular (LV) mass predict the onset of the clinically manifest hypertension, but little is known regarding the possible predictive value of LV function. The present study was designed to evaluate the association between echocardiographic LV long-axis systolic, and diastolic function and hypertension onset. We prospectively followed 244 normotensive adults with a family history of hypertension

D Blendea; C Duncea; M Bedreaga; S Crisan; S Zarich

2007-01-01

163

Functional Improvement After Volume Reduction: Sternotomy Versus Videoendoscopic Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Volume reduction has been proved to increase ventilatory mechanics in diffuse, nonbullous lung emphysema. However, the best approach is still controversial.Methods. We retrospectively compared the perioperative data of and functional results in 15 patients having sternotomy (group I) with those of 15 patients having a videoendoscopic approach (group II).Results. The 30-day mortality was 2 patients in group I and

Wilfried Wisser; Edda Tschernko; Ömer Senbaklavaci; Manfred Kontrus; Theo Wanke; Ernst Wolner; Walter Klepetko

1997-01-01

164

Improved Collision Search for Hash Functions: New Advanced Message Modification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we discuss the collision search for hash functions, mainly in terms of their advanced message modification. The advanced message modification is a collision search tool based on Wang et al.'s attacks. Two advanced message modifications have previously been proposed: cancel modification for MD4 and MD5, and propagation modification for SHA-0. In this paper, we propose a new

Yusuke Naito; Kazuo Ohta; Noboru Kunihiro

2008-01-01

165

Rolandic arteriovenous malformations: improvement in limb function by IBC embolization.  

PubMed

Three patients with arteriovenous malformations in the rolandic region and significant limb deficit showed virtually complete functional recovery after awake operative embolization of most of the malformations using isobutyl-2 cyanoacrylate. Two of these patients, with functionally useless hands, had sustained the deficits months earlier as the result of a specific brain-damaging event: one as a result of surgery and the other as a result of a hemorrhage. Both of these showed significant return of function during the awake operative embolization procedure. The other patient had had progressive leg weakness over a 2 year period. The theory of steal phenomenon as an explanation for progressive neurologic deficits in association with large arteriovenous malformations must be extended to explain apparently stable deficits after some brain trauma (surgery or hemorrhage). These results suggest that some patients with arteriovenous malformations and without clinical deficits who are near a critical level of "near ischemia" may be thrown out of balance by an acute interceding event. PMID:3927674

Fox, A J; Girvin, J P; Viñuela, F; Drake, C G

1985-01-01

166

Tetrahydrobiopterin Improves Endothelial Function in Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review  

PubMed Central

Background. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a cofactor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is reduced during the early stage of vascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetic vasculopathy, and even throughout the entire progression of atherosclerosis. Methods. A literature search was performed using electronic databases (up to January 31, 2014), including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), using an established strategy. Results. Fourteen articles were selected with a total of 370 patients. Ten of the fourteen studies showed a significant improvement in the endothelial dysfunction of various cardiovascular disease groups with BH4 supplementation compared with the control groups or placebos. Three studies showed no positive outcome, and one study showed that low-dose BH4 had no effect but that high-dose BH4 did have a significantly different result. Conclusions. This review concludes that supplementation with BH4 and/or augmentation of the endogenous levels of BH4 will be a novel approach to improve the endothelial dysfunction observed in various cardiovascular diseases. BH4 might be considered to be a new therapeutic agent to prevent the initiation and progression of cardiovascular disease.

Wang, Qiongying; Yang, Mina; Xu, Han; Yu, Jing

2014-01-01

167

Catheter-based endomyocardial delivery of mesenchymal precursor cells using 3D echo guidance improves cardiac function in a chronic myocardial injury ovine model.  

PubMed

The administration of bone marrow-derived stem cells may provide a new treatment option for patients with heart failure. Transcatheter cell injection may require multi-imaging modalities to optimize delivery. This study sought to evaluate whether endomyocardial injection of mesenchymal precursor cells (MPCs) could be guided by real-time 3D echocardiography (RT3DE) in treating chronic, postinfarction (MI) left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in sheep. Four weeks after induction of an anterior wall myocardial infarction in 39 sheep, allogeneic MPCs in doses of either 25 × 10(6) (n = 10), 75 × 10(6) (n = 9), or 225 × 10(6) (n = 10) cells or nonconditioned control media (n = 10) were administered intramyocardially into infarct and border zone areas using a catheter designed for combined fluoroscopic and RT3DE-guided injections. LV function was assessed before and after injection. Infarct dimension and vascular density were evaluated histologically. RT3DE-guided injection procedures were safe. Compared to controls, the highest dose MPC treatment led to increments in ejection fraction (3 ventricula 3% in 225M MPCs vs. -5 ± 4% in the control group, p < 0.01) and wall thickening in both infarct (4 ± 4% in 225M MPCs vs. -3 ± 6% in the control group, p = 0.02) and border zones (4 ± 6% in 225M MPCs vs. -8 ± 9% in the control group, p = 0.01). Histology analysis demonstrated significantly higher arteriole density in the infarct and border zones in the highest dose MPC-treated animals compared to the lower dose or control groups. Endomyocardial implantation of MPCs under RT3DE guidance was safe and without observed logistical obstacles. Significant increases in LV performance (ejection fraction and wall thickening) and neovascularization resulted from this technique, and so this technique has important implications for treating patients with postischemic LV dysfunction. PMID:23107489

Cheng, Yanping; Yi, Genghua; Conditt, Gerard B; Sheehy, Alexander; Kolodgie, Frank D; Tellez, Armando; Polyakov, Igor; Gu, Anguo; Aboodi, Michael S; Wallace-Bradley, David; Schuster, Michael; Martens, Timothy; Itescu, Silviu; Kaluza, Greg L; Basu, Shubhayu; Virmani, Renu; Granada, Juan F; Sherman, Warren

2013-01-01

168

Detection of Antibodies to the Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) Transmembrane Protein p15E: an Alternative Approach for Serological FeLV Detection Based on Antibodies to p15E  

PubMed Central

The aim of this report was to investigate whether the diagnosis of feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infection by serology might be feasible and useful. Among the various viral proteins, the FeLV env-gene product (SU) and the envelope transmembrane protein p15E were considered promising candidates for the serological diagnosis of FeLV infection. Thus, we evaluated p15E and three other FeLV antigens, namely, a recombinant env-gene product, whole FeLV, and a short peptide from the FeLV transmembrane protein, for their potential to detect FeLV infection. To evaluate possible exposure of cats to FeLV, we tested serum and plasma samples from experimentally and naturally infected and vaccinated cats for the presence of antibodies to these antigens by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). The serological results were compared with the p27 and proviral real-time PCR results. We found that p15E displayed a diagnostic sensitivity of 95.7% and a specificity of 100% in experimentally infected cats. In naturally infected cats, p15E showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 77.1% and a specificity of 85.6%. Vaccinated cats displayed minimal antibody levels to p15E, suggesting that anti-p15E antibodies indicate infection rather than vaccination. The other antigens turned out to be too unspecific. The lower specificity in cats exposed to FeLV under field conditions may be explained by the fact that some cats become infected and seroconvert in the absence of detectable viral nucleic acids in plasma. We conclude that p15E serology may become a valuable tool for diagnosing FeLV infection; in some cases, it may replace PCR. PMID:24696026

Boenzli, Eva; Hadorn, Maik; Hartnack, Sonja; Huder, Jon; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

2014-01-01

169

Effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy on left ventricular diastolic function: implications for clinical outcome.  

PubMed

Background: The definition of response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) remains controversial,with variable rates of response depending on the criteria used. Our aim was to analyze the impact of CRT on diastolic function in different degrees of response, particularly in patients with positive clinical but no echocardiographic response.Methods and Results: In 250 CRT patients clinical evaluation and echocardiography were performed before and after CRT. Absolute response to CRT was defined as a reduction in left ventricular (LV)end-systolic volume of ? 15% at 1-year follow-up. Additionally, patients were classified into 4 subgroups according to their amount of response: extensive reverse remodeling (RR), slight RR, clinical response without RR, and neither clinical response nor RR. An improvement in estimates of LV filling pressure and a decrease in left atrial dimensions were observed only in responders to CRT. Patients with clinical but no echocardiographic response had significant improvement in E-wave and deceleration time and nonsignificant improvement in other parameters.Conclusions: LV diastolic function improves with CRT. Clinical responders without echocardiographic response show improvement in parameters of diastolic function. That suggests that clinical-only response to CRT is secondary to a real effect of the therapy, rather than a placebo effect. PMID:25089305

Doltra, Adelina; Bijnens, Bart; Tolosana, José María; Gabrielli, Luigi; Castel, María Ángeles; Berruezo, Antonio; Brugada, Josep; Mont, Lluís; Sitges, Marta

2014-05-01

170

Improvement of motor function in early Parkinson disease by safinamide.  

PubMed

A median safinamide (SAF) dose of 70 mg/day (range 40 to 90 mg/day) increased the percentage of parkinsonian patients improving their motor scores by > or =30% from baseline (responders) after 3 months from 21.4% (placebo) to 37.5% (p < 0.05, calculated by logistic regression analysis). In a subgroup of 101 patients under stable treatment with a single dopamine agonist, addition of SAF magnified the response (47.1% responders, mean 4.7-point motor score decrease; p > or = 0.05). These results suggest that doses of SAF exerting ion channel block and glutamate release inhibition add to its symptomatic effect and warrant exploration of higher doses. PMID:15326260

Stocchi, F; Arnold, G; Onofrj, M; Kwiecinski, H; Szczudlik, A; Thomas, A; Bonuccelli, U; Van Dijk, A; Cattaneo, C; Sala, P; Fariello, R G

2004-08-24

171

Hibiscus sabdariffa extract lowers blood pressure and improves endothelial function.  

PubMed

Polyphenols from Hibiscus sabdariffa calices were administered to patients with metabolic syndrome (125 mg/kg/day for 4 wk, n = 31) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (125 or 60 mg/kg in a single dose or daily for 1 wk, n = 8 for each experimental group). The H. sabdariffa extract improved metabolism, displayed potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and significantly reduced blood pressure in both humans and rats. Diuresis and inhibition of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme were found to be less important mechanisms than those related to the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and endothelium-dependent effects to explain the beneficial actions. Notably, polyphenols induced a favorable endothelial response that should be considered in the management of metabolic cardiovascular risks. PMID:24668839

Joven, Jorge; March, Isabel; Espinel, Eugenia; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Aragonès, Gerard; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Rios, Lidia; Martin-Paredero, Vicente; Menendez, Javier A; Micol, Vicente; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Camps, Jordi

2014-06-01

172

Improved wave functions for Hubbard model: Superconductivity and Mott transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We extend the doublon-holon binding wave function, which was recently often used to consider Mott transitions and d-wave superconductivity, for the half-filled-band Hubbard model on square lattices with the diagonal hopping t?. We introduce two new features: (1) In the doublon-holon binding factor, more accurate configuration correlations are included. (2) The band renormalization effect owing to the electron correlation is introduced within the third-neighbor hopping, including the anisotropy between x- and y-directions in the nearest-neighbor hopping. Using an optimization variational Monte Carlo technique, we draw some definite answers to the topics concerning the above features.

Kobayashi, Kenji; Yokoyama, Hisatoshi

2007-10-01

173

Functional lipids and lipoplexes for improved gene delivery  

PubMed Central

Cationic lipids are the most common non-viral vectors used in gene delivery with a few currently being investigated in clinical trials. However, like most other synthetic vectors, these vectors suffer from low transfection efficiencies. Among the various approaches to address this challenge, functional lipids (i.e., lipids responding to a stimuli) offer a myriad of opportunities for basic studies of nucleic acid–lipid interactions and for in vitro and in vivo delivery of nucleic acid for a specific biological/medical application. This manuscript reviews recent advances in pH, redox, and charge-reversal sensitive lipids. PMID:21621581

Zhang, Xiao-Xiang; McIntosh, Thomas J.; Grinstaff, Mark W.

2013-01-01

174

Improved ground-state electronic structure and optical dielectric constants with a semilocal exchange functional  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recently published generalized gradient approximation functional within density functional theory (DFT) has shown, in a few paradigm tests, an improved KS orbital description over standard (semi)local approximations. The characteristic feature of this functional is an enhancement factor that diverges like s ln(s ) for large reduced density gradients s which leads to unusual properties. We explore the improved orbital description of this functional more thoroughly by computing the electronic band structure, band gaps, and the optical dielectric constants in semiconductors, Mott insulators, and ionic crystals. Compared to standard semilocal functionals, we observe improvement in both the band gaps and the optical dielectric constants. In particular, the results are similar to those obtained with orbital functionals or by perturbation theory methods in that it opens band gaps in systems described as metallic by standard (semi)local density functionals, e.g., Ge, ? -Sn, and CdO.

Vl?ek, Vojt?ch; Steinle-Neumann, Gerd; Leppert, Linn; Armiento, Rickard; Kümmel, Stephan

2015-01-01

175

Adipsin is an adipokine that improves ? cell function in diabetes.  

PubMed

A hallmark of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the development of pancreatic ? cell failure, which results in insulinopenia and hyperglycemia. We show that the adipokine adipsin has a beneficial role in maintaining ? cell function. Animals genetically lacking adipsin have glucose intolerance due to insulinopenia; isolated islets from these mice have reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Replenishment of adipsin to diabetic mice treated hyperglycemia by boosting insulin secretion. We identify C3a, a peptide generated by adipsin, as a potent insulin secretagogue and show that the C3a receptor is required for these beneficial effects of adipsin. C3a acts on islets by augmenting ATP levels, respiration, and cytosolic free Ca(2+). Finally, we demonstrate that T2DM patients with ? cell failure are deficient in adipsin. These findings indicate that the adipsin/C3a pathway connects adipocyte function to ? cell physiology, and manipulation of this molecular switch may serve as a therapy in T2DM. PMID:24995977

Lo, James C; Ljubicic, Sanda; Leibiger, Barbara; Kern, Matthias; Leibiger, Ingo B; Moede, Tilo; Kelly, Molly E; Chatterjee Bhowmick, Diti; Murano, Incoronata; Cohen, Paul; Banks, Alexander S; Khandekar, Melin J; Dietrich, Arne; Flier, Jeffrey S; Cinti, Saverio; Blüher, Matthias; Danial, Nika N; Berggren, Per-Olof; Spiegelman, Bruce M

2014-07-01

176

Development and evaluation of a semiautomatic segmentation method for the estimation of LV parameters on cine MR images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a semiautomatic method for left ventricular (LV) segmentation on cine MR images and subsequent estimation of cardiac parameters. The study group comprised cardiac MR examinations of 18 consecutive patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. The new method allowed the automatic detection of the LV endocardial and epicardial boundaries on each short-axis cine MR image using a Bayesian flooding segmentation algorithm and weighted least-squares B-splines minimization. Manual editing of the automatic contours could be performed for unsatisfactory segmentation results. The end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), ejection fraction (EF) and LV mass estimated by the new method were compared with the reference values obtained by manually tracing the LV cavity borders. The reproducibility of the new method was determined using data from two independent observers. The mean number of endocardial and epicardial outlines not requiring any manual adjustment was more than 80% and 76% of the total contour number per study, respectively. The mean segmentation time including the required manual corrections was 2.3 ± 0.7 min per patient. LV volumes estimated by the semiautomatic method were significantly lower than those by manual tracing (P < 0.05), whereas no difference was found for EF and LV mass (P > 0.05). LV indices estimated by the two methods were well correlated (r >= 0.80). The mean difference between manual and semiautomatic method for estimating EDV, ESV, EF and LV mass was 6.1 ± 7.2 ml, 3.0 ± 5.2 ml, -0.6 ± 4.3% and -6.2 ± 12.2 g, respectively. The intraobserver and interobserver variability associated with the semiautomatic determination of LV indices was 0.5-1.2% and 0.8-3.9%, respectively. The estimation of LV parameters with the new semiautomatic segmentation method is technically feasible, highly reproducible and time effective.

Mazonakis, Michalis; Grinias, Elias; Pagonidis, Konstantin; Tziritas, George; Damilakis, John

2010-02-01

177

Improved Collision Search for Hash Functions: New Advanced Message Modification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we discuss the collision search for hash functions, mainly in terms of their advanced message modification. The advanced message modification is a collision search tool based on Wang et al.'s attacks. Two advanced message modifications have previously been proposed: cancel modification for MD4 and MD5, and propagation modification for SHA-0. In this paper, we propose a new concept of advanced message modification, submarine modification. As a concrete example combining the ideas underlying these modifications, we apply submarine modification to the collision search for SHA-0. As a result, we show that this can reduce the collision search attack complexity from 239 to 236 SHA-0 compression operations.

Naito, Yusuke; Ohta, Kazuo; Kunihiro, Noboru

178

Exercise training improves peripheral chemoreflex function in heart failure rabbits  

PubMed Central

An enhancement of peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity contributes to sympathetic hyperactivity in chronic heart failure (CHF) rabbits. The enhanced chemoreflex function in CHF involves augmented carotid body (CB) chemoreceptor activity via upregulation of the angiotensin II (ANG II) type 1 (AT1)-receptor pathway and downregulation of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-nitric oxide (NO) pathway in the CB. Here we investigated whether exercise training (EXT) normalizes the enhanced peripheral chemoreflex function in CHF rabbits and possible mechanisms mediating this effect. EXT partially, but not fully, normalized the exaggerated baseline renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and the response of RSNA to hypoxia in CHF rabbits. EXT also decreased the baseline CB nerve single-fiber discharge (4.9 ± 0.4 vs. 7.7 ± 0.4 imp/s at Po2 = 103 ± 2.3 Torr) and the response to hypoxia (20.6 ± 1.1 vs. 36.3 ± 1.3 imp/s at Po2 = 41 ± 2.2 Torr) from CB chemoreceptors in CHF rabbits, which could be reversed by treatment of the CB with ANG II or a nNOS inhibitor. Our results also showed that NO concentration and protein expression of nNOS were increased in the CBs from EXT + CHF rabbits, compared with that in CHF rabbits. On the other hand, elevated ANG II concentration and AT1-receptor overexpression of the CBs in CHF state were blunted by EXT. These results indicate that EXT normalizes the CB chemoreflex in CHF by preventing an increase in afferent CB chemoreceptor activity. EXT reverses the alterations in the nNOS-NO and ANG II-AT1-receptor pathways in the CB responsible for chemoreceptor sensitization in CHF. PMID:18583379

Li, Yu-Long; Ding, Yanfeng; Agnew, Chad; Schultz, Harold D.

2008-01-01

179

Early Intervention to Improve Hand Function in Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy often have marked hand involvement with excessive thumb adduction and flexion and limited active wrist extension from infancy. Post-lesional aberrant plasticity can lead to progressive abnormalities of the developing motor system. Disturbances of somatosensory and visual function and developmental disregard contribute to difficulties with hand use. Progressive soft tissue and bony changes may occur, leading to contractures, which further limit function in a vicious cycle. Early intervention might help to break this cycle, however, the precise nature and appropriateness of the intervention must be carefully considered. Traditional approaches to the hemiplegic upper limb include medications and botulinum toxin injections to manage abnormalities of tone, and surgical interventions. Therapist input, including provision of orthoses, remains a mainstay although many therapies have not been well evaluated. There has been a recent increase in interventions for the hemiplegic upper limb, mostly aimed outside the period of infancy. These include trials of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) and bimanual therapy as well as the use of virtual reality and robot-assisted therapy. In future, non-invasive brain stimulation may be combined with therapy. Interventions under investigation in the infant age group include modified CIMT and action observation therapy. A further approach which may be suited to the infant with thumb-in-palm deformity, but which requires evaluation, is the use of elastic taping. Enhanced cutaneous feedback through mechanical stimulation to the skin provided by the tape during movement has been postulated to modulate ongoing muscle activity. If effective, this would represent a low-cost, safe, widely applicable early intervention. PMID:25610423

Basu, Anna Purna; Pearse, Janice; Kelly, Susan; Wisher, Vicki; Kisler, Jill

2015-01-01

180

High- and Moderate-Intensity Training Normalizes Ventricular Function and Mechanoenergetics in Mice With Diet-Induced Obesity  

PubMed Central

Although exercise reduces several cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity/diabetes, the metabolic effects of exercise on the heart are not well-known. This study was designed to investigate whether high-intensity interval training (HIT) is superior to moderate-intensity training (MIT) in counteracting obesity-induced impairment of left ventricular (LV) mechanoenergetics and function. C57BL/6J mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO mice) displaying a cardiac phenotype with altered substrate utilization and impaired mechanoenergetics were subjected to a sedentary lifestyle or 8–10 weeks of isocaloric HIT or MIT. Although both modes of exercise equally improved aerobic capacity and reduced obesity, only HIT improved glucose tolerance. Hearts from sedentary DIO mice developed concentric LV remodeling with diastolic and systolic dysfunction, which was prevented by both HIT and MIT. Both modes of exercise also normalized LV mechanical efficiency and mechanoenergetics. These changes were associated with altered myocardial substrate utilization and improved mitochondrial capacity and efficiency, as well as reduced oxidative stress, fibrosis, and intracellular matrix metalloproteinase 2 content. As both modes of exercise equally ameliorated the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy by preventing LV remodeling and mechanoenergetic impairment, this study advocates the therapeutic potential of physical activity in obesity-related cardiac disorders. PMID:23493573

Hafstad, Anne D.; Lund, Jim; Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Höper, Anje C.; Larsen, Terje S.; Aasum, Ellen

2013-01-01

181

Relationship between systolic and diastolic function with improvements in forward stroke volume following reduction in mitral regurgitation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Efforts to improve mitral regurgitation (MR) are often performed in conjunction with coronary revascularization. However, the independent effects of a reduced MR area (MRa) are difficult to quantify. Using a previously developed cardiovascular model, ventricular contractility (elastance 1-8 mmHg/ml) and relaxation (tau: 40-150 msec) were independently adjusted for four grades of MR orifice areas (0.0 to 0.8 cm2). Improvements in forward stroke volume (fSV) were determined for the permutations of reduced MRa. For all conditions, LV end-diastolic pressure and volumes ranged from 7.3-24.2 mmHg and 64.8-174.3 ml, respectively. Overall, fSV ranged from 36.0-89.4 (mean: 64.2 +/- 12.8) ml, improved between 6.4 and 35.3% (mean: 15.6 +/- 8.1%), and was best predicted by (r=0.97, p<0.01) %delta(fSV)[correction of fVS]=34[MRa initial] - 46[MRa final] -0.5[elastance]. Reduced MRa, independent of relaxation and minimally influence by contractility, yield improved fSVs.

Firstenberg, M. S.; Greenberg, N. L.; Smedira, N. G.; McCarthy, P. M.; Garcia, M. J.; Thomas, J. D.

2001-01-01

182

Therapeutic intraspinal microstimulation improves forelimb function after cervical contusion injury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective. Intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) is a promising method for activating the spinal cord distal to an injury. The objectives of this study were to examine the ability of chronically implanted stimulating wires within the cervical spinal cord to (1) directly produce forelimb movements, and (2) assess whether ISMS stimulation could improve subsequent volitional control of paretic extremities following injury. Approach. We developed a technique for implanting intraspinal stimulating electrodes within the cervical spinal cord segments C6-T1 of Long-Evans rats. Beginning 4 weeks after a severe cervical contusion injury at C4-C5, animals in the treatment condition received therapeutic ISMS 7 hours/day, 5 days/week for the following 12 weeks. Main results. Over 12 weeks of therapeutic ISMS, stimulus-evoked forelimb movements were relatively stable. We also explored whether therapeutic ISMS promoted recovery of forelimb reaching movements. Animals receiving daily therapeutic ISMS performed significantly better than unstimulated animals during behavioural tests conducted without stimulation. Quantitative video analysis of forelimb movements showed that stimulated animals performed better in the movements reinforced by stimulation, including extending the elbow to advance the forelimb and opening the digits. While threshold current to elicit forelimb movement gradually increased over time, no differences were observed between chronically stimulated and unstimulated electrodes suggesting that no additional tissue damage was produced by the electrical stimulation. Significance. The results indicate that therapeutic intraspinal stimulation delivered via chronic microwire implants within the cervical spinal cord confers benefits extending beyond the period of stimulation, suggesting future strategies for neural devices to promote sustained recovery after injury.

Kasten, M. R.; Sunshine, M. D.; Secrist, E. S.; Horner, P. J.; Moritz, C. T.

2013-08-01

183

Prospects for improving brain function in individuals with Down syndrome.  

PubMed

Down syndrome (DS), which results from an extra copy of chromosome 21 (trisomy 21), is the most common genetically defined cause of intellectual disability. Although no pharmacotherapy aimed at counteracting the cognitive and adaptive deficits associated with this genetic disorder has been approved at present, there have been several new promising studies on pharmacological agents capable of rescuing learning/memory deficits seen in mouse models of DS. Here, we will review the available mouse models for DS and provide a comprehensive, albeit not exhaustive review of the following preclinical research strategies: (1) SOD1 and antioxidant agents; (2) APP and ?-secretase inhibitors; (3) DYRK1A and the polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG); (4) GIRK2 and fluoxetine; (5) adrenergic receptor agonists; (6) modulation of GABAA and GABAB receptors; (7) agonism of the hedgehog signaling pathway; (8) nerve growth factor (NGF) and other neurotrophic factors; (9) anticholinesterase (AChE) agents; and (10) antagonism of NMDA receptors. Finally, we will review briefly five different strategies in DS that have led to clinical studies that either have been concluded or are currently underway: (1) antioxidant therapy; (2) AChE therapy; (3) green tea extract therapy; (4) RG1662 therapy; and (5) memantine therapy. These are exciting times in DS research. Within a decade or so, it is well into the realm of possibility that new forms of pharmacotherapies might become valuable tools in the armamentarium of developmental clinicians, as adjutants to more traditional and proven forms of habilitative interventions aimed at improving the quality of life of individuals with DS. PMID:23821040

Costa, Alberto C S; Scott-McKean, Jonah J

2013-09-01

184

Radionuclide left ventricular dV/dt for the assessment of cardiac function in patients with coronary disease.  

PubMed

To investigate potential uses of left-ventricular (LV) systolic ejection rate (LV dV/dt) in the evaluation of LV function, we examined the effect of exercise, angiotensin, and leg raising on LV ejection fraction and LV dV/dt in patients with coronary-artery disease. The following observations were made: a) LV ejection fraction and dV/dt changed proportionately, but in opposite directions, during supine exercise; b) LV ejection fraction and dV/dt decreased to a similar extent during angiotensin infusions; and c) LV ejection fraction and dV/dt were unchanged by leg raising. The changes in peak and mean LV dV/dt were similar. Regardless of the physiologic state, peak LV dV/dt occurred during the first third of systole. These data imply that in this population there were no specific advantages of LV dV/dt over LV ejection fraction in the evaluation of LV performance. PMID:430171

Bianco, J A; Makey, D G; Laskey, W K; Shafer, R B

1979-01-01

185

Silymarin improves vascular function of aged ovariectomized rats.  

PubMed

Both aging and estrogen depletion lead to endothelial dysfunction, which is the main reason of many cardiovascular diseases. Previous reports have shown that cell protective effect of silymarin (SM) depends on its antioxidant and phytoestrogenic properties. We investigated the effect of SM on vascular stiffness of aged menopausal rats and the involvement of estrogenic activity in this effect. Isolated rat aortas were obtained from 22-month-old rats, after 18?months of ovariectomy (OVX) follow-up. Each ring was incubated in tissue bath either with SM (50?mg/L) and 17?-estradiol (10??M, E2) or in the presence of SM/fulvestrant (50?mg/L, 10 ?M). Endothelium-intact rings were precontracted with phenylephrine (0.001-30??M) or high potassium (40?mM); endothelium-dependent/independent relaxant responses were obtained using acetylcholine (0.001-30??M) and sodium nitroprusside (0.0001-3??M), respectively. While phenylephrine sensitivity was significantly increased in OVX rats, relaxations were significantly less in aged OVX rats compared with young rats. In spite of the presence of estrogen antagonist, immediate SM treatment restored the endothelial function and vascular tone better than estrogen replacement. Additionally, as a complementary and alternative medicine, it does not cause estrogenic side effects when taken acutely. PMID:24123505

Demirci, Buket; Dost, Turhan; Gokalp, Filiz; Birincioglu, Mustafa

2014-06-01

186

An Improved Green's Function for Ion Beam Transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ion beam transport theory allows testing of material transmission properties in the laboratory environment generated by particle accelerators. This is a necessary step in materials development and evaluation for space use. The approximations used in solving the Boltzmann transport equation for the space setting are often not sufficient for laboratory work and those issues are the main emphasis of the present work. In consequence, an analytic solution of the linear Boltzmann equation is pursued in the form of a Green's function allowing flexibility in application to a broad range of boundary value problems. It has been established that simple solutions can be found for the high charge and energy (HZE) by ignoring nuclear energy downshifts and dispersion. Such solutions were found to be supported by experimental evidence with HZE ion beams when multiple scattering was added. Lacking from the prior solutions were range and energy straggling and energy downshift with dispersion associated with nuclear events. Recently, we have found global solutions including these effects providing a broader class of HZE ion solutions.

Tweed, J.; Wilson, J. W.; Tripathi, R. K.

2003-01-01

187

Brazilian green propolis improves immune function in aged mice  

PubMed Central

Aging weakened innate and adaptive immunity both quantitatively and qualitatively. Some components in propolis could stimulate immune function in young animals or cultured immune cells in vitro. Few studies had been carried out in the aged. The present study was to evaluate the effects of Brazilian green propolis supplementation on the immunological parameters in aged mice. Eighty Kunming mice, aged 15–18 months, were randomly assigned to the control and three experimental groups supplemented with different doses (83.3, 157.4 and 352.9 mg/kg.bw respectively) of Brazilian green propolis. The experiment lasted for 4 weeks. Contents of total polyphenol, flavonoid, cinnamic acid and artepillin-C in Brazilian green propolis were analyzed. Splenic NK cytotoxic, T lymphocyte proliferation and antibody generation cells, as well as the phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages, ear swelling, and serum contents of IgG, IgM, hemolysin and cytokines were measured. After 4 weeks of treatment, the phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages was enhanced in 157.4 mg/kg and 352.9 mg/kg groups. Ear swelling increased in all propolis treatmented groups. Antibodies specific to sheep erythrocytes were higher in the groups receiving 157.4 and 352.9 mg/kg.bw than that of control group. IgG level dramatically increased in the groups receiving 83.3 and 157.4 mg/kg.bw in comparison to the control group. These results indicate that administration of Brazilian green propolis have a positive effect on innate and adaptive immunity in aged mice. PMID:25120274

Gao, Weina; Wu, Jianquan; Wei, Jingyu; Pu, Lingling; Guo, Changjiang; Yang, Jijun; Yang, Ming; Luo, Haiji

2014-01-01

188

An improved method for extracting matrix elements from lattice three-point functions  

SciTech Connect

The extraction of matrix elements from baryon three-point functions is complicated by the fact that the signal-to-noise drops rapidly as a function of time. Using a previously discussed method to improve the signal-to-noise for lattice two-point functions, we use this technique to do so for lattice three-point functions, using electromagnetic form factors for the nucleon and Delta as an example.

C. Aubin, K. Orginos

2011-12-01

189

Improved Displacement Transfer Functions for Structure Deformed Shape Predictions Using Discretely Distributed Surface Strains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the formulations of earlier Displacement Transfer Functions for structure shape predictions, the surface strain distributions, along a strain-sensing line, were represented with piecewise linear functions. To improve the shape-prediction accuracies, Improved Displacement Transfer Functions were formulated using piecewise nonlinear strain representations. Through discretization of an embedded beam (depth-wise cross section of a structure along a strain-sensing line) into multiple small domains, piecewise nonlinear functions were used to describe the surface strain distributions along the discretized embedded beam. Such piecewise approach enabled the piecewise integrations of the embedded beam curvature equations to yield slope and deflection equations in recursive forms. The resulting Improved Displacement Transfer Functions, written in summation forms, were expressed in terms of beam geometrical parameters and surface strains along the strain-sensing line. By feeding the surface strains into the Improved Displacement Transfer Functions, structural deflections could be calculated at multiple points for mapping out the overall structural deformed shapes for visual display. The shape-prediction accuracies of the Improved Displacement Transfer Functions were then examined in view of finite-element-calculated deflections using different tapered cantilever tubular beams. It was found that by using the piecewise nonlinear strain representations, the shape-prediction accuracies could be greatly improved, especially for highly-tapered cantilever tubular beams.

Ko, William L.; Fleischer, Van Tran

2012-01-01

190

Functional Clustering Drives Encoding Improvement in a Developing Brain Network during Awake Visual Learning  

E-print Network

Sensory experience drives dramatic structural and functional plasticity in developing neurons. However, for single-neuron plasticity to optimally improve whole-network encoding of sensory information, changes must be ...

