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Sample records for improve organizational performance

  1. Large-Scale Organizational Performance Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilotto, Rudy; Young, Jonathan O'Donnell

    1999-01-01

    Describes the steps involved in a performance improvement program in the context of a large multinational corporation. Highlights include a training program for managers that explained performance improvement; performance matrices; divisionwide implementation, including strategic planning; organizationwide training of all personnel; and the…

  2. The Key to Organizational Performance Improvement: A Perspective of Organizational Knowledge Creation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Ji Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research is to explore the impacts of knowledge creation practices on organizational performance improvement. Research has been empirically assessed on the basis of the collected data from three Korean private organizations. The concept of knowledge creation theory was adapted as the theoretical framework of this…

  3. The Role of Transformational Leadership, Organizational Culture and Organizational Learning in Improving the Performance of Iranian Agricultural Faculties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbasi, Enayat; Zamani-Miandashti, Naser

    2013-01-01

    This empirical research was conducted to investigate the role of transformational leadership, organizational culture and organizational learning in improving the performance of Iranian agricultural faculties and leading them to become learning organizations. The research population consisted of all faculty members of public agricultural faculties…

  4. The Influence of National and Organizational Culture on the Use of Performance Improvement Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadivelu, Ramaswamy N.; Klein, James D.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the influence of national and organizational culture on the use of various performance improvement interventions. Data on intervention use were collected from practitioners in the United States and South Asia. Results revealed that orientation programs, organizational communication, instructor-led training, and…

  5. Teacher Evaluation: Organizational Maintenance Versus Stimulation of Improved Teaching Performance. The New Mexico Principalship Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Carolyn J.; Pohland, Paul A.

    Teacher evaluation procedures appear to focus on organizational maintenance aspects more heavily than on helping teachers improve their teaching performance. This conclusion was reached after a content analysis of teacher evaluation instruments used in New Mexico schools. Items focusing on the instructional role constituted only 28% of the items…

  6. Developing Diverse Teams to Improve Performance in the Organizational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, Katherine L.; Nafukho, Fredrick M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The use of teams in organizations given the current trend toward globalization, population changes, and an aging workforce, especially in high-income countries, makes the issue of diverse team building critical. The purpose of this paper is to explore the issue of team diversity and team performance through the examination of theory and…

  7. Organizational performance improvement through the development of a team-based facilities group.

    PubMed

    Wanta, S A

    1997-11-01

    The support services division at Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia developed and implemented a service concept to improve organizational effectiveness and service. The design of the new concept has five major elements: implementation of a team-based organization, establishment of individual performance criteria or standards, development of performance goals and objectives for the teams, individual staff development and a recognition program. This document discusses the elements of team design and implementation, stages of growth and the role that the other four components (performance standards, goals, staff development and recognition) play in achieving improved organizational performances. This case study is intended to show general management techniques that can be adopted into a facility's management plan. PMID:10173780

  8. Benchmarks and performance indicators: two tools for evaluating organizational results and continuous quality improvement efforts.

    PubMed

    McKeon, T

    1996-04-01

    Benchmarks are tools that can be compared across companies and industries to measure process output. The key to benchmarking is understanding the composition of the benchmark and whether the benchmarks consist of homogeneous groupings. Performance measures expand the concept of benchmarking and cross organizational boundaries to include factors that are strategically important to organizational success. Incorporating performance measures into a balanced score card will provide a comprehensive tool to evaluate organizational results. PMID:8634466

  9. Deciphering the imperative: translating public health quality improvement into organizational performance management gains.

    PubMed

    Beitsch, Leslie M; Yeager, Valerie A; Moran, John

    2015-03-18

    With the launching of the national public health accreditation program under the auspices of the Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB), health department momentum around quality improvement adoption has accelerated. Domain 9 of the PHAB standards (one of 12 domains) focuses on evaluation and improvement of performance and is acting as a strong driver for quality improvement and performance management implementation within health departments. Widespread adoption of quality improvement activities in public health trails that in other US sectors. Several performance management models have received broad acceptance, including models among government and nonprofits. A model specifically for public health has been developed and is presented herein. All models in current use reinforce customer focus; streamlined, value-added processes; and strategic alignment. All are structured to steer quality improvement efforts toward organizational priorities, ensuring that quality improvement complements performance management. High-performing health departments harness the synergy of quality improvement and performance management, providing powerful tools to achieve public health strategic imperatives. PMID:25494050

  10. Improvement of Organizational Performance and Instructional Design: An Analogy Based on General Principles of Natural Information Processing Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darabi, Aubteen; Kalyuga, Slava

    2012-01-01

    The process of improving organizational performance through designing systemic interventions has remarkable similarities to designing instruction for improving learners' performance. Both processes deal with subjects (learners and organizations correspondingly) with certain capabilities that are exposed to novel information designed for producing…

  11. Performance Improvement: Applying a Human Performance Model to Organizational Processes in a Military Training Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaberg, Wayne; Thompson, Carla J.; West, Haywood V.; Swiergosz, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a description and the results of a study that utilized the human performance (HP) model and methods to explore and analyze a training organization. The systemic and systematic practices of the HP model are applicable to military training organizations as well as civilian organizations. Implications of the study for future…

  12. Impacts of organizational context on quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Glasgow, Justin M; Yano, Elizabeth M; Kaboli, Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Variation in how hospitals perform on similar quality improvement (QI) efforts argues for a need to understand how different organizational characteristics affect QI performance. The objective of this study was to use data-mining methods to evaluate relationships between measures of organizational characteristics and hospital QI performance. Organizational characteristics were extracted from 2 surveys and analyzed in 3 separate decision-tree models. The decision trees did not find any predictive associations in this sample of 100 hospitals participating in a national QI collaborative. Further model review identified that measures of QI Experience were associated with an ability to make improvements, whereas measures of Staffing and Culture were associated with an ability to sustain improvements. A key area for future research is to understand the challenges faced as QI teams transition from improving care to sustaining quality and to ascertain what organizational characteristics can best overcome those challenges. PMID:22942122

  13. Performance Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document contains four papers presented at a symposium on performance improvement moderated by Edward Schorer at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD) "The Organizational Ecology of Ethical Problems: International Case Studies in the Light of HPT [Human Performance Technology]" (Peter J. Dean, Laurence…

  14. The Mediating Effect of Team-Level Knowledge Creation on Organizational Procedural Justice and Team Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Ingu; Song, Ji Hoon; Kim, Woocheol

    2012-01-01

    This study examines how organizational procedural justice affects team performance through team-level knowledge creation practices and the extent to which these practices mediate the association between organizational procedural justice and team performance. The target samples were drawn from six organizations in Korea. A total of 348 cases were…

  15. Organizational Performance Improvement in Higher Education Student Affairs: A Phenomenographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Jill Carrie Menk

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the experiences of student services staff in a midwestern university during an organizational change: implementation of quality practices and principles. The experiences were captured as they reflected during the interview process. The interview data were organized into 35 concepts from…

  16. Process Maturity and Organizational Structure as a Framework for Performance Improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Škrinjar, Rok; Dimovski, Vlado; Škerlavaj, Miha; Indihar Šternberger, Mojca

    Business and technological change threatens organizational sustainability, which depends on a balance between change and order. Few organizations can control the forces that affect them, but they can control the way in which they deal with those forces. Organizations today face increasing pressures to integrate their processes across disparate divisions and functional units, in order to remove inefficiencies as well as to enhance manageability. Although many enterprises acknowledge the need to be quick and responsive in a global economy and market that is constantly changing, many are not adequately structured to do so. The functional/divisional organizational structure, the legacy form industrial age and one of the major agility inhibitors, is still predominant.

  17. Using the Malcolm Baldrige "are we making progress" survey for organizational self-assessment and performance improvement.

    PubMed

    Shields, Judith A; Jennings, Jerry L

    2013-01-01

    A national healthcare company applied the Malcolm Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence and its "Are We Making Progress?" survey as an annual organizational self-assessment to identify areas for improvement. For 6 years, Liberty Healthcare Corporation reviewed the survey results on an annual basis to analyze positive and negative trends, monitor company progress toward targeted goals and develop new initiatives to address emerging areas for improvement. As such, the survey provided a simple and inexpensive methodology to gain useful information from employees at all levels and from multiple service sites and business sectors. In particular, it provided a valuable framework for assessing and improving the employees' commitment to the company's mission and values, high standards and ethics, quality of work, and customer satisfaction. The methodology also helped the company to incorporate the philosophy and principles of continuous quality improvement in a unified fashion. Corporate and local leadership used the same measure to evaluate the performance of individual programs relative to each other, to the company as a whole, and to the "best practices" standard of highly successful companies that received the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award. PMID:22571768

  18. Upward appraisal as a means for improving supervisory performance and promoting process improvement, with long-term implications for organizational change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegfeldt, Denise V.

    1994-01-01

    This study represents the implementation phase of an organizational development project which was initiated last year in the Management Support Division (MSD) at Langley Research Center to diagnose organizational functioning. As a result of MSD survey data from last year's effort, a Quality Action Team was created to address the responses compiled from the MSD Organizational Assessment Questionnaire and Follow-Up Questionnaire. The team was officially named the MSD Employee Relations Improvement Team (MERIT). MERIT's goal was to analyze major concerns generated by the questionnaires and to present feasible solutions to management which would improve supervisory performance, promote process improvement; and ultimately, lead to a better organization. The team met weekly and was very disciplined in following guidelines needed to ensure a fully functioning team. Several TQM tools were used during the team process, including brainstorming and the cause and effect diagram. One of the products produced by MERIT was a 'report card', more formally known as an upward appraisal system, to evaluate supervisory performance in the division office, its three branches, and in teams. Major areas of emphasis on the 47 item report card were those identified by employees through the previously administered questionnaires as needing to be improved; specifically, training, recognition, teamwork, supervision and leadership, and communication. MERIT created an enlarged and modified version of the report card which enabled scores for each individual supervisor to be recorded on a separate form, along with summary results and employee comments. Report card results have been compiled and fed back to the Division Chief and Assistant Division Chief. These individuals will in turn, feed the results back to the remaining supervisors and the team leaders. Although results differ among supervisors, some similarities exist. Communication generally appears to be adequate, which represents an

  19. Public Management Reform and Organizational Performance: An Empirical Assessment of the U.K. Labour Government's Public Service Improvement Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Richard M.; Boyne, George A.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first empirical assessment of the U.K. Labour government's program of public management reform. This reform program is based on rational planning, devolution and delegation, flexibility and incentives, and enhanced choice. Measures of these variables are tested against external and internal indicators of organizational performance.…

  20. Learning Unplugged: Using Mobile Technologies for Organizational Training and Performance Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gayeski, Diane

    This book, which is written by a training consultant, is intended to help organizations determine whether specific readily available mobile technologies make sense for their particular learning and performance needs. Chapter 1 discusses the mobile revolution in learning and performance, with special attention to the new work and learning…

  1. Organizational Performance and Customer Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosti, Donald; Herbst, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    While behavior systems analysts have recognized the importance of the consumer of organizational products (i.e., receiving system) in developing models of organizational change, few have offered a systematic assessment of the relationship between consumer and organizational practices. In this article we will discuss how a behavior systems approach…

  2. Improving Organizational Learning through Leadership Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasson, Henna; von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Holmstrom, Stefan; Karanika-Murray, Maria; Tafvelin, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate whether training of managers at workplaces can improve organizational learning. Managers play a crucial role in providing opportunities to employees for learning. Although scholars have called for intervention research on the effects of leadership development on organizational learning, no such research is…

  3. Improving organizational climate for excellence in patient care.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Managers in health care organizations today are expected to achieve higher-quality patient care at a lower cost. Developing and maintaining a positive organizational climate can help improve motivation and foster higher employee performance. In turn, this will help the organization deliver better patient care at a lower cost. This article offers metrics for assessing organizational climate, analyzes barriers to a positive climate, and explores strategies that managers can use to build the type of climate that fosters high performance. PMID:23903945

  4. Improving Organizational Productivity in NASA. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Recognizing that NASA has traditionally been in the forefront of technological change, the NASA Administrator challenged the Agency in 1982 to also become a leader in developing and applying advanced technology and management practices to increase productivity. One of the activities undertaken by the Agency to support this ambitious productivity goal was participation in a 2-year experimental action research project devoted to learning more about improving and assessing the performance of professional organizations. Participating with a dozen private sector organizations, NASA explored the usefulness of a productivity improvement process that addressed all aspects of organizational performance. This experience has given NASA valuable insight into the enhancement of professional productivity. More importantly, it has provided the Agency with a specific management approach that managers and supervisors can effectively use to emphasize and implement continuous improvement. This report documents the experiences of the five different NASA installations participating in the project, describes the improvement process that was applied and refined, and offers recommendations for expanded application of that process. Of particular interest is the conclusion that measuring white collar productivity may be possible, and at a minimum, the measurement process itself is beneficial to management. Volume I of the report provides a project overview, significant findings, and recommendations. Volume II presents individual case studies of the NASA pilot projects that were part of the action research effort.

  5. Strategy, Distinctive Competence, and Organizational Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Charles C.; Hrebiniak, Lawrence G.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the perceptions of top managers in four industries (plastics, semiconductors, automotives, and air transportation) who examined relationships among strategy, distinctive competence, and organizational performance. (Author/IRT)

  6. Management system, organizational climate and performance relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, B. D.

    1979-01-01

    Seven aerospace firms were investigated to determine if a relationship existed among management systems, organizational climate, and organization performance. Positive relationships were found between each of these variables, but a statistically significant relationship existed only between the management system and organizational climate. The direction and amount of communication and the degree of decentralized decision-making, elements of the management system, also had a statistically significant realtionship with organization performance.

  7. Leadership Practices, Cultural Values, and Organizational Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgway, Kim A.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a study that investigated the relationship between transformational leadership practices, culture, and organizational effectiveness in 12 small manufacturing and service companies. Discusses difference between high-performance and mixed-performance companies and describes results from the Leadership Practice Inventory (LPI) and the…

  8. Relationship between Managers' Performance and Organizational Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadisadr, Mohammad; Siadat, Seyyedali; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between managers' performance in the field of interpersonal, informational and decision-making tasks with organizational health. To measure the indicators of the model, a questionnaire was prepared and distributed among 113 company of Tehran stock Exchange Market. According to the…

  9. Impact of yoga way of life on organizational performance

    PubMed Central

    Adhia, Hasmukh; Nagendra, HR; Mahadevan, B

    2010-01-01

    Background: Organizational performance can be attributed to a number of factors. However, there are certain organizational factors, the presence or absence of which can determine the success or failure of the organization. There are different ways in which organizations try to improve their performance by working on such factors. In the research presented in this article, an attempt is made to find out whether adoption of the Yoga Way of Life by managers can have a positive impact on such organizational performance indicators. Aims: To measure effect of yoga way of life on five different indicators through an empirical study. Materials and Methods: The five indicators are job satisfaction, job involvement, goal orientation, affective organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. Statistics Analysis: Pre- and post-data was measured using self-reported questionnaire. Independent T-test (Paired) and Pearson’s correlation test were conducted using SPSS. Results and Conclusion: The results of the study show that Yoga has a significant positive impact on four out of five of these indicators. Only job involvement does not show significant improvement. The construct used for measuring job involvement had a Chronbach alpha of 0.613, which is an indicator of moderate reliability, which could be the main reason for not getting positive result. PMID:21170231

  10. Making the Case for a Positive Approach to Improving Organizational Performance in Higher Education Institutions: The Community College Abundance Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shults, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Increasingly hostile and turbulent environments have rendered top-down, problem-focused management structures inadequate for competing in the ever-changing postsecondary knowledge industry. The community college abundance model (CCAM), a strengths-based approach to performance enhancement in community colleges, is presented as a viable…

  11. Workplace Spirituality and Organizational Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Zamor, Jean-Claude

    2003-01-01

    Examines workplace spirituality in an historical context and compares it to religious beliefs and to established ethical theories and moral principles. Suggests how managers and administrators in both the public and private sectors can use workplace spirituality to increase performance and develop ethical organizations. (Contains 54 references.)…

  12. 26 CFR 801.2 - Measuring organizational performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Measuring organizational performance. 801.2... REVENUE PRACTICE BALANCED SYSTEM FOR MEASURING ORGANIZATIONAL AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE WITHIN THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE § 801.2 Measuring organizational performance. The performance measures that comprise...

  13. 26 CFR 801.2 - Measuring organizational performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Measuring organizational performance. 801.2... REVENUE PRACTICE BALANCED SYSTEM FOR MEASURING ORGANIZATIONAL AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE WITHIN THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE § 801.2 Measuring organizational performance. The performance measures that comprise...

  14. 26 CFR 801.2 - Measuring organizational performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Measuring organizational performance. 801.2... REVENUE PRACTICE BALANCED SYSTEM FOR MEASURING ORGANIZATIONAL AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE WITHIN THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE § 801.2 Measuring organizational performance. The performance measures that comprise...

  15. 26 CFR 801.2 - Measuring organizational performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Measuring organizational performance. 801.2... REVENUE PRACTICE BALANCED SYSTEM FOR MEASURING ORGANIZATIONAL AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE WITHIN THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE § 801.2 Measuring organizational performance. The performance measures that comprise...

  16. Has Lean improved organizational decision making?

    PubMed

    Simons, Pascale; Benders, Jos; Bergs, Jochen; Marneffe, Wim; Vandijck, Dominique

    2016-06-13

    Purpose - Sustainable improvement is likely to be hampered by ambiguous objectives and uncertain cause-effect relations in care processes (the organization's decision-making context). Lean management can improve implementation results because it decreases ambiguity and uncertainties. But does it succeed? Many quality improvement (QI) initiatives are appropriate improvement strategies in organizational contexts characterized by low ambiguity and uncertainty. However, most care settings do not fit this context. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether a Lean-inspired change program changed the organization's decision-making context, making it more amenable for QI initiatives. Design/methodology/approach - In 2014, 12 professionals from a Dutch radiotherapy institute were interviewed regarding their perceptions of a Lean program in their organization and the perceived ambiguous objectives and uncertain cause-effect relations in their clinical processes. A survey (25 questions), addressing the same concepts, was conducted among the interviewees in 2011 and 2014. The structured interviews were analyzed using a deductive approach. Quantitative data were analyzed using appropriate statistics. Findings - Interviewees experienced improved shared visions and the number of uncertain cause-effect relations decreased. Overall, more positive (99) than negative Lean effects (18) were expressed. The surveys revealed enhanced process predictability and standardization, and improved shared visions. Practical implications - Lean implementation has shown to lead to greater transparency and increased shared visions. Originality/value - Lean management decreased ambiguous objectives and reduced uncertainties in clinical process cause-effect relations. Therefore, decision making benefitted from Lean increasing QI's sustainability. PMID:27256776

  17. An Organizational Performance Study of AACSB International Member Business Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Robert L.; Hammond, Kevin L.

    2012-01-01

    Organizations are thought to adopt or evolve to an organizational strategy that will improve organizational effectiveness. Familiar strategies in the business world include a production strategy, low cost strategy, and market orientation strategy. In the world of higher education however organizational strategies may take a different form such as…

  18. Evaluating Organizational Performance: Rational, Natural, and Open System Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Wes

    2013-01-01

    As the definition of organization has evolved, so have the approaches used to evaluate organizational performance. During the past 60 years, organizational theorists and management scholars have developed a comprehensive line of thinking with respect to organizational assessment that serves to inform and be informed by the evaluation discipline.…

  19. Organizational Socialization and Its Relation with Organizational Performance in High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balci, Ali; Ozturk, Inci; Polatcan, Mahmut; Saylik, Ahmet; Bil, Erkut

    2016-01-01

    This study is designed to explore organizational socialization and organizational performance levels of secondary school teachers and the relation between the two variables mentioned. The study is designed as correlational research. The target population of the research consists of 5744 teachers who work in public and private Anatolian high…

  20. Training and Restructuring in Organizational Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Studies indicate that employees experience increased equity, respect, and job satisfaction when able to assume more responsibility for work processes. The new work structures resulting from organizational change often necessitate new employee attitudes, knowledge, and skills as well as new management techniques. Integrated training programs are…

  1. 26 CFR 801.2 - Measuring organizational performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Measuring organizational performance. 801.2 Section 801.2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL REVENUE PRACTICE BALANCED SYSTEM FOR MEASURING ORGANIZATIONAL AND EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE WITHIN THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE § 801.2...

  2. Personality and organizational influences on aerospace human performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    Individual and organizational influences on performance in aerospace environments are discussed. A model of personality with demonstrated validity is described along with reasons why personality's effects on performance have been underestimated. Organizational forces including intergroup conflict and coercive pressures are also described. It is suggested that basic and applied research in analog situations is needed to provide necessary guidance for planning future space missions.

  3. The relationship between organizational culture and performance in acute hospitals.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Rowena; Mannion, Russell; Davies, Huw T O; Harrison, Stephen; Konteh, Fred; Walshe, Kieran

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between senior management team culture and organizational performance in English acute hospitals (NHS Trusts) over three time periods between 2001/2002 and 2007/2008. We use a validated culture rating instrument, the Competing Values Framework, to measure senior management team culture. Organizational performance is assessed using a wide range of routinely collected indicators. We examine the associations between organizational culture and performance using ordered probit and multinomial logit models. We find that organizational culture varies across hospitals and over time, and this variation is at least in part associated in consistent and predictable ways with a variety of organizational characteristics and routine measures of performance. Moreover, hospitals are moving towards more competitive culture archetypes which mirror the current policy context, though with a stronger blend of cultures. The study provides evidence for a relationship between culture and performance in hospital settings. PMID:23159305

  4. Organizational Learning as a Determining Factor in Business Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Susana Perez; Peon, Jose Manuel Montes; Ordas, Camilo Jose Vazquez

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: With the decline of some well-established firms, the diminishing competitive power of many companies in an increasingly globalized market and the need for organizational renewal and transformation, interest in organizational learning has grown. Senior managers in many organizations are convinced of the importance of improving learning in…

  5. Demographic differences in sport performers' experiences of organizational stressors.

    PubMed

    Arnold, R; Fletcher, D; Daniels, K

    2016-03-01

    Organizational stressors are particularly prevalent across sport performers' experiences and can influence their performance, health, and well-being. Research has been conducted to identify which organizational stressors are encountered by sport performers, but little is known about how these experiences vary from athlete to athlete. The purpose of this study was to examine if the frequency, intensity, and duration of the organizational stressors that sport performers encounter vary as a function of gender, sport type, and performance level. Participants (n = 1277) completed the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers (OSI-SP; Arnold et al., 2013), and the resultant data were analyzed using multivariate analyses of covariance. The findings show that demographic differences are apparent in the dimensions of the goals and development, logistics and operations, team and culture, coaching, and selection organizational stressors that sport performers encounter. More specifically, significant differences were found between males and females, between team and individual-based performers, and between performers competing at national or international, regional or university, and county or club levels. These findings have important implications for theory and research on organizational stress, and for the development of stress management interventions with sport performers. PMID:25728170

  6. Improving Student Organizational Skills through the Use of Organizational Skills in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anday-Porter, Sharon; Henne, Kori; Horan, Sandra

    This report describes a program for improving student organizational skills. The targeted population consisted of a fourth-grade self contained class, a sixth-grade science class, and a high school nine through twelve learning disability class in an elementary, middle, and high school setting. The schools were located in middle to upper class…

  7. Leveraging Organizational Learning for Knowledge and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaleri, Steven A.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the alignment and fit between knowledge management and organizational learning to determine the potential feasibility of integrating the two approaches. The philosophical roots of both disciplines are traced to common ground in a philosophy known as "pragmatism". Early generation forms of knowledge management are critiqued…

  8. Organizational Variables on Nurses’ Job Performance in Turkey: Nursing Assessments

    PubMed Central

    TOP, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of organizational variables on hospital staff nurses’ job performance as reported by staff nurses in two cities in Turkey. Hospital ownership status, employment status were examined for their effect on this influence. Methods: The reported influence of organizational variables on job performance was measured by a questionnaire developed for this study. Nurses were asked to evaluate the influence of 28 organizational variables on their job performance using a five-point Likert-type scale (1- Never effective, 5- Very effective). The study used comparative and descriptive study design. The staff nurses who were included in this study were 831 hospital staff nurses. Descriptive statistics, frequencies, t-test, ANOVA and factor analysis were used for data analysis. Results: The study showed the relative importance of the 28 organizational variables in influencing nurses’ job performance. Nurses in this study reported that workload and technological support are the most influential organizational variables on their job performance. Factor analysis yielded a five-factor model that explained 53.99% of total variance. Conclusion: Administratively controllable influence job organizational variables influence job performance of nurses in different magnitude. PMID:23641403

  9. Implementation of evidence-based practice and organizational performance.

    PubMed

    Hovmand, Peter S; Gillespie, David F

    2010-01-01

    Administrators of mental health services may expect evidence-based practice (EBP) to offer strategic benefits. Existing theory suggests that the benefits of implementing EBP vary by organizational characteristics. This paper presents a conceptual framework for considering how implementation impacts organizational performance. The framework is developed as a system dynamics simulation model based on existing literature, organizational theory, and key informant interviews with mental health services administrators and clinical directors. Results from the simulations show how gains in performance depended on organizations' initial inertia and initial efficiency and that only the most efficient organizations may see benefits in organizational performance from implementing EBP. Implications for administrators, policy makers, and services researchers are discussed. PMID:19085109

  10. Organizational culture, safety culture, and safety performance at research facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, William S.

    2000-07-30

    Organizational culture surveys of research facilities conducted several years ago and archival occupational injury reports were used to determine whether differences in safety performance are related to general organizational factors or to ''safety culture'' as reflected in specific safety-related dimensions. From among the organizations surveyed, a pair of facilities was chosen that were similar in size and scientific mission while differing on indices of work-related injuries. There were reliable differences in organizational style between the facilities, especially among workers in environment, safety, and health functions; differences between the facilities (and among job categories) on the safety scale were more modest and less regular.

  11. Improving Organizational Effectiveness through Transformational Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Bernard M., Ed.; Avolio, Bruce J., Ed.

    This book shows how transformational leadership is expected to contribute to an organization's efforts to improve its operations and the best use of its human resources. The concepts of transactional and transformational leadership are introduced within the framework of a full-range model of leadership. This model is applied to research,…

  12. A conceptual framework of organizational stressors in sport performers.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, D; Hanton, S; Mellalieu, S D; Neil, R

    2012-08-01

    In the study reported here, 12 sport performers (six elite and six non-elite) were interviewed with regard to organizational-related issues they had experienced in preparation for competition. Grounded theory procedures facilitated the development of a conceptual framework of organizational stressors consisting of five general dimensions: factors intrinsic to the sport, roles in the sport organization, sport relationships and interpersonal demands, athletic career and performance development issues, and organizational structure and climate of the sport. The data indicate that the stressors were encountered proportionately more by elite performers (#EPOS=315) than non-elite performers (#NPOS=228) with some demands being in common and some unique to each group. The results are discussed in relation to previous research and regarding their implications for professional practice. PMID:21083767

  13. Quality circles: Organizational adaptations, improvements and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tortorich, R.

    1985-01-01

    The effective application in industry and government of quality circles work was demonstrated. The results achieved in quality and productivity improvements and cost savings are impressive. The circle process should be institutionalized within industry and government. The stages of circle program growth, innovations that help achieve circle process institutionalization, and the result achieved at Martin Marietta's Michoud Division and within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are addressed.

  14. Applying Case-Based Reasoning in Knowledge Management to Support Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Feng-Kwei

    2006-01-01

    Research and practice in human performance technology (HPT) has recently accelerated the search for innovative approaches to supplement or replace traditional training interventions for improving organizational performance. This article examines a knowledge management framework built upon the theories and techniques of case-based reasoning (CBR)…

  15. Assessing Organizational Effectiveness: The Role of Performance Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Joseph R.

    2011-01-01

    A brief overview of the challenges associated with demonstrating organizational effectiveness and the role of performance measures as surrogates for demonstrating effectiveness are provided. The complexity of analysis and the importance of use of performance measures provide a way to review the strengths and weakness of eight different ways to…

  16. Organizational Performance Measures: The Vital Signs of TQM Investments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lembcke, Barbara A.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents a family of organizational performance measures that enable decision makers at institutions of higher education to weigh the returns on investment in Total Quality Management. The enrollment management process is used to illustrate the use of six performance measures. The importance of a thorough knowledge of organizational…

  17. Using Performance Measurement To Evaluate Teams and Organizational Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Carrie

    1998-01-01

    Describes the assumptions and goals of the Performance Effectiveness Management System (PEMS) of the University of Arizona Library and explains how to integrate performance measurement with a new system that focuses on teams and organizational outcomes. Phases of PEMS include: mission-critical services, programs, and activities; setting quality…

  18. Selected Annotated Bibliography: "Schools as Learning Communities." The Creation of High-Performance Schools through Organizational and Individual Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibulka, James; Nakayama, Michelle

    This annotated bibliography is part of a three-part report on creating high performing schools through organizational and individual learning. It includes such topics as: teachers supporting teachers; educational improvement via total quality management; overcoming barriers to organizational change; the institutionalization of public schools;…

  19. Leadership Styles and Organizational Performance: A Predictive Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieu, Hung Q.

    2010-01-01

    Leadership is critically important because it affects the health of the organization. Research has found that leadership is one of the most significant contributors to organizational performance. Expanding and replicating previous research, and focusing on the specific telecommunications sector, this study used multiple correlation and regression…

  20. Organizational Culture and Performance. ASHE 1987 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krakower, Jack

    The nature and strength of college culture were studied, along with how culture is related to perceptions of organizational performance. Data were obtained from a study conducted by the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems (NCHEMS). Questions of method, especially the validity of aggregating perceptual data to the organizational…

  1. The Relationship between Organizational Learning and SME Performance in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michna, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and define dimensions of organizational learning and the way it affects small- or medium-size enterprise (SME) performance. Design/methodology/approach: The empirical research is carried out in Polish SMEs (the sample size is 211 enterprises). In order to test the constructed hypotheses we use…

  2. Organizational Justice and Employee Satisfaction in Performance Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palaiologos, Anastasios; Papazekos, Panagiotis; Panayotopoulou, Leda

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore the performance appraisal (PA) aspects that are connected with organizational justice, and more specifically three kinds of justice, namely distributive, procedural and interactional justice. Design/methodology/approach: The research is based on a sample of 170 respondents who answered a questionnaire giving…

  3. Total Quality Management Practices and Their Effects on Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Richard Yu-Yuan; Lien, Bella Ya-Hui

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports a study designed to examine the key concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM) implementation and their effects on organizational performance. Process Alignment and People Involvement are two key concepts for successful implementation of TQM. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how these two constructs affect organizational…

  4. Software life cycle dynamic simulation model: The organizational performance submodel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, Robert C.

    1985-01-01

    The submodel structure of a software life cycle dynamic simulation model is described. The software process is divided into seven phases, each with product, staff, and funding flows. The model is subdivided into an organizational response submodel, a management submodel, a management influence interface, and a model analyst interface. The concentration here is on the organizational response model, which simulates the performance characteristics of a software development subject to external and internal influences. These influences emanate from two sources: the model analyst interface, which configures the model to simulate the response of an implementing organization subject to its own internal influences, and the management submodel that exerts external dynamic control over the production process. A complete characterization is given of the organizational response submodel in the form of parameterized differential equations governing product, staffing, and funding levels. The parameter values and functions are allocated to the two interfaces.

  5. Organizational Learning and Performance: Understanding Indian Scenario in Present Global Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khandekar, Aradhana; Sharma, Anuradha

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show that the role of organizational learning is increasingly becoming crucial for organizational performance. Based on the study of three Indian global firms operating in National Capital Region of Delhi, India, this study explores the correlation of organizational learning with organizational performance…

  6. An Integrative Model of Organizational Learning and Social Capital on Effective Knowledge Transfer and Perceived Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Jo; Lok, Peter; Hung, Richard Yu-Yuan; Fang, Shih-Chieh

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to set out to examine the relationships of organizational learning, social capital and the effectiveness of knowledge transfer and perceived organisational performance. Integrating organizational learning capability with social capital networks to shape a holistic knowledge sharing and management enterprise…

  7. Organizational management practices for achieving software process improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandt, Ronald Kirk

    2004-01-01

    The crisis in developing software has been known for over thirty years. Problems that existed in developing software in the early days of computing still exist today. These problems include the delivery of low-quality products, actual development costs that exceed expected development costs, and actual development time that exceeds expected development time. Several solutions have been offered to overcome out inability to deliver high-quality software, on-time and within budget. One of these solutions involves software process improvement. However, such efforts often fail because of organizational management issues. This paper discusses business practices that organizations should follow to improve their chances of initiating and sustaining successful software process improvement efforts.

  8. How Performance Improves

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry L. Harbour; Julie L. Marble

    2005-09-01

    Countless articles and books have been written about and numerous programs have been developed to improve performance. Despite this plethora of activity on how to improve performance, we have largely failed to address the more fundamental question of how performance actually improves. To begin exploring this more basic question, we have plotted some 1,200 performance records to date and found that irrespective of venue, industry, or business, there seems to be a fundamental and repeatable set of concepts regarding how performance improves over time. Such gained insights represent both opportunities and challenges to the performance technologist. Differences in performance outcomes may, for example, be as much a function of the life cycle stage of a performance system as the efficacy of the selected improvement method itself. Accordingly, it may be more difficult to compare differing performance improvement methods than previously thought.

  9. Organizational and market determinants of HMOs' performance of preventive practices.

    PubMed

    Wan, T T; Pai, C W; Wan, G J

    1998-01-01

    This study validates the measurements of performance of preventive practices and identifies organizational and market factors that affect variations in the preventive care practices of health maintenance organizations (HMOs). Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess HMO performance, reflecting the rates of five preventive practice services. A structural equation model of the preventive practice performance of HMOs was evaluated. It was discovered that HMOs that employ more board-certified primary care practitioners have a higher rate of preventive care practices and that market competition and market forces do not influence the variation in HMO preventive care practices. PMID:10181895

  10. [Organizational capacity for continuous improvement of health services].

    PubMed

    Saturno-Hernández, Pedro J; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Magaña-Valladares, Laura; Garcia-Saisó, Sebastián; Vertiz-Ramírez, José de Jesús

    2015-01-01

    While the Mexican health system has achieved significant progress, as reflected in the growing improvement in population health, heterogeneity in the quality of services and its impact on health in different population groups is still a challenge. The costs or poor quality represent about 20 to 40% of the health system's expenditure. We need to develop organizational capacity to implement quality management systems in order to identify, evaluate, prevent and eventually overcome the health system's challenges. A competency-based comprehensive strategy for training human resources is proposed including undergraduate and graduate education as well as continuing education, which will contribute to improve the quality function at the various levels of responsibility in the health system. The proposed strategy responds to the context of the Mexican health system, but it could be adapted to other systems and contexts. PMID:26302131

  11. Effects of task performance, helping, voice, and organizational loyalty on performance appraisal ratings.

    PubMed

    Whiting, Steven W; Podsakoff, Philip M; Pierce, Jason R

    2008-01-01

    Despite the fact that several studies have investigated the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and performance appraisal ratings, the vast majority of these studies have been cross-sectional, correlational investigations conducted in organizational settings that do not allow researchers to establish the causal nature of this relationship. To address this lack of knowledge regarding causality, the authors conducted 2 studies designed to investigate the effects of task performance, helping behavior, voice, and organizational loyalty on performance appraisal evaluations. Findings demonstrated that each of these forms of behavior has significant effects on performance evaluation decisions and suggest that additional attention should be directed at both voice and organizational loyalty as important forms of citizenship behavior aimed at the organization. PMID:18211140

  12. Clinicians’ views on improving inter-organizational care transitions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with complex health conditions frequently require care from multiple providers and are particularly vulnerable to poorly executed transitions from one healthcare setting to another. Poorly executed care transitions can result in negative patient outcomes (e.g. medication errors, delays in treatment) and increased healthcare spending due to re-hospitalization or emergency room visits by patients. Little is known about care transitions from acute care to complex continuing care and rehabilitation settings. Thus, a qualitative study was undertaken to explore clinicians’ perceptions of strategies aimed at improving patient care transitions from acute care hospitals to complex continuing care and rehabilitation healthcare organizations. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted with clinicians employed at two selected healthcare facilities: an acute care hospital and a complex continuing care/rehabilitation organization, respectively. Analysis of the transcripts involved the creation of a coding schema using the content analyses outlined by Ryan and Bernard. In total, 31 interviews were conducted with clinicians at the participating study sites. Results Three themes emerged from the data to delineate what study participants described as strategies to ensure quality inter-organizational transitions of patients transferred from acute care to the complex continuing care and rehabilitation hospital. These themes are: 1) communicating more effectively; 2) being vigilant around the patients’ readiness for transfer and care needs; and 3) documenting more accurately and completely in the patient transfer record. Conclusion Our study provides insights from the perspectives of multiple clinicians that have important implications for health care leaders and clinicians in their efforts to enhance inter-organizational care transitions. Of particular importance is the need to have a collective and collaborative approach amongst

  13. The Relationship between Organizational Culture and Performance: Merger in the Nigerian Banking Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoro, Henrietta Mbamalu

    2010-01-01

    Recent merger waves in most organizations fail to increase organizational performance and sustain competitive advantage. Several U.S. organizational mergers failed to sustain market competition and retain employees. Most consolidated and merged banks in Nigeria are in distress and have failed to increase organizational performance. Currently,…

  14. Lessons Learned: 20 Keys to Successful Training and Performance Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Dean R.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses issues related to training and performance improvement, including practice required for skill learning; knowledge versus skills; core skills; competence; learning to learn; team orientation; enabling business results; interpersonal and conceptual skills; timing; focusing on priorities; organizational learning and management…

  15. Embarking on performance improvement.

    PubMed

    Brown, Bobbi; Falk, Leslie Hough

    2014-06-01

    Healthcare organizations should approach performance improvement as a program, not a project. The program should be led by a guidance team that identifies goals, prioritizes work, and removes barriers to enable clinical improvement teams and work groups to realize performance improvements. A healthcare enterprise data warehouse can provide the initial foundation for the program analytics. Evidence-based best practices can help achieve improved outcomes and reduced costs. PMID:24968632

  16. Small Business Leadership and Organizational Culture, Job Satisfaction and Performance: Correlational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among organizational leadership styles (criterion variables), organizational culture, and employee job satisfaction, and organizational performance (predictor variables). The study research method was the quantitative method using a correlational research design that investigated the relationship among the…

  17. Exploring the Political Underbelly of Organizational Learning: Learning during Pay and Performance Management Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In an effort to better understand the political dimensions of organizational learning, this paper aims to examine learning processes in an organizational context--namely renegotiation of pay and performance management arrangements--where the interests of organizational members are threatened. Design/methodology/approach: Data were derived…

  18. Organizational citizenship behavior and the quantity and quality of work group performance.

    PubMed

    Podsakoff, P M; Ahearne, M; MacKenzie, S B

    1997-04-01

    Despite the widespread interest in the topic of organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), little empirical research has tested the fundamental assumption that these forms of behavior improve the effectiveness of work groups or organizations in which they are exhibited. In the present study, the effects of OCBs on the quantity and quality of the performance of 218 people working in 40 machine crews in a paper mill located in the Northeastern United States were examined. The results indicate that helping behavior and sportsmanship had significant effects on performance quantity and that helping behavior had a significant impact on performance quality. However, civic virtue had no effect on either performance measure. PMID:9109284

  19. Performance Improvement Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on performance improvement processes. In "Never the Twain Shall Meet?: A Glimpse into High Performance Work Practices and Downsizing" (Laurie J. Bassi, Mark E. Van Buren) evidence from a national cross-industry of more than 200 establishments is used to demonstrate that high-performance work…

  20. Tools for the Improvement of Organizational Learning Processes in Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Weerd-Nederhof, Petra C.; Pacitti, Bernice J.; da Silva Gomes, Jorge F.; Pearson, Alan W.

