Science.gov

Sample records for improved damage control

  1. Damage control resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Pohlman, Timothy H; Walsh, Mark; Aversa, John; Hutchison, Emily M; Olsen, Kristen P; Lawrence Reed, R

    2015-07-01

    The early recognition and management of hemorrhage shock are among the most difficult tasks challenging the clinician during primary assessment of the acutely bleeding patient. Often with little time, within a chaotic setting, and without sufficient clinical data, a decision must be reached to begin transfusion of blood components in massive amounts. The practice of massive transfusion has advanced considerably and is now a more complete and, arguably, more effective process. This new therapeutic paradigm, referred to as damage control resuscitation (DCR), differs considerably in many important respects from previous management strategies for catastrophic blood loss. We review several important elements of DCR including immediate correction of specific coagulopathies induced by hemorrhage and management of several extreme homeostatic imbalances that may appear in the aftermath of resuscitation. We also emphasize that the foremost objective in managing exsanguinating hemorrhage is always expedient and definitive control of the source of bleeding. PMID:25631636

  2. Metabolite Damage and Metabolite Damage Control in Plants.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Andrew D; Henry, Christopher S; Fiehn, Oliver; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie

    2016-04-29

    It is increasingly clear that (a) many metabolites undergo spontaneous or enzyme-catalyzed side reactions in vivo, (b) the damaged metabolites formed by these reactions can be harmful, and (c) organisms have biochemical systems that limit the buildup of damaged metabolites. These damage-control systems either return a damaged molecule to its pristine state (metabolite repair) or convert harmful molecules to harmless ones (damage preemption). Because all organisms share a core set of metabolites that suffer the same chemical and enzymatic damage reactions, certain damage-control systems are widely conserved across the kingdoms of life. Relatively few damage reactions and damage-control systems are well known. Uncovering new damage reactions and identifying the corresponding damaged metabolites, damage-control genes, and enzymes demands a coordinated mix of chemistry, metabolomics, cheminformatics, biochemistry, and comparative genomics. This review illustrates the above points using examples from plants, which are at least as prone to metabolite damage as other organisms. PMID:26667673

  3. Damage mitigating control for wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Richard A.

    2007-12-01

    In the last few decades the wind industry has made great strides in reducing the cost of energy of utility scale wind turbines. In an attempt to reduce infrastructure costs and improve efficiency, the trend has been to develop larger variations of existing designs. In the past, the wind turbine controller was used primarily for rotor speed control and prevention of catastrophic damage from extreme wind conditions or component failures. The recent trend of wind turbine growing in size has resulted in wind turbines becoming much more flexible, and now the emphasis of wind turbine controls research focuses on how to damp resonances and avoid dangerous excitations that may lead to structural failure. Control of the fatigue loads on the wind turbine structure addresses neglects the fatigue mechanism of the material. The conversion of loads into stresses and those stresses into fatigue damage is a highly nonlinear process and is based on the so-called "cycle-counting" methods. Since the cycle counting methodology is difficult to convert into the time or frequency domains, these components have been generally avoided in controls research. Without modeling the damage dynamics, the wind turbine controller cannot efficiently reduce the fatigue of the structural components. The result is that only small decreases of fatigue damage are realized by current load reduction strategies at the expense of excessive control actuation. This dissertation introduces the concept of Damage Mitigating Control (DMC) as it applies to utility scale Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWTs). The work presented extends earlier work in damage mitigating and life extending control in several ways and then applies then applies this control strategy to reduce the fatigue damage suffered by wind turbines during operation. By modeling fatigue damage dynamics within the wind turbine controller, the life of the turbine can be extended significantly without sacrificing performance.

  4. Demystifying damage control in musculoskeletal trauma.

    PubMed

    Bates, P; Parker, P; McFadyen, I; Pallister, I

    2016-05-01

    Trauma care has evolved rapidly over the past decade. The benefits of operative fracture management in major trauma patients are well recognised. Concerns over early total care arose when applied broadly. The burden of additional surgical trauma could constitute a second hit, fuelling the inflammatory response and precipitating a decline into acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Temporary external fixation aimed to deliver the benefits of fracture stabilisation without the risk of major surgery. This damage control orthopaedics approach was advocated for those in extremis and a poorly defined borderline group. An increasing understanding of the physiological response to major trauma means there is now a need to refine our treatment options. A number of large scale retrospective reviews indicate that early definitive fracture fixation is beneficial in the majority of major trauma patients. It is recommended that patients are selected appropriately on the basis of their response to resuscitation. The hope is that this approach (dubbed 'safe definitive fracture surgery' or 'early appropriate care') will herald an era when care is individualised for each patient and their circumstances. The novel Damage Control in Orthopaedic Trauma Surgery course at The Royal College of Surgeons of England aims to equip senior surgeons with the insights and mindset necessary to contribute to this key decision making process as well as also the technical skills to provide damage control interventions when needed, relying on the improved techniques of damage control resuscitation and advances in the understanding of early appropriate care. PMID:27023640

  5. Optimal controller design for structural damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew, Jiann-Shiun

    2005-03-01

    The virtual passive control technique has recently been applied to structural damage detection, where the virtual passive controller only uses the existing control devices, and no additional physical elements are attached to the tested structure. One important task is to design passive controllers that can enhance the sensitivity of the identified parameters, such as natural frequencies, to structural damage. This paper presents a novel study of an optimal controller design for structural damage detection. We apply not only passive controllers but also low-order and fixed-structure controllers, such as PID controllers. In the optimal control design, the performance of structural damage detection is based on the application of a neural network technique, which uses the pattern of the correlation between the natural frequency changes of the tested system and the damaged system.

  6. Structural Damage Detection Using Virtual Passive Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lew, Jiann-Shiun; Juang, Jer-Nan

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents novel approaches for structural damage detection which uses the virtual passive controllers attached to structures, where passive controllers are energy dissipative devices and thus guarantee the closed-loop stability. The use of the identified parameters of various closed-loop systems can solve the problem that reliable identified parameters, such as natural frequencies of the open-loop system may not provide enough information for damage detection. Only a small number of sensors are required for the proposed approaches. The identified natural frequencies, which are generally much less sensitive to noise and more reliable than the identified natural frequencies, are used for damage detection. Two damage detection techniques are presented. One technique is based on the structures with direct output feedback controllers while the other technique uses the second-order dynamic feedback controllers. A least-squares technique, which is based on the sensitivity of natural frequencies to damage variables, is used for accurately identifying the damage variables.

  7. Improving Flood Damage Assessment Models in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadio, M.; Mysiak, J.; Carrera, L.; Koks, E.

    2015-12-01

    The use of Stage-Damage Curve (SDC) models is prevalent in ex-ante assessments of flood risk. To assess the potential damage of a flood event, SDCs describe a relation between water depth and the associated potential economic damage over land use. This relation is normally developed and calibrated through site-specific analysis based on ex-post damage observations. In some cases (e.g. Italy) SDCs are transferred from other countries, undermining the accuracy and reliability of simulation results. Against this background, we developed a refined SDC model for Northern Italy, underpinned by damage compensation records from a recent flood event. Our analysis considers both damage to physical assets and production losses from business interruptions. While the first is calculated based on land use information, production losses are measured through the spatial distribution of Gross Value Added (GVA). An additional component of the model assesses crop-specific agricultural losses as a function of flood seasonality. Our results show an overestimation of asset damage from non-calibrated SDC values up to a factor of 4.5 for tested land use categories. Furthermore, we estimate that production losses amount to around 6 per cent of the annual GVA. Also, maximum yield losses are less than a half of the amount predicted by the standard SDC methods.

  8. Damage control in the injured patient

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Jeremy M.; Pham, Tam N.

    2011-01-01

    The damage control concept is an essential component in the management of severely injured patients. The principles in sequence are as follows: (1) abbreviated surgical procedures limited to haemorrhage and contamination control; (2) correction of physiological derangements; (3) definitive surgical procedures. Although originally described in the management of major abdominal injuries, the concept has been extended to include thoracic, vascular, orthopedic, and neurosurgical procedures, as well as anesthesia and resuscitative strategies. PMID:22096776

  9. Semi-active control of isolated and damaged structures using online damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Fereidoun; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad; Javanbakht, Majd

    2015-10-01

    The idea of using semi-active or active control devices within a base isolation system has been developed recently, since applying this system to building structures has some shortcomings such as the creation of large displacements at the base level and the system's lack of adaptability to different seismic excitations. In this study, an integrated structural health monitoring and semi-active control scheme is proposed to enhance the seismic behavior of damaged isolated structures. The nonlinear behavior of an isolated structure is limited to the isolator level and the superstructure is assumed to remain linear. Then, using an online damage detection algorithm based on identified system Markov parameters and a semi-active fuzzy controller, the damage in the base isolator is mitigated and the seismic response of the structure is reduced. In addition, a magnetorheological damper is utilized as a well-studied semi-active actuator in the control system. The effectiveness of the proposed control system is evaluated through the numerical study of a six-degrees-of-freedom model of base-isolated buildings excited by various near-fault and far-field earthquake records. The results of the simulation show that the integrated algorithm is substantially effective in improving the dynamic behavior of isolated structures and reducing the damage in the isolator.

  10. Linear and reconfigurable control of wing damaged aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nespeca, Pascal

    Recently, there has been an interest in researching control techniques that might improve the overall safety of flight. The goal is to create an autopilot control system which could safely land a wing damaged aircraft. Spanwise Full-Loss (SFL) is defined as the entire removal of wing section along the chord of the wing, starting from the tip and moving toward the root. Based upon computational models of a rigid aircraft with varying SFL, obvious force-moment imbalances are likely to be the primary factor affecting survivability. Rigid aircraft with more effective ailerons or additional rolling control surfaces are more likely to survive wing damage. Computer models of wing damage suggest that wing loss in the range of 0--50% SFL will not create an abnormal dynamic instability of a rigid aircraft with a standard linear autopilot. Dynamic instability is not present because the SFL linear model is mostly triangular with longitudinal variables almost exclusively effecting lateral variables. Closed loop performance is not compromised in the range of 0--20% SFL. Resizing ailerons may be needed to accommodate wing damage beyond 20 to 30% SFL. For a flexible aircraft, wing damage that reduces the torsional stiffness of the wing could cause roll-control reversal. Roll control reversal can create closed loop instability with undamaged aircraft. SFL actually increases the torsional stiffness of the wing. However, real world wing damage may not be limited to a spanwise wing loss. Conventional control techniques are introduced by several design examples and successfully extended to wing damaged aircraft. Reconfigurable, switching and conventional control techniques are found to possess acceptable levels of technical merit for flight control. With reconfigurable and switching flight control techniques, one can avoid known instabilities due to time varying gain by simply waiting 6 to 20 seconds between controller switches. Many direct adaptive control and indirect adaptive

  11. Damage Control Mechanisms in Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Martin, James A; Scherb, MB; Lembke, Lois A; Buckwalter, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Articular chondrocytes maintain cartilage throughout life by replacing lost or damaged matrix with freshly synthesized material. Synthesis activity is regulated, rapidly increasing to well above basal levels in response to cartilage injury. Such responses suggest that synthesis activity is linked to the rate of matrix loss by endogenous "damage control" mechanisms. As a major stimulator of matrix synthesis in cartilage, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is likely to play a role in such mechanisms. Although IGF-I is nearly ubiquitous, its bioavailability in cartilage is controlled by IGF-I binding proteins (IGFBPs) secreted by chondrocytes. IGFBPs are part of a complex system, termed the IGF-I axis, that tightly regulates IGF-I activities. For the most part, IGFBPs block IGF-I activity by sequestering IGF-I from its cell surface receptor. We recently found that the expression of one binding protein, IGFBP-3, increases with chondrocyte age, paralleling an age-related decline in synthesis activity. In addition, IGFBP-3 is overexpressed in osteoarthritic cartilage, leading to metabolic disturbances that contribute to cartilage degeneration. These observations indicate that IGFBP-3 plays a crucial role in regulating matrix synthesis in cartilage, and suggest that cartilage damage control mechanisms may fail due to age-related changes in IGFBP-3 expression or distribution. Our investigation of this hypothesis began with immunolocalization studies to determine the tissue distribution of IGFBP-3 in human cartilage. We found that IGFBP-3 accumulated around chondrocytes in the pericellular/territorial matrix, where it co-localized with fibronectin, but not with the other matrix proteins tenascin-C and type VI collagen. This result suggested that the IGFBP-3 distribution is determined by binding to fibronectin. Binding studies using purified proteins demonstrated that IGFBP-3 does in fact bind to fibronectin, but not to tenascin-C or type VI collagen. Finally, we

  12. Control of electrostatic damage to electronic circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Kirk, W.J. Jr.

    1980-03-01

    Static is caused by the flow of materials and people within an environment. The static voltages generated by these movements can degrade or destroy many solid state devices currently being used in sophisticated electronic equipment. Discharge of static voltages through these sensitive devices during assembly operations can lead to a nonfunctional assembly fabricated from parts which previously were acceptable or to later failure of an assembly which was functional after fabrication. Sources of electrostatic charges, equipment and methods for minimizing the generation of electrostatic voltages during the production, assembly and packaging of solid state electronic equipment, and the sensitivity of solid state devices to electrostatic damage are discussed. It is concluded that static awareness is the key to an effective electrostatic damage (ESD) control program, and that production facilities must incorporate electrostatic protection facilities, materials, and processes so that workers can concentrate on producing a high-quality product without having to be overly concerned about ESD procedures. (LCL)

  13. Control Reallocation Strategies for Damage Adaptation in Transport Class Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Krishnakumar, K.; Limes, Greg; Bryant, Don

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the feasibility, potential benefits and implementation issues associated with retrofitting a neural-adaptive flight control system (NFCS) to existing transport aircraft, including both cable/hydraulic and fly-by-wire configurations. NFCS uses a neural network based direct adaptive control approach for applying alternate sources of control authority in the presence of damage or failures in order to achieve desired flight control performance. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions, adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and to make the controller easy to apply when implemented on different aircraft. Full-motion piloted simulation studies were performed on two different transport models: the Boeing 747-400 and the Boeing C-17. Subjects included NASA, Air Force and commercial airline pilots. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increased survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  14. Controlled ion implant damage profile for etching

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jr., George W.; Ashby, Carol I. H.; Brannon, Paul J.