Dunfield, Derek

191

Improvement in social-interpersonal functioning after cognitive therapy for recurrent depression  

PubMed Central

Background. Cognitive therapy reduces depressive symptoms of major depressive disorder, but little is known about concomitant reduction in social-interpersonal dysfunction. Method. We evaluated social-interpersonal functioning (self-reported social adjustment, interpersonal problems and dyadic adjustment) and depressive symptoms (two self-report and two clinician scales) in adult outpatients (n=156) with recurrent major depressive disorder at several points during a 20-session course of acute phase cognitive therapy. Consenting acute phase responders (n=84) entered a 2-year follow-up phase, which included an 8-month experimental trial comparing continuation phase cognitive therapy to assessment-only control. Results. Social-interpersonal functioning improved after acute phase cognitive therapy (dyadic adjustment d=0.47; interpersonal problems d=0.91; social adjustment d=1.19), but less so than depressive symptoms (d=1.55). Improvement in depressive symptoms and social-interpersonal functioning were moderately to highly correlated (r=0.39–0.72). Improvement in depressive symptoms was partly independent of social-interpersonal functioning (r=0.55–0.81), but improvement in social-interpersonal functioning independent of change in depressive symptoms was not significant (r=0.01–0.06). In acute phase responders, continuation phase therapy did not further enhance social-interpersonal functioning, but improvements in social-interpersonal functioning were maintained through the follow-up. Conclusions. Social-interpersonal functioning is improved after acute phase cognitive therapy and maintained in responders over 2 years. Improvement in social-interpersonal functioning is largely accounted for by decreases in depressive symptoms. PMID:15099419

VITTENGL, J. R.; CLARK, L. A.; JARRETT, R. B.

2005-01-01

192

Viral Determinants of FeLV Infection and Pathogenesis: Lessons Learned from Analysis of a Natural Cohort  

PubMed Central

Detailed analysis has been performed over many years of a geographic and temporal cohort of cats naturally infected with feline leukemia virus (FeLV). Molecular analysis of FeLV present in the diseased tissues and application of those viruses to experimental systems has revealed unique isolates with distinctive disease potential, previously uncharacterized virus-receptor interactions, information about the role of recombinant viruses in disease induction, and novel viral and cellular oncogenes implicated in pathogenesis, among other findings. The studies have contributed to an understanding of the selective forces that lead to predominance of distinctive FeLV isolates and disease outcomes in a natural population. PMID:21994802

Bolin, Lisa L.; Levy, Laura S.

2011-01-01

193

Pharmacologic and surgical interventions to improve functional capacity in heart failure.  

PubMed

Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome of breathlessness, lower extremity swelling, fatigue, and exercise intolerance affecting a large portion of the population worldwide, and associated with premature death. Despite improvement in the management of HF, many patients remain unable to complete activities of daily living without experiencing exertional symptoms. Although prevention of death in patients with HF is imperative, treatment of symptoms and improving functional capacity are equally important goals. This article discusses treatments (medical and surgical) associated with improved functional capacity in HF. PMID:25432480

Abbate, Antonio; Van Tassell, Benjamin W; Canada, Justin M; Dixon, Dave L; Arena, Ross A; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe

2015-01-01

194

Improvement in gonadal function through modification of negative feed-back  

E-print Network

Improvement in gonadal function through modification of negative feed-back R. B. LAND ARC, Animal to the use of exogenous gonadotrophins to raise the ovulation rate of domestic animals is not sufficiently to negative feed- back. Changes in ovarian function following unilateral ovariectomy, treatment with oestro

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

195

Generalized generalized gradient approximation: An improved density-functional theory for accurate orbital eigenvalues  

E-print Network

Generalized generalized gradient approximation: An improved density-functional theory for accurate orbital eigenvalues Xinlei Hua, Xiaojie Chen, and W. A. Goddard III* Materials and Process Simulation to numerous applications in which density-functional theory DFT provides structures, bond energies

Goddard III, William A.

196

Improving meson two-point functions by low-mode averaging  

E-print Network

Some meson correlation functions have a large contribution from the low lying eigenmodes of the Dirac operator. The contribution of these eigenmodes can be averaged over all positions of the source. This can improve the signal in these channels significantly. We test the method for meson two-point functions.

T. DeGrand; S. Schaefer

2004-09-13

197

Eur Heart J . Author manuscript Chronic heart rate reduction with ivabradine improves systolic function of  

E-print Network

Eur Heart J . Author manuscript Page /1 11 Chronic heart rate reduction with ivabradine improves systolic function of the reperfused heart through a dual mechanism involving a direct mechanical effect the adaptations of left ventricular function and calcium handling to chronic heart rate reduction with ivabradine

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

198

Chronic Treatment with Tadalafil Improves Endothelial Function in Men with Increased Cardiovascular Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Erectile dysfunction (ED) is often associated with a cluster of risk factors for coronary artery disease and reduced endothelial function. Acute and chronic administration of oral sildenafil, a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, improves endothelial function in patients with ED. Tadalafil (TAD) is a new PDE5 inhibitor with a long half life that allows alternate day administration. Aim of the

Giuseppe M. C. Rosano; Antonio Aversa; Cristiana Vitale; Andrea Fabbri; Massimo Fini; Giovanni Spera

2005-01-01

199

An improved nearly-orthogonal structured mesh generation system with smoothness control functions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This paper presents an improved nearly-orthogonal structured mesh generation system with a set of smoothness control functions, which were derived based on the ratio between the Jacobian of the transformation matrix and the Jacobian of the metric tensor. The proposed smoothness control functions are...

200

NEW FUNCTIONAL FOOD INGREDIENTS FOR IMPROVING THE HEALTH BENEFITS OF ASIAN FOODS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to utilize new functional food ingredients containing soluble beta-glucan fiber that could be used to improve the health qualities of Asian foods. These functional food fibers were studied as replacements for coconut milk, butter, or saturated fat shortenings that are ...

201

NEW FUNCTIONAL FOOD INGREDIENTS FOR IMPROVING THE HEALTH BENEFITS OF ASIAN FOODS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to utilize new functional food ingredients containing soluble betaglucan fiber that could be used to improve the heatlh qualities of Asian foods. These functional food fibers were studied as replacements for coconut milk, butter, or saturated fat shortenings that are w...

202

TELEMEDICINE TO ASSIST PATIENT UNDERSTANDING OF ATMOSPHERIC INFLUENCE ON LUNG FUNCTION AND IMPROVE  

E-print Network

TELEMEDICINE TO ASSIST PATIENT UNDERSTANDING OF ATMOSPHERIC INFLUENCE ON LUNG FUNCTION AND IMPROVE-time generic telemedicine system is presented. It is discussed in the context of self- management for people as influencing lung function, we have used data collected during a feasibility study of the telemedicine system

McSharry, Patrick E.

203

Electrical Stimulation as a Therapeutic Option to Improve Eyelid Function in Chronic Facial Nerve Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. TO establish whether it is possible to improve orbicularis oculi muscle function in the eyelids of patients with a chronic seventh cranial nerve palsy by using transcutaneous electrical stimulation to the point at which electrical stimulation induces a functional blink. METHODS. Ten subjects (one woman, nine men) aged 36 to 76 with chronic, moderate to severe facial nerve palsy

John Gittins; Kevin Martin; James Sbeldrick; Ashwin Reddy; Leonard Tbean

204

Improved fracture toughness of carbon fiber composite functionalized with multi walled carbon nanotubes  

E-print Network

Improved fracture toughness of carbon fiber composite functionalized with multi walled carbon August 2008 A B S T R A C T Woven carbon fiber (CF) laminae are functionalized in situ with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to test the hypothesis that growing CNTs on CF (i.e., carbon fiber bundles or tow) would

Bennett, Gisele

205

An improved estimate of PSWF approximation and approximation by Mathieu functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, an error estimate of spectral approximations by prolate spheroidal wave functions (PSWFs) with explicit dependence on the bandwidth parameter and optimal order of convergence is derived, which improves the existing result in [Chen et al., Spectral methods based on prolate spheroidal wave functions for hyperbolic PDEs, SIAM J. Numer. Anal. 43 (5) (2005) 1912–1933]. The underlying argument

Li-Lian Wang; Jing Zhang

2011-01-01

206

The Importance of Hybrid Stage I Palliation for Neonates with Critical Aortic Stenosis and Reduced Left Ventricular Function.  

PubMed

The optimal management strategy for neonates with congenital aortic stenosis, two balanced ventricles, and duct-dependent systemic circulation (critical aortic stenosis) is still controversial. Thirteen patients with critical aortic stenosis underwent balloon aortic valvotomy (BAV) between 1996 and 2013, at the median age of 1 day old (range 0-28). Since 2010, bilateral pulmonary artery banding with ductal stenting following BAV was conducted for patients with reduced left ventricular (LV) function as a hybrid stage I palliation for the bridge to decision for further treatment. A follow-up was completed on all patients and the median follow-up period was 3.3 years (max 16.0). The overall survival rate at 15 years was 67.1 %. Six of the seven patients with maintained LV function could go on to the definitive Ross or Konno-aortic valve replacement at the median duration of 311 days after initial BAV, without any mortality. Three of four patients with reduced LV function died before 2010 with conventional treatment. With use of a hybrid stage I palliation, one of two patients ultimately underwent Fontan completion at 38 months of age and the other successfully underwent the definitive Ross-Konno operation at 9 months of age after recovery of the LV function. Although a statistically significant improvement has not been observed yet, the application of hybrid stage I palliation following BAV would be a favorable alternative for patients with reduced LV function to avoid a high-risk neonatal Ross or Norwood-type operation, and also to determine further treatment carefully. PMID:25480352

Misumi, Yusuke; Hoashi, Takaya; Kagisaki, Koji; Yazaki, Satoshi; Kitano, Masataka; Kurosaki, Kenichi; Shiraishi, Isao; Ichikawa, Hajime

2014-12-01

207

Improvement of cardiac function by short-term enzyme replacement therapy in a murine model of cardiomyopathy associated with Hunter syndrome evaluated by serial echocardiography with speckle tracking 2-D strain analysis.  

PubMed

Cardiac systolic function is significantly decreased in a proportion of patients with Hunter syndrome. This study was performed to evaluate the change in myocardial function associated with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in a mouse model of cardiomyopathy associated with Hunter syndrome. Thirty 9-week-old iduronate-2-sulfatase (IDS) knockout mice received either intravenous injection of human recombinant IDS (ERT group, N=15) or saline (control group, N=15) for 5 weeks. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and after treatment. Echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular (LV) systolic function and 2-dimensional radial and circumferential strain were assessed. At follow-up, there was a significant increase in LV fractional shortening and radial and circumferential strain in the ERT group only. Notable myocardial fibrosis was observed in the control group only. In the murine model of Hunter syndrome, ERT exerts beneficial effects on cardiac function, which can be evaluated by serial echocardiographic evaluation including 2-dimensional strain analysis. PMID:24836711

Lee, Sang-Chol; Lee, Jieun; Jin, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Jung-Sun; Jeon, Eun-Seok; Kwun, Young Hee; Chang, Mi Sun; Ko, Ah-ra; Yook, Yeon Joo; Sohn, Young Bae

2014-07-01

208

Coculture with mesenchymal stem cells results in improved viability and function of human hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Hepatocyte transplantation is becoming an accepted therapy for acute liver failure, either as a bridge to liver regeneration or to organ transplantation. Hepatocytes provide liver function in place of the failing organ. The maintenance of sufficient viability and function of the transplanted hepatocytes is a concern. There is a lot of recent interest in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for the provision of structural and trophic support to hepatocytes, but few studies currently use primary human hepatocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate if coculture of human MSCs with cryopreserved human hepatocytes may improve their function and viability, thus with potential for cellular therapy of liver disease. MSCs were isolated from human umbilical cord or adipose tissue. Hepatocytes were isolated from donor organs unsuitable for transplantation. MSCs and hepatocytes were cocultured in both direct and indirect contact. Conditioned medium (CM) from cocultured MSCs and hepatocytes was also used on hepatocytes. Viability and liver-specific function were compared between test and controls. Human hepatocytes that were cocultured directly with MSCs demonstrated improved production of albumin from day 5 to day 25 of culture. This effect was most prominent at day 15. Likewise, urea production was improved in coculture from day 5 to 25. Indirect coculture demonstrated improved albumin production by day 4 (1,107 ng/ml) versus hepatocyte monoculture (940 ng/ml). Hepatocytes in CM demonstrated a nonsignificant improvement in function. The viability of cocultured hepatocytes was superior to that of monocultured cells with up to a 16% improvement. Thus, coculture of human hepatocytes with MSCs demonstrates both improved function and viability. The effect is seen mainly with direct coculture but can also be seen in indirect culture and with CM. Such coculture conditions may convey major advantages in hepatocyte survival and function for cell transplantation. PMID:24143888

Fitzpatrick, Emer; Wu, Yue; Dhadda, Paramjeet; Hughes, Robin D; Mitry, Ragai R; Qin, Hong; Lehec, Sharon C; Heaton, Nigel D; Dhawan, Anil

2015-01-01

209

Comparison of Afro-Caribbean patients presenting in heart failure with normal versus poor left ventricular systolic function.  

PubMed

Data suggest that heart failure (HF) in Afro-Caribbean patients may be more often associated with preserved left ventricular (LV) systolic function, LV hypertrophy, and probable LV diastolic dysfunction than in other populations. Echocardiographic results on all patients referred for HF in a contemporary Afro-Caribbean population were reviewed, comparing findings in patients with and without preserved LV systolic function with. Echocardiographic findings included left atrial dimension, LV systolic and diastolic dimensions, ventricular septal and posterior wall thicknesses, right ventricular dimension, valve abnormality, or pericardial effusion. LV shortening fraction and ejection fraction were calculated. Age, gender, and presence of atrial fibrillation were recorded. Results from patients with preserved LV systolic function (LV shortening fraction >0.27) were compared with those with poor LV systolic function. There were 505 patients with HF with adequate studies; mean age +/- SD was 64 +/- 15 years, 46% were men, 17% had atrial fibrillation, and 285 of 505 (57%) had preserved LV systolic function. Those with preserved LV systolic function were no different in age (64 +/- 15 vs 64 +/- 14 years, p = 0.98) but were less likely to be men (40% vs 54%, p <0.01). They were less likely to have a dilated left atrium (61% vs 81%, p <0.001) or increased LV diastolic dimension (8% vs 63%, p <0.001). They were more likely to have increased ventricular septal or posterior wall hypertrophy (84% vs 66%, p <0.001) or other abnormal findings, including an abnormal valve, right ventricular enlargement, increased septal to posterior wall thickness ratio, or pericardial effusion (25% vs 6%, p <0.001). The presence of atrial fibrillation was no different (14% vs 20%, p = 0.10). In conclusion, most Afro-Caribbean patients with HF have preserved LV systolic function with high rates of LV hypertrophy, septal hypertrophy, and other echocardiographic abnormalities. PMID:17920369

Martin, Thomas C

2007-10-15

210

High intensity training improves health and physical function in middle aged adults.  

PubMed

High intensity training (HIT) is effective at improving health; however, it is unknown whether HIT also improves physical function. This study aimed to determine whether HIT improves metabolic health and physical function in untrained middle aged individuals. Fourteen (three male and eleven female) untrained individuals were recruited (control group n = 6: age 42 ± 8 y, weight 64 ± 10 kg, BMI 24 ± 2 kg·m-2 or HIT group n = 8: age 43 ± 8 y, weight 80 ± 8 kg, BMI 29 ± 5 kg·m-2). Training was performed twice weekly, consisting of 10 × 6-second sprints with a one minute recovery between each sprint. Metabolic health (oral glucose tolerance test), aerobic capacity (incremental time to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer) and physical function (get up and go test, sit to stand test and loaded 50 m walk) were determined before and after training. Following eight weeks of HIT there was a significant improvement in aerobic capacity (8% increase in VO2 peak; p < 0.001), physical function (11%-27% respectively; p < 0.05) and a reduction in blood glucose area under the curve (6% reduction; p < 0.05). This study demonstrates for the first time the potential of HIT as a training intervention to improve skeletal muscle function and glucose clearance as we age. PMID:24833513

Adamson, Simon; Lorimer, Ross; Cobley, James N; Lloyd, Ray; Babraj, John

2014-01-01

211

Isoproterenol-induced alterations in myocardial blood flow, systolic and diastolic function in conscious dogs with heart failure.  

PubMed

The effects of isoproterenol were examined in 10 conscious, chronically instrumented adult dogs with left ventricular (LV) failure after pressure overload hypertrophy induced by aortic banding at 8-10 weeks of age (LV free wall plus septum-to-body weight ratio, 8.6 +/- 0.5 g/kg) and also in eight control dogs (LV free wall plus septum-to-body weight ratio, 5.1 +/- 0.3 g/kg). Baseline values of heart rate, LV end-diastolic pressure, LV end-diastolic stress, and LV systolic wall stress were greater in the LV failure dogs (p less than 0.01), whereas the ejection phase index, rate of change of LV short-axis diameter, LV dD/dt, was depressed compared with control animals. In the control animals, isoproterenol infusion increased Vcf and LV dD/dt significantly (p less than 0.05), whereas LV systolic wall stress did not change. In the LV failure dogs, the increases in Vcf and LV dD/dt were less (p less than 0.01), and LV systolic wall stress increased (p less than 0.01). In the control animals, LV end-diastolic pressure, LV end-diastolic stress, LV end-diastolic stress-dimension ratio, diastolic radial myocardial stiffness, and the time constant of isovolumic relaxation decreased (p less than 0.05), whereas in the LV failure dogs, LV end-diastolic pressure, LV end-diastolic stress, diastolic radial myocardial stiffness, and the LV end-diastolic stress-dimension ratio increased. In the LV failure group, the endocardial to epicardial blood flow ratio fell to 0.59 +/- 0.06 during isoproterenol infusion, that is, significantly lower than in control dogs (0.93 +/- 0.06). These data support the concept that potent sympathomimetic amines exert deleterious effects on systolic and diastolic function in the failing heart, potentially related to subendocardial hypoperfusion. PMID:2527646

Hittinger, L; Shannon, R P; Kohin, S; Lader, A S; Manders, W T; Patrick, T A; Kelly, P; Vatner, S F

1989-09-01

212

Revascularization of swine renal artery stenosis improves renal function but not the changes in vascular structure  

PubMed Central

Renal revascularization with percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty improves blood pressure and stenotic-kidney function in selected groups of patients, but the reversibility of intra-renal and microvascular remodeling remains unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that renal angioplasty improves the function and structure of the renal microcirculation in experimental chronic renal artery stenosis. Stenotic kidney function, hemodynamics and endothelial function were assessed in-vivo in pigs after a 10-weeks sham-treated unilateral renal artery stenosis, similar stenosis that underwent angioplasty and stenting 4 weeks earlier, or sham operated animals. Renal microvascular remodeling, angiogenic pathways, and fibrosis were investigated ex-vivo. Renal angioplasty decreased blood pressure, improved glomerular filtration rate and microvascular endothelial function, promoted the expression of angiogenic factors, and decreased renal apoptosis induced by renal artery stenosis. However, the spatial density of renal microvessels was partially improved after angioplasty, and renal blood flow was incompletely restored compared to sham-treated kidneys, as was interstitial fibrosis. Renal microvascular media-to-lumen ratio remained unchanged by angioplasty. The current study shows that revascularization of renal artery stenosis restores glomerular filtration rate and renal endothelial function four weeks later, while renal hemodynamics and structure are incompletely restored. PMID:20463652

Favreau, Frederic D.; Zhu, Xiang-Yang; Krier, James D.; Lin, Jing; Textor, Stephen C.; Lerman, Lilach O.

2010-01-01

213

Left ventricular diastolic function in hypertension: methodological considerations and clinical implications.  

PubMed

The assessment of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function should be an integral part of a routine examination of hypertensive patient; indeed when LV diastolic function is impaired, it is possible to have heart failure even with preserved LV ejection fraction. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) occurs frequently and is associated to heart disease. Doppler echocardiography is the best tool for early LVDD diagnosis. Hypertension affects LV relaxation and when left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) occurs, it decreases compliance too, so it is important to calculate Doppler echocardiography parameters, for diastolic function evaluation, in all hypertensive patients. The purpose of our review was to discuss about the strong relationship between LVDD and hypertension, and their relationship with LV systolic function. Furthermore, we aimed to assess the relationship between the arterial stiffness and LV structure and function in hypertensive patients. PMID:25584097

Palmiero, Pasquale; Zito, Annapaola; Maiello, Maria; Cameli, Matteo; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Novo, Salvatore; Saba, Pier Sergio; Scicchitano, Pietro; Pedrinelli, Roberto; Ciccone, Marco Matteo

2015-03-01

214

Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in Hypertension: Methodological Considerations and Clinical Implications  

PubMed Central

The assessment of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function should be an integral part of a routine examination of hypertensive patient; indeed when LV diastolic function is impaired, it is possible to have heart failure even with preserved LV ejection fraction. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) occurs frequently and is associated to heart disease. Doppler echocardiography is the best tool for early LVDD diagnosis. Hypertension affects LV relaxation and when left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) occurs, it decreases compliance too, so it is important to calculate Doppler echocardiography parameters, for diastolic function evaluation, in all hypertensive patients. The purpose of our review was to discuss about the strong relationship between LVDD and hypertension, and their relationship with LV systolic function. Furthermore, we aimed to assess the relationship between the arterial stiffness and LV structure and function in hypertensive patients. PMID:25584097

Palmiero, Pasquale; Zito, Annapaola; Maiello, Maria; Cameli, Matteo; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Novo, Salvatore; Saba, Pier Sergio; Scicchitano, Pietro; Pedrinelli, Roberto; Ciccone, Marco Matteo

2015-01-01

215

Impact of psychosocial factors on functional improvement in latino older adults after tai chi exercise.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence underscores the health benefits of Tai Chi (TC), although there is limited evidence of benefits among racial and ethnic minorities. This study investigated the impact of psychosocial status on balance among 23 Latino seniors after a twice-a-week, 12-week TC exercise program. Functional status was measured at baseline, immediately after, and three months following the TC exercise program, using the Timed Up and Go Test and Tinetti Falls Efficacy Scale. Psychosocial status was measured at baseline by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire. Both measures of functional status improved and were sustained after three months of TC. Greater improvement was significantly related to a higher level of baseline social support. More depressed seniors reported less fear of falling after TC. Depression and social support are important moderators of functional improvement after TC among Latino seniors. PMID:24451550

Siu, Ka-Chun; Rajaram, Shireen S; Padilla, Carolina

2015-01-01

216

Rodent Biocompatibility Test Using the NASA Foodbar and Epoxy EP21LV  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Epoxy has been used successfully to affix NASA foodbars to the inner walls of the Animal Enclosure Module for past space flight experiments utilizing rodents. The epoxy used on past missions was discontinued, making it necessary to identify a new epoxy for use on the STS-108 and STS-107 missions. This experiment was designed to test the basic biocompatibility of epoxy EP21LV with male rats (Sprague Dawley) and mice (Swiss Webster) when applied to NASA foodbars. For each species, the test was conducted with a control group fed untreated foodbars and an experimental group fed foodbars applied with EP21LV. For each species, there were no group differences in animal health and no statistical differences (P<0.05) in body weights throughout the study. In mice, there was a 16% increase in heart weight in the epoxy group; this result was not found in rats. For both species, there were no statistical differences found in other organ weights measured. In rats, blood glucose levels were 15% higher and both total protein and globulin were 10% lower in the epoxy group. Statistical differences in these parameters were not found in mice. For both species, no statistical differences were found in other blood parameters tested. Food consumption was not different in rats but water consumption was significantly decreased 10 to 15% in the epoxy group. The difference in water consumption is likely due to an increased water content of the epoxy-treated foodbars. Finally, both species avoided consumption of the epoxy material. Based on the global analysis of the results, the few parameters found to be statistically different do not appear to be a physiologically relevant effect of the epoxy material, We conclude that the EP21LV epoxy is biocompatible with rodents.

Tillman, J.; Steele, M.; Dumars, P.; Vasques, M.; Girten, B.; Sun, S. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

217

Azithromycin Improves Macrophage Phagocytic Function and Expression of Mannose Receptor in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale:Defectiveefferocytosis(phagocyticclearanceofapoptotic cells) in the airway may perpetuate inflammation via secondary necrosis in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We have previously reported that low-dose azithromycin improved alveolar macrophage (AM) phagocytic function in vitro. Objectives: We investigated collectins (mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and surfactant protein (SP)-D) and mannose receptor (MR) in COPD and their possible role in the azithromycin-mediated improvement in phagocytosis. Methods:

Sandra Hodge; Greg Hodge; Hubertus Jersmann; Geoffrey Matthews; Jessica Ahern; Mark Holmes; Paul N. Reynolds

2008-01-01

218

Effects of verapamil and propranolol on left ventricular systolic function and diastolic filling in patients with coronary artery disease: radionuclide angiographic studies at rest and during exercise  

SciTech Connect

To determine the effects of verapamil on left ventricular (LV) systolic function and diastolic filling in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), we performed gated radionuclide angiography at rest and during exercise in 16 symptomatic patients before and during oral verapamil therapy (480 mg/day). Twelve patients were also studied during oral propranolol (160-320 mg/day). LV ejection fraction at rest was normal in 13 patients, but abnormal diastolic filling at rest, defined as peak filling rate (PFR) < 2.5 end-diastolic volumes (EDV)/sec or time to PFR > 180 msec, was present in 15. During verapamil, resting ejection fraction decreased (control 50 + 10% ( + SD ), verapamil 45 + 12%, p < 0.005), but resting diastolic filling improved: PFR increased (control 1.9 + 0.6 EDV/sec, verapamil 2.3 + 0.9 EDV/sec, p < 0.005) and time to PFR decreased (control 185 + 38 mssec, verapamil 161 + 27 msec, p < 0.05). Exercise ejection fraction did not change during verapamil (control 42 + 13%, verapamil 43 + 12%. NS), but exercise PFR increased (control 3.1 + 0.9 EDV/sec, verapamil 3.6 + 1.1 EDV/sec, p < 0.05) and exercise time to PFR decreased (control 108 + 30 msec, verapamil 91 + 17 msec, p < 0.05). In contrast, propranolol did not alter ejection fraction, PFR, or time to PFR at rest or during exercise. Thus, LV ejection fraction is decreased by verapamil at rest but is unchanged during exercise. While LV systolic function is not improved by verapamil, LV diastolic filling is enhanced by verapamil, both at rest and during exercise. These mechanisms may account in part for the symptomatic improvement in many patients during verapamil therapy.

Bonow, R.O.; Leon, M.B.; Rosing, D.R.; Kent, K.M.; Lipson, L.C.; Bacharach, S.L.; Green, M.V.; Epstein, S.E.

1982-06-01

219

The effectiveness of proprioceptive training for improving motor function: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Objective: Numerous reports advocate that training of the proprioceptive sense is a viable behavioral therapy for improving impaired motor function. However, there is little agreement of what constitutes proprioceptive training and how effective it is. We therefore conducted a comprehensive, systematic review of the available literature in order to provide clarity to the notion of training the proprioceptive system. Methods: Four major scientific databases were searched. The following criteria were subsequently applied: (1) A quantified pre- and post-treatment measure of proprioceptive function. (2) An intervention or training program believed to influence or enhance proprioceptive function. (3) Contained at least one form of treatment or outcome measure that is indicative of somatosensory function. From a total of 1284 articles, 51 studies fulfilled all criteria and were selected for further review. Results: Overall, proprioceptive training resulted in an average improvement of 52% across all outcome measures. Applying muscle vibration above 30 Hz for longer durations (i.e., min vs. s) induced outcome improvements of up to 60%. Joint position and target reaching training consistently enhanced joint position sense (up to 109%) showing an average improvement of 48%. Cortical stroke was the most studied disease entity but no clear evidence indicated that proprioceptive training is differentially beneficial across the reported diseases. Conclusions: There is converging evidence that proprioceptive training can yield meaningful improvements in somatosensory and sensorimotor function. However, there is a clear need for further work. Those forms of training utilizing both passive and active movements with and without visual feedback tended to be most beneficial. There is also initial evidence suggesting that proprioceptive training induces cortical reorganization, reinforcing the notion that proprioceptive training is a viable method for improving sensorimotor function.

Aman, Joshua E.; Elangovan, Naveen; Yeh, I-Ling; Konczak, Jürgen

2015-01-01

220

Acetyl-L-carnitine treatment following spinal cord injury improves mitochondrial function correlated with remarkable tissue sparing and functional recovery.  

PubMed

We have recently documented that treatment with the alternative biofuel, acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC, 300 mg/kg), as late as 1 h after T10 contusion spinal cord injury (SCI), significantly maintained mitochondrial function 24 h after injury. Here we report that after more severe contusion SCI centered on the L1/L2 segments that are postulated to contain lamina X neurons critical for locomotion (the "central pattern generator"), ALC treatment resulted in significant improvements in acute mitochondrial bioenergetics and long-term hind limb function. Although control-injured rats were only able to achieve slight movements of hind limb joints, ALC-treated animals produced consistent weight-supported plantar steps 1 month after injury. Such landmark behavioral improvements were significantly correlated with increased tissue sparing of both gray and white matter proximal to the injury, as well as preservation of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive neurons in lamina X rostral to the injury site. These findings signify that functional improvements with ALC treatment are mediated, in part, by preserved locomotor circuitry rostral to upper lumbar contusion SCI. Based on beneficial effects of ALC on mitochondrial bioenergetics after injury, our collective evidence demonstrate that preventing mitochondrial dysfunction acutely "promotes" neuroprotection that may be associated with the milestone recovery of plantar, weight-supported stepping. PMID:22445934

Patel, S P; Sullivan, P G; Lyttle, T S; Magnuson, D S K; Rabchevsky, A G

2012-05-17

221

Improvement of cognitive function after carotid endarterectomy--a new strategy for the evaluation of cognitive function.  

PubMed

Significant carotid stenosis is known to cause ischemic stroke and cognitive impairment. However, it remains controversial whether carotid endarterectomy (CEA) can improve cognitive function in patients with carotid stenosis. We used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) to compare cognitive function between before and after CEA. Patients were prospectively registered to evaluate cognitive function from October 2011 to December 2012 after we determined them to have significant carotid stenosis. Patients were examined by 3-dimensional computed tomographic angiography or digital subtraction angiography. Although symptomatic cases were included, their modified Rankin Scale was grade 0 or 1 before CEA. All CEA procedures were performed by the same neurosurgical team. Cognitive function was evaluated by MoCA and MMSE performed before and after surgery. Data were analyzed statistically using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Thirty-six patients were included in this study. The MoCA score after surgery, whereas the MMSE score was not. After surgery, the MoCA score improved in patients who were 73 years or younger, who underwent CEA in the left side of their carotid lesion, who had severe carotid stenosis of more than 80%, who had bilateral lesion, who did not have abnormal lesion on diffusion-weighted imaging after surgery, or who had cerebral blood flow of pre-CEA over 34.5 mL. In conclusion, MoCA was feasible in patients soon after undergoing CEA. Using MoCA not MMSE, CEA may improve cognitive function in patients with significant carotid stenosis. PMID:24462461

Watanabe, Junko; Ogata, Toshiyasu; Hamada, Omi; Nonaka, Masani; Abe, Hiroshi; Higashi, Toshio; Shiota, Etsuji; Inoue, Tooru

2014-07-01

222

Use of Autocorrelation-Like Function to Improve the Performance of Linear-Prediction Parameter Estimators  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a novel approach to the usage of an autocorrelation function in order to improve signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is presented. This method avoids the usual problems entailed by standard autocorrelation function-based approaches to nonstationary signals such as NMR signals. The Cadzow autocorrelation matrix approach to transient data is often not suitable for time-domain signal analysis; in fact, it

M. Fedrigo; G. Esposito; S. Cattarinussi; P. Viglino; F. Fogolari

1996-01-01

223

Improved Serum Leptin and Ghrelin Following Bariatric Surgery Predict Better Postoperative Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Bariatric surgery is associated with improved cognitive function, but the mechanisms underlying these gains remain poorly understood. Disturbed leptin and ghrelin systems are common in obese individuals and are associated with impaired cognitive function in other samples. Bariatric surgery has been shown to improve serum leptin and ghrelin levels, and these changes may underlie postoperative cognitive improvements. Methods Eighty-four patients completed a computerized cognitive test battery prior to bariatric surgery and at 12 months postoperatively. Participants also submitted to an 8-hour fasting blood draw to quantify serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations at these same time points. Results Baseline cognitive impairments and disturbed leptin and ghrelin levels improved at the 12-month follow-up compared to presurgery. Higher leptin levels were associated with worse attention/executive function at baseline; no such findings emerged for ghrelin. Regression analyses controlling for baseline factors and demographic characteristics showed that both decreased leptin and increased ghrelin following surgery was associated with better attention/executive function at the 12-month follow-up. These effects diminished after controlling for the postoperative change in body mass index (BMI); however, BMI change did not predict 12-month cognitive function. Conclusions Improvements in leptin and ghrelin levels following bariatric surgery appear to contribute to postoperative cognitive benefits. These gains may involve multiple mechanisms, such as reduced inflammation and improved glycemic control. Future studies that employ neuroimaging are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms and determine whether the effects of bariatric surgery on leptin and ghrelin levels can attenuate adverse brain changes and/or risk of dementia in severely obese individuals.

Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, James E.