    2002-01-01

    From case studies of organizational learning in research and development companies, learning tools or mechanisms were identified: job rotation, innovation process planning, and product innovation project review. Organizational learning involved parallel rather than linear processes of information acquisition, distribution, and interpretation and…

  1. Maydays and Murphies: A Study of the Effect of Organizational Design, Task, and Stress on Organizational Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Zhiang; Carley, Kathleen

    How should organizations of intelligent agents be designed so that they exhibit high performance even during periods of stress? A formal model of organizational performance given a distributed decision-making environment in which agents encounter a radar detection task is presented. Using this model the performance of organizations with various…

  2. Performance improvement integration: a whole systems approach.

    PubMed

    Page, C K

    1999-02-01

    Performance improvement integration in health care organizations is a challenge for health care leaders. Required for accreditation by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (Joint Commission), performance improvement (PI) can be designed as a sustainable model for performance to survive in a turbulent period. Central Baptist Hospital developed a model for PI that focused on strategy established by the leadership team, delineated responsibility through the organizational structure of shared governance, and accountability for outcomes evidenced through the organization's profitability. Such an approach integrated into the culture of the organization can produce positive financial margins, positive customer satisfaction, and commendations from the Joint Commission. PMID:9926679

  3. Leadership for School Improvement: Cues from Organizational Learning and Renewal Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mai, Robert

    2004-01-01

    School improvement and school reform are about organizational learning and renewal. In successful efforts at organizational renewal, especially in business, leaders often play two related roles: critic/provocateur and learning advocate/innovation coach. Using examples from business corporations, the Army, and a college basketball team, this…

  4. Mind the Gap: Organizational Learning and Improvement in an Underperforming Urban System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnigan, Kara S.; Daly, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the theoretical lens of organizational learning, and utilizing the methodological approaches of social network and case-study analyses, our exploratory study examines whether schools under sanction exhibit the necessary processes, relationships, and social climates that support organizational learning and improvement. We also…

  5. MCNP Progress & Performance Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Forrest B.; Bull, Jeffrey S.; Rising, Michael Evan

    2015-04-14

    Twenty-eight slides give information about the work of the US DOE/NNSA Nuclear Criticality Safety Program on MCNP6 under the following headings: MCNP6.1.1 Release, with ENDF/B-VII.1; Verification/Validation; User Support & Training; Performance Improvements; and Work in Progress. Whisper methodology will be incorporated into the code, and run speed should be increased.

  6. Improving Surface Irrigation Performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface irrigation systems often have a reputation for poor performance. One key feature of efficient surface irrigation systems is precision (e.g. laser-guided) land grading. Poor land grading can make other improvements ineffective. An important issue, related to land shaping, is developing the pr...

  7. Does Organizational Learning Lead to Higher Firm Performance? An Investigation of Chinese Listing Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Wencang; Hu, Huajing; Shi, Xuli

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for studying organizational learning, firm innovation and firm financial performance. Design/methodology/approach: This paper examines the effects of organizational learning on innovation and performance among 287 listed Chinese companies. Findings: The results indicate a positive…

  8. A memory and organizational aid improves AD research consent capacity: Results of a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Rubright, Jonathan; Sankar, Pamela; Casarett, David J; Gur, Ruben; Xie, Sharon X; Karlawish, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Objectives AD patients' early and progressive cognitive impairments hinder their capacity to provide informed consent. Unfortunately, the limited research on techniques to improve capacity has shown mixed results. Therefore, we tested whether a memory and organizational aid improves AD patient performance on measures of capacity and competency to give informed consent. Design, Setting, and Participants AD patients randomly assigned to standard consent, or standard plus a memory and organizational aid. Intervention Memory and organizational aid summarized at a 6th grade reading level the content of information mandated under the Common Rule's informed consent disclosure requirements. Measurements Three psychiatrists without access to patient data independently reviewed MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR) interview transcripts to judge whether the patient was capable of providing informed consent. The agreement of at least two of three experts defined a participant as capable of providing informed consent. Secondary outcomes are MacCAT-CR measures of understanding, appreciation and reasoning, and comparison to cognitively normal older adult norms. Results AD intervention and control groups were similar in terms of age, education, and cognitive status. The intervention group was more likely to be judged competent than control group and had higher scores on MacCAT-CR measure of understanding. The intervention had no effect on measures of appreciation or reasoning. Conclusions A consent process that addresses an AD patients' deficits in memory and attention can improve capacity to give informed consent for early phase AD research. The results also validate the MacCAT-CR as an instrument to measure capacity, especially the understanding subscale. PMID:20808101

  9. How the Organizational Learning Process Mediates the Impact of Strategic Human Resource Management Practices on Performance in Korean Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Sei Hyoung; Song, Ji Hoon; Yun, Suk Chun; Lee, Cheol Ki

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research is to examine the structural relationships among several workplace-related constructs, including strategic human resource management (HRM) practices, organizational learning processes, and performance improvement in the Korean business context. More specifically, the research examined the mediating effect of…

  10. Effects of Process and Human Performance Improvement Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sasson, Joseph R.; Alvero, Alicia M.; Austin, John

    2006-01-01

    Organizational performance is a function of many variables, two of which are work process factors and human performance factors. Our study compared the effects of changing a work process versus human performance improvement techniques and the combined effects of combing both techniques. A 2 (manual vs electronic process) x 2 (with vs without…

  11. CF6 performance improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennard, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Potential CF6 engine performance improvements directed at reduced fuel consumption were identified and screened relative to airline acceptability and are reviewed. The screening process developed to provide evaluations of fuel savings and economic factors including return on investment and direct operating cost is described. In addition, assessments of development risk and production potential are made. Several promising concepts selected for full-scale development based on a ranking involving these factors are discussed.

  12. Organizational Characteristics Associated With Fundraising Performance of Nonprofit Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Cathleen Owens; Landry, Amy Yarbrough

    2015-01-01

    Fundraising has become increasingly important to nonprofit hospitals as access to capital has grown more difficult and reimbursement for services more complex. This study analyzes the variation in organizational characteristics and fundraising performance among nonprofit acute care hospitals in the United States to identify and measure critical factors related to one key fundraising performance indicator: public support. Results indicate that the presence of an endowment, along with its value, investments in fundraising, and the geographic location of the organization, account for approximately 46% of variance in public support among nonprofit hospitals. The use of a separate foundation for the fundraising operation is not necessarily associated with measures of fundraising success; however, a majority of hospitals do use a foundation, signaling a strategic choice that may be made for numerous reasons. The study results and limitations are discussed and recommendations are made for maximizing the effectiveness of the fundraising enterprise within nonprofit hospitals. Increasing awareness of challenges associated with fundraising success will enhance the strategic management of fundraising operations by hospital executives and board members. PMID:26529846

  13. Integrating Individual Learning Processes and Organizational Knowledge Formation: Foundational Determinants for Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Ji Hoon; Chermack, Thomas J.; Kim, Hong Min

    2008-01-01

    This research examined the link between learning processes and knowledge formation through an integrated literature review from both academic and practical viewpoints. Individuals' learning processes and organizational knowledge creation were reviewed by means of theoretical and integrative analysis based on a lack of empirical research on the…

  14. From Organizational Learning to Organizational Performance: The Influence of Individual Learning and Intrapreneurship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carlos; Callahan, Jamie L.

    2007-01-01

    Companies must survive in a competitive business arena that has become increasingly complex, demanding learning at both the individual and organizational levels. We suggest that the intersection of individual learning and intrapreneurship may help employees apply their knowledge more strategically to better support the learning of the organization…

  15. Assessing Instructor Performance: A Classroom Project for an Industrial/Organizational Psychology Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kottke, Janet L.

    1984-01-01

    For a class project students in an industrial/organizational psychology course had to construct a performance appraisal instrument for assessing the instructor's performance. Evaluations revealed that students found the exercise useful. (RM)

  16. The Causal Relationship of Organizational Performance of Thailand Private Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahasinpaisan, Tippaporn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose causal model of the relationship among transformational leadership, organizational culture, knowledge management, and organizational performance. A sample of 389 was randomly drawn from instructors of private higher education institutions under the Office of the Higher Education Commission. Data were…

  17. Selected Organizational Factors Affecting Performance of Professional Nurses in North West Bank Governmental Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thulth, Ahida Saleem; Sayej, Sumaya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Organizational factors are considered to be the cornerstone in achieving psychological and professional security at work, which in turn are positively reflected in job performance both quantitatively and qualitatively. Aim of the Study: The study aimed to assess of selected organizational factors (workload, available recourses and…

  18. Relationship of High School Principal Organizational Commitment and Campus Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edison, David Allen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the relationship of Texas high school principals' organizational commitment and the academic performance of the high schools served by the principals. Three components of principal organizational commitment--affective commitment, continuance commitment, and normative commitment--were assessed using the…

  19. A cluster randomized trial of an organizational process improvement intervention for improving the assessment and case planning of offenders: a Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, Michael S; Prendergast, Michael; Melnick, Gerald; Stein, Lynda A; Welsh, Wayne N

    2014-01-01

    Background The Organizational Process Improvement Intervention (OPII), conducted by the NIDA-funded Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies consortium of nine research centers, examined an organizational intervention to improve the processes used in correctional settings to assess substance abusing offenders, develop case plans, transfer this information to community-based treatment agencies, and monitor the services provided by these community based treatment agencies. Methods/Design A multi-site cluster randomized design was used to evaluate an inter-agency organizational process improvement intervention among dyads of correctional agencies and community based treatment agencies. Linked correctional and community based agencies were clustered among nine (9) research centers and randomly assigned to an early or delayed intervention condition. Participants included administrators, managers, and line staff from the participating agencies; some participants served on interagency change teams while other participants performed agency tasks related to offender services. A manualized organizational intervention that includes the use of external organizational coaches was applied to create and support interagency change teams that proceeded through a four-step process over a planned intervention period of 12 months. The primary outcome of the process improvement intervention was to improve processes associated with the assessment, case planning, service referral and service provision processes within the linked organizations. Discussion Providing substance abuse offenders with coordinated treatment and access to community-based services is critical to reducing offender recidivism. Results from this study protocol will provide new and critical information on strategies and processes that improve the assessment and case planning for such offenders as they transition between correctional and community based systems and settings. Further, this study extends current

  20. Coaching as a Performance Improvement Tool at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yirci, Ramazan; Karakose, Turgut; Kocabas, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the current literature and have an insight about coaching as a performance improvement tool at school. In today's world, schools have to survive and keep their organizational success in the highest level because of the high expectations from school stakeholders. Taking place in such a fierce competitive…

  1. Performance Improvement Assuming Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Individual performers, work teams, and organizations may be considered complex adaptive systems, while most current human performance technologies appear to assume simple determinism. This article explores the apparent mismatch and speculates on future efforts to enhance performance if complexity rather than simplicity is assumed. Included are…

  2. Performance Improvement [in HRD].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1995

    These four papers are from a symposium that was facilitated by Richard J. Torraco at the 1995 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (HRD). "Performance Technology--Isn't It Time We Found Some New Models?" (William J. Rothwell) reviews briefly two classic models, describes criteria for the high performance workplace (HPW), and…

  3. Succession planning in hospitals and the association with organizational performance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Effective succession planning is the heart of leadership development and an essential business strategy because it enhances the ability to achieve orderly transitions and maintain productivity levels. The results of this study are consistent with previous studies that exhibit a positive association of previous years' performance with internal succession planning. The key to successful succession planning lies in building a solid foundation of profitability. Having successors ready to fill key vacancies helps improve operational condition and the bottom line, and thus, gives a competitive edge in the market. Preparing successors for leadership may determine which organizations simply survive and which thrive and lead their markets down the road. PMID:22479959

  4. Building a Culture of Inclusion: Disability as Opportunity for Organizational Growth and Improving Patient Care.

    PubMed

    Ailey, Sarah H; Brown, Paula; Friese, Tanya R; Dugan, Shelia

    2016-01-01

    Administrators at Rush University Medical Center have made a commitment to diversity, including accommodating disabilities in the workplace and for students. This article explains extensive multilevel accommodations instituted by Rush University Medical Center that promote organizational growth and a healthier work environment and improve patient care. PMID:26641467

  5. To Improve the Academy: Resources for Faculty, Instructional, and Organizational Development, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Ed, Ed.; Richlin, Laurie, Ed.

    This annual journal issue contains 17 papers on issues of faculty development, instructional improvement, faculty collaboration and collegiability, students, and educational practices in higher education. Many of the papers were developed for the annual conference of the Professional and Organizational Development Network in Higher Education…

  6. To Improve the Academy: Resources for Faculty, Instructional, and Organizational Development, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Emily C., Ed.; And Others

    This annual journal issue contains 24 papers on issues of faculty development, instructional improvement, knowledge and teaching, and communication in higher education. Many of the papers were developed for the annual conference of the Professional and Organizational Development Network in Higher Education (POD). The papers are: (1) "Teaching…

  7. Randomized Trial of the Availability, Responsiveness and Continuity (ARC) Organizational Intervention for Improving Youth Outcomes in Community Mental Health Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glisson, Charles; Hemmelgarn, Anthony; Green, Philip; Williams, Nathaniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of the study was to assess whether the Availability, Responsiveness and Continuity (ARC) organizational intervention improved youth outcomes in community based mental health programs. The second objective was to assess whether programs with more improved organizational social contexts following the 18-month ARC…

  8. Helping Others Improve Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durfee, Arthur E.

    1970-01-01

    Because individuals are motivated by work which they regard as challenging and worthwhile, their motivation is increased as they are given clear-cut responsibility. A performance appraisal system based on these new insights is available and may be used by supervisors. (NL)

  9. Performance improvement on the battlefield.

    PubMed

    De Jong, Marla J; Martin, Kathleen D; Huddleston, Michele; Spott, Mary Ann; McCoy, Jennifer; Black, Julie A; Bolenbaucher, Rose

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Theater Trauma System (JTTS) is a formal system of trauma care designed to improve the medical care and outcomes for combat casualties of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. This article describes the JTTS Trauma Performance Improvement Plan and how JTTS personnel use it to facilitate performance improvement across the entire continuum of combat casualty care. PMID:19092506

  10. Attributions of the "causes" of group performance as an alternative explanation of the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and organizational performance.

    PubMed

    Bachrach, D G; Bendoly, E; Podsakoff, P M

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the possibility that feedback regarding team performance may influence team members' reports of organizational citizenship behaviors. Ninety-five teams of business students (N = 412) participated in a labor-scheduling simulation over a local area network. Teams were provided with false negative, false positive, or neutral feedback regarding their performance. Results support the hypothesis that the perception of 2 forms of organizational citizenship behavior (helping behavior and civic virtue) in work groups may, in part. be a function of the nature of the performance feedback that group members receive. However, negative feedback appears to play a more critical role than positive feedback in this attributional process. Possible reasons for these findings, as well as their implications, are discussed. PMID:11768069

  11. Using business intelligence to improve performance.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Tom; Graves, Brian; Glass, Steve; Harrison, A Marc; Donovan, Chris; Proctor, Andrew

    2009-10-01

    Cleveland Clinic's enterprise performance management program offers proof that comparisons of actual performance against strategic objectives can enable healthcare organization to achieve rapid organizational change. Here are four lessons Cleveland Clinic learned from this initiative: Align performance metrics with strategic initiatives. Structure dashboards for the CEO. Link performance to annual reviews. Customize dashboard views to the specific user. PMID:19810655

  12. Total Quality Management and Organizational Behavior Management: An Integration for Continual Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawhinney, Thomas C.

    1992-01-01

    The history and main features of organizational behavior management (OBM) are compared and integrated with those of total quality management (TQM), with emphasis on W.E. Deming's 14 points and OBM's operant-based approach to performance management. Interventions combining OBM, TQM, and statistical process control are recommended. (DB)

  13. Improving hospital efficiency: a process model of organizational change commitments.

    PubMed

    Nigam, Amit; Huising, Ruthanne; Golden, Brian R

    2014-02-01

    Improving hospital efficiency is a critical goal for managers and policy makers. We draw on participant observation of the perioperative coaching program in seven Ontario hospitals to develop knowledge of the process by which the content of change initiatives to increase hospital efficiency is defined. The coaching program was a change initiative involving the use of external facilitators with the goal of increasing perioperative efficiency. Focusing on the role of subjective understandings in shaping initiatives to improve efficiency, we show that physicians, nurses, administrators, and external facilitators all have differing frames of the problems that limit efficiency, and propose different changes that could enhance efficiency. Dynamics of strategic and contested framing ultimately shaped hospital change commitments. We build on work identifying factors that enhance the success of change efforts to improve hospital efficiency, highlighting the importance of subjective understandings and the politics of meaning-making in defining what hospitals change. PMID:24132582

  14. PIMM: A Performance Improvement Measurement Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-15

    This report presents a Performance Improvement Measurement Methodology (PIMM) for measuring and reporting the mission performance for organizational elements of the U.S. Department of Energy to comply with the Chief Financial Officer`s Act (CFOA) of 1990 and the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) of 1993. The PIMM is illustrated by application to the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), a Research, Development and Demonstration (RD&D) field center of the Office of Fossil Energy, along with limited applications to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Office and the Office of Fossil Energy. METC is now implementing the first year of a pilot project under GPRA using the PIMM. The PIMM process is applicable to all elements of the Department; organizations may customize measurements to their specific missions. The PIMM has four aspects: (1) an achievement measurement that applies to any organizational element, (2) key indicators that apply to institutional elements, (3) a risk reduction measurement that applies to all RD&D elements and to elements with long-term activities leading to risk-associated outcomes, and (4) a cost performance evaluation. Key Indicators show how close the institution is to attaining long range goals. Risk reduction analysis is especially relevant to RD&D. Product risk is defined as the chance that the product of new technology will not meet the requirements of the customer. RD&D is conducted to reduce technology risks to acceptable levels. The PIMM provides a profile to track risk reduction as RD&D proceeds. Cost performance evaluations provide a measurement of the expected costs of outcomes relative to their actual costs.

  15. A Moderated Mediation Model of the Relationship between Organizational Citizenship Behaviors and Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozer, Muammer

    2011-01-01

    Addressing numerous calls for future research on understanding the theoretical mechanisms that explain the relationship between organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) and job performance, this study focused on how an employee's relationships with coworkers mediate the relationship between his or her OCBs and his or her job performance. It…

  16. The Relationship between Learning Capability and Organizational Performance: A Meta-Analytic Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Swee C.; Elliott, Catherine; Quon, Tony K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a meta-analysis of a subset of published empirical research papers that measure learning capability and link it to organizational performance. It also seeks to examine both financial and non-financial performance. Design/methodology/approach: In a search of published research on learning capability…

  17. Relation of Organizational Structure to Job Satisfaction, Anxiety-Stress, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivancevich, John M.; Donnelly, James H., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Reports on the relationship between organizational shape or structure (tall, medium, and flat) and job satisfaction, anxiety-stress, and performance. Indicates that salesmen in flat organizations perceive more autonomy and more satisfaction with respect to self-actualization, perceive lower amounts of anxiety-stress, and perform more efficiently.…

  18. High Performance Work Systems and Organizational Outcomes: The Mediating Role of Information Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preuss, Gil A.

    2003-01-01

    A study of the effect of high-performance work systems on 935 nurses and 182 nurses aides indicated that quality of decision-making information depends on workers' interpretive skills and partially mediated effects of work design and total quality management on organizational performance. Providing relevant knowledge and opportunities to use…

  19. Health worker performance in rural health organizations in low- and middle-income countries: do organizational factors predict non-task performance?

    PubMed

    Jayasuriya, Rohan; Jayasinghe, Upali W; Wang, Qian

    2014-07-01

    Health worker (HW) performance is a critical issue facing many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The aim of this study was to test the effects of factors in the work environment, such as organizational culture and climate, on HW non-task performance in rural health work settings in a LMIC. The data for the study is from a sample of 963 HWs from rural health centres (HCs) in 16 of the 20 provinces in Papua New Guinea. The reliability and validity of measures for organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB), counterproductive work behaviour (CWB) and work climate (WC) were tested. Multilevel linear regression models were used to test the relationship of individual and HC level factors with non-task performance. The survey found that 62 per cent of HCs practised OCB "often to always" and 5 percent practised CWB "often to always". Multilevel analysis revealed that WC had a positive effect on organizational citizenship behaviour (OCB) and a negative effect on CWB. The mediation analyses provided evidence that the relationship between WC and OCB was mediated through CWB. Human resource policies that improve WC in rural health settings would increase positive non-task behaviour and improve the motivation and performance of HWs in rural settings in LMICs. PMID:24820407

  20. A Dynamic Simulation Model of Organizational Culture and Business Strategy Effects on Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivellas, Panagiotis; Reklitis, Panagiotis; Konstantopoulos, Nikolaos

    2007-12-01

    In the past two decades, organizational culture literature has gained tremendous interest for both academic and practitioners. This is based not only on the suggestion that culture is related to performance, but also on the view that it is subject of direct managerial control and manipulation to the desired direction. In the present paper, we adopt Competing Values Framework (CVF) to operationalise organizational culture and Porter's typology to conceptualize business strategy (cost leadership, innovative and marketing differentiation, and focus). Although simulation of social events is a quite difficult task, since there are so many considerations (not all well understood) involved, in the present study we developed a dynamic model to simulate the organizational culture and strategy effects on financial performance. Data obtained from a six-year survey in the banking sector of a European developing economy was used for the proposed dynamic model development.

  1. From Job Analysis to Performance Management: A Synergistic Rapprochement to Organizational Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, Charles R.; Hantula, Donald A.; McArthur, Kari L.

    2011-01-01

    This article shows how OBM research and practice can incorporate tools from IOP to achieve an effective and socially valid organizational improvement strategy. After a brief review of both fields, a project is described in a major domestic corporation illustrating a synthesis of OBM and IOP techniques. Value-added repair service was targeted for…

  2. Addressing dysfunctional relations among healthcare teams: improving team cooperation through applied organizational theories.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Sujin K; Horwitz, Irwin B; Barshes, Neal R

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that communication failure and interpersonal conflicts are significant impediments among health-care teams to assess complex information and engage in the meaningful collaboration necessary for optimizing patient care. Despite the prolific research on the role of effective teamwork in accomplishing complex tasks, such findings have been traditionally applied to business organizations and not medical contexts. This chapter, therefore, reviews and applies four theories from the fields of organizational behavior (OB) and organization development (OD) as potential means for improving team interaction in health-care contexts. This study is unique in its approach as it addresses the long-standing problems that exist in team communication and cooperation in health-care teams by applying well-established theories from the organizational literature. The utilization and application of the theoretical constructs discussed in this work offer valuable means by which the efficacy of team work can be greatly improved in health-care organizations. PMID:21887945

  3. Transforming Public Health Systems: Using Data to Drive Organizational Capacity for Quality Improvement and Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Steinwachs, Donald M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This paper examines the organization, services, and priorities of public health agencies and their capacity to be learning public health systems (LPHS). An LPHS uses data to measure population health and health risks and to evaluate its services and programs, and then integrates its own research with advances in scientific knowledge to innovate and improve its efficiency and effectiveness. Public Health Agencies and Impact for LPHS: Public health agencies’ (PHA) organizational characteristics vary across states, as does their funding per capita. Variations in organization, services provided, and expenditures per capita may reflect variations in community needs or may be associated with unmet needs. The status of legal statutes defining responsibilities and authorities and their relationships to other public and private agencies also vary. Little information is available on the efficiency and effectiveness of state and local PHAs, in part due to a lack of information infrastructure to capture uniform data on services provided. There are almost no data on the relationship of quality of services, staff performance, and resources to population health outcomes. By building a capacity to collect and analyze data on population health within and across communities, and by becoming a continuous learning PHA, the allocation of resources can more closely match population health needs and improve health outcomes. Accreditation of every PHA is an important first step toward becoming a learning PHA. Conclusions: Public Health Services and Systems Research (PHSSR) is beginning to shed light on some of these issues, particularly by investigating variation across PHAs. As this emerging discipline grows, there is a need to enhance the collection and use of data in support of building organized, effective, and efficient LPHSs with the PHA capacity to continually improve the public’s health. PMID:25995990

  4. The relationship of emotional exhaustion to work attitudes, job performance, and organizational citizenship behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cropanzano, Russell; Rupp, Deborah E; Byrne, Zinta S

    2003-02-01

    The authors investigated the negative consequences of emotional exhaustion for individual employees and their employers. On the basis of social exchange theory, the authors proposed that emotional exhaustion would predict job performance, 2 classes of organizational citizenship behavior, and turnover intentions. In addition, the authors posited that the relationship between emotional exhaustion and effective work behaviors would be mediated by organizational commitment. With only a few exceptions, the results of 2 field studies supported the authors' expectations. In addition, emotional exhaustion exerted an independent effect on these criterion variables beyond the impact of age, gender, and ethnicity. PMID:12675403

  5. Impact of Organizational Climate on Performance of College Teachers in Punjab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raza, Syed Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the impact of organizational climate on performance of college teachers. The researcher selected the area of college education as the focus of the study. The study was delimited to all the public sector degree colleges of Punjab. Population of this study consisted of all the principals and teachers working in public…

  6. Analysis of Competencies, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment as Indicators of Job Performance: A Conceptual Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Asad; Masrek, Mohamad Noorman; Nadzar, Fuziah Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Like other disciplines, organizational and technological innovations have influenced the standard philosophies of librarianship. These innovations have changed the basics of information retrieval and delivery in libraries. As a result, library authorities are demanding competency-based job performance. Nonetheless, there is a scarcity of research…

  7. Distributed Leadership and Organizational Change: Implementation of a Teaching Performance Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Tine

    2013-01-01

    This article explores leadership practice and change as evidenced in multiple data sources gathered during a self-study implementation of a teaching performance assessment. It offers promising models of distributed leadership and organizational change that can inform future program implementers and the field in general. Our experiences suggest…

  8. Diversity Management Interventions and Organizational Performance: A Synthesis of Current Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Ellen Foster; Dreachslin, Janice L.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the growing body of literature focused on diversity management and its implications for career experiences and perceptions, team dynamics, customer service, and other dimensions of organizational performance, a significant gap remains. To address the gap, this article reviews the managing diversity literature published between January 2000…

  9. Examining the Relationship between Learning Organization Characteristics and Change Adaptation, Innovation, and Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kontoghiorghes, Constantine; Awbre, Susan M.; Feurig, Pamela L.

    2005-01-01

    The main purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the relationship between certain learning organization characteristics and change adaptation, innovation, and bottom-line organizational performance. The following learning organization characteristics were found to be the strongest predictors of rapid change adaptation, quick product or…

  10. High-Performance Classrooms for Women? Applying a Relational Frame to Management/Organizational Behavior Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttner, E. Holly

    2002-01-01

    Attributes of relational theory, based on women's development, include preventive connecting, mutual empowering, achieving, and team building. These attributes are compatible with the practices of high performance work organizations. Relational practices should be integrated into management and organizational behavior courses. (Contains 53…

  11. Measuring Organizational Learning Capability in Indian Managers and Establishing Firm Performance Linkage: An Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatnagar, Jyotsna

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to measure Organizational Learning Capability (OLC) perception in the managers of public, private and multinational organizations and establish the link between OLC and firm performance. Design/methodology/approach: The data were collected from a sample of 612 managers randomly drawn from Indian industry,…

  12. The Effects of Racial Conflict on Organizational Performance: A Search for Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Marilyn Y.

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the effect of racial conflict on organizational performance as an issue that needs theoretical support in the foundational theories of human resource development (HRD). While the field of HRD recognizes theories from multiple disciplines, the field lacks a theoretical framework to inform leadership in managing racial…

  13. Visions to Guide Performance: A Typology of Multiple Future Organizational Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margolis, Sheila L.; Hansen, Carol D.

    2003-01-01

    Organizational performance is highly influenced by how employees envision the future. To date, many scholars have emphasized the importance of an overarching future vision that unites all stakeholders, while acknowledging the presence of divergent perspectives among members. This variety in perspectives may be further complicated in organizations…

  14. Evaluating the Impact of Electronic Training on Organizational Performance in an SME Food Manufacturing Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Many small to medium sized manufacturing organizations do not have adequate resources to conduct formalized workplace training or properly evaluate its results. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of electronic training on workplace behavior and small business organizational performance in the manufacturing environment using…

  15. The Influence of Investment in Workplace Learning on Learning Outcomes and Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Yoonhee; Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    Although the importance of workplace learning has been recognized in research and practice, there is little empirical support that describes how workplace learning, including both formal and informal learning, is linked to organizational performance. This study investigated the influence of investment in workplace learning on learning outcomes and…

  16. Organizational climate configurations: relationships to collective attitudes, customer satisfaction, and financial performance.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Mathis; Ostroff, Cheri; Shmulyian, Svetlana; Kinicki, Angelo

    2009-05-01

    Research on organizational climate has tended to focus on independent dimensions of climate rather than studying the total social context as configurations of multiple climate dimensions. The authors examined relationships between configurations of unit-level climate dimensions and organizational outcomes. Three profile characteristics represented climate configurations: (1) elevation, or the mean score across climate dimensions; (2) variability, or the extent to which scores across dimensions vary; and (3) shape, or the pattern of the dimensions. Across 2 studies (1,120 employees in 120 bank branches and 4,317 employees in 86 food distribution stores), results indicated that elevation was related to collective employee attitudes and service perceptions, while shape was related to customer satisfaction and financial performance. With respect to profile variability, results were mixed. The discussion focuses on future directions for taking a configural approach to organizational climate. PMID:19450003

  17. Organizational Culture, Performance and Career Choices of Ph.D.s: A Case Study of Dutch Medical Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Weijden, Inge; de Gilder, Dick; Groenewegen, Peter; Geerling, Maaike

    2008-01-01

    Increasing demands for accountability and applicability raise the question of how organizational factors affect researchers' performance and career choices. In a study of Dutch medical Ph.D. student's experiences, organizational culture and climate and attitudes towards research quality are related to performance and career choices. Ph.D.s who…

  18. Task Characteristics, Structural Characteristics, Organizational Relationships, and Communication Processes: A Contingency Approach to Job Performance. Phase III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petelle, John L.; Garthright-Petelle, Kathleen

    A study examined the relationships between (1) employee job performance and organizational relationships, (2) employee job performance and communication processes, (3) organizational relationships and communication processes, and (4) task characteristics and structural characteristics. Data were gathered from approximately 200 employees of a state…

  19. Improving health care systems performance: a human factors approach.

    PubMed

    Silver, Michael P; Geis, Michelle S; Bateman, Kim A

    2004-01-01

    Under contract from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), Medicare Quality Improvement Organizations (QIOs) promote improvement in health care system performance. With the QIO contract cycle that began in the fall of 1999, CMS adopted a broad national improvement agenda emphasizing 24 quality measures from 6 clinical topic areas. The Utah QIO developed a human factors and organizational safety management-based intervention strategy for the inpatient clinical topic areas, borrowing approaches and principles previously applied in hospital-based medication systems safety improvement efforts. Evaluation used measures and methods established by CMS to assess the adequacy of QIO performance nationwide. Comparison of statewide inpatient quality indicator performance rates in 1998 and 2000 showed absolute improvement on 15 of the 16 measures used. The average reduction in the failure rate for these clinical topic areas in Utah was 27.3%; this was the highest rate of improvement for any state in the nation. Utah's overall ranking on the combined inpatient clinical topic areas went from 16th at baseline to first at follow-up. The evaluation demonstrates exceptional levels of performance improvement in Utah hospitals when compared with national trends. It is, however, neither possible to uniquely isolate the effects of the QIO intervention from larger trends operating statewide, nor can the contributions of the various facets of the QIO intervention be disaggregated. The application of human factors and organizational safety management principles represents a promising strategy for accelerating the pace of improvement in health care. PMID:15212314

  20. LEADERSHIP PERFORMANCE OF NURSING SUPERVISORS AT TWO ORGANIZATIONAL LEVELS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BLOOD, MILTON R.; NEALEY, STANLEY M.

    THE RELATIONS OF LEADERSHIP STYLE AND BEHAVIOR TO WORK GROUP PERFORMANCE AND SUBORDINATE JOB SATISFACTION HAVE BEEN INVESTIGATED FOR 22 FIRST-LEVEL AND EIGHT SECOND-LEVEL NURSING SUPERVISORS IN A 1680 BED VETERANS ADMINISTRATION HOSPITAL. NURSING ASSISTANTS SUPERVISED BY TASK-ORIENTED LEADERS RECEIVED HIGHER PERFORMANCE RATINGS AT THE FIRST LEVEL…

  1. Improving Reading Performance through Hypnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillmer, H. Thompson; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes a study investigating the effects of group hypnosis on the reading performance of university students in a reading and writing center. Discusses study procedures and presents data on pretest scores and gains in vocabulary and comprehension scores. Concludes that regular use of self-hypnosis significantly improved performance. (DMM)

  2. Evaluating and Improving Teacher Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manatt, Richard P.

    This workbook, coordinated with Manatt Teacher Performance Evaluation (TPE) workshops, summarizes large group presentation in sequence with the transparancies used. The first four modules of the workbook deal with the state of the art of evaluating and improving teacher performance; the development of the TPE system, including selection of…

  3. Improving Performance Appraisal in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincelette, Joyce P.; Pfister, Fred C.

    1984-01-01

    This article identifies problems with current practice in evaluating employee performance and presents currently accepted performance appraisal methods (behaviorally anchored rating scales, management by objectives). A research project designed to improve appraisals for school media specialists which was field-tested in four Florida school…

  4. Surviving Performance Improvement "Solutions": Aligning Performance Improvement Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardez, Mariano L.

    2009-01-01

    How can organizations avoid the negative, sometimes chaotic, effects of multiple, poorly coordinated performance improvement interventions? How can we avoid punishing our external clients or staff with the side effects of solutions that might benefit our bottom line or internal efficiency at the expense of the value received or perceived by…

  5. Knowledge Management Capabilities and Organizational Performance: An Investigation into the Effects of Knowledge Infrastructure and Processes on Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Taejun

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge is one of the most important assets for surviving in the modern business environment. The effective management of that asset mandates continuous adaptation by organizations, and requires employees to strive to improve the company's work processes. Organizations attempt to coordinate their unique knowledge with traditional means as well…

  6. Which comes first: employee attitudes or organizational financial and market performance?

    PubMed

    Schneider, Benjamin; Hanges, Paul J; Smith, D Brent; Salvaggio, Amy Nicole

    2003-10-01

    Employee attitude data from 35 companies over 8 years were analyzed at the organizational level of analysis against financial (return on assets; ROA) and market performance (earnings per share: EPS) data using lagged analyses permitting exploration of priority in likely causal ordering. Analyses revealed statistically significant and stable relationships across various time lags for 3 of 7 scales. Overall Job Satisfaction and Satisfaction With Security were predicted by ROA and EPS more strongly than the reverse (although some of the reverse relationships were also significant); Satisfaction With Pay suggested a more reciprocal relationship with ROA and EPS. The discussion of results provides a preliminary framework for understanding issues surrounding employee attitudes, high-performance work practices, and organizational financial and market performance. PMID:14516248

  7. The work-family interface and job performance: moderating effects of conscientiousness and perceived organizational support.

    PubMed

    Witt, L A; Carlson, Dawn S

    2006-10-01

    Based on conservation of resources (COR) theory, the authors hypothesized that two aspects of the work-family interface--family-to-work conflict (FWC) and family-to-work enrichment (FWE)--are related to job performance. The authors also hypothesized that two variables moderate those relationships--individual differences in conscientiousness and aspects of the work environment in terms of perceived organizational support (POS). Data collected from a matched set of 136 private sector workers and their respective supervisors revealed that high FWC was more strongly related to lower job performance: (1) among high- than low-conscientiousness workers and (2) among workers reporting low rather than high levels of organizational support. However, FWE was unrelated to job performance. PMID:17059298

  8. Organizational Learning and Innovation Performance: A Review of the Literature and the Development of a Conceptual Framework and Research Hypotheses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Lin; Ellinger, Andrea D.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual framework and research hypotheses based upon a thorough review of the conceptual and limited published empirical research in the organizational learning and innovation performance literatures. Hypotheses indicate the relationships between organizational learning, its antecedent, perception of…

  9. Do Charismatic Presidents Influence College Applications and Alumni Donations? Organizational Identity and Performance in US Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastedo, Michael N.; Samuels, Elias; Kleinman, Molly

    2014-01-01

    The effect of charismatic leadership on organizational performance is contested. Yet despite the lack of consistent evidence of the value of charismatic leadership to organizations, presidential searches have increasingly favored charismatic candidates. This study shows how organizational identity mediates the relationship between charismatic…

  10. Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Higher Education: Examining the Relationships between Behaviors and Performance Outcomes for Individuals and Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) have been described as employee behaviors that are not required by job descriptions, are not formally rewarded, and contribute positively to the organization. Previous research has shown that OCBs are related to both individual and organizational performance. Given the importance of OCBs to individual…

  11. The Mediation of Performance in the Relationship of Organizational Commitment to University Faculty's Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jing, Lizhen; Zhang, Deshan

    2014-01-01

    To provide more insights into inconsistent findings on the relationship of organizational commitment to effectiveness, this study conducted a questionnaire survey among 188 academics in Beijing. Analysis of survey responses suggested that organizational commitment presented significant relationships to performance and effectiveness. These…

  12. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Organizational Strategy and Performance among California's Largest Unified School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abode, Philip Sanmi

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the nature of the relationship between organizational strategy and district performance among California's largest unified school districts. Organizational strategy was measured using planned and realized strategies (independent variables). Realized strategy is also referred to strategic orientation.…

  13. Error analysis using organizational simulation.

    PubMed Central

    Fridsma, D. B.