    1990-01-01

    A process for etching a material such as LiNbO.sub.3 by implanting ions having a plurality of different kinetic energies in an area to be etched, and then contacting the ion implanted area with an etchant. The various energies of the ions are selected to produce implant damage substantially uniformly throughout the entire depth of the zone to be etched, thus tailoring the vertical profile of the damaged zone.

  15. Improving School Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Few things are more important for school safety and security than controlling access to buildings and grounds. It is relatively easy to incorporate effective access control measures in new school designs but more difficult in existing schools, where most building and site features cannot be readily altered or reconfigured. The National…

  16. Quality control of chemically damaged RNA.

    PubMed

    Simms, Carrie L; Zaher, Hani S

    2016-10-01

    The "central dogma" of molecular biology describes how information contained in DNA is transformed into RNA and finally into proteins. In order for proteins to maintain their functionality in both the parent cell and subsequent generations, it is essential that the information encoded in DNA and RNA remains unaltered. DNA and RNA are constantly exposed to damaging agents, which can modify nucleic acids and change the information they encode. While much is known about how cells respond to damaged DNA, the importance of protecting RNA has only become appreciated over the past decade. Modification of the nucleobase through oxidation and alkylation has long been known to affect its base-pairing properties during DNA replication. Similarly, recent studies have begun to highlight some of the unwanted consequences of chemical damage on mRNA decoding during translation. Oxidation and alkylation of mRNA appear to have drastic effects on the speed and fidelity of protein synthesis. As some mRNAs can persist for days in certain tissues, it is not surprising that it has recently emerged that mRNA-surveillance and RNA-repair pathways have evolved to clear or correct damaged mRNA. PMID:27155660

  17. Dynamics and Adaptive Control for Stability Recovery of Damaged Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Kaneshige, John; Nespeca, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a recent study of a damaged generic transport model as part of a NASA research project to investigate adaptive control methods for stability recovery of damaged aircraft operating in off-nominal flight conditions under damage and or failures. Aerodynamic modeling of damage effects is performed using an aerodynamic code to assess changes in the stability and control derivatives of a generic transport aircraft. Certain types of damage such as damage to one of the wings or horizontal stabilizers can cause the aircraft to become asymmetric, thus resulting in a coupling between the longitudinal and lateral motions. Flight dynamics for a general asymmetric aircraft is derived to account for changes in the center of gravity that can compromise the stability of the damaged aircraft. An iterative trim analysis for the translational motion is developed to refine the trim procedure by accounting for the effects of the control surface deflection. A hybrid direct-indirect neural network, adaptive flight control is proposed as an adaptive law for stabilizing the rotational motion of the damaged aircraft. The indirect adaptation is designed to estimate the plant dynamics of the damaged aircraft in conjunction with the direct adaptation that computes the control augmentation. Two approaches are presented 1) an adaptive law derived from the Lyapunov stability theory to ensure that the signals are bounded, and 2) a recursive least-square method for parameter identification. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is conducted and demonstrates the effectiveness of the direct neural network adaptive flight control in the stability recovery of the damaged aircraft. A preliminary simulation of the hybrid adaptive flight control has been performed and initial data have shown the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid approach. Future work will include further investigations and high-fidelity simulations of the proposed hybrid adaptive Bight control approach.

  18. Damage-mitigating control of space propulsion systems for high performance and extended life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Asok; Wu, Min-Kuang; Dai, Xiaowen; Carpino, Marc; Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1993-01-01

    Calculations are presented showing that a substantial improvement in service life of a reusable rocket engine can be achieved by an insignificant reduction in the system dynamic performance. The paper introduces the concept of damage mitigation and formulates a continuous-time model of fatigue damage dynamics. For control of complex mechanical systems, damage prediction and damage mitigation are carried out based on the available sensory and operational information such that the plant can be inexpensively maintained and safely and efficiently steered under diverse operating conditions. The results of simulation experiments are presented for transient operations of a reusable rocket engine.

  19. An Integrated Approach to Damage Accommodation in Flight Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boskovic, Jovan D.; Knoebel, Nathan; Mehra, Raman K.; Gregory, Irene

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present an integrated approach to in-flight damage accommodation in flight control. The approach is based on Multiple Models, Switching and Tuning (MMST), and consists of three steps: In the first step the main objective is to acquire a realistic aircraft damage model. Modeling of in-flight damage is a highly complex problem since there is a large number of issues that need to be addressed. One of the most important one is that there is strong coupling between structural dynamics, aerodynamics, and flight control. These effects cannot be studied separately due to this coupling. Once a realistic damage model is available, in the second step a large number of models corresponding to different damage cases are generated. One possibility is to generate many linear models and interpolate between them to cover a large portion of the flight envelope. Once these models have been generated, we will implement a recently developed-Model Set Reduction (MSR) technique. The technique is based on parameterizing damage in terms of uncertain parameters, and uses concepts from robust control theory to arrive at a small number of "centered" models such that the controllers corresponding to these models assure desired stability and robustness properties over a subset in the parametric space. By devising a suitable model placement strategy, the entire parametric set is covered with a relatively small number of models and controllers. The third step consists of designing a Multiple Models, Switching and Tuning (MMST) strategy for estimating the current operating regime (damage case) of the aircraft, and switching to the corresponding controller to achieve effective damage accommodation and the desired performance. In the paper present a comprehensive approach to damage accommodation using Model Set Design,MMST, and Variable Structure compensation for coupling nonlinearities. The approach was evaluated on a model of F/A-18 aircraft dynamics under control effector damage

  20. MRAC Control with Prior Model Knowledge for Asymmetric Damaged Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xieyu; Yang, Lingyu; Zhang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a novel state-tracking multivariable model reference adaptive control (MRAC) technique utilizing prior knowledge of plant models to recover control performance of an asymmetric structural damaged aircraft. A modification of linear model representation is given. With prior knowledge on structural damage, a polytope linear parameter varying (LPV) model is derived to cover all concerned damage conditions. An MRAC method is developed for the polytope model, of which the stability and asymptotic error convergence are theoretically proved. The proposed technique reduces the number of parameters to be adapted and thus decreases computational cost and requires less input information. The method is validated by simulations on NASA generic transport model (GTM) with damage. PMID:26180839

  1. Continuum Fatigue Damage Modeling for Use in Life Extending Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper develops a simplified continuum (continuous wrp to time, stress, etc.) fatigue damage model for use in Life Extending Controls (LEC) studies. The work is based on zero mean stress local strain cyclic damage modeling. New nonlinear explicit equation forms of cyclic damage in terms of stress amplitude are derived to facilitate the continuum modeling. Stress based continuum models are derived. Extension to plastic strain-strain rate models are also presented. Application of these models to LEC applications is considered. Progress toward a nonzero mean stress based continuum model is presented. Also, new nonlinear explicit equation forms in terms of stress amplitude are also derived for this case.

  2. Damage-Mitigating Control of Space Propulsion Systems for High Performance and Extended Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Asok; Wu, Min-Kuang

    1994-01-01

    A major goal in the control of complex mechanical system such as spacecraft rocket engine's advanced aircraft, and power plants is to achieve high performance with increased reliability, component durability, and maintainability. The current practice of decision and control systems synthesis focuses on improving performance and diagnostic capabilities under constraints that often do not adequately represent the materials degradation. In view of the high performance requirements of the system and availability of improved materials, the lack of appropriate knowledge about the properties of these materials will lead to either less than achievable performance due to overly conservative design, or over-straining of the structure leading to unexpected failures and drastic reduction of the service life. The key idea in this report is that a significant improvement in service life could be achieved by a small reduction in the system dynamic performance. The major task is to characterize the damage generation process, and then utilize this information in a mathematical form to synthesize a control law that would meet the system requirements and simultaneously satisfy the constraints that are imposed by the material and structural properties of the critical components. The concept of damage mitigation is introduced for control of mechanical systems to achieve high performance with a prolonged life span. A model of fatigue damage dynamics is formulated in the continuous-time setting, instead of a cycle-based representation, for direct application to control systems synthesis. An optimal control policy is then formulated via nonlinear programming under specified constraints of the damage rate and accumulated damage. The results of simulation experiments for the transient upthrust of a bipropellant rocket engine are presented to demonstrate efficacy of the damage-mitigating control concept.

  3. Geologic controls of subdivision damage near Denver, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noe, D.C.

    2005-01-01

    This case study investigates the geologic controls on damaging ground deformations in a residential subdivision near Denver, Colo. Moderate to severe damage has occurred in certain areas where linear, parallel heave features with up to 0.3 in (1 ft) of differential displacement have formed across roads and under houses. Other areas have small, localized depressions that have formed in the roadsides with no discernable damage to nearby houses. Still other areas show no evidence of ground movements. The bedrock beneath the subdivision consists of steeply dipping Cretaceous strata of the Benton Shale, Niobrara Formation, and Pierre Shale. Quaternary soil deposits and fill, 0-16 m (0-53 ft) thick, overlie the bedrock. The most pronounced and damaging linear-heave features are coincident with steeply dipping, silty claystone with thin layers of very highly plastic bentonite. These heave features diminish as the depth to bedrock increases, and become small to negligible where the bedrock is overlain by 3 m (10 ft) or more of overburden soil deposits or fill. In contrast, areas having no visible damage and those having localized surface depressions are typically underlain by 1-12 m (3-39 ft) of alluvial-terrace deposits or fill. The depressions appear to have been caused by settlement over improperly filled water-and-sewer line trenches. The overall relationship between geology and ground deformations as seen in this subdivision may be useful for predicting, and thereby reducing, damage for future subdivision projects. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering ?? ASCE.

  4. Influence of Detector Radiation Damage on CR Mammography Quality Control.

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Atsumi; Ishii, Mie; Terazono, Shiho; Arao, Keiko; Ishii, Rie; Sanada, Taizo; Yoshida, Akira

    2016-05-01

    Recently, radiation damage to the detector apparatus employed in computed radiography (CR) mammography has become problematic. The CR system and the imaging plate (IP) applied to quality control (QC) program were also used in clinical mammography in our hospital, and the IP to which radiation damage has occurred was used for approximately 5 years (approximately 13,000 exposures). We considered using previously acquired QC image data, which is stored in a server, to investigate the influence of radiation damage to an IP. The mammography unit employed in this study was a phase contrast mammography (PCM) Mermaid (KONICA MINOLTA) system. The QC image was made newly, and it was output in the film, and thereafter the optical density of the step-phantom image was measured. An input (digital value)-output (optical density) conversion curve was plotted using the obtained data. The digital values were then converted to optical density values using a reference optical density vs. digital value curve. When a high radiation dose was applied directly, radiation damage occurred at a position on the IP where no object was present. Daily QC for mammography is conducted using an American College of Radiology (ACR) accreditation phantom and acrylic disc, and an environmental background density measurement is performed as one of the management indexes. In this study, the radiation damage sustained by the acrylic disc was shown to differ from that of the background. Thus, it was revealed that QC results are influenced by radiation damage. PMID:27211088

  5. NDE of Damage in Aircraft Flight Control Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, David K.; Barnard, Daniel J.; Dayal, Vinay

    2007-03-01

    Flight control surfaces on an aircraft, such as ailerons, flaps, spoilers and rudders, are typically adhesively bonded composite or aluminum honeycomb sandwich structures. These components can suffer from damage caused by hail stone, runway debris, or dropped tools during maintenance. On composites, low velocity impact damages can escape visual inspection, whereas on aluminum honeycomb sandwich, budding failure of the honeycomb core may or may not be accompanied by a disbond. This paper reports a study of the damage morphology in such structures and the NDE methods for detecting and characterizing them. Impact damages or overload failures in composite sandwiches with Nomex or fiberglass core tend to be a fracture or crinkle or the honeycomb cell wall located a distance below the facesheet-to-core bondline. The damage in aluminum honeycomb is usually a buckling failure, propagating from the top skin downward. The NDE methods used in this work for mapping out these damages were: air-coupled ultrasonic scan, and imaging by computer aided tap tester. Representative results obtained from the field will be shown.

  6. Damage-controlled high power lasers and plasma mirror application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Nishikino, Masaharu; Nagashima, Keisuke; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Itakura, Ryoji; Sugiyama, Akira; Kando, Masaki; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Bulanov, Sergei V.; Kondo, Kimonori; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2015-07-01

    Following three different types of high power lasers at Kansai Photon Science Institute are overviewed and controlling the laser damages in these laser systems are described: (1) PW-class Ti:sapphire laser for high field science, (2) zig-zag slab Nd:glass laser for x-ray laser pumping, and (3) high-repetition Yb:YAG thin-slab laser for THz generation. Also reported is the use of plasma mirror for characterization of short-wavelength ultrashort laser pulses. This new method will be useful to study evolution of plasma formation which leads to laser damages.