2015-01-01

224

Ventricular Reconstruction Results in Improved Left Ventricular Function and Amelioration of Mitral Insufficiency  

PubMed Central

Introduction Surgical restoration of the left ventricular wall (Dor procedure) has been advocated as a therapy for left ventricular dysfunction due to ischemic cardiomyopathy. This procedure involves placement of an endoventricular patch through a ventriculotomy. Methods We reviewed our series of patients that underwent the Dor procedure within the past 4 years and examined their pre and postoperative ventricular function and mitral valve function. Pre and postoperative ejection fraction and degree of mitral regurgitation were analyzed using the paired Student t-test. We hypothesized that this procedure would result in improved ventricular function and that it would also help improve mitral valve function. Results Thirty-four patients underwent this procedure, with one death. Of these, 30 patients underwent concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting and 8 patients had mitral intervention (seven had an Alfieri repair of the mitral valve, and one had mitral valve annuloplasty). The average preoperative ejection fraction among these patients was 26.8% (range 10–45%). The postoperative ejection fraction was significantly higher at 35.4% (range 25–52%) (P < .001). We noted an improvement in ejection fraction in 27 patients (82%). We also noted that 21 of 33 patients (64%) had improvement in the degree of mitral regurgitation based on echocardiography data (P < .001). Conclusions We conclude that the Dor procedure results in improvement in the left ventricular function. Furthermore, we also note that this procedure ameliorates mitral regurgitation in a majority of these patients even in the absence of associated mitral valve procedures, probably due to reduction in the size of the ventricle and improved orientation of the papillary muscles. PMID:12035039

Kaza, Aditya K.; Patel, Mayank R.; Fiser, Steven M.; Long, Stewart M.; Kern, John A.; Tribble, Curtis G.; Kron, Irving L.

2002-01-01

225

A decentralized mechanism for improving the functional robustness of distribution networks.  

PubMed

Most real-world distribution systems can be modeled as distribution networks, where a commodity can flow from source nodes to sink nodes through junction nodes. One of the fundamental characteristics of distribution networks is the functional robustness, which reflects the ability of maintaining its function in the face of internal or external disruptions. In view of the fact that most distribution networks do not have any centralized control mechanisms, we consider the problem of how to improve the functional robustness in a decentralized way. To achieve this goal, we study two important problems: 1) how to formally measure the functional robustness, and 2) how to improve the functional robustness of a network based on the local interaction of its nodes. First, we derive a utility function in terms of network entropy to characterize the functional robustness of a distribution network. Second, we propose a decentralized network pricing mechanism, where each node need only communicate with its distribution neighbors by sending a "price" signal to its upstream neighbors and receiving "price" signals from its downstream neighbors. By doing so, each node can determine its outflows by maximizing its own payoff function. Our mathematical analysis shows that the decentralized pricing mechanism can produce results equivalent to those of an ideal centralized maximization with complete information. Finally, to demonstrate the properties of our mechanism, we carry out a case study on the U.S. natural gas distribution network. The results validate the convergence and effectiveness of our mechanism when comparing it with an existing algorithm. PMID:22547458

Shi, Benyun; Liu, Jiming

2012-10-01

226

Rationale for Combined Exercise and Cognition-Focused Interventions to Improve Functional Independence in People with Dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that exercise and some cognition-focused intervention approaches can be used to elicit functional improvements in older people and, to some degree, those diagnosed with dementia. Independently, the two intervention types have been found to improve functional performance in people with dementia. The mechanisms underpinning these improvements come from comparable and diverse pathways. This suggests that it may be

Jeanette M. Thom; Linda Clare

2011-01-01

227

A finite element inverse analysis to assess functional improvement during the fracture healing process  

E-print Network

A finite element inverse analysis to assess functional improvement during the fracture healing i n f o Article history: Accepted 2 September 2009 Keywords: Fracture healing Finite element architecture on the FEA estimated material property metric. The finite element model inverse analysis developed

Miga, Michael I.

228

Perfluorocarbon Improves Post-Transplant Survival and Early Kidney Function following Prolonged Cold Ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The two-layer organ preservation method (TLM) based on oxygenated perfluorocarbon overlaid with University of Wisconsin (UW) solution has been successfully used in clinical islet and experimental heart and intestine transplantation. We tested whether this technique would prevent tissue damage and improve kidney function in a model of syngeneic kidney transplantation with prolonged ischemia time. Methods: Kidneys were stored for

T. Marada; K. Zacharovova; F. Saudek

2010-01-01

229

Improving Students' Representational Flexibility in Linear-Function Problems: An Intervention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study evaluates the effects of an intervention aimed at improving representational flexibility in linear-function problems. Forty-nine students aged 13-16 participated in the study. A pretest-intervention-posttest design with an experimental and control group was used. At pretest, both groups solved a choice test, where they could freely…

Acevedo Nistal, A.; Van Dooren, W.; Verschaffel, L.

2014-01-01

230

Electrical brain stimulation improves cognitive performance by modulating functional connectivity and task-specific activation.  

PubMed

Excitatory anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS) can improve human cognitive functions, but neural underpinnings of its mode of action remain elusive. In a cross-over placebo ("sham") controlled study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neurofunctional correlates of improved language functions induced by atDCS over a core language area, the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Intrascanner transcranial direct current stimulation-induced changes in overt semantic word generation assessed behavioral modulation; task-related and task-independent (resting-state) fMRI characterized language network changes. Improved word-retrieval during atDCS was paralleled by selectively reduced task-related activation in the left ventral IFG, an area specifically implicated in semantic retrieval processes. Under atDCS, resting-state fMRI revealed increased connectivity of the left IFG and additional major hubs overlapping with the language network. In conclusion, atDCS modulates endogenous low-frequency oscillations in a distributed set of functionally connected brain areas, possibly inducing more efficient processing in critical task-relevant areas and improved behavioral performance. PMID:22302824

Meinzer, Marcus; Antonenko, Daria; Lindenberg, Robert; Hetzer, Stefan; Ulm, Lena; Avirame, Keren; Flaisch, Tobias; Flöel, Agnes

2012-02-01

231

Improved Guarantees for Learning via Similarity Functions Maria-Florina Balcan Avrim Blum  

E-print Network

Improved Guarantees for Learning via Similarity Functions Maria-Florina Balcan Avrim Blum Computer rates. Our new notion of similarity relies upon L1 reg- ularized learning, and our separation result is re- lated to a separation result between what is learn- able with L1 vs. L2 regularization. 1

Srebro, Nathan

232

Sensorimotor Training in a Virtual Reality Environment: Does It Improve Functional  

E-print Network

Sensorimotor Training in a Virtual Reality Environment: Does It Improve Functional Recovery the effectiveness of computerized virtual reality (VR) training of the hemiparetic hand of patients poststroke using. Key Words: Stroke--Rehabilitation--Recovery--Virtual reality-- Motor learning--Haptics. I

New Jersey, University of Medicine and Dentistry of

233

Intraoperative Facial Nerve Monitoring in the Surgery of Cerebellopontine Angle Tumors: Improved Preservation of Nerve Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surgery of cerebellopontine angle tumors has shown remarkable progress over the last 20 years due to improved microsurgical techniques. However, the dissection of the facial nerve may lead to postoperative paresis as the result of the surgical trauma and the disruption of blood supply over a large distance. The functional status of the nerve can be intraoperatively monitored by

Thomas Lenarz; Arne Ernst

1994-01-01

234

Rg3-enriched Korean Red Ginseng improves vascular function in spontaneously hypertensive rats  

PubMed Central

Background Panax ginseng has distinct and impressive health benefits, such as improved blood pressure and immune system functioning. Rg3-enriched Korean Red Ginseng (REKRG) isolated from Korean Red Ginseng contains a high percentage of Rg3. Methods In this study, we examined the effects of REKRG on endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and adhesion molecules in endothelial cells and vascular function in rats. Results REKRG dose-dependently increased eNOS phosphorylation and nitric oxide (NO) production in endothelial cells. In addition, REKRG markedly inhibited the tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?)-mediated induction of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expressions in endothelial cells. REKRG improved endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in the Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) compared with controls. Furthermore, REKRG treatment for 6 weeks increased serum NO levels and reduced the mean aortic intima-media thickness compared with controls. Conclusion Taken together, these results suggest that REKRG increased vascular function and improved immune system functioning. Therefore, REKRG is a very useful food for preventing or improving various cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25379003

Park, Jung-Bum; Kwon, Sun Kwan; Nagar, Harsha; Jung, Saet-byel; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Kim, Chang Sup; Oh, Jin-Hwan; Song, Hee-Jung; Kim, Cuk-Seong

2014-01-01

235

[Case managers experience improved trajectories for cancer patients after implementation of the case manager function.  

PubMed

Case managers are increasingly used to optimize trajectories for patients. This study is based on a questionnaire among case managers in cancer care, aiming at the clarification of the function and its impact on especially patient safety, when handing over the responsibility. The results show a major variation in how the function is organized, the level of competence and the task to be handled. The responsibility has in general been narrowed to department level. Overall, the case managers believe that the function has optimized pathways for cancer patients and improved safety, but barriers persist. PMID:25316364

Axelsen, Karina Rahbek; Nafei, Hanne; Jakobsen, Stine Finne; Gandrup, Per; Knudsen, Janne Lehmann

2014-10-13

236

Increasing Muscle Mass Improves Vascular Function in Obese (db/db) Mice  

PubMed Central

Background A sedentary lifestyle is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and exercise has been shown to ameliorate this risk. Inactivity is associated with a loss of muscle mass, which is also reversed with isometric exercise training. The relationship between muscle mass and vascular function is poorly defined. The aims of the current study were to determine whether increasing muscle mass by genetic deletion of myostatin, a negative regulator of muscle growth, can influence vascular function in mesenteric arteries from obese db/db mice. Methods and Results Myostatin expression was elevated in skeletal muscle of obese mice and associated with reduced muscle mass (30% to 50%). Myostatin deletion increased muscle mass in lean (40% to 60%) and obese (80% to 115%) mice through increased muscle fiber size (P<0.05). Myostatin deletion decreased adipose tissue in lean mice, but not obese mice. Markers of insulin resistance and glucose tolerance were improved in obese myostatin knockout mice. Obese mice demonstrated an impaired endothelial vasodilation, compared to lean mice. This impairment was improved by superoxide dismutase mimic Tempol. Deletion of myostatin improved endothelial vasodilation in mesenteric arteries in obese, but not in lean, mice. This improvement was blunted by nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor l?NG?nitroarginine methyl ester (l?NAME). Prostacyclin (PGI2)? and endothelium?derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)?mediated vasodilation were preserved in obese mice and unaffected by myostatin deletion. Reactive oxygen species) was elevated in the mesenteric endothelium of obese mice and down?regulated by deletion of myostatin in obese mice. Impaired vasodilation in obese mice was improved by NADPH oxidase inhibitor (GKT136901). Treatment with sepiapterin, which increases levels of tetrahydrobiopterin, improved vasodilation in obese mice, an improvement blocked by l?NAME. Conclusions Increasing muscle mass by genetic deletion of myostatin improves NO?, but not PGI2? or EDHF?mediated vasodilation in obese mice; this vasodilation improvement is mediated by down?regulation of superoxide. PMID:24965025

Qiu, Shuiqing; Mintz, James D.; Salet, Christina D.; Han, Weihong; Giannis, Athanassios; Chen, Feng; Yu, Yanfang; Su, Yunchao; Fulton, David J.; Stepp, David W.

2014-01-01

237

Effect of Intracoronary Delivery of Autolologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cells Two to Three Weeks Following Acute Myocardial Infarction on Left-Ventricular Function: The LateTIME Randomized Trial  

PubMed Central

Context Clinical trial results suggest that intracoronary delivery of autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs) may improve left ventricular (LV) function when administered within the first week following myocardial infarction (MI). However, since a substantial number of patients may not present for early cell delivery, we investigated the efficacy of autologous BMC delivery 2–3 weeks post-MI. Objective To determine if intracoronary delivery of autologous BMCs improves global and regional LV function when delivered 2–3 weeks following first MI. Design, Setting, and Patients LateTIME is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute - sponsored Cardiovascular Cell Therapy Research Network (CCTRN) of 87 patients with significant LV dysfunction (LVEF ? 45%) following successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Interventions Intracoronary infusion of 150 × 106 autologous BMCs (total nucleated cells) or placebo (2:1 BMC:placebo) was performed within 12 hours of bone marrow aspiration after local automated cell processing. Main Outcome Measures The primary endpoints were changes in global (LVEF) and regional (wall motion) LV function in the infarct and border zone from baseline to 6 months as measured by cardiac MRI at a core lab blinded to treatment assignment Secondary endpoints included changes in LV volumes and infarct size. Results 87 patients were randomized between July 2008 and February 2011: mean age = 57 ± 11 yrs, 83% male. Harvesting, processing, and intracoronary delivery of BMCs in this setting was feasible and safe. The change from baseline to six months in the BMC group, when compared to the placebo group, for LVEF (48.7 to 49.2% vs. 45.3 to 48.8%; Difference = ?3.0, 95% CI ?7.0 to 0.9), wall motion in the infarct zone (6.2 to 6.5 vs. 4.9 to 5.9 mm; Difference = ?0.7, 95% CI ?2.8 to 1.3), and wall motion in the border zone (16.0 to 16.6 mm vs. 16.1 to 19.3 mm; Difference = ?2.6; 95% CI ?6.0 to 0.8) were not statistically significant. There was no significant change in LV volumes and infarct volumes decreased by a similar amount in both groups at 6 months compared to baseline. Conclusions Among patients with MI and LV dysfunction following reperfusion with PCI, intracoronary infusion of autologous BMCs compared to intracoronary placebo infusion, 2–3 weeks after PCI did not improve global or regional function at 6 months. PMID:22084195

Traverse, Jay H.; Henry, Timothy D.; Ellis, Stephen G.; Pepine, Carl J.; Willerson, James T.; Zhao, David X.M.; Forder, John R.; Byrne, Barry J.; Hatzopoulos, Antonis K.; Penn, Marc S.; Perin, Emerson C.; Baran, Kenneth W.; Chambers, Jeffrey; Lambert, Charles; Raveendran, Ganesh; Simon, Daniel I.; Vaughan, Douglas E.; Simpson, Lara M.; Gee, Adrian P.; Taylor, Doris A.; Cogle, Christopher R.; Thomas, James D.; Silva, Guilherme V.; Jorgenson, Beth C.; Olson, Rachel E.; Bowman, Sherry; Francescon, Judy; Geither, Carrie; Handberg, Eileen; Smith, Deirdre X.; Baraniuk, Sarah; Piller, Linda B.; Loghin, Catalin; Aguilar, David; Richman, Sara; Zierold, Claudia; Bettencourt, Judy; Sayre, Shelly L.; Vojvodic, Rachel W.; Skarlatos, Sonia I.; Gordon, David J.; Ebert, Ray F.; Kwak, Minjung; Moyé, Lemuel A.; Simari, Robert D.

2013-01-01

238

A Bayesian method to incorporate hundreds of functional characteristics with association evidence to improve variant prioritization.  

PubMed

The increasing quantity and quality of functional genomic information motivate the assessment and integration of these data with association data, including data originating from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We used previously described GWAS signals ("hits") to train a regularized logistic model in order to predict SNP causality on the basis of a large multivariate functional dataset. We show how this model can be used to derive Bayes factors for integrating functional and association data into a combined Bayesian analysis. Functional characteristics were obtained from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE), from published expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), and from other sources of genome-wide characteristics. We trained the model using all GWAS signals combined, and also using phenotype specific signals for autoimmune, brain-related, cancer, and cardiovascular disorders. The non-phenotype specific and the autoimmune GWAS signals gave the most reliable results. We found SNPs with higher probabilities of causality from functional characteristics showed an enrichment of more significant p-values compared to all GWAS SNPs in three large GWAS studies of complex traits. We investigated the ability of our Bayesian method to improve the identification of true causal signals in a psoriasis GWAS dataset and found that combining functional data with association data improves the ability to prioritise novel hits. We used the predictions from the penalized logistic regression model to calculate Bayes factors relating to functional characteristics and supply these online alongside resources to integrate these data with association data. PMID:24844982

Gagliano, Sarah A; Barnes, Michael R; Weale, Michael E; Knight, Jo

2014-01-01

239

Selective improvement in renal function preserved remote myocardial microvascular integrity and architecture in experimental renovascular disease  

PubMed Central

Aim Atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARVD) may impair renal function and increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but the mechanism by which ARVD impacts cardiovascular function is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that preservation of renal function can reverse cardiac dysfunction in ARVD. Methods and results Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) were injected intra-renally (ARVD + EPC) after 6 weeks of swine ARVD (concurrent hypercholesterolemia and renovascular hypertension), and single kidney function and myocardial blood-flow and microvascular permeability (MP) responses to adenosine were assessed using CT 4 weeks later. Myocardial microvascular density was evaluated by micro-CT. Inflammation and oxidative-stress were assessed in kidney venous and systemic blood samples. Normal and untreated ARVD pigs served as controls. Blood pressure was similarly increased in ARVD and ARVD + EPC. Compared to normal, ARVD showed lower glomerular filtration rate, elevated renal vein and systemic oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), aldosterone, uric acid, isoprostanes, transforming growth factor (TGF)-, and interleukine-6. Renal vein ox-LDL and TGF-showed a positive gradient across the stenotic kidney, indicating increased renal oxidative stress and fibrogenic activity. Furthermore, ARVD impaired myocardial blood-flow and MP response to adenosine, decreased microvascular density, and induced myocardial fibrosis. Improvement of renal function in ARVD + EPC decreased systemic aldosterone, inflammation, and oxidative stress, and improved myocardial microvascular integrity and density. Conclusion Selective improvement in renal function, which reduced renal and systemic oxidative stress and inflammation, preserved remote myocardial microvascular function and architecture, despite enduring hypertension. These findings underscore functionally important cardiorenal crosstalk possibly mediated by renal injury signals. PMID:22341593

Urbieta-Caceres, Victor H.; Zhu, Xiang-Yang; Jordan, Kyra L.; Tang, Hui; Textor, Kyle; Lerman, Amir; Lerman, Lilach O.

2013-01-01

240

Towards improved local hybrid functionals by calibration of exchange-energy densities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach for the calibration of (semi-)local and exact exchange-energy densities in the context of local hybrid functionals is reported. The calibration functions are derived from only the electron density and its spatial derivatives, avoiding spatial derivatives of the exact-exchange energy density or other computationally unfavorable contributions. The calibration functions fulfill the seven more important out of nine known exact constraints. It is shown that calibration improves substantially the definition of a non-dynamical correlation energy term for generalized gradient approximation (GGA)-based local hybrids. Moreover, gauge artifacts in the potential-energy curves of noble-gas dimers may be corrected by calibration. The developed calibration functions are then evaluated for a large range of energy-related properties (atomization energies, reaction barriers, ionization potentials, electron affinities, and total atomic energies) of three sets of local hybrids, using a simple one-parameter local-mixing. The functionals are based on (a) local spin-density approximation (LSDA) or (b) Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) exchange and correlation, and on (c) Becke-88 (B88) exchange and Lee-Yang-Parr (LYP) correlation. While the uncalibrated GGA-based functionals usually provide very poor thermochemical data, calibration allows a dramatic improvement, accompanied by only a small deterioration of reaction barriers. In particular, an optimized BLYP-based local-hybrid functional has been found that is a substantial improvement over the underlying global hybrids, as well as over previously reported LSDA-based local hybrids. It is expected that the present calibration approach will pave the way towards new generations of more accurate hyper-GGA functionals based on a local mixing of exchange-energy densities.

Arbuznikov, Alexei V.; Kaupp, Martin

2014-11-01

241

Second Preimage Attack on a Chaos-Based Hash Function Construction and Its Improvement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hash functions play an important role in cryptography. Recently, Hash functions based on chaotic map are attracting more and more attention. In 2005, Kwok and Tang proposed a chaos-based cryptographic hash function. Five years later, Deng and Xiao showed that this algorithm has low collision resistance and it does not have good diffusion and confusion property. Then, based on the weakness of this algorithm, they improved it and introduced the second version of the original algorithm. In this paper, we show that both algorithms: the first algorithm and the second version of the algorithm have the same weaknesses and they are not second preimage resistance. Then, we improve the second version of the algorithm and show that this algorithm has good confusion and diffusion property such as the second version of the original algorithm.

Hajibabaei, Zahra; Dakhilalian, Mohammad

242

Analysis and improvement of a chaos-based Hash function construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The construction of a new Hash function attracts much attention recently. In Kwok and Tang (2005) [Kwok HS, Tang WKS. A chaos-based cryptographic Hash function for message authentication. Int J Bifurcat Chaos 2005;15:4043-50], a chaos-based Hash function has been proposed. In this paper, the potential flaws in the original algorithm are analyzed in detail, and then the corresponding improving measures are proposed. We enhance the influence that each bit of the final Hash value is closely related to all the bits of the message or key and a single bit change in message or key results in great changes in the final Hash value. Simulation results show that the proposed improving algorithm has strong diffusion and confusion capability, good collision resistance, extreme sensitivity to message and secret key.

Deng, Shaojiang; Li, Yantao; Xiao, Di

2010-05-01

243

An Alternative to Current Therapies of Functional Dyspepsia: Self-Administrated Transcutaneous Electroacupuncture Improves Dyspeptic Symptoms  

PubMed Central

Functional dyspepsia is of high prevalence with little treatment options. The aim of this study was to develop a new treatment method using self-management transcutaneous electroacupuncture (TEA) for functional dyspepsia (FD). Twenty-eight patients with FD were enrolled and underwent a crossover clinical trial with 2-week TEA at ST36 and PC6 and 2-week sham-TEA at nonacupuncture sham-points. Questionnaires were used to assess symptoms of dyspepsia and quality of life. Physiological testing included gastric emptying and electrogastrography. It was found that (1) TEA but not sham-TEA significantly improved dyspeptic symptoms and 4 domains in quality of life; improvement was also noted in self-rated anxiety and depression scores; (2) gastric emptying was significantly and substantially increased with 2-week TEA but not sham-TEA; and (3) gastric accommodation was also improved with TEA but not sham-TEA, reflected as increased ingested nutrient volumes at the levels of satiety and maximum tolerance. These findings suggest a therapeutic potential of self-administrated TEA method for functional dyspepsia, possibly attributed to improvement in gastric motility.

Ji, Ting; Li, Xueliang; Lin, Lin; Jiang, Liuqin; Wang, Meifeng; Zhou, Xiaopin; Zhang, Ranran; Chen, Jiande DZ

2014-01-01

244

Dietary resistant starch improves selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents  

PubMed Central

Resistant starch (RS) is a dietary fiber that exerts multiple beneficial effects. The current study explored the effects of dietary RS on selected brain and behavioral functions in adult and aged rodents. Because glucokinase (GK) expression in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and area postrema of the brainstem is important for brain glucose sensing, GK mRNA was measured by brain nuclei microdissection and PCR. Adult RS-fed rats had a higher GK mRNA than controls in both brain nuclei, an indicator of improved brain glucose sensing. Next, we tested whether dietary RS improve selected behaviors in aged mice. RS-fed aged mice exhibited (1) an increased eating responses to fasting, a behavioral indicator of improvement in aged brain glucose sensing; (2) a longer latency to fall from an accelerating rotarod, a behavioral indicator of improved motor coordination; and (3) a higher serum active GLP-1. Third, GLP-1 receptor null (GLP-1RKO) mice were used to test the role of GLP-1 in brain glucose sensing, and they exhibited impaired eating responses to fasting. We conclude that in rodents (1) dietary RS improves two important indicators of brain function: glucose sensing and motor coordination, and that (2) GLP-1 is important in the optimal feeding response to a fast. PMID:23818307

Zhou, June; Keenan, Michael J.; Fernandez-Kim, Sun Ok; Pistell, Paul J.; Ingram, Donald K.; Li, Bing; Raggio, Anne M.; Shen, Li; Zhang, Hanjie; McCutcheon, Kathleen L; Tulley, Richard T.; Blackman, Marc R.; Keller, Jeffrey N.; Martin, Roy J.

2013-01-01

245

Declining ambient air pollution and lung function improvement in Austrian children  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three thousand four hundred fifty-one Austrian elementary school children were examined (between 2 and 8 times) by spirometry by standardized methods, over a 5 yr period. The districts where they lived were grouped into those where NO 2 declined during this period (by at least 30 ?g/m 3 measured as half year means) and those with less or no decline in ambient NO 2. In both groups of districts, SO 2 and TSP fell by similar amounts over this period. A continuous improvement of MEF25 (maximum exspiratory flow rate at 25% vital capacity) was found in districts with declining ambient NO 2. Populations did not differ in respect of anthropometric factors, passive smoking or socioeconomic status. A birth cohort from this study population which was followed up to age 18 confirmed the improved growth of MEF25 with decline in NO 2, while the improved growth of forced vital capacity was more related to decline in SO 2. This study provides the first evidence that improvements in the outdoor air quality during the 1980s are correlated with health benefits, and suggest that adverse effects on lung function related to ambient air pollution are reversible before adulthood. Improvement of small airway functions appeared to be more dependent on reductions of NO 2 than reduction in SO 2 and TSP.

Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael

246

Cortical gray-matter thinning is associated with age-related improvements on executive function tasks  

PubMed Central

Across development children show marked improvement in their executive functions (EFs), including the ability to hold information in working memory and to deploy cognitive control, allowing them to ignore prepotent responses in favor of newly learned behaviors. How does the brain support these age-related improvements? Age-related cortical gray-matter thinning, thought to result from selective pruning of inefficient synaptic connections and increases in myelination, may support age-related improvements in EFs. Here we used structural MRI to measure cortical thickness. We investigate the association between cortical thickness in three cortical regions of interest (ROIs), and age-related changes in cognitive control and working memory in 5–10 year old children. We found significant associations between reductions in cortical thickness and age-related improvements in performance on both working memory and cognitive control tasks. Moreover, we observed a dissociation between ROIs typically thought to underlie changes in cognitive control (right Inferior Frontal gyrus and Anterior Cingulate cortex) and age-related improvements in cognitive control, and ROIs for working memory (superior parietal cortex), and age-related changes in a working memory task. These data add to our growing understanding of how structural maturation of the brain supports vast behavioral changes in executive functions observed across childhood. PMID:23896579

Kharitonova, Maria; Martin, Rebecca E.; Gabrieli, John D.E.; Sheridan, Margaret A.

2013-01-01

247

Subliminal strengthening: improving older individuals' physical function over time with an implicit-age-stereotype intervention.  

PubMed

Negative age stereotypes that older individuals assimilate from their culture predict detrimental outcomes, including worse physical function. We examined, for the first time, whether positive age stereotypes, presented subliminally across multiple sessions in the community, would lead to improved outcomes. Each of 100 older individuals (age = 61-99 years, M = 81) was randomly assigned to an implicit-positive-age-stereotype-intervention group, an explicit-positive-age-stereotype-intervention group, a combined implicit- and explicit-positive-age-stereotype-intervention group, or a control group. Interventions occurred at four 1-week intervals. The implicit intervention strengthened positive age stereotypes, which strengthened positive self-perceptions of aging, which, in turn, improved physical function. The improvement in these outcomes continued for 3 weeks after the last intervention session. Further, negative age stereotypes and negative self-perceptions of aging were weakened. For all outcomes, the implicit intervention's impact was greater than the explicit intervention's impact. The physical-function effect of the implicit intervention surpassed a previous study's 6-month-exercise-intervention's effect with participants of similar ages. The current study's findings demonstrate the potential of directing implicit processes toward physical-function enhancement over time. PMID:25326508

Levy, Becca R; Pilver, Corey; Chung, Pil H; Slade, Martin D

2014-12-01

248

A Piano Training Program to Improve Manual Dexterity and Upper Extremity Function in Chronic Stroke Survivors  

PubMed Central

Objective: Music-supported therapy was shown to induce improvements in motor skills in stroke survivors. Whether all stroke individuals respond similarly to the intervention and whether gains can be maintained over time remain unknown. We estimated the immediate and retention effects of a piano training program on upper extremity function in persons with chronic stroke. Methods: Thirteen stroke participants engaged in a 3-week piano training comprising supervised sessions (9?×?60?min) and home practice. Fine and gross manual dexterity, movement coordination, and functional use of the upper extremity were assessed at baseline, pre-intervention, post-intervention, and at a 3-week follow-up. Results: Significant improvements were observed for all outcomes at post-intervention and follow-up compared to pre-intervention scores. Larger magnitudes of change in manual dexterity and functional use of the upper extremity were associated with higher initial levels of motor recovery. Conclusion: Piano training can result in sustainable improvements in upper extremity function in chronic stroke survivors. Individuals with a higher initial level of motor recovery at baseline appear to benefit the most from this intervention. PMID:25202258

Villeneuve, Myriam; Penhune, Virginia; Lamontagne, Anouk

2014-01-01

249

Predictors of improved functional outcome in elderly inpatients after rehabilitation: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Purpose The number of elderly inpatients has been steadily increasing worldwide. However, the ability to predict the degree of improvement of functional capacity after comprehensive examination of elderly inpatients is still lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictors of improved functional outcome after rehabilitation of elderly inpatients. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study with 1,079 patients (age <70 years: N=331, age ?70 years: N=748) who had been admitted to Tottori Municipal Hospital. Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores were measured both at admission and discharge to calculate FIM gain and efficiency. Of these patients, 262 patients had oral examinations on admission. The Mann–Whitney U-test or chi-square test was used for statistical analyses. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to compute the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Cut-off values of FIM scores to determine if elderly inpatients were able to return home after discharge were determined using a receiver operating characteristic curve. Results FIM scores, including FIM gain and efficiency, of elderly patients were significantly lower than those of middle-aged patients. Inability to close the lips and dysfunctional tongue movement, but not the loss of teeth, were correlated with a reduced improvement of FIM scores. Cognitive impairment and aspiration pneumonia, but not cerebrovascular disease, were also correlated with a reduced improvement of FIM scores. Interestingly, FIM scores were significantly lower in patients with both cerebrovascular disease and a loss of posterior occlusion. Factors shown to have a significant impact on the improvement of FIM scores included the stable posterior occlusion (OR: 2.23, 95% CI: 1.2–4.1), closed lips (OR: 5.15, 95% CI: 2.3–11.7), functional tongue movement (OR: 5.74, 95% CI: 3.0–11.0), presence of cognitive impairment (OR: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.17–0.49), and presence of aspiration pneumonia (OR: 0.27, 95% CI: 0.15–0.51). Conclusion Age and disorder of oral function may be significant predictors of improved functional capacity after rehabilitation for elderly inpatients. PMID:25584025

Naruishi, Koji; Kunita, Akiko; Kubo, Katsuyuki; Nagata, Toshihiko; Takashiba, Shogo; Adachi, Seiji

2014-01-01

250

Use of global functions for improvement in efficiency of nonlinear analysis. [in computer structural displacement estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for improving the efficiency of nonlinear structural analysis by the use of global displacement functions is presented. The computer programs include options to define the global functions as input or let the program automatically select and update these functions. The program was applied to a number of structures: (1) 'pear-shaped cylinder' in compression, (2) bending of a long cylinder, (3) spherical shell subjected to point force, (4) panel with initial imperfections, (5) cylinder with cutouts. The sample cases indicate the usefulness of the procedure in the solution of nonlinear structural shell problems by the finite element method. It is concluded that the use of global functions for extrapolation will lead to savings in computer time.

Almroth, B. O.; Stehlin, P.; Brogan, F. A.

1981-01-01

251

The non-specificity of the left/right ventricular amplitude ratio (LV/RV) for mitral insufficiency  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the specificity of the LV/RV for mitral insufficiency. One hundred and sixty patients underwent MUGA studies as part of their diagnostic evaluation. Phase analysis was performed. In the amplitude image, the LV/RV was measured. Patients were divided into 11 clinical groups based on chart review after adequate follow-up. The groups were compared by Duncan's Multiple Comparsion Test. Patients with mitral insufficiency (N = 12, mean LV/RV = 2.36), those with idiopathic myocardiopathy (8, 2.29) and those with normal hearts having lung disease on chest x-ray (22, 1.78) formed a group which at the p < .05 level were not different from one another. Patients with idiopathic myocardiography, normal hearts with lung disease on chest x-ray, normal hearts with lung disease (23, 1.71) formed a second group which partially overlapped with both the first and third groups. The third group consisted of normal hearts with lung disease, normal hearts not taking adriamycin (18, 1.53), normal hearts taking adriamycin (22, 1.50), congestive heart failure (19, 1.50), arteriosclerotic heart disease, normal hearts (15, 1.29), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute myocardial infarction. The LV/RV is not specific for mitral insufficiency. Idiopathic myocardiography, and normal hearts with lung disease on chest x-ray (metastases, cancer of the lung, infiltrates, fibrosis, and/or COPD) cannot be differentiated on a statistical basis. The mitral insufficiency group had the greatest values of LV/RV. It appears that decreased RV amplitude seen with diseases causing strain on the right ventricle will result in elevated LV/RV ratios.

Preston, D.F.; Reinsel, M.S.; Martin, N.L.; Robinson, R.G.

1984-01-01

252

Purification and cloning of piscicolin 61, a bacteriocin from Carnobacterium piscicola LV61.  

PubMed

Piscicolin 61, a bacteriocin produced by Carnobacterium piscicola LV61, inhibits the growth of strains of Carnobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Enterococcus. The bacteriocin was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation and sequential hydrophobic interaction and reversed-phase chromatography. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of piscicolin 61 was determined by Edman degradation. The plasmid-located structural gene encoding piscicolin (psc61) was cloned and sequenced. It encoded a primary translation product of 71 amino acid residues, which is cleaved between amino acid residues 18 and 19 to yield the active bacteriocin. The calculated M(r) from the deduced protein sequence, 5052.6, agreed with that obtained by mass spectrometry. Piscicolin 61 did not show any sequence similarities to other known bacteriocins. However, the leader sequence resembled those of the pediocin-like bacteriocins. Piscicolin 61 may be able to form amphiphilic helices and may thus act on the membrane of sensitive cells. PMID:7764997

Holck, A L; Axelsson, L; Schillinger, U

1994-08-01

253

Treatment-related improvement in neuropsychological functioning in suicidal depressed patients: Paroxetine vs. bupropion.  