    2000-01-01

    Organizational simulations have been used by project organizations in civil and aerospace industries to identify work processes and organizational structures that are likely to fail under certain conditions. Using a simulation system based on Galbraith's information-processing theory and Simon's notion of bounded-rationality, we retrospectively modeled a chemotherapy administration error that occurred in a hospital setting. Our simulation suggested that when there is a high rate of unexpected events, the oncology fellow was differentially backlogged with work when compared with other organizational members. Alternative scenarios suggested that providing more knowledge resources to the oncology fellow improved her performance more effectively than adding additional staff to the organization. Although it is not possible to know whether this might have prevented the error, organizational simulation may be an effective tool to prospectively evaluate organizational "weak links", and explore alternative scenarios to correct potential organizational problems before they generate errors. PMID:11079885

  14. The Relationship between Organizational Justice and Quality Performance among Healthcare Workers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Salwa Attia

    2014-01-01

    Organization justice refers to the extent to which employees perceive workplace procedure, interactions, and outcomes to be fair in nature. So, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between organizational justice and quality performance among health care workers. The study was conducted at the Public Hospital in Fayoum, Egypt. The study included a convenience sample of 100 healthcare workers (60 nurses and 40 physicians) that were recruited. Tools used for data collection included (1) questionnaire sheet which is used to measure health workers' perception of organizational justices. It includes four types: distributive, procedural, interpersonal, and informational justice. (2) Quality performance questionnaire sheet: this tool was used to examine health workers' perception regarding their quality performance. It contained three types: information, value, and skill. The results revealed that a positive correlation was found between organizational justice components and quality performance among the various categories of health workers' perception (P ≤ 0.05). It has been recommended to replicate the study on a larger probability sample from different hospital settings to achieve more generalizable results and reinforce justice during organization of ministry centers in Egypt. PMID:24982992

  15. Organizational Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beriwal, Madhu; Clegg, Stewart; Collopy, Fred; McDaniel, Reuben, Jr.; Morgan, Gareth; Sutcliffe, Kathleen; Kaufman, Roger; Marker, Anthony; Selwyn, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of organizational science, broadly defined as including many fields--organizational behavior and development, management, workplace performance, and so on--were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might…

  16. Improving Performance During Image-Guided Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, James R.; Tabriz, David

    2015-01-01

    Objective Image-guided procedures have become a mainstay of modern health care. This article reviews how human operators process imaging data and use it to plan procedures and make intraprocedural decisions. Methods A series of models from human factors research, communication theory, and organizational learning were applied to the human-machine interface that occupies the center stage during image-guided procedures. Results Together, these models suggest several opportunities for improving performance as follows: 1. Performance will depend not only on the operator’s skill but also on the knowledge embedded in the imaging technology, available tools, and existing protocols. 2. Voluntary movements consist of planning and execution phases. Performance subscores should be developed that assess quality and efficiency during each phase. For procedures involving ionizing radiation (fluoroscopy and computed tomography), radiation metrics can be used to assess performance. 3. At a basic level, these procedures consist of advancing a tool to a specific location within a patient and using the tool. Paradigms from mapping and navigation should be applied to image-guided procedures. 4. Recording the content of the imaging system allows one to reconstruct the stimulus/response cycles that occur during image-guided procedures. Conclusions When compared with traditional “open” procedures, the technology used during image-guided procedures places an imaging system and long thin tools between the operator and the patient. Taking a step back and reexamining how information flows through an imaging system and how actions are conveyed through human-machine interfaces suggest that much can be learned from studying system failures. In the same way that flight data recorders revolutionized accident investigations in aviation, much could be learned from recording video data during image-guided procedures. PMID:24921628

  17. Managing Knowledge Performance: Testing the Components of a Knowledge Management System on Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Taejun; Korte, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the current study is to validate the framework of knowledge management (KM) capabilities created by Gold ("Towards a theory of organizational knowledge management capabilities." Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill) 2001) in a study of South Korean companies. However, the original framework…

  18. Emotional Intelligence and Organizational Performance: Implications for Performance Consultants and Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Svetlana; Jones, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Economic value of Emotional Intelligence (EI) has been mentioned extensively in recent organizational behavior research. In the age of information and highly specialized work teams, EI is becoming a vital skill as people must accomplish their work by collaborating with each other, and their ability to communicate effectively becomes as critical,…

  19. Organizational Culture and Its Relationship with Hospital Performance in Public Hospitals in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ping; Bundorf, Kate; Chang, Ji; Huang, Jin Xin; Xue, Di

    2011-01-01

    Objective To measure perceptions of organizational culture among employees of public hospitals in China and to determine whether perceptions are associated with hospital performance. Data Sources Hospital, employee, and patient surveys from 87 Chinese public hospitals conducted during 2009. Study Design Developed and administered a tool to assess organizational culture in Chinese public hospitals. Used factor analysis to create measures of organizational culture. Analyzed the relationships between employee type and perceptions of culture and between perceptions of culture and hospital performance using multivariate models. Principal Findings Employees perceived the culture of Chinese public hospitals as stronger in internal rules and regulations, and weaker in empowerment. Hospitals in which employees perceived that the culture emphasized cost control were more profitable and had higher rates of outpatient visits and bed days per physician per day but also had lower levels of patient satisfaction. Hospitals with cultures perceived as customer-focused had longer length of stay but lower patient satisfaction. Conclusions Managers in Chinese public hospitals should consider whether the culture of their organization will enable them to respond effectively to their changing environment. PMID:22092228

  20. The Relationship between Environmental Turbulence, Management Support, Organizational Collaboration, Information Technology Solution Realization, and Process Performance, in Healthcare Provider Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muglia, Victor O.

    2010-01-01

    The Problem: The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between environmental turbulence, management support, organizational collaboration, information technology solution realization, and process performance in healthcare provider organizations. Method: A descriptive/correlational study of Hospital medical services process…

  1. Organizational Learning Mechanisms: The Meaning, Measure, and Implications for School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schechter, Chen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In light of the excessively broad conceptions and nonobservable terms generally characterizing discussions of organizational learning, this study explores the notion of organizational learning in schools through the conceptual framework of organizational learning mechanisms (OLM) and develops a measure of OLM at the elementary school…

  2. Enacting Organizational Culture: Balloons in the Air

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Elayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an activity that encourages students to create and analyze an organizational culture. In this activity, students perform two rounds of "keeping balloons in the air" with a brief interlude to try and improve performance. Next, they conduct an in-depth discussion of elements of organizational culture that affect productivity.…

  3. Job insecurity and job performance: The moderating role of organizational justice and the mediating role of work engagement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-jiang; Lu, Chang-qin; Siu, Oi-ling

    2015-07-01

    Organizational justice has been shown to play an important role in employees' affective and performance outcomes particularly in uncertain contexts. In this study, we investigated the interaction effect of job insecurity and organizational justice on employees' performance, and examined the mediating role of work engagement from the perspective of uncertainty management theory. We used 2-wave data (Study 1) from a sample of 140 Chinese employees and 3-wave data (Study 2) from a sample of 125 Chinese employees to test our hypotheses. In Study 1, we found that when employees perceived low levels of organizational justice, job insecurity was significantly negatively related to job performance. In contrast, we found that job insecurity was not related to job performance when there were high levels of organizational justice. Study 2 again supported the interaction of job insecurity and organizational justice on job performance. Furthermore, it was found that work engagement mediated the interaction effect. The results of the mediated moderation analysis revealed that job insecurity was negatively associated with job performance through work engagement when organizational justice was low. PMID:25402953

  4. Exploring the Relationship of Organizational Culture and Implicit Leadership Theory to Performance Differences in the Nuclear and Fossil Energy Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cravey, Kristopher J.

    Notable performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil power generation plants in areas such as safety, outage duration efficiency, and capacity factor. This study explored the relationship of organizational culture and implicit leadership theory to these performance differences. A mixed methods approach consisting of quantitative instruments, namely the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument and the GLOBE Leadership Scales, and qualitative interviews were used in this study. Subjects were operations middle managers in a U.S. energy company that serves nuclear or fossil power plants. Results from the quantitative instruments revealed no differences between nuclear and fossil groups in regards to organizational culture types and implicit leadership theories. However, the qualitative results did reveal divergence between the two groups in regards to what is valued in the organization and how that drives behaviors and decision making. These organizational phenomenological differences seem to explain why performance differences exist between nuclear and fossil plants because, ultimately, they affect how the organization functions.

  5. Study of the relationship between organizational culture and organizational outcomes using hierarchical linear modeling methodology.

    PubMed

    Platonova, Elena A; Hernandez, S Robert; Shewchuk, Richard M; Leddy, Kelly M

    2006-01-01

    This study examines how perceptions of organizational culture influence organizational outcomes, specially, individual employee job satisfaction. The study was conducted in the health care industry in the United States. It examined the data on employee perceptions of job attributes, organizational culture, and job satisfaction, collected by Press Ganey Associates from 88 hospitals across the country in 2002-2003. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test how organizational culture affects individual employee job satisfaction. Results indicated that some dimensions of organizational culture, specifically, job security and performance recognition, play a role in improving employee job satisfaction. PMID:16849991

  6. Perceived organizational support and extra-role performance: which leads to which?

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhixia; Eisenberger, Robert; Johnson, Kelly M; Sucharski, Ivan L; Aselage, Justin

    2009-02-01

    L. Rhoades and R. Eisenberger (2002) reported the meta-analytic finding of a highly statistically significant relation between perceived organizational support (POS) and performance but concluded that the reviewed studies' methodology allowed no conclusion concerning the direction of the association. To investigate this issue, the authors assessed POS and extra-role performance 2 times, separated by a 3-year interval, among 199 employees of an electronic and appliance sales organization. Using a cross-lagged panel design, the authors found that POS was positively associated with a temporal change in extra-role performance. In contrast, the relation between extra-role performance and temporal change in POS was not statistically significant. These findings provide evidence that POS leads to extra-role performance. PMID:19245052

  7. Instituting organizational learning for quality improvement through strategic planning nominal group processes.

    PubMed

    White, D B

    2000-01-01

    Healthcare managers are faced with unprecedented challenges as characterized by managed care constraints, downsizing, increased client needs, and a society demanding more responsive services. Managers must initiate change for quality, efficiency, and survival. This article provides information and strategies for (a) assessing the change readiness of an organization, (b) conducting an organizational diagnosis, (c) instituting a team culture, (d) developing a change strategy, (e) integrating the strategy with a quality improvement process, and (f) identifying the leadership skills to implement organization renewal. Nominal group processes, namely, SWOT and the Search Conference, are described, and case examples are provided. The implementation strategies have been used successfully in a variety of milieus; practical advice for success is described in detail. PMID:11184022

  8. The relationship between job performance and perceived organizational support in faculty members at Chinese universities: a questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although several studies have been conducted to investigate the relationship between perceived organizational support (POS) and job performance (JP), it remains unclear whether this relationship is appropriate for faculty members at Chinese universities. The objectives of this study were to (a) examine the correlation between POS andJP; (b) identify the predictors of POS, including demographic and organizational characteristics among faculty members at a Chinese university; (c) investigate the influence of mediating factors between POS and JP; and (d) compare the findings of this study with related studies. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was used in this study. The questionnaire was administered to 700 faculty members who were randomly selected from all faculty members at six universities. A total of 581 questionnaires were obtained. A statistical model for JP was developed based on the literature review. Results The analysis results indicated that the relationship between POS and JP was mediated by job satisfaction (JS), positive affectivity (PA), and affective commitment (AC). In addition, procedural and distributive justice contribute to POS. Conclusions The study concludes that the relationship between POS and JP is mediated by JS, PA, and AC and is influenced by POS. These results can provide evidence for university administrators to improve POS and increase the JP of faculty members at universities. PMID:24624932

  9. Improve Relationships to Improve Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arum, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Attempts to raise student performance have focused primarily on either relationships between adults in the system or formal curriculum. Relatively ignored has been a focus on what sociologists believe is the primary relationship of consequence for student outcomes--authority relationships between students and educators. Successful school reform is…

  10. When supervisors feel supported: relationships with subordinates' perceived supervisor support, perceived organizational support, and performance.

    PubMed

    Shanock, Linda Rhoades; Eisenberger, Robert

    2006-05-01

    The authors surveyed full-time retail employees and their supervisors to investigate relationships of supervisors' perceived organizational support (POS) with subordinates' perceptions of support from their supervisors (perceived supervisor support [PSS]), POS, and in-role and extra-role performance. The authors found that supervisors' POS was positively related to their subordinates' perceptions of supervisor support. Subordinates' PSS, in turn, was positively associated with their POS, in-role performance, and extra-role performance. Beyond these bivariate relationships, subordinates' perceptions of support from the supervisor mediated positive relationships of the supervisors' POS with the subordinates' POS and performance. These findings suggest that supervisors who feel supported by the organization reciprocate with more supportive treatment for subordinates. PMID:16737364

  11. Recent performance improvements on FXR

    SciTech Connect

    Kulke, B.; Kihara, R.

    1983-01-01

    The FXR machine is a nominal 4-kA, 20-MeV, linear-induction, electron accelerator for flash radiography at LLNL. The machine met its baseline requirements in March 1982. Since then, the performance has been greatly improved. We have achieved stable and repeatable beam acceleration and transport, with over 80% transmission to the tungsten bremsstrahlung target located some 35 m downstream. For best stability, external-beam steering has been eliminated almost entirely. We regularly produce over 500 Roentgen at 1 m from the target (TLD measurement), with a radiographic spot size of 3 to 5 mm. Present efforts are directed towards the development of a 4-kA tune, working interactively with particle-field and beam transport code models. A remaining uncertainty is the possible onset of RF instabilities at the higher current levels.

  12. The Internal Coherence Assessment Protocol & Developmental Framework: Building the Organizational Capacity for Instructional Improvement in Schools. Research Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmore, Richard F.; Forman, Michelle L.; Stosich, Elizabeth L.; Bocala, Candice

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this paper we describe the Internal Coherence (IC) model of assessment and professional development, a set of clinical tools and practices designed to help practitioners foster the organizational conditions required for whole-school instructional improvement. Proposed Conceptual Argument: We argue that the data captured by the IC…

  13. Improving Family Engagement: The Organizational Context and Its Influence on Partnering with Parents in Formal Child Care Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Family engagement is widely considered a key component of high-quality early care and education (ECE). While most efforts to improve the quality of family engagement focus on teacher training, strong evidence from health care research suggests that the organizational context is a critical determinant of the quality of client-professional…

  14. Exploring How School Intra-Organizational Mechanisms Mediate the Effects of External Interventions on Improving Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Min

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation collects three independent but interrelated studies exploring how school intra-organizational mechanism may mediate the impact of external interventions on improving teaching and learning. This first study examines how high-quality professional development (PD) can promote the diffusion of effective teaching strategies among…

  15. The effects of strategic decision making structure and computerization on organizational performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, J.J.; Carter, N.M.; Cullen, J.B.

    1993-12-31

    This study investigates whether the fit between computerization and strategic decision making predicts organizational performance. Results suggest that increased computerization along with the decentralization of strategic decisions leads to greater performance than increased computer usage and the centralization of strategic decisions. Findings indicate that the effects from a manager`s decision to computerize operations and change the organization`s strategic decision making structure are not immediately felt. These findings support the idea that performance needs to be measured on a long-term basis rather than on a short-term basis. The results also suggest that it may be erroneous to evaluated managers strictly on a short-term basis since the effects from strategic decisions may not be fully felt for one or more years. 64 refs.

  16. A moderated mediation model of the relationship between organizational citizenship behaviors and job performance.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Muammer

    2011-11-01

    Addressing numerous calls for future research on understanding the theoretical mechanisms that explain the relationship between organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) and job performance, this study focused on how an employee's relationships with coworkers mediate the relationship between his or her OCBs and his or her job performance. It also looked at how task autonomy might moderate this mediated relationship. The results of an empirical study involving 364 jewelry designers, 310 coworkers, and 284 supervisors indicated that coworker relations mediated the relationship between OCBs and job performance. In addition, task autonomy positively moderated both paths of this mediated relationship. Finally, these results hold for OCBs that are targeted at individuals but not for OCBs that are targeted toward organizations. PMID:21574674

  17. Facilitators of Organizational Learning in Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Ngoc Thuy; Swierczek, Fredric William

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to determine the influence of organizational factors such as leadership commitment, incentives and interaction on learning outcomes defined as performance improvement and organizational climate. Design/methodology/approach: Different aspects of knowledge acquisition, sharing and utilization were examined,…

  18. Creating the Potential for Organizational Learning through Interactive Simulation Debriefing Sessions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proctor, Michael D.; Gubler, Justin C.

    2001-01-01

    This research reports findings from field observations of debriefing sessions following organizational operations in interactive simulation systems. Focuses on the relationship of different debriefing session techniques to identification of potential organizational learning opportunities to improve performance. (Author/LRW)

  19. Flipperons for Improved Aerodynamic Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabe, James H.

    2008-01-01

    Lightweight, piezoelectrically actuated bending flight-control surfaces have shown promise as means of actively controlling airflows to improve the performances of transport airplanes. These bending flight-control surfaces are called flipperons because they look somewhat like small ailerons, but, unlike ailerons, are operated in an oscillatory mode reminiscent of the actions of biological flippers. The underlying concept of using flipperons and other flipperlike actuators to impart desired characteristics to flows is not new. Moreover, elements of flipperon-based active flow-control (AFC) systems for aircraft had been developed previously, but it was not until the development reported here that the elements have been integrated into a complete, controllable prototype AFC system for wind-tunnel testing to enable evaluation of the benefits of AFC for aircraft. The piezoelectric actuator materials chosen for use in the flipperons are single- crystal solid solutions of lead zinc niobate and lead titanate, denoted generically by the empirical formula (1-x)[Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3]:x[PbTiO3] (where x<1) and popularly denoted by the abbreviation PZN-PT. These are relatively newly recognized piezoelectric materials that are capable of strain levels exceeding 1 percent and strain-energy densities 5 times greater than those of previously commercially available piezoelectric materials. Despite their high performance levels, (1-x)[Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O3]:x[PbTiO3] materials have found limited use until now because, relative to previously commercially available piezoelectric materials, they tend to be much more fragile.

  20. Goal clarity as an instrument for improved organizational wellbeing in the Church of Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Ann-Sophie; Anderzén, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    Lack of goal clarity is known to have negative effects on organizational as well as individual wellbeing. This study assesses effects of goal clarity on organizational wellbeing in the Church of Sweden. Data was based on questionnaires from a random sample of 501 parishes and 1002 individuals from the upper parish management. The response rate was 62%. The results showed significantly more positive experiences of effects of goal clarity on organizational wellbeing for those having former experience with of this type of work and among those representing larger parishes. Older employees reported a higher degree of engagement in the work while younger employees expressed a higher degree of influence. The results suggest that work with goal clarity has a positive impact on organizational wellbeing, which in turn is expected to have positive effects on employee wellbeing. Further research is required to examine the relationships between goal clarity work and organizational as well as individual wellbeing. PMID:19597285

  1. Peer-driven quality improvement among health workers and traditional birth attendants in Sierra Leone: linkages between providers’ organizational skills and relationships

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Sierra Leone has among the poorest maternal and child health indicators in the world and investments in public health have been predominately to increase demand for services, with fewer initiatives targeting supply side factors that influence health workers’ work environment. This paper uses data from the Quality Circles project in a rural district of Sierra Leone to achieve three objectives. First, we examine the effect of the intervention on organizational skills and relationships among coworkers as well as between health workers and traditional birth attendants. Second, we examine whether changes in organizational skills are associated with changes in relationships among and between formal and informal health providers and between health providers and clients. Third, we aim to further understand these changes through the perspectives of health workers and traditional birth attendants. Methods The Quality Circles project was implemented in Kailahun District in the Eastern province of Sierra Leone from August 2011 to June 2013, with adjacent Tonkolili District serving as the control site. Using a mixed-methods approach, the evaluation included a quantitative survey, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with health workers and traditional birth attendants. Mean values of the variables of interest were compared across sub-populations, and correlation analyses were performed between changes in organizational skills and changes in relationships. Results The results demonstrate that the Quality Circles intervention had positive effects on organizational skills and relationships. Furthermore, improvements in all organizational skill variables – problem-solving, strategizing and negotiation skills – were strongly associated with a change in the overall relationship variable. Conclusions The Quality Circles approach has the potential to support health workers to improve their organizational skills and relationships, which in turn can contribute

  2. Implementation: The Glue of Organizational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, Roger M.; Lloyd, Clayton R.

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of organizational change and performance improvement programs focuses on 10 guidelines for developing successful implementation plans. Highlights include defining a vision and mission; cultural considerations; forming a team; contingency plans; communication; employee education; monitoring mechanisms; and rewarding and recognizing…

  3. Organizational Change. Symposium 11. [Concurrent Symposium Session at AHRD Annual Conference, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This packet contains three papers from a symposium on organizational change. The first paper, "Kaizen Blitz: Rapid Learning to Facilitate Immediate Organizational Improvements" (Robert B. Gudgel, Fred C. Feitler), describes rapid and dramatic improvement in the organizational performance of a manufacturing firm after use of a series of kaizen…

  4. Improving Performance in a Nuclear Cardiology Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFleur, Doug; Smalley, Karolyn; Austin, John

    2005-01-01

    Improving performance in the medical industry is an area that is ideally suited for the tools advocated by the International Society of Performance Improvement (ISPI). This paper describes an application of the tools that have been developed by Dale Brethower and Geary Rummler, two pillars of the performance improvement industry. It allows the…

  5. Organizational factors associated with readiness to implement and translate a primary care based telemedicine behavioral program to improve blood pressure control: the HTN-IMPROVE study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypertension is prevalent and often sub-optimally controlled; however, interventions to improve blood pressure control have had limited success. Objectives Through implementation of an evidence-based nurse-delivered self-management phone intervention to facilitate hypertension management within large complex health systems, we sought to answer the following questions: What is the level of organizational readiness to implement the intervention? What are the specific facilitators, barriers, and contextual factors that may affect organizational readiness to change? Study design Each intervention site from three separate Veterans Integrated Service Networks (VISNs), which represent 21 geographic regions across the US, agreed to enroll 500 participants over a year with at least 0.5 full time equivalent employees of nursing time. Our mixed methods approach used a priori semi-structured interviews conducted with stakeholders (n = 27) including nurses, physicians, administrators, and information technology (IT) professionals between 2010 and 2011. Researchers iteratively identified facilitators and barriers of organizational readiness to change (ORC) and implementation. Additionally, an ORC survey was conducted with the stakeholders who were (n = 102) preparing for program implementation. Results Key ORC facilitators included stakeholder buy-in and improving hypertension. Positive organizational characteristics likely to impact ORC included: other similar programs that support buy-in, adequate staff, and alignment with the existing site environment; improved patient outcomes; is positive for the professional nurse role, and is evidence-based; understanding of the intervention; IT infrastructure and support, and utilization of existing equipment and space. The primary ORC barrier was unclear long-term commitment of nursing. Negative organizational characteristics likely to impact ORC included: added workload, competition with existing programs

  6. National cultures, performance appraisal practices, and organizational absenteeism and turnover: a study across 21 countries.

    PubMed

    Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

    2012-03-01

    Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations and (b) the contribution of the level of congruence between societal cultural practices and the characteristics of organizational PA practices to absenteeism and turnover. The results, based on a large data set across multiple countries and over 2 time periods, support the hypothesized effects of societal (national) cultural practices on particular PA practices and the interactive effects of societal cultural practices and PA practices on absenteeism and turnover. We discuss theoretical and practical implications of our findings. PMID:22040261

  7. Performance Pay Path to Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Donald B.

    2011-01-01

    The primary goal of performance pay for the past decade has been higher test scores, and the most prominent strategy has been to increase teacher performance through financial incentives. If teachers are rewarded for success, according to this logic, they will try harder. If they try harder, more children will achieve higher test scores. The…

  8. Managing hospitals in turbulent times: do organizational changes improve hospital survival?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S Y; Alexander, J A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine (1) the degree to which organizational changes affected hospital survival; (2) whether core and peripheral organizational changes affected hospital survival differently; and (3) how simultaneous organizational changes affected hospital survival. DATA SOURCES: AHA Hospital Surveys, the Area Resource File, and the AHA Hospital Guides, Part B: Multihospital Systems. STUDY DESIGN: The study employed a longitudinal panel design. We followed changes in all community hospitals in the continental United States from 1981 through 1994. The dependent variable, hospital closure, was examined as a function of multiple changes in a hospital's core and peripheral structures as well as the hospital's organizational and environmental characteristics. Cox regression models were used to test the expectations that core changes increased closure risk while peripheral changes decreased such risk, and that simultaneous core and peripheral changes would lead to higher risk of closure. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Results indicated more peripheral than core changes in community hospitals. Overall, findings contradicted our expectations. Change in specialty, a core change, was beneficial for hospitals, because it reduced closure risk. The two most frequent peripheral changes, downsizing and leadership change, were positively associated with closure. Simultaneous organizational changes displayed a similar pattern: multiple core changes reduced closure risk, while multiple peripheral changes increased the risk. These patterns held regardless of the level of uncertainty in hospital environments. CONCLUSIONS: Organizational changes are not all beneficial for hospitals, suggesting that hospital leaders should be both cautious and selective in their efforts to turn their hospitals around. PMID:10536977

  9. SUM (Service Unit Management): An Organizational Approach To Improved Patient Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jelinek, Richard C.; And Others

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Service Unit Management (SUM) in reducing costs, improving quality of care, saving professional nursing time, increasing personnel satisfaction, and setting a stage for further improvements, a national questionnaire survey identified the characteristics of SUM units, and compared the performance of a total of 55…

  10. The Psychosocial Work Environment, Employee Mental Health and Organizational Interventions: Improving Research and Practice by Taking a Multilevel Approach.

    PubMed

    Martin, Angela; Karanika-Murray, Maria; Biron, Caroline; Sanderson, Kristy

    2016-08-01

    Although there have been several calls for incorporating multiple levels of analysis in employee health and well-being research, studies examining the interplay between individual, workgroup, organizational and broader societal factors in relation to employee mental health outcomes remain an exception rather than the norm. At the same time, organizational intervention research and practice also tends to be limited by a single-level focus, omitting potentially important influences at multiple levels of analysis. The aims of this conceptual paper are to help progress our understanding of work-related determinants of employee mental health by the following: (1) providing a rationale for routine multilevel assessment of the psychosocial work environment; (2) discussing how a multilevel perspective can improve related organizational interventions; and (3) highlighting key theoretical and methodological considerations relevant to these aims. We present five recommendations for future research, relating to using appropriate multilevel research designs, justifying group-level constructs, developing group-level measures, expanding investigations to the organizational level and developing multilevel approaches to intervention design, implementation and evaluation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25044861

  11. Performance improvement. The American way.

    PubMed

    Walker, Karen

    2007-02-15

    The role of a US-style 'improvement adviser' is to ensure chages are successfully implemented. They use coaching and facilitation to support project teams and are trained to overcome common obstacles. The advisers have advantages over traditional consultants, as they work with full inside knowledge of the organization and are there for the long-term. PMID:17380971

  12. Online Learning and Performance Support in Organizational Environments Using Performance Support Platforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gal, Eran; Nachmias, Rafi

    2011-01-01

    An electronic performance support system (EPSS) is a method that integrates learning and task performance into one single action by providing information and guidance during performance. Wide-range EPSS effectiveness research has been conducted by Tel Aviv University in tandem with a large telecommunications firm implementing EPSS solutions. The…

  13. Effects of organizational scheme and labeling on task performance in product-centered and user-centered retail Web sites.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Marc L; Sanchez, Julian

    2004-01-01

    As companies increase the quantity of information they provide through their Web sites, it is critical that content is structured with an appropriate architecture. However, resource constraints often limit the ability of companies to apply all Web design principles completely. This study quantifies the effects of two major information architecture principles in a controlled study that isolates the incremental effects of organizational scheme and labeling on user performance and satisfaction. Sixty participants with a wide range of Internet and on-line shopping experience were recruited to complete a series of shopping tasks on a prototype retail shopping Web site. User-centered labels provided a significant benefit in performance and satisfaction over labels obtained through company-centered methods. User-centered organization did not result in improved performance except when the label quality was poor. Significant interactions suggest specific guidelines for allocating resources in Web site design. Applications of this research include the design of Web sites for any commercial application, particularly E-commerce. PMID:15151158

  14. To branch out or stay focused? Affective shifts differentially predict organizational citizenship behavior and task performance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu-Qin; Simon, Lauren S; Wang, Lei; Zheng, Xiaoming

    2016-06-01

    We draw from personality systems interaction (PSI) theory (Kuhl, 2000) and regulatory focus theory (Higgins, 1997) to examine how dynamic positive and negative affective processes interact to predict both task and contextual performance. Using a twice-daily diary design over the course of a 3-week period, results from multilevel regression analysis revealed that distinct patterns of change in positive and negative affect optimally predicted contextual and task performance among a sample of 71 employees at a medium-sized technology company. Specifically, within persons, increases (upshifts) in positive affect over the course of a workday better predicted the subsequent day's organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) when such increases were coupled with decreases (downshifts) in negative affect. The optimal pattern of change in positive and negative affect differed, however, in predicting task performance. That is, upshifts in positive affect over the course of the workday better predicted the subsequent day's task performance when such upshifts were accompanied by upshifts in negative affect. The contribution of our findings to PSI theory and the broader affective and motivation regulation literatures, along with practical implications, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26882443

  15. Improved performance in NASTRAN (R)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Gordon C.

    1989-01-01

    Three areas of improvement in COSMIC/NASTRAN, 1989 release, were incorporated recently that make the analysis program run faster on large problems. Actual log files and actual timings on a few test samples that were run on IBM, CDC, VAX, and CRAY computers were compiled. The speed improvement is proportional to the problem size and number of continuation cards. Vectorizing certain operations in BANDIT, makes BANDIT run twice as fast in some large problems using structural elements with many node points. BANDIT is a built-in NASTRAN processor that optimizes the structural matrix bandwidth. The VAX matrix packing routine BLDPK was modified so that it is now packing a column of a matrix 3 to 9 times faster. The denser and bigger the matrix, the greater is the speed improvement. This improvement makes a host of routines and modules that involve matrix operation run significantly faster, and saves disc space for dense matrices. A UNIX version, converted from 1988 COSMIC/NASTRAN, was tested successfully on a Silicon Graphics computer using the UNIX V Operating System, with Berkeley 4.3 Extensions. The Utility Modules INPUTT5 and OUTPUT5 were expanded to handle table data, as well as matrices. Both INPUTT5 and OUTPUT5 are general input/output modules that read and write FORTRAN files with or without format. More user informative messages are echoed from PARAMR, PARAMD, and SCALAR modules to ensure proper data values and data types being handled. Two new Utility Modules, GINOFILE and DATABASE, were written for the 1989 release. Seven rigid elements are added to COSMIC/NASTRAN. They are: CRROD, CRBAR, CRTRPLT, CRBE1, CRBE2, CRBE3, and CRSPLINE.

  16. A Competing Values Approach to Organizational Effectiveness: Monitoring the Performance of Local Employment Service Offices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrbaugh, John

    Much attention has been directed toward the measurement of organizational effectiveness. A competing values framework was used in a 2-year longitudinal study of 30 local offices of the Employment Service to develop a methodology for monitoring organizational effectiveness. Data were collected from all staff members and office records. Analysis of…

  17. Object-Oriented Performance Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Ian; Schaffer, Scott P.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a framework to support an object-oriented approach to performance analysis and instructional design that includes collaboration, automation, visual modeling, and reusable Web-based repositories of analysis knowledge. Relates the need for a new framework to the increasing concern with the cost effectiveness of student and employee…

  18. The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Process in Public Higher Education Institutions and Effects on Organizational Performance: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Bill D.

    2011-01-01

    Public undergraduate higher education institutions face a number of seemingly intractable problems. Among those problems are cost, accountability and access. The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award process is designed to help organization of any type address problems of organizational performance. This process has been used by manufacturing,…

  19. Organizational Learning, Knowledge Management Practices and Firm's Performance: An Empirical Study of a Heavy Engineering Firm in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Ajay K.; Moreno, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims at investigating the impact of organizational learning (OL) on the firm's performance and knowledge management (KM) practices in a heavy engineering organization in India. Design/Methodology/Approach: The data were collected from 205 middle and senior executives working in the project engineering management division of a…

  20. An Analysis of Organizational Behavior Management Research in Terms of the Three-Contingency Model of Performance Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherly, Nicholas L.; Malott, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    The three-contingency model of performance management (Malott, 1992, 1993, 1999) was used to analyze interventions in the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management (JOBM)" from the years 1990 through 2005 (Volume 11[1]-Volume 25[4]). The current article extends previous reviews (Malott, Shimamune, & Malott, 1992; Otto & Malott, 2004) by…

  1. [Why should and how can hospitals improve their organizational health literacy?].

    PubMed

    Pelikan, Jürgen M; Dietscher, Christina

    2015-09-01

    In late modern "multi-option" and "health" societies, health literacy (HL), understood as a specific competence, is considered necessary to successfully deal with the multitude of health relevant decisions and tasks to be taken every day. The concept has been used in the US, primarily in healthcare, to research the consequences of HL on the outcome of treatment specifically in patients with limited HL. In this context, it became evident that HL has to be understood as a relational or contextual concept. That is, the adequacy of HL does not only depend on personal HL, but equally on the demands organizations put on their users. This understanding of HL opened the road to measure not only individual HL, but also the HL sensitivity of organizations, i.e. organizational HL, and to use targeted measures to improve it. The ten attributes of a health-literate healthcare organization, as defined by the US Institute of Medicine, are a first systematic attempt to use this strategy in healthcare. In the meantime, the strategy has been used in other settings as well. Using experiences from health-promoting hospitals and the quality movement in healthcare, the authors develop this approach further into the comprehensive Vienna concept of the health-literate hospital, which considers all stakeholders and tasks of the hospital which are relevant for HL. A self-assessment tool was developed and tested as a basic instrument for developing a health-literate hospital. By doing so, hospitals are empowered to make a contribution to the promotion of HL as an important societal task. PMID:26168864

  2. Effectively Managing Nuclear Risk Through Human Performance Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Coe, Richard; Lake, Patricia

    2003-09-01

    The U.S. commercial nuclear industry has just completed an outstanding decade of plant performance. Safety levels and electric production are at unprecedented high levels and continue to exceed even high industry goals. Nuclear energy continues to keep the highest priority on performance improvement programs and highly trained and qualified people that maintain its record setting safety and reliability of operations. While the industry has maintained a high level of performance, the advent of deregulation and the consolidation of nuclear power plant ownership, as well as the current climate for concern about both rising energy costs and the availability of power, have raised the standard for nuclear energy's level of competitiveness in today's market place. The resulting challenge is how to more effectively manage risk and to improve performance even further in a generally high-performing industry. One of the most effective ways to develop this culture is to apply the principles of Hum an Performance Technology, or HPT. HPT is a relatively new field. Its principles are derived from the research and practice of behavioral and cognitive psychologists, instructional technologists, training designers, organizational developers, and various human resource specialists. Using the principles of HPT can help the nuclear industry successfully meet ever-changing environmental and business demands.

  3. Illustrating the Impact of Performance Measurement Systems on Organizational Performance: The Blue-Green Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umble, Elisabeth; Umble, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Business students are thoroughly schooled about the importance of measurement systems that, by their very nature, are designed to accurately measure the past performance of organizations, departments, and individuals. This article describes a team-based, active-learning exercise that clearly illustrates an additional important and often…

  4. The relationship between human resource investments and organizational performance: a firm-level examination of equilibrium theory.

    PubMed

    Subramony, Mahesh; Krause, Nicole; Norton, Jacqueline; Burns, Gary N

    2008-07-01

    It is commonly believed that human resource investments can yield positive performance-related outcomes for organizations. Utilizing the theory of organizational equilibrium (H. A. Simon, D. W. Smithburg, & V. A. Thompson, 1950; J. G. March & H. A. Simon, 1958), the authors proposed that organizational inducements in the form of competitive pay will lead to 2 firm-level performance outcomes--labor productivity and customer satisfaction--and that financially successful organizations would be more likely to provide these inducements to their employees. To test their hypotheses, the authors gathered employee-survey and objective performance data from a sample of 126 large publicly traded U.S. organizations over a period of 3 years. Results indicated that (a) firm-level financial performance (net income) predicted employees' shared perceptions of competitive pay, (b) shared pay perceptions predicted future labor productivity, and (c) the relationship between shared pay perceptions and customer satisfaction was fully mediated by employee morale. PMID:18642983

  5. Gear Performance Improved by Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.

    2004-01-01

    run until either surface fatigue occurred or 300 million stress cycles were completed. Tests were run using either a pair of uncoated gears or a pair of coated gears (coated gears mated with uncoated gears were not evaluated). The fatigue test results, shown on Weibull coordinates in the graph, demonstrate that the coating provided substantially longer fatigue lives even though some of the coated gears endured larger stresses. The increase in fatigue life was a factor of about 5 and the statistical confidence for the improvement is high (greater than 99 percent). Examination of the tested gears revealed substantial reductions of total wear for coated gears in comparison to uncoated gears. The coated gear surface topography changed with running, with localized areas of the tooth surface becoming smoother with running. Theories explaining how coatings can extend gear fatigue lives are research topics for coating, tribology, and fatigue specialists. This work was done as a partnership between NASA, the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, United Technologies Research Corporation, and Sikorsky Aircraft.

  6. To Improve the Academy: Resources for Faculty, Instructional, and Organizational Development, 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Professional and Organizational Development Network in Higher Education.

    This annual journal issue contains 21 papers, many of which were developed as background pieces for sessions of the annual conferences of the Professional and Organizational Development Network in Higher Education (POD). Papers are grouped into four sections on: personal reflections, faculty development, evaluation of teaching practices, and…

  7. Child Welfare Design Teams: An Intervention to Improve Workforce Retention and Facilitate Organizational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caringi, James C.; Lawson, Hal A.; Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica; McCarthy, Mary; Briar-Lawson, Katharine; Claiborne, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Workforce turnover in public child welfare is a national problem. Individual, supervisory, and organizational factors, individually and in combination, account for some of the turnover. Complex, comprehensive interventions are needed to address these several factors and their interactions. A research and development team is field testing one such…

  8. A Tale of Two Principals: The Complexity of Fostering and Achieving Organizational Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Kellar, Frances Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation served as a pilot study that tested a set of ideas drawn from the existing literature grounded in organizational learning theory, leadership theory, sociocultural theory, and the social and psychological constructs demonstrating leader behavior and capacity. The study examined the intersection within four individual components of…

  9. Improving Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Education for Medical Students: An Inter-Organizational Collaborative Action Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Geraldine S.; Stock, Saundra; Briscoe, Gregory W.; Beck, Gary L.; Horton, Rita; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liu, Howard Y.; Rutter, Ashley Partner; Sexson, Sandra; Schlozman, Steven C.; Stubbe, Dorothy E.; Stuber, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A new Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Medical Education (CAPME) Task Force, sponsored by the Association for Directors of Medical Student Education in Psychiatry (ADMSEP), has created an inter-organizational partnership between child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) educators and medical student educators in psychiatry. This paper…

  10. To Improve the Academy. Resources for Faculty, Instructional and Organizational Development. Volume 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Matthew, Ed.; Lieberman, Devorah, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    The year 2000 volume of this annual publication contains 18 articles on issues relating to organizational change, collaboration and partnerships, and teaching and faculty development in higher education. The articles are: "Diversity and Its Discontents: Rays of Light in the Faculty Development Movement for Faculty of Color" (Edith A. Lewis); "The…

  11. To Improve the Academy: Resources for Faculty, Instructional, and Organizational Development, 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Delivee L., Ed.; And Others

    This annual journal issue contains 20 papers on issues of faculty community, the inclusive institution, instruction, and faculty development in higher education. Many of the papers were developed for the annual conference of the Professional and Organizational Development Network in Higher Education (POD). The papers are: (1) "The Spirit of POD: A…

  12. Organizational performance, Marketing strategy, and Financial strategic alignment: an empirical study on Iranian pharmaceutical firms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Strategic Functional-level planning should be aligned with business level and other functional strategies of a company. It is presumed that assimilating the strategies could have positive contribution to business performance, in this regard alignment between marketing strategy and financial strategy seems to be the most important strategies being studied. An empirical work in generic pharmaceutical manufacturing companies for evaluating effect of alignment between these two functions on organizational performance was developed in this paper. Methods All Iranian pharmaceutical generic manufactures listed in Tehran stock market have been tested for period of five years between 2006–2010 and their marketing strategies were determined by using Slater and Olson taxonomy and their financial strategies have been developed by calculating total risk and total return of sample companies for five years based on rate of risk and return in the frame of a 2 × 2 matrix. For the business performance three profitability indices including Q-Tubin (Rate of market value to net asset value), ROA (Return on Asset), ROE (Return on Equity) have been tested. For analysis, a series of one-way ANOVAs as a collection of statistical models within marketing strategies considering financial strategy as independent variable and the three performance measures as dependent variables was used. Results Results show strategic alignment between financial and marketing has significant impact on profitability of company resulting in arise of all three profitability indices. Q tubing’s rate were 2.33,2.09,2.29,2.58 and rate of ROA were 0.21,0.194,0.25,0.22 and rate of ROE were 0.44,0.46,0.45,0.42 for matched strategy types, respectively the rates shown here are more than average meaning that specific type of marketing strategy is fitted with specific type of financial strategy. Conclusion Managers should not consider decisions regarding marketing strategy independently of their financial

  13. Productivity issues at organizational interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    The need for close interdependence between large numbers of diverse and specialized work groups makes the Space Program extremely vulnerable to loss of productivity at organizational interfaces. Trends within the program also suggest that the number and diversity of interfaces will grow in the near term. Continued maintenance of R&D excellence will require that interface performance issues be included in any future productivity improvement effort. The types and characteristics of organizational interfaces are briefly presented, followed by a review of factors which impact their productivity. Approaches to assessing and improving interface effectiveness are also discussed.