  7. Quality control mechanisms in cellular and systemic DNA damage responses

    PubMed Central

    Ermolaeva, Maria A.; Dakhovnik, Alexander; Schumacher, Björn

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of the genome is of pivotal importance for the functional integrity of cells and tissues. The gradual accumulation of DNA damage is thought to contribute to the functional decline of tissues and organs with ageing. Defects in multiple genome maintenance systems cause human disorders characterized by cancer susceptibility, developmental failure, and premature ageing. The complex pathological consequences of genome instability are insufficiently explained by cell-autonomous DNA damage responses (DDR) alone. Quality control pathways play an important role in DNA repair and cellular DDR pathways. Recent years have revealed non-cell autonomous effects of DNA damage that impact the physiological adaptations during ageing. We will discuss the role of quality assurance pathways in cell-autonomous and systemic responses to genome instability. PMID:25560147

  8. Self-repairing control for damaged robotic manipulators

    SciTech Connect

    Eisler, G.R.; Robinett, R.D.; Dohrmann, C.R.; Driessen, B.J.

    1997-03-01

    Algorithms have been developed allowing operation of robotic systems under damaged conditions. Specific areas addressed were optimal sensor location, adaptive nonlinear control, fault-tolerant robot design, and dynamic path-planning. A seven-degree-of-freedom, hydraulic manipulator, with fault-tolerant joint design was also constructed and tested. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  9. Methods for improved hemorrhage control

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Trauma is the leading cause of death from age 1 to 34 years and is the fifth leading cause of death overall in the USA, with uncontrolled hemorrhage being the leading cause of potentially preventable death. Improving our ability to control hemorrhage may represent the next major hurdle in reducing trauma mortality. New techniques, devices, and drugs for hemorrhage control are being developed and applied across the continuum of trauma care: prehospital, emergency room, and operative and postoperative critical care. This brief review focuses on drugs directed at life-threatening hemorrhage. The most important of these new drugs are injectable hemostatics, fibrin foams, and dressings. The available animal studies are encouraging and human studies are required. PMID:15196327

  10. Damage control resuscitation: from emergency department to the operating room.

    PubMed

    Duchesne, Juan C; Barbeau, James M; Islam, Tareq M; Wahl, Georgia; Greiffenstein, Patrick; McSwain, Norman E

    2011-02-01

    Damage control surgery emphasizes limited operations with control of bleeding and contamination. Traditional management centered upon correction of acidosis and hypotension with crystalloids. Damage control resuscitation (DCR) is permissive hypotension and early hemostatic resuscitation combined identified and corrects coagulopathy with fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), restricting use of crystalloids. We hypothesize a survival advantage in patients managed with DCR when compared with a historical cohort of patients. During the 2-year retrospective review, a 1-year period after institution of DCR was compared with a historical control. Resuscitation strategies were analyzed and stratified into emergency department (ED) resuscitation and intraoperative resuscitation. Univariate analysis of continuous data was done with Student's t test followed by multiple logistic regression. Fifty-seven and 61 patients were managed during the NonDCR and DCR periods respectively. Baseline demographic patient characteristics and physiologic variables were similar between groups. ED DCR patients received less crystalloids: 1.1 versus 4.7 liters (P = 0.0001), more FFP: 1.8 versus 0.5 (P = 0.001). NonDCR had a lower initial systolic pressure in the operating room when compared with DCR: 81 mm Hg versus 95 mm Hg (P = 0.03). DCR patients received less intraoperative crystalloids: 5.7 versus 15.8 liters (P = 0.0001) and more FFP: 15.1 versus 6.2 (P = 0.0001). DCR conveyed a survival benefit (Odds Ratio; 95% confidence interval: 0.40 (0.18-0.90), P = 0.024). NonDCR group had 13.2 days longer hospital length of stay. Damage control resuscitation, beginning in the ED, used more packed red blood cells and FFP minimizing crystalloids. DCR was associated with a survival advantage and shorter length of stay in patients with severe hemorrhage. PMID:21337881

  11. Low cost corrosion damage mitigation and improved fatigue performance of low plasticity burnished 7075-T6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prevéy, Paul S.; Cammett, John

    2001-10-01

    Low plasticity burnishing (LPB) has been investigated as a surface enhancement process and corrosion mitigation method for aging aircraft structural applications. Compressive residual stresses reaching the alloy yield strength and extending to a depth of 1.25 mm (0.050 in.) deeper than typical corrosion damage is achievable. Excellent surface finish can be achieved with no detectable metallurgical damage to surface and subsurface material. Salt fog exposures of 100 and 500 h reduced the fatigue strength at 2×106 cycles by 50%. The LPB of the corroded surface, without removal of the corrosion product or pitted material, restored the 2×106 fatigue strength to greater than that of the original machined surface. The fatigue strength of the corroded material in the finite life regime (104 to 106 cycles) after LPB was 140 MPa (20 ksi) higher than the original uncorroded alloy and increased the life by an order of magnitude. Ease of adaptation to computer numerical control (CNC) machine tools allows LPB processing at costs and speeds comparable to machining operations. Low plasticity burnishing offers a promising new technology for mitigation of corrosion damage and improved fatigue life of aircraft structural components with significant cost and time savings over current practices.

  12. Autoimmune control of lesion growth in CNS with minimal damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathankumar, R.; Mohan, T. R. Krishna

    2013-07-01

    Lesions in central nervous system (CNS) and their growth leads to debilitating diseases like Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's etc. We developed a model earlier [1, 2] which shows how the lesion growth can be arrested through a beneficial auto-immune mechanism. We compared some of the dynamical patterns in the model with different facets of MS. The success of the approach depends on a set of control parameters and their phase space was shown to have a smooth manifold separating the uncontrolled lesion growth region from the controlled. Here we show that an optimal set of parameter values exist in the model which minimizes system damage while, at once, achieving control of lesion growth.

  13. Implementation and execution of civilian remote damage control resuscitation programs.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Donald; Stubbs, James; Williams, Steve; Berns, Kathleen; Zielinski, Martin; Strandenes, Geir; Zietlow, Scott

    2014-05-01

    Remote damage control resuscitation is a recently defined term used to describe techniques and strategies to provide hemostatic resuscitation to injured patients in the prehospital setting. In the civilian setting, unlike the typical military setting, patients who require treatment for hemorrhage come in all ages with all types of comorbidities and have bleeding that may be non-trauma related. Thus, in the austere setting, addressing the needs of the patient is no less challenging than in the military environment, albeit the caregivers are typically not putting their lives at risk to provide such care. Two organizations have pioneered remote damage control resuscitation in the civilian environment: Mayo Clinic and Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. The limitations in rural Minnesota and shipboard are daunting. Patients who have hemorrhage requiring transfusion are often hundreds of miles from hospitals able to provide damage control resuscitation. This article details the development and implementation of novel programs specifically designed to address the varied needs of patients in such circumstances. The Mayo Clinic program essentially takes a standard-of-care treatment algorithm, by which the patient would be treated in the emergency department or trauma bay, and projects that forward into the rural environment with specially trained prehospital personnel and special resources. Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd has adapted a traditional military field practice of transfusing warm fresh whole blood, adding significant safety measures not yet reported on the battlefield (see within this Supplement the article entitled "Emergency Whole Blood Use in the Field: A Simplified Protocol for Collection and Transfusion"). The details of development, implementation, and preliminary results of these two civilian programs are described herein. PMID:24662783

  14. Nutriomes and personalised nutrition for DNA damage prevention, telomere integrity maintenance and cancer growth control.

    PubMed

    Fenech, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    DNA damage at the base sequence and chromosome level is a fundamental cause of developmental and degenerative diseases. Multiple micronutrients and their interactions with the inherited and/or acquired genome determine DNA damage and genomic instability rates. The challenge is to identify for each individual the combination of micronutrients and their doses (i.e. the nutriome) that optimises genome stability, including telomere integrity and functionality and DNA repair. Using nutrient array systems with high-content analysis diagnostics of DNA damage, cell death and cell growth, it is possible to define, on an individual basis, the optimal nutriome for DNA damage prevention and cancer growth control. This knowledge can also be used to improve culture systems for cells used in therapeutics such as stem cells to ensure that they are not genetically aberrant when returned to the body. Furthermore, this information could be used to design dietary patterns that deliver the micronutrient combinations and concentrations required for preventing DNA damage by micronutrient deficiency or excess. Using this approach, new knowledge could be obtained to identify the dietary restrictions and/or supplementations required to control specific cancers, which is particularly important given that reliable validated advice is not yet available for those diagnosed with cancer. PMID:24114494

  15. Improving Control of Two Motor Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toland, Ronald W.

    2004-01-01

    A computer program controls motors that drive translation stages in a metrology system that consists of a pair of two-axis cathetometers. This program is specific to Compumotor Gemini (or equivalent) motors and the Compumotor 6K-series (or equivalent) motor controller. Relative to the software supplied with the controller, this program affords more capabilities and is easier to use. Written as a Virtual Instrument in the LabVIEW software system, the program presents an imitation control panel that the user can manipulate by use of a keyboard and mouse. There are three modes of operation: command, movement, and joystick. In command mode, single commands are sent to the controller for troubleshooting. In movement mode, distance, speed, and/or acceleration commands are sent to the controller. Position readouts from the motors and from position encoders on the translation stages are displayed in marked fields. At any time, the position readouts can be recorded in a file named by the user. In joystick mode, the program yields control of the motors to a joystick. The program sends commands to, and receives data from, the controller via a serial cable connection, using the serial-communication portion of the software supplied with the controller.

  16. Crocin Improves Damage Induced by Nicotine on A Number of Reproductive Parameters in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza; Khazaei, Mozafar; Jalili, Cyrus; Keivan, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Background Crocin, a carotenoid isolated from Crocus sativus L. (saffron), is a pharmacologically active component of saffron. Nicotine consumption can decrease fertility in males through induction of oxidative stress and DNA damage. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of crocin on reproductive parameter damages in male mice exposed to nicotine. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we divided 48 mice into 8 groups (n=6 per group): control (normal saline), nicotine (2.5 mg/kg), crocin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) and crocin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg)+nicotine (2.5 mg/kg). Mice received once daily intraperitoneal injections of crocin, nicotine and crocin+nicotine for 4 weeks. Sperm parameters (count, motility, and viability), testis weight, seminiferous tube diameters, testosterone, and serum nitric oxide levels were analyzed and compared. Results Nicotine administration significantly decreased testosterone level; sperm count, viability, and motility; testis weight and seminiferous tubule diameters compared to the control group (P<0.05). However, increasing the dose of crocin in the crocin and crocin+nicotine groups significantly boosted sperm motility and viability; seminiferous tubule diameters; testis weight; and testosterone levels in all groups compared to the nicotine group (P<0.05). Conclusion Crocin improves nicotine-induced adverse effects on reproductive parameters in male mice. PMID:27123203

  17. The Effect of Faster Engine Response on the Lateral Directional Control of a Damaged Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Lemon, Kimberly A.; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2012-01-01

    The integration of flight control and propulsion control has been a much discussed topic, especially for emergencies where the engines may be able to help stabilize and safely land a damaged aircraft. Previous research has shown that for the engines to be effective as flight control actuators, the response time to throttle commands must be improved. Other work has developed control modes that accept a higher risk of engine failure in exchange for improved engine response during an emergency. In this effort, a nonlinear engine model (the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k) has been integrated with a nonlinear airframe model (the Generic Transport Model) in order to evaluate the use of enhanced-response engines as alternative yaw rate control effectors. Tests of disturbance rejection and command tracking were used to determine the impact of the engines on the aircraft's dynamical behavior. Three engine control enhancements that improve the response time of the engine were implemented and tested in the integrated simulation. The enhancements were shown to increase the engine s effectiveness as a yaw rate control effector when used in an automatic feedback loop. The improvement is highly dependent upon flight condition; the airframe behavior is markedly improved at low altitude, low speed conditions, and relatively unchanged at high altitude, high speed.

  18. Improvements in Modeling Thruster Plume Erosion Damage to Spacecraft Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soares, Carlos; Olsen, Randy; Steagall, Courtney; Huang, Alvin; Mikatarian, Ron; Myers, Brandon; Koontz, Steven; Worthy, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Spacecraft bipropellant thrusters impact spacecraft surfaces with high speed droplets of unburned and partially burned propellant. These impacts can produce erosion damage to optically sensitive hardware and systems (e.g., windows, camera lenses, solar cells and protective coatings). On the International Space Station (ISS), operational constraints are levied on the position and orientation of the solar arrays to mitigate erosion effects during thruster operations. In 2007, the ISS Program requested evaluation of erosion constraint relief to alleviate operational impacts due to an impaired Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ). Boeing Space Environments initiated an activity to identify and remove sources of conservatism in the plume induced erosion model to support an expanded range of acceptable solar array positions ? The original plume erosion model over-predicted plume erosion and was adjusted to better correlate with flight experiment results. This paper discusses findings from flight experiments and the methodology employed in modifying the original plume erosion model for better correlation of predictions with flight experiment data. The updated model has been successful employed in reducing conservatism and allowing for enhanced flexibility in ISS solar array operations.