PubMed

Neuropsychological dysfunction is associated with risk for suicidal behavior, but it is unknown if antidepressant medication treatment is effective in reducing this dysfunction, or if specific medications might be more beneficial. A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was administered at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment within a randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing paroxetine and bupropion in patients with DSM-IV Major Depressive Disorder and either past suicide attempt or current suicidal thoughts. Change in neurocognitive performance was compared between assessments and between medication groups. Treatment effects on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Scale for Suicide Ideation were compared with neurocognitive improvement. Neurocognitive functioning improved after treatment in all patients, without clear advantage for either medication. Improvement in memory performance was associated with a reduction in suicidal ideation independent of the improvement of depression severity. Overall, antidepressant medication improved neurocognitive performance in patients with major depression and suicide risk. Reduced suicidal ideation was best predicted by a combination of the independent improvements in both depression symptomatology and verbal memory. Targeted treatment of neurocognitive dysfunction in these patients may augment standard medication treatment for reducing suicidal behavior risk. PMID:25555415

Gorlyn, Marianne; Keilp, John; Burke, Ainsley; Oquendo, Maria; Mann, J John; Grunebaum, Michael

2015-02-28

254

Fish oil selectively improves heart function in a mouse model of lipid-induced cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

Fish oil (FO) supplementation may improve cardiac function in some patients with heart failure, especially those with diabetes. To determine why this occurs, we studied the effects of FO in mice with heart failure either due to transgenic expression of the lipid uptake protein acyl CoA synthetase 1 (ACS1) or overexpression of the transcription factor peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? via the cardiac-specific myosin heavy chain (MHC) promoter. ACS1 mice and control littermates were fed 3 diets containing low-dose or high-dose FO or nonpurified diet (NPD) for 6 weeks. MHC-PPAR? mice were fed low-dose FO or NPD. Compared with control mice fed with NPD, ACS1, and MHC-PPAR?, mice fed with NPD had reduced cardiac function and survival with cardiac fibrosis. In contrast, ACS1 mice fed with high-dose FO had better cardiac function, survival, and less myocardial fibrosis. FO increased eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids and reduced saturated fatty acids in cardiac diacylglycerols. This was associated with reduced protein kinase C alpha and beta activation. In contrast, low-dose FO reduced MHC-PPAR? mice survival with no change in protein kinase C activation or cardiac function. Thus, dietary FO reverses fibrosis and improves cardiac function and survival of ACS1 mice but does not benefit all forms of lipid-mediated cardiomyopathy. PMID:23567901

Khan, Raffay S; Chokshi, Aalap; Drosatos, Konstantinos; Jiang, Hongfeng; Yu, Shuiqing; Harris, Collette R; Schulze, P Christian; Homma, Shunichi; Blaner, William S; Shulman, Gerald I; Huang, Li-Shin; Goldberg, Ira J

2013-04-01

255

New perspectives on improving upper extremity function after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

Injury to the cervical spinal cord adversely affects arm and hand function to varying degrees depending on the level and severity of injury. These impairments typically result in reduced independence in the performance of activities of daily living and limit participation in recreational activities. There is evidence to suggest individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury may benefit from intensive rehabilitation interventions aimed at improving hand and arm function. Massed practice (repetitive activity-based training) and somatosensory stimulation (prolonged peripheral nerve electrical stimulation at submotor threshold intensity) are 2 interventions that have been shown to improve strength and function in individuals with stroke, presumably by changing cortical excitability. These techniques, however, had not previously been investigated in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). In this article the stroke and SCI literature supporting the use of massed practice and somatosensory stimulation as a potential rehabilitative tool to promote recovery of function in individuals with incomplete cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) is reviewed. Recently published research using these novel techniques in which a combination of massed practice and somatosensory stimulation resulted in increased pinch grip strength and upper extremity function in individuals with incomplete cervical SCI when compared to subjects participating in massed practice alone is presented. PMID:16398948

Beekhuizen, Kristina S

2005-09-01

256

ATP synthase subunit alpha and LV mass in ischaemic human hearts.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in the development of ischaemic cardiomyopathy (ICM). In this study, the mitochondrial proteome in the cardiac tissue of ICM patients was analysed by quantitative differential electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mass spectrometry (MS) for the first time to provide new insights into cardiac dysfunction in this cardiomyopathy. We isolated mitochondria from LV samples of explanted hearts of ICM patients (n = 8) and control donors (n = 8) and used a proteomic approach to investigate the variations in mitochondrial protein expression. We found that most of the altered proteins were involved in cardiac energy metabolism (82%). We focused on ATPA, which is involved in energy production, and dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, implicated in substrate utilization, and observed that these molecules were overexpressed and that the changes detected in the processes mediated by these proteins were closely related. Notably, we found that ATPA overexpression was associated with reduction in LV mass (r = -0.74, P < 0.01). We also found a substantial increase in the expression of elongation factor Tu, a molecule implicated in protein synthesis, and PRDX3, involved in the stress response. All of these changes were validated using classical techniques and by using novel and precise selected reaction monitoring analysis and an RNA sequencing approach, with the total heart samples being increased to 24. This study provides key insights that enhance our understanding of the cellular mechanisms related to the pathophysiology of ICM and could lead to the development of aetiology-specific heart failure therapies. ATPA could serve as a molecular target suitable for new therapeutic interventions. PMID:25382018

Roselló-Lletí, Esther; Tarazón, Estefanía; Barderas, María G; Ortega, Ana; Molina-Navarro, Maria Micaela; Martínez, Alba; Lago, Francisca; Martínez-Dolz, Luis; González-Juanatey, Jose Ramón; Salvador, Antonio; Portolés, Manuel; Rivera, Miguel

2015-02-01

257

Feline Upper Respiratory Tract Lymphoma: Site, Cyto-histology, Phenotype, FeLV Expression, and Prognosis.  

PubMed

Lymphoma is the most common feline upper respiratory tract (URT) tumor. Primary nasal and nasopharyngeal lymphomas have been evaluated as distinct pathological entities; however, data on their differing clinical behavior are missing. A total of 164 endoscopic- guided URT pinch biopsies were formalin fixed and routinely processed. Imprint cytological specimens were stained with May Grünwald-Giemsa. Immunohistochemistry for anti-CD20, CD3, FeLVp27, and FeLVgp70 was performed. Prognostic significance of clinicopathological variables was investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Lymphoma was diagnosed in 39 cats (24%). Most cats with lymphoma were domestic shorthair (32 [82%]), were male (F/M = 0.56), and had a mean age of 10.3 years (range, 1-16 years). Lymphomas were primary nasal in 26 cats (67%), nasopharyngeal in 6 (15%), and in both locations (combined lymphomas) in 7 cats (18%). Neoplastic growth pattern was diffuse in 35 cases (90%) and nodular in 4 (10%). Epitheliotropism was observed in 10 cases (26%). Tumor cells were large in 15 cases, were small and medium in 11 cases each, and 2 had mixed cell size. Submucosal lymphoplasmacytic inflammation was observed in 23 cases (59%). Cytology was diagnostic for lymphoma in 12 of 25 cases (48%). A B-cell origin prevailed (34 [87%]). Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) p27or gp70 antigen was detected in 21 lymphomas (54%). URT lymphomas were aggressive, with survival varying from 0 to 301 days (mean, 53 days). Epitheliotropism in 8 B-cell lymphomas (80%) and in 2 T-cell lymphomas (20%) correlated with prolonged survival. Age younger or older than 10 years had a negative prognostic value. Lymphoplasmacytic inflammation and FeLV infection may represent favoring factors for URT lymphoma development. PMID:24903757

Santagostino, S F; Mortellaro, C M; Boracchi, P; Avallone, G; Caniatti, M; Forlani, A; Roccabianca, P

2014-06-01

258

The small molecule Wnt signaling modulator ICG-001 improves contractile function in chronically infarcted rat myocardium.  

PubMed

The adult mammalian heart has limited capability for self-repair after myocardial infarction. Therefore, therapeutic strategies that improve post-infarct cardiac function are critically needed. The small molecule ICG-001 modulates Wnt signaling and increased the expression of genes beneficial for cardiac regeneration in epicardial cells. Lineage tracing experiments, demonstrated the importance of ?-catenin/p300 mediated transcription for epicardial progenitor contribution to the myocardium. Female rats given ICG-001 for 10 days post-occlusion significantly improved ejection fraction by 8.4%, compared to controls (P<0.05). Taken together, Wnt modulation via ?-catenin/CBP inhibition offers a promising therapeutic strategy towards restoration of myocardial tissues and an enhancement of cardiac functions following infarction. PMID:24069374

Sasaki, Tomoyo; Hwang, Hyosook; Nguyen, Cu; Kloner, Robert A; Kahn, Michael

2013-01-01

259

Improving optical limiting of cw lasers with fullerene functionalized gold nanoparticles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the attempt to improve optical limiting of cw lasers by exploiting the thermo-optic effect exhibited by gold nanostructures, we investigated two coupled systems consisting of either gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) or gold-silica core-shell (AuNSs), both functionalized with a thiolated-fulleropyrrolidine (C60Py). We measured the optical limiting behavior under cw illumination at 514 and 647 nm, resonant with the surface plasmon resonance at around 520 of AuNPs and at 650 nm of AuNSs, respectively. Temporal response analysis shows the variation of transmitted irradiance in a 300 milliseconds time interval, corresponding to the blinking time of the human eye. Comparing the present results we those previously obtained for AuNPs1 we demonstrate an improvement of the response of functionalized nanoparticles (AuNPs- C60Py) with respect to bare AuNPs.

Frare, Maria Chiara; Weber, Verena; De Filippo, Christian Corrado; Signorini, Raffaella; Maggini, Michele; Bozio, Renato

2014-10-01

260

Functions and application of the AP2/ERF transcription factor family in crop improvement.  

PubMed

Plants have acquired sophisticated stress response systems to adapt to changing environments. It is important to understand plants' stress response mechanisms in the effort to improve crop productivity under stressful conditions. The AP2/ERF transcription factors are known to regulate diverse processes of plant development and stress responses. In this study, the molecular characteristics and biological functions of AP2/ERFs in a variety of plant species were analyzed. AP2/ERFs, especially those in DREB and ERF subfamilies, are ideal candidates for crop improvement because their overexpression enhances tolerances to drought, salt, freezing, as well as resistances to multiple diseases in the transgenic plants. The comprehensive analysis of physiological functions is useful in elucidating the biological roles of AP2/ERF family genes in gene interaction, pathway regulation, and defense response under stress environments, which should provide new opportunities for the crop tolerance engineering. PMID:21676172

Xu, Zhao-Shi; Chen, Ming; Li, Lian-Cheng; Ma, You-Zhi

2011-07-01

261

Difficulties in demonstrating long term immunity in FeLV vaccinated cats due to increasing age-related resistance to infection  

PubMed Central

Background Feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) is a pathogen causing fatal illness in cats worldwide, and as such there is a high demand for products to protect against disease. The duration of immunity provided by an inactivated FeLV vaccine, Versifel FeLV, when administered to cats of the target age was determined. Kittens received two vaccinations when aged 7 to 9 weeks old, and were subsequently challenged up to 36 months later with the FeLV-A Glasgow isolate. Results In all studies, all of the younger aged control kittens showed persistent FeLV p27 antigenaemia confirming that the challenge virus was severe and efficacious. In contrast, the control cats did not show the required level of persistent antigenaemia, with a maximum of 45% cats affected in the middle duration study and only 10% in the longer study. However, apart from one animal in the short duration study, all of the cats vaccinated with Versifel FeLV were negative for persistent antigenaemia and can be considered treatment successes. Conclusion In conclusion, we have shown that although age-related resistance to infection with a virulent FeLV challenge is evident from as early as 10 months of age, vaccination with Versifel FeLV may aid in the protection of cats from FeLV related disease up to three years after primary vaccination as kittens. PMID:22839692

2012-01-01

262

Cognitive Training for Improving Executive Function in Chemotherapy-Treated Breast Cancer Survivors  

PubMed Central

Difficulties with thinking and problem solving are very common among breast cancer survivors. We tested a computerized cognitive training program for 41 breast cancer survivors. The training program was associated with significant improvements in thinking and problem-solving skills. Our findings demonstrate potential for our online, home-based cognitive training program to improve cognitive difficulties among breast cancer survivors. Background A majority of breast cancer (BC) survivors, particularly those treated with chemotherapy, experience long-term cognitive deficits that significantly reduce quality of life. Among the cognitive domains most commonly affected include executive functions (EF), such as working memory, cognitive flexibility, multitasking, planning, and attention. Previous studies in other populations have shown that cognitive training, a behavioral method for treating cognitive deficits, can result in significant improvements in a number of cognitive skills, including EF. Materials and Methods In this study, we conducted a randomized controlled trial to investigate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a novel, online EF training program in long-term BC survivors. A total of 41 BC survivors (21 active, 20 wait list) completed the 48 session training program over 12 weeks. The participants were, on average, 6 years after therapy. Results Cognitive training led to significant improvements in cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency and processing speed, with marginally significant downstream improvements in verbal memory as assessed via standardized measures. Self-ratings of EF skills, including planning, organizing, and task monitoring, also were improved in the active group compared with the wait list group. Conclusions Our findings suggest that EF skills may be improved even in long-term survivors by using a computerized, home-based intervention program. These improvements may potentially include subjective EF skills, which suggest a transfer of the training program to real-world behaviors. PMID:23647804

Kesler, Shelli; Hosseini, S. M. Hadi; Heckler, Charles; Janelsins, Michelle; Palesh, Oxana; Mustian, Karen; Morrow, Gary

2013-01-01

263

Longer term improvement in neurocognitive functioning and affective distress among methamphetamine users who achieve stable abstinence.  

PubMed

Chronic use of methamphetamine (MA) is associated with neuropsychological dysfunction and affective distress. Some normalization of function has been reported after abstinence, but little in the way of data is available on the possible added benefits of long-term sobriety. To address this, we performed detailed neuropsychological and affective evaluations in 83 MA-dependent individuals at a baseline visit and following an average one-year interval period. Among the 83 MA-dependent participants, 25 remained abstinent, and 58 used MA at least once during the interval period. A total of 38 non-MA-addicted, demographically matched healthy comparison (i.e., HC) participants were also examined. At baseline, both MA-dependent participants who were able to maintain abstinence and those who were not performed significantly worse than the healthy comparison subjects on global neuropsychological functioning and were significantly more distressed. At the one-year follow-up, both the long-term abstainers and healthy comparison groups showed comparable global neuropsychological performance and affective distress levels, whereas the MA-dependent group who continued to use MA were worse than the comparison participants in terms of global neuropsychological functioning and affective distress. An interaction was observed between neuropsychological impairment at baseline, MA abstinence, and cognitive improvement, with abstinent MA-dependent participants who were neuropsychologically impaired at baseline demonstrating significantly and disproportionately greater improvement in processing speed and slightly greater improvement in motor abilities than the other participants. These results suggest partial recovery of neuropsychological functioning and improvement in affective distress upon sustained abstinence from MA that may extend beyond a year or more. PMID:20198527

Iudicello, Jennifer E; Woods, Steven P; Vigil, Ofilio; Scott, J Cobb; Cherner, Mariana; Heaton, Robert K; Atkinson, J Hampton; Grant, Igor

2010-08-01

264

Pirfenidone improves renal function and fibrosis in the post-obstructed kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pirfenidone improves renal function and fibrosis in the post-obstructed kidney.BackgroundPirfenidone™ (PFD) is a novel anti-fibrotic agent that can prevent and even reverse extracellular matrix accumulation in several organs, as shown by experimental and clinical studies. Unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) is a well-characterized model of experimental renal disease culminating in tubulointerstitial fibrosis.MethodsUUO or sham-operated rats were administered PFD (500 mg\\/kg\\/day) in

Toshikatsu Shimizu; Takayuki Kuroda; Satoshi Hata; Masafumi Fukagawa; Solomon B Margolin; Kiyoshi Kurokawa

1998-01-01

265

Longer Term Improvement in Neurocognitive Functioning and Affective Distress Among Methamphetamine Users Who Achieve Stable Abstinence  

PubMed Central

Chronic use of methamphetamine (MA) is associated with neuropsychological dysfunction and affective distress. Some normalization of function has been reported after abstinence, but little data is available on the possible added benefits of long-term sobriety. To address this, we performed detailed neuropsychological and affective evaluations in 83 MA-dependent individuals at a baseline visit and following an average one-year interval period. Among the 83 MA-dependent participants, 25 remained abstinent and 58 used MA at least once during the interval period. Thirty-eight non-MA-addicted, demographically matched healthy comparison (i.e., HC) participants were also examined. At baseline, both MA-dependent participants who were able to maintain abstinence and those who were not performed significantly worse than the healthy comparison subjects on global neuropsychological functioning and were significantly more distressed. At the one-year follow-up, both the long term abstainers and healthy comparison groups showed comparable global neuropsychological performance and affective distress levels, whereas the MA-dependent group who continued to use were worse than the comparison participants in terms of global neuropsychological functioning and affective distress. An interaction was observed between neuropsychological impairment at baseline, MA abstinence, and cognitive improvement, with abstinent MA-dependent participants who were neuropsychologically impaired at baseline demonstrating significantly and disproportionately greater improvement in processing speed and slightly greater improvement in motor abilities relative to the other participants. These results suggest partial recovery of neuropsychological functioning and improvement in affective distress upon sustained abstinence from MA that may extend beyond a year or more. PMID:20198527

IUDICELLO, JENNIFER E.; WOODS, STEVEN PAUL; VIGIL, OFILIO; SCOTT, J. COBB; CHERNER, MARIANA; HEATON, ROBERT K.; ATKINSON, J. HAMPTON; GRANT, IGOR

2010-01-01

266

A pilot study of an acupuncture protocol to improve visual function in retinitis pigmentosa patients  

PubMed Central

Background Patients with retinitis pigmentosa are motivated to try complementary or integrative therapies to slow disease progression. Basic science, clinical research and retinitis pigmentosa patients' self-reports support the hypothesis that acupuncture may improve visual function. Methods A prospective, case series, pilot study enrolled 12 adult patients with RP treated at an academic medical centre with a standardised protocol that combined electroacupuncture to the forehead and below the eyes and acupuncture to the body, at 10 half-hour sessions over two weeks. Pre- and post-treatment tests included Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity (VA), Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity (CS), Goldmann visual fields, and dark-adapted full-field stimulus threshold (FST)(n = 9). Scotopic Sensitivity Tester-1 (SST-1) dark-adaptometry was performed on the last two subjects. Results Six of 12 subjects had measurable, significant visual function improvements after treatment. Three of nine subjects tested with the FST had a significant 10.3 to 17.5 dB (that is, 13- to 53-fold) improvement in both eyes at one week after acupuncture, maintained for at least 10 to 12 months, which was well outside typical test-retest variability (95% CI: 3–3.5 dB) previously found in retinitis pigmentosa. SST-1 dark-adaptation was shortened in both subjects tested on average by 48.5 per cent at one week (range 36 to 62 per cent across 10 to 30 dB), which was outside typical coefficients of variation of less than 30 per cent previously determined in patients with retinitis pigmentosa and normals. Four of the five subjects with psychophysically measured scotopic sensitivity improvements reported subjective improvements in vision at night or in dark environments. One subject had 0.2 logMAR improvement in VA; another had 0.55 logCS improvement. Another subject developed more than 20 per cent improvement in the area of the Goldmann visual fields. The acupuncture protocol was completed and well tolerated by all, without adverse events or visual loss. Conclusions Acupuncture entails minimal risk, if administered by a well-trained acupuncturist and may have significant, measurable benefits on residual visual function in patients with retinitis pigmentosa, in particular scotopic sensitivity, which had not previously been studied. These preliminary findings support the need for future controlled studies of potential mechanisms. PMID:24773463

Bittner, Ava K; Gould, Jeffrey M; Rosenfarb, Andy; Rozanski, Collin; Dagnelie, Gislin

2014-01-01

267

Systemic and coronary hemodynamic actions and left ventricular functional effects of levosimendan in conscious dogs.  

PubMed

We examined the effects of levosimendan, a new myofilament Ca2+ sensitizer with phosphodiesterase (PDE)-inhibiting properties, on systemic and coronary hemodynamics and left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function in conscious dogs with intact and blocked autonomic nervous system (ANS) reflexes. Twenty experiments were conducted in 10 dogs chronically instrumented for measurement of aortic and LV pressure, the peak rate of increase and decrease in LV pressure (+dP/dtmax and -dP/dtmin), subendocardial segment length, diastolic coronary blood flow (CBF) velocity, and cardiac output (CO). The slope (Mw) of the regional preload recruitable stroke work relation was used to assess myocardial contractility. Diastolic function was evaluated by -dP/dtmin, a time constant of isovolumic relaxation (tau), maximum segment lengthening velocity during rapid ventricular filling (dL/dtmax), and a regional chamber stiffness constant (Kp). Dogs were randomly assigned to receive levosimendan (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 micrograms.kg-1.min-1) with or without ANS blockade. On separate experimental days, systemic and coronary hemodynamics and LV pressure-segment length diagrams and waveforms were recorded after 10-min equilibration at each dose in the conscious ANS-intact or ANS-blocked state. Levosimendan increased heart rate (HR), CO, mean and diastolic CBF velocity, and pressure-work index (PWI, an estimate of myocardial oxygen consumption) and decreased LV end-diastolic pressure (EDP), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), end-systolic and end-diastolic segment length, and mean and diastolic coronary vascular resistance (CVR) in dogs with intact ANS function. Levosimendan-induced increases in HR and PWI and decreases in SVR were attenuated by ANS blockade. Levosimendan caused equivalent dose-dependent increases in Mw in ANS-intact and ANS-blocked dogs, consistent with a positive inotropic effect independent of ANS activity. Levosimendan decreased tau (e.g., 35 +/- 1 ms during control to 29 +/- 1 ms at the high dose) and increased the magnitude of LV -dP/dtmin in dogs with intact but not blocked ANS reflexes, suggesting that relaxation was enhanced by favorable changes in systemic hemodynamics or ANS activation and direct effects of this drug on lusitropic state. Levosimendan also increased dL/dtmax to a greater degree in ANS-intact dogs, indicating that improvement of rapid ventricular filling was also partially dependent on ANS tone. No changes in Kp were observed in either experimental group. The results indicate that levosimendan decreases preload and afterload and has positive inotropic and lusitropic properties. The actions of levosimendan on diastolic function are largely mediated by the ANS. PMID:7475041

Harkin, C P; Pagel, P S; Tessmer, J P; Warltier, D C

1995-08-01

268

Improving modeling of GOCE data using reduced point mass or multipole base functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spherical harmonic are not the only harmonic functions which may be used when approximating the anomalous gravity field. One of a few other harmonic functions, which may be used as base functions when approximating anomalous gravity field, are point mass or multipole functions. In this study reduced point mass functions are used for the local modelling of GOCE data. Point mass or multipole base functions may be expressed by closed expressions or as sums of Legendre series. In both cases at least the two first terms must be removed since they are not present in anomalous gravity field. Generally, for local applications the effect of a global gravity model is first removed (and later restored). For calculations discussed here contribution from EGM96 up to degree 36 has been subtracted. In order to improve modeling of gravity data, more terms, than just effect of a global gravity model, need to be removed. Even better solution could be to substitute them by terms that uses small wavelength but also includes information representing the variances of the reference field that was removed. This assures that the model in an appropriate manner weights the regional frequencies with respect to the used global model. For point mass or multipole functions we have tried to find (unitless) terms representing the power in the frequencies which the global model has not removed, corresponding to error-degree variances, and use them as the terms up to the lowest degree of the reference potential (the global model).

Herceg, M.; Tscherning, C. C.; Knudsen, P.

2010-12-01

269

Efficacy of a Crisis Intervention in Improving Mother-Child Interaction and Children's Play Functioning.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. We examined the efficacy of a crisis-based intervention in improving mother-child interaction and children's play functioning for families who had experienced domestic violence. METHOD. Using a pretest-posttest two-group control study design, we assigned the intervention group (n = 20 mother-child dyads) to the Family Intervention for Improving Occupational Performance (FI-OP) program and the control group (n = 17 dyads) to a playroom program. Both programs consisted of eight 30-min sessions. We videotaped dyads during free play and used standardized tools to assess interactions, play skills, and playfulness. RESULTS. After the intervention, mother-child interaction was significantly better in the FI-OP group than in the playroom group. The children in the FI-OP group also demonstrated significantly greater improvement in play skills, but not in playfulness. CONCLUSION. FI-OP is a promising program for improving aspects of mother-child interaction and children's play functioning among survivors of domestic violence. PMID:25553747

Waldman-Levi, Amiya; Weintraub, Naomi

2015-01-01

270

Traditional Chinese Medicine Tongxinluo Improves Cardiac Function of Rats with Dilated Cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

The study aimed at testing the hypothesis that tongxinluo capsule might exert its cardioprotective effect by preventing ventricular remodeling and improving coronary microvascular function in a rat model of doxorubicin-induced dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Rats that survived DCM induction were randomly divided into three groups to be given 1.5 g·kg?1·day?1 (TXL-H, n = 9) or 0.15 g·kg?1·day?1 (TXL-L, n = 10) of tongxinluo, or normal saline at the same volume (DCM-C, n = 10) intragastrically. Age matched normal rats treated with normal saline were used as normal controls (NOR-C, n = 9). After four weeks of treatment, the DCM-C, TXL-H, and TXL-L groups exhibited significant cardiac dysfunction, left ventricular remodeling, and coronary microvascular dysfunction, compared with the NOR-C rats. However, myocardial functional parameters were significantly improved and microvascular density (MVD) increased in the TXL-H group compared with the DCM-C group (all P < 0.01). Left ventricular remodeling was prevented. There were close linear relationships between CVF and LVEF (r = ?0.683, P < 0.05), MVD and LVEF (r = 0.895, P < 0.05), and MVD and CVF (r = ?0.798, P < 0.05). It was indicated that high-dose tongxinluo effectively improved cardiac function in rat model of DCM. PMID:25614749

Shen, Fang-Fang; Jiang, Ting-Hui; Jiang, Jin-Qi; Lou, Ying; Hou, Xu-Min

2014-01-01

271

Improved Air Quality and Attenuated Lung Function Decline: Modification by Obesity in the SAPALDIA Cohort  

PubMed Central

Background: Air pollution and obesity are hypothesized to contribute to accelerated decline in lung function with age through their inflammatory properties. Objective: We investigated whether the previously reported association between improved air quality and lung health in the population-based SAPALDIA cohort is modified by obesity. Methods: We used adjusted mixed-model analyses to estimate the association of average body mass index (BMI) and changes in particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ? 10 µm (PM10; ?PM10) with lung function decline over a 10-year follow-up period. Results: Lung function data and complete information were available for 4,664 participants. Age-related declines in lung function among participants with high average BMI were more rapid for FVC (forced vital capacity), but slower for FEV1/FVC (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec/FVC) and FEF25–75 (forced expiratory flow at 25–75%) than declines among those with low or normal average BMI. Improved air quality was associated with attenuated reductions in FEV1/FVC, FEF25–75, and FEF25–75/FVC over time among low- and normal-BMI participants, but not overweight or obese participants. The attenuation was most pronounced for ?FEF25–75/FVC (30% and 22% attenuation in association with a 10-?g/m3 decrease in PM10 among low- and normal-weight participants, respectively.) Conclusion: Our results point to the importance of considering health effects of air pollution exposure and obesity in parallel. Further research must address the mechanisms underlying the observed interaction. Citation: Schikowski T, Schaffner E, Meier F, Phuleria HC, Vierkötter A, Schindler C, Kriemler S, Zemp E, Krämer U, Bridevaux P-O, Rochat T, Schwartz J, Künzli N, Probst-Hensch N. 2013. Improved air quality and attenuated lung function decline: modification by obesity in the SAPALDIA cohort. Environ Health Perspect 121:1034–1039; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206145 PMID:23820868

Schaffner, Emmanuel; Meier, Flurina; Phuleria, Harish C.; Vierkötter, Andrea; Schindler, Christian; Kriemler, Susi; Zemp, Elisabeth; Krämer, Ursula; Bridevaux, Pierre-Olivier; Rochat, Thierry; Schwartz, Joel; Künzli, Nino; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

2013-01-01

272

Early rehabilitation after surgery improves functional outcome in inpatients with brain tumours.  

PubMed

Clinical experience suggests that application of the fundamental principles of rehabilitation medicine can improve the care of patients with cancer. Despite the high incidence of neurological and functional deficits in patients affected by brain tumours (BTs), rehabilitation treatment of this population is not as well established as it is for patients with other neurological conditions. To assess functional outcome in brain tumour inpatients who underwent early rehabilitation after surgery. 75 patients who had undergone neurosurgery for primary BTs and 75 patients affected by stroke were enrolled in a case-control study. All patients were evaluated by means of a core set of clinical scales (Functional Independence Measure, Sitting Balance score, Standing Balance score, Hauser Index, Massachusetts General Hospital Functional Ambulation Classification). Patients were evaluated before the beginning (T0) and at the end (T1) of rehabilitation treatment. The neurorehabilitation programme consisted of individual 60-min sessions of treatment, administered once a day, six days a week, for four consecutive weeks. Speech therapy was included when aphasia was diagnosed. All the measures of outcome were indicative of substantial improvements for neuro-oncological and for stroke patients (P = 0.000). Analysis of subgroups showed that patients affected by meningioma achieved better results (in efficiency terms) as regards independence in activities of daily living (P = 0.02) and mobility (P = 0.04) compared with patients affected by glioblastoma or stroke. Rehabilitation after surgery can improve functional outcome, justifying the delivery of rehabilitation services, even during the acute phase, to BTs inpatients, irrespective of tumour type. PMID:22124725

Bartolo, Michelangelo; Zucchella, Chiara; Pace, Andrea; Lanzetta, Gaetano; Vecchione, Carmine; Bartolo, Marcello; Grillea, Giovanni; Serrao, Mariano; Tassorelli, Cristina; Sandrini, Giorgio; Pierelli, Francesco

2012-05-01

273

Adult Bone Marrow Cell Therapy Improves Survival and Induces Long-Term Improvement in Cardiac Parameters: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Despite rapid clinical translation and widespread enthusiasm, the therapeutic benefits of adult bone marrow cell (BMC) transplantation in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) continue to remain controversial. A synthesis of the available data is critical to appreciate and underscore the true impact of this promising approach. Methods and Results A total of 50 studies (enrolling 2,625 patients) identified by database searches through January 2012 were included. Weighted Mean Differences for changes in left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF), infarct size, LV end-systolic volume (LVESV), and LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) were estimated using random effects meta-analysis. Compared with controls, BMC-treated patients exhibited greater LVEF (3.96%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.90, 5.02; P<0.00001), and smaller infarct size (–4.03%, CI: –5.47, –2.59; P<0.00001), LVESV (–8.91 ml, CI: –11.57, –6.25; P<0.00001), and LVEDV (–5.23 ml, CI: – 7.60, –2.86; P<0.0001). These benefits were noted irrespective of the study design (RCT vs. Cohort study) and the type of IHD (acute myocardial infarction vs. chronic IHD), and persisted during long-term follow-up. Importantly, the all-cause mortality, cardiac mortality, and the incidence of recurrent MI and stent thrombosis were significantly lower in BMC-treated patients compared with controls. Conclusions Transplantation of adult BMCs improves LV function, infarct size, and remodeling in patients with IHD compared with standard therapy, and these benefits persist during long-term follow-up. BMC transplantation also reduces the incidence of death, recurrent MI, and stent thrombosis in patients with IHD. PMID:22730444

Jeevanantham, Vinodh; Butler, Matthew; Saad, Andre; Abdel-Latif, Ahmed; Zuba-Surma, Ewa K.; Dawn, Buddhadeb

2014-01-01

274

The impact of obesity and hypoxia on left ventricular function and glycolytic metabolism.  