  14. Key Competencies Required of Performance Improvement Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra, Ingrid J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a study that identified competencies required of competent performance improvement professionals and determined how often performance improvement practitioners believed they should be, and are, currently applying each of the identified competencies. Reports on correlations between what they believe they should apply and what they are…

  15. Restoring Executive Confidence in Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidman, William; McCauley, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Many organizations have significantly decreased their investment in performance improvement initiatives because they believe they are too risky. In fact, organizations should invest in performance improvements to build cash reserves and gain market share. Recent scientific breakthroughs have led to the development of methodologies and technologies…

  16. The Art and Science of Personnel Selection: Assessing "Goodness of Fit" with Organizational Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, John E.; Birk, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the process of personnel selection as an element of performance improvement and suggests that how well a potential employee will fit into the organizational culture should be a selection criteria. Describes five steps to integrate organizational culture into the personnel selection process, including an internal organizational cultural…

  17. Linking organizational resources and work engagement to employee performance and customer loyalty: the mediation of service climate.

    PubMed

    Salanova, Marisa; Agut, Sonia; Peiró, José María

    2005-11-01

    This study examined the mediating role of service climate in the prediction of employee performance and customer loyalty. Contact employees (N=342) from 114 service units (58 hotel front desks and 56 restaurants) provided information about organizational resources, engagement, and service climate. Furthermore, customers (N=1,140) from these units provided information on employee performance and customer loyalty. Structural equation modeling analyses were consistent with a full mediation model in which organizational resources and work engagement predict service climate, which in turn predicts employee performance and then customer loyalty. Further analyses revealed a potential reciprocal effect between service climate and customer loyalty. Implications of the study are discussed, together with limitations and suggestions for future research. PMID:16316275

  18. Improving performance in a contracted physician network.

    PubMed

    Smith, A L; Epstein, A L

    1999-01-01

    Health care organizations face significant performance challenges. Achieving desired results requires the highest level of partnership with independent physicians. Tufts Health Plan invited medical directors of its affiliated groups to participate in a leadership development process to improve clinical, service, and business performance. The design included performance review, gap analysis, priority setting, improvement work plans, and defining the optimum practice culture. Medical directors practiced core leadership capabilities, including building a shared context, getting physician buy-in, and managing outliers. The peer learning environment has been sustained in redesigned medical directors' meetings. There has been significant performance improvement in several practices and enhanced relations between the health plan and medical directors. PMID:10788102

  19. An Analysis of the Relationship between the Organizational Culture and the Performance of Staff Work Groups in Schools and the Development of an Explanatory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Chris; Connolly, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the concept of organizational culture and the relationship between the organizational culture and the performance of staff work groups in schools. The article draws upon a study of 12 schools in Wales, UK, which despite being in disadvantaged settings have high levels of pupil attainment. A model is developed linking the…

  20. Performance Feedback Utility in a Small Organization: Effects on Organizational Outcomes and Managerial Decision Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florin-Thuma, Beth C.; Boudreau, John W.

    1987-01-01

    Investigated the frequent but previously untested assertion that utility analysis can improve communication and decision making about human resource management programs by examining a performance feedback intervention in a small fast-food store. Results suggest substantial payoffs from performance feedback, though the store's owner-managers had…

  1. Nursing to achieve organizational performance: Consider the role of nursing intellectual capital.

    PubMed

    Harris, Alexandra

    2016-05-01

    The success and performance of healthcare organizations relies on the strategic management of knowledge. Nursing Intellectual Capital (NIC) has emerged as a concept involving nursing knowledge resources that create value in healthcare organizations. This article aims to discuss the importance of considering knowledge resources in the context of healthcare performance, with specific reference to NIC. Reflections are then provided on how leaders can look to advance NIC for improved performance. PMID:27060807

  2. Using transformational change to improve organizational culture and climate in a school of nursing.

    PubMed

    Springer, Pamela J; Clark, Cynthia M; Strohfus, Pamela; Belcheir, Marcia

    2012-02-01

    A positive organizational culture and climate is closely associated with an affirming workplace and job satisfaction. Especially during a time of faculty shortages, academic leaders need to be cognizant of the culture and climate in schools of nursing. The culture of an organization affects employees, systems, and processes, and if the culture becomes problematic, transformational leadership is essential to create change. The purpose of this article is to describe an 8-year journey to change the culture and climate of a school of nursing from one of dissatisfaction and distrust to one of high employee satisfaction and trust. Kotter's model for transformational change was used to frame a longitudinal study using the Cultural and Climate Assessment Scale to transform the organizational culture and climate of a school of nursing. PMID:22201273

  3. Relationships between in-role performance and individual values, commitment, and organizational citizenship behavior among Israeli teachers.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Aaron; Liu, Ying

    2011-08-01

    This study examines the relationship between (1) individual values, (2) organizational and occupational commitment, and (3) organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and in-role performance in a sample of 192 teachers employed in 10 secular Jewish schools (response rate of 64%). The results showed that individual values were related to all commitment forms examined here, but contrary to expectations, there was no clear distinction between values that represent conservation and self-transcendence and values that represent openness to change and self-enhancement in terms of their relationship either to commitment or to behavioral outcomes. Likewise, there was no clear distinction between the three dimensions of commitment (affective, continuance, and normative) or two commitment foci (organizational and occupational) in terms of their relationships to different values. Unsurprisingly, the findings showed a strong effect of commitment on OCB and in-role performance. The findings show that both individual values and commitment are concepts that can increase our understanding of employees' behavior in the workplace. We conclude by emphasizing the need for further research on the relationship between values, commitment, and performance and by suggesting some directions for such research. PMID:22044271

  4. Post-IOC space station: Models of operation and their implications for organizational behavior, performance and effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, S.; Meindl, J.; Hunt, R.

    1985-01-01

    Issues of crew productivity during design work on space station are discussed. The crew productivity is defined almost exclusively in terms of human factors engineering and habitability design concerns. While such spatial environmental conditions are necessary to support crew performance and productivity, they are not sufficient to ensure high levels of crew performance and productivity on the post-Initial Operational Configurations (IOC) space station. The role of the organizational environment as a complement to the spatial environment for influencing crew performance in such isolated and confined work settings is examined. Three possible models of operation for post-IOC space station's organizational environment are identified and it is explained how they and space station's spatial environment will combine and interact to occasion patterns of crew behavior is suggested. A three phase program of research design: (1) identify patterns of crew behavior likely to be occasioned on post-IOC space station for each of the three models of operation; and (2) to determine proactive/preventative management strategies which could be adopted to maximize the emergence of preferred outcomes in crew behavior under each of the several spatial and organizational environment combinations.

  5. Improving Dairy Organizational Communication from the Veterinarian's Perspective: Results of a Continuing Veterinary Medical Education Pilot Program

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Dale A.; Sischo, William M.; Kurtz, Suzanne; Siler, Julie D.; Pereira, Richard V.; Warnick, Lorin D.; Davis, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing size and complexity of US dairy farms could make it more difficult for a veterinary practitioner to effectively communicate protocol recommendations for prevention or treatment on the farm. A continuing education workshop was set up based on the results of research on dairy organizational communication on dairy farms, which resulted in a tool to assess dairy communication structure and flow. The workshop specifically focused on communication structure and whom to talk to when implementing health care changes in calf rearing. In addition, modern methods of veterinary–client communication knowledge and skills were provided. Primary outcomes of the workshops were to obtain feedback from participants about research findings and the communication model, to improve awareness about the complexity of communication structures on dairy farms, and to change participants' knowledge and skills associated with on-farm communication by providing communication theory and skills and an approach to evaluate and improve dairy organizational communication. Of the 37 participants completing the pre-program assessment, most recognized a need for themselves or their practice to improve communication with clients and farm employees. After the program, most participants were confident in their new communication skills and would consider using them. They highlighted specific new ideas they could apply in practice, such as conducting a “communication audit”. The results from the assessment of this communication workshop, focused on dairy veterinarians, highlighted the need for communication training in this sector of the profession and practitioners' desire to engage in this type of training. PMID:26751909

  6. Improving Dairy Organizational Communication from the Veterinarian's Perspective: Results of a Continuing Veterinary Medical Education Pilot Program.

    PubMed

    Moore, Dale A; Sischo, William M; Kurtz, Suzanne; Siler, Julie D; Pereira, Richard V; Warnick, Lorin D; Davis, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    The increasing size and complexity of US dairy farms could make it more difficult for a veterinary practitioner to effectively communicate protocol recommendations for prevention or treatment on the farm. A continuing education workshop was set up based on the results of research on dairy organizational communication on dairy farms, which resulted in a tool to assess dairy communication structure and flow. The workshop specifically focused on communication structure and whom to talk to when implementing health care changes in calf rearing. In addition, modern methods of veterinary-client communication knowledge and skills were provided. Primary outcomes of the workshops were to obtain feedback from participants about research findings and the communication model, to improve awareness about the complexity of communication structures on dairy farms, and to change participants' knowledge and skills associated with on-farm communication by providing communication theory and skills and an approach to evaluate and improve dairy organizational communication. Of the 37 participants completing the pre-program assessment, most recognized a need for themselves or their practice to improve communication with clients and farm employees. After the program, most participants were confident in their new communication skills and would consider using them. They highlighted specific new ideas they could apply in practice, such as conducting a "communication audit." The results from the assessment of this communication workshop, focused on dairy veterinarians, highlighted the need for communication training in this sector of the profession and practitioners' desire to engage in this type of training. PMID:26751909

  7. Multifocal Clinical Performance Improvement Across 21 Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Skeath, Melinda; Whippy, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Improving quality and safety across an entire healthcare system in multiple clinical areas within a short time frame is challenging. We describe our experience with improving inpatient quality and safety at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. The foundations of performance improvement are a “four-wheel drive” approach and a comprehensive driver diagram linking improvement goals to focal areas. By the end of 2011, substantial improvements occurred in hospital-acquired infections (central-line–associated bloodstream infections and Clostridium difficile infections); falls; hospital-acquired pressure ulcers; high-alert medication and surgical safety; sepsis care; critical care; and The Joint Commission core measures. PMID:26247072

  8. The influence of time management skill on the curvilinear relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and task performance.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Adam A; Bachrach, Daniel G; Rapp, Tammy L

    2013-07-01

    In this research we integrate resource allocation and social exchange perspectives to build and test theory focusing on the moderating role of time management skill in the nonmonotonic relationship between organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and task performance. Results from matching survey data collected from 212 employees and 41 supervisors and from task performance metrics collected several months later indicate that the curvilinear association between OCB and task performance is significantly moderated by employees' time management skill. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:23379912

  9. The CF6 engine performance improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasching, W. A.

    1982-01-01

    As part of the NASA-sponsored Engine Component Improvement (ECI) Program, a feasibility analysis of performance improvement and retention concepts for the CF6-6 and CF6-50 engines was conducted and seven concepts were identified for development and ground testing: new fan, new front mount, high pressure turbine aerodynamic performance improvement, high pressure turbine roundness, high pressure turbine active clearance control, low pressure turbine active clearance control, and short core exhaust nozzle. The development work and ground testing are summarized, and the major test results and an enomic analysis for each concept are presented.

  10. Preschoolers' Cognitive Performance Improves Following Massage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Sybil; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Lundy, Brenda

    1998-01-01

    Effects of massage on preschoolers' cognitive performance were assessed. Preschoolers were given Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised subtests before and after receiving 15-minute massage or spending 15 minutes reading stories with the experimenter. Children's performance on Block Design improved following massage, and…

  11. Performance, Productivity and Continuous Improvement. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on performance, productivity, and continuous improvement. "Investigating the Association between Productivity and Quality Performance in Two Manufacturing Settings" (Constantine Kontoghiorghes, Robert Gudgel) summarizes a study that identified the following quality management variables as the…

  12. Improved Performance via the Inverted Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Randy D.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined student performance in an inverted thermodynamics course (lectures provided by video outside of class) compared to a traditional lecture class. Students in the inverted class performed better on their exams. Students in the bottom third of the inverted course showed the greatest improvement. These bottom third students had a C…

  13. Peer Mentors Can Improve Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asgari, Shaki; Carter, Frederick, Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between peer mentoring and academic performance. Students from two introductory psychology classes either received (n = 37) or did not receive (n = 36) peer mentoring. The data indicated a consistent improvement in the performance (i.e., grades on scheduled exams) of the mentored group. A similar pattern…

  14. Performance and Paralysis: The Organizational Context of the American Research University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alpert, Daniel

    1985-01-01

    The outstanding basic research conducted by leading U.S. universities contrasts with the institutional paralysis that limits their responses to the changing social environment. A matrix model of university organization and mission is presented and a starting point for organizational learning and change is offered. (Author/MLW)

  15. Shall We Dance? A Design Epistemology for Organizational Learning and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    Management experts claim that organizational learning, knowledge management, intellectual capital, and related concepts are more important to today's organizations than traditional assets such as natural resources and skilled labor. Management thus enters domains more typically studied by those in training, education, and human performance…

  16. Assessing the Effects of Organizational Culture, Rewards, and Individual Creativity on Technical Workgroup Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navaresse, Daniel O.; Yauch, Charlene A.; Goff, Kathy; Fonseca, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    This study used an experimental approach to investigate the conditions under which creative outcomes should be expected from the interplay of individual creativity, the innovation orientation of the organizational culture, and the rewards distribution rules. The results of this study suggest that the individual creativity of technically educated…

  17. The 5 Essentials of Organizational Excellence: Maximizing Schoolwide Student Achievement and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marazza, Lawrence L.

    This book explores the necessity for building strong relationships among administrators, teachers, parents, and the community by applying what the book calls the five essentials of organizational excellence. The five essentials are planning strategically; benchmarking for excellence; leading collaboratively; engaging the community; and governing…

  18. A Strategy to Link Employee Performance and Rewards to Overall Organizational Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacFarland, Thomas W.

    While human resource development (HRD), an extension of education, is regarded as a helping profession, industry mandates that HRD contribute to the maximization of organizational outcomes. HRD personnel can easily become demotivated because of dual loyalties. In order not only to avoid stress and demotivation but also to maximize outcomes…

  19. Components of Organizational Competence: Test of a Conceptual Framework.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmstead, Joseph A.; And Others

    The study was designed to identify and isolate critical organizational processes that influence the effective performance of command and control functions in complex organizations, with the aim of improving ability to control these factors. A framework was developed based on "Organizational Competence"--the capacity of an organization to cope with…

  20. An organizational analysis of the World Health Organization: narrowing the gap between promise and performance.

    PubMed

    Peabody, J W

    1995-03-01

    The World Health Organization's (WHO's) nearly half century amelioration of suffering stands as a singular achievement in international cooperation. But after 45 years, the Organization has grown into a complex bureaucracy with an outdated organizational structure. A multidisciplinary framework, which emphasizes organizational theory, yields some insights into these problems. Using this approach, this paper examines the structure, culture, mission, and rules of WHO, and adds a perspective, not otherwise found in the literature, to the growing debate on the future of the Organization. Previous studies of international organizations have explained their behavior as the consequence of the dominant external interests of powerful members. This perspective suggests that organizations like WHO have fewer options and less control of their policies and output. By contrast, there has been very little analysis explaining how international organizations function internally. This paper refutes an exclusively external perspective and shows that the internal organization is also important to understanding WHO. Several conclusions are drawn from this perspective. WHO's organizational myths, as a politically neutral technical agency staffed with uniquely qualified staff, need to be validated and enhanced to attract funding. A new organizational structure, based on an 'open systems' model, is proposed. This strategy would strengthen the WHO Representative Country Offices, redefine staff objectives, close the Regional Offices, and establish open, public elections of the Director General. Traditional WHO culture should only be used for health problems that are well matched to WHO's critical tasks. For more complex social and economic issues, newer, often non-medical, approaches are needed. The internal and external rules, which shape the incentives of WHO staff and leaders, need to be realigned to close the gap between WHO's myths and its day to day work. In the short run it is

  1. The informed decisions toolbox: tools for knowledge transfer and performance improvement.

    PubMed

    Rundall, Thomas G; Martelli, Peter F; Arroyo, Laura; McCurdy, Rodney; Graetz, Ilana; Neuwirth, Esther B; Curtis, Pam; Schmittdiel, Julie; Gibson, Mark; Hsu, John

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, spurred by developments in evidence-informed medicine, a movement to strengthen evidence-informed managerial decision making in healthcare organizations has emerged in the United States and in other countries. The drivers of this movement include demands by payers and consumer groups for improved quality of care, increased operational efficiency, and greater accountability from healthcare organizations. But numerous barriers to managers' use of evidence in decision making exist, including time pressures, perceived threats to autonomy, preference for colloquial knowledge based on individual experiences, difficulty accessing the relevant evidence base, reliance on external consultants (and others) to determine the quality of the information, and lack of resources. To help managers overcome these barriers, we developed the Informed Decisions Toolbox. It provides tools to help managers efficiently perform the six key steps in the evidence-informed approach to decision making: (1) framing the management question, (2) finding sources of information, (3) assessing the accuracy of the information, (4) assessing the applicability of the information, (5) assessing the actionability of the evidence, and (6) determining if the information is adequate. To build an organizational environment conducive to evidence-informed decision making, we suggest four leadership-driven strategies: (1) recognize and respond to the growing demand for accountability as a strategic issue, (2) establish organizational structures and processes for knowledge transfer, (3) build a questioning organizational culture, and (4) build organizational research capabilities. With organizational support, managers who use the tools presented in the Informed Decisions Toolbox will be able to take control of the decision-making process, will be less reliant on colloquial evidence and consultants, and will be better able to improve the performance of their organizations. PMID:17933188

  2. Engine component improvement program: Performance improvement. [fuel consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcaulay, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel consumption of commercial aircraft is considered. Fuel saving and retention components for new production and retrofit of JT9D, JT8D, and CF6 engines are reviewed. The manner in which the performance improvement concepts were selected for development and a summary of the current status of each of the 16 selected concepts are discussed.

  3. Performance improvement: how to get employee buy-in.

    PubMed

    MacFalda, P A

    1998-01-01

    The radiology department at Northern Michigan Hospital in Petoskey, Mich. operated with little change under the same leadership for nearly 20 years. Its equipment was archaic and its operations production focused. Staff morale and both physician and patient satisfaction were low. Given a directive to measurably improve the service and quality offered by the department, the new director let her staff know she needed their support. She then set out to weave in performance expectations for both the organization and the department. Her goal was to create a relationship to both individual and organizational performance improvement, and in turn, to add value to the success of each individual, the department and the organization. Defining work processes was important for the definition of a common vision and core behaviour. The result was the F.A.S.T. concept (friendly, accurate, safe and timely) that put each general work process in a flowchart showing its steps. The next phase involved identifying the measurement for each critical point in the process and determining how to measure it. At each step, questions were defined, answered and translated into individual job descriptions and performance plans. Now, employees know how they and their departments are doing through quarterly reviews. Results are presented monthly at staff meetings, where report cards are posted to provide timely feedback. In some cases, individual report cards within a modality are shared. Successes are celebrated, both in staff meetings and on annual Quality Day, where departments present story boards showing how they have improved service or quality. PMID:10177442

  4. Performance evaluation of an improved street sweeper

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, M.W.; Jain, R.C.; Yung, S.C.; Patterson, R.G.

    1985-10-01

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of the performance of an improved street sweeper (ISS) and conventional sweepers. Dust emissions from paved roads are a major source of urban airborne particles. These emissions can be controlled by street cleaning, but commonly used sweepers were not designed for fine particle collection. A sweeper was modified to improve its ability to remove fine particles from streets and to contain its dust dispersions. Performance was measured by sampling street solids with a vacuum system before and after sweeping. Sieve analyses were made on these samples. During sampling, cascade impactor subsamples were collected to measure the finer particles. Also, dust dispersions were measured.

  5. Redesigning physician compensation and improving ED performance.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Jeff; Lifton, James; Capone, Claudio

    2011-06-01

    Redesigning a physician compensation system in the emergency department (ED) should include goals of improving quality, productivity, and patient satisfaction. Tips for hospital administrators: A contemporary ED information system is needed to ensure that the ED is essentially a paperless operation. Transparency, internally and externally, is essential. ED physicians should perform as individuals, yet as members of a team. Incentives, especially incentive compensation, should strike a balance between individual and team performance. PMID:21692383

  6. Method for improving fuel cell performance

    DOEpatents

    Uribe, Francisco A.; Zawodzinski, Thomas

    2003-10-21

    A method is provided for operating a fuel cell at high voltage for sustained periods of time. The cathode is switched to an output load effective to reduce the cell voltage at a pulse width effective to reverse performance degradation from OH adsorption onto cathode catalyst surfaces. The voltage is stepped to a value of less than about 0.6 V to obtain the improved and sustained performance.

  7. I get by with a little help from my friends: the interaction of chronic pain and organizational support on performance.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Zinta S; Hochwarter, Wayne A

    2006-07-01

    The authors conducted three studies to examine the interactive effects of perceived organizational support (POS) and chronic pain on performance outcomes (i.e., effectiveness, work intensity, citizenship behavior, and task performance). After controlling for demographic factors, tenure variables, the number of subordinates, and main effects, the POS chronic pain interaction explained criterion variance for perceived effectiveness and citizenship behavior in Study 1; effectiveness, work intensity, and citizenship behavior in Study 2; and supervisor-rated task performance in Study 3. Higher levels of chronic pain were associated with lower levels of performance when coupled with low support, as hypothesized. Conversely, high levels of POS reduced the adverse effects of chronic pain on performance. Contributions, strengths and limitations, and future research directions are provided. PMID:16834470

  8. Improving Reproductive Performance: Long and Short Term

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements in reproductive performance for beef herds can be classified as short term (current year) or long term (lifetime production) and can be applied to and measured in individual animals or the entire herd. In other species, results show that rearing young animals under caloric restriction ...

  9. A Paradigm Shift to Improve Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rulloda, Rudolfo B.

    2009-01-01

    A shift to computer skills for improving academic performances was investigated. The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 increased the amount of high school dropouts after the Act was enacted. At-risk students were included in this research study. Several models described using teachers for core subjects and mentors to built citizenship skills, along…

  10. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN IMPROVED STREET SWEEPER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an extensive evaluation of the Improved Street Sweeper (ISS) in Bellevue, WA, and in San Diego, CA. The cleaning performance of the ISS was compared with that of broom sweepers and a vacuum sweeper. The ISS cleaned streets better than the other sweeper...

  11. Electrolysis Performance Improvement and Validation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Franz H.

    1992-01-01

    Viewgraphs on electrolysis performance improvement and validation experiment are presented. Topics covered include: water electrolysis: an ever increasing need/role for space missions; static feed electrolysis (SFE) technology: a concept developed for space applications; experiment objectives: why test in microgravity environment; and experiment description: approach, hardware description, test sequence and schedule.

  12. Using Semantic Coaching to Improve Teacher Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caccia, Paul F.

    1996-01-01

    Explains that semantic coaching is a system of conversational analysis and communication design developed by Fernando Flores, and was based on the earlier research of John Austin and John Searle. Describes how to establish the coaching relationship, and how to coach for improved performance. (PA)

  13. Engineering performance monitoring: Sustained contributions to plant performance improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Bebko, J.J. )

    1992-01-01

    With the aim of achieving excellence in an engineering department that makes both individual project-by-project contributions to plant performance improvement and sustained overall contributions to plant performance, the Niagara Mohawk Nuclear Engineering Department went back to the basics of running a business and established an Engineering Performance Monitoring System. This system focused on the unique products and services of the department and their cost, schedule, and quality parameters. The goals were to provide the best possible service to customers and the generation department and to be one of the best engineering departments in the industry.

  14. The relationship between employees' perceptions of human resource systems and organizational performance: examining mediating mechanisms and temporal dynamics.

    PubMed

    Piening, Erk P; Baluch, Alina M; Salge, Torsten Oliver

    2013-11-01

    Given the limited understanding of temporal issues in extant theorizing about the link between human resource management (HRM) and performance, in this study we aim to shed light on how, when, and why HR interventions affect organizational performance. On the basis of longitudinal, multi-informant and multisource data from public hospital services in England, we provide new insights into the complex interplay between employees' perceptions of HR systems, job satisfaction, and performance outcomes over time. The dynamic panel data analyses provide support for changes in employees' experience of an HR system being related to subsequent changes in customer satisfaction, as mediated by changes in job satisfaction, albeit these effects decrease over time. Moreover, our longitudinal analyses highlight the importance of feedback effects in the HRM-performance chain, which otherwise appears to evolve in a cyclical manner. PMID:23915431

  15. The influence of family-supportive supervisor training on employee job performance and attitudes: An organizational work-family intervention.

    PubMed

    Odle-Dusseau, Heather N; Hammer, Leslie B; Crain, Tori L; Bodner, Todd E

    2016-07-01

    Training supervisors to increase their family-supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB) has demonstrated significant benefits for employee physical health, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions among employees with high levels of family-to-work conflict in prior research in a grocery store context. We replicate and extend these results in a health care setting with additional important employee outcomes (i.e., employee engagement, organizational commitment, and supervisor ratings of job performance), and consider the role of the 4 dimensions underlying the FSSB. Using a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design, 143 health care employees completed surveys at 2 time periods approximately 10 months apart, along with their supervisors who provided ratings of employees' job performance. Between these surveys, we offered their supervisors FSSB training; 86 (71%) of these supervisors participated. Results demonstrated significant and beneficial indirect effects of FSSB training on changes in employee job performance, organizational commitment, engagement, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions through changes in employee perceptions of their supervisor's overall FSSBs. Further analyses suggest that these indirect effects are due primarily to changes in the creative work-family management dimension of FSSB. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26652264

  16. Millennials in the Workplace: A Communication Perspective on Millennials’ Organizational Relationships and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Sadaghiani, Kamyab

    2010-01-01

    Stereotypes about Millennials, born between 1979 and 1994, depict them as self-centered, unmotivated, disrespectful, and disloyal, contributing to widespread concern about how communication with Millennials will affect organizations and how they will develop relationships with other organizational members. We review these purported characteristics, as well as Millennials’ more positive qualities—they work well in teams, are motivated to have an impact on their organizations, favor open and frequent communication with their supervisors, and are at ease with communication technologies. We discuss Millennials’ communicated values and expectations and their potential effect on coworkers, as well as how workplace interaction may change Millennials. PMID:20502509

  17. Millennials in the Workplace: A Communication Perspective on Millennials' Organizational Relationships and Performance.

    PubMed

    Myers, Karen K; Sadaghiani, Kamyab

    2010-06-01

    Stereotypes about Millennials, born between 1979 and 1994, depict them as self-centered, unmotivated, disrespectful, and disloyal, contributing to widespread concern about how communication with Millennials will affect organizations and how they will develop relationships with other organizational members. We review these purported characteristics, as well as Millennials' more positive qualities-they work well in teams, are motivated to have an impact on their organizations, favor open and frequent communication with their supervisors, and are at ease with communication technologies. We discuss Millennials' communicated values and expectations and their potential effect on coworkers, as well as how workplace interaction may change Millennials. PMID:20502509

  18. Improving Wordspotting Performance with Limited Training Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Eric I.-Chao

    1995-01-01

    This thesis addresses the problem of limited training data in pattern detection problems where a small number of target classes must be detected in a varied background. There is typically limited training data and limited knowledge about class distributions in this type of spotting problem and in this case a statistical pattern classifier can not accurately model class distributions. The domain of wordspotting is used to explore new approaches that improve spotting system performance with limited training data. First, a high performance, state-of-the-art whole-word based wordspotter is developed. Two complementary approaches are then introduced to help compensate for the lack of data. Figure of Merit training, a new type of discriminative training algorithm, modifies the spotting system parameters according to the metric used to evaluate wordspotting systems. The effectiveness of discriminative training approaches may be limited due to overtraining a classifier on insufficient training data. While the classifier's performance on the training data improves, the classifier's performance on unseen test data degrades. To alleviate this problem, voice transformation techniques are used to generate more training examples that improve the robustness of the spotting system. The wordspotter is trained and tested on the Switchboard credit-card database, a database of spontaneous conversations recorded over the telephone. The baseline wordspotter achieves a Figure of Merit of 62.5% on a testing set. With Figure of Merit training, the Figure of Merit improves to 65.8%. When Figure of Merit training and voice transformations are used together, the Figure of Merit improves to 71.9%. The final wordspotter system achieves a Figure of Merit of 64.2% on the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) September 1992 official benchmark, surpassing the 1992 results from other whole-word based wordspotting systems. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14

  19. Improved plant performance through evaporative steam condensing

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, D.

    1998-07-01

    Combining an open cooling tower and a steam condenser into one common unit is a proven technology with many advantages in power generation application, including reduced first cost of equipment, reduced parasitic energy consumption, simplified design, reduced maintenance, and simplified water treatment, Performance of the steam turbine benefits from the direct approach to wet bulb temperature, and operating flexibility and reliability improve compared to a system with a cooling tower and surface condenser. System comparisons and case histories will be presented to substantiate improved systems economies.

  20. Improving performance via mini-applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Crozier, Paul Stewart; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Numrich, Robert W.; Williams, Alan B.; Edwards, Harold Carter; Keiter, Eric Richard; Rajan, Mahesh; Willenbring, James M.; Doerfler, Douglas W.; Heroux, Michael Allen

    2009-09-01

    Application performance is determined by a combination of many choices: hardware platform, runtime environment, languages and compilers used, algorithm choice and implementation, and more. In this complicated environment, we find that the use of mini-applications - small self-contained proxies for real applications - is an excellent approach for rapidly exploring the parameter space of all these choices. Furthermore, use of mini-applications enriches the interaction between application, library and computer system developers by providing explicit functioning software and concrete performance results that lead to detailed, focused discussions of design trade-offs, algorithm choices and runtime performance issues. In this paper we discuss a collection of mini-applications and demonstrate how we use them to analyze and improve application performance on new and future computer platforms.

  1. Improvements in plant performance [Sequoyah Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lorek, M.J.

    1999-11-01

    The improvements in plant reliability and performance at Sequoyah in the last two years can be directly attributed to ten key ingredients; teamwork, management stability, a management team that believes in teamwork, clear direction from the top, a strong focus on human performance, the company wide STAR 7 initiative, strong succession planning, a very seasoned and effective outage management organization, an infrastructure that ensures that the station is focused on the right hardware priorities, and a very strong line organization owned self-assessment program. Continued focus on these key ingredients and realization on a daily basis that good performance can lead to complacency will ensure that performance at Sequoyah will remain at a very high level well into the 21st century.

  2. Improved Low Temperature Performance of Supercapacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Erik J.; West, William C.; Smart, Marshall C.; Gnanaraj, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Low temperature double-layer capacitor operation enabled by: - Base acetonitrile / TEATFB salt formulation - Addition of low melting point formates, esters and cyclic ethers center dot Key electrolyte design factors: - Volume of co-solvent - Concentration of salt center dot Capacity increased through higher capacity electrodes: - Zeolite templated carbons - Asymmetric cell designs center dot Continuing efforts - Improve asymmetric cell performance at low temperature - Cycle life testing Motivation center dot Benchmark performance of commercial cells center dot Approaches for designing low temperature systems - Symmetric cells (activated carbon electrodes) - Symmetric cells (zeolite templated carbon electrodes) - Asymmetric cells (lithium titanate/activated carbon electrodes) center dot Experimental results center dot Summary

  3. Improving performance through self-assessment.

    PubMed

    Pitt, D J

    1999-01-01

    Wakefield and Pontefract Community Health NHS Trust uses the European Business Excellence Model self-assessment for continuous improvement. An outline of the key aspects of the model, an approach to TQM, is presented. This article sets out the context that led to the adoption of the model in the Trust and describes the approach that has been taken to completing self-assessments. Use of the model to secure continuous improvement is reviewed against Bhopal and Thomson's Audit Cycle and consideration is given to lessons learned. The article concludes with a discussion on applicability of the model to health care organisations. It is concluded that, after an initial learning curve, the model has facilitated integration of a range of quality initiatives, and progress with continuous improvement. Critical to this was the linking of self-assessment to business planning and performance management systems. PMID:10537856

  4. Improving Fatigue Performance of AHSS Welds

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Zhili; Yu, Xinghua; Erdman, III, Donald L.; Wang, Yanli; Kelly, Steve; Hou, Wenkao; Yan, Benda; Wang, Zhifeng; Yu, Zhenzhen; Liu, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    Reported herein is technical progress on a U.S. Department of Energy CRADA project with industry cost-share aimed at developing the technical basis and demonstrate the viability of innovative in-situ weld residual stresses mitigation technology that can substantially improve the weld fatigue performance and durability of auto-body structures. The developed technology would be costeffective and practical in high-volume vehicle production environment. Enhancing weld fatigue performance would address a critical technology gap that impedes the widespread use of advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) and other lightweight materials for auto body structure light-weighting. This means that the automotive industry can take full advantage of the AHSS in strength, durability and crashworthiness without the concern of the relatively weak weld fatigue performance. The project comprises both technological innovations in weld residual stress mitigation and due-diligence residual stress measurement and fatigue performance evaluation. Two approaches were investigated. The first one was the use of low temperature phase transformation (LTPT) weld filler wire, and the second focused on novel thermo-mechanical stress management technique. Both technical approaches have resulted in considerable improvement in fatigue lives of welded joints made of high-strength steels. Synchrotron diffraction measurement confirmed the reduction of high tensile weld residual stresses by the two weld residual stress mitigation techniques.

  5. Organizational Justice As a Predictor of Organizational Silence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Çetin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, relation between teachers' perception for organizational justice and their organizational silence was examined. Sample of this study consists of 300 teachers who work at elementary schools in Siirt. Relational Scanning model was utilized in performance of this study. In this study, Organizational Justice Scale and…

  6. To Improve the Academy: Resources for Faculty, Instructional, and Organizational Development, Volume 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehlburg, Catherine M., Ed.; Chadwick-Blossey, Sandra, Ed.

    An annual publication, "To Improve the Academy" offers a resource for improvement in higher education to faculty, instructional development staff, and administrators. The chapters of part 1, "Past, Present, and Future of SoTL," contains: (1) "The Scholarship of Teaching and Learning: Past Lessons, Current Challenges, and Future Visions" (Kathleen…

  7. Improving Access to Foundational Energy Performance Data

    SciTech Connect

    Studer, D.; Livingood, W.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-08-01

    Access to foundational energy performance data is key to improving the efficiency of the built environment. However, stakeholders often lack access to what they perceive as credible energy performance data. Therefore, even if a stakeholder determines that a product would increase efficiency, they often have difficulty convincing their management to move forward. Even when credible data do exist, such data are not always sufficient to support detailed energy performance analyses, or the development of robust business cases. One reason for this is that the data parameters that are provided are generally based on the respective industry norms. Thus, for mature industries with extensive testing standards, the data made available are often quite detailed. But for emerging technologies, or for industries with less well-developed testing standards, available data are generally insufficient to support robust analysis. However, even for mature technologies, there is no guarantee that the data being supplied are the same data needed to accurately evaluate a product?s energy performance. To address these challenges, the U.S. Department of Energy funded development of a free, publically accessible Web-based portal, the Technology Performance Exchange(TM), to facilitate the transparent identification, storage, and sharing of foundational energy performance data. The Technology Performance Exchange identifies the intrinsic, technology-specific parameters necessary for a user to perform a credible energy analysis and includes a robust database to store these data. End users can leverage stored data to evaluate the site-specific performance of various technologies, support financial analyses with greater confidence, and make better informed procurement decisions.

  8. Healthcare technologies, quality improvement programs and hospital organizational culture in Canadian hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthcare technology and quality improvement programs have been identified as a means to influence healthcare costs and healthcare quality in Canada. This study seeks to identify whether the ability to implement healthcare technology by a hospital was related to usage of quality improvement programs within the hospital and whether the culture within a hospital plays a role in the adoption of quality improvement programs. Methods A cross-sectional study of Canadian hospitals was conducted in 2010. The sample consisted of hospital administrators that were selected by provincial review boards. The questionnaire consisted of 3 sections: 20 healthcare technology items, 16 quality improvement program items and 63 culture items. Results Rasch model analysis revealed that a hierarchy existed among the healthcare technologies based upon the difficulty of implementation. The results also showed a significant relationship existed between the ability to implement healthcare technologies and the number of quality improvement programs adopted. In addition, culture within a hospital served a mediating role in quality improvement programs adoption. Conclusions Healthcare technologies each have different levels of difficulty. As a consequence, hospitals need to understand their current level of capability before selecting a particular technology in order to assess the level of resources needed. Further the usage of quality improvement programs is related to the ability to implement technology and the culture within a hospital. PMID:24119419

  9. An Analysis of Organizational Performance Based on Hospital Specialization Level and Strategy Type

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Young-Hoon; Woo, Jung-Sik; Hyun, Sook-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hospitals are studying the focused factory concept and attempting to increase their power in a competitive industry by becoming more specialized. Methodology This study uses the information theory index (ITI) and the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI) to analyze the extent of specialization by Korean hospitals that receive national health insurance reimbursements. Hierarchical regression analysis is used to assess the impact of hospital specialization on the following four aspects of operational performance: productivity, profitability, efficiency and quality of care. Study Results The results show that a focused strategy (high HHI) improves the income and adjusted number of patients per specialist through the efficient utilization of human resources. However, a diversified strategy (high ITI) improves the hospital utilization ratio, income per bed and adjusted number of patients per bed (controlling for material resources such as beds). In addition, as the concentration index increases, case-mix mortality rates and referral rates decrease, indicating that specialization has a positive relationship with quality of care. PMID:26218570

  10. Organizational Effectiveness: A Comprehensive Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Kim S., Comp.

    A bibliography on organizational effectiveness that contains approximately 515 references, dated primarily since 1970, is presented. The focus is the organizational level of analysis, rather than individual effectiveness or environmental (e.g., economy) performance. The literature included comes from the organizational sciences, higher education,…

  11. Technetium Getters to Improve Cast Stone Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Asmussen, Robert M.; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2015-10-15

    The cementitious material known as Cast Stone has been selected as the preferred waste form for solidification of aqueous secondary liquid effluents from the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process condensates and low-activity waste (LAW) melter off-gas caustic scrubber effluents. Cast Stone is also being evaluated as a supplemental immobilization technology to provide the necessary LAW treatment capacity to complete the Hanford tank waste cleanup mission in a timely and cost effective manner. Two radionuclides of particular concern in these waste streams are technetium-99 (99Tc) and iodine-129 (129I). These radioactive tank waste components contribute the most to the environmental impacts associated with the cleanup of the Hanford site. A recent environmental assessment of Cast Stone performance, which assumes a diffusion controlled release of contaminants from the waste form, calculates groundwater in excess of the allowable maximum permissible concentrations for both contaminants. There is, therefore, a need and an opportunity to improve the retention of both 99Tc and 129I in Cast Stone. One method to improve the performance of Cast Stone is through the addition of “getters” that selectively sequester Tc and I, therefore reducing their diffusion out of Cast Stone. In this paper, we present results of Tc and I removal from solution with various getters with batch sorption experiments conducted in deionized water (DIW) and a highly caustic 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant. In general, the data show that the selected getters are effective in DIW but their performance is comprised when experiments are performed with the 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant. Reasons for the mitigated performance in the LAW simulant may be due to competition with Cr present in the 7.8 M Na Ave LAW simulant and to a pH effect.