  19. An assessment of buffer strips for improving damage tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poe, C. C., Jr.; Kennedy, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    Graphite/epoxy panels with buffer strips were tested in tension to measure their residual strength with crack-like damage. Panels were made with 45/0/-45/90(2S) and 45/0/450(2S) layups. The buffer strips were parallel to the loading directions. They were made by replacing narrow strips of the 0 deg graphite plies with strips of either 0 deg S-Glass/epoxy or Kevlar-49/epoxy on either a one for one or a two for one basis. In a third case, O deg graphite/epoxy was used as the buffer material and thin, perforated Mylar strips were placed between the 0 deg piles and the cross-plies to weaken the interfaces and thus to isolate the 0 deg plies. Some panels were made with buffer strips of different widths and spacings. The buffer strips arrested the cracks and increased the residual strengths significantly over those plain laminates without buffer strips. A shear-lag type stress analysis correctly predicted the effects of layups, buffer material, buffer strip width and spacing, and the number of plies of buffer material.

  20. Improving 351-nm Damage Performance of Large-Aperture Fused Silica and DKDP Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A K; Hackel, L; Wegner, P; Parham, T; Hrubesh, L; Penetrante, B; Whitman, P; Demos, S; Menapace, J; Runkel, M; Fluss, M; Feit, M; Key, M; Biesiada, T

    2002-01-07

    A program to identify and eliminate the causes of UV laser-induced damage and growth in fused silica and DKDP has developed methods to extend optics lifetimes for large-aperture, high-peak-power, UV lasers such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Issues included polish-related surface damage initiation and growth on fused silica and DKDP, bulk inclusions in fused silica, pinpoint bulk damage in DKDP, and UV-induced surface degradation in fused silica and DKDP in a vacuum. Approaches included an understanding of the mechanism of the damage, incremental improvements to existing fabrication technology, and feasibility studies of non-traditional fabrication technologies. Status and success of these various approaches are reviewed. Improvements were made in reducing surface damage initiation and eliminating growth for fused silica by improved polishing and post-processing steps, and improved analytical techniques are providing insights into mechanisms of DKDP damage. The NIF final optics hardware has been designed to enable easy retrieval, surface-damage mitigation, and recycling of optics.

  1. Improved Damage Resistant Composite Materials Incorporating Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paine, Jeffrey S. N.; Rogers, Craig A.

    1996-01-01

    Metallic shape memory alloys (SMA) such as nitinol have unique shape recovery behavior and mechanical properties associated with a material phase change that have been used in a variety of sensing and actuation applications. Recent studies have shown that integrating nitinol-SMA actuators into composite materials increases the composite material's functionality. Hybrid composites of conventional graphite/epoxy or glass/epoxy and nitinol-SMA elements can perform functions in applications where monolithic composites perform inadequately. One such application is the use of hybrid composites to function both in load bearing and armor capacities. While monolithic composites with high strength-to-weight ratios function efficiently as loadbearing structures, because of their brittle nature, impact loading can cause significant catastrophic damage. Initial composite failure modes such as delamination and matrix cracking dissipate some impact energy, but when stress exceeds the composite's ultimate strength, fiber fracture and material perforation become dominant. One of the few methods that has been developed to reduce material perforation is hybridizing polymer matrix composites with tough kevlar or high modulus polyethynylene plies. The tough fibers increase the impact resistance and the stiffer and stronger graphite fibers carry the majority of the load. Similarly, by adding nitinol-SMA elements that absorb impact energy through the stress-induced martensitic phase transformation, the composites' impact perforation resistance can be greatly enhanced. The results of drop-weight and high velocity gas-gun impact testing of various composite materials will be presented. The results demonstrate that hybridizing composites with nitinol-SMA elements significantly increases perforation resistance compared to other traditional toughening elements. Inspection of the composite specimens at various stages of perforation by optical microscope illustrates the mechanisms by which

  2. Damage control management of innominate artery injury with tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yohei; Narumiya, Hiromichi; Ishii, Wataru; Ryoji, Iiduka

    2016-12-01

    Innominate artery injury is a rare, but catastrophic complication of tracheostomy. We present a case of severe hemorrhagic shock in a 79-year-old male with innominate artery injury that occurred during tracheostomy. Despite temporary innominate artery isolation, the regional forehead saturation was 60 % without laterality. Because adequate cerebral blood flow was apparently maintained through collateral flow, we ligated the innominate, right carotid, and subclavian arteries. We confirmed adequate blood flow to the brain and the right subclavian artery through collateral circulation after ligation using computed tomographic angiography. A damage control management, which involves ligating the injured innominate artery to arrest hemorrhage and monitoring regional forehead saturation for brain ischemia, can be a considerable procedure for the treatment of severe hemorrhagic shock due to innominate artery injury. PMID:26943693

  3. WILD PIGS: BIOLOGY, DAMAGE, CONTROL TECHINQUES AND MANAGEMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, John; Brisbin, I. Lehr

    2009-12-31

    The existence of problems with wild pigs (Sus scrofa) is nothing new to the Western Hemisphere. Damage by these introduced animals was reported as far back as 1505 by the early Spanish colonies in the Caribbean, where wild pigs were killing the colonists cattle. Droves of these animals also ravaged cultivated crops of maize and sugarcane on islands in the West Indies during this same time period. These wild pigs reportedly were very aggressive and often attacked Spanish soldiers hunting rebellious Indians or escaped slaves on these islands, especially when these animals were cornered. The documentation of such impacts by introduced populations of this species in the United States has subsequently increased in recent years, and continued up through the present (Towne and Wentworth. 1950, Wood and Barrett 1979, Mayer and Brisbin 1991, Dickson et al. 2001). In spite of a fairly constant history in this country since the early 1900s, wild pigs have had a dramatic recent increase in both distribution and numbers in the United States. Between 1989 and 2009, the number of states reporting the presence of introduced wild pigs went from 19 up to as many as 44. This increase, in part natural, but largely manmade, has caused an increased workload and cost for land and resource managers in areas where these new populations are found. This is the direct result of the damage that these introduced animals do. The cost of both these impacts and control efforts has been estimated to exceed a billion dollars annually (Pimentel 2007). The complexity of this problem has been further complicated by the widespread appeal and economic potential of these animals as a big game species (Tisdell 1982, Degner 1989). Wild pigs are a controversial problem that is not going away and will likely only get worse with time. Not only do they cause damage, but wild pigs are also survivors. They reproduce at a rate faster than any other mammal of comparable size, native or introduced; they can eat just

  4. Improving Fatigue Damage Resistance of Alumina through Surface Grading

    PubMed Central

    Ren, L.; Liu, L.; Bhowmick, S.; Gerbig, Y.B.; Janal, M.N.; Thompson, V.P.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Porcelain-veneered alumina crown restorations often fail from bulk fracture resulting from radial cracks that initiate at the cementation surface with repeated flexure of the stiffer crown layers on the soft dentin support. We hypothesized that bulk fracture may be substantially mitigated by grading the elastic modulus at the crown surfaces. In this study, we fabricated graded structures by infiltrating glass into dense alumina plates, resulting in a diminished modulus at the surface layers. The plates were then bonded to polycarbonate substrates and subjected to fatigue loading in water. Tests were terminated when fracture occurred at the cementation tensile surface or at the fatigue endurance limit (1 million cycles). Infiltrated specimens showed a significant increase in fatigue fracture loads over non-infiltrated controls. Our results indicate that controlled elastic gradients at the surface could be highly beneficial in the design of fracture-resistant alumina crowns. PMID:21555776

  5. Proceedings of the seventh SPE symposium on formation damage control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a symposium on well bore damage. Topics considered at the symposium included perforations, acidizing sandstone formations, sand consolidation, sidewall core analysis, gravel packing, permeability damage due to fines migration, bacterial formation damage, asphaltene precipitation, HCl theories, buffered HF acid systems, brines, drilling fluids, corrosion inhibitors, and gravel pack repair with wireline devices.

  6. Real-time sensing of fatigue crack damage for information-based decision and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Eric Evans

    Information-based decision and control for structures that are subject to failure by fatigue cracking is based on the following notion: Maintenance, usage scheduling, and control parameter tuning can be optimized through real time knowledge of the current state of fatigue crack damage. Additionally, if the material properties of a mechanical structure can be identified within a smaller range, then the remaining life prediction of that structure will be substantially more accurate. Information-based decision systems can rely one physical models, estimation of material properties, exact knowledge of usage history, and sensor data to synthesize an accurate snapshot of the current state of damage and the likely remaining life of a structure under given assumed loading. The work outlined in this thesis is structured to enhance the development of information-based decision and control systems. This is achieved by constructing a test facility for laboratory experiments on real-time damage sensing. This test facility makes use of a methodology that has been formulated for fatigue crack model parameter estimation and significantly improves the quality of predictions of remaining life. Specifically, the thesis focuses on development of an on-line fatigue crack damage sensing and life prediction system that is built upon the disciplines of Systems Sciences and Mechanics of Materials. A major part of the research effort has been expended to design and fabricate a test apparatus which allows: (i) measurement and recording of statistical data for fatigue crack growth in metallic materials via different sensing techniques; and (ii) identification of stochastic model parameters for prediction of fatigue crack damage. To this end, this thesis describes the test apparatus and the associated instrumentation based on four different sensing techniques, namely, traveling optical microscopy, ultrasonic flaw detection, Alternating Current Potential Drop (ACPD), and fiber

  7. LPV Controller Interpolation for Improved Gain-Scheduling Control Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Fen; Kim, SungWan

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a new gain-scheduling control design approach is proposed by combining LPV (linear parameter-varying) control theory with interpolation techniques. The improvement of gain-scheduled controllers can be achieved from local synthesis of Lyapunov functions and continuous construction of a global Lyapunov function by interpolation. It has been shown that this combined LPV control design scheme is capable of improving closed-loop performance derived from local performance improvement. The gain of the LPV controller will also change continuously across parameter space. The advantages of the newly proposed LPV control is demonstrated through a detailed AMB controller design example.

  8. Curcumin improves liver damage in male mice exposed to nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Salahshoor, Mohammadreza; Mohamadian, Sabah; Kakabaraei, Seyran; Roshankhah, Shiva; Jalili, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    The color of turmeric (薑黃 jiāng huáng) is because of a substance called curcumin. It has different pharmacological effects, such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Nicotine is a major pharmacologically active substance in cigarette smoke. It is mainly metabolized in the liver and causes devastating effects. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of curcumin against nicotine on the liver in mice. Forty-eight mice were equally divided into eight groups; control (normal saline), nicotine (2.5 mg/kg), curcumin (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) and curcumin plus nicotine-treated groups. Curcumin, nicotine, and curcumin plus nicotine (once a day) were intraperitoneally injected for 4 weeks. The liver weight and histology, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and serum nitric oxide levels have been studied. The results indicated that nicotine administration significantly decreased liver weight and increased the mean diameter of hepatocyte, central hepatic vein, liver enzymes level, and blood serum nitric oxide level compared with the saline group (p < 0.05). However, curcumin and curcumin plus nicotine administration substantially increased liver weight and decreased the mean diameter of hepatocyte, central hepatic vein, liver enzymes, and nitric oxide levels in all groups compared with the nicotine group (p < 0.05). Curcumin demonstrated its protective effect against nicotine-induced liver toxicity. PMID:27114942

  9. Curcumin improves liver damage in male mice exposed to nicotine.

    PubMed

    Salahshoor, Mohammadreza; Mohamadian, Sabah; Kakabaraei, Seyran; Roshankhah, Shiva; Jalili, Cyrus

    2016-04-01

    The color of turmeric ( jiāng huáng) is because of a substance called curcumin. It has different pharmacological effects, such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Nicotine is a major pharmacologically active substance in cigarette smoke. It is mainly metabolized in the liver and causes devastating effects. This study was designed to evaluate the protective role of curcumin against nicotine on the liver in mice. Forty-eight mice were equally divided into eight groups; control (normal saline), nicotine (2.5 mg/kg), curcumin (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) and curcumin plus nicotine-treated groups. Curcumin, nicotine, and curcumin plus nicotine (once a day) were intraperitoneally injected for 4 weeks. The liver weight and histology, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and serum nitric oxide levels have been studied. The results indicated that nicotine administration significantly decreased liver weight and increased the mean diameter of hepatocyte, central hepatic vein, liver enzymes level, and blood serum nitric oxide level compared with the saline group (p < 0.05). However, curcumin and curcumin plus nicotine administration substantially increased liver weight and decreased the mean diameter of hepatocyte, central hepatic vein, liver enzymes, and nitric oxide levels in all groups compared with the nicotine group (p < 0.05). Curcumin demonstrated its protective effect against nicotine-induced liver toxicity. PMID:27114942

  10. An improved modal strain energy method for damage detection in offshore platform structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingchao; Wang, Shuqing; Zhang, Min; Zheng, Chunmei

    2016-06-01

    The development of robust damage detection methods for offshore structures is crucial to prevent catastrophes caused by structural failures. In this research, we developed an Improved Modal Strain Energy (IMSE) method for detecting damage in offshore platform structures based on a traditional modal strain energy method (the Stubbs index method). The most significant difference from the Stubbs index method was the application of modal frequencies. The goal was to improve the robustness of the traditional method. To demonstrate the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed IMSE method, both numerical and experimental studies were conducted for different damage scenarios using a jacket platform structure. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of the IMSE method in damage location when only limited, spatially incomplete, and noise-polluted modal data is available. Comparative studies showed that the IMSE index outperformed the Stubbs index and exhibited stronger robustness, confirming the superiority of the proposed approach.