PubMed

Abstract We have previously reported that 4 weeks of intermittent hypoxia (IH) exposure, mimicking the hypoxic stress of obstructive sleep apnea, produces compensatory increases in left ventricular (LV) contractility in lean C57BL/6J mice. In this study we compared the effects of 4 weeks IH to 4 weeks of sustained hypoxia (SH) on LV function and cardiac glycolysis in lean C57BL/6J mice and obese ob/ob mice at 10-12 weeks of age. The four exposure conditions were IH (nadir O2 [5-6%] at 60 cycles/h during the 12 h light period), SH (24 h inspired O2 [10%]), and control groups of intermittent air (IA) or room air. Cardiac function was assessed under isoflurane anesthesia (1-2%) by echocardiography and pressure-volume loop analysis and myocardial glycolytic rates were determined ex vivo using radiolabeled (3)H-glucose. Lean mice exposed to IH exhibited increases in contractile parameters which were associated with elevated glycolytic rates (3.4 vs. 5.7 ?g/?L·g; P < 0.05). Ob/ob mice did not show any improvements in contractility after IH. Moreover, cardiac glycolytic rates and LV systolic and diastolic function did not differ from IA ob/ob controls. Following SH exposure, lean mice exhibited increased contractility and glycolytic rates (3.8 vs. 5.7 ?g/?L·g; P < 0.05), however, LV lumen dimensions were reduced. In contrast, ob/ob mice exposed to SH show compromised systolic and diastolic function associated with unchanging glycolytic rates. These findings demonstrate that, in a murine model of obesity, an inability to increase glycolysis is associated with an absence of an adaptive cardiac response to IH and marked systolic and diastolic dysfunction in response to SH. PMID:24771695

Rodriguez, Rosa H; Bickta, Janelle L; Murawski, Patrick; O'Donnell, Christopher P

2014-01-01

275

The impact of obesity and hypoxia on left ventricular function and glycolytic metabolism  

PubMed Central

Abstract We have previously reported that 4 weeks of intermittent hypoxia (IH) exposure, mimicking the hypoxic stress of obstructive sleep apnea, produces compensatory increases in left ventricular (LV) contractility in lean C57BL/6J mice. In this study we compared the effects of 4 weeks IH to 4 weeks of sustained hypoxia (SH) on LV function and cardiac glycolysis in lean C57BL/6J mice and obese ob/ob mice at 10–12 weeks of age. The four exposure conditions were IH (nadir O2 [5–6%] at 60 cycles/h during the 12 h light period), SH (24 h inspired O2 [10%]), and control groups of intermittent air (IA) or room air. Cardiac function was assessed under isoflurane anesthesia (1–2%) by echocardiography and pressure–volume loop analysis and myocardial glycolytic rates were determined ex vivo using radiolabeled 3H?glucose. Lean mice exposed to IH exhibited increases in contractile parameters which were associated with elevated glycolytic rates (3.4 vs. 5.7 ?g/?L·g; P < 0.05). Ob/ob mice did not show any improvements in contractility after IH. Moreover, cardiac glycolytic rates and LV systolic and diastolic function did not differ from IA ob/ob controls. Following SH exposure, lean mice exhibited increased contractility and glycolytic rates (3.8 vs. 5.7 ?g/?L·g; P < 0.05), however, LV lumen dimensions were reduced. In contrast, ob/ob mice exposed to SH show compromised systolic and diastolic function associated with unchanging glycolytic rates. These findings demonstrate that, in a murine model of obesity, an inability to increase glycolysis is associated with an absence of an adaptive cardiac response to IH and marked systolic and diastolic dysfunction in response to SH. PMID:24771695

Rodriguez, Rosa H.; Bickta, Janelle L.; Murawski, Patrick; O'Donnell, Christopher P.

2014-01-01

276

Niaspan Treatment Improves Neurological Functional Recovery in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Mice  

PubMed Central

We investigated the treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice with Niaspan, an agent used to elevate high density lipoprotein (HDL). EAE mice were treated with Niaspan starting on the immunization or clinical onset day. Neurological functional recovery was significantly increased in the Niaspan treated mice (100mg/kgbw) compared to the controls. Inflammatory infiltrates were significantly reduced in the Niaspan treatment group compared to the EAE controls. HDL level, intact myelin area, newly formed oligodendrocytes, regenerating axons, gene and protein levels of sonic hedgehog (Shh)/Gli1 were significantly increased in the Niaspan treated mice compared to EAE controls. These data indicate that Niaspan treatment improved functional recovery after EAE, possibly, via reducing inflammatory infiltrates and demyelination areas, and stimulating oligodendrogenesis and axonal regeneration. Niaspan mediated activation of Shh/Gli1 pathway may promote functional recovery post EAE. PMID:18778774

Zhang, Jing; Chen, Jieli; Li, Yi; Cui, Xu; Zheng, Xuguang; Roberts, Cynthia; Lu, Mei; Elias, Stanton B.; Chopp, Michael

2008-01-01

277

Kinesio taping in stroke: improving functional use of the upper extremity in hemiplegia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to present the Kinesio taping method used to improve the upper extremity function in the adult with hemiplegia. The article discusses various therapeutic methods used in the treatment of stroke patients to achieve a functional upper extremity. The only taping technique for various upper extremity conditions that has been described in the literature is the athletic taping technique. In this article, some interpretation is offered on proper assessment of the nonfunctional upper extremity, including the emphasis on postural alignment, trunk control, and scapula alignment. The Kinesio taping method in conjunction with other therapeutic interventions may facilitate or inhibit muscle function, support joint structure, reduce pain, and provide proprioceptive feedback to achieve and maintain preferred body alignment. Restoring trunk and scapula alignment after the stroke is critical in an effective treatment program for the upper extremity in hemiplegia. PMID:16987790

Jaraczewska, Ewa; Long, Carol

2006-01-01

278

Integrated strategy for improving functional connectivity mapping using multiecho fMRI  

PubMed Central

Functional connectivity analysis of resting state blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) functional MRI is widely used for noninvasively studying brain functional networks. Recent findings have indicated, however, that even small (?1 mm) amounts of head movement during scanning can disproportionately bias connectivity estimates, despite various preprocessing efforts. Further complications for interregional connectivity estimation from time domain signals include the unaccounted reduction in BOLD degrees of freedom related to sensitivity losses from high subject motion. To address these issues, we describe an integrated strategy for data acquisition, denoising, and connectivity estimation. This strategy builds on our previously published technique combining data acquisition with multiecho (ME) echo planar imaging and analysis with spatial independent component analysis (ICA), called ME-ICA, which distinguishes BOLD (neuronal) and non-BOLD (artifactual) components based on linear echo-time dependence of signals—a characteristic property of BOLD signal changes. Here we show for 32 control subjects that this method provides a physically principled and nearly operator-independent way of removing complex artifacts such as motion from resting state data. We then describe a robust estimator of functional connectivity based on interregional correlation of BOLD-independent component coefficients. This estimator, called independent components regression, considerably simplifies statistical inference for functional connectivity because degrees of freedom equals the number of independent coefficients. Compared with traditional connectivity estimation methods, the proposed strategy results in fourfold improvements in signal-to-noise ratio, functional connectivity analysis with improved specificity, and valid statistical inference with nominal control of type 1 error in contrasts of connectivity between groups with different levels of subject motion. PMID:24038744

Kundu, Prantik; Brenowitz, Noah D.; Voon, Valerie; Worbe, Yulia; Vértes, Petra E.; Inati, Souheil J.; Saad, Ziad S.; Bandettini, Peter A.; Bullmore, Edward T.

2013-01-01

279

Association of left ventricular diastolic function with systolic dyssynchrony: a population study  

PubMed Central

Aims Left ventricular (LV) (dys)synchrony has an important impact on LV function and structure. Our study aimed to describe the distribution and determinants of LV mechanical delay indexes in the general population and to assess an association of different Doppler indexes reflecting LV diastolic function with LV mechanical delay indexes. Methods and results In 200 subjects enrolled in a family-based population study (46.5% women; mean age, 57.9; 48% hypertensive), we performed echocardiography with tissue synchronization imaging (TSI) and two-dimensional speckle tracking. We measured the maximum difference in time to peak systolic velocity between any 2 of 12 LV segments (Ts-max); the standard deviation of time to peak systolic velocity of 12 segments (Ts-sd); the difference in time to peak systolic velocity and strain between septal and lateral LV walls and the strain delay index in septal and lateral walls [septal and lateral (SDI)]. In univariable and multivariable regression analyses, TSI indexes and lateral SDI independently increased with age (P ? 0.027) and body mass index (P ? 0.010). Ts-max and Ts-sd also increased with female sex (P ? 0.0002) and decreased with heart rate (P ? 0.0004). Septal SDI only increased with female sex (P < 0.0001). Among the Doppler indexes of LV diastolic function, only E/e? was significantly and positively associated with TSI indexes (P ? 0.037) and lateral SDI (P = 0.0026), but not with septal SDI (P = 0.69). In participants with advanced stage of LV diastolic dysfunction, TSI indexes were prolonged compare with subjects with normal LV diastolic function (P ? 0.002). Conclusion We demonstrated that in unselected subjects LV diastolic dysfunction was associated with mechanical LV dyssynchrony as assessed by echocardiography. PMID:23002213

Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Bogaert, Petronille; Kloch-Badelek, Malgorzata; Thijs, Daisy; Thijs, Lutgard; Staessen, Jan A.

2013-01-01

280

Simvastatin treatment improves endothelial function and increases fibrinolysis in patients with hypercholestrolemia.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Statins reduce cardiovascular events by cholesterol-lowering as well as nonlipid-related actions. Thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) is a recently identified independent risk factor of thrombosis. Endothelial dysfunction is also a strong predictor of cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of simvastatin treatment on circulating TAFI concentrations and endothelial function in patients with hypercholesterolemia. METHODS: Thirty-five patients (19 female, mean age 48 +/- 7 years) with hyperlipidemia were recruited into the study. Simvastatin was administered, 40 mg daily, for eight weeks to all subjects. Study subjects did not receive any medication except for lipid-lowering therapy during the follow-up period. Endothelial function was evaluated by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) from the brachial artery of the patients. Plasma lipid parameters, TAFI levels and endothelial function were measured before and after simvastatin treatment. RESULTS: Treatment with simvastatin showed a significant decrement in plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels (p<0.05). Plasma TAFI levels were also significantly decreased after simvastatin treatment [median 17.0 (range 0.4-93.7) mcg/mL versus median 6.9 (range 0.8-63.0) mcg/mL, p<0.001]. Mean FMD was measured 7.7 +/- 2.5% at baseline and significantly improved after treatment (13.0 +/- 1.4%) (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Our findings of decreased TAFI levels may reflect the beneficial effect of simvastatin treatment on fibrinolysis, and improved endothelial function may suggest the improved future cardiovascular events in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:16623076

Guven, Gulay S.; Atalar, Enver; Yavuz, Bunyamin; Beyazit, Yavuz; Kekilli, Murat; Kilicarslan, Alparslan; Sahiner, Levent; Oz, Gul; Ozer, Necla; Aksoyek, Serdar; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim C.; Sozen, Tumay

2006-01-01

281

Liguzinediol improved the heart function and inhibited myocardial cell apoptosis in rats with heart failure  

PubMed Central

Aim: Liguzinediol is a novel derivative of ligustrazine isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Chuanxiong (Ligusticum wallichii Franch), and produces significant positive inotropic effect in isolated rat hearts. In this study we investigated the effects of liguzinediol on a rat model of heart failure. Methods: To induce heart failure, male SD rats were injected with doxorubicin (DOX, 2 mg/kg, ip) once a week for 4 weeks. Then the rats were administered with liguzinediol (5, 10, 20 mg·kg?1·d?1, po) for 2 weeks. Hemodynamic examination was conducted to evaluate heart function. Myocardial cell apoptosis was examined morphologically. The expression of related genes and proteins were analyzed using immunohistochemical staining and Western blot assays, respectively. Results: Oral administration of liguzinediol dose-dependently improved the heart function in DOX-treated rats. Electron microscopy revealed that liguzinediol (10 mg·kg?1·d?1) markedly attenuated DOX-induced injury of cardiomyocytes, and decreased the number of apoptotic bodies in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, liguzinediol significantly decreased Bax protein level, and increased Bcl-2 protein level in cardiomyocytes of DOX-treated rats, led to an increase in the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax. Moreover, liguzinediol significantly decreased the expression of both cleaved caspase-3 and NF-?B in cardiomyocytes of DOX-treated rats. Administration of digitalis (0.0225 mg·kg?1·d?1) also markedly improved the heart function and the morphology of cardiomyocytes in DOX-treated rats. Conclusion: Liguzinediol improves the heart function and inhibits myocardial cell apoptosis in the rat model of heart failure, which is associated with regulating Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3 and NF-?B expression. PMID:25220638

Li, Yu; Song, Ping; Zhu, Qing; Yin, Qiu-yi; Ji, Jia-wen; Li, Wei; Bian, Hui-min

2014-01-01

282

Treatment of functional mitral regurgitation by percutaneous annuloplasty: results of the TITAN Trial  

PubMed Central

Aims Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) contributes to morbidity and mortality in heart failure (HF) patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether percutaneous mitral annuloplasty could safely and effectively reduce FMR and yield durable long-term clinical benefit. Methods and results The impact of mitral annuloplasty (Carillon Mitral Contour System) was evaluated in HF patients with at least moderate FMR. Patients in whom the device was placed then acutely recaptured for clinical reasons served as a comparator group. Quantitative measures of FMR, left ventricular (LV) dimensions, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, 6 min walk distance (6MWD), and quality of life were assessed in both groups up to 12 months. Safety and key functional data were assessed in the implanted cohort up to 24 months. Thirty-six patients received a permanent implant; 17 had the device recaptured. The 30-day major adverse event rate was 1.9%. In contrast to the comparison group, the implanted cohort demonstrated significant reductions in FMR as represented by regurgitant volume [baseline 34.5 ±11.5 mL to 17.4 ±12.4 mL at 12 months (P < 0.001)]. There was a corresponding reduction in LV diastolic volume [baseline 208.5 ±62.0 mL to 178.9 ±48.0 mL at 12 months (P =0.015)] and systolic volume [baseline 151.8 ±57.1 mL to 120.7 ±43.2 mL at 12 months (P =0.015)], compared with progressive LV dilation in the comparator. The 6MWD markedly improved for the implanted patients by 102.5 ±164 m at 12 months (P =0.014) and 131.9 ±80 m at 24 months (P < 0.001). Conclusion Percutaneous reduction of FMR using a coronary sinus approach is associated with reverse LV remodelling. Significant clinical improvements persisted up to 24 months. PMID:22613584

Siminiak, Tomasz; Wu, Justina C.; Haude, Michael; Hoppe, Uta C.; Sadowski, Jerzy; Lipiecki, Janusz; Fajadet, Jean; Shah, Amil M.; Feldman, Ted; Kaye, David M.; Goldberg, Steven L.; Levy, Wayne C.; Solomon, Scott D.; Reuter, David G.

2012-01-01

283

Dynamic Complexity in the Electrochemical Oxidation of Thiourea Jiamin Feng, Qingyu Gao,, Xiaoli Lv, and Irving R. Epstein*,  

E-print Network

of such behavior in chemical or electrochemical systems has been reported. Initial studies of the electrochemicalDynamic Complexity in the Electrochemical Oxidation of Thiourea Jiamin Feng, Qingyu Gao,, Xiaoli LvVised Manuscript ReceiVed: April 16, 2008 We explored the temperature-dependent dynamics of the electrochemical

Epstein, Irving R.

284

Increased matrix metalloproteinase activity and selective upregulation in LV myocardium from patients with end-stage dilated cardiomyopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—One of the hallmarks of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is left ventricular (LV) remodeling. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of enzymes that contribute to extracellular remodeling in several disease states. Additionally, a family of inhibitors called tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) has been shown to exist and to tightly regulate MMP activity. However, the types of MMPs and TIMPs

Chadwick V. Thomas; Mytsi L. Coker; James L. Zellner; John R. Handy; Jackson Crumbley III; Francis G. Spinale

1998-01-01

285

Integrated Silicon Solution, Inc. --www.issi.com --1-800-379-4774 1 IS61LV25616AL ISSI  

E-print Network

Integrated Silicon Solution, Inc. -- www.issi.com -- 1-800-379-4774 1 Rev. E 02/14/06 IS61LV25616AL ISSI® Copyright © 2006 Integrated Silicon Solution, Inc. All rights reserved. ISSI reserves the right I/O8-I/O15 Upper Byte UB LB FEBRUARY2006 #12;2 Integrated Silicon Solution, Inc. -- www

Moshovos, Andreas

286

Improving Functional Performance and Muscle Power 4-to-6 Months After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 8-week retraining programs, with either two or three training sessions per week, on measures of functional performance and muscular power in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Sixteen male athletes were randomly assigned to two groups after ACLR: a functional training group (FTG, n = 8) training 2 intense sessions per week (4hrs/week), and a control group (CG, n = 8) training 3 sessions per week with moderate intensity (6hrs/week). The two groups were assessed at four and six months post-ACLR and the effects of retraining were measured using the following assessments: the functional and the muscular power tests, and the agility T-test. After retraining, the FTG had improved more than the CG in the operated leg in the single leg hop test (+34.64% vs. +10.92%; large effect), the five jump test (+8.87% vs. +5.03%; medium effect), and single leg triple jump (+32.15% vs. +16.05%; medium effect). For the agility T-test, the FTG had larger improvements (+17.26% vs. +13.03%, medium effect) as compared to the CG. For the bilateral power tests, no significant training effects were shown for the two groups in the squat jump (SJ), the counter movement jump (CMJ) and the free arms CMJ (Arm CMJ). On the other hand, the unilateral CMJ test with the injured and the uninjured legs showed a significant increase for the FTG with respect to CG (p < 0.05). The present study introduces a new training modality in rehabilitation after ACLR that results in good recovery of the operated limb along with the contra-lateral leg. This may allow the athletes to reach good functional and strength performance with only two physical training sessions per week, better preparing them for a return to sport activity at 6 months post- ACLR and eventually sparing time for a possible progressive introduction of the sport specific technical training. Key points Functional training (plyometrics, neuromuscular, proprioceptive and agility exercises) in athletes during 4th to 6th months post-ACLR further improved functional outcomes, compared to a conventional rehabilitation program. The former program was more time-efficient compared to the latter one as indicated by the weekly training duration (4hrs/week vs. 6hrs/week). This study provides evidence of the functional training in knee rehabilitation and provides important information that is highly relevant to clinicians, physiotherapists, coaches and trainers who are in charge of the injured athletes during the later phase of the rehabilitation after ACLR. PMID:24149555

Souissi, Sabrine; Wong, Del P.; Dellal, Alexandre; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Ellouze, Zied; Chamari, Karim

2011-01-01

287

Improving Functional Performance and Muscle Power 4-to-6 Months After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 8-week retraining programs, with either two or three training sessions per week, on measures of functional performance and muscular power in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Sixteen male athletes were randomly assigned to two groups after ACLR: a functional training group (FTG, n = 8) training 2 intense sessions per week (4hrs/week), and a control group (CG, n = 8) training 3 sessions per week with moderate intensity (6hrs/week). The two groups were assessed at four and six months post-ACLR and the effects of retraining were measured using the following assessments: the functional and the muscular power tests, and the agility T-test. After retraining, the FTG had improved more than the CG in the operated leg in the single leg hop test (+34.64% vs. +10.92%; large effect), the five jump test (+8.87% vs. +5.03%; medium effect), and single leg triple jump (+32.15% vs. +16.05%; medium effect). For the agility T-test, the FTG had larger improvements (+17.26% vs. +13.03%, medium effect) as compared to the CG. For the bilateral power tests, no significant training effects were shown for the two groups in the squat jump (SJ), the counter movement jump (CMJ) and the free arms CMJ (Arm CMJ). On the other hand, the unilateral CMJ test with the injured and the uninjured legs showed a significant increase for the FTG with respect to CG (p < 0.05). The present study introduces a new training modality in rehabilitation after ACLR that results in good recovery of the operated limb along with the contra-lateral leg. This may allow the athletes to reach good functional and strength performance with only two physical training sessions per week, better preparing them for a return to sport activity at 6 months post- ACLR and eventually sparing time for a possible progressive introduction of the sport specific technical training. Key pointsFunctional training (plyometrics, neuromuscular, proprioceptive and agility exercises) in athletes during 4th to 6th months post-ACLR further improved functional outcomes, compared to a conventional rehabilitation program.The former program was more time-efficient compared to the latter one as indicated by the weekly training duration (4hrs/week vs. 6hrs/week).This study provides evidence of the functional training in knee rehabilitation and provides important information that is highly relevant to clinicians, physiotherapists, coaches and trainers who are in charge of the injured athletes during the later phase of the rehabilitation after ACLR. PMID:24149555

Souissi, Sabrine; Wong, Del P; Dellal, Alexandre; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Ellouze, Zied; Chamari, Karim

2011-01-01

288

Functional Improvement After One- and Two-Eyed Cataract Surgery in the Salisbury Eye Evaluation  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the impact cataract and cataract surgery have on clinical measurements of vision, reading speed, objective mobility performance, and subjective visual functioning. Design Prospective, population-based study Participants 1,739 Salisbury Eye Evaluation (SEE) participants without previous cataract surgery with bilateral baseline best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (logMAR) ? 0.3 (20/40 or better) or cataract surgery between round 1 and 2. Methods Participants were categorized based on cataract surgery by round 2 into: no surgery, unilateral surgery, or bilateral surgery. Visual performance, mobility-based tasks, and the Activities of Daily Vision Scale (ADVS) were measured at baseline and two years. Mobility score was converted into a z-score, by subtracting the participant’s time from the population baseline average then dividing by the standard deviation. Comparisons were made between the no surgery and surgery groups using multivariate linear regression. Main Outcome Measures Change in bilateral best corrected visual acuity in logMAR, contrast sensitivity, reading speed in words per minute (wpm), mobility score, and ADVS. Results During the study period, 29 participants had cataract surgery on both eyes, 90 had unilateral surgery, and 1,620 had none. After adjusting for baseline value, demographics, depression and mental status, the unilateral surgery group BCVA improved 0.04 logMAR (p=0.001) and the bilateral group improved 0.13 compared to no surgery (p<0.001). Overall mobility declined in all groups. The unilateral group z-score declined 0.18 more than the no surgery group (p=0.02), while the bilateral group showed a 0.18 z-score improvement compared to no surgery (p=0.19). Change in reading speed significantly improved in the unilateral and bilateral groups compared to no surgery (12 and 31 words per minute, respectively). The bilateral surgery group showed significant positive change in ADVS compared to no surgery (5 points relative improvement, p = 0.01), while the unilateral group showed a 5-point relative decline (p<0.001). Conclusions Cataract negatively affects both subjective quality of life and objective performance measures. Unilateral cataract surgery improves visual functioning, but the largest gains are found in patients who undergo second-eye cataract surgery. This finding supports second-eye cataract surgery for patients with visual or functional complaints even after successful first-eye surgery. PMID:23357620

Lee, Bryan S.; Munoz, Beatriz E.; West, Sheila K.; Gower, Emily W.

2012-01-01

289

A novel cable-driven robotic training improves locomotor function in individuals post-stroke.  

PubMed

A novel cable-driven robotic gait training system has been tested to improve the locomotor function in individuals post stroke. Seven subjects with chronic stroke were recruited to participate in this 6 weeks robot-assisted treadmill training paradigm. A controlled assistance force was applied to the paretic leg at the ankle through a cable-driven robotic system. The force was applied from late stance to mid-swing during treadmill training. Body weight support was provided as necessary to prevent knee buckling or toe drag. Subjects were trained 3 times a week for 6 weeks. Overground gait speed, 6 minute walking distance, and balance were evaluated at pre, post 6 weeks robotic training, and at 8 weeks follow up. Significant improvements in gait speed and 6 minute walking distance were obtained following robotic treadmill training through a cable-driven robotic system. Results from this study indicate that it is feasible to improve the locomotor function in individuals post stroke through a flexible cable-driven robot. PMID:22256331

Wu, Ming; Landry, Jill M; Yen, Sheng-Che; Schmit, Brian D; Hornby, T George; Rafferty, Miriam

2011-01-01

290

Improved survival and function of rat cryopreserved islets by coculture with sertoli cells.  

PubMed

In order to investigate how to improve the function and survival of cryopreserved islets, we cocultured cryopreserved thawed rat islets with rat Sertoli cells. After thawing, the islets were divided into the Sertoli cell coculture group and the control group. Using light and transmission electron microscopes, we examined the morphology of islets and measured their apoptosis index (AI) and insulin release stimulation index (SI). Moreover, we measured apoptosis protein and mRNA by western-blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and cytokine concentrations in supernatant by ELISA. We examined islet graft survival time in diabetic mice and detected insulin in grafts by immunohistochemistry. We found that the morphology, AI, and SI of the coculture group were all significantly improved. The relative expression levels of cleaved caspase-3 P20, P11, and caspase-7 in the coculture group were lower than those in the control group. Compared with the control group, the expression level of Bax was decreased, but that of Bcl-2 was increased. After transplantation, islet survival in the coculture group was similar to that of fresh islets but longer than that in the control group. These results suggest that coculture with rat Sertoli cells significantly improves the yield and function of rat cryopreserved thawed islets by effectively reducing islet apoptosis. PMID:21371055

Li, Yang; Xue, Wujun; Tian, Xiaohui; Ding, Xiaoming; Tian, Puxun; Feng, Xinshun; Song, Yong; Luo, Xiaohui; Liu, Hongbao; Wang, Xiaohong; Ding, Chenguang

2011-06-01

291

IL-7 Promotes T Cell Viability, Trafficking, and Functionality and Improves Survival in Sepsis  

PubMed Central

Sepsis is a highly lethal disorder characterized by widespread apoptosis-induced depletion of immune cells and the development of a profound immunosuppressive state. IL-7 is a potent antiapoptotic cytokine that enhances immune effector cell function and is essential for lymphocyte survival. In this study, recombinant human IL-7 (rhIL-7) efficacy and potential mechanisms of action were tested in a murine peritonitis model. Studies at two independent laboratories showed that rhIL-7 markedly improved host survival, blocked apoptosis of CD4 and CD8 T cells, restored IFN-? production, and improved immune effector cell recruitment to the infected site. Importantly, rhIL-7 also prevented a hallmark of sepsis (i.e., the loss of delayed-type hypersensitivity), which is an IFN-?– and T cell-dependent response. Mechanistically, rhIL-7 significantly increased the expression of the leukocyte adhesion markers LFA-1 and VLA-4, consistent with its ability to improve leukocyte function and trafficking to the infectious focus. rhIL-7 also increased the expression of CD8. The potent antiapoptotic effect of rhIL-7 was due to increased Bcl-2, as well as to a dramatic decrease in sepsis-induced PUMA, a heretofore unreported effect of IL-7. If additional animal studies support its efficacy in sepsis and if current clinical trials continue to confirm its safety in diverse settings, rhIL-7 should be strongly considered for clinical trials in sepsis. PMID:20200277

Unsinger, Jacqueline; McGlynn, Margaret; Kasten, Kevin R.; Hoekzema, Andrew S.; Watanabe, Eizo; Muenzer, Jared T.; McDonough, Jacquelyn S.; Tschoep, Johannes; Ferguson, Thomas A.; McDunn, Jonathan E.; Morre, Michel; Hildeman, David A.; Caldwell, Charles C.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.

2010-01-01

292

Neovascularization of Ischemic Myocardium by Newly Isolated Tannins Prevents Cardiomyocyte Apoptosis and Improves Cardiac Function  

PubMed Central

During remodeling progress post myocardial infarction, the contribution of neoangiogenesis to the infarct-bed capillary is insufficient to support the greater demands of the hypertrophied but viable myocardium resulting in further ischemic injury to the viable cardiomyocytes at risk. Here we reported the bio-assay-guided identification and isolation of angiogenic tannins (angio-T) from Geum japonicum that induced rapid revascularization of infarcted myocardium and promoted survival potential of the viable cardiomyocytes at risk after myocardial infarction. Our results demonstrated that angio-T displayed potent dual effects on up-regulating expression of angiogenic factors, which would contribute to the early revascularization and protection of the cardiomyocytes against further ischemic injury, and inducing antiapoptotic protein expression, which inhibited apoptotic death of cardiomyocytes in the infarcted hearts and limited infarct size. Echocardiographic studies demonstrated that angio-T-induced therapeutic effects on acute infarcted myocardium were accompanied by significant functional improvement by 2 days after infarction. This improvement was sustained for 14 days. These therapeutic properties of angio-T to induce early reconstitution of a blood supply network, prevent apoptotic death of cardiomyocytes at risk, and improve heart function post infarction appear entirely novel and may provide a new dimension for therapeutic angiogenesis medicine for the treatment of ischemic heart diseases. PMID:17380192

Gu, Xuemei; Cheng, Lei; Chueng, Winghong L; Yao, Xinsheng; Liu, Hongwei; Qi, Guoqing; Li, Ming

2006-01-01

293

[Formula: see text]Improving executive functioning in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

An extensive body of literature has documented executive function (EF) impairments in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD); however, few studies have aimed specifically at improving EF. One treatment program that shows promise for children with FASD is the Alert Program for Self-Regulation®, which is a 12-week treatment specifically designed to target self-regulation, a component of EF. The present study sought to examine if Alert would produce improvements in self-regulation that would generalize to other aspects of EF, behavior, and social skills in children with FASD. Twenty-five children aged 8-12 years diagnosed with an FASD were assigned in alternating sequence to either an immediate treatment (TXT) or a delayed treatment control (DTC) group. Both groups received a comprehensive evaluation of EF at baseline and upon completing therapy (TXT), or after a 12- to 14-week interval from baseline (DTC). Parents also completed questionnaires assessing EF and behavior at both time points. For the TXT group only, parent questionnaires were readministered at 6-month follow-up. At the 12-week follow-up, the TXT group displayed significant improvements in inhibitory control and social cognition. Parents of children in the TXT group reported improved behavioral and emotional regulation, as well as reduced externalizing behavior problems. These behavioral improvements along with further improved parent-rated inhibitory control was maintained at the 6-month follow-up. The EF disabilities in children with FASD can be remediated through a targeted treatment approach aimed at facilitating self-regulation skills. PMID:25010354

Nash, Kelly; Stevens, Sara; Greenbaum, Rachel; Weiner, Judith; Koren, Gideon; Rovet, Joanne

2015-03-01

294

Enriched environment induces angiogenesis and improves neural function outcomes in rat stroke model.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence shows that exposure to an enriched environment (EE) after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury has neuroprotective benefits in animal models, including enhancing functional recovery after ischemic stroke. However, the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. To clarify this critical issue, the current study investigated the effects of EE on the improvement of damaged neural function and the induction of angiogenesis. Adult rats were subjected to ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion. Neurological status scores were used to evaluate neural function on postoperative days 2, 7, and 14. A beam-walking task was used to test the recovery of motor behavior on postoperative days 2, 5, 10, and 15. We also used a Morris water maze task to examine whether EE protected learning and memory performance. The specific marker of angiogenesis of CD31 was examined by western blot. Angiogenesis around the peri-infarction region was assayed by laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) after 14days of EE exposure starting 24h after ischemia. Neurological status scores of animals in the EE group were significantly higher than those in the standard housing condition (SC) control group from the seventh day after ischemic. EE accelerated the recovery of motor coordination and integration and also improved learning and memory performance after cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, EE increased CD31 levels and promoted angiogenesis of cortex in the peri-infarction region compared to the SC group. Neural function outcomes are positively correlated with post-ischemia angiogenesis. These findings suggest that EE plays an important role in the recovery of damaged neural function via regulation of angiogenesis after ischemia. PMID:25455300

Yu, Kewei; Wu, Yi; Zhang, Qi; Xie, Hongyu; Liu, Gang; Guo, Zhenzhen; Li, Fang; Jia, Jie; Kuang, Shenyi; Hu, Ruiping

2014-10-20

295

Uniform approximation of wave functions with improved semiclassical transformation amplitudes and Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiclassical transformation theory implies an integral representation for stationary-state wave functions ?m(q) in terms of angle-action variables ( ?,J ). It is a particular solution of Schrödinger’s time-independent equation when terms of order ?2 and higher are omitted, but the preexponential factor A(q,?) in the integrand of this integral representation does not possess the correct dependence on q . The origin of the problem is identified: the standard unitarity condition invoked in semiclassical transformation theory does not fix adequately in A(q,?) a factor which is a function of the action J written in terms of q and ? . A prescription for an improved choice of this factor, based on successfully reproducing the leading behavior of wave functions in the vicinity of potential minima, is outlined. Exact evaluation of the modified integral representation via the residue theorem is possible. It yields wave functions which are not, in general, orthogonal. However, closed-form results obtained after Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization bear a striking resemblance to the exact analytical expressions for the stationary-state wave functions of the various potential models considered (namely, a Pöschl-Teller oscillator and the Morse oscillator).

Davis, Edward D.

2004-09-01

296

Global profiling of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1: expression of hypothetical genes and improved functional annotations.  

PubMed

The gamma-proteobacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 is a metabolically versatile organism that can reduce a wide range of organic compounds, metal ions, and radionuclides. Similar to most other sequenced organisms, approximately 40% of the predicted ORFs in the S. oneidensis genome were annotated as uncharacterized "hypothetical" genes. We implemented an integrative approach by using experimental and computational analyses to provide more detailed insight into gene function. Global expression profiles were determined for cells after UV irradiation and under aerobic and suboxic growth conditions. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses confidently identified 538 hypothetical genes as expressed in S. oneidensis cells both as mRNAs and proteins (33% of all predicted hypothetical proteins). Publicly available analysis tools and databases and the expression data were applied to improve the annotation of these genes. The annotation results were scored by using a seven-category schema that ranked both confidence and precision of the functional assignment. We were able to identify homologs for nearly all of these hypothetical proteins (97%), but could confidently assign exact biochemical functions for only 16 proteins (category 1; 3%). Altogether, computational and experimental evidence provided functional assignments or insights for 240 more genes (categories 2-5; 45%). These functional annotations advance our understanding of genes involved in vital cellular processes, including energy conversion, ion transport, secondary metabolism, and signal transduction. We propose that this integrative approach offers a valuable means to undertake the enormous challenge of characterizing the rapidly growing number of hypothetical proteins with each newly sequenced genome. PMID:15684069

Kolker, Eugene; Picone, Alex F; Galperin, Michael Y; Romine, Margaret F; Higdon, Roger; Makarova, Kira S; Kolker, Natali; Anderson, Gordon A; Qiu, Xiaoyun; Auberry, Kenneth J; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Beliaev, Alex S; Edlefsen, Paul; Elias, Dwayne A; Gorby, Yuri A; Holzman, Ted; Klappenbach, Joel A; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T; Land, Miriam L; Lipton, Mary S; McCue, Lee-Ann; Monroe, Matthew; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Pinchuk, Grigoriy; Purvine, Samuel; Serres, Margrethe H; Tsapin, Sasha; Zakrajsek, Brian A; Zhu, Wenhong; Zhou, Jizhong; Larimer, Frank W; Lawrence, Charles E; Riley, Monica; Collart, Frank R; Yates, John R; Smith, Richard D; Giometti, Carol S; Nealson, Kenneth H; Fredrickson, James K; Tiedje, James M

2005-02-01

297

Memantine exerts functional recovery by improving BDNF and GDNF expression in 3-nitropropionic acid intoxicated mice.  