  12. Dynamic classifiers improve pulverizer performance and more

    SciTech Connect

    Sommerlad, R.E.; Dugdale, K.L.

    2007-07-15

    Keeping coal-fired steam plants running efficiently and cleanly is a daily struggle. An article in the February 2007 issue of Power explained that one way to improve the combustion and emissions performance of a plant is to optimize the performance of its coal pulverizers. By adding a dynamic classifier to the pulverizers, you can better control coal particle sizing and fineness, and increase pulverizer capacity to boot. A dynamic classifier has an inner rotating cage and outer stationary vanes which, acting in concert, provide centrifugal or impinging classification. Replacing or upgrading a pulverizer's classifier from static to dynamic improves grinding performance reducing the level of unburned carbon in the coal in the process. The article describes the project at E.ON's Ratcliffe-on-Soar Power station in the UK to retrofit Loesche LSKS dynamic classifiers. It also mentions other successful projects at Scholven Power Station in Germany, Tilbury Power Station in the UK and J.B. Sims Power Plant in Michigan, USA. 8 figs.

  13. Organizational Epistemology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Krogh, George; Roos, Johan

    This book is intended to give readers an observational scheme for understanding the process of organizational knowledge development at the individual and social levels. Chapter 1 examines devising a concept of organizational knowledge. In chapter 2, the place of epistemology within philosophy is discussed along with organizational, cognitivist,…

  14. Pocket guide for improving board performance.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    This pocket guide, a supplement to "The Family Planning Manager," provides suggestions for building an effective, supportive board of directors. Among the topics covered are defining the board's terms of office, board committees, criteria for selecting board members and the board leader, dealing with key family planning issues, and ethical concerns. Also included is a sample chart for keeping track of board diversity in terms of age, gender, ethnicity, and professional and organizational experience. Yet another section sets forth a sample board member job description, including requirements, functional responsibilities, and expectations. PMID:12291665

  15. Disease management as a performance improvement strategy.

    PubMed

    McClatchey, S

    2001-11-01

    Disease management is a strategy of organizing care and services for a patient population across the continuum. It is characterized by a population database, interdisciplinary and interagency collaboration, and evidence-based clinical information. The effectiveness of a disease management program has been measured by a combination of clinical, financial, and quality of life outcomes. In early 1997, driven by a strategic planning process that established three Centers of Excellence (COE), we implemented disease management as the foundation for a new approach to performance improvement utilizing five key strategies. The five implementation strategies are outlined, in addition to a review of the key elements in outcome achievement. PMID:11761788

  16. Methods and apparatus for improving sensor performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor); Reynolds, Joseph K. (Inventor); Van Zandt, Thomas R. (Inventor); Waltman, Steven B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for improving performance of a sensor having a sensor proof mass elastically suspended at an initial equilibrium position by a suspension force, provide a tunable force opposing that suspension force and preset the proof mass with that tunable force to a second equilibrium position less stable than the initial equilibrium position. The sensor is then operated from that preset second equilibrium position of the proof mass short of instability. The spring constant of the elastic suspension may be continually monitored, and such continually monitored spring constant may be continually adjusted to maintain the sensor at a substantially constant sensitivity during its operation.

  17. Improving Learning Performance Through Rational Resource Allocation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratch, J.; Chien, S.; DeJong, G.

    1994-01-01

    This article shows how rational analysis can be used to minimize learning cost for a general class of statistical learning problems. We discuss the factors that influence learning cost and show that the problem of efficient learning can be cast as a resource optimization problem. Solutions found in this way can be significantly more efficient than the best solutions that do not account for these factors. We introduce a heuristic learning algorithm that approximately solves this optimization problem and document its performance improvements on synthetic and real-world problems.

  18. Improvement of Automotive Part Supplier Performance Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kongmunee, Chalermkwan; Chutima, Parames

    2016-05-01

    This research investigates the problem of the part supplier performance evaluation in a major Japanese automotive plant in Thailand. Its current evaluation scheme is based on experiences and self-opinion of the evaluators. As a result, many poor performance suppliers are still considered as good suppliers and allow to supply parts to the plant without further improvement obligation. To alleviate this problem, the brainstorming session among stakeholders and evaluators are formally conducted. The result of which is the appropriate evaluation criteria and sub-criteria. The analytical hierarchy process is also used to find suitable weights for each criteria and sub-criteria. The results show that a newly developed evaluation method is significantly better than the previous one in segregating between good and poor suppliers.

  19. Dependent Narcissism, Organizational Learning, and Human Resource Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godkin, Lynn; Allcorn, Seth

    2009-01-01

    Narcissistic leadership can benefit organizational performance. Aberrant narcissism can destroy the psychosocial health of groups, limiting performance. This article examines Dependent Organizational Disorder, a common form of narcissism, which infects leadership, thwarts performance, and interrupts organizational learning. Dependent…

  20. Artificial Astrocytes Improve Neural Network Performance

    PubMed Central

    Porto-Pazos, Ana B.; Veiguela, Noha; Mesejo, Pablo; Navarrete, Marta; Alvarellos, Alberto; Ibáñez, Oscar; Pazos, Alejandro; Araque, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Compelling evidence indicates the existence of bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons. Astrocytes, a type of glial cells classically considered to be passive supportive cells, have been recently demonstrated to be actively involved in the processing and regulation of synaptic information, suggesting that brain function arises from the activity of neuron-glia networks. However, the actual impact of astrocytes in neural network function is largely unknown and its application in artificial intelligence remains untested. We have investigated the consequences of including artificial astrocytes, which present the biologically defined properties involved in astrocyte-neuron communication, on artificial neural network performance. Using connectionist systems and evolutionary algorithms, we have compared the performance of artificial neural networks (NN) and artificial neuron-glia networks (NGN) to solve classification problems. We show that the degree of success of NGN is superior to NN. Analysis of performances of NN with different number of neurons or different architectures indicate that the effects of NGN cannot be accounted for an increased number of network elements, but rather they are specifically due to astrocytes. Furthermore, the relative efficacy of NGN vs. NN increases as the complexity of the network increases. These results indicate that artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance, and established the concept of Artificial Neuron-Glia Networks, which represents a novel concept in Artificial Intelligence with implications in computational science as well as in the understanding of brain function. PMID:21526157

  1. Artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance.

    PubMed

    Porto-Pazos, Ana B; Veiguela, Noha; Mesejo, Pablo; Navarrete, Marta; Alvarellos, Alberto; Ibáñez, Oscar; Pazos, Alejandro; Araque, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Compelling evidence indicates the existence of bidirectional communication between astrocytes and neurons. Astrocytes, a type of glial cells classically considered to be passive supportive cells, have been recently demonstrated to be actively involved in the processing and regulation of synaptic information, suggesting that brain function arises from the activity of neuron-glia networks. However, the actual impact of astrocytes in neural network function is largely unknown and its application in artificial intelligence remains untested. We have investigated the consequences of including artificial astrocytes, which present the biologically defined properties involved in astrocyte-neuron communication, on artificial neural network performance. Using connectionist systems and evolutionary algorithms, we have compared the performance of artificial neural networks (NN) and artificial neuron-glia networks (NGN) to solve classification problems. We show that the degree of success of NGN is superior to NN. Analysis of performances of NN with different number of neurons or different architectures indicate that the effects of NGN cannot be accounted for an increased number of network elements, but rather they are specifically due to astrocytes. Furthermore, the relative efficacy of NGN vs. NN increases as the complexity of the network increases. These results indicate that artificial astrocytes improve neural network performance, and established the concept of Artificial Neuron-Glia Networks, which represents a novel concept in Artificial Intelligence with implications in computational science as well as in the understanding of brain function. PMID:21526157

  2. Organizational work-family resources as predictors of job performance and attitudes: the process of work-family conflict and enrichment.

    PubMed

    Odle-Dusseau, Heather N; Britt, Thomas W; Greene-Shortridge, Tiffany M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to test a model where organizational resources (aimed at managing work and family responsibilities) predict job attitudes and supervisor ratings of performance through the mechanisms of work-family conflict and work-family enrichment. Employees (n = 174) at a large metropolitan hospital were surveyed at two time periods regarding perceptions of family supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), family supportive organizational perceptions (FSOP), bidirectional work-family conflict, bidirectional work-family enrichment, and job attitudes. Supervisors were also asked to provide performance ratings at Time 2. Results revealed FSSB at Time 1 predicted job satisfaction, organizational commitment and intention to leave, as well as supervisor ratings of performance, at Time 2. In addition, both work-family enrichment and family-work enrichment were found to mediate relationships between FSSB and various organizational outcomes, while work-family conflict was not a significant mediator. Results support further testing of supervisor behaviors specific to family support, as well models that include bidirectional work-family enrichment as the mechanism by which work-family resources predict employee and organizational outcomes. PMID:22149204

  3. One School's Approach to Overcoming Resistance and Improving Appraisal: Organizational Learning in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the action research (AR) approach adopted by one New Zealand (NZ) primary school to review and improve its appraisal system. Historically the staff had demonstrated considerable negativity towards appraisal. The classic reconnaissance, implementation and evaluation phases of AR were adopted by the case study school as a…

  4. Active Accountability: A Cross-Case Study of Two Schools Negotiating Improvement, Change, and Organizational Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasoi, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Educational accountability has come to be defined almost exclusively in terms of schools meeting external standards of improvement. Building on a body of scholarship that presents schools as complex organizations, this research proposes that a more robust understanding of educational accountability must be grounded in practitioners perceptions of…

  5. Improving Hospital Quality and Patient Safety an Examination of Organizational Culture and Information Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John Wallace

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the effects of safety culture, including operational climate and practices, as well as the adoption and use of information systems for delivering high quality healthcare and improved patient experience. Chapter 2 studies the influence of both general and outcome-specific hospital climate and quality practices on process…

  6. Cost and performance: complements for improvement.

    PubMed

    Rouse, Paul; Harrison, Julie; Turner, Nikki

    2011-10-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) share similar views of resource consumption in the production of outputs. While DEA has a high level focus typically using aggregated data in the form of inputs and outputs, ABC is more detailed and oriented around very disaggregated data. We use a case study of immunisation activities in 24 New Zealand primary care practices to illustrate how DEA and ABC can be used in conjunction to improve performance analysis and benchmarking. Results show that practice size, socio-economic environment, parts of the service delivery process as well as regular administrative tasks are major cost and performance drivers for general practices in immunisation activities. It is worth noting that initial analyses of the ABC results, using contextual information and conventional methods of analysis such as regression and correlations, did not result in any patterns of significance. Reorganising this information using the DEA efficiency scores has revealed trends that make sense to practitioners and provide insights into where to place efforts for improvement. PMID:20703677

  7. Exploring Effective Communication for Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordin, Eric John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to explore experiences and perceptions of organizational leaders regarding organizational change communication to improve change results in an organizational setting. Building on a conceptual framework of organizational theory, 25 full-time online faculty at an institution of higher learning in the southwestern…

  8. Organizational rationality, performance, and social responsibility: results from the hospital industry.

    PubMed

    Becker, Edmund R; Potter, Sharyn J

    2002-01-01

    Drawing on stakeholder theory and Weber's distinction between formal and substantive rationality, we posit that: (1) for-profit organizations manage stakeholders in ways that result in the organization being more efficient and less socially responsible than organizations that are not as profit oriented, and (2) organizations with major corporate relationships that are not local manage stakeholders in a manner that results in the organization being more efficient and less socially responsible than organizations without such arrangements. We test these hypotheses with 1994 data on 4,705 of the nation's short-term general hospitals using two measures of hospital efficiency and four measures of social responsibility. Results confirm that for-profit hospitals and hospitals lacking local ties are managing stakeholder relationships in ways that increases the efficiency of these hospitals but decreases their social responsiveness. We conclude by speculating that organizational efficiency and social responsibility may be inversely related and then summarize some of the academic, managerial, and policy implications, with emphasis on the implications for stakeholder theory. PMID:12199493

  9. [The influence of structural and organizational factors on the performance of primary health care in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, according to nurses and managers].

    PubMed

    Turci, Maria Aparecida; Lima-Costa, Maria Fernanda; Macinko, James

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of primary health care (PHC) in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, using the Portuguese-language version of the Primary Health Care Assessment Tool among nurses and managers of family health teams. Total PHC score was 0.75 (good). The dimensions first contact (0.95), longitudinality (0.83), comprehensiveness (0.83), and coordination (0.78) performed the best. Family approach, community orientation, and access received the lowest scores (0.68, 0.56, and 0.45, respectively). Better PHC performance was associated with the following factors (p < 0.05): availability of health care equipment and other inputs (adjusted PR = 1.57), education and training for family health teams (PR = 1.44), a physician on duty for more than 30 hours per week (PR = 1.42), and presence of four or more teams per primary care unit (PR = 1.09). The results show the importance of structural and organizational factors for PHC performance and suggest that permanent evaluation can identify aspects that require quality improvement. PMID:26578018

  10. Teleconsultation service to improve healthcare in rural areas: acceptance, organizational impact and appropriateness

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Nowadays, new organisational strategies should be indentified to improve primary care and its link with secondary care in terms of efficacy and timeliness of interventions thus preventing unnecessary hospital accesses and costs saving for the health system. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of the use of teleconsultation by general practitioners in rural areas. Methods General practitioners were provided with a teleconsultation service from 2006 to 2008 to obtain a second opinion for cardiac, dermatological and diabetic problems. Access, acceptance, organisational impact, effectiveness and economics data were collected. Clinical and access data were systematically entered in a database while acceptance and organisational data were evaluated through ad hoc questionnaires. Results There were 957 teleconsultation contacts which resulted in access to health care services for 812 symptomatic patients living in 30 rural communities. Through the teleconsultation service, 48 general practitioners improved the appropriateness of primary care and the integration with secondary care. In fact, the level of concordance between intentions and consultations for cardiac problems was equal to 9%, in 86% of the cases the service entailed a saving of resources and in 5% of the cases, it improved the timeliness. 95% of the GPs considered the overall quality positively. For a future routine use of this service, trust in specialists, duration and workload of teleconsultations and reimbursement should be taken into account. Conclusions Managerial and policy implications emerged mainly related to the support to GPs in the provision of high quality primary care and decision-making processes in promoting similar services. PMID:20021651

  11. MEMS Actuators for Improved Performance and Durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yearsley, James M.

    Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) devices take advantage of force-scaling at length scales smaller than a millimeter to sense and interact with directly with phenomena and targets at the microscale. MEMS sensors found in everyday devices like cell-phones and cars include accelerometers, gyros, pressure sensors, and magnetic sensors. MEMS actuators generally serve more application specific roles including micro- and nano-tweezers used for single cell manipulation, optical switching and alignment components, and micro combustion engines for high energy density power generation. MEMS rotary motors are actuators that translate an electric drive signal into rotational motion and can serve as rate calibration inputs for gyros, stages for optical components, mixing devices for micro-fluidics, etc. Existing rotary micromotors suffer from friction and wear issues that affect lifetime and performance. Attempts to alleviate friction effects include surface treatment, magnetic and electrostatic levitation, pressurized gas bearings, and micro-ball bearings. The present work demonstrates a droplet based liquid bearing supporting a rotary micromotor that improves the operating characteristics of MEMS rotary motors. The liquid bearing provides wear-free, low-friction, passive alignment between the rotor and stator. Droplets are positioned relative to the rotor and stator through patterned superhydrophobic and hydrophilic surface coatings. The liquid bearing consists of a central droplet that acts as the motor shaft, providing axial alignment between rotor and stator, and satellite droplets, analogous to ball-bearings, that provide tip and tilt stable operation. The liquid bearing friction performance is characterized through measurement of the rotational drag coefficient and minimum starting torque due to stiction and geometric effects. Bearing operational performance is further characterized by modeling and measuring stiffness, environmental survivability, and high

  12. Extreme overbalance perforating improves well performance

    SciTech Connect

    Dees, J.M.; Handren, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    The application of extreme overbalance perforating, by Oryx Energy Co., is consistently outperforming the unpredictable, tubing-conveyed, underbalance perforating method which is generally accepted as the industry standard. Successful results reported from more than 60 Oryx Energy wells, applying this technology, support this claim. Oryx began this project in 1990 to address the less-than-predictable performance of underbalanced perforating. The goal was to improve the initial completion efficiency, translating it into higher profits resulting from earlier product sales. This article presents the concept, mechanics, procedures, potential applications and results of perforating using overpressured well bores. The procedure can also be used in wells with existing perforations if an overpressured surge is used. This article highlights some of the case histories that have used these techniques.

  13. Genetic improvement of dairy cow reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Berglund, B

    2008-07-01

    The welfare of cow along with profitability in production are important issues in sustainable animal breeding programmes. Along with an intense/intensive selection for increased milk yield, reproductive performance has declined in many countries, in part due to an unfavourable genetic relationship. The largely unchanged genetic trend in female fertility and calving traits for Scandinavian Red breeds shows that it is possible to avoid deterioration in these traits if they are properly considered in the breeding programme. Today's breeding is international with a global selection and extensive use of the best bulls. The Nordic countries have traditionally recorded and performed genetic evaluation for a broad range of functional traits including reproduction. In recent years many other countries have also implemented genetic evaluation for these traits. Thus, the relative emphasis of dairy cattle breeding objectives has gradually shifted from production to functional traits such as reproduction. Improved ways of recording traits, e.g. physiological measures, early indicator traits, assisted reproductive techniques and increased knowledge of genes and their regulation may improve the genetic selection strategies and have large impact on present and future genetic evaluation programmes. Extensive data bases with phenotypic recordings of traits for individuals and their pedigree are a prerequisite. Quantitative trait loci have been associated to the reproductive complex. Most important traits, including reproduction traits are regulated by a multitude of genes and environmental factors in a complex relationship, however. Genomic selection might therefore be important in future breeding programmes. Information on single nucleotide polymorphism has already been introduced in the selection programmes of some countries. PMID:18638109

  14. Pregnancy continuation and organizational religious activity following prenatal diagnosis of a lethal fetal defect are associated with improved psychological outcome†

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Heidi; Garrett, Melanie E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the article is to examine the psychological impact, specifically symptoms of grief, post-traumatic stress and depression, in women and men who either terminated or continued a pregnancy following prenatal diagnosis of a lethal fetal defect. Method This project investigated a diagnostically homogeneous group composed of 158 women and 109 men who lost a pregnancy to anencephaly, a lethal neural tube defect. Participants completed the Perinatal Grief Scale, Impact of Event Scale – Revised and Beck Depression Inventory-II, which measure symptoms of grief, post-traumatic stress and depression, respectively. Demographics, religiosity and pregnancy choices were also collected. Gender-specific analysis of variance was performed for instrument total scores and subscales. Results Women who terminated reported significantly more despair (p = 0.02), avoidance (p = 0.008) and depression (p = 0.04) than women who continued the pregnancy. Organizational religious activity was associated with a reduction in grief (Perinatal Grief Scale subscales) in both women (p = 0.02, p = 0.04 and p = 0.03) and men (p = 0.047). Conclusion There appears to be a psychological benefit to women to continue the pregnancy following a lethal fetal diagnosis. Following a lethal fetal diagnosis, the risks and benefits, including psychological effects, of termination and continuation of pregnancy should be discussed in detail with an effort to be as nondirective as possible. PMID:25872901

  15. Quality indicators for family support services and their relationship to organizational social context.

    PubMed

    Olin, S Serene; Williams, Nate; Pollock, Michele; Armusewicz, Kelsey; Kutash, Krista; Glisson, Charles; Hoagwood, Kimberly E

    2014-01-01

    Quality measurement is an important component of healthcare reform. The relationship of quality indicators (QIs) for parent-delivered family support services to organizational social contexts known to improve quality is unexamined. This study employs data collected from 21 child mental health programs that deliver team-based family support services. Performance on two levels of QIs-those targeting the program and staff-were significantly associated with organizational social context profiles and dimensions. High quality program policies are associated with positive organizational cultures and engaging climates. Inappropriate staff practices are associated with resistant cultures. Implications for organizational strategies to improve service quality are discussed. PMID:23709286

  16. Quality Indicators for Family Support Services and Their Relationship to Organizational Social Context

    PubMed Central

    Olin, S. Serene; Williams, Nate; Pollock, Michele; Armusewicz, Kelsey; Kutash, Krista; Glisson, Charles; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.

    2013-01-01

    Quality measurement is an important component of healthcare reform. The relationship of quality indicators (QIs) for parent-delivered family support services to organizational social contexts known to improve quality is unexamined. This study employs data collected from 21 child mental health programs that deliver team-based family support services. Performance on two levels of QIs —those targeting the program and staff -- were significantly associated with organizational social context profiles and dimensions. High quality program policies are associated with positive organizational cultures and engaging climates. Inappropriate staff practices are associated with resistant cultures. Implications for organizational strategies to improve service quality are discussed. PMID:23709286

  17. Investigation of microwave antennas with improved performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Rongguo

    This dissertation presents the investigation of antennas with improved performances at microwave frequencies. It covers the following three topics: the study of the metamaterial with near-zero index of refraction and its application in directive antenna design, the design technique of a wideband circularly polarized patch antenna for 60GHz wireless application and the investigation of a novel direction of arrival (DOA) estimation technique inspired by human auditory system. First, the metamaterial composed of two-dimensional (2-D) metallic wire arrays is investigated as an effective medium with an effective index of refraction less than unity (neff < 1). The effective medium parameters (permittivity epsilon eff, permeability mueff and neff ) of a wire array are extracted from the finite-element simulated scattering parameters and verified through a 2-D electromagnetic band gap (EBG) structure case study. A simple design methodology for directive monopole antennas is introduced by embedding a monopole within a metallic wire array with neff < 1 at the antenna operating frequencies. The narrow beam effect of the monopole antenna is demonstrated in both simulation and experiment at X-band (8 -- 12 GHz). The measured antenna properties including return loss and radiation patterns are in good agreement with simulation results. Parametric studies of the antenna system are performed. The physical principles and interpretations of the directive monopole antenna embedded in the wire array medium are also discussed. Second, a fully packaged wideband circularly polarized patch antenna is designed for 60GHz wireless communication. The patch antenna incorporates a diagonal slot at the center and features a superstrate and an air cavity backing to achieve desired performances including wide bandwidth, high efficiency and low axial ratio. The detailed design procedure of the circularly polarized antenna, including the design of the microstrip-fed patch antenna and the comparison

  18. CF6 Jet Engine Performance Improvement Program: High Pressure Turbine Aerodynamic Performance Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasching, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    The improved single shank high pressure turbine design was evaluated in component tests consisting of performance, heat transfer and mechanical tests, and in core engine tests. The instrumented core engine test verified the thermal, mechanical, and aeromechanical characteristics of the improved turbine design. An endurance test subjected the improved single shank turbine to 1000 simulated flight cycles, the equivalent of approximately 3000 hours of typical airline service. Initial back-to-back engine tests demonstrated an improvement in cruise sfc of 1.3% and a reduction in exhaust gas temperature of 10 C. An additional improvement of 0.3% in cruise sfc and 6 C in EGT is projected for long service engines.

  19. Exploring the Relationship between Dimensions of Organizational Learning and Firms' Financial and Knowledge Performance in the Korean Business Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Insik

    2009-01-01

    Many scholars and practitioners have emphasized the importance of learning within and by organizations to respond to the fast changing world. As a result, organizational learning has become a necessity to remain competitive. Though the importance of organizational learning has been growing in response to the rapidly changing business context,…

  20. A Comparative Case Study of Veteran Superintendent's Leadership and Organizational Processes in Addressing the Academic Achievement of Students in Low Performing School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimer, Catherine Nicole

    2010-01-01

    This research study investigated the leadership behaviors and organizational frames utilized by two veteran superintendents of medium sized school districts in California to address issues of academic performance in their respective districts as perceived by the superintendents and their respective board members and principals. Current…

  1. Spatial Modulation Improves Performance in CTIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Gregory H.; Wilson, Daniel W.; Johnson, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Suitably formulated spatial modulation of a scene imaged by a computed-tomography imaging spectrometer (CTIS) has been found to be useful as a means of improving the imaging performance of the CTIS. As used here, "spatial modulation" signifies the imposition of additional, artificial structure on a scene from within the CTIS optics. The basic principles of a CTIS were described in "Improvements in Computed- Tomography Imaging Spectrometry" (NPO-20561) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 24, No. 12 (December 2000), page 38 and "All-Reflective Computed-Tomography Imaging Spectrometers" (NPO-20836), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 11 (November 2002), page 7a. To recapitulate: A CTIS offers capabilities for imaging a scene with spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution. The spectral disperser in a CTIS is a two-dimensional diffraction grating. It is positioned between two relay lenses (or on one of two relay mirrors) in a video imaging system. If the disperser were removed, the system would produce ordinary images of the scene in its field of view. In the presence of the grating, the image on the focal plane of the system contains both spectral and spatial information because the multiple diffraction orders of the grating give rise to multiple, spectrally dispersed images of the scene. By use of algorithms adapted from computed tomography, the image on the focal plane can be processed into an image cube a three-dimensional collection of data on the image intensity as a function of the two spatial dimensions (x and y) in the scene and of wavelength (lambda). Thus, both spectrally and spatially resolved information on the scene at a given instant of time can be obtained, without scanning, from a single snapshot; this is what makes the CTIS such a potentially powerful tool for spatially, spectrally, and temporally resolved imaging. A CTIS performs poorly in imaging some types of scenes in particular, scenes that contain little spatial or spectral variation. The computed spectra of

  2. Learning to improve path planning performance

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Pang C.

    1995-04-01

    In robotics, path planning refers to finding a short. collision-free path from an initial robot configuration to a desired configuratioin. It has to be fast to support real-time task-level robot programming. Unfortunately, current planning techniques are still too slow to be effective, as they often require several minutes, if not hours of computation. To remedy this situation, we present and analyze a learning algorithm that uses past experience to increase future performance. The algorithm relies on an existing path planner to provide solutions to difficult tasks. From these solutions, an evolving sparse network of useful robot configurations is learned to support faster planning. More generally, the algorithm provides a speedup-learning framework in which a slow but capable planner may be improved both cost-wise and capability-wise by a faster but less capable planner coupled with experience. The basic algorithm is suitable for stationary environments, and can be extended to accommodate changing environments with on-demand experience repair and object-attached experience abstraction. To analyze the algorithm, we characterize the situations in which the adaptive planner is useful, provide quantitative bounds to predict its behavior, and confirm our theoretical results with experiments in path planning of manipulators. Our algorithm and analysis are sufficiently, general that they may also be applied to other planning domains in which experience is useful.

  3. Mechanical performance improvement of electroactive papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Seo, Yung B.; Jung, Eunmi

    2001-07-01

    Electro-Active Paper (EAPap) is a paper that produces large displacement with small force under electrical excitation. EAPap is made with a chemically treated paper by bonding thin aluminum foils on both sides of the paper to comprise electrodes. When electric voltage is applied on the electrodes the EAPap produces bending displacement. However, the displacement output has been unstable and degraded with time scale. To improve the bending performance of EAPap, different paper fibers-broad-leaf, needle-leaf, bacteria cellulose and Korean traditional paper, and additive chemicals are tested. It was observed that needle-leaf paper exhibits better results then others. By eliminating the effect of adhesive layer and selecting a proper paper fiber, the displacement output has been stable with long time scale. The operational principle of EAPap is, we believe, based on the electrostriction effect associated with intermolecular interaction of the constituents of the paper. To confirm this result, more investigation of the paper quality should be followed in the beginning of paper manufacturing process. Since EAPaps are quite simple to fabricate and lightweight, various applications including flexible speakers, active sound absorbing materials and smart shape control devices can be possible.

  4. Total Performance Development Systems: Blueprints for Building and Sustaining Organizational Excellence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schanie, Charles F.; Kemper, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Most "performance evaluation" or "performance development" programs in higher education today are little more than metrically-weak, bureaucratic programs aimed simply at establishing a legally-grounded employee record and a rough basis for merit increases. This article outlines the rationale and procedural framework for a talent development and…

  5. Trust that binds: the impact of collective felt trust on organizational performance.

    PubMed

    Salamon, Sabrina Deutsch; Robinson, Sandra L

    2008-05-01

    The impact of employees' collective perceptions of being trusted by management was examined with a longitudinal study involving 88 retail stores. Drawing on the appropriateness framework (March, 1994; Weber, Kopelman, & Messick, 2004), the authors develop and test a model showing that when employees in an organization perceive they are trusted by management, increases in the presence of responsibility norms, as well as in the sales performance and customer service performance of the organization, are observed. Moreover, the relationship between perceptions of being trusted and sales performance is fully mediated by responsibility norms. PMID:18457488

  6. Organizational climate and culture.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Benjamin; Ehrhart, Mark G; Macey, William H

    2013-01-01

    Organizational climate and organizational culture theory and research are reviewed. The article is first framed with definitions of the constructs, and preliminary thoughts on their interrelationships are noted. Organizational climate is briefly defined as the meanings people attach to interrelated bundles of experiences they have at work. Organizational culture is briefly defined as the basic assumptions about the world and the values that guide life in organizations. A brief history of climate research is presented, followed by the major accomplishments in research on the topic with regard to levels issues, the foci of climate research, and studies of climate strength. A brief overview of the more recent study of organizational culture is then introduced, followed by samples of important thinking and research on the roles of leadership and national culture in understanding organizational culture and performance and culture as a moderator variable in research in organizational behavior. The final section of the article proposes an integration of climate and culture thinking and research and concludes with practical implications for the management of effective contemporary organizations. Throughout, recommendations are made for additional thinking and research. PMID:22856467

  7. Achieving Performance Excellence in University Administration. A Team Approach to Organizational Change and Employee Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Manuel

    This book uses the experiences of a large state research university over the past 5 years to illustrate principles to improve administrative efficiency and manage change. In 12 chapters the book examines, provides lists, and gives examples of plans and strategies for dealing with matters such as: (1) change strategies; (2) leadership roles,…

  8. The Effectiveness of Ineffectiveness: A New Approach to Assessing Patterns of Organizational Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Kim S.

    A way to assess and improve organizational effectiveness is discussed, with a focus on factors that inhibit successful organizational performance. The basic assumption is that it is easier, more accurate, and more beneficial for individuals and organizations to identify criteria of ineffectiveness (faults and weaknesses) than to identify criteria…

  9. Professional Development through Organizational Assessment: Using APPA's Facilities Management Evaluation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medlin, E. Lander; Judd, R. Holly

    2013-01-01

    APPA's Facilities Management Evaluation Program (FMEP) provides an integrated system to optimize organizational performance. The criteria for evaluation not only provide a tool for organizational continuous improvement, they serve as a compelling leadership development tool essential for today's facilities management professional. The senior…

  10. Organizational Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Helping principals understand the importance of organizational justice is the first step in enhancing learning outcomes for all learners, regardless of their social class, race, abilities, sex, or gender. In schools, organizational justice may be defined as teachers' perceptions of fairness, respect, and equity that relate to their…

  11. Improving temporal coherence to enhance gain and improve detection performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagstaff, Ronald A.; Rice, Heath E.

    2008-04-01

    Temporal coherence is an important property of many acoustic signals. This paper discusses two fluctuation-based signal processors that improve the temporal coherence of phase and amplitude. Then they exploit the improved coherences to achieve substantial gains, such as, elimination of all noise to achieve exceptionally large "noise-free" automatic detections of temporally coherent signals. Both processors are discussed. One exploits phase fluctuations and the other one exploits amplitude fluctuations. The exploited parameters and signal processors are defined. Results are presented for automatic signal detection of a heavy treaded / tracked vehicle, a helicopter, a fast-boat in shallow coastal water, and a submerged source in the ocean.

  12. The Cyclical Effect of Expatriate Satisfaction on Organizational Performance: The Role of Firm International Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Meredith; Thomas, Anisya S.; McLarney, Carolan

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of responses from 132 expatriates in Fortune 500 companies showed a direct positive relationship between their job satisfaction and the organization's performance. The relationship varies depending on the company's level of experience in a country and degree of internationalization. Expatriates' sharing of their learning experiences…

  13. National Cultures, Performance Appraisal Practices, and Organizational Absenteeism and Turnover: A Study across 21 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peretz, Hilla; Fried, Yitzhak

    2012-01-01

    Performance appraisal (PA) is a key human resource activity in organizations. However, in this global economy, we know little about how societal cultures affect PA practices. In this study, we address this gap by focusing on 2 complementary issues: (a) the influence of societal (national) cultural practices on PA practices adopted by organizations…

  14. The Role of Organizational Insiders' Developmental Feedback and Proactive Personality on Newcomers' Performance: An Interactionist Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ning; Harris, T. Brad; Boswell, Wendy R.; Xie, Zhitao

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from an interactionist approach and feedback research, we examine the role of developmental feedback and proactive personality on newcomer task performance and helping behavior. Data were collected from 2 high-tech joint-ventures within the information technology and manufacturing industries located in Shanghai, China. Results based on 151…

  15. Improving File System Performance by Striping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Terance L.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This document discusses the performance and advantages of striped file systems on the SGI AD workstations. Performance of several striped file system configurations are compared and guidelines for optimal striping are recommended.

  16. Performance Improvement--A People Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Jim; Stow, Shirley

    1981-01-01

    Describes components of the Administrator Performance Evaluation and Teacher Performance Evaluation (APE/TPE) system and delineates the functions and responsibilities of the subcommittees necessary for carrying out the program. (JD)

  17. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    DOEpatents

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J

    2013-07-30

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  18. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    DOEpatents

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J.

    2012-12-25

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  19. Improvement in aircraft performance reduces operating costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    The escalation of jet transport fuel prices has altered traditional economic formulas for commercial airplane operators. This economic change has provided the impetus to develop improvements for existing production run transports such as the Boeing 727, 737, and 747 airplanes. Improvements have been made in drag reduction, propulsion system, weight reduction, and operation.

  20. Football to Improve Math and Reading Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Klaveren, Chris; De Witte, Kristof

    2015-01-01

    Schools frequently increase the instructional time to improve primary school children's math and reading skills. There is, however, little evidence that math and reading skills are effectively improved by these instruction-time increases. This study evaluates "Playing for Success" (PfS), an extended school day program for underachieving…

  1. The role of organizational insiders' developmental feedback and proactive personality on newcomers' performance: an interactionist perspective.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Harris, T Brad; Boswell, Wendy R; Xie, Zhitao

    2011-11-01

    Drawing from an interactionist approach and feedback research, we examine the role of developmental feedback and proactive personality on newcomer task performance and helping behavior. Data were collected from 2 high-tech joint-ventures within the information technology and manufacturing industries located in Shanghai, China. Results based on 151 newcomer-manager dyads showed that supervisor developmental feedback (SDF) positively related to newcomer helping behavior and that SDF and coworker developmental feedback interactively predicted newcomer task performance. We also found differential moderating effects of proactive personality: SDF more strongly related to helping behavior when proactive personality was lower; conversely, coworker developmental feedback more strongly related to helping behavior when proactive personality was higher. PMID:21688879

  2. Measuring collections effort improves cash performance.

    PubMed

    Shutts, Joe

    2009-09-01

    Having a satisfied work force can lead to an improved collections effort. Hiring the right people and training them ensures employee engagement. Measuring collections effort and offering incentives is key to revenue cycle success. PMID:19743655

  3. Can visual arts training improve physician performance?

    PubMed

    Katz, Joel T; Khoshbin, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Clinical educators use medical humanities as a means to improve patient care by training more self-aware, thoughtful, and collaborative physicians. We present three examples of integrating fine arts - a subset of medical humanities - into the preclinical and clinical training as models that can be adapted to other medical environments to address a wide variety of perceived deficiencies. This novel teaching method has promise to improve physician skills, but requires further validation. PMID:25125749

  4. Can Visual Arts Training Improve Physician Performance?

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joel T.; Khoshbin, Shahram

    2014-01-01

    Clinical educators use medical humanities as a means to improve patient care by training more self-aware, thoughtful, and collaborative physicians. We present three examples of integrating fine arts — a subset of medical humanities — into the preclinical and clinical training as models that can be adapted to other medical environments to address a wide variety of perceived deficiencies. This novel teaching method has promise to improve physician skills, but requires further validation. PMID:25125749

  5. Improving Performance Of Industrial Enterprises With CGT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolgih, I. N.; Bannova, К A.; Kuzmina, N. A.; Zdanova, A. B.

    2016-04-01

    At the present day, a falling in the overall level of efficiency production activities, especially in the machine-building companies makes it necessary to development various actions in the State support, including through the creation consolidated taxation system. Such support will help improve efficiency of activity not only the industrial companies, but also will allow improve economic and social situation in regions where often large engineering factories is city-forming.

  6. How Boards Can Improve Teacher Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grande, Alexander

    Effective school board leadership based on involvement and example can effectively enhance teacher performance. The first of five strategies presented to encourage maximum performance is the "Science of Teaching Program," allowing staff members, in a six-day seminar format, the opportunity to be exposed to a framework for making wise professional…

  7. Using Performance Task Data to Improve Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Amy L.; Wren, Douglas G.

    2016-01-01

    Two well-accepted ideas among educators are (a) performance assessment is an effective means of assessing higher-order thinking skills and (b) data-driven instruction planning is a valuable tool for optimizing student learning. This article describes a locally developed performance task (LDPT) designed to measure critical thinking, problem…

  8. Improving the Academic Performance of Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Rosemary

    1986-01-01

    The new higher standards required of entering collegiate athletes will not immediately create change in the performance and attitudes of student athletes. Academic performance of student athletes can be enhanced through the development of a comprehensive program fusing the relationship between athletics and academics. (MD)

  9. How Six Sigma Methodology Improved Doctors' Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zafiropoulos, George

    2015-01-01

    Six Sigma methodology was used in a District General Hospital to assess the effect of the introduction of an educational programme to limit unnecessary admissions. The performance of the doctors involved in the programme was assessed. Ishikawa Fishbone and 5 S's were initially used and Pareto analysis of their findings was performed. The results…

  10. BMI, a Performance Parameter for Speed Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Sedeaud, Adrien; Marc, Andy; Marck, Adrien; Dor, Frédéric; Schipman, Julien; Dorsey, Maya; Haida, Amal; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between anthropometric characteristics and performance in all track and field running events and assess Body Mass Index (BMI) as a relevant performance indicator. Data of mass, height, BMI and speed were collected for the top 100 international men athletes in track events from 100 m to marathon for the 1996–2011 seasons, and analyzed by decile of performance. Speed is significantly associated with mass (r = 0.71) and BMI (r = 0.71) in world-class runners and moderately with height (r = 0.39). Athletes, on average were continuously lighter and smaller with distance increments. In track and field, speed continuously increases with BMI. In each event, performances are organized through physique gradients. «Lighter and smaller is better» in endurance events but «heavier and taller is better» for sprints. When performance increases, BMI variability progressively tightens, but it is always centered around a distance-specific optimum. Running speed is organized through biometric gradients, which both drives and are driven by performance optimization. The highest performance level is associated with narrower biometric intervals. Through BMI indicators, diversity is possible for sprints whereas for long distance events, there is a more restrictive aspect in terms of physique. BMI is a relevant indicator, which allows for a clear differentiation of athletes' capacities between each discipline and level of performance in the fields of human possibilities. PMID:24587266

  11. Improving Student Performance Using Nudge Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feild, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Providing students with continuous and personalized feedback on their performance is an important part of encouraging self regulated learning. As part of our higher education platform, we built a set of data visualizations to provide feedback to students on their assignment performance. These visualizations give students information about how they…

  12. Reengineering business processes in government: A framework for performance improvement interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, J.C.; Levine, L.O.; Carson, M.L.