  11. An improved modal strain energy method for damage detection in offshore platform structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingchao; Wang, Shuqing; Zhang, Min; Zheng, Chunmei

    2016-04-01

    The development of robust damage detection methods for offshore structures is crucial to prevent catastrophes caused by structural failures. In this research, we developed an Improved Modal Strain Energy (IMSE) method for detecting damage in offshore platform structures based on a traditional modal strain energy method (the Stubbs index method). The most significant difference from the Stubbs index method was the application of modal frequencies. The goal was to improve the robustness of the traditional method. To demonstrate the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed IMSE method, both numerical and experimental studies were conducted for different damage scenarios using a jacket platform structure. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of the IMSE method in damage location when only limited, spatially incomplete, and noise-polluted modal data is available. Comparative studies showed that the IMSE index outperformed the Stubbs index and exhibited stronger robustness, confirming the superiority of the proposed approach.

  12. Recommendations for assessing sea lamprey damages: toward optimizing the control program in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Thomas J.; Bence, James R.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Ebener, Mark P.; Lupi, Frank; Rutter, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    The Great Lakes sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program currently allocates stream treatments to optimize the number of juvenile sea lampreys killed for a given level of control. Although the economic benefits derived from control appear to outweigh the dollars spent on control efforts, optimizing the number of sea lampreys killed will not necessarily optimize the economic benefits provided by the fish communities. These benefits include both non-consumptive and fishery values. We emphasize that the biological damages caused by each juvenile sea lamprey will vary, as will the economic value associated with each host that is killed. We consider issues related to assessing damages due to sea lampreys, taking into account effects on the fish community and fisheries, so as to improve the sea lamprey control program. We recommend a consolidation of information regarding the valuation of benefits, better understanding of variation in host-parasite interactions among the Great Lakes, and integration of the control program with other fisheries management objectives and activities. Adoption of these recommendations should promote lake trout rehabilitation in the Great Lakes, healthy fish communities and prudent use of limited fishery management resources.

  13. A Piloted Evaluation of Damage Accommodating Flight Control Using a Remotely Piloted Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Cox, David E.; Murri, Daniel G.; Riddick, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Toward the goal of reducing the fatal accident rate of large transport airplanes due to loss of control, the NASA Aviation Safety Program has conducted research into flight control technologies that can provide resilient control of airplanes under adverse flight conditions, including damage and failure. As part of the safety program s Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Project, the NASA Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research system was designed to address the challenges associated with the safe and efficient subscale flight testing of research control laws under adverse flight conditions. This paper presents the results of a series of pilot evaluations of several flight control algorithms used during an offset-to-landing task conducted at altitude. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the ability of various flight control technologies to prevent loss of control as stability and control characteristics were degraded. During the course of 8 research flights, data were recorded while one task was repeatedly executed by a single evaluation pilot. Two generic failures, which degraded stability and control characteristics, were simulated inflight for each of the 9 different flight control laws that were tested. The flight control laws included three different adaptive control methodologies, several linear multivariable designs, a linear robust design, a linear stability augmentation system, and a direct open-loop control mode. Based on pilot Cooper-Harper Ratings obtained for this test, the adaptive flight control laws provided the greatest overall benefit for the stability and control degradation scenarios that were considered. Also, all controllers tested provided a significant improvement in handling qualities over the direct open-loop control mode.

  14. Role of transfused red blood cells for shock and coagulopathy within remote damage control resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Spinella, Philip C; Doctor, Allan

    2014-05-01

    C there was less clinical bleeding than when blood was reconstituted with components or when platelets were stored at 22°C. Early reversal of shock is essential to prevent exacerbation of coagulopathy and progression of cell death cascades in patients with severe traumatic injuries. Red blood cell storage solutions have evolved to accommodate the needs of non-critically ill patients yet may not be optimal for patients in hemorrhagic shock. Continued focus on the recognition and treatment of shock is essential for continued improvement in outcomes for patients who require damage control resuscitation and RDCR. PMID:24296434

  15. Tracking and Control of Gas Turbine Engine Component Damage/Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaw, Link C.; Wu, Dong N.; Bryg, David J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes damage mechanisms and the methods of controlling damages to extend the on-wing life of critical gas turbine engine components. Particularly, two types of damage mechanisms are discussed: creep/rupture and thermo-mechanical fatigue. To control these damages and extend the life of engine hot-section components, we have investigated two methodologies to be implemented as additional control logic for the on-board electronic control unit. This new logic, the life-extending control (LEC), interacts with the engine control and monitoring unit and modifies the fuel flow to reduce component damages in a flight mission. The LEC methodologies were demonstrated in a real-time, hardware-in-the-loop simulation. The results show that LEC is not only a new paradigm for engine control design, but also a promising technology for extending the service life of engine components, hence reducing the life cycle cost of the engine.

  16. Flight Test of an Adaptive Controller and Simulated Failure/Damage on the NASA NF-15B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buschbacher, Mark; Maliska, Heather

    2006-01-01

    The method of flight-testing the Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) Second Generation (Gen-2) project on the NASA NF-15B is herein described. The Gen-2 project objective includes flight-testing a dynamic inversion controller augmented by a direct adaptive neural network to demonstrate performance improvements in the presence of simulated failure/damage. The Gen-2 objectives as implemented on the NASA NF-15B created challenges for software design, structural loading limitations, and flight test operations. Simulated failure/damage is introduced by modifying control surface commands, therefore requiring structural loads measurements. Flight-testing began with the validation of a structural loads model. Flight-testing of the Gen-2 controller continued, using test maneuvers designed in a sequenced approach. Success would clear the new controller with respect to dynamic response, simulated failure/damage, and with adaptation on and off. A handling qualities evaluation was conducted on the capability of the Gen-2 controller to restore aircraft response in the presence of a simulated failure/damage. Control room monitoring of loads sensors, flight dynamics, and controller adaptation, in addition to postflight data comparison to the simulation, ensured a safe methodology of buildup testing. Flight-testing continued without major incident to accomplish the project objectives, successfully uncovering strengths and weaknesses of the Gen-2 control approach in flight.

  17. The processes controlling damage zone propagation induced by wellbore fluid injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalev, Eyal; Lyakhovsky, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Induced seismicity by wellbore fluid injection is an important tool for enhancing permeability in hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs. We model nucleation and propagation of damage zones and seismicity patterns for two-dimensional plane strain configuration at a depth of 5 km using novel numerical software developed in the course of this study. Simulations include the coupling of poro-elastic deformation and groundwater flow with damage evolution (weakening and healing) and its effect on the elastic and hydrologic parameters. Results show that the process occurring during fluid injection can be divided into four stages. The duration of each stage depends on the hydrological and mechanical parameters. Initially, fluid flows into the rock with no seismic events (5 to 20 hr). At this stage, damage increases from 0 to 1 creating two sets of conjugate zones (four narrow damage zones). Thereafter, the occurrence of seismic events and faulting begins and accelerates for the next 20 to 70 hr. At the initial part of this stage, two of the damage zones create stress shadows on the other two damage zones that stop progressing. The velocity of the advancing damage is limited only by the rock parameters controlling damage evolution. At the third stage, which lasts for the following 20-30 hr, damage acceleration decreases because fluid transport becomes a limiting factor as the damage zones are too long to efficiently transfer the pressure from the well to the tip of the damage zones. Finally, the damage decelerates and even stops in some cases. The propagation of damage is controlled and limited by fluid transport from the injection well to the tip of the damage zones because fluid transport does not keep up with the dilatancy of the damage zones. The time and distance of propagation depend on the damage-permeability coupling and the remote shear stress. Higher remote shear stress causes shorter initial periods of no seismicity; strong damage-permeability coupling causes

  18. Use of damage control and the open abdomen in combat.

    PubMed

    Bograd, Benjamin; Rodriguez, Carlos; Amdur, Richard; Gage, Fred; Elster, Eric; Dunne, James

    2013-08-01

    Despite the well-documented use of damage control laparotomy (DCL) in civilian trauma, its use has not been well described in the combat setting. Therefore, we sought to document the use of DCL and to investigate its effect on patient outcome. Prospective data were collected on 1603 combat casualties injured between April 2003 and January 2009. One hundred seventy patients (11%) underwent an exploratory laparotomy (ex lap) in theater and comprised the study cohort. DCL was defined as an abbreviated ex lap resulting in an open abdomen. Patients were stratified by age, Injury Severity Score (ISS), Glasgow Coma Score (GCS), mechanism of injury, and blood product administration. Multivariate regression analyses were used to determine risks factors for intensive care unit length of stay (ICU LOS), hospital length of stay (HLOS), and the need for DCL. Mean age of the cohort was 24 ± 5 years, ISS was 21 ± 11, and 94 per cent sustained penetrating injury. Patients with DCL comprised 50.6 per cent (n = 86) of the study cohort and had significant increases in ICU admission (P < 0.001), ICU LOS (P < 0.001), HLOS (P < 0.05), ventilator days (P < 0.001), abdominal complications (P < 0.05), but not mortality (P = 0.65) compared with patients without DCL. When compared with the non-DCL group, patients undergoing DCL required significantly more blood products (packed red blood cells, fresh-frozen plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate; P < 0.001). Multivariate regression analyses revealed blood transfusion and GCS as significant risk factors for DCL (P < 0.05). Patients undergoing DCL had increased complications and resource use but not mortality compared with patients not undergoing DCL. The need for combat DCL may be different compared with civilian use. Prospective studies to evaluate outcomes of DCL are warranted. PMID:23896239

  19. Reaction ion etching process for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surface.

    PubMed

    Sun, Laixi; Liu, Hongjie; Huang, Jin; Ye, Xin; Xia, Handing; Li, Qingzhi; Jiang, Xiaodong; Wu, Weidong; Yang, Liming; Zheng, Wanguo

    2016-01-11

    Laser induced damage of fused silica optics occurs primarily on optical surface or subsurface resulting from various defects produced during polishing/grinding process. Many new kinds of surface treatment processes are explored to remove or control the defects on fused silica surface. In this study, we report a new application of reaction ion etching (RIE)-based surface treatment process for manufacture of high quality fused silica optics. The influence of RIE processes on laser damage resistance as a function of etching depth and the evolution of typical defects which are associated with laser damage performance were investigated. The results show that the impurity element defects and subsurface damage on the samples surface were efficiently removed and prevented. Pure silica surface with relatively single-stable stoichiometry and low carbon atomic concentration was created during the etching. The laser damage resistance of the etched samples increased dramatically. The increase of roughness and ODC point defect with deeper etching are believed to be the main factors to limit further increase of the damage resistance of fused silica. The study is expected to contribute to the development of fused silica optics with high resistance to laser induced degradation in the future. PMID:26832251

  20. Adaptive active vibration control to improve the fatigue life of a carbon-epoxy smart structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripamonti, Francesco; Cazzulani, Gabriele; Cinquemani, Simone; Resta, Ferruccio; Torti, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    Active vibration controls are helpful in improving fatigue life of structures through limitation of absolute displacements. However, control algorithms are usually designed without explicitly taking into account the fatigue phenomenon. In this paper, an adaptive vibration controller is proposed to increase the fatigue life of a smart structure made of composite material and actuated with piezoelectric patches. The main innovation with respect to the most common solutions is that the control laws are directly linked to a damage driving force, which is correlated to a fatigue damage model for the specific material. The control logic is different depending on the damage state of the structure. If no significant damage affects the structure, the controller decreases the crack nucleation probability by limiting the driving forces in the overall structure. On the contrary, if initiated cracks are present, their further propagation is prevented by controlling the damage driving forces in the already damaged areas. The structural diagnostics is performed through a vibration-based health monitoring technique, while periodical adaptation of the controller is adopted to consider damage-induced changes on the structure state-space model and to give emphasis to the most excited modes. The control algorithm has been numerically validated on the finite element model of a cantilever plate.

  1. An assessment of buffer strips for improving damage tolerance of composite laminates at elevated temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    Buffer strips greatly improve the damage tolerance of graphite/epoxy laminates loaded in tension. Graphite/polyimide buffer strip panels were made and tested to determine their residual strength at ambient and elevated (177 C) temperature. Each panel was cut in the center to represent damage. Panels were radiographed and crack-opening displacements were recorded to indicate fracture, fracture arrest, and the extent of damage in the buffer strip after arrest. All panels had the same buffer strip spacing and width. The buffer strip material was 0 deg S-glass/PMR-15. The buffer strips were made by replacing narrow strips of the 0 deg graphite plies with strips of the 0 deg S-glass on either a one-for-one or a two-for-one basis. Half of the panels were heated to 177 + or - 3 C before and during the testing. Elevated temperature did not alter the fracture behavior of the buffer configuration.

  2. Nrf2 as a master regulator of tissue damage control and disease tolerance to infection

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Miguel P.; Ribeiro, Ana M.