PubMed

Memantine (MN), a NMDA blocker is well known for its protective effect against various neurodegenerative diseases. However, its role in improving motor function and regulation of neurotrophic factors in Huntington's disease (HD) has not been studied yet. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of MN against 3-nitropropionic acid (3NP), induced motor impairment, and alterations in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) in mice brain. Further, its role in mitochondrial function was assessed by measuring succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neuronal nuclei (NeuN) immunoreactivity were studied to evaluate the role of MN on glial and neuronal function. Its effect on apoptosis was adjudged by studying the expression of apoptotic markers. MN restored motor functions with an associated up-regulation in neurotrophin expression. MN also enhanced brain SDH activity and decreased glutamate content. MN ameliorated striatal neuronal loss, reduced GFAP immunoreactivity, and exhibited protective effect against neuronal apoptosis. Data from the current study demonstrated that MN exerted neuroprotective effect against 3NP induced neuropathology. Restoration of motor function by MN might be through regulation of neurotrophin expression. MN can therefore be a useful therapeutic choice in the symptomatic management of HD. PMID:25475686

Ranju, Vijayan; Sathiya, Sekar; Kalaivani, Periyathambi; Priya, Raju Jyothi; Saravana Babu, Chidambaram

2015-01-23

298

Musculoskeletal health in Hunter disease (MPS II): ERT improves functional outcomes.  

PubMed

Musculoskeletal disease is a significant burden for children with Mucopolysaccharide (MPS) disorders. The Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) is a validated, functional measure of musculoskeletal health in children with disabilities. The goal of this study is to describe the musculoskeletal manifestations of children with MPS II (Hunter syndrome), and their functional response to intravenous enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). Patients with MPS II were prospectively entered into an IRB approved registry. Chart review of physical findings including, shoulder, elbow, hip, knee and ankle range of motion, and need for carpal tunnel release was performed. Radiographs of the spine and pelvis were evaluated in all patients. Serial PODCI exams were administered to all patients. Seven patients, 5 receiving ERT, were included. Four patients had spinal deformities, seven had modest hip disease, and two required carpal tunnel release. PODCI scores were abnormally low in all domains, but significant improvements in PODCI scores were documented with enzyme replacement therapy. Spine and hip deformity are ubiquitous in MPS II, none of which have required surgical intervention, but require long term monitoring. Patients with MPS II should be monitored for carpal tunnel syndrome. Functional improvements are seen, as documented by the PODCI, in children with MPS II on ERT. PMID:21791837

White, Klane K; Hale, Susan; Goldberg, Michael J

2010-01-01

299

Perturbative renormalization functions of local operators for staggered fermions with stout improvement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present the perturbative computation of the renormalization functions for the quark field and for a complete set of ultralocal fermion bilinears. The computation of the relevant Green’s functions are carried out at one-loop level for the staggered action using massive fermions. The gluon links which appear both in the fermion action and in the definition of the bilinears are improved by applying a stout smearing procedure up to two times, iteratively. In the gluon sector we employ the Symanzik improved gauge action for different sets of values of the Symanzik coefficients. The renormalization functions are presented in (two variants of) the RI' and in the MS¯ renormalization scheme; the dependence on all stout parameters, as well as on the fermion mass, the gauge fixing parameter, and the renormalization scale, is shown explicitly. This work is related to our recent paper [Phys. Rev. D 86, 094512 (2012)]. To make our results easily accessible to the reader, we include them in the distribution package of this paper as a Mathematica input file, “Staggered.m.”

Constantinou, M.; Costa, M.; Panagopoulos, H.

2013-08-01

300

Pulsed electromagnetic field improves cardiac function in response to myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

Extracorporeal pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has been shown the ability to improve regeneration in various ischemic episodes. Here, we examined whether PEMF therapy facilitate cardiac recovery in rat myocardial infarction (MI), and the cellular/molecular mechanisms underlying PEMF-related therapy was further investigated. The MI rats were exposed to active PEMF for 4 cycles per day (8 minutes/cycle, 30 ± 3 Hz, 5 mT) after MI induction. The data demonstrated that PEMF treatment significantly inhibited cardiac apoptosis and improved cardiac systolic function. Moreover, PEMF treatment increased capillary density, the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxic inducible factor-1? in infarct border zone. Furthermore, the number and function of circulating endothelial progenitor cells were advanced in PEMF treating rats. In vitro, PEMF induced the degree of human umbilical venous endothelial cells tubulization and increased soluble pro-angiogenic factor secretion (VEGF and nitric oxide). In conclusion, PEMF therapy preserves cardiac systolic function, inhibits apoptosis and trigger postnatal neovascularization in ischemic myocardium. PMID:24936220

Hao, Chang-Ning; Huang, Jing-Juan; Shi, Yi-Qin; Cheng, Xian-Wu; Li, Hao-Yun; Zhou, Lin; Guo, Xin-Gui; Li, Rui-Lin; Lu, Wei; Zhu, Yi-Zhun; Duan, Jun-Li

2014-01-01

301

Dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 fatty acids improve systemic large artery endothelial function in subjects with hypercholesterolemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVEThis work was undertaken to determine whether dietary supplementation with marine omega-3 fatty acids improve systemic large artery endothelial function in subjects with hypercholesterolemia.BACKGROUNDMarine omega-3 fatty acids improve vascular function, but the underlying mechanism(s) are unclear. We studied the effects of marine omega-3 fatty acids on large artery endothelial function in subjects with hypercholesterolemia.METHODSHypercholesterolemic subjects with no other known cause

Jonathan Goodfellow; Michael F Bellamy; Mark W Ramsey; Christopher J. H Jones; Malcolm J Lewis

2000-01-01

302

Alterations in left ventricular diastolic function in conscious dogs with pacing-induced heart failure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We investigated in conscious dogs (a) the effects of heart failure induced by chronic rapid ventricular pacing on the sequence of development of left ventricular (LV) diastolic versus systolic dysfunction and (b) whether the changes were load dependent or secondary to alterations in structure. LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction were evident within 24 h after initiation of pacing and occurred in parallel over 3 wk. LV systolic function was reduced at 3 wk, i.e., peak LV dP/dt fell by -1,327 +/- 105 mmHg/s and ejection fraction by -22 +/- 2%. LV diastolic dysfunction also progressed over 3 wk of pacing, i.e., tau increased by +14.0 +/- 2.8 ms and the myocardial stiffness constant by +6.5 +/- 1.4, whereas LV chamber stiffness did not change. These alterations were associated with increases in LV end-systolic (+28.6 +/- 5.7 g/cm2) and LV end-diastolic stresses (+40.4 +/- 5.3 g/cm2). When stresses and heart rate were matched at the same levels in the control and failure states, the increases in tau and myocardial stiffness were no longer observed, whereas LV systolic function remained depressed. There were no increases in connective tissue content in heart failure. Thus, pacing-induced heart failure in conscious dogs is characterized by major alterations in diastolic function which are reversible with normalization of increased loading condition.

Komamura, K.; Shannon, R. P.; Pasipoularides, A.; Ihara, T.; Lader, A. S.; Patrick, T. A.; Bishop, S. P.; Vatner, S. F.

1992-01-01

303

Alterations in left ventricular diastolic function in conscious dogs with pacing-induced heart failure.  

PubMed Central

We investigated in conscious dogs (a) the effects of heart failure induced by chronic rapid ventricular pacing on the sequence of development of left ventricular (LV) diastolic versus systolic dysfunction and (b) whether the changes were load dependent or secondary to alterations in structure. LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction were evident within 24 h after initiation of pacing and occurred in parallel over 3 wk. LV systolic function was reduced at 3 wk, i.e., peak LV dP/dt fell by -1,327 +/- 105 mmHg/s and ejection fraction by -22 +/- 2%. LV diastolic dysfunction also progressed over 3 wk of pacing, i.e., tau increased by +14.0 +/- 2.8 ms and the myocardial stiffness constant by +6.5 +/- 1.4, whereas LV chamber stiffness did not change. These alterations were associated with increases in LV end-systolic (+28.6 +/- 5.7 g/cm2) and LV end-diastolic stresses (+40.4 +/- 5.3 g/cm2). When stresses and heart rate were matched at the same levels in the control and failure states, the increases in tau and myocardial stiffness were no longer observed, whereas LV systolic function remained depressed. There were no increases in connective tissue content in heart failure. Thus, pacing-induced heart failure in conscious dogs is characterized by major alterations in diastolic function which are reversible with normalization of increased loading condition. Images PMID:1601992

Komamura, K; Shannon, R P; Pasipoularides, A; Ihara, T; Lader, A S; Patrick, T A; Bishop, S P; Vatner, S F

1992-01-01

304

The function and response of an improved stratospheric condensation nucleus counter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An improved condensation nucleus counter (CNC) for use in the stratosphere is described. The University of Minnesota CNC (UMCNC) has a sequential saturator and condenser and uses n-butyl alcohol as the working fluid. The use of a coaxial saturator flow, with aerosol in the center and filtered, alcohol-laden air around it, speeds the response of this instrument and improves its stability as pressure changes. The counting efficiency has been studied as a function of particle size and pressure. The UMCNC provides an accurate measure of submicron aerosol concentration as long as the number distribution is not dominated by sub-0.02 micron diameter aerosol. The response of the UMCNC is compared with that of other stratospheric condensation nucleus counters, and the results of a (near) comparison with a balloon-borne condensation nucleus counter are presented. The UMCNC has operated 14 times on a NASA U-2 aircraft at altitudes from 8 to 21.5 km.

Wilson, J. C.; Hyun, J. H.; Blackshear, E. D.

1983-01-01

305

Functionalized low defect graphene nanoribbons and polyurethane composite film for improved gas barrier and mechanical performances.  

PubMed

A thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composite film containing hexadecyl-functionalized low-defect graphene nanoribbons (HD-GNRs) was produced by solution casting. The HD-GNRs were well distributed within the polyurethane matrix, leading to phase separation of the TPU. Nitrogen gas effective diffusivity of TPU was decreased by 3 orders of magnitude with only 0.5 wt % HD-GNRs. The incorporation of HD-GNRs also improved the mechanical properties of the composite films, as predicted by the phase separation and indicated by tensile tests and dynamic mechanical analyses. The improved properties of the composite film could lead to potential applications in food packaging and lightweight mobile gas storage containers. PMID:24102568

Xiang, Changsheng; Cox, Paris J; Kukovecz, Akos; Genorio, Bostjan; Hashim, Daniel P; Yan, Zheng; Peng, Zhiwei; Hwang, Chih-Chau; Ruan, Gedeng; Samuel, Errol L G; Sudeep, Parambath M; Konya, Zoltan; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Tour, James M

2013-11-26

306

Sampling Multiple Scoring Functions Can Improve Protein Loop Structure Prediction Accuracy  

PubMed Central

Accurately predicting loop structures is important for understanding functions of many proteins. In order to obtain loop models with high accuracy, efficiently sampling the loop conformation space to discover reasonable structures is a critical step. In loop conformation sampling, coarse-grain energy (scoring) functions coupling with reduced protein representations are often used to reduce the number of degrees of freedom as well as sampling computational time. However, due to implicitly considering many factors by reduced representations, the coarse-grain scoring functions may have potential insensitivity and inaccuracy, which can mislead the sampling process and consequently ignore important loop conformations. In this paper, we present a new computational sampling approach to obtain reasonable loop backbone models, so-called the Pareto Optimal Sampling (POS) method. The rationale of the POS method is to sample the function space of multiple, carefully-selected scoring functions to discover an ensemble of diversified structures yielding Pareto optimality to all sampled conformations. POS method can efficiently tolerate insensitivity and inaccuracy in individual scoring functions and thereby lead to significant accuracy improvement in loop structure prediction. We apply the POS method to a set of 4- to 12-residue loop targets using a function space composed of backbone-only Rosetta, DFIRE, and a triplet backbone dihedral potential developed in our lab. Our computational results show that in 501 out of 502 targets, the model sets generated by POS contain structure models are within subangstrom resolution. Moreover, the top-ranked models have Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) less than 1A in 96.8%, 84.1%, and 72.2% of the short (4~6 residues), medium (7~9 residues), and long (10~12) targets, respectively, when the all-atom models are generated by local optimization from the backbone models and are ranked by our recently developed Pareto Optimal Consensus (POC) method. Similar sampling effectiveness can also be found in a set of 13-residue loop targets. PMID:21702492

Rata, Ionel; Jakobsson, Eric

2011-01-01

307

Improving CO2 adsorption onto activated carbon through functionalization by chitosan and triethylenetetramine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activated carbon (AC) is one of the most dominant adsorbents for CO2 capture. To increase the capacity of CO2 adsorption, amine functional groups are grafted onto the adsorbent surfaces. In this study AC was functionalized by two different amines; chitosan and triethylenetetramine. The adsorption of CO2 onto raw and amine functionalized AC was experimentally investigated using volumetric technique in the temperature range of 293-313 K and pressure range of 1-40 bar. Results indicated that amine functionalization of the adsorbent significantly improved the adsorption of CO2. The adsorption capacity of CO2 achieved by the amine functionalized AC with triethylenetetramine (AC-TETA) was more than the amount, reached by amine functionalized AC with chitosan (AC-chitosan). The maximum amount of CO2 uptake achieved by AC-TETA and AC-chitosan was16.16 and 13.65 mmol/g at 298 K and 40 bar which shows 90% and 60% increase compared to raw AC, respectively. The experimental data of CO2 adsorption were analyzed using different model isotherms such as Freundlich, Langmuir, and Langmuir-Freundlich. Freundlich isotherm presented a nearly perfect fit in all cases which indicated the heterogeneous nature of the adsorbents surfaces. Gas adsorption kinetic study on the adsorbents revealed fast kinetics of CO2 adsorption on the AC before and after amine functionalization. Small values of isosteric heat of adsorption evaluated by a set of isotherms based on the Clasius-Clapeyron equation indicated that physisorption was the dominant mechanism in the adsorption process.

Keramati, Mona; Ghoreyshi, Ali Asghar

2014-03-01

308

Functional module search in protein networks based on semantic similarity improves the analysis of proteomics data.  

PubMed

The continuously evolving field of proteomics produces increasing amounts of data while improving the quality of protein identifications. Albeit quantitative measurements are becoming more popular, many proteomic studies are still based on non-quantitative methods for protein identification. These studies result in potentially large sets of identified proteins, where the biological interpretation of proteins can be challenging. Systems biology develops innovative network-based methods, which allow an integrated analysis of these data. Here we present a novel approach, which combines prior knowledge of protein-protein interactions (PPI) with proteomics data using functional similarity measurements of interacting proteins. This integrated network analysis exactly identifies network modules with a maximal consistent functional similarity reflecting biological processes of the investigated cells. We validated our approach on small (H9N2 virus-infected gastric cells) and large (blood constituents) proteomic data sets. Using this novel algorithm, we identified characteristic functional modules in virus-infected cells, comprising key signaling proteins (e.g. the stress-related kinase RAF1) and demonstrate that this method allows a module-based functional characterization of cell types. Analysis of a large proteome data set of blood constituents resulted in clear separation of blood cells according to their developmental origin. A detailed investigation of the T-cell proteome further illustrates how the algorithm partitions large networks into functional subnetworks each representing specific cellular functions. These results demonstrate that the integrated network approach not only allows a detailed analysis of proteome networks but also yields a functional decomposition of complex proteomic data sets and thereby provides deeper insights into the underlying cellular processes of the investigated system. PMID:24807868

Boyanova, Desislava; Nilla, Santosh; Klau, Gunnar W; Dandekar, Thomas; Müller, Tobias; Dittrich, Marcus

2014-07-01

309

Novel Applications of Remote Sensing for Improved Quantification of Sea Spray Source Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By producing bubbles, sea spray and marine aerosols, whitecaps are involved in the planetary heat budget, air-sea gas exchange, atmospheric marine boundary layer visibility, tropical cyclone intensification, and aerosol radiative forcing of climate. In addition, whitecaps affect geophysical retrievals of ocean surface wind vector, salinity, and ocean color. Better measurements and parameterizations of the whitecap fraction would improve the evaluation of these processes. The sea spray source function currently used in climate models is based on the relation between whitecap fraction W and wind speed U. However, parameterization W(U) does not capture adequately the high spatial and temporal variability of the oceanic whitecaps caused by water temperature, atmospheric stability, wave age, and wind history. Developing a predictive relationship capable of estimating W over the range of conditions encountered globally requires that the dependence of W on these additional factors be understood and modeled. The existing database of W compiled from photographs, while valuable in gaining knowledge, represents only a limited range of conditions. Satellite remote sensing of whitecap fraction opens the possibility to improve the modeling of its variability, hence the quantification of the sea spray source function. Using satellite based estimates, we have assembled a database of W and additional meteorological and environmental factors with global coverage and a much greater range of variability. This extensive database allows comprehensive analysis of W variability. This knowledge provides basis for improvement of existing or development of new models for W which more fully account for effects of additional factors. A systematic research program is underway at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) to retrieve W from existing satellite-borne microwave instruments. Building on initial feasibility study, NRL now has the capability of obtaining W globally with an improved algorithm. The validation, tuning, and further refining of this capability is ongoing. We will present the principle of radiometric measurements of whitecap fraction, results on its spatial and temporal features over the globe, and implications for quantifying global sea spray fluxes.

Anguelova, M. D.; Bettenhausen, M. H.; Johnston, W. F.; Gaiser, P. W.

2011-12-01

310

Whole-body vibration improves functional recovery in spinal cord injured rats.  

PubMed

Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a relatively novel form of exercise used to improve neuromuscular performance in healthy individuals. Its usefulness as a therapy for patients with neurological disorders, in particular spinal cord injury (SCI), has received little attention in clinical settings and, surprisingly, even less in animal SCI models. We performed severe compression SCI at a low-thoracic level in Wistar rats followed by daily WBV starting 7 (10 rats) or 14 (10 rats) days after injury (WBV7 and WBV14, respectively) and continued over a 12-week post-injury period. Rats with SCI but no WBV training (sham, 10 rats) and intact animals (10 rats) served as controls. Compared to sham-treated rats, WBV did not improve BBB score, plantar stepping, or ladder stepping during the 12-week period. Accordingly, WBV did not significantly alter plantar H-reflex, lesion volume, serotonergic input to the lumbar spinal cord, nor cholinergic or glutamatergic inputs to lumbar motoneurons at 12 weeks after SCI. However, compared to sham, WBV14, but not WBV7, significantly improved body weight support (rump-height index) during overground locomotion and overall recovery between 6-12 weeks and also restored the density of synaptic terminals in the lumbar spinal cord at 12 weeks. Most remarkably, WBV14 led to a significant improvement of bladder function at 6-12 weeks after injury. These findings provide the first evidence for functional benefits of WBV in an animal SCI model and warrant further preclinical investigations to determine mechanisms underpinning this noninvasive, inexpensive, and easily delivered potential rehabilitation therapy for SCI. PMID:23157611

Wirth, Felicitas; Schempf, Greta; Stein, Gregor; Wellmann, Katharina; Manthou, Marilena; Scholl, Carolin; Sidorenko, Malina; Semler, Oliver; Eisel, Leonie; Harrach, Rachida; Angelova, Srebrina; Jaminet, Patrick; Ankerne, Janina; Ashrafi, Mahak; Ozsoy, Ozlem; Ozsoy, Umut; Schubert, Harald; Abdulla, Diana; Dunlop, Sarah A; Angelov, Doychin N; Irintchev, Andrey; Schönau, Eckhard

2013-03-15

311

Platelet gene therapy improves hemostatic function for integrin ?IIb?3-deficient dogs  

PubMed Central

Activated blood platelets mediate the primary response to vascular injury. Although molecular abnormalities of platelet proteins occur infrequently, taken collectively, an inherited platelet defect accounts for a bleeding diathesis in ?1:20,000 individuals. One rare example of a platelet disorder, Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT), is characterized by life-long morbidity and mortality due to molecular abnormalities in a major platelet adhesion receptor, integrin ?IIb?3. Transfusion therapy is frequently inadequate because patients often generate antibodies to ?IIb?3, leading to immune-mediated destruction of healthy platelets. In the most severe cases allogeneic bone marrow transplantation has been used, yet because of the risk of the procedure it has been limited to few patients. Thus, hematopoietic stem cell gene transfer was explored as a strategy to improve platelet function within a canine model for GT. Bleeding complications necessitated the use of a mild pretransplant conditioning regimen; therefore, in vivo drug selection was used to improve engraftment of autologously transplanted cells. Approximately 5,000 ?IIb?3 receptors formed on 10% of platelets. These modest levels allowed platelets to adhere to ?IIb?3’s major ligand (fibrinogen), form aggregates, and mediate retraction of a fibrin clot. Remarkably, improved hemostatic function was evident, with ?135-fold reduced blood loss, and improved buccal bleeding times decreased to 4 min for up to 5 y after transplant. One of four transplanted dogs developed a significant antibody response to ?IIb?3 that was attenuated effectively with transient immune suppression. These results indicate that gene therapy could become a practical approach for treating inherited platelet defects. PMID:21606353

Fang, Juan; Jensen, Eric S.; Boudreaux, Mary K.; Du, Lily M.; Hawkins, Troy B.; Koukouritaki, Sevasti B.; Cornetta, Kenneth; Wilcox, David A.

2011-01-01

312

Platelet gene therapy improves hemostatic function for integrin alphaIIbbeta3-deficient dogs.  

PubMed

Activated blood platelets mediate the primary response to vascular injury. Although molecular abnormalities of platelet proteins occur infrequently, taken collectively, an inherited platelet defect accounts for a bleeding diathesis in ?1:20,000 individuals. One rare example of a platelet disorder, Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT), is characterized by life-long morbidity and mortality due to molecular abnormalities in a major platelet adhesion receptor, integrin ?IIb?3. Transfusion therapy is frequently inadequate because patients often generate antibodies to ?IIb?3, leading to immune-mediated destruction of healthy platelets. In the most severe cases allogeneic bone marrow transplantation has been used, yet because of the risk of the procedure it has been limited to few patients. Thus, hematopoietic stem cell gene transfer was explored as a strategy to improve platelet function within a canine model for GT. Bleeding complications necessitated the use of a mild pretransplant conditioning regimen; therefore, in vivo drug selection was used to improve engraftment of autologously transplanted cells. Approximately 5,000 ?IIb?3 receptors formed on 10% of platelets. These modest levels allowed platelets to adhere to ?IIb?3's major ligand (fibrinogen), form aggregates, and mediate retraction of a fibrin clot. Remarkably, improved hemostatic function was evident, with ?135-fold reduced blood loss, and improved buccal bleeding times decreased to 4 min for up to 5 y after transplant. One of four transplanted dogs developed a significant antibody response to ?IIb?3 that was attenuated effectively with transient immune suppression. These results indicate that gene therapy could become a practical approach for treating inherited platelet defects. PMID:21606353

Fang, Juan; Jensen, Eric S; Boudreaux, Mary K; Du, Lily M; Hawkins, Troy B; Koukouritaki, Sevasti B; Cornetta, Kenneth; Wilcox, David A

2011-06-01

313

Robotic Resistance/Assistance Training Improves Locomotor Function in Individuals Poststroke: A Randomized Controlled Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether providing a controlled resistance versus assistance to the paretic leg at the ankle during treadmill training will improve walking function in individuals poststroke. Design Repeated assessment of the same patients with parallel design and randomized controlled study between 2 groups. Setting Research units of rehabilitation hospitals. Participants Patients (N=30) with chronic stroke. Intervention Subjects were stratified based on self-selected walking speed and were randomly assigned to the resistance or assistance training group. For the resistance group, a controlled resistance load was applied to the paretic leg at the ankle to resist leg swing during treadmill walking. For the assistance group, a load that assists swing was applied. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcome measures were walking speed and 6-minute walking distance. Secondary measures included clinical assessments of balance, muscle tone, and quality of life. Outcome measures were evaluated before and after 6 weeks of training and at 8 weeks’ follow-up, and compared within group and between the 2 groups. Results After 6 weeks of robotic training, walking speed significantly increased for both groups, with no significant differences in walking speed gains observed between the 2 groups. In addition, 6-minute walking distance and balance significantly improved for the assistance group but not for the resistance group. Conclusions Applying a controlled resistance or an assistance load to the paretic leg during treadmill training may induce improvements in walking speed in individuals poststroke. Resistance training was not superior to assistance training in improving locomotor function in individuals poststroke. PMID:24440365

Wu, Ming; Landry, Jill M.; Kim, Janis; Schmit, Brian D.; Yen, Sheng-Che; MacDonald, Jillian

2014-01-01

314

Cardiomyocyte-specific expression of lamin a improves cardiac function in Lmna-/- mice.  

PubMed

Lmna(-/-) mice display multiple tissue defects and die by 6-8 weeks of age reportedly from dilated cardiomyopathy with associated conduction defects. We sought to determine whether restoration of lamin A in cardiomyocytes improves cardiac function and extends the survival of Lmna(-/-) mice. We observed increased total desmin protein levels and disorganization of the cytoplasmic desmin network in ~20% of Lmna(-/-) ventricular myocytes, rescued in a cell-autonomous manner in Lmna(-/-) mice expressing a cardiac-specific lamin A transgene (Lmna(-/-); Tg). Lmna(-/-); Tg mice displayed significantly increased contractility and preservation of myocardial performance compared to Lmna(-/-) mice. Lmna(-/-); Tg mice attenuated ERK1/2 phosphorylation relative to Lmna(-/-) mice, potentially underlying the improved localization of connexin43 to the intercalated disc. Electrocardiographic recordings from Lmna(-/-) mice revealed arrhythmic events and increased frequency of PR interval prolongation, which is partially rescued in Lmna(-/-); Tg mice. These findings support our observation that Lmna(-/-); Tg mice have a 12% median extension in lifespan compared to Lmna(-/-) mice. While significant, Lmna(-/-); Tg mice only have modest improvement in cardiac function and survival likely stemming from the observation that only 40% of Lmna(-/-); Tg cardiomyocytes have detectable lamin A expression. Cardiomyocyte-specific restoration of lamin A in Lmna(-/-) mice improves heart-specific pathology and extends lifespan, demonstrating that the cardiac pathology of Lmna(-/-) mice limits survival. The expression of lamin A is sufficient to rescue certain cellular defects associated with loss of A-type lamins in cardiomyocytes in a cell-autonomous fashion. PMID:22905185

Frock, Richard L; Chen, Steven C; Da, Dao-Fu; Frett, Ellie; Lau, Carmen; Brown, Christina; Pak, Diana N; Wang, Yuexia; Muchir, Antoine; Worman, Howard J; Santana, Luis F; Ladiges, Warren C; Rabinovitch, Peter S; Kennedy, Brian K

2012-01-01

315

Sustained delivery of VEGF from designer self-assembling peptides improves cardiac function after myocardial infarction  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The designer peptide LRKKLGKA could self-assemble into nanofibers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Injection of LRKKLGKA peptides could promote the sustained delivery of VEGF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Injection of VEGF with LRKKLGKA peptides lead to sufficient angiogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Injection of VEGF with LRKKLGKA peptides improves heart function. -- Abstract: Poor vascularization and insufficient oxygen supply are detrimental to the survival of residual cardiomyocytes or transplanted stem cells after myocardial infarction. To prolong and slow the release of angiogenic factors, which stimulate both angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, we constructed a novel self-assembling peptide by attaching the heparin-binding domain sequence LRKKLGKA to the self-assembling peptide RADA16. This designer self-assembling peptide self-assembled into nanofiber scaffolds under physiological conditions, as observed by atomic force microscopy. The injection of designer self-assembling peptides can efficiently provide the sustained delivery of VEGF for at least 1 month. At 4 weeks after transplantation, cardiac function was improved, and scar size and collagen deposition were markedly reduced in the group receiving VEGF with the LRKKLGKA scaffolds compared with groups receiving VEGF alone, LRKKLGKA scaffolds alone or VEGF with RADA16 scaffolds. The microvessel density in the VEGF with LRKKLGKA group was higher than that in the VEGF with RADA16 group. TUNEL and cleaved caspase-3 expression assays showed that the transplantation of VEGF with LRKKLGKA enhanced cell survival in the infarcted heart. These results present the tailor-made peptide scaffolds as a new generation of sustained-release biomimetic biomaterials and suggest that the use of angiogenic factors along with designer self-assembling peptides can lead to myocardial protection, sufficient angiogenesis, and improvement in cardiac function.

Guo, Hai-dong [Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China)] [Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China); Cui, Guo-hong; Yang, Jia-jun [Department of Neurology, Shanghai No. 6 People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200233 (China)] [Department of Neurology, Shanghai No. 6 People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200233 (China); Wang, Cun [Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)] [Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Li-sheng; Jiang, Jun [Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China)] [Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China); Shao, Shui-jin, E-mail: shaoshuijin@163.com [Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China)] [Department of Anatomy, School of Basic Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai 201203 (China)

2012-07-20

316

Body adiposity dictates different mechanisms of increased coronary reactivity related to improved in vivo cardiac function  

PubMed Central

Background Saturated fatty acid-rich high fat (HF) diets trigger abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiac dysfunction. This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of nascent obesity on the cardiac function of animals fed a high-fat diet and at analyzing the mechanisms by which these alterations occurred at the level of coronary reserve. Materials and methods Rats were fed a control (C) or a HF diet containing high proportions of saturated fatty acids for 3 months. Thereafter, their cardiac function was evaluated in vivo using a pressure probe inserted into the cavity of the left ventricle. Their heart was isolated, perfused iso-volumetrically according to the Langendorff mode and the coronary reserve was evaluated by determining the endothelial-dependent (EDV) and endothelial-independent (EIV) vasodilatations in the absence and presence of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase inhibitors (L-NAME and indomethacin). The fatty acid composition of cardiac phospholipids was then evaluated. Results Although all the HF-fed rats increased their abdominal adiposity, some of them did not gain body weight (HF- group) compared to the C group whereas other ones had a higher body weight (HF+). All HF rats displayed a higher in vivo cardiac activity associated with an increased EDV. In the HF- group, the improved EDV was due to an increase in the endothelial cell vasodilatation activity whereas in the HF+?group, the enhanced EDV resulted from an improved sensitivity of coronary smooth muscle cells to nitric oxide. Furthermore, in the HF- group the main pathway implicated in the EDV was the NOS pathway while in the HF+?group the COX pathway. Conclusions Nascent obesity-induced improvement of cardiac function may be supported by an enhanced coronary reserve occurring via different mechanisms. These mechanisms implicate either the endothelial cells activity or the smooth muscle cells sensitivity depending on the body adiposity of the animals. PMID:24572210

2014-01-01

317

Progressive resistance strength training for improving physical function in older adults  

PubMed Central

Background Muscle weakness in old age is associated with physical function decline. Progressive resistance strength training (PRT) exercises are designed to increase strength. Objectives To assess the effects of PRT on older people and identify adverse events. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialized Register (to March 2007), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to May 01, 2008), EMBASE (1980 to February 06 2007), CINAHL (1982 to July 01 2007) and two other electronic databases. We also searched reference lists of articles, reviewed conference abstracts and contacted authors. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials reporting physical outcomes of PRT for older people were included. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed trial quality and extracted data. Data were pooled where appropriate. Main results One hundred and twenty one trials with 6700 participants were included. In most trials, PRT was performed two to three times per week and at a high intensity. PRT resulted in a small but significant improvement in physical ability (33 trials, 2172 participants; SMD 0.14, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.22). Functional limitation measures also showed improvements: e.g. there was a modest improvement in gait speed (24 trials, 1179 participants, MD 0.08 m/s, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.12); and a moderate to large effect for getting out of a chair (11 trials, 384 participants, SMD -0.94, 95% CI -1.49 to -0.38). PRT had a large positive effect on muscle strength (73 trials, 3059 participants, SMD 0.84, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.00). Participants with osteoarthritis reported a reduction in pain following PRT (6 trials, 503 participants, SMD -0.30, 95% CI -0.48 to -0.13). There was no evidence from 10 other trials (587 participants) that PRT had an effect on bodily pain. Adverse events were poorly recorded but adverse events related to musculoskeletal complaints, such as joint pain and muscle soreness, were reported in many of the studies that prospectively defined and monitored these events. Serious adverse events were rare, and no serious events were reported to be directly related to the exercise programme. Authors' conclusions This review provides evidence that PRT is an effective intervention for improving physical functioning in older people, including improving strength and the performance of some simple and complex activities. However, some caution is needed with transferring these exercises for use with clinical populations because adverse events are not adequately reported. PMID:19588334

Liu, Chiung-ju; Latham, Nancy K

2014-01-01

318

Improving Performance of the System Safety Function at Marshall Space Flight Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) determined that organizational and management issues were significant contributors to the loss of Space Shuttle Columbia. In addition, the CAIB observed similarities between the organizational and management climate that preceded the Challenger accident and the climate that preceded the Columbia accident. To prevent recurrence of adverse organizational and management climates, effective implementation of the system safety function is suggested. Attributes of an effective system safety program are presented. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) system safety program is analyzed using the attributes. Conclusions and recommendations for improving the MSFC system safety program are offered in this case study.