    1995-02-01

    The world is changing quickly, and government agencies have difficulty adapting. One reason is that they are based on a bureaucratic model derived from the industrial mass production era. While this model provides organizational benefits, such as stability and clear lines of authority, it also minimizes flexibility and diversity in service delivery. While the private sector has moved away from this model, the public sector remains wedded to a top-down, standardized service delivery system. Dissatisfaction with the traditional model of government is rampant. Constituencies are demanding that government agencies consume less and provide more. There is tremendous pressure on government at all levels in the United States to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of government services and programs. Improving government agency performance is far more complex than simply reinventing or reengineering the agency for these efforts are likely to fail in procedural and copying agencies. The framework and decision process described in this paper should be used to prevent the high failure rates associated with blanket approaches to reengineering and reinventing. The best opportunities for change at the federal level are probably with agencies that have been mandated a change in mission. These agencies will tend to have a clearer sense of the need for change and have a greater sense of urgency regarding adopting a new way of conducting business. Also, for a higher rate of success, internal or external consultants may be utilized to avoid simplistic or faddish solutions when the real problems may be due to complex organizational behavior.

  13. Effect of Knowledge Management on Organizational Performance: Enabling Thought Leadership and Social Capital through Technology Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalhoub, Michel S.

    The present paper studies the relationship between social networks enabled by technological advances in social software, and overall business performance. With the booming popularity of online communication and the rise of knowledge communities, businesses are faced with a challenge as well as an opportunity - should they monitor the use of social software or encourage it and learn from it? We introduce the concept of user-autonomy and user-fun, which go beyond the traditional user-friendly requirement of existing information technologies. We identified 120 entities out of a sample of 164 from Mediterranean countries and the Gulf region, to focus on the effect of social exchange information systems in thought leadership.

  14. Are Performance Improvement Professionals Measurably Improving Performance? What "PIJ" and "PIQ" Have to Say about the Current Use of Evaluation and Measurement in the Field of Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerra-Lopez, Ingrid; Leigh, Hillary N.

    2009-01-01

    Measurement and evaluation are at the core of reliably improving performance. It is through these central mechanisms that performance improvement professionals are able to demonstrate the true worth of their efforts. However, the true value of the contributions they make is inconclusive. This article presents a content analysis of 10 years' worth…

  15. Partnering through Training and Practice to Achieve Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a partnership effort among managers, trainers, and employees to spring to life performance improvement using the performance templates (P-T) approach. P-T represents a process model as well as a method of training leading to performance improvement. Not only does it add to our repertoire of training and performance management…

  16. Performance Improvement/HPT Model: Guiding the Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessinger, Joan Conway; Moseley, James L.; Van Tiem, Darlene M.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary is part of an ongoing dialogue that began in the October 2011 special issue of "Performance Improvement"--Exploring a Universal Performance Model for HPT: Notes From the Field. The performance improvement/HPT (human performance technology) model represents a unifying process that helps accomplish successful change, create…

  17. Industry activities to improve valve performance

    SciTech Connect

    Callaway, C.

    1996-12-01

    Motor-operated valve issues refuse to go away. For over a decade the industry and the NRC have been focusing extraordinary resources on assuring these special components operate when called upon. Now that industry has fixed the design deficiencies, it is focusing on assuring that they perform their safety function within the current licensing basis for the remainder of plant life. NEI supported the efforts by ASME to develop OMN-1 and was encouraged that the industry and the NRC worked together to develop risk and performance based approaches to maintain MOV performance.

  18. Simulation: translation to improved team performance.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Elizabeth A; Shilkofski, Nicole A; Stavroudis, Theodora A; Nelson, Kristen L

    2007-06-01

    Traditional medical education has emphasized autonomy, and until recently issues related to teamwork have not been explicitly included in medical curriculum. The Institute of Medicine highlighted that health care providers train as individuals, yet function as teams, creating a gap between training and reality and called for the use of medical simulation to improve teamwork. The aviation industry created a program called Cockpit and later Crew Resource Management that has served as a model for team training programs in medicine. This article reviews important concepts related to teamwork and discusses examples where simulation either could be or has been used to improve teamwork in medical disciplines to enhance patient safety. PMID:17574192

  19. Improving Performance of the System Safety Function at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiessling, Ed; Tippett, Donald D.; Shivers, Herb

    2004-01-01

    The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) determined that organizational and management issues were significant contributors to the loss of Space Shuttle Columbia. In addition, the CAIB observed similarities between the organizational and management climate that preceded the Challenger accident and the climate that preceded the Columbia accident. To prevent recurrence of adverse organizational and management climates, effective implementation of the system safety function is suggested. Attributes of an effective system safety program are presented. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) system safety program is analyzed using the attributes. Conclusions and recommendations for improving the MSFC system safety program are offered in this case study.

  20. Improving Work Life Through Effective Performance Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duemer, Walter C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The study suggests that the quality of life at work can be enhanced through effective performance planning by employees and that this planning can also reduce the amount of job-related stress employees experience. (Author/IRT)

  1. AQIP and Accreditation: Improving Quality and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangehl, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    For the past 12 years, the Academic Quality Improvement Program (AQIP) has offered an innovative means for colleges and universities to maintain regional accreditation with the Higher Learning Commission (HLC), the only regional U.S. accrediting commission currently providing alternative pathways for maintaining accreditation. Although all HLC…

  2. Improving the Classroom Performance of Army Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melching, William H.; Larson, Susan M.

    Using "A Model of the Functions of Master Instructor" (HumRRO-TR-73-23) as a guide, procedures and materials for training Army instructors to improve their classroom effectiveness were developed. In constructing the model, various materials on instructor characteristics and responsibilities in four main areas (training programs, classroom…

  3. Traditional Labs + New Questions = Improved Student Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezba, Richard J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents three typical lab activities involving the breathing rate of fish, the behavior of electromagnets, and tests for water hardness to demonstrate how labs can be modified to teach process skills. Discusses how basic concepts about experimentation are developed and ways of generating and improving science experiments. Includes a laboratory…

  4. Who has the D? How clear decision roles enhance organizational performance.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Paul; Blenko, Marcia

    2006-01-01

    Decisions are the coin of the realm in business. But even in highly respected companies, decisions can get stuck inside the organization like loose change. As a result, the entire decision-making process can stall, usually at one of four bottlenecks: global versus local, center versus business unit, function versus function, and inside versus outside partners. Decision-making bottlenecks can occur whenever there is ambiguity or tension over who gets to decide what. For example, do marketers or product developers get to decide the features of a new product? Should a major capital investment depend on the approval of the business unit that will own it, or should headquarters make the final call? Which decisions can be delegated to an outsourcing partner, and which must be made internally? Bain consultants Paul Rogers and Marcia Blenko use an approach called RAPID (recommend, agree, perform, input, and decide) to help companies unclog their decision-making bottlenecks by explicitly defining roles and responsibilities. For example, British American Tobacco struck a new balance between global and local decision making to take advantage of the company's scale while maintaining its agility in local markets. At Wyeth Pharmaceuticals, a growth opportunity revealed the need to push more decisions down to the business units. And at the UK department-store chain John Lewis, buyers and sales staff clarified their decision roles in order to implement a new strategy for selling its salt and pepper mills. When revamping its decision-making process, a company must take some practical steps: Align decision roles with the most important sources of value, make sure that decisions are made by the right people at the right levels of the organization, and let the people who will live with the new process help design it. PMID:16447369

  5. Why does interactional justice promote organizational loyalty, job performance, and prevent mental impairment? The role of social support and social stressors.

    PubMed

    Otto, Kathleen; Mamatoglu, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    Using social exchange theory as a conceptual framework, we investigated the relationship between interactional justice and the outcomes organizational loyalty (affective commitment, turnover intentions), perceived job performance (self-rated performance, personal accomplishment), and mental impairment (cognitive irritation, emotional exhaustion) in an online survey of 218 employees working in the field of computer technology. Specifically, we predicted that interactional justice would heighten the quality of social exchange relationships and therefore expected perceived social support (POS) and bullying to mediate the proposed relationships. We tested our hypotheses applying a latent structural equation model. Our findings revealed that POS mediated the relationship between interactional justice and organizational loyalty, whereas bullying mediated the relationship between interactional justice and mental impairment. Practical implications are discussed concerning how to foster interactional justice and POS and how to weaken bullying behavior. PMID:25511205

  6. A longitudinal study of an intervention to improve road safety climate: climate as an organizational boundary spanner.

    PubMed

    Naveh, Eitan; Katz-Navon, Tal

    2015-01-01

    This study presents and tests an intervention to enhance organizational climate and expands existing conceptualization of organizational climate to include its influence on employee behaviors outside the organization's physical boundaries. In addition, by integrating the literatures of climate and work-family interface, the study explored climate spillover and crossover from work to the home domain. Focusing on an applied practical problem within organizations, we investigated the example of road safety climate and employees' and their families' driving, using a longitudinal study design of road safety intervention versus control groups. Results demonstrated that the intervention increased road safety climate and decreased the number of traffic violation tickets and that road safety climate mediated the relationship between the intervention and the number of traffic violation tickets. Road safety climate spilled over to the family domain but did not cross over to influence family members' driving. PMID:25133303

  7. Performance improvement in the management of sepsis.

    PubMed

    Schorr, Christa

    2011-03-01

    Sepsis guidelines, although creating a base to allow change in health care practitioner behavior, do not, in and of themselves, effect change. Change only comes with institution of a PI program, converting a core of key goals of guideline recommendations to quality indicators, and giving feedback on performance. These quality indicators are tracked before or during (recommended approach) initiation of hospital-wide education to evaluate baseline performance. When combining multispecialty and multidisciplinary champions in the ED, hospital wards, ICU, and hospital administrative leadership with timely performance feedback, case failure analysis, and re-education, an opportunity to succeed in decreasing mortality in severe sepsis can be achieved. Sepsis bundle indicators require updating as new evidence emerges and new guidelines are published.(30,31) PMID:21316576

  8. Dense loading of catalyst improves hydrotreater performance

    SciTech Connect

    Nooy, F.M.

    1984-11-12

    This paper discusses the advantages of increased capacity and improved catalyst/oil contact in existing hydrotreating units. The similarities between catalyst loading and other material processes are reviewed. Catalyst bed activity is examined. Dense loading systems are reviewed in detail. Over the last years, many refiners have gained experience with the benefits of dense loading techniques, and these techniques are gaining more and more acceptance.

  9. Improving Spelling Performance and Spelling Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordewener, Kim A. H.; Verhoeven, Ludo; Bosman, Anna M. T.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the immediate and sustained effects of three training conditions on both spelling performance and spelling consciousness of 72 third-grade low- and high-skilled spellers. Spellers were assigned to a strategy-instruction, self-correction, or no-correction condition. The role of spelling ability and word characteristic were also…

  10. Does Musical Training Improve School Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetter, Olive Emil; Koerner, Fritz; Schwaninger, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    In a retrospective study, we compared school performance of 53 children practicing music (group 1) with 67 controls not practicing music (group 2). Overall average marks as well as average marks of all school subjects except sports were significantly higher in children who do (group 1) than in those who do not practice music (group 2). In a…

  11. Does Negotiation Training Improve Negotiators' Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ElShenawy, Eman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper's objective is to test the main effect of negotiation training-level on acquiring negotiation skills. Training level refers to the time a trainee spends in a negotiation training course receiving the standard style and methods of training. Negotiation skills are manifested through trainees' performance after receiving training.…

  12. Using Collateral Material To Improve Writing Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Monica E.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the extent to which the provision of selected collateral material can enhance students' enjoyment of their writing tasks, and their performance in a context where although English is the official language, it is little used and much resisted by students for whom the language of choice for social interaction is the local Creole.…

  13. Tools for Measuring and Improving Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurow, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains the need for meaningful performance measures in libraries and the Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to data collection. Five tools representing different stages of a TQM inquiry are covered (i.e., the Shewhart Cycle, flowcharts, cause-and-effect diagrams, Pareto charts, and control charts), and benchmarking is addressed. (Contains…

  14. Improving Student Academic Performance through Antibias Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harte-Weiner, Philene

    2013-01-01

    The quantitative study contained herein was conducted to determine if there is a relationship between antibias education (ABE) and student performance on state standardized tests in a South Florida school district. In many districts, raising test scores has become priority with some schools even changing their curriculum so that teachers teach…

  15. Improving Student Performance through Parent Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steventon, Candace E.

    A personalized parenting program was implemented to address poor academic performance and low self-esteem of high school students. Student records, the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, the Behavior Evaluation Scale, and teacher surveys were employed to identify and measure academic and/or self-perception growth. Parents participated in an 8-week…

  16. Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry, Second Edition

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-23

    This sourcebook is designed to provide steam system users with a reference that describes the basic steam system components, outlines opportunities for energy and performance improvements, and discusses the benefits of a systems approach in identifying and implementing these improvement opportunities. The sourcebook is divided into three main sections: steam system basics, performance improvement opportunities, and where to find help.

  17. Improving fatigue performance of rail thermite welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jezzini-Aouad, M.; Flahaut, P.; Hariri, S.; Winiar, L.

    2010-06-01

    Rail transport development offers economic and ecological interests. Nevertheless, it requires heavy investments in rolling material and infrastructure. To be competitive, this transportation means must rely on safe and reliable infrastructure, which requires optimization of all implemented techniques and structure. Rail thermite (or aluminothermic) welding is widely used within the railway industry for in-track welding during re-rail and defect replacement. The process provides numerous advantages against other welding technology commonly used. Obviously, future demands on train traffic are heavier axle loads, higher train speeds and increased traffic density. Thus, a new enhanced weld should be developed to prevent accidents due to fracture of welds and to lower maintenance costs. In order to improve such assembly process, a detailed metallurgical study coupled to a thermomechanical modelling of the phenomena involved in the thermite welding process is carried out. Obtained data enables us to develop a new improved thermite weld (type A). This joint is made by modifying the routinely specified procedure (type B) used in a railway rail by a standard gap alumino-thermic weld. Joints of type A and B are tested and compared. Based on experimental temperature measurements, a finite element analysis is used to calculate the thermal residual stresses induced. In the vicinity of the weld, the residual stress patterns depend on the thermal conditions during welding as it also shown by litterature [1, 2]. In parallel, X-Ray diffraction has been used to map the residual stress field that is generated in welded rail of types A and B. Their effect on fatigue crack growth in rail welds is studied. An experimental study based on fatigue tests of rails welded by conventional and improved processes adjudicates on the new advances and results will be shown.

  18. Apply the fundamentals to improve emissions performance

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, S.K.; Storm, D.S.; McClellan, A.C.; Storm, R.F.; Mulligan, J.

    2006-10-15

    The O & M staff of AES Westover Station in Johnson City, New York wisely took a holistic approach to optimizing combustion within Unit 8's boiler in order to reduce its NOx emissions while maintaining acceptable levels of carbon-in-ash content. The results of major modifications, centered on the addition of a fan boosted overfire air system, were a 60% reduction in NOx levels, improved unit reliability, and a project payback period measured in months rather than years. As this project proved, the whole is more than the sum of its parts. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Diversity improves performance in excitable networks

    PubMed Central

    Copelli, Mauro; Roberts, James A.

    2016-01-01

    As few real systems comprise indistinguishable units, diversity is a hallmark of nature. Diversity among interacting units shapes properties of collective behavior such as synchronization and information transmission. However, the benefits of diversity on information processing at the edge of a phase transition, ordinarily assumed to emerge from identical elements, remain largely unexplored. Analyzing a general model of excitable systems with heterogeneous excitability, we find that diversity can greatly enhance optimal performance (by two orders of magnitude) when distinguishing incoming inputs. Heterogeneous systems possess a subset of specialized elements whose capability greatly exceeds that of the nonspecialized elements. We also find that diversity can yield multiple percolation, with performance optimized at tricriticality. Our results are robust in specific and more realistic neuronal systems comprising a combination of excitatory and inhibitory units, and indicate that diversity-induced amplification can be harnessed by neuronal systems for evaluating stimulus intensities. PMID:27168961

  20. Brush Seals for Improved Steam Turbine Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnquist, Norman; Chupp, Ray; Baily, Fred; Burnett, Mark; Rivas, Flor; Bowsher, Aaron; Crudgington, Peter

    2006-01-01

    GE Energy has retrofitted brush seals into more than 19 operating steam turbines. Brush seals offer superior leakage control compared to labyrinth seals, owing to their compliant nature and ability to maintain very tight clearances to the rotating shaft. Seal designs have been established for steam turbines ranging in size from 12 MW to over 1200 MW, including fossil, nuclear, combined-cycle and industrial applications. Steam turbines present unique design challenges that must be addressed to ensure that the potential performance benefits of brush seals are realized. Brush seals can have important effects on the overall turbine system that must be taken into account to assure reliable operation. Subscale rig tests are instrumental to understanding seal behavior under simulated steam-turbine operating conditions, prior to installing brush seals in the field. This presentation discusses the technical challenges of designing brush seals for steam turbines; subscale testing; performance benefits of brush seals; overall system effects; and field applications.

  1. Efficacy of a Template Creation Approach for Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the training and performance improvement approach, performance templates (P-T), and provides empirical evidence to support the efficacy of P-T. This approach involves a partnership among managers, trainers, and employees in the creation, use, and improvement of guides to affect the performance of critical tasks in the…

  2. Algorithms for improved performance in cryptographic protocols.

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Beaver, Cheryl Lynn

    2003-11-01

    Public key cryptographic algorithms provide data authentication and non-repudiation for electronic transmissions. The mathematical nature of the algorithms, however, means they require a significant amount of computation, and encrypted messages and digital signatures possess high bandwidth. Accordingly, there are many environments (e.g. wireless, ad-hoc, remote sensing networks) where public-key requirements are prohibitive and cannot be used. The use of elliptic curves in public-key computations has provided a means by which computations and bandwidth can be somewhat reduced. We report here on the research conducted in an LDRD aimed to find even more efficient algorithms and to make public-key cryptography available to a wider range of computing environments. We improved upon several algorithms, including one for which a patent has been applied. Further we discovered some new problems and relations on which future cryptographic algorithms may be based.

  3. Hybrid Modeling Improves Health and Performance Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Scientific Monitoring Inc. was awarded a Phase I Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) project by NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center to create a new, simplified health-monitoring approach for flight vehicles and flight equipment. The project developed a hybrid physical model concept that provided a structured approach to simplifying complex design models for use in health monitoring, allowing the output or performance of the equipment to be compared to what the design models predicted, so that deterioration or impending failure could be detected before there would be an impact on the equipment's operational capability. Based on the original modeling technology, Scientific Monitoring released I-Trend, a commercial health- and performance-monitoring software product named for its intelligent trending, diagnostics, and prognostics capabilities, as part of the company's complete ICEMS (Intelligent Condition-based Equipment Management System) suite of monitoring and advanced alerting software. I-Trend uses the hybrid physical model to better characterize the nature of health or performance alarms that result in "no fault found" false alarms. Additionally, the use of physical principles helps I-Trend identify problems sooner. I-Trend technology is currently in use in several commercial aviation programs, and the U.S. Air Force recently tapped Scientific Monitoring to develop next-generation engine health-management software for monitoring its fleet of jet engines. Scientific Monitoring has continued the original NASA work, this time under a Phase III SBIR contract with a joint NASA-Pratt & Whitney aviation security program on propulsion-controlled aircraft under missile-damaged aircraft conditions.

  4. Improving Robotic Operator Performance Using Augmented Reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maida, James C.; Bowen, Charles K.; Pace, John W.

    2007-01-01

    The Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator (SPDM) is a two-armed robot that functions as an extension to the end effector of the Space Station Robotics Manipulator System (SSRMS), currently in use on the International Space Station (ISS). Crew training for the SPDM is accomplished using a robotic hardware simulator, which performs most of SPDM functions under normal static Earth gravitational forces. Both the simulator and SPDM are controlled from a standard robotic workstation using a laptop for the user interface and three monitors for camera views. Most operations anticipated for the SPDM involve the manipulation, insertion, and removal of any of several types of Orbital Replaceable Unit (ORU), modules which control various ISS functions. Alignment tolerances for insertion of the ORU into its receptacle are 0.25 inch and 0.5 degree from nominal values. The pre-insertion alignment task must be performed within these tolerances by using available video camera views of the intrinsic features of the ORU and receptacle, without special registration markings. Since optimum camera views may not be available, and dynamic orbital lighting conditions may limit periods of viewing, a successful ORU insertion operation may require an extended period of time. This study explored the feasibility of using augmented reality (AR) to assist SPDM operations. Geometric graphical symbols were overlaid on one of the workstation monitors to afford cues to assist the operator in attaining adequate pre-insertion ORU alignment. Twelve skilled subjects performed eight ORU insertion tasks using the simulator with and without the AR symbols in a repeated measures experimental design. Results indicated that using the AR symbols reduced pre-insertion alignment error for all subjects and reduced the time to complete pre-insertion alignment for most subjects.

  5. Steel Foil Improves Performance Of Blasting Caps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, Laurence J.; Perry, Ronnie; Schimmel, Morry L.

    1990-01-01

    Blasting caps, which commonly include deep-drawn aluminum cups, give significantly higher initiation performance by application of steel foils on output faces. Steel closures 0.005 in. (0.13 mm) thick more effective than aluminum. Caps with directly bonded steel foil produce fragment velocities of 9,300 ft/s (2.8 km/s) with large craters and unpredictable patterns to such degree that no attempts made to initiate explosions. Useful in military and aerospace applications and in specialized industries as mining and exploration for oil.

  6. Improved methods of performing coherent optical correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Husain-Abidi, A. S.

    1972-01-01

    Coherent optical correlators are described in which complex spatial filters are recorded by a quasi-Fourier transform method. The high-pass spatial filtering effects (due to the dynamic range of photographic films) normally encountered in Vander Lugt type complex filters are not present in this system. Experimental results for both transmittive as well as reflective objects are presented. Experiments are also performed by illuminating the object with diffused light. A correlator using paraboloidal mirror segments as the Fourier-transforming element is also described.

  7. Measuring edge importance to improve immunization performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, He; Yan, Zhijun; Pan, Yaohui

    2014-12-01

    The edge heterogeneity has a remarkable influence on disease spreading, but it has seldom been considered in the disease-controlling policies. Based on the gravity model, we propose the edge importance index to describe the influence of edge heterogeneity on immunization strategies. Then the edge importance and contact weight are combined to calculate the infection rates on the I-S (Infected-Susceptible) edges in the complex network, and the difference of the infection rates on strong and weak ties is analyzed. Simulation results show that edge heterogeneity has a significant influence on the performance of immunization strategies, and better immunization efficiency is derived when the vaccination rate of the nodes in the weak I-S edges is increased.

  8. Improved Stirling engine performance using jet impingement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. C.; Britt, E. J.; Thieme, L. G.

    1982-01-01

    Of the many factors influencing the performance of a Stirling engine, that of transferring the combustion gas heat into the working fluid is crucial. By utilizing the high heat transfer rates obtainable with a jet impingement heat transfer system, it is possible to reduce the flame temperature required for engine operation. Also, the required amount of heater tube surface area may be reduced, resulting in a decrease in the engine nonswept volume and a related increase in engine efficiency. A jet impingement heat transfer system was designed by Rasor Associates, Inc., and tested in the GPU-3 Stirling engine at the NASA Lewis Research Center. For a small penalty in pumping power (less than 0.5% of engine output) the jet impingement heat transfer system provided a higher combustion-gas-side heat transfer coefficient and a smoothing of heater temperature profiles resulting in lower combustion system temperatures and a 5 to 8% increase in engine power output and efficiency.

  9. Improving neural network performance on SIMD architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limonova, Elena; Ilin, Dmitry; Nikolaev, Dmitry

    2015-12-01

    Neural network calculations for the image recognition problems can be very time consuming. In this paper we propose three methods of increasing neural network performance on SIMD architectures. The usage of SIMD extensions is a way to speed up neural network processing available for a number of modern CPUs. In our experiments, we use ARM NEON as SIMD architecture example. The first method deals with half float data type for matrix computations. The second method describes fixed-point data type for the same purpose. The third method considers vectorized activation functions implementation. For each method we set up a series of experiments for convolutional and fully connected networks designed for image recognition task.

  10. Space Shuttle status and performance improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, L. E.

    1982-01-01

    Following nearly a decade of studies and development, the Space Shuttle is beginning its flight test phase. This paper reviews the status of the program, and preparations of the space vehicle and facilities for flight. The launch preparations, including conduct of the Mission Verification Test, which comprises a Flight Readiness Firing prior to the actual launch, is discussed. This simulation was designed to test the readiness of the complete organization and all ground and flight equipment for commitment to the first manned orbital flight. The plan of the orbital flight program is outlined indicating how each succeeding flight is made more complex and severe to incrementally test the Space Shuttle. Completion of this four flight program readies the Space Shuttle for operations in late 1982. Payload performance to orbit is increased as the program progresses through the development flights and on into operations.

  11. Improving UV Resistance of High Performance Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanin, Ahmed

    High performance fibers are characterized by their superior properties compared to the traditional textile fibers. High strength fibers have high modules, high strength to weight ratio, high chemical resistance, and usually high temperature resistance. It is used in application where superior properties are needed such as bulletproof vests, ropes and cables, cut resistant products, load tendons for giant scientific balloons, fishing rods, tennis racket strings, parachute cords, adhesives and sealants, protective apparel and tire cords. Unfortunately, Ultraviolet (UV) radiation causes serious degradation to the most of high performance fibers. UV lights, either natural or artificial, cause organic compounds to decompose and degrade, because the energy of the photons of UV light is high enough to break chemical bonds causing chain scission. This work is aiming at achieving maximum protection of high performance fibers using sheathing approaches. The sheaths proposed are of lightweight to maintain the advantage of the high performance fiber that is the high strength to weight ratio. This study involves developing three different types of sheathing. The product of interest that need be protected from UV is braid from PBO. First approach is extruding a sheath from Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) loaded with different rutile TiO2 % nanoparticles around the braid from the PBO. The results of this approach showed that LDPE sheath loaded with 10% TiO2 by weight achieved the highest protection compare to 0% and 5% TiO2. The protection here is judged by strength loss of PBO. This trend noticed in different weathering environments, where the sheathed samples were exposed to UV-VIS radiations in different weatheromter equipments as well as exposure to high altitude environment using NASA BRDL balloon. The second approach is focusing in developing a protective porous membrane from polyurethane loaded with rutile TiO2 nanoparticles. Membrane from polyurethane loaded with 4

  12. Experience and Operational Improvements, Mixer Pump Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Erian, Fadel F.; Mullen, O Dennis; Kellogg, Michael I.

    2002-03-20

    Millions of gallons of radioactive waste are stored in large underground tanks at DOE sites. The waste is made up of settled solids, in sludge form, at the bottom of the tank and a layer of supernatant liquid on top of it. It is necessary to mix the solids in the sludge layer with the supernatant liquid to facilitate their removal from the storage tanks for remediation. Our goal is to improve the mobilization of the settled solids by optimizing mixing with the supernatant liquid and preserving the mobility of the solids. This report investigates whether time-phase separation between pump head oscillations affects overall sludge mobilization. If a mixing jet from one pump happens to follow temporarily the path of the lead mixing jet, it may be possible to prevent or slow down the resettling of the heavy solid particles, maintaining them in suspension. If a retrieval pump were operating at the same time, it could facilitate removal of such particles. Preliminary experiments were carried out to observe whether time-phase separation has some influence on the overall mobilization. A brief account is presented of the successful mobilization and removal of most of the radioactive waste from Tank D8-2 at the West Valley Demonstration Project using time-phase separation techniques.

  13. Measuring performance: a strategy to improve programs.

    PubMed

    Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Pillai, Gita

    2002-04-01

    This article stresses the importance of evaluation as a tool for improving the design and implementation of effective programs to reduce iron deficiency anemia and to advocate for their continued and increased support. Current concepts in program evaluation are applied to the specific issues relevant to iron programs. Evaluations should be designed to meet the needs of specific audiences (e.g., community members, program implementers, policymakers, donors and researchers) and to answer specific questions. Evaluations might answer questions about provision, coverage or impact. The choice of indicators for evaluating impact of iron programs is discussed and illustrated with recent examples. Evaluation design can be broadly categorized as monitoring, plausibility evaluations and probability evaluations. These designs differ in cost and also in the strength of evidence that they provide; however, each has appropriate uses. It is important to document program costs in the evaluation process as policymakers and donors weight impact against costs. To be useful, evaluation findings must be disseminated, usually to multiple audiences. This requires allocation of time and resources and attention to the needs of various stakeholders. PMID:11925494

  14. IMPROVING THE ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF RESIDENTIAL CLOTHESDRYERS

    SciTech Connect

    Hekmat, D.; Fisk, W.J.

    1984-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate four techniques to improve the energy efficiency of electrically-heated domestic clothes dryers. Reduced air flow rate and heater input led to energy savings around 8%, while recirculation of a portion of the exhaust air back into the clothes dryer reduced energy consumption by approximately 18%. These two measures are attractive because of their low cost. Two modes of using an air-to-air heat exchanger for heat recovery were considered. The first is to preheat the inlet air with heat from the exhaust air, which resulted in 20 to 26% energy savings. The second mode is 100% recirculation of air through the dryer and a heat exchanger and condensation of water from this air in the heat exchanger by using indoor air. as a heat sink. This resulted in 100% heat recovery (i.e., all heat was rejected to indoors) but the energy consumption of the dryer was increased by up to 6%. To maximize energy savings, a clothes dryer with a heat exchanger can be equipped to operate in the preheating mode in the summer and in the recirculation/condensation mode in the winter. The last measure investigated recirculation, through a heat pump (i.e., dehumidifier), also resulted in a 100% heat recovery and, in addition, up to a 33% reduction in dryer energy consumption, but this technique also yielded long drying times.

  15. Towards a Model for Research on the Effects of School Organizational Health Factors on Primary School Performance in Trinidad & Tobago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramdass, Mala; Lewis, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a model for research on the effects of school organizational heath factors on primary school academic achievement in Trinidad and Tobago. The model can be applicable for evaluating schools in other developing countries. As proposed, the model hypothesizes relationships between external factors (exogenous variables),…

  16. The Organizational Performance of Learning Companies: A Longitudinal and Competitor Analysis Using Market and Accounting Financial Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Swee C.; Ryan, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: A growing body of literature on organizational learning suggests that companies or organizations with a learning capability can gain a competitive advantage. The argument is that learning organizations are better at knowledge transfer and generating new knowledge to solve problems. The objective of this study is to examine empirically if…

  17. High Performance Healthcare Buildings: A Roadmap to Improved Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Brett C.; Tschudi, William F.

    2009-09-08

    This document presents a road map for improving the energy efficiency of hospitals and other healthcare facilities. The report compiles input from a broad array of experts in healthcare facility design and operations. The initial section lists challenges and barriers to efficiency improvements in healthcare. Opportunities are organized around the following ten themes: understanding and benchmarking energy use; best practices and training; codes and standards; improved utilization of existing HVAC designs and technology; innovation in HVAC design and technology; electrical system design; lighting; medical equipment and process loads; economic and organizational issues; and the design of next generation sustainable hospitals. Achieving energy efficiency will require a broad set of activities including research, development, deployment, demonstration, training, etc., organized around 48 specific objectives. Specific activities are prioritized in consideration of potential impact, likelihood of near- or mid-term feasibility and anticipated cost-effectiveness. This document is intended to be broad in consideration though not exhaustive. Opportunities and needs are identified and described with the goal of focusing efforts and resources.

  18. Systems Engineering Metrics: Organizational Complexity and Product Quality Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mog, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    Innovative organizational complexity and product quality models applicable to performance metrics for NASA-MSFC's Systems Analysis and Integration Laboratory (SAIL) missions and objectives are presented. An intensive research effort focuses on the synergistic combination of stochastic process modeling, nodal and spatial decomposition techniques, organizational and computational complexity, systems science and metrics, chaos, and proprietary statistical tools for accelerated risk assessment. This is followed by the development of a preliminary model, which is uniquely applicable and robust for quantitative purposes. Exercise of the preliminary model using a generic system hierarchy and the AXAF-I architectural hierarchy is provided. The Kendall test for positive dependence provides an initial verification and validation of the model. Finally, the research and development of the innovation is revisited, prior to peer review. This research and development effort results in near-term, measurable SAIL organizational and product quality methodologies, enhanced organizational risk assessment and evolutionary modeling results, and 91 improved statistical quantification of SAIL productivity interests.

  19. Performance improvements for VOx microbolometer FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Daniel F.; Ray, Michael; Wyles, Jessica; Asbrock, James F.; Hewitt, C.; Wyles, Richard; Gordon, Eli; Sessler, T.; Kennedy, Adam; Baur, Stefan T.; Van Lue, David; Anderson, Steven; Chin, Richard; Gonzales, H.; Le Pere, C.; Ton, S.; Kostrzewa, Thomas

    2004-08-01

    Raytheon is producing high-quality 320 x 240 microbolometer FPAs with 25 μm pitch pixels. The 320 x 240 FPAs have a sensitivity that is comparable to microbolometer FPAs with 50 μm pixels. Typical NETD values for these FPAs are <50mK with an f/1 aperture and operating at 30 Hz frame rates. Pixel operability is greater than 99.9% on most FPAs, and uncorrected responsivity nonuniformity is less than 4% (sigma/mean). These 25 μm microbolometer detectors also have a relatively fast thermal time constant of approximately 10 msec. These arrays have produced excellent image quality, and are currently fielded in a variety of demonstration systems. The pixel size reduction facilitates a significant FPA cost reduction since the number of die printed on a wafer can be increased, and also has enabled the development of a large-format 640 x 480 FPA array. Raytheon is producing these arrays with excellent sensitivity and typical NETD values of <50mK with an f/1 aperture and operating at 30 Hz frame rates. These arrays have excellent operability and image quality. Several dual FOV prototype 640 x 480 systems have been delivered under the LCMS and UAV programs. RVS has developed a flexible uncooled front end (UFE) electronics that will serve as the basis for the camera engine systems using 320 x 240 arrays. RVS has developed a 640 x 480 Common Uncooled Engine (CUE) which is intended for small pixel, high performance applications. The CUE is the ideal cornerstone for ground and airborne systems, multi-mode sensor, weapon sight or seeker architectures, and commercial surveillance.

  20. Systematic Agreement: A Theory of Organizational Alignment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semler, Steven W.

    1997-01-01

    The theory of organizational alignment considers the extent to which organizational strategy, structure, and culture create an environment that facilitates achievement of organizational objectives and development of high performance work organizations. Well-aligned organizations have systematic agreement among goals, tactics, reward systems, and…

  1. Do "High-Performance" Work Practices Improve Establishment-Level Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappelli, Peter; Neumark, David

    2001-01-01

    Links between organizational performance and high-performance work practices were studied using data from the National Employment Survey, measures of work practices comparable across organizations, and a longitudinal design incorporating data predating use of high-performance practices. Practices raise employee compensation without necessarily…

  2. Teaching Performance Improvement: An Opportunity for Continuing Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staker, Larry V.

    2003-01-01

    Practicing physicians generally are not engaged in either the methods of performance improvement for health care or the measurement and reporting of clinical outcomes. The principal reasons are lack of compensation for such work, the perception that the work of performance improvement adds no value and is a waste of time, the lack of knowledge and…

  3. Improving Student Naval Aviator Aircraft Carrier Landing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Thomas H.; Foster, T. Chris

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the use of human performance technology (HPT) to improve qualification rates for learning to land onboard aircraft carriers. This project started as a request for a business case analysis and evolved into a full-fledged performance improvement project, from mission analysis through evaluation. The result was a significant…

  4. Uncertain behaviours of integrated circuits improve computational performance.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Chihiro; Yamaoka, Masanao; Hayashi, Masato; Okuyama, Takuya; Aoki, Hidetaka; Kawarabayashi, Ken-ichi; Mizuno, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Improvements to the performance of conventional computers have mainly been achieved through semiconductor scaling; however, scaling is reaching its limitations. Natural phenomena, such as quantum superposition and stochastic resonance, have been introduced into new computing paradigms to improve performance beyond these limitations. Here, we explain that the uncertain behaviours of devices due to semiconductor scaling can improve the performance of computers. We prototyped an integrated circuit by performing a ground-state search of the Ising model. The bit errors of memory cell devices holding the current state of search occur probabilistically by inserting fluctuations into dynamic device characteristics, which will be actualised in the future to the chip. As a result, we observed more improvements in solution accuracy than that without fluctuations. Although the uncertain behaviours of devices had been intended to be eliminated in conventional devices, we demonstrate that uncertain behaviours has become the key to improving computational performance. PMID:26586362

  5. Uncertain behaviours of integrated circuits improve computational performance

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Chihiro; Yamaoka, Masanao; Hayashi, Masato; Okuyama, Takuya; Aoki, Hidetaka; Kawarabayashi, Ken-ichi; Mizuno, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Improvements to the performance of conventional computers have mainly been achieved through semiconductor scaling; however, scaling is reaching its limitations. Natural phenomena, such as quantum superposition and stochastic resonance, have been introduced into new computing paradigms to improve performance beyond these limitations. Here, we explain that the uncertain behaviours of devices due to semiconductor scaling can improve the performance of computers. We prototyped an integrated circuit by performing a ground-state search of the Ising model. The bit errors of memory cell devices holding the current state of search occur probabilistically by inserting fluctuations into dynamic device characteristics, which will be actualised in the future to the chip. As a result, we observed more improvements in solution accuracy than that without fluctuations. Although the uncertain behaviours of devices had been intended to be eliminated in conventional devices, we demonstrate that uncertain behaviours has become the key to improving computational performance. PMID:26586362

  6. Self-reported performance improvement strategies of highly successful Veterans Health Administration facilities.

    PubMed

    Craig, Thomas J; Perlin, Jonathan B; Fleming, Barbara B

    2007-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has achieved considerable success in improving health care through the use of clinical performance measures. This report examines the self-reported strategies used by the most successful facilities in the VHA system. For fiscal year 2002, facilities that scored the highest on any of 24 clinical performance measures were queried as to which strategies they used to achieve their level of performance. The most commonly cited strategies across all performance categories were organizational change (55.6%), clinical reminders (41.4%), audit and feedback to providers (39.6%), and staff education (32.5%). Certain strategies were more likely to be cited for 1 or more specific performance categories (eg, clinical reminders for immunization [61.1%], screening [60.6%]). These findings suggest that successful facilities are generally using evidence-based strategies to achieve high clinical performance. However, some evidence-based implementation strategies were rarely cited (eg, use of clinical champions). PMID:18006424

  7. The New CME: Focus Shifts to Improving Physician Performance.

    PubMed

    Ortolon, Ken

    2010-10-01

    The traditional method of physicians earning continuing medical education credits by attending a lecture or case conference, watching a webinar, or reading a journal article is being replaceed with performance improvement CME. Requiring a much greater level of physician involvement, it involves chart audits to measure current physician performance, followed by an intervention to change physician behavior. Performance is then remeasured to gauge the level of improvement. PMID:20890801

  8. Student conceptions about the DNA structure within a hierarchical organizational level: Improvement by experiment- and computer-based outreach learning.