    2015-01-01

    Damage control refers to those actions made towards minimizing damage or loss. Depending on the context, these can range from emergency procedures dealing with the sinking of a ship or to a surgery dealing with severe trauma or even to an imaginary company in Marvel comics, which repairs damaged property arising from conflicts between super heroes and villains. In the context of host microbe interactions, tissue damage control refers to an adaptive response that limits the extent of tissue damage associated with infection. Tissue damage control can limit the severity of infectious diseases without interfering with pathogen burden, conferring disease tolerance to infection. This contrasts with immune-driven resistance mechanisms, which although essential to protect the host from infection, can impose tissue damage to host parenchyma tissues. This damaging effect is countered by stress responses that confer tissue damage control and disease tolerance to infection. Here we discuss how the stress response regulated by the transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) acts in such a manner. PMID:26551709

  3. Nrf2 as a master regulator of tissue damage control and disease tolerance to infection.

    PubMed

    Soares, Miguel P; Ribeiro, Ana M

    2015-08-01

    Damage control refers to those actions made towards minimizing damage or loss. Depending on the context, these can range from emergency procedures dealing with the sinking of a ship or to a surgery dealing with severe trauma or even to an imaginary company in Marvel comics, which repairs damaged property arising from conflicts between super heroes and villains. In the context of host microbe interactions, tissue damage control refers to an adaptive response that limits the extent of tissue damage associated with infection. Tissue damage control can limit the severity of infectious diseases without interfering with pathogen burden, conferring disease tolerance to infection. This contrasts with immune-driven resistance mechanisms, which although essential to protect the host from infection, can impose tissue damage to host parenchyma tissues. This damaging effect is countered by stress responses that confer tissue damage control and disease tolerance to infection. Here we discuss how the stress response regulated by the transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) acts in such a manner. PMID:26551709

  4. A protocol for a scoping and qualitative study to identify and evaluate indications for damage control surgery and damage control interventions in civilian trauma patients

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Derek J; Zygun, David A; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W; Ball, Chad G; Faris, Peter D; Bobrovitz, Niklas; Robertson, Helen Lee; Stelfox, H Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Initial abbreviated surgery with planned reoperation (damage control surgery) is frequently used for major trauma patients to rapidly control haemorrhage while limiting surgical stress. Although damage control surgery may decrease mortality risk among the severely injured, it may also be associated with several complications when inappropriately applied. We seek to scope the literature on trauma damage control surgery, identify its proposed indications, map and clarify their definitions, and examine the content and evidence on which they are based. We also seek to generate a comprehensive list of unique indications to inform an appropriateness rating process. Methods and analysis We will search 11 electronic bibliographic databases, included article bibliographies and grey literature sources for citations involving civilian trauma patients that proposed one or more indications for damage control surgery or a damage control intervention. Indications will be classified into a predefined conceptual framework and categorised and described using qualitative content analysis. Constant comparative methodology will be used to create, modify and test codes describing principal findings or injuries (eg, bilobar liver injury) and associated decision variables (eg, coagulopathy) that comprise the reported indications. After a unique list of codes have been developed, we will use the organisational system recommended by the RAND/University of California, Los Angeles (RAND-UCLA) Appropriateness Rating Method to group principal findings or injuries into chapters (subdivided by associated decision variables) according to broader clinical findings encountered during surgical practice (eg, major liver injury). Ethics and dissemination This study will constitute the first step in a multistep research programme aimed at developing appropriate, evidence-informed indications for damage control in civilian trauma patients. With use of an integrated knowledge translation

  5. Playing Action Video Games Improves Visuomotor Control.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Chen, Rongrong; Chen, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Can playing action video games improve visuomotor control? If so, can these games be used in training people to perform daily visuomotor-control tasks, such as driving? We found that action gamers have better lane-keeping and visuomotor-control skills than do non-action gamers. We then trained non-action gamers with action or nonaction video games. After they played a driving or first-person-shooter video game for 5 or 10 hr, their visuomotor control improved significantly. In contrast, non-action gamers showed no such improvement after they played a nonaction video game. Our model-driven analysis revealed that although different action video games have different effects on the sensorimotor system underlying visuomotor control, action gaming in general improves the responsiveness of the sensorimotor system to input error signals. The findings support a causal link between action gaming (for as little as 5 hr) and enhancement in visuomotor control, and suggest that action video games can be beneficial training tools for driving. PMID:27485132

  6. Controlling Nickel Sillicide Phase by Si Implantation Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Guillard, M.; Turcotte-Tremblay, P; Gaudet, S; Coia, C; Roorda, S; Desjardins, P; Lavoie, C; Schiettekatte, F

    2009-01-01

    In the context of fabrication process of contacts in CMOS integrated circuits, we studied the effect of implantation-induced damage on the Ni silicide phase formation sequence. The device layers of Silicon-on-insulator samples were implanted with 30 or 60 keV Si ions at several fluences up to amorphization. Next, 10 or 30 nm Ni layers were deposited. The monitoring of annealing treatments was achieved with time-resolved X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry and pole figure XRD were also used to characterize some intermediate phase formations. We show the existence of an implantation threshold (1 ions/nm{sup 2}) from where the silicidation behaviour changes significantly, the formation temperature of the disilicide namely shifting abruptly from 800 to 450 C. It is also found that the monosilicide formation onset temperature for the thinner Ni deposits increases linearly by about 30 C with the amount of damage.

  7. Low-Temperature Growth of DKDP for Improving Laser-Induced Damage resistance at 350nm

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A K; Runkel, M; Hawley-Fedder, R A; Carman, M L; Torres, R A; Whitman, P K

    2000-12-06

    A set of twenty-three 20-L crystallizer runs exploring the importance of several engineering variables found that growth temperature is the most important variable controlling damage resistance of DKDP over the conditions investigated. Boules grown between 45 C and room temperature have a 50% probability of 3{omega} bulk damage that is 1.5 to 2 times higher than boules grown between 65 and 45 C. This raises their damage resistance above the NIF tripler specification for 8 J/cm{sup 2} operation by a comfortable margin. Solution impurity levels do not correlate with damage resistance for iron less than 200 ppb and aluminum less than 2000 ppb. The possibility that low growth temperatures could increase damage resistance in NIF-scale boules was tested by growing a large boule in a 1000-L crystallizer with a supplemental growth solution tank. Four samples representing early and late pyramid and prism growth are very close to the specification as best it is understood at the present. Implications of low temperature growth for meeting absorbance, homogeneity, and other material specifications are discussed.

  8. HF-based etching processes for improving laser damage resistance of fused silica optical surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Suratwala, T I; Miller, P E; Bude, J D; Steele, R A; Shen, N; Monticelli, M V; Feit, M D; Laurence, T A; Norton, M A; Carr, C W; Wong, L L

    2010-02-23

    The effect of various HF-based etching processes on the laser damage resistance of scratched fused silica surfaces has been investigated. Conventionally polished and subsequently scratched fused silica plates were treated by submerging in various HF-based etchants (HF or NH{sub 4}F:HF at various ratios and concentrations) under different process conditions (e.g., agitation frequencies, etch times, rinse conditions, and environmental cleanliness). Subsequently, the laser damage resistance (at 351 or 355 nm) of the treated surface was measured. The laser damage resistance was found to be strongly process dependent and scaled inversely with scratch width. The etching process was optimized to remove or prevent the presence of identified precursors (chemical impurities, fracture surfaces, and silica-based redeposit) known to lead to laser damage initiation. The redeposit precursor was reduced (and hence the damage threshold was increased) by: (1) increasing the SiF{sub 6}{sup 2-} solubility through reduction in the NH4F concentration and impurity cation impurities, and (2) improving the mass transport of reaction product (SiF{sub 6}{sup 2-}) (using high frequency ultrasonic agitation and excessive spray rinsing) away from the etched surface. A 2D finite element crack-etching and rinsing mass transport model (incorporating diffusion and advection) was used to predict reaction product concentration. The predictions are consistent with the experimentally observed process trends. The laser damage thresholds also increased with etched amount (up to {approx}30 {micro}m), which has been attributed to: (1) etching through lateral cracks where there is poor acid penetration, and (2) increasing the crack opening resulting in increased mass transport rates. With the optimized etch process, laser damage resistance increased dramatically; the average threshold fluence for damage initiation for 30 {micro}m wide scratches increased from 7 to 41 J/cm{sup 2}, and the statistical

  9. Behavioral interventions to improve infection control practices.

    PubMed

    Kretzer, E K; Larson, E L

    1998-06-01

    No single intervention has been successful in improving and sustaining such infection control practices as universal precautions and handwashing by health care professionals. This paper examines several behavioral theories (Health Belief Model, Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior, self-efficacy, and the Transtheoretic Model) and relates them to individual factors, also considering interpersonal and organizational factors. Further, this article includes recommendations of individual and organizational components to be addressed when planning a theoretically based intervention for improving infection control practices. A hypothetic framework to enhance handwashing practice is proposed. PMID:9638287

  10. 32 CFR 644.554 - Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God. 644.554 Section 644.554 National Defense Department of... Procedure § 644.554 Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of...

  11. 32 CFR 644.554 - Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God. 644.554 Section 644.554 National Defense Department of... Procedure § 644.554 Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of...

  12. 32 CFR 644.554 - Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God. 644.554 Section 644.554 National Defense Department of... Procedure § 644.554 Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of...

  13. 32 CFR 644.554 - Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God. 644.554 Section 644.554 National Defense Department of... Procedure § 644.554 Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of...

  14. 32 CFR 644.554 - Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of God. 644.554 Section 644.554 National Defense Department of... Procedure § 644.554 Insurance against loss or damages to buildings and improvements by fire or acts of...

  15. Paricalcitol may improve oxidative DNA damage on experimental amikacin-induced nephrotoxicity model.

    PubMed

    Bulut, Gulay; Basbugan, Yildiray; Ari, Elif; Erten, Remzi; Bektas, Havva; Alp, Hamit Hakan; Bayram, Irfan

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the possible protective effect of paricalcitol on experimental amikacin-induced nephrotoxicity model in rats. Wistar albino rats (n = 32) were allocated into four equal groups of eight each, the control (Group C), paricalcitol (Group P), amikacin-induced nephrotoxicity (Group A), and paricalcitol-treated amikacin-induced nephrotoxicity (Group A + P) groups. Paricalcitol was given intra-peritoneally at a dose of 0.4 μg/kg/d for 5 consecutive days prior to induction of amikacin-induced nephrotoxicity. Intra-peritoneal amikacin (1.2 g/kg) was used to induce nephrotoxicity at day 4. Renal function parameters, oxidative stress biomarkers, oxidative DNA damage (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine/deoxyguanosine ratio), kidney histology, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) immunoexpression were determined. Group A + P had lower mean fractional sodium excretion (p < 0.001) as well as higher creatinine clearance (p = 0.026) than the amikacin group (Group A). Renal tissue malondialdehyde levels (p = 0.035) and serum 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine/deoxyguanosine ratio (8-OHdG/dG ratio) (p < 0.001) were significantly lower; superoxide dismutase (p = 0.024) and glutathione peroxidase (p = 0.007) activities of renal tissue were significantly higher in group A + P than in group A. The mean scores of tubular necrosis (p = 0.024), proteinaceous casts (p = 0.038), medullary congestion (p = 0.035), and VEGF immunoexpression (p = 0.018) were also lower in group A + P when compared with group A. This study demonstrates the protective effect of paricalcitol in the prevention of amikacin-induced nephrotoxicity in an experimental model. Furthermore, it is the first study to demonstrate that paricalcitol improves oxidative DNA damage in an experimental acute kidney injury model. PMID:26983906

  16. Aqueous dispersions of oligomer-grafted carbon nanomaterials with controlled surface charge and minimal framework damage

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Sheng; Chen, Shu; Menzel, Robert; Goode, Angela D.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Shaffer, Milo S. P.

    2015-01-01

    Functionalised carbon nanomaterials (CNMs), with an undamaged carbon framework and controlled physiochemical properties, are desirable for a wide range of scientific studies and commercial applications. The use of a thermochemical grafting approach provides a versatile means to functionalise both multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and carbon black (CB) nanoparticles without altering their inherent structure. The functionalisation process was investigated by employing various types of grafting monomers; to improve water solubility, reagents were chosen that introduced ionic character either intrinsically or after further chemical reaction. The degree of grafting for both MWCNTs and CB ranged from 3 to 27 wt%, as established by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Raman spectroscopy confirmed that the structural framework of the MWNTs was unaffected by the thermochemical treatment. The effectiveness of the surface modification was demonstrated by significantly improved dispersibility and stability in water, and further quantified by zeta-potential analysis. The concentration of stable, individualised, grafted MWNTs in water ranged from 30 to 80 µg mL−1, whereas functionalised CB (CB) in water showed improved dispersibility up to ~460 µg mL−1 after centrifugation at 10, 000 g for 15 minutes. The successful preparation of structurally identical but differently functionalised nanoparticles panels, with high water compatibility and minimal framework damage, are useful for controlled experiments. For example, they can be used to explore the relationship between toxicological effects and specific physiochemical properties, such as surface charge and geometry. PMID:25254653

  17. Electrolysed reduced water decreases reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improves performance in broiler chickens exposed to medium-term chronic heat stress.

    PubMed

    Azad, M A K; Kikusato, M; Zulkifli, I; Toyomizu, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to achieve a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and to improve the performance of broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress. 2. Chickens were given a control diet with normal drinking water, or diets supplemented with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) or grape seed extract (GSE), or a control diet with electrolysed reduced water (ERW) for 19 d after hatch. Thereafter, chickens were exposed to a temperature of either 34°C continuously for a period of 5 d, or maintained at 24°C, on the same diets. 3. The control broilers exposed to 34°C showed decreased weight gain and feed consumption and slightly increased ROS production and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in skeletal muscle. The chickens exposed to 34°C and supplemented with ERW showed significantly improved growth performance and lower ROS production and MDA contents in tissues than control broilers exposed to 34°C. Following heat exposure, CNSL chickens performed better with respect to weight gain and feed consumption, but still showed elevated ROS production and skeletal muscle oxidative damage. GSE chickens did not exhibit improved performance or reduced skeletal muscle oxidative damage. 4. In conclusion, this study suggests that ERW could partially inhibit ROS-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improve growth performance in broiler chickens under medium-term chronic heat treatment. PMID:23815735

  18. An improved drone tracking control system transponder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, James J.; Tannenholz, Philip H.