Kiessling, Ed; Tippett, Donald D.; Shivers, Herb

2004-01-01

319

Glycopolymer functionalization of engineered spider silk protein-based materials for improved cell adhesion.  

PubMed

Silk protein-based materials are promising biomaterials for application as tissue scaffolds, due to their processability, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. The preparation of films composed of an engineered spider silk protein (eADF4(C16)) and their functionalization with glycopolymers are described. The glycopolymers bind proteins found in the extracellular matrix, providing a biomimetic coating on the films that improves cell adhesion to the surfaces of engineered spider silk films. Such silk-based materials have potential as coatings for degradable implantable devices. PMID:24700586

Hardy, John G; Pfaff, André; Leal-Egaña, Aldo; Müller, Axel H E; Scheibel, Thomas R

2014-07-01

320

Improving functional annotation for industrial microbes: a case study with Pichia pastoris  

PubMed Central

The research communities studying microbial model organisms, such as Escherichia coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are well served by model organism databases that have extensive functional annotation. However, this is not true of many industrial microbes that are used widely in biotechnology. In this Opinion piece, we use Pichia (Komagataella) pastoris to illustrate the limitations of the available annotation. We consider the resources that can be implemented in the short term both to improve Gene Ontology (GO) annotation coverage based on annotation transfer, and to establish curation pipelines for the literature corpus of this organism. PMID:24929579

Dikicioglu, Duygu; Wood, Valerie; Rutherford, Kim M.; McDowall, Mark D.; Oliver, Stephen G.

2014-01-01

321

Engineering the heart: Evaluation of conductive nanomaterials for improving implant integration and cardiac function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, carbon nanotubes together with other types of conductive materials have been used to enhance the viability and function of cardiomyocytes in vitro. Here we demonstrated a paradigm to construct ECTs for cardiac repair using conductive nanomaterials. Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) were incorporated into gelatin hydrogel scaffolds to construct three-dimensional ECTs. We found that SWNTs could provide cellular microenvironment in vitro favorable for cardiac contraction and the expression of electrochemical associated proteins. Upon implantation into the infarct hearts in rats, ECTs structurally integrated with the host myocardium, with different types of cells observed to mutually invade into implants and host tissues. The functional measurements showed that SWNTs were essential to improve the performance of ECTs in inhibiting pathological deterioration of myocardium. This work suggested that conductive nanomaterials hold therapeutic potential in engineering cardiac tissues to repair myocardial infarction.

Zhou, Jin; Chen, Jun; Sun, Hongyu; Qiu, Xiaozhong; Mou, Yongchao; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yuwei; Li, Xia; Han, Yao; Duan, Cuimi; Tang, Rongyu; Wang, Chunlan; Zhong, Wen; Liu, Jie; Luo, Ying; (Mengqiu) Xing, Malcolm; Wang, Changyong

2014-01-01

322

Improvements in the sensibility of MSA-GA tool using COFFEE objective function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sequence alignment is one of the most important tasks in Bioinformatics, playing an important role in the sequences analysis. There are many strategies to perform sequence alignment, since those use deterministic algorithms, as dynamic programming, until those ones, which use heuristic algorithms, as Progressive, Ant Colony (ACO), Genetic Algorithms (GA), Simulated Annealing (SA), among others. In this work, we have implemented the objective function COFFEE in the MSA-GA tool, in substitution of Weighted Sum-of-Pairs (WSP), to improve the final results. In the tests, we were able to verify the approach using COFFEE function achieved better results in 81% of the lower similarity alignments when compared with WSP approach. Moreover, even in the tests with more similar sets, the approach using COFFEE was better in 43% of the times.

Amorim, A. R.; Zafalon, G. F. D.; Neves, L. A.; Pinto, A. R.; Valêncio, C. R.; Machado, J. M.

2015-01-01

323

Effects of acetyl-strophanthidin on left ventricular function and ventricular arrhythmias.  

PubMed

Digitalis drugs can suppress ventricular arrhythmias. It is uncertain whether this effect results from improved left ventricular (LV) function. We utilized radionuclide scanning techniques to evaluate changes in LV ejection fraction (EF) after an infusion of acetyl-strophanthidin in 43 patients with frequent ventricular premature beats (VPBs) (44 to 2400/hr). Acetyl-strophanthidin suppressed ventricular arrhythmia in 17 patients, but LVEF increased in only six of these patients (57% to 67%), while it was unaltered in 11 patients (28% to 30%). In 26 patients ventricular arrhythmia was not suppressed. Fifteen of these patients had an increase in LVEF (60% vs 71%), while this was unchanged in 11 patients (27% vs 29%). Thus no correlation was observed between the positive inotropic and antiarrhythmic action of acetyl-strophanthidin on ventricular arrhythmia and LVEF. We conclude that the suppression of VPBs by acetyl-strophanthidin is independent of the drug's effects on LV function. Evidence is reviewed suggesting that the antiarrhythmic effect of acetyl-strophanthidin on ventricular ectopic activity is due to its vagotonic action. PMID:6720517

Podrid, P; Lown, B; Zielonka, J; Holman, B L

1984-05-01

324

Improved activity and mental function related to proper antiasthmatic treatment in elderly patients with Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and bronchial asthma are common diseases in elderly patients. Untreated chronic diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, diabetes, heart failure, and asthma can be associated with declining cognitive function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of asthma therapy performed according to Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) guidelines (GINA. Global strategy for asthma management and prevention. Report. Available online at http://www.ginasthma.com/Guidelineitem.asp??l1=2&l2=1&intId=60 last accessed Oct. 2009) on cognitive function and functional status in patients diagnosed with AD. A total of 302 participants who were diagnosed with bronchial asthma and mild or moderate AD (138 women and 164 men) with a mean age of 68.2 ± 5.1 years were included in the study. Cognitive function was assessed based on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the clock drawing test at the beginning of the study, after 6 months, and after 1 year. Results were compared with a control group of patients with AD but not asthma. Several patients (68.9%) had uncontrolled asthma (confirmed at the beginning of the study) and AD. After 1 year of antiasthmatic treatment, the mean MMSE score increased significantly from the baseline values of 17.2 ± 3.2 to 19.5 ± 2.1 (mean ± SD; p < 0.05). This change was significant compared with the control group. Significant improvement in instrumental activity was observed after 1 year of treatment in patients with asthma. Finally, 63.6% of patients met the criteria of well-controlled asthma. Adequate treatment of chronic asthma could improve some cognitive and instrumental activities. Asthma in patients with AD is commonly underdiagnosed and undertreated. PMID:22195685

Bozek, Andrzej; Jarzab, Jerzy

2011-01-01

325

The sphingolipid rheostat: a potential target for improving pancreatic islet survival and function.  

PubMed

Beta cell apoptosis and suboptimal islet function are implicated in the development of Type I (T1D) and Type II (T2D) diabetes, as well as the failure of the only current clinical beta cell replacement therapy for T1D, islet transplantation. Sphingosine kinase (SK) is a ubiquitous lipid kinase that controls the balance between prosurvival and proapoptotic precursors (e.g. sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and ceramide, respectively), the so-called 'sphingolipid rheostat', in many cell types. S1P, a potent lipid mediator, acts intracellularly through second messengers and extracellularly through five G-protein coupled receptors (S1P1-5), to promote calcium mobilization, intracellular signaling events, cytoskeleton rearrangements and mitogenesis. SK is important for revascularization responses, regulating the maturation of vascular endothelial progenitors and controlling cellular recruitment. The aim of this review is to highlight the sphingolipid rheostat in pancreatic biology as a therapeutic target for pharmacological and therapeutic intervention for diabetes and islet transplantation. SK and the sphingolipid rheostat are likely to be important for both islet function and beta cell survival and represent a common therapeutic target to protect the beta cell from diabetogenic insults and ultimately improve pancreatic islet function. A number of SK inhibitors and S1P receptor agonists/antagonists (including FTY720 (fingolimod) and its newer derivatives) have been recently described, with some now being used in the clinic. Recent developments in SK biochemistry and islet biology indicate the potential importance of the sphingolipid rheostat in determining islet survival and function. Pharmacological manipulation of this pathway represents a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent diabetes and improve islet transplantation outcomes. PMID:21696364

Jessup, Claire F; Bonder, Claudine S; Pitson, Stuart M; Coates, P Toby H

2011-12-01

326

ABSOLUTE PROPERTIES OF THE HIGHLY ECCENTRIC ECLIPSING BINARY STAR LV HERCULIS  

SciTech Connect

We report extensive spectroscopic and differential V-band photometric observations of the 18.4 day detached double-lined eclipsing binary LV Her (F9 V), which has the highest eccentricity (e {approx_equal} 0.613) among the systems with well-measured properties. We determine the absolute masses and radii of the components to be M {sub 1} = 1.193 {+-} 0.010 M {sub sun}, M {sub 2} = 1.1698 {+-} 0.0081 M {sub sun}, R {sub 1} = 1.358 {+-} 0.012 R {sub sun}, and R {sub 2} = 1.313 {+-} 0.011 R {sub sun}, with fractional errors of 0.9% or better. The effective temperatures are 6060 {+-} 150 K and 6030 {+-} 150 K, respectively, and the overall metallicity is estimated to be [m/H] = +0.08 {+-} 0.21. A comparison with current stellar evolution models for this composition indicates an excellent fit for an age between 3.8 and 4.2 Gyr, with both stars being near the middle of their main-sequence lifetimes. Full integration of the equations for tidal evolution is consistent with the high eccentricity, and suggests that the stars' spin axes are aligned with the orbital axis, and that their rotations should be pseudo-synchronized. The latter prediction is not quite in agreement with the measured projected rotational velocities.

Torres, Guillermo [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg [Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Claret, Antonio [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC, Apartado 3004, 18080 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: clacy@uark.edu, E-mail: claret@iaa.es

2009-12-15

327

Absolute Properties of the Highly Eccentric Eclipsing Binary Star LV Herculis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report extensive spectroscopic and differential V-band photometric observations of the 18.4 day detached double-lined eclipsing binary LV Her (F9 V), which has the highest eccentricity (e sime 0.613) among the systems with well-measured properties. We determine the absolute masses and radii of the components to be M 1 = 1.193 ± 0.010 M sun, M 2 = 1.1698 ± 0.0081 M sun, R 1 = 1.358 ± 0.012 R sun, and R 2 = 1.313 ± 0.011 R sun, with fractional errors of 0.9% or better. The effective temperatures are 6060 ± 150 K and 6030 ± 150 K, respectively, and the overall metallicity is estimated to be [m/H] = +0.08 ± 0.21. A comparison with current stellar evolution models for this composition indicates an excellent fit for an age between 3.8 and 4.2 Gyr, with both stars being near the middle of their main-sequence lifetimes. Full integration of the equations for tidal evolution is consistent with the high eccentricity, and suggests that the stars' spin axes are aligned with the orbital axis, and that their rotations should be pseudo-synchronized. The latter prediction is not quite in agreement with the measured projected rotational velocities.

Torres, Guillermo; Sandberg Lacy, Claud H.; Claret, Antonio

2009-12-01

328

Coffee polyphenols improve peripheral endothelial function after glucose loading in healthy male adults.  

PubMed

Brewed coffee is a widely consumed beverage, and many studies have examined its effects on human health. We investigated the vascular effects of coffee polyphenols (CPPs), hypothesizing that a single ingestion of CPP during glucose loading would improve endothelial function. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a randomized acute clinical intervention study with crossover design and measured reactive hyperemia index (RHI) to assess the acute effects of a 75-g glucose load with CPP in healthy, nondiabetic adult men. Blood glucose and insulin levels were elevated after glucose loading with and without CPP, with no significant differences between treatments. The RHI did not significantly decrease after glucose loading without CPP. With CPP, however, RHI significantly (P < .05) increased over baseline after glucose loading. The difference between treatments was statistically significant (P < .05). No significant changes were observed in an oxidative stress marker after glucose loading with or without CPP. These findings suggest that a single ingestion of CPP improves peripheral endothelial function after glucose loading in healthy subjects. PMID:24461317

Ochiai, Ryuji; Sugiura, Yoko; Shioya, Yasushi; Otsuka, Kazuhiro; Katsuragi, Yoshihisa; Hashiguchi, Teruto

2014-02-01

329

Fenbendazole improves pathological and functional recovery following traumatic spinal cord injury  

PubMed Central

During a study of spinal cord injury (SCI), mice in our colony were treated with the anthelmintic fenbendazole to treat pinworms detected in other mice not involved in the study. As this was not part of the original experimental design, we subsequently compared pathological and functional outcomes of SCI in female C57BL/6 mice who received fenbendazole (150 ppm, 8 mg/kg body weight/day) for four weeks prior to moderate contusive SCI (50 kdyn force) as compared to mice on the same diet without added fenbendazole. The fenbendazole-treated mice exhibited improved locomotor function, determined using the Basso mouse scale, as well as improved tissue sparing following contusive SCI. Fenbendazole may exert protective effects through multiple possible mechanisms, one of which is inhibition of the proliferation of B lymphocytes, thereby reducing antibody responses. Autoantibodies produced following SCI contribute to the axon damage and locomotor deficits. Fenbendazole pretreatment reduced the injury-induced CD45R-positive B cell signal intensity and IgG immunoreactivity at the lesion epicenter six weeks after contusive SCI in mice, consistent with a possible effect on the immune response to the injury. Fenbendazole and related benzimadole antihelmintics are FDA approved, exhibit minimal toxicity, and represent a novel group of potential therapeutics targeting secondary mechanisms following SCI. PMID:24183965

Yu, Chen Guang; Singh, Ranjana; Crowdus, Carolyn; Raza, Kashif; Kincer, Jeanie; Geddes, James W.

2014-01-01

330

Fenbendazole improves pathological and functional recovery following traumatic spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

During a study of spinal cord injury (SCI), mice in our colony were treated with the anthelmintic fenbendazole to treat pinworms detected in other mice not involved in the study. As this was not part of the original experimental design, we subsequently compared pathological and functional outcomes of SCI in female C57BL/6 mice who received fenbendazole (150 ppm, 8 mg/kg body weight/day) for 4 weeks prior to moderate contusive SCI (50 kdyn force) as compared to mice on the same diet without added fenbendazole. The fenbendazole-treated mice exhibited improved locomotor function, determined using the Basso mouse scale, as well as improved tissue sparing following contusive SCI. Fenbendazole may exert protective effects through multiple possible mechanisms, one of which is inhibition of the proliferation of B lymphocytes, thereby reducing antibody responses. Autoantibodies produced following SCI contribute to the axon damage and locomotor deficits. Fenbendazole pretreatment reduced the injury-induced CD45R-positive B cell signal intensity and IgG immunoreactivity at the lesion epicenter 6 weeks after contusive SCI in mice, consistent with a possible effect on the immune response to the injury. Fenbendazole and related benzimadole antihelmintics are FDA approved, exhibit minimal toxicity, and represent a novel group of potential therapeutics targeting secondary mechanisms following SCI. PMID:24183965

Yu, C G; Singh, R; Crowdus, C; Raza, K; Kincer, J; Geddes, J W

2014-01-01

331

Can Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Improve Cognitive Functioning in Adults with Schizophrenia?  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment is nearly ubiquitous in schizophrenia. First-degree relatives of persons with schizophrenia often show similar but milder deficits. Current methods for the treatment of schizophrenia are often ineffective in cognitive remediation. Since transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance cognitive functioning in healthy adults, it might provide a viable option to enhance cognition in schizophrenia. We sought to explore whether tDCS can be tolerated by persons with schizophrenia and potentially improve their cognitive functioning. We examined the effects of anodal versus cathodal tDCS on working memory and other cognitive tasks in five outpatients with schizophrenia and six first-degree relatives of persons with schizophrenia. Each participant completed tasks thought to be mediated by the prefrontal cortex during two 30-minute sessions of tDCS to the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Anodal stimulation over the left DLPFC improved performance relative to cathodal stimulation on measures of working memory and aspects of verbal fluency relevant to word retrieval. The patient group showed differential changes in novel design production without alteration of overall productivity, suggesting that tDCS might be capable of altering selfmonitoring and executive control. All participants tolerated tDCS well. None withdrew from the study or experienced any adverse reaction. We conclude that adults with schizophrenia can tolerate tDCS while engaging in cognitive tasks and that tDCS can alter their performance. PMID:25367166

Schretlen, David J; van Steenburgh, Joseph J; Varvaris, Mark; Vannorsdall, Tracy D; Andrejczuk, Megan A; Gordon, Barry

2014-11-01

332

Improving Vastus Medialis Obliquus Function Reduces Pressure Applied to Lateral Patellofemoral Cartilage  

PubMed Central

The current study was performed to characterize how improving vastus medialis obliquus (VMO) function influences the pressure applied to patellofemoral cartilage. An additional focus was characterizing how lateral and medial cartilage lesions influence cartilage pressures. Ten knees were flexed to 40°, 60° and 80° in vitro, and forces were applied to represent the VMO and other muscles of the quadriceps group while a thin film sensor measured joint pressures. The knees were loaded with a normal VMO force, with the VMO force decreased by approximately 50%, and with the VMO unloaded. After tests were performed with the cartilage intact, all tests were repeated with a 12 mm diameter lesion created within the lateral cartilage, with the lateral lesion repaired with silicone, and with a medial lesion created. Based on a two-way repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc tests, increasing the force applied by the VMO significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the maximum lateral pressure and significantly increased the maximum medial pressure at each flexion angle. A lateral cartilage lesion significantly increased the maximum lateral pressure, while a medial lesion did not significantly influence the maximum medial pressure. Improving VMO function can reduce the pressure applied to lateral cartilage when lateral lesions are present. PMID:18985700

Elias, John J.; Kilambi, Srianjana; Goerke, Derek R.; Cosgarea, Andrew J.

2009-01-01

333

Rolipram Improves Renal Perfusion and Function during Sepsis in the Mouse  

PubMed Central

Microcirculatory dysfunction is correlated with increased mortality among septic patients and is believed to be a major contributor to the development of acute kidney injury (AKI). Rolipram, a selective phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor, has been shown to reduce microvascular permeability and in the kidney, increase renal blood flow (RBF). This led us to investigate its potential to improve the renal microcirculation and preserve renal function during sepsis using a murine cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model to induce sepsis. Rolipram, tested at doses of 0.3–10 mg/kg i.p., acutely restored capillary perfusion in a bell-shaped dose-response effect with 1 mg/kg being the lowest most efficacious dose. This dose also acutely increased RBF despite transiently decreasing mean arterial pressure. Rolipram also reduced renal microvascular permeability. It is noteworthy that delayed treatment with rolipram at 6 hours after CLP restored the renal microcirculation, reduced blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, and increased glomerular filtration rate at 18 hours. However, delayed treatment with rolipram did not reduce serum nitrate/nitrite levels, a marker of nitric oxide production, nor reactive nitrogen species generation in renal tubules. These data show that restoring the microcirculation with rolipram, even with delayed treatment, is enough to improve renal function during sepsis despite the generation of oxidants and suggest that PDE4 inhibitors should be evaluated further for their ability to treat septic-induced AKI. PMID:24018639

Holthoff, Joseph H.; Wang, Zhen; Patil, Naeem K.; Gokden, Neriman

2013-01-01

334

Improved functional mapping of the human amygdala using a standard functional magnetic resonance imaging sequence with simple modifications.  

PubMed

As the amygdala is involved in various aspects of emotional processing, its characterization using neuroimaging modalities, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), is of great interest. However, in fMRI, the amygdala region suffers from susceptibility artifacts that are composed of signal dropouts and image distortions. Various technically demanding approaches to reduce these artifacts have been proposed, and most require alterations beyond a mere change of the acquisition parameters and cannot be easily implemented by the user without changing the MR sequence code. In the present study, we therefore evaluated the impact of simple alterations of the acquisition parameters of a standard gradient-echo echo-planar imaging technique at 3 T composed of echo times (TEs) of 27 and 36 ms as well as section thicknesses of 2 and 4 mm while retaining a section orientation parallel to the intercommissural plane and an in-plane resolution of 2x2 mm(2). In contrast to previous studies, we based our evaluation on the resulting activation maps using an emotional stimulation paradigm rather than on MR raw image quality only. Furthermore, we tested the effects of spatial smoothing of the functional raw data in the course of postprocessing using spatial filters of 4 and 8 mm. Regarding MR raw image quality, a TE of 27 ms and 2-mm sections resulted in the least susceptibility artifacts in the anteromedial aspect of the temporal lobe. The emotional stimulation paradigm resulted in robust bilateral amygdala activation for the approaches with 2-mm sections only -- but with larger activation volumes for a TE of 36 ms as compared with that of 27 ms. Moderate smoothing with a 4-mm spatial filter represented a good compromise between increased sensitivity and preserved specificity. In summary, we showed that rather than applying advanced modifications of the MR sequence, a simple increase in spatial resolution (i.e., the reduction of section thickness) is sufficient to improve the detectability of amygdala activation. PMID:17574366

Morawetz, Carmen; Holz, Petra; Lange, Claudia; Baudewig, Jürgen; Weniger, Godehard; Irle, Eva; Dechent, Peter

2008-01-01

335

Posttraumatic reduction of edema with aquaporin-4 RNA interference improves acute and chronic functional recovery  

PubMed Central

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is common in young children and adolescents and is associated with long-term disability and mortality. The neuropathologic sequelae that result from juvenile TBI are a complex cascade of events that include edema formation and brain swelling. Brain aquaporin-4 (AQP4) has a key role in edema formation. Thus, development of novel treatments targeting AQP4 to reduce edema could lessen the neuropathologic sequelae. We hypothesized that inhibiting AQP4 expression by injection of small-interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting AQP4 (siAQP4) after juvenile TBI would decrease edema formation, neuroinflammation, neuronal cell death, and improve neurologic outcomes. The siAQP4 or a RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC)-free control siRNA (siGLO) was injected lateral to the trauma site after controlled cortical impact in postnatal day 17 rats. Magnetic resonance imaging, neurologic testing, and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess outcomes. Pups treated with siAQP4 showed acute (3 days after injury) improvements in motor function and in spatial memory at long term (60 days after injury) compared with siGLO-treated animals. These improvements were associated with decreased edema formation, increased microglial activation, decreased blood–brain barrier disruption, reduced astrogliosis and neuronal cell death. The effectiveness of our treatment paradigm was associated with a 30% decrease in AQP4 expression at the injection site. PMID:23899928

Fukuda, Andrew M; Adami, Arash; Pop, Viorela; Bellone, John A; Coats, Jacqueline S; Hartman, Richard E; Ashwal, Stephen; Obenaus, Andre; Badaut, Jerome

2013-01-01

336

Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade improves coronary microvascular function in individuals with type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Reduced coronary flow reserve (CFR), an indicator of coronary microvascular dysfunction, is seen in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and predicts cardiac mortality. Since aldosterone plays a key role in vascular injury, the aim of this study was to determine whether mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blockade improves CFR in individuals with T2DM. Sixty-four men and women with well-controlled diabetes on chronic ACE inhibition (enalapril 20 mg/day) were randomized to add-on therapy of spironolactone 25 mg, hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg, or placebo for 6 months. CFR was assessed by cardiac positron emission tomography at baseline and at the end of treatment. There were significant and similar decreases in systolic blood pressure with spironolactone and HCTZ but not with placebo. CFR improved with treatment in the spironolactone group as compared with the HCTZ group and with the combined HCTZ and placebo groups. The increase in CFR with spironolactone remained significant after controlling for baseline CFR, change in BMI, race, and statin use. Treatment with spironolactone improved coronary microvascular function, raising the possibility that MR blockade could have beneficial effects in preventing cardiovascular disease in patients with T2DM. PMID:25125488

Garg, Rajesh; Rao, Ajay D; Baimas-George, Maria; Hurwitz, Shelley; Foster, Courtney; Shah, Ravi V; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Kwong, Raymond Y; Di Carli, Marcelo F; Adler, Gail K

2015-01-01

337

Fistuloclysis Improves Liver Function and Nutritional Status in Patients with High-Output Upper Enteric Fistula  

PubMed Central

Background. We aimed to determine the efficacy of fistuloclysis in patients with high-output upper enteric fistula (EF). Methods. Patients were assigned into the fistuloclysis group (n = 35, receiving fistuloclysis plus total enteral nutrition (TEN)) and the control group (n = 60, receiving TEN). Laboratory variables were measured during the four-week treatment. Results. At baseline, variables were similar between the two groups. Delta value was defined as the changes from baseline to day 28. Compared with the control group, the fistuloclysis group showed greater improvements in liver function (Delta total bilirubin (TB): 20.3 ± 9.7 in the fistuloclysis group versus 15.6 ± 6.3 in the control group, P = 0.040; Delta direct bilirubin (DB): 12.5 ± 3.4 versus 10.0 ± 3.6, P = 0.011; Delta alkaline phosphatase (ALP): 98.4 ± 33.5 versus 57.6 ± 20.9, P < 0.001); nutritional status (Delta total protein: 21.8 ± 8.7 versus 10.7 ± 2.1, P < 0.001; Delta albumin: 11.3 ± 2.5 versus 4.2 ± 1.3, P < 0.001). In the fistuloclysis subgroups, biliary fistula patients had the maximum number of variables with the greatest improvements. Conclusions. Fistuloclysis improved hepatic and nutritional parameters in patients with high-output upper EF, particularly in biliary fistula patients. PMID:24719613

Wu, Yin; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Zhou, Bo; Ding, Chao; Gu, Guosheng; Chen, Jun; Liu, Song; Li, Jieshou

2014-01-01

338

Fistuloclysis improves liver function and nutritional status in patients with high-output upper enteric fistula.  

PubMed

Background. We aimed to determine the efficacy of fistuloclysis in patients with high-output upper enteric fistula (EF). Methods. Patients were assigned into the fistuloclysis group (n = 35, receiving fistuloclysis plus total enteral nutrition (TEN)) and the control group (n = 60, receiving TEN). Laboratory variables were measured during the four-week treatment. Results. At baseline, variables were similar between the two groups. Delta value was defined as the changes from baseline to day 28. Compared with the control group, the fistuloclysis group showed greater improvements in liver function (Delta total bilirubin (TB): 20.3 ± 9.7 in the fistuloclysis group versus 15.6 ± 6.3 in the control group, P = 0.040; Delta direct bilirubin (DB): 12.5 ± 3.4 versus 10.0 ± 3.6, P = 0.011; Delta alkaline phosphatase (ALP): 98.4 ± 33.5 versus 57.6 ± 20.9, P < 0.001); nutritional status (Delta total protein: 21.8 ± 8.7 versus 10.7 ± 2.1, P < 0.001; Delta albumin: 11.3 ± 2.5 versus 4.2 ± 1.3, P < 0.001). In the fistuloclysis subgroups, biliary fistula patients had the maximum number of variables with the greatest improvements. Conclusions. Fistuloclysis improved hepatic and nutritional parameters in patients with high-output upper EF, particularly in biliary fistula patients. PMID:24719613

Wu, Yin; Ren, Jianan; Wang, Gefei; Zhou, Bo; Ding, Chao; Gu, Guosheng; Chen, Jun; Liu, Song; Li, Jieshou

2014-01-01

339

Hypothermic continuous machine perfusion improves metabolic preservation and functional recovery in heart grafts.  

PubMed

The number of heart transplants is decreasing due to organ shortage, yet the donor pool could be enlarged by improving graft preservation. Hypothermic machine perfusion (MP) has been shown to improve kidney, liver, or lung graft preservation. Sixteen pig hearts were recovered following cardioplegia and randomized to two different groups of 4-hour preservation using either static cold storage (CS) or MP (Modified LifePort© System, Organ Recovery Systems©, Itasca, Il). The grafts then underwent reperfusion on a Langendorff for 60 min. Energetic metabolism was quantified at baseline, postpreservation, and postreperfusion by measuring lactate and high-energy phosphates. The contractility index (CI) was assessed both in vivo prior to cardioplegia and during reperfusion. Following reperfusion, the hearts preserved using CS exhibited higher lactate levels (56.63 ± 23.57 vs. 11.25 ± 3.92 ?mol/g; P < 0.001), increased adenosine monophosphate/adenosine triphosphate (AMP/ATP) ratio (0.4 ± 0.23 vs. 0.04 ± 0.04; P < 0.001), and lower phosphocreatine/creatine (PCr/Cr) ratio (33.5 ± 12.6 vs. 55.3 ± 5.8; P <0.001). Coronary flow was similar in both groups during reperfusion (107 ± 9 vs. 125 + /-9 ml/100 g/min heart; P = ns). CI decreased in the CS group, yet being well-preserved in the MP group. Compared with CS, MP resulted in improved preservation of the energy state and more successful functional recovery of heart graft. PMID:25265884

Van Caenegem, Olivier; Beauloye, Christophe; Vercruysse, Jonathan; Horman, Sandrine; Bertrand, Luc; Bethuyne, Noëlla; Poncelet, Alain J; Gianello, Pierre; Demuylder, Peter; Legrand, Eric; Beaurin, Gwen; Bontemps, Françoise; Jacquet, Luc M; Vanoverschelde, Jean-Louis

2014-09-29

340

Functional improvement and maturation of rat and human engineered heart tissue by chronic electrical stimulation.  

PubMed

Spontaneously beating engineered heart tissue (EHT) represents an advanced in vitro model for drug testing and disease modeling, but cardiomyocytes in EHTs are less mature and generate lower forces than in the adult heart. We devised a novel pacing system integrated in a setup for videooptical recording of EHT contractile function over time and investigated whether sustained electrical field stimulation improved EHT properties. EHTs were generated from neonatal rat heart cells (rEHT, n=96) or human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes (hEHT, n=19). Pacing with biphasic pulses was initiated on day 4 of culture. REHT continuously paced for 16-18 days at 0.5Hz developed 2.2× higher forces than nonstimulated rEHT. This was reflected by higher cardiomyocyte density in the center of EHTs, increased connexin-43 abundance as investigated by two-photon microscopy and remarkably improved sarcomere ultrastructure including regular M-bands. Further signs of tissue maturation include a rightward shift (to more physiological values) of the Ca(2+)-response curve, increased force response to isoprenaline and decreased spontaneous beating activity. Human EHTs stimulated at 2Hz in the first week and 1.5Hz thereafter developed 1.5× higher forces than nonstimulated hEHT on day 14, an ameliorated muscular network of longitudinally oriented cardiomyocytes and a higher cytoplasm-to-nucleus ratio. Taken together, continuous pacing improved structural and functional properties of rEHTs and hEHTs to an unprecedented level. Electrical stimulation appears to be an important step toward the generation of fully mature EHT. PMID:24852842

Hirt, Marc N; Boeddinghaus, Jasper; Mitchell, Alice; Schaaf, Sebastian; Börnchen, Christian; Müller, Christian; Schulz, Herbert; Hubner, Norbert; Stenzig, Justus; Stoehr, Andrea; Neuber, Christiane; Eder, Alexandra; Luther, Pradeep K; Hansen, Arne; Eschenhagen, Thomas

2014-09-01

341

Can Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Improve Success Rates in CNS Drug Discovery?  

PubMed Central

Introduction The bar for developing new treatments for CNS disease is getting progressively higher and fewer novel mechanisms are being discovered, validated and developed. The high costs of drug discovery necessitate early decisions to ensure the best molecules and hypotheses are tested in expensive late stage clinical trials. The discovery of brain imaging biomarkers that can bridge preclinical to clinical CNS drug discovery and provide a ‘language of translation’ affords the opportunity to improve the objectivity of decision-making. Areas Covered This review discusses the benefits, challenges and potential issues of using a science based biomarker strategy to change the paradigm of CNS drug development and increase success rates in the discovery of new medicines. The authors have summarized PubMed and Google Scholar based publication searches to identify recent advances in functional, structural and chemical brain imaging and have discussed how these techniques may be useful in defining CNS disease state and drug effects during drug development. Expert opinion The use of novel brain imaging biomarkers holds the bold promise of making neuroscience drug discovery smarter by increasing the objectivity of decision making thereby improving the probability of success of identifying useful drugs to treat CNS diseases. Functional imaging holds the promise to: (1) define pharmacodynamic markers as an index of target engagement (2) improve translational medicine paradigms to predict efficacy; (3) evaluate CNS efficacy and safety based on brain activation; (4) determine brain activity drug dose-response relationships and (5) provide an objective evaluation of symptom response and disease modification. PMID:21765857

Borsook, David; Hargreaves, Richard; Becerra, Lino

2011-01-01

342

Low glial angiotensinogen improves body habitus, diastolic function, and exercise tolerance in aging male rats  

PubMed Central

Objectives Long-term systemic blockade of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS) with either an angiotensin (Ang) II type 1 receptor antagonist or an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor attenuates age-related cardiac remodeling and oxidative damage, and improves myocardial relaxation. However, the role of the brain RAS in mediating the development of diastolic dysfunction during aging is not known. We hypothesized that low brain RAS protects against the development of age-related diastolic dysfunction and left ventricular remodeling. Methods Sixty-week-old transgenic male ASrAOGEN rats (n =9), with normal circulating Ang II and functionally low brain Ang II, because of a GFAP promoter-linked angiotensinogen antisense targeted to glia, and age-matched and sex-matched Hannover Sprague–Dawley (SD; n= 9) rats, with normal levels of both circulating and brain Ang II, underwent echocardiograms to evaluate cardiac structure and function. Postmortem hearts were further compared for histological, molecular, and biochemical changes consistent with cardiac aging. Results ASrAOGEN rats showed preserved systolic and diastolic function at mid-life and this was associated with a lower, more favorable ratio of the phospholamban–SERCA2 ratio, reduced incidence of histological changes in the left ventricle, and increased cardiac Ang-(1–7) when compared with the in-vivo functional, and ex-vivo structural and biochemical indices from age-matched SD rats. Moreover, ASrAOGEN rats had lower percent body fat and a superior exercise tolerance when compared with SD rats of the same age. Conclusion Our data indicate that the central RAS plays a role in the maintenance of diastolic function and exercise tolerance in mid-life and this may be related to effects on body habitus. PMID:23795309

Groban, Leanne; Wang, Hao; Machado, Frederico S. M.; Trask, Aaron J.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Ferrario, Carlos M.; Diz, Debra I.