    PubMed

    Langheinrich, Jessica; Bogner, Franz X

    2015-01-01

    As non-scientific conceptions interfere with learning processes, teachers need both, to know about them and to address them in their classrooms. For our study, based on 182 eleventh graders, we analyzed the level of conceptual understanding by implementing the "draw and write" technique during a computer-supported gene technology module. To give participants the hierarchical organizational level which they have to draw, was a specific feature of our study. We introduced two objective category systems for analyzing drawings and inscriptions. Our results indicated a long- as well as a short-term increase in the level of conceptual understanding and in the number of drawn elements and their grades concerning the DNA structure. Consequently, we regard the "draw and write" technique as a tool for a teacher to get to know students' alternative conceptions. Furthermore, our study points the modification potential of hands-on and computer-supported learning modules. PMID:26481196

  9. Benchmarking and performance improvement at Rocky Flats Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, C.; Doyle, G.; Featherman, W.L.

    1997-03-01

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site has initiated a major work process improvement campaign using the tools of formalized benchmarking and streamlining. This paper provides insights into some of the process improvement activities performed at Rocky Flats from November 1995 through December 1996. It reviews the background, motivation, methodology, results, and lessons learned from this ongoing effort. The paper also presents important gains realized through process analysis and improvement including significant cost savings, productivity improvements, and an enhanced understanding of site work processes.

  10. Innovation in user-centered skills and performance improvement for sustainable complex service systems.

    PubMed

    Karwowski, Waldemar; Ahram, Tareq Z

    2012-01-01

    In order to leverage individual and organizational learning and to remain competitive in current turbulent markets it is important for employees, managers, planners and leaders to perform at high levels over time. Employee competence and skills are extremely important matters in view of the general shortage of talent and the mobility of employees with talent. Two factors emerged to have the greatest impact on the competitiveness of complex service systems: improving managerial and employee's knowledge attainment for skills, and improving the training and development of the workforce. This paper introduces the knowledge-based user-centered service design approach for sustainable skill and performance improvement in education, design and modeling of the next generation of complex service systems. The rest of the paper cover topics in human factors and sustainable business process modeling for the service industry, and illustrates the user-centered service system development cycle with the integration of systems engineering concepts in service systems. A roadmap for designing service systems of the future is discussed. The framework introduced in this paper is based on key user-centered design principles and systems engineering applications to support service competitiveness. PMID:22317322

  11. A Multi(ple)-Media Approach to Performance Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Rich; Nordenstam, Garry; Ziegler, Jody

    1998-01-01

    This case study describes a project to design a performance support system that incorporated an electronic performance tool, computer-based training, and paper-based deliverables that resulted in lower development costs and improved job performance. Highlights include audience analyses, cost analysis, creative resource allocation, and feedback…

  12. Improve compliance and financial performance at the same time.

    PubMed

    Sinaiko, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    Contrary to conventional wisdom, which holds that compliance is often a net negative to a practice's financial performance, the fact is that compliance, operations, and the financial performance of a medical practice can all be simultaneously improved. This article will illustrate that the basic drivers of effective compliance are often the same fundamental business principles that lead to outstanding operations and enhanced financial performance. The lesson for medical practice managers is that if you improve compliance, you should actually improve your bottom line, not harm it. PMID:12534261

  13. Improvement of hospital performance through innovation: toward the value of hospital care.

    PubMed

    Dias, Casimiro; Escoval, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The perspective of innovation as the strategic lever of organizational performance has been widespread in the hospital sector. While public value of innovation can be significant, it is not evident that innovation always ends up in higher levels of performance. Within this context, the purpose of the article was to critically analyze the relationship between innovation and performance,taking into account the specificities of the hospital sector. This article pulls together primary data on organizational flexibility, innovation, and performance from 95 hospitals in Portugal,collected through a survey, data from interviews to hospital administration boards, and a panel of 15 experts. The diversity of data sources allowed for triangulation. The article uses mixed methods to explore the relationship between innovation and performance in the hospital sector in Portugal. The relationship between innovation and performance is analyzed through cluster analysis, supplemented with content analysis of interviews and the technical nominal group. The main findings reveal that the cluster of efficient innovators has twice the level of performance than other clusters. Organizational flexibility and external cooperation are the 2 major factors explaining these differences. The article identifies various organizational strategies to use innovation in order to enhance hospital performance. Overall, it proposes the alignment of perspectives of different stakeholders on the value proposition of hospital services, the embeddedness of information loops, and continuous adjustments toward high-value services. PMID:24902144

  14. Improvement of hospital performance through innovation: toward the value of hospital care.

    PubMed

    Dias, Casimiro; Escoval, Ana

    2013-01-01

    The perspective of innovation as the strategic lever of organizational performance has been widespread in the hospital sector. While public value of innovation can be significant, it is not evident that innovation always ends up in higher levels of performance. Within this context, the purpose of the article was to critically analyze the relationship between innovation and performance, taking into account the specificities of the hospital sector. This article pulls together primary data on organizational flexibility, innovation, and performance from 95 hospitals in Portugal, collected through a survey, data from interviews to hospital administration boards, and a panel of 15 experts. The diversity of data sources allowed for triangulation. The article uses mixed methods to explore the relationship between innovation and performance in the hospital sector in Portugal. The relationship between innovation and performance is analyzed through cluster analysis, supplemented with content analysis of interviews and the technical nominal group. The main findings reveal that the cluster of efficient innovators has twice the level of performance than other clusters. Organizational flexibility and external cooperation are the 2 major factors explaining these differences. The article identifies various organizational strategies to use innovation in order to enhance hospital performance. Overall, it proposes the alignment of perspectives of different stakeholders on the value proposition of hospital services, the embeddedness of information loops, and continuous adjustments toward high-value services. PMID:23629035

  15. Performance Capabilities and Competencies at the Undergraduate and Graduate Levels for Performance Improvement Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giberson, Tomas R.

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to identify the performance capabilities and competencies that organizations in the northern midwestern United States expect of future performance improvement professionals at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Eighty-nine performance improvement professionals representing 89 organizations completed an online…

  16. Improving Fan System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry

    SciTech Connect

    2003-04-01

    This is one of a series of sourcebooks on motor-driven equipment produced by the Industrial Technologies Program. It provides a reference for industrial fan systems users, outlining opportunities to improve fan system performance.

  17. Development of an improved high performance artery heat pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraehling, H.

    1981-05-01

    An existing space-qualified arterial high performance heat pipe was improved. Attempts to cut grooves with a self made single point threading tool were not successful. The grooves were not deep enough, so that a sufficient liquid supply over the entire circumference in the heating zone could not be obtained. Employment of commercially available thread taps showed an improvement in the groove depth but the groove profile itself was still poor. A further improvement of the profile shape was attained with a special set of threading tools consisting of an entering tap and a plug tap. Performance measurements with respective artery heat pipes confirmed that the heat pipe performance became better with the improvement of the circumferential groove profile. However, all investigated circumferential groove designs revealed a definitely poorer performance than the standard design with a screenwick as a secondary capillary structure.

  18. Do Weekly Quizzes Improve Student Performance on General Biology Exams?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haberyan, Kurt A.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates the impact of quizzes on student performance among non-biology major freshmen. Administers weekly quizzes and compares with the control group who experience no quizzes. Reports no significant improvement in exam scores. (YDS)

  19. Relationships of physician characteristics to performance quality and improvement.

    PubMed Central

    Payne, B C; Lyons, T F; Neuhaus, E

    1984-01-01

    The quality of ambulatory medical care provided by 1,135 physicians in five separate practice settings in the Midwest was measured using predetermined process criteria. Specialists performed better in their own areas of specialized training than did family/general practitioners or specialists performing outside their specialty areas. Physicians with fewer years of practice performed somewhat better than physicians with more years since medical school graduation. Board certification was not consistently related to performance. Performances of the physicians improved following quality assurance interventions in these sites. Differences in the rates of change in performance quality were not consistently related to any of the physician characteristics studied. PMID:6746295

  20. Bisoxalamide Clarifiers to Improve Optical Performance of Polyethylene Resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Hill, Martin; Santos, Nestor, Jr.; Banks, Andrew; Huang, Jessica; Keene, Ellen; Keaton, Rich

    The use of special nucleating agents, often referred to as clarifying agents, to improve optical performance of polyethylene is not widely used in the industry. A series of bisoxalamide compounds were synthesized and mixed with linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) to test clarification effects. In this talk, we will discuss structure/property relationship of these molecules on optical and thermal properties of LLDPE. Bisoxalamide clarifiers to improve optical performance of polyethylene resins.

  1. Sharing Collaborative Designs of Tobacco Cessation Performance Improvement CME Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullikin, Elizabeth A.; Ales, Mary W.; Cho, Jane; Nelson, Teena M.; Rodrigues, Shelly B.; Speight, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Performance Improvement Continuing Medical Education (PI CME) provides an important opportunity for CME providers to combine educational and quality health care improvement methodologies. Very few CME providers take on the challenges of planning this type of intervention because it is still a new practice and there are limited…

  2. Training for Template Creation: A Performance Improvement Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: There are three purposes to this article: first, to offer a training approach to employee learning and performance improvement that makes use of a step-by-step process of skill/knowledge creation. The process offers follow-up opportunities for skill maintenance and improvement; second, to explain the conceptual bases of the approach; and…

  3. Using Audio Books to Improve Reading and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Joel R.

    2009-01-01

    This article highlights significant research about what below grade-level reading means in middle school classrooms and suggests a tested approach to improve reading comprehension levels significantly by using audio books. The use of these audio books can improve reading and academic performance for both English language learners (ELLs) and for…

  4. Countermeasures to Improve the Driving Performance of Older Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashman, Richard D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    In a 2-year project, 105 older drivers were given physical therapy (flexibility exercises), perceptual therapy (to improve visual discrimination), and driver education; traffic engineering modifications were also made. All four interventions improved performance an average of 7.9%. Engineering was most cost effective on high-volume roads, the…

  5. Learning to Collaborate: A Case Study of Performance Improvement CME

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shershneva, Marianna B.; Mullikin, Elizabeth A.; Loose, Anne-Sophie; Olson, Curtis A.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Performance Improvement Continuing Medical Education (PI CME) is a mechanism for joining quality improvement (QI) in health care to continuing medical education (CME) systems together. Although QI practices and CME approaches have been recognized for years, what emerges from their integration is largely unfamiliar, because it…

  6. Improving Examination Performance through the Clenched Fist Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Harry E.

    1988-01-01

    The literature on the use of hypnosis in an educational setting is briefly reviewed, and a hypnotic approach involving the use of the clenched fist as a conditioned trigger to improve examination performance is described. A study of 60 high school students indicates that the approach can improve test outcomes. (TJH)

  7. Preliminary investigations on improving air-augmented rocket performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anil, K. N.; Damodaran, K. A.

    1994-05-01

    Use of the Petal nozzle instead of the conventional conical nozzle as the primary stream representing fuel-rich gases exiting from a rocket nozzle has demonstrated considerable improvement in the performance of an air-augmented rocket. This can be attributed to the improved mixing of the hot, exhaust gases containing unburnt fuel with the surrounding airstream, and subsequent heat release.

  8. Optical interference coatings for improved luminaire performance. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubins, H.L.

    1981-01-01

    An interior broadbeam HID uplight and an upstream roadway luminaire were developed to demonstrate that optical coated luminaire components can improve the visual effectiveness and energy efficiency of a lighting system. Optical coated reflectors and flat lens covers were very effective in the development of new improved lighting techniques. The coatings reduce reflection and transmission losses, opening the door to new design options for improving lighting performance and saving energy.

  9. Keep your fingers crossed!: how superstition improves performance.

    PubMed

    Damisch, Lysann; Stoberock, Barbara; Mussweiler, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Superstitions are typically seen as inconsequential creations of irrational minds. Nevertheless, many people rely on superstitious thoughts and practices in their daily routines in order to gain good luck. To date, little is known about the consequences and potential benefits of such superstitions. The present research closes this gap by demonstrating performance benefits of superstitions and identifying their underlying psychological mechanisms. Specifically, Experiments 1 through 4 show that activating good-luck-related superstitions via a common saying or action (e.g., "break a leg," keeping one's fingers crossed) or a lucky charm improves subsequent performance in golfing, motor dexterity, memory, and anagram games. Furthermore, Experiments 3 and 4 demonstrate that these performance benefits are produced by changes in perceived self-efficacy. Activating a superstition boosts participants' confidence in mastering upcoming tasks, which in turn improves performance. Finally, Experiment 4 shows that increased task persistence constitutes one means by which self-efficacy, enhanced by superstition, improves performance. PMID:20511389

  10. A case study: Integrated work environment and organizational change

    SciTech Connect

    Heubach, J.G.; Montgomery, J.C.; Weimer, W.C.; Heerwagen, J.H.

    1995-02-01

    The failure to integrate environmental and organizational interventions may help explain the lack of success of many change efforts. The high rate of failure for change efforts (50% to 90% failure rates) has been noted by many writers. While specific causes of failure are diverse, a common theme has been failure to consider the organization as a system. That is, either significant aspects of the organization were ignored during the intervention or potential impacts of changes on the elements were overlooked or underestimated. Our own training, technical literature, and professional culture lead us to limited understandings of complex organizations. Change agents must consider all relevant components of organizational performance if interventions are to be meaningful and successful. This study demonstrated the value of an integrated organizational intervention involving redesign of the physical environment, introduction of a new information system, work process improvement, and extended organizational development intervention. The outcomes were extremely positive. The cost of improvement efforts was found to be recaptured within a short time, easily justifying the expenditures. One conclusion from the study is that integrated interventions are very powerful. Integrating improvement of the physical environment with organizational development and technological innovation greatly enhances the likelihood of achieving a successful intervention.

  11. Support from the top: supervisors' perceived organizational support as a moderator of leader-member exchange to satisfaction and performance relationships.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Berrin; Enders, Jeanne

    2007-03-01

    The authors hypothesized that supervisors' perceived organizational support (POS) would moderate the relationships between leader-member exchange (LMX), job satisfaction, and job performance. On the basis of social exchange theory, supervisors' exchanges with the organization and subordinates should be interconnected. The authors expected that supervisors with high POS would have more resources to exchange with subordinates. Thus, supervisor POS should enhance the relationships between LMX and job satisfaction and LMX and job performance for subordinates. Hierarchical linear modeling analysis provided support for the hypotheses in a sample of 210 subordinates and 38 supervisors of a grocery store chain. The positive relationship between LMX and job satisfaction was stronger when supervisors had high POS. Moreover, LMX was related to performance only when supervisors had high POS. PMID:17371081

  12. Typologizing Organizational Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Othman, Rozhan; Hashim, Noor Azuan

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes that a major problem limiting an organization's ability to develop organizational learning capacity is of organizational amnesia. To understand organizational amnesia, it is necessary to look at the various ways that organizational learning is defined. Organizational learning is not merely the process of acquiring knowledge.…

  13. Recovery interventions and strategies for improved tennis performance

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs, Mark S; Baker, Lindsay B

    2014-01-01

    Improving the recovery capabilities of the tennis athlete is receiving more emphasis in the research communities, and also by practitioners (coaches, physical trainers, tennis performance specialists, physical therapists, etc). The purpose of this article was to review areas of recovery to limit the severity of fatigue and/or speed recovery from fatigue. This review will cover four broad recovery techniques commonly used in tennis with the belief that the interventions may improve athlete recovery and therefore improve adaptation and future performance. The four areas covered are: (1) temperature-based interventions, (2) compressive clothing, (3) electronic interventions and (4) nutritional interventions. PMID:24668374

  14. LPV Controller Interpolation for Improved Gain-Scheduling Control Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Fen; Kim, SungWan

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a new gain-scheduling control design approach is proposed by combining LPV (linear parameter-varying) control theory with interpolation techniques. The improvement of gain-scheduled controllers can be achieved from local synthesis of Lyapunov functions and continuous construction of a global Lyapunov function by interpolation. It has been shown that this combined LPV control design scheme is capable of improving closed-loop performance derived from local performance improvement. The gain of the LPV controller will also change continuously across parameter space. The advantages of the newly proposed LPV control is demonstrated through a detailed AMB controller design example.

  15. The design and performance of an improved target for MICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, C. N.; Hodgson, P.; Langlands, J.; Overton, E.; Robinson, M.; Smith, P. J.; Barber, G.; Long, K. R.; Shepherd, B.; Capocci, E.; MacWaters, C.; Tarrant, J.

    2016-05-01

    The linear motor driving the target for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment has been redesigned to improve its reliability and performance. A new coil-winding technique is described which produces better magnetic alignment and improves heat transport out of the windings. Improved field-mapping has allowed the more precise construction to be demonstrated, and an enhanced controller exploits the full features of the hardware, enabling increased acceleration and precision. The new user interface is described and analysis of performance data to monitor friction is shown to allow quality control of bearings and a measure of the ageing of targets during use.

  16. Priming Ability-Relevant Social Categories Improves Intellectual Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Phoebe S.; Kennette, Lynne N.; Van Havermaet, Lisa R.; Frank, Nichole M.; McIntyre, Rusty B.

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that priming affects behavioral tasks; fewer studies, however, have been conducted on how social category primes affect cognitive tasks. The present study aimed to examine the effects of social category primes on math performance and word recall. It was hypothesized that Asian prime words would improve math performance and word…

  17. 48 CFR 970.5203-2 - Performance improvement and collaboration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5203-2 Performance improvement and... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance...

  18. Improving Driver Performance. A Curriculum for Licensed Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Highway Users Federation for Safety and Mobility, Washington, DC.

    Curriculum material presented in this manual is for use in the development of an instructional program for drivers who either want or need to improve their driving performance. Three principal units are included: man and highway transportation, driver performance, and factors influencing driver behavior. Each unit is further divided into episodes…

  19. Between Exchange and Development: Organizational Learning in Schools through Inter-Organizational Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Klaus-Peter; Geithner, Silke

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss how communication and cooperation in inter-organizational networks may bring about organizational learning. A case study of 13 inter-organizational school networks in Germany is carried out for this purpose. Design/methodology/approach: Results of a quantitative survey assessing the performance of…

  20. Implementing a Nurse Manager Profile to Improve Unit Performance.

    PubMed

    Krugman, Mary E; Sanders, Carolyn L

    2016-06-01

    Nurse managers face significant pressures in the rapidly changing healthcare environment. Staying current with multiple sources of data, including reports that detail institutional and unit performance outcomes, is particularly challenging. A Nurse Manager Customized Profile was developed at a western academic hospital to provide a 1-page visual of pertinent data to help managers and director supervisors focus coaching to improve unit performance. Use of the Decisional Involvement Scale provided new insights into measuring manager performance. PMID:27163873

  1. Benchmarking and Performance Improvement at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, C. , Doyle, D. , Featherman, W.D.

    1997-12-31

    The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) has initiated a major work process improvement campaign using the tools of formalized benchmarking and streamlining. This paper provides insights into some of the process improvement activities performed at Rocky Flats from November 1995 through December 1996. It reviews the background, motivation, methodology, results, and lessons learned from this ongoing effort. The paper also presents important gains realized through process analysis and improvement including significant cost savings, productivity improvements, and an enhanced understanding of site work processes.

  2. Building School-Wide Capacity for Improvement: The Role of Leadership, School Organizational Conditions, and Teacher Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoonen, Erik E. J.; Sleegers, Peter J. C.; Oort, Frans J.; Peetsma, Thea T. D.

    2012-01-01

    Education policies for greater accountability of schools assume that schools are capable of building their capacity for continuous improvement. While policy-makers, scholars, and practitioners acknowledge the importance of building school-wide capacity for continuous improvement, empirical evidence to this effect remains thin. In this study, we…

  3. Technological iatrogenesis: the manifestation of inadequate organizational planning and the integration of health information technology.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Patrick Albert; Peterson, Lori T; Corazzo, Luciano Bedoya

    2011-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) views Health Information Technology (HIT) as an essential organizational prerequisite for the delivery of safe, reliable, and cost-effective health services. However, HIT presents the proverbial double-edged sword in generating solutions to improve system performance while facilitating the genesis of novel iatrogenic problems. Incongruent organizational processes give rise to technological iatrogenesis or the unintended consequences to system integrity and the resulting organizational outcomes potentiated by incongruent organizational-technological interfaces. HIT is a disruptive innovation for health services organizations but remains an overlooked organizational development (OD) concern. Recognizing the technology-organizational misalignments that result from HIT adoption is important for leaders seeking to eliminate sources of system instability. The Health Information Technology Iatrogenesis Model (HITIM) provides leaders with a conceptual framework from which to consider HIT as an instrument for organizational development. Complexity and Diffusion of Innovation theories support the framework that suggests each HIT adoption functions as a technological change agent. As such, leaders need to provide operational oversight to managers undertaking system change via HIT implementation. Traditional risk management tools, such as Failure Mode Effect Analysis and Root Cause Analysis, provide proactive pre- and post-implementation appraisals to verify system stability and to enhance system reliability. Reconsidering the use of these tools within the context of a new framework offers leaders guidance when adopting HIT to achieve performance improvement and better outcomes. PMID:21887951

  4. The Relationship Between Organizational Culture and Organizational Commitment in Zahedan University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Azizollah, Arbabisarjou; Abolghasem, Farhang; Amin, Dadgar Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Organizations effort is to achieve a common goal. There are many constructs needed for organizations. Organizational culture and organizational commitment are special concepts in management. The objective of the current research is to study the relationship between organizational culture and organizational commitment among the personnel of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive- correlational study. The statistical population was whole tenured staff of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences that worked for this organization in 2012-2013. Random sampling method was used and 165 samples were chosen. Two standardized questionnaires of the organizational culture (Schein, 1984) and organizational commitment (Meyer & Allen, 2002) were applied. The face and construct validity of the questionnaires were approved by the lecturers of Management and experts. Reliability of questionnaires of the organizational culture and organizational commitment were 0.89 and 0.88 respectively, by Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient. All statistical calculations performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The level of significance was set at P<0.05. Findings: The findings of the study showed that there was a significant relationship between organizational culture and organizational commitment (P value=0.027). Also, the results showed that there was a significant relation between organizational culture and affective commitment (P-value=0.009), organizational culture and continuance commitment (P-value=0.009), and organizational culture and normative commitment (P-value=0.009). PMID:26925884

  5. Crisis Planning: Survey Results from Hurricane Katrina and Implications for Performance Improvement Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Holly M.; Annulis, Heather; Gaudet, Cyndi

    2008-01-01

    Modern organizations constantly face unparalleled changes and uncertainty in the competitive world, thus requiring strategic planning to mitigate crisis conditions. Underscoring crisis plans are performance interventions that prepare employees, technological systems, and the organizational culture to effectively respond to a crisis event. However,…

  6. Carbohydrate mouth rinse: does it improve endurance exercise performance?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation can improve performance in endurance exercises through several mechanisms such as maintenance of glycemia and sparing endogenous glycogen as well as the possibility of a central nervous-system action. Some studies have emerged in recent years in order to test the hypothesis of ergogenic action via central nervous system. Recent studies have demonstrated that CHO mouth rinse can lead to improved performance of cyclists, and this may be associated with the activation of brain areas linked to motivation and reward. These findings have already been replicated in other endurance modalities, such as running. This alternative seems to be an attractive nutritional tool to improve endurance exercise performance. PMID:20799963

  7. The Genesis of a Trauma Performance Improvement Plan.

    PubMed

    Pidgeon, Kristopher

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to assist the trauma medical and program director with developing a performance improvement and patients safety plan (PIPS), which is a required component of a successful trauma verification process by the American College of Surgeons. This article will review trauma quality standards and will describe in detail the required elements of a successful trauma center's performance improvement plan including a written comprehensive plan that outlines the mission and vision of the PIPS Program, authority of the PIPS Program, PIPS Program Committee reporting structure to the other hospital committees, list of required PIPS multidisciplinary team members, the operational components of the utilized data management system (trauma registry), list of indicators/audit filters, levels of review, peer determinations, corrective action plan with implementation, event resolution, and reevaluation. Strategies to develop a successful trauma performance improvement plan are presented. PMID:26574945

  8. Improving Hospital Laboratory Performance: Implications for Healthcare Managers.

    PubMed

    Leaven, Laquanda T

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory services in healthcare delivery systems play a vital role in inpatient care. Studies have shown that laboratory data affects approximately 65% of the most critical decisions on admission, discharge, and medication. Laboratory testing accounts for approximately 10% of hospital billing. Reducing laboratory costs and improving laboratory performance would contribute to reducing total healthcare cost, which is one of the major goals for the U.S. healthcare delivery system. The objective of this paper is to review and analyze the diverse research approaches applied to improve the performance of hospital laboratories in large healthcare delivery systems. The approaches reviewed include: lean, quality control, automation, and simulation modeling. In the conclusion, future research directions are presented, which include additional methods to be investigated to further improve the performance of hospital laboratories. PMID:26185930

  9. Fundamental performance improvement to dispersive spectrograph based imaging technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meade, Jeff T.; Behr, Bradford B.; Cenko, Andrew T.; Christensen, Peter; Hajian, Arsen R.; Hendrikse, Jan; Sweeney, Frederic D.

    2011-03-01

    Dispersive-based spectrometers may be qualified by their spectral resolving power and their throughput efficiency. A device known as a virtual slit is able to improve the resolving power by factors of several with a minimal loss in throughput, thereby fundamentally improving the quality of the spectrometer. A virtual slit was built and incorporated into a low performing spectrometer (R ~ 300) and was shown to increase the performance without a significant loss in signal. The operation and description of virtual slits is also given. High-performance, lowlight, and high-speed imaging instruments based on a dispersive-type spectrometer see the greatest impact from a virtual slit. The impact of a virtual slit on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is shown to improve the imaging quality substantially.

  10. Step improvements made in Timor Sea drilling performance

    SciTech Connect

    Krepp, T.; Richardson, B.

    1997-05-01

    Drilling operations in the Timor Sea, north of Australia, can be quite troublesome and inefficient. In early 1996, BHPP looked to further improve its Timor Sea drilling performance, which was already class-leading for the region. BHPP`s casing designs had already been through a phase of continuous streamlining. Recent and historical drilling performances were analyzed, and barriers to step changes in improvement identified. Use of synthetic-based mud (SBM) was identified as a potential tool to continue the aggressive optimization of well designs. SBM was expected to remove time dependency of the Jamieson shales, while also possibly allowing reduced mud weights for stability. Although it was believed that instability was primarily tectonic stress related, the contribution of chemical inhibition (or lack thereof) was unknown. The paper discusses the initial performance improvement with early trials of SBM.

  11. Investigating organizational quality improvement systems, patient empowerment, organizational culture, professional involvement and the quality of care in European hospitals: the 'Deepening our Understanding of Quality Improvement in Europe (DUQuE)' project

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hospitals in European countries apply a wide range of quality improvement strategies. Knowledge of the effectiveness of these strategies, implemented as part of an overall hospital quality improvement system, is limited. Methods/Design We propose to study the relationships among organisational quality improvement systems, patient empowerment, organisational culture, professionals' involvement with the quality of hospital care, including clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient involvement. We will employ a cross-sectional, multi-level study design in which patient-level measurements are nested in hospital departments, which are in turn nested in hospitals in different EU countries. Mixed methods will be used for data collection, measurement and analysis. Hospital/care pathway level constructs that will be assessed include external pressure, hospital governance, quality improvement system, patient empowerment in quality improvement, organisational culture and professional involvement. These constructs will be assessed using questionnaires. Patient-level constructs include clinical effectiveness, patient safety and patient involvement, and will be assessed using audit of patient records, routine data and patient surveys. For the assessment of hospital and pathway level constructs we will collect data from randomly selected hospitals in eight countries. For a sample of hospitals in each country we will carry out additional data collection at patient-level related to four conditions (stroke, acute myocardial infarction, hip fracture and delivery). In addition, structural components of quality improvement systems will be assessed using visits by experienced external assessors. Data analysis will include descriptive statistics and graphical representations and methods for data reduction, classification techniques and psychometric analysis, before moving to bi-variate and multivariate analysis. The latter will be conducted at hospital and multilevel

  12. Organizational Communication: ERIC Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boileau, Don M.

    1984-01-01

    Presents abstracts from "Resources in Education" on (1) teaching about women in organizational communication; (2) communication as part of job satisfaction; and (3) research in organizational communication. (PD)

  13. A Collection of Papers on Self-Study and Institutional Improvement, 2003. Volume 2: Organizational Effectiveness and Future Directions. 2003 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Kollenburg, Susan E., Ed.

    Papers in this collection were prepared for the annual meeting of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools. This volume contains papers related to organizational effectiveness and future directions. Chapter 1, "Mission, Planning, and Organizational Change," contains: (1) "Revitalizing Mission: A Collaborative Model" (Stephany…

  14. LP turbine retrofit modernization: Improvements in performance and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Groenedaal, J.C.; Fowls, L.G.; Subbiah, R.; Maxwell, B.P.; Persson, B.

    1996-11-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation retrofitted six low pressure (LP) nuclear turbine rotors and associated blade path components at Ringhals 1, a 1960`s vintage English Electric (GEC) unit located near Varobacka, Sweden, and operated by Vattenfall AB. This achieved significant performance improvements and provided improved mechanical features over the original equipment. This paper, discusses design, manufacture, installation, operation and project coordination. The retrofit processes employed for these units can be applied to any potential customers units.

  15. Using alternative feedback strategies to improve aircraft inspection performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaewkuekool, Sittichai

    The aircraft inspection and maintenance system consists of several interrelated human and machine components, with visual inspection playing a significant role in ensuring aircraft safety. Training has been identified as one of the most important intervention strategies for enhancing the quality and reliability of aircraft inspection. This process has the potential to be improved using advancements in computer technology, especially virtual reality (VR) technology, which is becoming increasingly more affordable and prevalent. In light of this situation, this study investigated the use of VR technology to support training in the improvement of aircraft inspection performance. An experiment was developed to investigate the use of performance and process feedback in both statistical and graphical forms in two different task environments. In addition, information on defect criticality, defect location, and occurrence of defect was provided to subjects to study the effectiveness of feedforward information on inspection performance. Specifically, the experiment involved the inspection of an aircraft cargo bay using VR technology with eye tracking movement devices and a 6 degree of freedom mouse for pointing and clicking on defects. Results from the feedback training indicated that providing process along with performance feedback improved inspection performance as evidenced in the speed, accuracy and search strategy measures. Similar results were shown for both task environments. However, the addition feedforward information in the heterogeneous task environment yielded ever better inspection performance, and process and performance feedback coupled with feedforward information on defect criticality, defect location, and occurrence of defect yielded the best inspection performance as seen in the speed, accuracy and search strategy measures. The findings of this study indicate that using a combination of training intervention strategies leads to an improvement in

  16. Right Hemispheric Participation in Semantic Decision Improves Performance

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Kiely M.; Allendorfer, Jane B.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.

    2011-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies in healthy adults demonstrate involvement of a left-lateralized network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions during a variety of semantic processing tasks. While these areas are believed to be fundamental to semantic processing, it is unclear if task performance is correlated with differential recruitment of these or other brain regions. The objective of this study was to identify the structures underlying improved accuracy on a semantic decision task. We also investigated whether extra-scanner performance on the Boston Naming Test (BNT) and Semantic Fluency Test (SFT), neuropsychological measures of semantic retrieval, is correlated with specific areas of activation during the semantic decision/tone decision (SDTD) fMRI task. Fifty-two healthy, right-handed individuals performed a block-design SDTD task. Regression analyses revealed that increased performance on this task was associated with activation in the right inferior parietal lobule. Higher SFT performance resulted in greater recruitment of right frontal regions; improved performance on BNT was associated with more widespread activation in prefrontal, temporal, and parietal cortex bilaterally, although this activation appeared to be stronger in the right hemisphere. Overall, our results suggest that improved performance on both intra- and extra-scanner measures of semantic processing are associated with increased recruitment of right hemispheric regions. PMID:21937029

  17. Evidence for biomechanics and motor learning research improving golf performance.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Justin W L; Hume, Patria A

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this review was to determine how the findings of biomechanics and motor control/learning research may be used to improve golf performance. To be eligible, the biomechanics and motor learning studies had to use direct (ball displacement and shot accuracy) or indirect (clubhead velocity and clubface angle) golf performance outcome measures. Biomechanical studies suggested that reducing the radius path of the hands during the downswing, increasing wrist torque and/or range of motion, delaying wrist motion to late in the downswing, increasing downswing amplitude, improving sequential acceleration of body parts, improving weight transfer, and utilising X-factor stretch and physical conditioning programmes can improve clubhead velocity. Motor learning studies suggested that golf performance improved more when golfers focused on swing outcome or clubhead movement rather than specific body movements. A distributed practice approach involving multiple sessions per week of blocked, errorless practice may be best for improving putting accuracy of novice golfers, although variable practice may be better for skilled golfers. Video, verbal, or a combination of video and verbal feedback can increase mid-short iron distance in novice to mid-handicap (hcp) golfers. Coaches should not only continue to critique swing technique but also consider how the focus, structure, and types of feedback for practice may alter learning for different groups of golfers. PMID:22900408

  18. JT8D high pressure compressor performance improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.

    1981-01-01

    An improved performance high pressure compressor with potential application to all models of the JT8D engine was designed. The concept consisted of a trenched abradable rubstrip which mates with the blade tips for each of the even rotor stages. This feature allows tip clearances to be set so blade tips run at or near the optimum radius relative to the flowpath wall, without the danger of damaging the blades during transients and maneuvers. The improved compressor demonstrated thrust specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature improvements of 1.0 percent and at least 10 C over the takeoff and climb power range at sea level static conditions, compared to a bill-of-material high pressure compressor. Surge margin also improved 4 percentage points over the high power operating range. A thrust specific fuel consumption improvement of 0.7 percent at typical cruise conditions was calculated based on the sea level test results.

  19. Improving older adults’ memory performance using prior task success

    PubMed Central

    Geraci, Lisa; Miller, Tyler M.

    2012-01-01

    Holding negative aging stereotypes can lead older adults to perform poorly on memory tests. We attempted to improve older adults’ memory performance by giving them task experience that would counter their negative performance expectations. Before participating in a memory experiment, younger and older adults were given a cognitive task that they could either successfully complete, not successfully complete, or they were given no prior task. For older adults, recall was significantly higher and self-reported anxiety was significantly lower for the prior task success group relative to the other groups. There was no effect of prior task experience on younger adults’ memory performance. Results suggest that older adults’ memory can be improved with a single successful prior task experience. PMID:23066803

  20. Organizational Commitment through Organizational Socialization Tactics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filstad, Cathrine

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to investigate how organizational socialization tactics affect newcomers' organizational commitment and learning processes. Design/methodology/approach: A survey was conducted using a measurement tool based on Van Maanen and Schein's theory on organizational socialization tactics and Kuvaas' measurement tools of…

  1. Resource management performance in Bahrain: a systematic analysis of municipal waste management, secondary material flows and organizational aspects.

    PubMed

    Al Sabbagh, Maram K; Velis, Costas A; Wilson, David C; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2012-08-01

    This paper presents a detailed review of municipal solid waste (MSW) and resource management in Bahrain, using the recently developed UN-Habitat city profile methodology. Performance indicators involve quantitative assessment of waste collection and sweeping, controlled disposal, materials recovery and financial sustainability together with qualitative assessment of user and provider inclusivity and institutional coherence. MSW management performance in Bahrain is compared with data for 20 other cities. The system in Bahrain is at an intermediate stage of development. A waste/material flow diagram allows visualization of the MSW system and quantifies all inputs and outputs, with the vast majority of MSW deposited in a controlled, but not engineered landfill. International comparative analysis shows that recycling and material recovery rates in Bahrain (8% wt. for domestic waste, of which 3% wt. due to informal sector) are generally lower than other cities, whereas waste quantities and generation rates at 1.1 kg capita(-1) day(-1)) are relatively high. The organic fraction (60% wt.) is comparable to that in middle- and low-income cities (50-80% wt.), although on the basis of gross domestic product Bahrain is classified as a high-income city, for which the average is generally less than 30% wt. Inclusivity in waste governance is at a medium stage as not all waste system stakeholders are considered in decision-making. While the system now appears to be financially stable, key pending issues are cost-effectiveness, improving the standards of disposal and deployment of extensive materials recovery/recycling services. PMID:22584268

  2. School Site Strategic Planning To Improve District Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytle, James H.

    This paper describes the evolution of a school-based planning model that accommodates independent approaches to School District of Philadelphia goals. The description centers on key strategic planning decisions made during a 6-year period and three components of the planning model: the organizational monitoring and feedback system; organizational…

  3. Earth Science Informatics Community Requirements for Improving Sustainable Science Software Practices: User Perspectives and Implications for Organizational Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downs, R. R.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Robinson, E.

    2014-12-01

    Science software is integral to the scientific process and must be developed and managed in a sustainable manner to ensure future access to scientific data and related resources. Organizations that are part of the scientific enterprise, as well as members of the scientific community who work within these entities, can contribute to the sustainability of science software and to practices that improve scientific community capabilities for science software sustainability. As science becomes increasingly digital and therefore, dependent on software, improving community practices for sustainable science software will contribute to the sustainability of science. Members of the Earth science informatics community, including scientific data producers and distributers, end-user scientists, system and application developers, and data center managers, use science software regularly and face the challenges and the opportunities that science software presents for the sustainability of science. To gain insight on practices needed for the sustainability of science software from the science software experiences of the Earth science informatics community, an interdisciplinary group of 300 community members were asked to engage in simultaneous roundtable discussions and report on their answers to questions about the requirements for improving scientific software sustainability. This paper will present an analysis of the issues reported and the conclusions offered by the participants. These results provide perspectives for science software sustainability practices and have implications for actions that organizations and their leadership can initiate to improve the sustainability of science software.

  4. Potential improvements in SiGe radioisotope thermoelectric generator performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mowery, A.L.

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with NASA{close_quote}s slogan: {open_quotes}Better, Cheaper, Faster,{close_quotes} this paper will address potential improvements to SiGe RTG technology to make them Better. RTGs are doubtless cheaper than {open_quotes}paper designs{close_quotes} which are better and cheaper until development, performance and safety test costs are considered. RTGs have the advantage of being fully developed and tested in the rigors of space for over twenty years. Further, unless a new system can be accelerated tested, as were the RTGs, they cannot be deployed reliably unless a number of systems have succeeded for test periods exceeding the mission lifetime. Two potential developments are discussed that can improve the basic RTG performance by 10 to 40{sup +}{percent} depending on the mission profile. These improvements could be demonstrated in years. Accelerated testing could also be performed in this period to preserve existing RTG reliability. Data from a qualification tested RTG will be displayed, while not definitive, to support the conclusions. Finally, it is anticipated that other investigators will be encouraged to suggest further modifications to the basic RTG design to improve its performance. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Two Views of ISPI and the Future of Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addison, Roger M.; Tosti, Donald T.