    A small, compact, and inexpensive method of achieving frequency stability of a solid state LO to +/- 1 MHz in the MD700C-1 drone tracking and control system C-band command and control transponder is described. The methodology for realizing improved RF rejection, local oscillator stability, automatic gain control, and power supply efficiency is discussed. A switching mode regulator and a nonsaturating power supply were designed to operate at 80 percent efficiency to reduce power consumption and heat while operating over a wide voltage range.

  19. Investigation of surface damage precursor evolutions and laser-induced damage threshold improvement mechanism during Ion beam etching of fused silica.

    PubMed

    Shi, Feng; Zhong, Yaoyu; Dai, Yifan; Peng, Xiaoqiang; Xu, Mingjin; Sui, Tingting

    2016-09-01

    Surface damage precursor evolution has great influence on laser-induced damage threshold improvement of fused silica surface during Ion beam etching. In this work, a series of ion sputtering experiment are carried out to obtain the evolutions of damage precursors (dot-form microstructures, Polishing-Induced Contamination, Hertz scratches, and roughness). Based on ion sputtering theory, surface damage precursor evolutions are analyzed. The results show that the dot-form microstructures will appear during ion beam etching. But as the ion beam etching depth goes up, the dot-form microstructures can be mitigated. And ion-beam etching can broaden and passivate the Hertz scratches without increasing roughness value. A super-smooth surface (0.238nm RMS) can be obtained finally. The relative content of Fe and Ce impurities both significantly reduce after ion beam etching. The laser-induced damage threshold of fused silica is improved by 34% after ion beam etching for 800nm. Research results can be a reference on using ion beam etching process technology to improve laser-induced damage threshold of fused silica optics. PMID:27607688

  20. Functional improvement of damaged adult mouse muscle by implantation of primary myoblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Irintchev, A; Langer, M; Zweyer, M; Theisen, R; Wernig, A

    1997-01-01

    1. Myoblasts from expanded primary cultures were implanted into cryodamaged soleus muscles of adult BALB/c mice. One to four months later isometric tension recordings were performed in vitro, and the male donor cells implanted into female hosts were traced on histological sections using a Y-chromosome-specific probe. The muscles were either mildly or severely cryodamaged, which led to reductions in tetanic muscle force to 33% (n = 9 muscles, 9 animals) and 70% (n = 11) of normal, respectively. Reduced forces resulted from deficits in regeneration of muscle tissue as judged from the reduced desmin-positive cross-sectional areas (34 and 66% of control, respectively). 2. Implantation of 10(6) myogenic cells into severely cryodamaged muscles more than doubled muscle tetanic force (to 70% of normal, n = 14), as well as specific force (to 66% of normal). Absolute and relative amount of desmin-positive muscle cross-sectional areas were significantly increased indicating improved microarchitecture and less fibrosis. Newly formed muscle tissue was fully innervated since the tetanic forces resulting from direct and indirect (nerve-evoked) stimulation were equal. Endplates were found on numerous Y-positive muscle fibres. 3. As judged from their position under basal laminae of muscle fibres and the expression of M-cadherin, donor-derived cells contributed to the pool of satellite cells on small- and large-diameter muscle fibres. 4. Myoblast implantation after mild cryodamage and in undamaged muscles had little or no functional or structural effects; in both preparations only a few Y-positive muscle nuclei were detected. It is concluded that myoblasts from expanded primary cultures-unlike permanent cell lines-significantly contribute to muscle regeneration only when previous muscle damage is extensive and loss of host satellite cells is severe. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9161990

  1. Compensator improvement for multivariable control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. R.; Mcdaniel, W. L., Jr.; Gresham, L. L.

    1977-01-01

    A theory and the associated numerical technique are developed for an iterative design improvement of the compensation for linear, time-invariant control systems with multiple inputs and multiple outputs. A strict constraint algorithm is used in obtaining a solution of the specified constraints of the control design. The result of the research effort is the multiple input, multiple output Compensator Improvement Program (CIP). The objective of the Compensator Improvement Program is to modify in an iterative manner the free parameters of the dynamic compensation matrix so that the system satisfies frequency domain specifications. In this exposition, the underlying principles of the multivariable CIP algorithm are presented and the practical utility of the program is illustrated with space vehicle related examples.

  2. Improving UV laser damage threshold of fused silica optics by wet chemical etching technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hui; Li, Yaguo; Yuan, Zhigang; Wang, Jian; Xu, Qiao; Yang, Wei

    2015-07-01

    Fused silica is widely used in high-power laser systems because of its good optical performance and mechanical properties. However, laser damage initiation and growth induced by 355 nm laser illumination in optical elements have become a bottleneck in the development of high energy laser system. In order to improve the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT), the fused silica optics were treated by two types of HF-based etchants: 1.7%wt. HF acid and buffer oxide etchant (BOE: the mixture of 0.4%wt. HF and 12%wt. NH4F), respectively, for varied etching time. Damage testing shows that both the etchants increase the damage threshold at a certain depth of material removal, but further removal of material lowers the LIDT markedly. The etching rates of both etchants keep steady in our processing procedure, ~58 μg/min and ~85 μg/min, respectively. The micro-surface roughness (RMS and PV) increases as etching time extends. The hardness (H) and Young's modulus (E) of the fused silica etched for diverse time, measured by nano-indenter, show no solid evidence that LIDT can be related to hardness or Young's modulus.

  3. Improved computed torque control for industrial robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uebel, Mark; Minis, Ioannis; Cleary, Kevin

    1992-01-01

    The authors examine the computed torque control problem for a robot arm with flexible, geared, joint drive systems which are typical in many industrial robots. The standard computed torque algorithm is not directly applicable to this class of manipulators due to the dynamics introduced by the joint drive systems. The proposed approach overcomes this problem by combining a novel computed torque algorithm with simple torque controllers at each joint of the robot. The control scheme is applied to a seven degree-of-freedom industrial manipulator, and the system performance in standard tasks is evaluated using both dynamic simulation and actual experiments. The results show that the proposed controller leads to improved tracking performance over a conventional PD (proportional plus derivative) controller.

  4. Improved approximations for control augmented structural synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, H. L.; Schmit, L. A.

    1990-01-01

    A methodology for control-augmented structural synthesis is presented for structure-control systems which can be modeled as an assemblage of beam, truss, and nonstructural mass elements augmented by a noncollocated direct output feedback control system. Truss areas, beam cross sectional dimensions, nonstructural masses and rotary inertias, and controller position and velocity gains are treated simultaneously as design variables. The structural mass and a control-system performance index can be minimized simultaneously, with design constraints placed on static stresses and displacements, dynamic harmonic displacements and forces, structural frequencies, and closed-loop eigenvalues and damping ratios. Intermediate design-variable and response-quantity concepts are used to generate new approximations for displacements and actuator forces under harmonic dynamic loads and for system complex eigenvalues. This improves the overall efficiency of the procedure by reducing the number of complete analyses required for convergence. Numerical results which illustrate the effectiveness of the method are given.

  5. Influence of biological control damage on efficacy of penoxsulam and two other herbicides on waterhyacinth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Populations of waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms.) in the southeastern U.S. have been reduced by widespread herbicidal control and by introduced waterhyacinth weevils (Neochetina spp) and native pathogens. However, damaging populations of this weed persist and integrated approaches ...

  6. Far Forward Anesthesia and Massive Blood Transfusion: Two Cases Revealing the Challenge of Damage Control Resuscitation in an Austere Environment.

    PubMed

    Gaskin, David; Kroll, Nicholas A; Ochs, Alyson A; Schreiber, Martin A; Pandalai, Prakash K

    2015-10-01

    Since the beginning of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom, the US military has treated more than 51,000 casualties and sustained more than 6,600 deaths. The past decade of conflict has solidified major advances in the use of blood component therapy and the liberal use of fresh whole blood during damage control resuscitation. This resuscitation strategy, combined with far forward damage control surgery, rapid aeromedical evacuation, and major improvements in critical care air transportation and personal protective equipment has led to a 90% to 92% survival rate in US casualties. We describe 2 cases treated by a Forward Surgical Team serving in Afghanistan during Operation Enduring Freedom in 2014. Both patients suffered severe trauma and required massive blood transfusion and damage control surgery. In describing these 2 cases, we wish to share our experience with damage control, resuscitation in an austere environment, as well as advocate for the critical role of the Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist in advancing the knowledge and execution of this lifesaving strategy in both military and civilian trauma centers. In addition, we suggest alternatives to the current transfusion strategy, which will mitigate limitations currently encountered. PMID:26638455

  7. Improving infection control in general practice.

    PubMed

    Farrow, S C; Zeuner, D; Hall, C

    1999-03-01

    Infection control measures in the health care setting should protect patients and staff from cross-infection. The prevention of harm is an essential part of good medical practice and failure might result in professional misconduct proceedings by the General Medical Council (GMC) and prosecution under the Health and Safety at Work legislation, as well as civil liability. For a health authority, overall responsibility for public health includes arrangements for the control of communicable diseases and infection in hospital and the community (NHS Management Executive, 1993), a function usually led by the Consultant in Communicable Disease Control (CCDC). This paper describes one district's collaborative approach between public health and GPs to assess and improve local infection control standards. PMID:10327810

  8. Infection prevention and control practitioners: improving engagement.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Ann-Marie

    Every healthcare worker plays a vital part in minimising the risk of cross infection. Infection prevention and control (IPC) practitioners have the skills and competencies to assist organisations in improving engagement among staff and play a vital part in achieving this. IPC practitioners have skills in clinical practice, education, research and leadership, and these skills ensure high-quality care for patients and support strategies for engaging staff. This article highlights how IPC practitioners' skills and competencies are required for preventing infection and improving staff engagement. Engaged staff generate positive outcomes for both patients and staff, which is a welcome result for all healthcare organisations. PMID:27019165

  9. Inhibitory attentional control in patients with frontal lobe damage

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrov, Mariana; Nakic, Marina; Elpern-Waxman, Jordan; Granetz, Joy; O'Grady, Joy; Phipps, Michael; Milne, Elizabeth; Logan, Gordon D.; Hasher, Lynn; Grafman, Jordan

    2006-01-01

    The performance of a group of frontal lobe lesion and a group of frontal lobe dementia patients was compared with the performance of their respective matched normal control groups on two tests of inhibitory attentional control—the stop-signal reaction time task and a negative priming task. Both patient groups responded significantly slower than their respective normal control groups, but they showed only marginally significant selective impairments on the measures of inhibition. The data suggest that the specific inhibitory processes evaluated by these two tests are, in general, spared in patients with focal frontal lobe lesions or frontal lobe degeneration. PMID:12821109

  10. Anti-acrolein treatment improves behavioral outcome and alleviates myelin damage in EAE mouse

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Gary; Sun, Wenjing; Zheng, Lingxing; Brookes, Sarah; Tully, Melissa; Shi, Riyi

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered a major contributor in the pathology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde byproduct of lipid peroxidation, is thought to perpetuate oxidative stress. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of acrolein in an animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune enchephalomyelitis (EAE) mice. We have demonstrated a significant elevation of acrolein protein adduct levels in EAE mouse spinal cord. Hydralazine, a known acrolein scavenger, significantly improved behavioral outcomes and lessened myelin damage in spinal cord. We postulate that acrolein is an important pathological factor and likely a novel therapeutic target in MS. PMID:21081153

  11. Damage-mitigating control of a reusable rocket engine for high performance and extended life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Asok; Dai, Xiaowen

    1995-01-01

    The goal of damage mitigating control in reusable rocket engines is to achieve high performance with increased durability of mechanical structures such that functional lives of the critical components are increased. The major benefit is an increase in structural durability with no significant loss of performance. This report investigates the feasibility of damage mitigating control of reusable rocket engines. Phenomenological models of creep and thermo-mechanical fatigue damage have been formulated in the state-variable setting such that these models can be combined with the plant model of a reusable rocket engine, such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), for synthesizing an optimal control policy. Specifically, a creep damage model of the main thrust chamber wall is analytically derived based on the theories of sandwich beam and viscoplasticity. This model characterizes progressive bulging-out and incremental thinning of the coolant channel ligament leading to its eventual failure by tensile rupture. The objective is to generate a closed form solution of the wall thin-out phenomenon in real time where the ligament geometry is continuously updated to account for the resulting deformation. The results are in agreement with those obtained from the finite element analyses and experimental observation for both Oxygen Free High Conductivity (OFHC) copper and a copper-zerconium-silver alloy called NARloy-Z. Due to its computational efficiency, this damage model is suitable for on-line applications of life prediction and damage mitigating control, and also permits parametric studies for off-line synthesis of damage mitigating control systems. The results are presented to demonstrate the potential of life extension of reusable rocket engines via damage mitigating control. The control system has also been simulated on a testbed to observe how the damage at different critical points can be traded off without any significant loss of engine performance. The research work

  12. Damage and comprehensive control of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis, is an invasive beetle that has killed millions of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since it was accidentally introduced to North America in the 1990s. Development of integrated control strategies for managing this forest pest is urgently needed in both US ...