2013-01-01

343

Functional Improvement of Regulatory T Cells from Rheumatoid Arthritis Subjects Induced by Capsular Polysaccharide Glucuronoxylomannogalactan  

PubMed Central

Objective Regulatory T cells (Treg) play a critical role in the prevention of autoimmunity, and the suppressive activity of these cells is impaired in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of the present study was to investigate function and properties of Treg of RA patients in response to purified polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannogalactan (GXMGal). Methods Flow cytometry and western blot analysis were used to investigate the frequency, function and properties of Treg cells. Results GXMGal was able to: i) induce strong increase of FOXP3 on CD4+ T cells without affecting the number of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Treg cells with parallel increase in the percentage of non-conventional CD4+CD25?FOXP3+ Treg cells; ii) increase intracellular levels of TGF-?1 in CD4+CD25?FOXP3+ Treg cells and of IL-10 in both CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ and CD4+CD25?FOXP3+ Treg cells; iii) enhance the suppressive activity of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ and CD4+CD25?FOXP3+ Treg cells in terms of inhibition of effector T cell activity and increased secretion of IL-10; iv) decrease Th1 response as demonstrated by inhibition of T-bet activation and down-regulation of IFN-? and IL-12p70 production; v) decrease Th17 differentiation by down-regulating pSTAT3 activation and IL-17A, IL-23, IL-21, IL-22 and IL-6 production. Conclusion These data show that GXMGal improves Treg functions and increases the number and function of CD4+CD25?FOXP3+ Treg cells of RA patients. It is suggested that GXMGal may be potentially useful for restoring impaired Treg functions in autoimmune disorders and for developing Treg cell-based strategies for the treatment of these diseases. PMID:25338013

Alunno, Alessia; Bartoloni Bocci, Elena; Perito, Stefano; Chow, Siu-Kei; Cenci, Elio; Casadevall, Arturo; Gerli, Roberto; Vecchiarelli, Anna

2014-01-01

344

Depressed contractile function due to canine mitral regurgitation improves after correction of the volume overload.  

PubMed Central

It is known that long-standing volume overload on the left ventricle due to mitral regurgitation eventually leads to contractile dysfunction. However, it is unknown whether or not correction of the volume overload can lead to recovery of contractility. In this study we tested the hypothesis that depressed contractile function due to volume overload in mitral regurgitation could return toward normal after mitral valve replacement. Using a canine model of mitral regurgitation which is known to produce contractile dysfunction, we examined contractile function longitudinally in seven dogs at baseline, after 3 mo of mitral regurgitation, 1 mo after mitral valve replacement, and 3 mo after mitral valve replacement. After 3 mo of mitral regurgitation (regurgitant fraction 0.62 +/- 0.04), end-diastolic volume had nearly doubled from 68 +/- 6.8 to 123 +/- 12.1 ml (P less than 0.05). All five indices of contractile function which we examined were depressed. For instance, maximum fiber elastance (EmaxF) obtained by assessment of time-varying elastance decreased from 5.95 +/- 0.71 to 2.25 +/- 0.18 (P less than 0.05). The end-systolic stiffness constant (k) was also depressed from 4.2 +/- 0.4 to 2.1 +/- 0.3. 3 mo after mitral valve replacement all indexes of contractile function had returned to or toward normal (e.g., EmaxF 3.65 +/- 0.21 and k 4.2 +/- 0.3). We conclude that previously depressed contractile function due to volume overload can improve after correction of the overload. PMID:1828252

Nakano, K; Swindle, M M; Spinale, F; Ishihara, K; Kanazawa, S; Smith, A; Biederman, R W; Clamp, L; Hamada, Y; Zile, M R

1991-01-01

345

Early administration of levosimendan is associated with improved kidney function after cardiac surgery ¿ a retrospective analysis.  

PubMed

BackgroundSeveral animal studies suggest beneficial effects on kidney function upon administration of levosimendan. As recent data from clinical studies are heterogeneous, we sought to investigate whether levosimendan is associated with improved postoperative kidney function in cardiac surgery patients with respect to timing of its administration.MethodsRetrospective, single centre, observational analysis at a university hospital in Berlin, Germany. All adult patients without preoperative renal dysfunction that underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and/or valve reconstruction/replacement between 01/01/2007 and 31/12/2011 were considered for analyses.ResultsOut of 1.095 included patients, 46 patients were treated with levosimendan due to a severely reduced left ventricular systolic function preoperatively (LVEF¿<¿35%) and/or clinical signs of a low cardiac output syndrome. Sixty-one percent received the drug whilst in the OR, 39% after postoperative intensive care unit admission. When levosimendan was given immediately after anaesthesia induction, creatinine plasma levels (p¿=¿0.009 for nonparametric analysis of longitudinal data in a two-factorial design) and incidence of postoperative renal dysfunction (67.9% vs. 94.4%; p¿=¿0.033) were significantly reduced in contrast to a later start of treatment. In addition, duration of renal replacement therapy was significantly shorter (79 [35;332] vs. 272 [132;703] minutes; p¿=¿0.046) in that group.ConclusionsPostoperative kidney dysfunction is a common condition in patients under going cardiac surgery. Patients with severely reduced left ventricular function and/or clinical signs of a low cardiac output syndrome who preoperatively presented with a normal kidney function may benefit from an early start of levosimendan administration, i.e. immediately after anaesthesia.Trial registrationClinicaltrials.gov-ID: NCT01918618. PMID:25399779

Balzer, Felix; Treskatsch, Sascha; Spies, Claudia; Sander, Michael; Kastrup, Mark; Grubitzsch, Herko; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Braun, Jan P

2014-11-18

346

Injectable Biodegradable Hydrogels for Embryonic Stem Cell Transplantation: Improved Cardiac Remodeling and Function of Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

In this study, an injectable, biodegradable hydrogel composite of oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) (OPF) was investigated as a carrier of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). 10K OPF hydrogels were used to encapsulate mESCs. The cell differentiation in vitro over 14 days was determined via immunohistochemical examination. Then, mESCs encapsulated in OPF hydrogels were injected into the left ventricular wall of a rat myocardial infarction model. Detailed histological analysis and echocardiography were used to determine the structural and functional consequences after 4 weeks of transplantation. With ascorbic acid induction, mESCs could differentiate into cardiomyocytes and other cell types in all three lineages in the OPF hydrogel. After transplantation, both the 24h-cell retention and 4-week graft size were significantly greater in the OPF + ESC group than that of the PBS + ESC group (p<0.01). Four weeks after transplantation, OPF hydrogel alone significantly reduced the infarct size and collagen deposition and improved the cardiac function. The heart function and revascularization improved significantly, while the infarct size and fibrotic area decreased significantly in the OPF + ESC group compared with that of the PBS +ESC group, OPF group and PBS group (p<0.01). All treatments had significantly reduced MMP2 and MMP9 protein levels compared to the PBS control group, and the OPF + ESC group decreased most by Western blotting. Transplanted mESCs expressed cardiovascular markers. This study suggest the potential of a method for heart regeneration involving oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) hydrogels for stem cell encapsulation and transplantation. PMID:21838774

Wang, Haibin; Liu, Zhiqiang; Li, Dexue; Guo, Xuan; Kasper, F. Kurtis; Duan, Cuimi; Zhou, Jin; Mikos, Antonios G.; Wang, Changyong

2011-01-01

347

Pycnogenol(®) and its fractions influence the function of isolated heart in rats with experimental diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to test the effect of Pycnogenol(®) (PYC) mixture and its three fractions (buthanolic, water, ethyl acetate) on heart function in rats with experimental diabetes mellitus (DM) and compare their effects to the diabetic group. Their antioxidant activity "in vitro" was also determined. DM rats (streptozotocin over 3 consecutive days at a dose of 25mg/kg of body weight) had increased systolic blood pressure, thicker left ventriculi wall (LV) and weaker myocardial contraction, prolonged QT interval in comparison to controls rats. In comparison to the diabetic group, PYC (20mg/kg b.w./day) suppressed the influence of DM on the LV, improved contraction, increased coronary flow and displayed negative effect on electrical activity of hearts. The most effective of PYC's fractions was the water fraction. It improved biometric parameters and hemodynamic function of the DM hearts, enhanced shortening the QT interval, reduced the amount of dysrhythmias of the DM hearts and had the strongest antioxidant activity. In conclusion, DM damaged isolated rat heart function. Only the water fraction improved the function of the diabetic heart. The different results of three fractions and PYC on myocardial function may be caused by a various lipo- and hydro-philic action of the PYC components. PMID:25532475

Kralova, Eva; Jankyova, Stanislava; Mucaji, Pavel; Gresakova, Eva; Stankovicova, Tatiana

2015-02-01

348

Cognitive Training Improves Sleep Quality and Cognitive Function among Older Adults with Insomnia  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives To investigate the effect of an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program on sleep quality and cognitive performance among older adults with insomnia. Design Participants (n?=?51) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group (n?=?34) or to an active control group (n?=?17). The participants in the cognitive training group completed an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program, while the participants in the active control group completed an eight-week, home-based program involving computerized tasks that do not engage high-level cognitive functioning. Before and after training, all participants' sleep was monitored for one week by an actigraph and their cognitive performance was evaluated. Setting Community setting: residential sleep/performance testing facility. Participants Fifty-one older adults with insomnia (aged 65–85). Interventions Eight weeks of computerized cognitive training for older adults with insomnia. Results Mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed between-group improvements for the cognitive training group on both sleep quality (sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency) and cognitive performance (avoiding distractions, working memory, visual memory, general memory and naming). Hierarchical linear regressions analysis in the cognitive training group indicated that improved visual scanning is associated with earlier advent of sleep, while improved naming is associated with the reduction in wake after sleep onset and with the reduction in number of awakenings. Likewise the results indicate that improved “avoiding distractions” is associated with an increase in the duration of sleep. Moreover, the results indicate that in the active control group cognitive decline observed in working memory is associated with an increase in the time required to fall asleep. Conclusions New learning is instrumental in promoting initiation and maintenance of sleep in older adults with insomnia. Lasting and personalized cognitive training is particularly indicated to generate the type of learning necessary for combined cognitive and sleep enhancements in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00901641 PMID:23577218

Haimov, Iris; Shatil, Evelyn

2013-01-01

349

Creatine kinase overexpression improves ATP kinetics and contractile function in postischemic myocardium  

PubMed Central

Reduced myofibrillar ATP availability during prolonged myocardial ischemia may limit post-ischemic mechanical function. Because creatine kinase (CK) is the prime energy reserve reaction of the heart and because it has been difficult to augment ATP synthesis during and after ischemia, we used mice that overexpress the myofibrillar isoform of creatine kinase (CKM) in cardiac-specific, conditional fashion to test the hypothesis that CKM overexpression increases ATP delivery in ischemic-reperfused hearts and improves functional recovery. Isolated, retrograde-perfused hearts from control and CKM mice were subjected to 25 min of global, no-flow ischemia and 40 min of reperfusion while cardiac function [rate pressure product (RPP)] was monitored. A combination of 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance experiments at 11.7T and biochemical assays was used to measure the myocardial rate of ATP synthesis via CK (CK flux) and intracellular pH (pHi). Baseline CK flux was severalfold higher in CKM hearts (8.1 ± 1.0 vs. 32.9 ± 3.8, mM/s, control vs. CKM; P < 0.001) with no differences in phosphocreatine concentration [PCr] and RPP. End-ischemic pHi was higher in CKM hearts than in control hearts (6.04 ± 0.12 vs. 6.37 ± 0.04, control vs. CKM; P < 0.05) with no differences in [PCr] and [ATP] between the two groups. Post-ischemic PCr (66.2 ± 1.3 vs. 99.1 ± 8.0, %preischemic levels; P < 0.01), CK flux (3.2 ± 0.4 vs. 14.0 ± 1.2 mM/s; P < 0.001) and functional recovery (13.7 ± 3.4 vs. 64.9 ± 13.2%preischemic RPP; P < 0.01) were significantly higher and lactate dehydrogenase release was lower in CKM than in control hearts. Thus augmenting cardiac CKM expression attenuates ischemic acidosis, reduces injury, and improves not only high-energy phosphate content and the rate of CK ATP synthesis in postischemic myocardium but also recovery of contractile function. PMID:22886411

Akki, Ashwin; Su, Jason; Yano, Toshiyuki; Gupta, Ashish; Wang, Yibin; Leppo, Michelle K.; Chacko, Vadappuram P.; Steenbergen, Charles

2012-01-01

350

Muscle strength training to improve gait function in children with cerebral palsy.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of muscle strength training on gait outcomes in children with cerebral palsy. Sixteen children (two females, 14 males, Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I-II, mean age 12y 6mo, range 9y 4mo-15y 4mo) underwent muscle strength measurement using a handheld device, Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) assessment, three-dimensional gait analysis, joint range of motion assessment, and grading of spasticity before and after 8 weeks of training. All participants had a diagnosis of spastic diplegia and could walk without aids. Training consisted of exercises for lower extremity muscles with free weights, rubber bands, and body weight for resistance, three times a week. Values for muscle strength below normal were identified in all children; this was most pronounced at the ankle, followed by the hip muscles. After training, muscle strength and GMFM scores increased, velocity was unchanged, stride length increased, and cadence was reduced. There was an increase in hip extensor moment and power generated at push off. Eight weeks of muscle strength training can increase muscle strength and improve gait function. PMID:18834389

Eek, Meta Nyström; Tranberg, Roy; Zügner, Roland; Alkema, Kristina; Beckung, Eva

2008-10-01

351

An improved chemically inducible gene switch that functions in the monocotyledonous plant sugar cane.  

PubMed

Chemically inducible gene switches can provide precise control over gene expression, enabling more specific analyses of gene function and expanding the plant biotechnology toolkit beyond traditional constitutive expression systems. The alc gene expression system is one of the most promising chemically inducible gene switches in plants because of its potential in both fundamental research and commercial biotechnology applications. However, there are no published reports demonstrating that this versatile gene switch is functional in transgenic monocotyledonous plants, which include some of the most important agricultural crops. We found that the original alc gene switch was ineffective in the monocotyledonous plant sugar cane, and describe a modified alc system that is functional in this globally significant crop. A promoter consisting of tandem copies of the ethanol receptor inverted repeat binding site, in combination with a minimal promoter sequence, was sufficient to give enhanced sensitivity and significantly higher levels of ethanol inducible gene expression. A longer CaMV 35S minimal promoter than was used in the original alc gene switch also substantially improved ethanol inducibility. Treating the roots with ethanol effectively induced the modified alc system in sugar cane leaves and stem, while an aerial spray was relatively ineffective. The extension of this chemically inducible gene expression system to sugar cane opens the door to new opportunities for basic research and crop biotechnology. PMID:24142380

Kinkema, Mark; Geijskes, R Jason; Shand, Kylie; Coleman, Heather D; De Lucca, Paulo C; Palupe, Anthony; Harrison, Mark D; Jepson, Ian; Dale, James L; Sainz, Manuel B

2014-03-01

352

Acupuncture improves locomotor function by enhancing GABA receptor expression in transient focal cerebral ischemia rats.  

PubMed

Stroke is the major cause of long-term disability among adults. Recent studies have found that GABAergic inhibitory neurotransmission plays a vital role in ameliorate locomotor damage after ischemic injury. Acupuncture has been widely used to improve locomotor function. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The present study is designed to investigate whether GABA and GABA receptors are involved in the mechanism underlying acupuncture treatment in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). One week after acupuncture at JiaJi acupoint, the locomotor function and infarct volumes were tested. Then level of GABA and the expressions of GABAA?2 and GABABR2 were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Compared with normal group, GABAA?2 and GABABR2 expressions were decreased in striatum and spinal cord of the MCAO group. After acupuncture, the expressions of the two receptors were increased, but levels of GABA and trafficking protein, kinesin binding 1 (TRAK1), which plays a role in the intracellular transport of GABA receptors, were unchanged. The present study suggests that acupuncture could reverse locomotor function by modulating the expressions of GABA receptors in MCAO rats. PMID:25556683

Xu, Qian; Yang, Jing-Wen; Cao, Yan; Zhang, Li-Wen; Zeng, Xiang-Hong; Li, Fang; Du, Si-Qi; Wang, Lin-Peng; Liu, Cun-Zhi

2015-02-19

353

KCF-S: KEGG Chemical Function and Substructure for improved interpretability and prediction in chemical bioinformatics  

PubMed Central

Background In order to develop hypothesis on unknown metabolic pathways, biochemists frequently rely on literature that uses a free-text format to describe functional groups or substructures. In computational chemistry or cheminformatics, molecules are typically represented by chemical descriptors, i.e., vectors that summarize information on its various properties. However, it is difficult to interpret these chemical descriptors since they are not directly linked to the terminology of functional groups or substructures that the biochemists use. Methods In this study, we used KEGG Chemical Function (KCF) format to computationally describe biochemical substructures in seven attributes that resemble biochemists' way of dealing with substructures. Results We established KCF-S (KCF-and-Substructures) format as an additional structural information of KCF. Applying KCF-S revealed the specific appearance of substructures from various datasets of molecules that describes the characteristics of the respective datasets. Structure-based clustering of molecules using KCF-S resulted the clusters in which molecular weights and structures were less diverse than those obtained by conventional chemical fingerprints. We further applied KCF-S to find the pairs of molecules that are possibly converted to each other in enzymatic reactions, and KCF-S clearly improved predictive performance than that presented previously. Conclusions KCF-S defines biochemical substructures with keeping interpretability, suggesting the potential to apply more studies on chemical bioinformatics. KCF and KCF-S can be automatically converted from Molfile format, enabling to deal with molecules from any data sources. PMID:24564846

2013-01-01

354

Ketoprofen combined with artery graft entubulization improves functional recovery of transected peripheral nerves.  

PubMed

The objective was to assess the local effect of ketoprofen on sciatic nerve regeneration and functional recovery. Eighty healthy male white Wistar rats were randomized into four experimental groups of 20 animals each: In the transected group (TC), the left sciatic nerve was transected and nerve cut ends were fixed in the adjacent muscle. In the treatment group the defect was bridged using an artery graft (AG/Keto) filled with 10 microliter ketoprofen (0.1 mg/kg). In the artery graft group (AG), the graft was filled with phosphated-buffer saline alone. In the sham-operated group (SHAM), the sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated. Each group was subdivided into four subgroups of five animals each and regenerated nerve fibres were studied at 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks post operation. Behavioural testing, sciatic nerve functional study, gastrocnemius muscle mass and morphometric indices showed earlier regeneration of axons in AG/Keto than in AG group (p < 0.05). Immunohistochemical study clearly showed more positive location of reactions to S-100 in AG/Keto than in AG group. When loaded in an artery graft, ketoprofen improved functional recovery and morphometric indices of the sciatic nerve. Local usage of this easily accessible therapeutic medicine is cost saving and avoids the problems associated with systemic administration. PMID:23932540

Mohammadi, Rahim; Mehrtash, Moein; Nikonam, Nima; Mehrtash, Moied; Amini, Keyvan

2014-12-01

355

Virtual reality using games for improving physical functioning in older adults: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The use of virtual reality through exergames or active video game, i.e. a new form of interactive gaming, as a complementary tool in rehabilitation has been a frequent focus in research and clinical practice in the last few years. However, evidence of their effectiveness is scarce in the older population. This review aim to provide a summary of the effects of exergames in improving physical functioning in older adults. A search for randomized controlled trials was performed in the databases EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsyInfo, Cochrane data base, PEDro and ISI Web of Knowledge. Results from the included studies were analyzed through a critical review and methodological quality by the PEDro scale. Thirteen studies were included in the review. The most common apparatus for exergames intervention was the Nintendo Wii gaming console (8 studies), followed by computers games, Dance video game with pad (two studies each) and only one study with the Balance Rehabilitation Unit. The Timed Up and Go was the most frequently used instrument to assess physical functioning (7 studies). According to the PEDro scale, most of the studies presented methodological problems, with a high proportion of scores below 5 points (8 studies). The exergames protocols and their duration varied widely, and the benefits for physical function in older people remain inconclusive. However, a consensus between studies is the positive motivational aspect that the use of exergames provides. Further studies are needed in order to achieve better methodological quality, external validity and provide stronger scientific evidence. PMID:25399408

Molina, Karina Iglesia; Ricci, Natalia Aquaroni; de Moraes, Suzana Albuquerque; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues

2014-01-01

356

Clinical aspects of left ventricular diastolic function assessed by Doppler echocardiography following acute myocardial infarction.  

PubMed

LV systolic function and dilation after Ml have been extensively studied and have been related to heart failure and cardiac mortality. In recent years, it has been increasingly apparent that LV diastolic dysfunction contributes to signs and symptoms of heart failure and LV diastolic dysfunction is associated with increased mortality rates in patients chronic heart failure independent of systolic function. LV diastolic dysfunction is difficult to assess on basis of clinical examination including chest radiography and electrocardiography. LV diastolic filling has traditionally been evaluated by cardiac catherization with direct measurement of filling pressures and relaxation. However, the invasive approach describing LV compliance and relaxation as the major determinants of LV diastolic function, is not feasible and suitable for routine investigations of diastolic function. Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography has become a well accented practical and safe non-invasive method for diagnosis of LV diastolic dysfunction. Combined invasive and echocardiographic studies have shown that analysis of mitral and pulmonary venous flow velocities relate to invasively measured filling pressures and relaxation rate in cardiac diseases. Based on Doppler analysis of mitral and pulmonary venous flow three abnormal LV filling patterns are identified: impaired relaxation, "pseudonormalization" and restrictive. These LV filling patterns have been related to symptoms, relaxation rate, filling pressure and prognosis in patients with restrictive and dilated cardiomyopathy. The Doppler flow profiles are influenced by several factors including age, heart rate, load conditions and valve heart diseases which must be taken into consideration during evaluation. During the last decade information about LV diastolic function assessed non-invasively by Doppler echocardiography has gained in patients with CAD. Myocardial ischemia induced by brief coronary artery occlusion or pacing leads to abnormal myocardial relaxation which can be reversed to normal by restoring normal myocardial blood flow. The diastolic abnormality is present within seconds and a characteristic impaired relaxation filling pattern are identified by mitral and pulmonary venous flow analysis. Diastolic dysfunction has been recognized during the early as well during the post-MI phase with or without LV systolic dysfunction. In the acute phase both an abnormal relaxation pattern and restrictive LV filling pattern are present which has been related to in-hospital heart failure. The identification of a pseudonormal or restrictive LV filling pattern are associated with later readmission to hospital with heart failure and cardiac death. Abnormal relaxation filling is the most pronounced filling pattern after one year which might be related to the remodeling process including compensatory hypertrophy, scarring of the infarct zone leading to a non-uniform relaxation of the LV. Remodeling of the LV following a MI is subject to several factors which might involve diastolic function. This is supported by the presence of an impaired relaxation and restrictive filling pattern are associated with progressive LV dilatation following Ml. Furthermore, the LV remodeling process following the very early phase includes the scarring process with collagen deposition in the infarcted and non-infarcted myocardium. The extent and quality of the repair process involving collagen deposition are believed to influence the remodeling process. Increased collagen deposition in the subacute phase of Ml indicated by elevated values of the collagen marker PIIINP is found to be related to LV dilation, depressed systolic function and restrictive LV filling. Development of a restrictive filling in patients with increased collagen deposition might be due to increasing LV volume but also to increased myocardial stiffness. Regarding prognosis diastolic dysfunction seems to be an important marker of outcome as abnormal diastolic properties are related to progressive LV dilatation, development of heart failure

Poulsen, S H

2001-11-01

357

Functional Assessment and Intervention by Nursing Assistants in Hospice and Palliative Care Inpatient Care Settings: A Quality Improvement Pilot Study.  

PubMed

This study assessed the impact of a nursing assistant-led functional intervention in an urban hospice. Thirty-three patients participated. A physical therapist trained 4 nursing assistants to assess 4 basic functional activities at admission and discharge and to provide daily activity training to intervention group participants. Control group participants were assessed at admission and discharge and received the usual standard of care. Both groups improved. The intervention group participants demonstrated significant improvement in the Timed up and Go test as well as their self-reported ability to achieve goals on the Patient-Specific Functional Scale. Control group participants made significant improvements in the ability to move from supine to sit in bed. These findings suggest that nursing assistants can provide activity-based assessment and intervention leading to improved function among patients in hospice. PMID:25344506

Mueller, Karen; Hamilton, Gillian; Rodden, Betheny; DeHeer, Hendrick D

2014-10-24

358

Right Ventricular Function Quantification in Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Using Two-Dimensional Strain Echocardiography  

PubMed Central

Aims This study sought to characterize global and regional right ventricular (RV) myocardial function in patients with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) using 2D strain imaging. Methods We compared various parameters of RV and left ventricular (LV) systolic function between 2 groups of consecutive patients with TC at initial presentation and upon follow-up. Group 1 had RV involvement and group 2 did not have RV involvement. Results At initial presentation, RV peak systolic longitudinal strain (RVPSS) and RV fractional area change (RVFAC) were significantly lower in group 1 (?13.2±8.6% vs. ?21.8±5.4%, p?=?0.001; 30.7±9.3% vs. 43.5±6.3%, p?=?0.001) and improved significantly upon follow-up. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) did not differ significantly at initial presentation between both groups (14.8±4.1 mm vs. 17.9±3.5 mm, p?=?0.050). Differences in regional systolic RV strain were only observed in the mid and apical segments. LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and LV global strain were significantly lower in group 1 (36±8% vs. 46±10%, p?=?0.006 and ?5.5±4.8% vs. ?10.2±6.2%, p?=?0.040) at initial presentation. None of the parameters were significantly different between the 2 groups upon follow-up. A RVPSS cut-off value of >?19.1% had a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 71% to discriminate between the 2 groups. Conclusion In TC, RVFAC, RVPSS, LVEF and LV global strain differed significantly between patients with and without RV dysfunction, whereas TAPSE did not. 2 D strain imaging was feasible for the assessment of RV dysfunction in TC and could discriminate between patients with and without RV involvement in a clinically meaningful way. PMID:25089702

Brade, Joachim; Streitner, Florian; Doesch, Christina; Papavassiliu, Theano; Borggrefe, Martin; Haghi, Dariusch

2014-01-01

359

Contrast and harmonic imaging improves accuracy and efficiency of novice readers for dobutamine stress echocardiography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Newer contrast agents as well as tissue harmonic imaging enhance left ventricular (LV) endocardial border delineation, and therefore, improve LV wall-motion analysis. Interpretation of dobutamine stress echocardiography is observer-dependent and requires experience. This study was performed to evaluate whether these new imaging modalities would improve endocardial visualization and enhance accuracy and efficiency of the inexperienced reader interpreting dobutamine stress echocardiography. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-nine consecutive patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease underwent dobutamine stress echocardiography. Both fundamental (2.5 MHZ) and harmonic (1.7 and 3.5 MHZ) mode images were obtained in four standard views at rest and at peak stress during a standard dobutamine infusion stress protocol. Following the noncontrast images, Optison was administered intravenously in bolus (0.5-3.0 ml), and fundamental and harmonic images were obtained. The dobutamine echocardiography studies were reviewed by one experienced and one inexperienced echocardiographer. LV segments were graded for image quality and function. Time for interpretation also was recorded. Contrast with harmonic imaging improved the diagnostic concordance of the novice reader to the expert reader by 7.1%, 7.5%, and 12.6% (P < 0.001) as compared with harmonic imaging, fundamental imaging, and fundamental imaging with contrast, respectively. For the novice reader, reading time was reduced by 47%, 55%, and 58% (P < 0.005) as compared with the time needed for fundamental, fundamental contrast, and harmonic modes, respectively. With harmonic imaging, the image quality score was 4.6% higher (P < 0.001) than for fundamental imaging. Image quality scores were not significantly different for noncontrast and contrast images. CONCLUSION: Harmonic imaging with contrast significantly improves the accuracy and efficiency of the novice dobutamine stress echocardiography reader. The use of harmonic imaging reduces the frequency of nondiagnostic wall segments.

Vlassak, Irmien; Rubin, David N.; Odabashian, Jill A.; Garcia, Mario J.; King, Lisa M.; Lin, Steve S.; Drinko, Jeanne K.; Morehead, Annitta J.; Prior, David L.; Asher, Craig R.; Klein, Allan L.; Thomas, James D.

2002-01-01

360

Recognizing the fingerprints of the Galactic bar: a quantitative approach to comparing model (l,v) distributions to observation  

E-print Network

We present a new method for fitting simple hydrodynamical models to the (l,v) distribution of atomic and molecular gas observed in the Milky Way. The method works by matching features found in models and observations. It is based on the assumption that the large-scale features seen in (l,v) plots, such as ridgelines and the terminal velocity curve, are influenced primarily by the underlying large-scale Galactic potential and are only weakly dependent on local ISM heating and cooling processes. In our scheme one first identifies by hand the features in the observations: this only has to be done once. We describe a procedure for automatically extracting similar features from simple hydrodynamical models and quantifying the "distance" between each model's features and the observations. Application to models of the Galactic Bar region (|l|<30deg) shows that our feature-fitting method performs better than \\chi^2 or envelope distances at identifying the correct underlying galaxy model.

Sormani, Mattia C

2014-01-01

361

Improved deposition and deprotection of silane tethered 3,4 hydroxypyridinone (HOPO) ligands on functionalized nanoporous silica  

SciTech Connect

An improved synthesis of a 3,4 hydroxypyridinone (HOPO) functionalized mesoporous silica is described. Higher 3,4-HOPO monolayer ligand loadings have been achieved, resulting in better performance. Performance improvements were demonstrated with the capture of U(VI) from human blood, plasma and filtered river water.

Davidson, Joseph D.; Wiacek, Robert J.; Burton, Sarah D.; Li, Xiaohong S.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Addleman, Raymond S.; Yantasee, Wasanna; Sangvanich, Thanapon; Pattamakomsan, Kanda

2012-04-01

362

Intensive lifestyle intervention improves physical function among obese adults with knee pain: Findings from the Look AHEAD trial  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lifestyle interventions causing weight loss or improved physical fitness in obese individuals may lead to improved physical function. This study involved participants in the Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial who reported knee pain at baseline (n = 2,203). The purposes of this study we...

363

Seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae, Toxoplasma gondii, FIV and FeLV infections in domestic cats in Japan.  

PubMed

Seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae, Toxoplasma gondii, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections was investigated in 1,447 domestic cats derived from the north (Hokkaido) to the south (Okinawa) prefectures in Japan. Of the cats investigated, 8.8% (128/1,447) were seropositive to B. henselae, 5.4% (78/1,447) to T. gondii, 9.8% (107/1,088) to FIV, and 2.9% (32/1,088) to FeLV, respectively. For B. henselae infection, the positive rate varied from 11.5% in cats of 1 to <2 years old to 7.2% in those over 3 years old. Outdoor cats showed higher positive rate (14.5%) than that (7.0%) in indoor ones. The rate (13.5%) in flea-infested cats was significantly higher than that (7.4%) in flea-negative cats. The positive rates in southern and urban sites were more likely to be higher than those in northern and suburban sites, suggesting that warm and humid environments, density of cat population, and raising status, including hygienic condition and flea infestation in cats may correlate to higher seroprevalence of B. henselae infection. For T. gondii, FIV and FeLV infections, the seroprevalence also tended to be higher in outdoor, flea-infested cats and advanced age groups. For FIV infection, the positive rates in male (14.3%) and outdoor cats (15.0%) were significantly higher than those in female (5.0%) and indoor cats (4.6%). On the other hand, no significant difference in seropositivities was observed in FeLV and T. gondii infections concerning to both genders and raising status. PMID:12680718

Maruyama, Soichi; Kabeya, Hidenori; Nakao, Ruriko; Tanaka, Shigeo; Sakai, Takeo; Xuan, Xuenan; Katsube, Yasuji; Mikami, Takeshi

2003-01-01

364

Stundenplan fr Medieninformatiker im dritten Semester 36 604 (VL) Multimedia Technology (mit bung siehe LV-Nr. 36 605)  

E-print Network

Stundenplan für Medieninformatiker im dritten Semester 36 604 (VL) Multimedia Technology (mit �bung-Anmeldung) 36 605 (�) �bung zu Multimedia Technology (s. LV-Nr. 36 604) 2 st., Fr 08:30-10, H 5 INF - M 30.1, MEI - M04.1, RZ - M 62.3 36 606 (�) �bung Multimedia Engineering 2 st., Mo 16.15-17.45 im CIP Pool RZ

Schubart, Christoph

365

Ecosystem function in waste stabilisation ponds: Improving water quality through a better understanding of biophysical coupling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wastewater stabilisation ponds (WSPs) are highly productive systems designed to treat wastewater using only natural biological and chemical processes. Phytoplankton, microbial communities and hydraulics play important roles for ecosystem functionality of these pond systems. Although WSPs have been used for many decades, they are still considered as 'black box' systems as very little is known about the fundamental ecological processes which occur within them. However, a better understandi