    2012-01-01

    The International Society for Performance Improvement has always been divided by two often-conflicting views of what its purpose or mission really is. Is it primarily technology focused (focusing on the development and promotion of the field) or member focused (focusing on members' interests and their professional development)? This difference in…

  6. Employee Retention and Performance Improvement in High-Tech Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, B. Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Considers the benefits of employee retention and performance improvement in high technology, new economy companies. Discusses attracting and retaining top talent in information technology companies; targeted recruiting and hiring; employee achievement; learning and professional growth; recognition; nurturing careers; team collaboration; the TALENT…

  7. PILOT SCALE EXPERIMENTS TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE OF ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes pilot plant experience with techniques with a potential for improving the performance of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) by using a novel rapping reentrainment collector and flexible steel cable (in place of solid large-diameter discharge electrodes) for bo...

  8. How to Improve Performance Results in Your District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genck, Fredric H.

    1987-01-01

    School performance measures developed by a public management institute have improved learning, confidence, cost effectiveness, teamwork, and accountability among students and teachers in Illinois districts. A model measures learning, parent and teacher satisfaction, and cost. Zion, Lake Forest, and North Chicago districts made substantial gains…

  9. The Use of Technology to Improve Staff Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nepo, Kaori G.

    2010-01-01

    The on-going staff training is one of critical components for the effective programming for adolescents and adults with autism, although it is often overlooked. The available technology can be useful to improve not only productivity and organization of our daily life, but also the work performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the…

  10. Using Screen Capture Feedback to Improve Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denton, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Feedback is an effective instructional practice for improving achievement. The importance of feedback has been understood by teachers for many years, yet recent research has elevated its status. One characteristic of effective feedback is personalized comments, which assist students in understanding their performance. Most research analyzes the…

  11. Improving Performance through Knowledge Translation in the Veterans Health Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Joseph; Perlin, Jonathan B.

    2006-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VA) provides a case study for linking performance measurement, information technology, and aligned research efforts to facilitate quality improvement in a large, complex health system. Dialogue between clinical researchers and VA leaders occurs through structured activities (e.g., the Quality Enhancement…

  12. 48 CFR 970.5203-2 - Performance improvement and collaboration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and collaboration. 970.5203-2 Section 970.5203-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... collaboration. As prescribed in 970.0370-2(b), insert the following clause: Performance Improvement and Collaboration (MAY 2006) (a) The Contractor agrees that it shall affirmatively identify, evaluate, and...

  13. 48 CFR 970.5203-2 - Performance improvement and collaboration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and collaboration. 970.5203-2 Section 970.5203-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... collaboration. As prescribed in 970.0370-2(b), insert the following clause: Performance Improvement and Collaboration (MAY 2006) (a) The Contractor agrees that it shall affirmatively identify, evaluate, and...

  14. 48 CFR 970.5203-2 - Performance improvement and collaboration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and collaboration. 970.5203-2 Section 970.5203-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... collaboration. As prescribed in 970.0370-2(b), insert the following clause: Performance Improvement and Collaboration (MAY 2006) (a) The Contractor agrees that it shall affirmatively identify, evaluate, and...

  15. 48 CFR 970.5203-2 - Performance improvement and collaboration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and collaboration. 970.5203-2 Section 970.5203-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... collaboration. As prescribed in 970.0370-2(b), insert the following clause: Performance Improvement and Collaboration (MAY 2006) (a) The Contractor agrees that it shall affirmatively identify, evaluate, and...

  16. Learning Organization and Transfer: Strategies for Improving Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weldy, Teresa G.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to explore a relationship between the learning organization and transfer of training as strategies for learning and managing knowledge to make performance improvements and gain or maintain a competitive advantage. Design/methodology/approach: Various similarities are identified in the literature that are indicative of a…

  17. Do Business Communication Courses Improve Student Performance in Introductory Marketing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcal, Leah E.; Hennessey, Judith E.; Curren, Mary T.; Roberts, William W.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated whether completion of a business communications course improved student performance in an introductory marketing management course. Regression analysis indicated that students who completed the communications course received higher grades than the otherwise comparable students. In addition, marketing majors…

  18. Can Near-Peer Teaching Improve Academic Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Brett; Fowler, James

    2014-01-01

    Near peer teaching is becoming increasingly popular within healthcare education. The experiences and effects of near-peer teaching upon the near-peer teachers' academic performance are poorly understood. In order to address this, the objective of this study was to examine whether a near-peer teaching program improved the overall clinical unit…

  19. Performance Improvement: Best Practices from around the World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Tony

    2012-01-01

    What does performance improvement look like in practice in today's organizations? As part of its commitment to the learning profession, the American Society for Training and Development annually judges the practices of organizations through a blind peer review process to determine what merits the best practice designation. This article contains…

  20. Connecting with Struggling Students to Improve Performance in Large Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isbell, Linda M.; Cote, Nicole Gilbert

    2009-01-01

    In large classes, students' feelings of anonymity and interpersonal distance from the instructor can be particularly detrimental to those who struggle with course material. We tested a simple method for connecting with struggling students to improve their performance. We randomly divided students who scored 75% or lower on the first exam into 2…

  1. Educational Technology Research Journals: Performance Improvement Quarterly, 2001-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Alisha Rasmussen; Francis, Jenifer; Harrison, J. Buckley; McPhillen, Ammon S.; West, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    This article is an analysis of "Performance Improvement Quarterly" (PIQ) for the years 2001-2010. The intent was to examine the article types used, the authors who contributed the most to the journal, the topics the journal most commonly focused on, and the citation frequency of the journal's articles. The analysis revealed that…

  2. Business Models for Training and Performance Improvement Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Saul

    2004-01-01

    Although typically applied to entire enterprises, the concept of business models applies to training and performance improvement groups. Business models are "the method by which firm[s] build and use [their] resources to offer.. value." Business models affect the types of projects, services offered, skills required, business processes, and type of…

  3. Alternative Assessment: A Monthly Portfolio Project Improves Student Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdez, Penelope S.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of monthly portfolio projects to track student progress and improve science performance in a 7th grade life science course. Students explain concepts they have learned, produce products to present what they have learned, and use the concepts to critique magazine articles, advertisements, or news stories. Provides an evaluation…

  4. Performance improvement. Which path is right for your hospital?

    PubMed

    Runy, Lee Ann

    2007-10-01

    Which of four prominent performance improvement methods is best for your hospital? First you need to understand exactly what you hope to accomplish and how much you're willing to invest in terms of money, staff time and other resources. PMID:17982778

  5. Driving Performance Improvements by Integrating Competencies with Human Resource Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jin Gu; Park, Yongho; Yang, Gi Hun

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the issues in the development and application of a competency model and provides implications for more precise integration of competencies into human resource (HR) functions driving performance improvement. This research is based on a case study from a Korean consumer corporation. This study employed document reviews,…

  6. Potential improvements in SiGe radioisotope thermoelectric generator performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mowery, Alfred L.

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with NASA's slogan: ``Better, Cheaper, Faster,'' this paper will address potential improvements to SiGe RTG technology to make them Better. RTGs are doubtless cheaper than ``paper designs'' which are better and cheaper until development, performance and safety test costs are considered. RTGs have the advantage of being fully developed and tested in the rigors of space for over twenty years. Further, unless a new system can be accelerated tested, as were the RTGs, they cannot be deployed reliably unless a number of systems have succeeded for test periods exceeding the mission lifetime. Two potential developments are discussed that can improve the basic RTG performance by 10 to 40+% depending on the mission profile. These improvements could be demonstrated in years. Accelerated testing could also be performed in this period to preserve existing RTG reliability. Data from a qualification tested RTG will be displayed, while not definitive, to support the conclusions. Finally, it is anticipated that other investigators will be encouraged to suggest further modifications to the basic RTG design to improve its performance.

  7. The CF6 jet engine performance improvement: New front mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasching, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    The New Front Mount was evaluated in component tests including stress, deflection/distortion and fatigue tests. The test results demonstrated a performance improvement of 0.1% in cruise sfc, 16% in compressor stall margin and 10% in compressor stator angle margin. The New Front Mount hardware successfully completed 35,000 simulated flight cycles endurance testing.

  8. Opportunities for Recognition Can Improve Learning and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Ron; Henderson, Hester L.; Lavay, Barry; Silliman-French, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Physical educators need to make an effort to catch students being good and recognize them for their positive accomplishments. Unfortunately, it is usually the students who act inappropriately who receive the majority of the teachers' attention. In order to help increase learning and improve performance and behavior, the physical educator must…

  9. Improvement of train transportation performance by convoy signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yingbo; Orlik, Philip; Parsons, Kieran; Kataoka, Kenji; Kalmar-Nagy, Tamas

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we compare the transportation performance of a given railway for three types of signaling system: fixed-block signaling, moving-block signaling and train-convoy signaling. The transportation performance is evaluated from two aspects: track capacity and robustness to delays. The transportation performance is computed using numerical method and a new cellular automaton model is proposed to simulate the behavior of a train. The simulation results show that train-convoy signaling can improve track capacity and robustness to delays, at the same time, compared to fixed-block signaling and moving-block signaling.

  10. Resistance training improves single leg stance performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Adam M; Mangine, Geralt T; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R; Beyer, Kyle S; Bohner, Jonathan D; Emerson, Nadia S; Hoffman, Jay R

    2014-02-01

    Age-associated losses in muscle mass, or sarcopenia, are marked by accompanying decrements in strength and muscle quality, impairing balance and increasing the risk for falls. Although progressive resistance training has been widely accepted as an appropriate modality for the treatment of sarcopenia, it has yet to offer consistent results in terms of improved balance. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the effects on static balance performance following a 6-week full-body progressive resistance training program in untrained older adults. Evaluation of magnitude-based inferences indicated the progressive resistance training intervention to be likely beneficial for improving static balance performance. These results were likely related to the strengthening of all major muscle groups by the incorporation of both free weights and resistance machines in the exercise regimen. Our findings support the use of progressive resistance training for untrained older adults to improve balance. PMID:23959961

  11. Improving learning performance with happiness by interactive scenarios.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Chi-Hung; Chen, Ying-Nong; Tsai, Luo-Wei; Lee, Chun-Chieh; Tsai, Hsin-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, digital learning has attracted a lot of researchers to improve the problems of learning carelessness, low learning ability, lack of concentration, and difficulties in comprehending the logic of math. In this study, a digital learning system based on Kinect somatosensory system is proposed to make children and teenagers happily learn in the course of the games and improve the learning performance. We propose two interactive geometry and puzzle games. The proposed somatosensory games can make learners feel curious and raise their motivation to find solutions for boring problems via abundant physical expressions and interactive operations. The players are asked to select particular operation by gestures and physical expressions within a certain time. By doing so, the learners can feel the fun of game playing and train their logic ability before they are aware. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed somatosensory system can effectively improve the students' learning performance. PMID:24558331

  12. Improving Learning Performance with Happiness by Interactive Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Chi-Hung; Chen, Ying-Nong; Tsai, Luo-Wei; Lee, Chun-Chieh; Tsai, Hsin-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, digital learning has attracted a lot of researchers to improve the problems of learning carelessness, low learning ability, lack of concentration, and difficulties in comprehending the logic of math. In this study, a digital learning system based on Kinect somatosensory system is proposed to make children and teenagers happily learn in the course of the games and improve the learning performance. We propose two interactive geometry and puzzle games. The proposed somatosensory games can make learners feel curious and raise their motivation to find solutions for boring problems via abundant physical expressions and interactive operations. The players are asked to select particular operation by gestures and physical expressions within a certain time. By doing so, the learners can feel the fun of game playing and train their logic ability before they are aware. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed somatosensory system can effectively improve the students' learning performance. PMID:24558331

  13. Performance Improvement of CZT Detectors by Line Electrode Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jun; Liu, Yanqing; Li, Yulan; Li, Yuanjing; Liu, Yinong; Fu, Jianqiang; Jiang, Hao; Deng, Zhi; Xue, Tao; Luo, Jie

    2014-02-01

    Due to their high efficiency and high energy resolution, applications of CdZnTe (CZT) detectors have spread into many areas such as room temperature detectors. To improve the performance and decrease the effects of hole trapping and crystal non-uniformity, special contact geometries are applied to the detectors, such as Coplanar, 3D pixel, Frisch grid, Capture and so on. In this paper, we introduce a new line electrode geometry to greatly improve CZT detector performance. A line anode collects electrons, while a planar cathode collects holes. Due to the low electric field close to the cathode and the low hole μτ value, this geometry is also a single charge sensitive structure. The calculated energy resolution of a 20 mm x 20 mm x 15 mm detector could be improved up to 1.51% for 662 keV gamma rays. Both simulations and experimental results are presented here.

  14. Improving the Performance Scalability of the Community Atmosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    Mirin, Arthur; Worley, Patrick H

    2012-01-01

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM), which serves as the atmosphere component of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), is the most computationally expensive CCSM component in typical configurations. On current and next-generation leadership class computing systems, the performance of CAM is tied to its parallel scalability. Improving performance scalability in CAM has been a challenge, due largely to algorithmic restrictions necessitated by the polar singularities in its latitude-longitude computational grid. Nevertheless, through a combination of exploiting additional parallelism, implementing improved communication protocols, and eliminating scalability bottlenecks, we have been able to more than double the maximum throughput rate of CAM on production platforms. We describe these improvements and present results on the Cray XT5 and IBM BG/P. The approaches taken are not specific to CAM and may inform similar scalability enhancement activities for other codes.

  15. Mediating effect of sustainable product development on relationship between quality management practices and organizational performance: Empirical study of Malaysian automotive industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Mohd Akhir; Asaad, Mohd Norhasni; Saad, Rohaizah; Iteng, Rosman; Rahim, Mohd Kamarul Irwan Abdul

    2016-08-01

    Global competition in the automotive industry has encouraged companies to implement quality management practices in all managerial aspects to ensure customer satisfaction in products and reduce costs. Therefore, guaranteeing only product quality is insufficient without considering product sustainability, which involves economic, environment, and social elements. Companies that meet both objectives gain advantages in the modern business environment. This study addresses the issues regarding product quality and sustainability in small and medium-sized enterprises in the Malaysian automotive industry. A research was carried out in 91 SMEs automotive suppliers in throughout Malaysia. The analyzed using SPSS ver.23 has been proposed in correlation study. Specifically, this study investigates the relationship between quality management practices and organizational performance as well as the mediating effect of sustainable product development on this relationship.

  16. Performance indicators: A tool for continuous quality improvement

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Nidhi M; Soni, Shital; Gajjar, Maitrey; Shah, Mamta; Shah, Sangita; Patel, Vaidehi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Performance monitoring is an important tool which can be used for setting priorities for process improvement. At our centre, we have been monitoring every step in the processes, right from inventory of consumables (both critical and routine) to number of donors reactive for TTI. We conducted a study to measure the impact of monitoring Performance Indicators and how it could be used as a tool for Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI). Materials and Methods: The present study was a retrospective study where the performance indicator (PI) data of blood bank was analyzed for over four years. For certain parameters, benchmarks or thresholds were set that represented warning limits or action limits. The yearly data were collated from monthly data. Shifts or Trends, if any, were identified and Corrective and Preventive Action (CAPA) taken accordingly. At the end, outcomes of the analysis were charted. Results: After the yearly data evaluation, outcomes obtained were used to plan, correct and amend processes and systems in the blood center. It was observed that the workload of the center showed an upward trend. This helped us to plan for the purchase of consumables and management of manpower. The monitoring of usage and discard of blood helped in the efficient management of blood stocks. The need for any new equipment could also be judged by the trends in workload. Conclusion: Performance indicators are indispensible tools which various stakeholders in the Blood Transfusion centres should implement to improve on quality performance. PMID:27011669

  17. Six steps to improve discussions of employee performance.

    PubMed

    Goodale, J G

    1995-01-01

    Formal performance appraisal interviews are often ineffective because they strain working relationships between managers and employees and provide inadequate feedback to both parties. This article provides supervisors with specific guidance to improve appraisal interviews by addressing three topics: 1) why appraisal interviews are held; 2) what information is exchanged; and 3) how the interviews are planned and conducted. The author advises supervisors to discuss administrative decisions with the employee in an annual meeting and to stress employee development and performance improvement in separate interviews held as often as necessary. The article emphasizes that interviews are more effective when the topics discussed are observable employee performance and results rather than more subjective assessments of personal qualities, skills, and knowledge, which lead to employee defensiveness. Specific guidelines are given to help supervisors draw out the employee's assessments of his or her own performance and plans for improvement. This two-way communication approach contributes to a positive discussion between supervisors and employees and is also appropriate when team members assess the performance of their peers. PMID:10139912

  18. Structural Design Strategies for Improved Small Overlap Crashworthiness Performance.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Becky C; Brethwaite, Andrew S; Zuby, David S; Nolan, Joseph M

    2014-11-01

    In 2012, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) began a 64 km/h small overlap frontal crash test consumer information test program. Thirteen automakers already have redesigned models to improve test performance. One or more distinct strategies are evident in these redesigns: reinforcement of the occupant compartment, use of energy-absorbing fender structures, and the addition of engagement structures to induce vehicle lateral translation. Each strategy influences vehicle kinematics, posing additional challenges for the restraint systems. The objective of this two-part study was to examine how vehicles were modified to improve small overlap test performance and then to examine how these modifications affect dummy response and restraint system performance. Among eight models tested before and after design changes, occupant compartment intrusion reductions ranged from 6 cm to 45 cm, with the highest reductions observed in models with the largest number of modifications. All redesigns included additional occupant compartment reinforcement, one-third added structures to engage the barrier, and two modified a shotgun load path. Designs with engagement structures produced greater glance-off from the barrier and exhibited lower delta Vs but experienced more lateral outboard motion of the dummy. Designs with heavy reinforcement of the occupant compartment had higher vehicle accelerations and delta V. In three cases, these apparent trade-offs were not well addressed by concurrent changes in restraint systems and resulted in increased injury risk compared with the original tests. Among the 36 models tested after design changes, the extent of design changes correlated to structural performance. Half of the vehicles with the lowest intrusion levels incorporated aspects of all three design strategies. Vehicle kinematics and dummy and restraint system characteristics were similar to those observed in the before/after pairs. Different combinations of structural

  19. Condenser performance test and back-pressure improvement: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Piskorowski, J.; Beckett, G.; Bell, R.

    1988-04-01

    This document describes condenser performance test and analyses experiences. The testing was performed by Indianapolis Power and Light Company (IPL) on the Petersburg Unit 3 condenser. The initial testing revealed a performance deficiency. Modifications were made to the condenser, air in-leakage was reduced and the vacuum pumps were brought back to their original design capacity. Testing was reperformed after these activities and although a significant performance improvement was achieved deficiencies were still evident. Heat Exchanger Systems, Inc. (HES) was retained as consultants during this testing program. The Central Electricity Generating Board's (CEGB) Central Electricity Research Laboratory (CERL) acting as a subcontractor to HES were retained to perform an analysis of the Petersburg Unit 3 condenser using their EPOC computer code. The results of this analysis are also contained in this document. 3 refs., 48 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Excellence in Higher Education, 2003-2004: A Baldrige-Based Guide to Organizational Assessment, Improvement and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruben, Brent D.

    2003-01-01

    Self-assessment leads to stronger performance in the nation's colleges and universities. That's the premise of "Excellence in Higher Education," a model self-assessment program that has earned accolades from the higher education community. Based on the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award framework, the third edition of this bestseller is the…

  1. Reconciling the Disconnect between Information Technology and Information Systems Using an Organizational Epistemology: A Framework to Improve Success with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    There is a disconnect between information technology (IT) and information systems (IS) that lies at the foundation of frequent failure in cost, schedule, and/or performance of IT/IS. This disconnect can perhaps be reconciled through a focus on the socially constructed and emergent nature of IT as it enters and is used by an organization. The…

  2. Improving the Performance of the Extreme-scale Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, Christian; Naughton III, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the performance of parallel applications at scale on future high-performance computing (HPC) architectures and the performance impact of different architecture choices is an important component of HPC hardware/software co-design. The Extreme-scale Simulator (xSim) is a simulation-based toolkit for investigating the performance of parallel applications at scale. xSim scales to millions of simulated Message Passing Interface (MPI) processes. The overhead introduced by a simulation tool is an important performance and productivity aspect. This paper documents two improvements to xSim: (1) a new deadlock resolution protocol to reduce the parallel discrete event simulation management overhead and (2) a new simulated MPI message matching algorithm to reduce the oversubscription management overhead. The results clearly show a significant performance improvement, such as by reducing the simulation overhead for running the NAS Parallel Benchmark suite inside the simulator from 1,020\\% to 238% for the conjugate gradient (CG) benchmark and from 102% to 0% for the embarrassingly parallel (EP) and benchmark, as well as, from 37,511% to 13,808% for CG and from 3,332% to 204% for EP with accurate process failure simulation.

  3. Improving creativity performance by short-term meditation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One form of meditation intervention, the integrative body-mind training (IBMT) has been shown to improve attention, reduce stress and change self-reports of mood. In this paper we examine whether short-term IBMT can improve performance related to creativity and determine the role that mood may play in such improvement. Methods Forty Chinese undergraduates were randomly assigned to short-term IBMT group or a relaxation training (RT) control group. Mood and creativity performance were assessed by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) questionnaire respectively. Results As predicted, the results indicated that short-term (30 min per day for 7 days) IBMT improved creativity performance on the divergent thinking task, and yielded better emotional regulation than RT. In addition, cross-lagged analysis indicated that both positive and negative affect may influence creativity in IBMT group (not RT group). Conclusions Our results suggested that emotion-related creativity-promoting mechanism may be attributed to short-term meditation. PMID:24645871

  4. Optimizing performance by improving core stability and core strength.

    PubMed

    Hibbs, Angela E; Thompson, Kevin G; French, Duncan; Wrigley, Allan; Spears, Iain

    2008-01-01

    Core stability and core strength have been subject to research since the early 1980s. Research has highlighted benefits of training these processes for people with back pain and for carrying out everyday activities. However, less research has been performed on the benefits of core training for elite athletes and how this training should be carried out to optimize sporting performance. Many elite athletes undertake core stability and core strength training as part of their training programme, despite contradictory findings and conclusions as to their efficacy. This is mainly due to the lack of a gold standard method for measuring core stability and strength when performing everyday tasks and sporting movements. A further confounding factor is that because of the differing demands on the core musculature during everyday activities (low load, slow movements) and sporting activities (high load, resisted, dynamic movements), research performed in the rehabilitation sector cannot be applied to the sporting environment and, subsequently, data regarding core training programmes and their effectiveness on sporting performance are lacking. There are many articles in the literature that promote core training programmes and exercises for performance enhancement without providing a strong scientific rationale of their effectiveness, especially in the sporting sector. In the rehabilitation sector, improvements in lower back injuries have been reported by improving core stability. Few studies have observed any performance enhancement in sporting activities despite observing improvements in core stability and core strength following a core training programme. A clearer understanding of the roles that specific muscles have during core stability and core strength exercises would enable more functional training programmes to be implemented, which may result in a more effective transfer of these skills to actual sporting activities. PMID:19026017

  5. Improved Neurobehavioral Performance during the Wake Maintenance Zone

    PubMed Central

    Shekleton, Julia A.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.; Gooley, Joshua J.; Van Reen, Eliza; Czeisler, Charles A.; Lockley, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Although impairment of daytime functioning is a symptom of many sleep disorders, there are limited data on their nature for some patient groups. The role of the circadian system on impaired functioning, specifically the wake maintenance zone (WMZ)—a ∼3-h window of reduced sleep propensity that occurs shortly before the onset of melatonin synthesis—has received little attention. The study examined the influence of the WMZ on neurobehavioral performance under normal conditions and following sleep deprivation. Methods: Thirty-one adults (8 F; 18-29 y) completed an in-patient protocol including a baseline day (8-h sleep:16-h wake) and a ∼50-h constant routine (CR), including regular assessment of plasma melatonin and neurobehavioral performance (i.e., auditory and visual psychomotor vigilance tests [aPVT, vPVT], Digit Symbol Substitution Test [DSST], and subjective sleepiness). Results: Performance in the 3 hours before the onset of melatonin secretion (i.e., the expected WMZ) was significantly improved compared to performance during a 3-hour block earlier in the biological day, despite a longer time awake. The improvement during WMZ was most prominent after extended wakefulness (i.e., day 2 of the CR). Conclusions: These results suggest that alignment of circa-dian phase with respect to sleep-wake timing may affect cognitive performance, particularly when homeostatic sleep pressure is high, and especially when performance is assessed in the evening, near the predicted WMZ. The potential contribution of the WMZ to sleep-onset insomnia complaints should be assessed further, using objective neurobehavioral testing and simultaneous circadian phase measurement. Citation: Shekleton JA; Rajaratnam SMW; Gooley JJ; Van Reen E; Czeisler CA; Lockley SW. Improved neurobehavioral performance during the wake maintenance zone. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(4):353-362. PMID:23585751

  6. A case study using a patient satisfaction survey to improve the delivery and effectiveness of drug addiction treatment services: marketing implications and organizational impact.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Beth; Hershey, Lewis; Ritchey, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Drug abuse and addiction continues to negatively impact many lives in this country. The United States health care system has grappled with how to best serve this vulnerable population. Since the personal and societal costs of addiction are high, all recent iterations of the United States strategic health plans (such as Healthy People 2010) have prioritized this area for improvement. At the local level, health care providers who care for those with addictions are challenged with shrinking insurance coverage for services, a difficult patient population, lack of treatment options, growing ranks of indigent patients, as well as a plethora of additional management challenges. It is known that successful treatment is integrally linked with patient satisfaction with services. The most critical factors in successful addiction treatment (from a patient's perspective) are (1) their belief that the counselor cares about them and, (2) their belief that they can recover. This paper reports a case study in the use of a patient satisfaction survey as a quality management/service refinement tool within a methadone treatment setting. Results indicate that the use of the survey itself provides patients with a tangible cue supporting the presence of the critical success factors. Further, the use of a survey provides a baseline for future measurements and trending. The paper concludes with a discussion of the marketing and organizational implications of incorporating the patient satisfaction survey into the ongoing delivery program for addiction services. PMID:19042522

  7. Underlayer and rinse materials for improving EUV resist performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanaban, Munirathna; Cho, JoonYeon; Kudo, Takanori; Mullen, Salem; Yao, Huirong; Noya, Go; Matsuura, Yuriko; Ide, Yasuaki; Li, Jin; Pawlowski, Georg

    2013-03-01

    Photoresists play a key role in enabling the patterning process, and the development of their chemistry has contributed significantly to the industry's ability to continue shrinking device dimensions. However, with the increasing complexity of patterning ever smaller features, photoresist performance needs to be supported by a large number of materials, such as antireflective coatings and anti-collapse rinses. Bottom anti-reflective coatings are widely used to control reflectivity-driven pattern fidelity in i-line and DUV exposures. While no such reflectivity control is required at EUV wavelengths, it has been demonstrated that use of an EUV underlayer (EBL) coating with high EUV photon absorption (EPA) unit can improve resist performance such as sensitivity and resist-substrate poisoning, thereby improving resolution and process window. EBL can also help to reduce the effect of out-of-band (OoB) irradiation. Traditionally, final photoresist image cleaning after the develop step has been performed using de-ionized water, generally known as a "rinse step". More recently pattern collapse has developed to a major failure mode in high resolution lithography attributed to strong capillary forces induced by water resulting in pattern bending (`pattern sticking') or adhesion failure. With decreasing feature geometries (DPT immersion lithography, EUV) the benefit of rinse solutions to prevent pattern collapse has increased. In addition such rinse solutions can in some cases improve defects and LWR. In this paper we describe the advantages of AZ® EBL series of EUV underlayer materials and EUV FIRM® EXTREME™ rinse solutions when applied individually and in combinations. It is demonstrated that the use of underlayer materials can help improve LWR through improvement of resist profiles. Use of FIRM® EXTREME™ rinse is shown to provide significant improvement in collapse margin and total defect counts.

  8. Identifying the key performance improvement domains for home health agencies

    PubMed Central

    Koru, Güneş; Alhuwail, Dari; Rosati, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to support home health agencies (HHAs) in the United States (US) in their individualized quality assessment and performance improvement (QAPI) initiatives by identifying their key performance improvement domains (KPIDs). Methods: Qualitative research was conducted by following the Framework method. Rich contextual data were obtained through focus group meetings participated by domain experts. The analysis results were further refined in an online forum and validated at a final meeting. Results: Four focus groups involving a total of 20 participants resulted in useful discussions during which various perspectives were expressed by the expert participants. A well-defined set of 17 KPIDs emerged under four categories, namely, economical value, sociocultural sensitivity, interpersonal relationships, and clinical capabilities. Conclusions: The feedback we received from the focus groups indicates that performance improvement in HHAs is a lot more complicated than simply assessing whether certain clinical tasks are performed. The KPIDs identified in this study can help HHAs in their focused and individualized QAPI initiatives. Therefore, the results should be immediately relevant, interesting, and useful to the home care industry and policy makers in the US. PMID:27092266

  9. The Case for Unit-Based Teams: A Model for Front-line Engagement and Performance Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Paul M; Ptaskiewicz, Mark; Mipos, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Unit-based teams (UBTs)—defined as natural work groups of physicians, managers, and frontline staff who work collaboratively to solve problems, improve performance, and enhance quality—were established by the 2005 national agreement between Kaiser Permanente (KP) and the Coalition of KP Unions. They use established performance-improvement techniques and employee-engagement principles (including social-movement theory) to achieve clinical and operational goals. UBT members identify performance gaps and opportunities within their purview—issues they can address in the course of the day-to-day work, such as workflow or process improvement. By focusing on clear, agreed-on goals, UBTs encourage greater accountability and allow members to perform their full scope of work. UBTs are designed to deliver measurable benefits in clinical outcomes and operations, patient-experience enhancements, and physician-team performance or work life. For many physicians, UBTs will require new ways of engaging with their teams. However, evidence suggests that with organizational and physician support, these teams can achieve their goals. This article presents case examples of successful UBTs' outcomes; physicians' comments on their experience working with teams; an overview of UBTs' employee-engagement principles; and advice on how physicians can support and participate in the work of such teams. PMID:20740124

  10. Developing and assessing initiatives designed to improve clinical teaching performance.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Sorabh; Bernard, Aaron W; Wald, David A; Manthey, David E; Fisher, Jonathan; Ankel, Felix; Williams, Sarah R; Szyld, Demian; Riddle, Janet; Anders Ericsson, K

    2012-12-01

    To improve the teaching performance of emergency physicians, it is necessary to understand the attributes of expert teachers and the optimal methods to deliver faculty development. A working group of medical educators was formed to review the literature, summarize what is known on the topic, and provide recommendations for future research. This occurred as a track of the 2012 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference "Education Research in Emergency Medicine: Opportunities, Challenges, and Strategies for Success." The group concluded that the current state of research on these topics is limited. Improvement in understanding will come through research focusing on Kirkpatrick's higher levels of evaluation (behavior and results). PMID:23216823

  11. Creating a winning organizational culture.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Robert James

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the idea of how to create a winning organizational culture. By definition, a winning organizational culture is one that is able to make current innovations stick, while continuously changing based on the demands of the marketplace. More importantly, the article explores the notion that a winning organizational culture can have a profound impact on the conscious of the workforce, helping each individual to become a better, more productive person, who provides important services and products to the community. To form a basis toward defining the structure of what a winning organization culture looks like, 4 experts were asked 12 questions related to the development of an organizational culture. Three of the experts have worked intimately within the health care industry, while a fourth has been charged with turning around an organization that has had a losing culture for 17 years. The article provides insight into the role that values, norms, goals, leadership style, familiarity, and hiring practices play in developing a winning organizational culture. The article also emphasizes the important role that leaders perform in developing an organizational culture. PMID:19910709

  12. Improving ensemble decision tree performance using Adaboost and Bagging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Md. Rajib; Siraj, Fadzilah; Sainin, Mohd Shamrie

    2015-12-01

    Ensemble classifier systems are considered as one of the most promising in medical data classification and the performance of deceision tree classifier can be increased by the ensemble method as it is proven to be better than single classifiers. However, in a ensemble settings the performance depends on the selection of suitable base classifier. This research employed two prominent esemble s namely Adaboost and Bagging with base classifiers such as Random Forest, Random Tree, j48, j48grafts and Logistic Model Regression (LMT) that have been selected independently. The empirical study shows that the performance varries when different base classifiers are selected and even some places overfitting issue also been noted. The evidence shows that ensemble decision tree classfiers using Adaboost and Bagging improves the performance of selected medical data sets.

  13. Improving the Hydrodynamic Performance of Diffuser Vanes via Shape Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, Tushar; Dorney, Daniel J.; Haftka, Raphael T.; Shyy, Wei

    2007-01-01

    The performance of a diffuser in a pump stage depends on its configuration and placement within the stage. The influence of vane shape on the hydrodynamic performance of a diffuser has been studied. The goal of this effort has been to improve the performance of a pump stage by optimizing the shape of the diffuser vanes. The shape of the vanes was defined using Bezier curves and circular arcs. Surrogate model based tools were used to identify regions of the vane that have a strong influence on its performance. Optimization of the vane shape, in the absence of manufacturing, and stress constraints, led to a nearly nine percent reduction in the total pressure losses compared to the baseline design by reducing the extent of the base separation.

  14. Tailless aircraft performance improvements with relaxed static stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashkenas, Irving L.; Klyde, David H.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose is to determine the tailless aircraft performance improvements gained from relaxed static stability, to quantify this potential in terms of range-payload improvements, and to identify other possible operational and handling benefits or problems. Two configurations were chosen for the study: a modern high aspect ratio, short-chord wing proposed as a high-altitude long endurance (HALE) remotely piloted vehicle; a wider, lower aspect ratio, high volume wing suitable for internal stowage of all fuel and payload required for a manned long-range reconnaissance mission. Flying at best cruise altitude, both unstable configurations were found to have a 14 percent improvement in range and a 7 to 9 percent improvement in maximum endurance compared to the stable configurations. The unstable manned configuration also shows a 15 percent improvement in the 50 ft takeoff obstacle distance and an improved height response to elevator control. However, it is generally more deficient in control power due to its larger adverse aileron yaw and its higher takeoff and landing lift coefficient C(sub L), both due to the downward trimmed (vs. upward trimmed for stable configurations) trailing edge surfaces.

  15. The Social Responsibility Performance Outcomes Model: Building Socially Responsible Companies through Performance Improvement Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim

    2000-01-01

    Considers the role of performance improvement professionals and human resources development professionals in helping organizations realize the ethical and financial power of corporate social responsibility. Explains the social responsibility performance outcomes model, which incorporates the concepts of societal needs and outcomes. (LRW)

  16. Theory To Guide Organizational Training in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langmeyer, Daniel; And Others

    Organizational training aims at increasing the problem-solving effectiveness of groups by harnessing emotional states and enabling participants to function efficiently as working components of a task-oriented body. A three-step sequence for using organizational training in schools would: (1) improve communication skills of personnel, (2) change…

  17. In Situ Propellant Production for improved sample return mission performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stancati, M. L.; Niehoff, J. C.; Wells, W. C.; Feingold, H.; Ash, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    In Situ Propellant Production (ISPP) on the surface of a target body is evaluated as a potential way to relax sample return mass constraints and to improve mission performance. Utilization of an oxygen/methane bipropellant combination for primary outbound and return propulsion has a significant favorable impact upon Earth escape requirements. A small sample can be returned from Mars using a single Shuttle/IUS(Twin) launch. Performance and design data are presented for the Mars mission. For sample returns from selected Galilean satellites, launch requirements are reduced by fifteen to forty percent. An assessment is made of overall utility of ISPP to planetary missions.

  18. Improving the use of evidence-based heart failure therapies in the outpatient setting: the IMPROVE HF performance improvement registry.

    PubMed

    Fonarow, Gregg C; Yancy, Clyde W; Albert, Nancy M; Curtis, Anne B; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Heywood, J Thomas; Mehra, Mandeep; O'Connor, Christopher M; Reynolds, Dwight; Walsh, Mary Norine

    2007-07-01

    Evidence-based consensus treatment guidelines are available to assist physicians with the management of chronic heart failure (HF). Although it has been generally presumed that physicians incorporate these treatment guidelines into clinical practice, the actual assimilation of evidence-based strategies and guidelines has been demonstrated to be less than ideal. Studies of HF care show that treatment guidelines are slowly adopted and inconsistently applied and, thus, often fail to lead to improvements in patient care and outcomes. There are a number of ongoing, large, national quality improvement registries that are following the clinical care and outcomes of inpatient HF treatment. However, to date, there have been no similar quality improvement registries in the outpatient arena. The Registry to Improve the Use of Evidence-Based Heart Failure Therapies in the Outpatient Setting (IMPROVE HF) is the first large, comprehensive performance improvement registry designed to characterize the current outpatient management of systolic HF and assess the effect of practice-specific process improvement interventions consisting of education, specific clinical guidelines, reminder systems, benchmarked quality reports, and structured academic detailing on the use of evidence-based HF therapies. Seven performance measures to quantify the quality of outpatient HF care were explicitly developed by the IMPROVE HF Steering Committee. The primary objective is to observe, over the aggregate of IMPROVE HF practice sites, a relative > or = 20% improvement in at least 2 of the 7 performance measures at 24 months, compared with baseline. Deidentified clinical data from the medical records of a planned 43,000 patients from 160 US cardiology practices will be included in this study. PMID:17584548

  19. Improvement of tokamak performance by injection of electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Masayuki

    1992-12-01

    Concepts for improving tokamak performance by utilizing injection of hot electrons are discussed. Motivation of this paper is to introduce the research work being performed in this area and to refer the interested readers to the literature for more detail. The electron injection based concepts presented here have been developed in the CDX, CCT, and CDX-U tokamak facilities. The following three promising application areas of electron injection are described here: 1. Non-inductive current drive, 2. Plasma preionization for tokamak start-up assist, and 3. Charging-up of tokamak flux surfaces for improved plasma confinement. The main motivation for the dc-helicity injection current drive is in its efficiency that, in theory, is independent of plasma density. This property makes it attractive for driving currents in high density reactor plasmas.

  20. An Accurate Link Correlation Estimator for Improving Wireless Protocol Performance

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhiwei; Xu, Xianghua; Dong, Wei; Bu, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Wireless link correlation has shown significant impact on the performance of various sensor network protocols. Many works have been devoted to exploiting link correlation for protocol improvements. However, the effectiveness of these designs heavily relies on the accuracy of link correlation measurement. In this paper, we investigate state-of-the-art link correlation measurement and analyze the limitations of existing works. We then propose a novel lightweight and accurate link correlation estimation (LACE) approach based on the reasoning of link correlation formation. LACE combines both long-term and short-term link behaviors for link correlation estimation. We implement LACE as a stand-alone interface in TinyOS and incorporate it into both routing and flooding protocols. Simulation and testbed results show that LACE: (1) achieves more accurate and lightweight link correlation measurements than the state-of-the-art work; and (2) greatly improves the performance of protocols exploiting link correlation. PMID:25686314