  13. Ubiquitin facilitates a quality-control pathway that removes damaged chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Woodson, Jesse D.; Joens, Matthew S.; Sinson, Andrew B.; Gilkerson, Jonathan; Salomé, Patrice A.; Weigel, Detlef; Fitzpatrick, James A.; Chory, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Energy production by chloroplasts and mitochondria causes constant oxidative damage. A functioning photosynthetic cell requires quality-control mechanisms to turn over and degrade chloroplasts damaged by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we generated a conditionally lethal Arabidopsis mutant that accumulated excess protoporphyrin IX in the chloroplast and produced singlet oxygen. Damaged chloroplasts were subsequently ubiquitinated and selectively degraded. A genetic screen identified the plant U-box 4 (PUB4) E3 ubiquitin ligase as being necessary for this process. pub4-6 mutants had defects in stress adaptation and longevity. Thus, we have identified a signal that leads to the targeted removal of ROS-overproducing chloroplasts. PMID:26494759

  14. Damage control surgery and combat-related maxillofacial and cervical injuries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tong, Darryl C; Breeze, John

    2016-01-01

    Damage control surgery involves rapid assessment, life-saving resuscitation, and abbreviated surgery for a patient with severe injuries. Traditionally the concept of damage control surgery has been restricted to penetrating abdominal injuries, but more recently it has been expanded to areas outside of the abdomen including the maxillofacial and neck regions. However, we know of little evidence that, when applied to injuries to the face and neck, it changes outcomes. We systematically reviewed published papers to identify those that discussed damage control in the context of combat-related trauma of the face and neck. We identified three papers that discussed the principles of managing combat-related maxillofacial injuries, all three of which were review articles that advocated the use of damage control principles in facial injuries either in isolation or as part of a multisystem approach. Anecdotal experience and opinion indicates that the concept of damage control is applicable when managing combat-related injuries of the face and neck, but no outcomes were confirmed. Further studies are required to validate the concept. PMID:26621215

  15. Goat milk with and without increased concentrations of lysozyme improves repair of intestinal cell damage induced by enteroaggregative Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) causes diarrhea, malnutrition and poor growth in children. Human breast milk decreases disease-causing bacteria by supplying nutrients and antimicrobial factors such as lysozyme. Goat milk with and without human lysozyme (HLZ) may improve the repair of intestinal barrier function damage induced by EAEC. This work investigates the effect of the milks on intestinal barrier function repair, bacterial adherence in Caco-2 and HEp-2 cells, intestinal cell proliferation, migration, viability and apoptosis in IEC-6 cells in the absence or presence of EAEC. Methods Rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6, ATCC, Rockville, MD) were used for proliferation, migration and viability assays and human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2, ATCC, Rockville, MD) and human larynx carcinoma (HEp-2, ATCC, Rockville, MD) cells were used for bacterial adhesion assays. Goats expressing HLZ in their milk were generated and express HLZ in milk at concentration of 270 μg/ml . Cells were incubated with pasteurized milk from either transgenic goats expressing HLZ or non-transgenic control goats in the presence and absence of EAEC strain 042 (O44:H18). Results Cellular proliferation was significantly greater in the presence of both HLZ transgenic and control goat milk compared to cells with no milk. Cellular migration was significantly decreased in the presence of EAEC alone but was restored in the presence of milk. Milk from HLZ transgenic goats had significantly more migration compared to control milk. Both milks significantly reduced EAEC adhesion to Caco-2 cells and transgenic milk resulted in less colonization than control milk using a HEp-2 assay. Both milks had significantly increased cellular viability as well as less apoptosis in both the absence and presence of EAEC. Conclusions These data demonstrated that goat milk is able to repair intestinal barrier function damage induced by EAEC and that goat milk with a higher concentration of

  16. Designing for Damage: Robust Flight Control Design using Sliding Mode Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vetter, T. K.; Wells, S. R.; Hess, Ronald A.; Bacon, Barton (Technical Monitor); Davidson, John (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A brief review of sliding model control is undertaken, with particular emphasis upon the effects of neglected parasitic dynamics. Sliding model control design is interpreted in the frequency domain. The inclusion of asymptotic observers and control 'hedging' is shown to reduce the effects of neglected parasitic dynamics. An investigation into the application of observer-based sliding mode control to the robust longitudinal control of a highly unstable is described. The sliding mode controller is shown to exhibit stability and performance robustness superior to that of a classical loop-shaped design when significant changes in vehicle and actuator dynamics are employed to model airframe damage.

  17. Structural damage detection using extended Kalman filter combined with statistical process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chenhao; Jang, Shinae; Sun, Xiaorong

    2015-04-01

    Traditional modal-based methods, which identify damage based upon changes in vibration characteristics of the structure on a global basis, have received considerable attention in the past decades. However, the effectiveness of the modalbased methods is dependent on the type of damage and the accuracy of the structural model, and these methods may also have difficulties when applied to complex structures. The extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm which has the capability to estimate parameters and catch abrupt changes, is currently used in continuous and automatic structural damage detection to overcome disadvantages of traditional methods. Structural parameters are typically slow-changing variables under effects of operational and environmental conditions, thus it would be difficult to observe the structural damage and quantify the damage in real-time with EKF only. In this paper, a Statistical Process Control (SPC) is combined with EFK method in order to overcome this difficulty. Based on historical measurements of damage-sensitive feathers involved in the state-space dynamic models, extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm is used to produce real-time estimations of these features as well as standard derivations, which can then be used to form control ranges for SPC to detect any abnormality of the selected features. Moreover, confidence levels of the detection can be adjusted by choosing different times of sigma and number of adjacent out-of-range points. The proposed method is tested using simulated data of a three floors linear building in different damage scenarios, and numerical results demonstrate high damage detection accuracy and light computation of this presented method.

  18. Dispersive matched filtering of ultrasonic guided waves for improved sparse array damage localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luppescu, Gregory C.; Dawson, Alexander J.; Michaels, Jennifer E.

    2016-02-01

    Although bulk waves have served as the industry standard in nondestructive evaluation for many years, guided waves (Lamb waves in plates) have become the focus of many current research efforts because they are able to interrogate larger areas of a structure in less time. Despite this advantage, guided waves also have characteristics that obfuscate data interpretation. The first property of guided waves that complicates analysis is their dispersive nature: their wave speed is a function of frequency. The second is that they are multimodal: they propagate as multiple symmetric and antisymmetric modes. Using pulse-compression techniques and a priori calculations of theoretical dispersion curves, the dispersive matched filter attempts to take advantage of these otherwise undesirable characteristics by maximizing the autocorrelation for only one mode, ideally increasing both the signal-to-noise ratio and time-resolution of ultrasonic guided wave measurements. In this research, the responses from broadband chirp excitations are recorded from a sparse transducer array after propagation through an aluminum plate containing no damage and simulated damage. Dispersive matched filtering is applied to the measurements and localization images are generated using the delay-and-sum method. Imaging results are compared to those obtained with narrowband tone burst excitations in terms of their ability to detect and localize the different scatterers. Results show that the dispersive matched filter notably improves the quality of the localization images.

  19. Blockade of interleukin-6 signaling suppressed cochlear inflammatory response and improved hearing impairment in noise-damaged mice cochlea.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Kenichiro; Fujioka, Masato; Kanzaki, Sho; Okano, Hirotaka James; Shibata, Shinsuke; Yamashita, Daisuke; Masuda, Masatsugu; Mihara, Masahiko; Ohsugi, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Kaoru; Okano, Hideyuki

    2010-04-01

    Hearing impairment can be the cause of serious socio-economic disadvantages. Recent studies have shown inflammatory responses in the inner ear co-occur with various damaging conditions including noise-induced hearing loss. We reported pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) was induced in the cochlea 6h after noise exposure, but the pathophysiological implications of this are still obscure. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of IL-6 inhibition using the anti-IL-6 receptor antibody (MR16-1). Noise-exposed mice were treated with MR16-1 and evaluated. Improved hearing at 4kHz as measured by auditory brainstem response (ABR) was noted in noise-exposed mice treated with MR16-1. Histological analysis revealed the decrease in spiral ganglion neurons was ameliorated in the MR16-1-treated group, while no significant change was observed in the organ of Corti. Immunohistochemistry for Iba1 and CD45 demonstrated a remarkable reduction of activated cochlear macrophages in spiral ganglions compared to the control group when treated with MR16-1. Thus, MR16-1 had protective effects both functionally and pathologically for the noise-damaged cochlea primarily due to suppression of neuronal loss and presumably through alleviation of inflammatory responses. Anti-inflammatory cytokine therapy including IL-6 blockade would be a feasible novel therapeutic strategy for acute sensory neural hearing loss. PMID:20026135

  20. Improved adhesion of Ni films on X-ray damaged polytetrafluoroethylene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, D. R.; Pepper, S. V.

    1981-01-01

    The considered investigation shows that the adhesion of evaporated Ni on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is enhanced by irradiating the PTFE surface prior to evaporation. Evidence obtained with the aid of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is presented concerning the association of the enhanced adhesion with an interfacial chemical reaction. Evaporated Ni clearly adheres better to the X-ray damaged PTFE surface than to the undamaged surface. There is evidence that the improved adhesion is not related to the Ni-C bond, but rather to the NiF2. A possible mechanism which may be consistent with the data is the formation of a F-Ni-C complex, where C is a member of the polymer chain.

  1. Robust Damage-Mitigating Control of Aircraft for High Performance and Structural Durability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplin, Jeffrey; Ray, Asok; Joshi, Suresh M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the concept and a design methodology for robust damage-mitigating control (DMC) of aircraft. The goal of DMC is to simultaneously achieve high performance and structural durability. The controller design procedure involves consideration of damage at critical points of the structure, as well as the performance requirements of the aircraft. An aeroelastic model of the wings has been formulated and is incorporated into a nonlinear rigid-body model of aircraft flight-dynamics. Robust damage-mitigating controllers are then designed using the H(infinity)-based structured singular value (mu) synthesis method based on a linearized model of the aircraft. In addition to penalizing the error between the ideal performance and the actual performance of the aircraft, frequency-dependent weights are placed on the strain amplitude at the root of each wing. Using each controller in turn, the control system is put through an identical sequence of maneuvers, and the resulting (varying amplitude cyclic) stress profiles are analyzed using a fatigue crack growth model that incorporates the effects of stress overload. Comparisons are made to determine the impact of different weights on the resulting fatigue crack damage in the wings. The results of simulation experiments show significant savings in fatigue life of the wings while retaining the dynamic performance of the aircraft.

  2. Improving the Resistance to Sliding Contact Damage of Zirconia Using Elastic Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Won; Liu, Lela; Zhang, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Zirconia-based ceramics with high strength have been identified as a material of choice for sliding components in a variety of biomedical and engineering applications. Despite the high flexural strength, zirconia prostheses are still vulnerable to wear and surface damage. We hypothesize that such tribological damage may be substantially mitigated by an engineered grading of elastic modulus at the ceramic surface. In this study, graded structures were fabricated by infiltrating glass into the top and bottom surfaces of zirconia plates, with resulting diminished modulus in the outer surfaces. The plates were then subjected to frictional sliding tests using a hard spherical indenter. Compared to non-infiltrated controls, infiltrated specimens showed a significant increase in the fracture loads, by over a factor of 3. The increase in the sliding contact resistance is attributed to the diminishing tensile stresses at the graded lower-modulus surface. The results confirm that suitably graded structures can be highly beneficial in the design of next-generation orthopedic and dental prostheses. PMID:20552616

  3. Improve the laser damage resistance of fused silica by wet surface cleaning and optimized HF etch process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaolong; Liu, Ying; Rao, Huanle; Fu, Shaojun

    2013-07-01

    Fabrication-induced metal contaminations and subsurface damage are generally identified as the laser damage initiators that are responsible for the laser induced damage in fused silica. In this paper, the removal of those two initiators are realized by two methods: wet chemical surface cleaning and optimized HF-based etch process. Two kinds of chemical leaching are used to removing the Ce and other metal impurities respectively. In order prevent the redeposition of the reactive byproducts during HF etch process, we optimized the traditional HF etch process in two ways: absence of NH4F in etch solution and presence of megasonic and ultrasonic agitation during and after etch respectively. And laser damage tests show that these two treatments greatly improve the laser damage resistance of fused silica.

  4. Continuum Fatigue Damage Modeling for Critical Design, Control, and Fault Prognosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.

    1996-01-01

    This paper develops a simplified continuum (continuous with respect to time, stress, etc.) fatigue damage model for use in critical design, Life Extending Control and fault prognosis. The work is based on the local strain cyclic damage modeling method. New nonlinear explicit equation forms of cyclic damage in terms of stress amplitude are derived to facilitate the continuum modelling. Stress based continuum models are derived. Extension to plastic strain-strain rate models is also presented. Progress toward a non-zero mean stress based is presented. Also new nonlinear explicit equation forms in terms of stress amplitude are derived for this case. Application of the various models to design, control, and fault prognosis is considered.

  5. Improving Symptom Control in Early Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) are caused by a severe loss of pigmented dopamine-producing nigro-striatal neurons. Symptomatic therapies provide benefit for motor features by restoring dopamine receptor stimulation. Studies have demonstrated that delaying the introduction of dopaminergic medical therapy is associated with a rapid decline in quality of life. Nonmotor symptoms, such as depression, are common in early PD and also affect quality of life. Therefore, dopaminergic therapy should typically be initiated at, or shortly following, diagnosis. Monamine oxidase-B inhibitors provide mild symptomatic benefit, have excellent side effect profiles, and may improve long-term outcomes, making them an important first-line treatment option. Dopamine agonists (DAs) provide moderate symptomatic benefit but are associated with more side effects than levodopa. However, they delay the development of motor complications by delaying the need for levodopa. Levodopa (LD) is the most efficacious medication, but its chronic use is associated with the development of motor complications that can be difficult to resolve. Younger patients are more likely to develop levodopa-induced motor complications and they are therefore often treated with a DA before levodopa is added. For older patients, levodopa provides good motor benefit with a relatively low-risk of motor complications. Using levodopa with a dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor lessens adverse effects, and further adding a catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor can improve symptom control. PMID:21180628

  6. Damage Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hechler, David

    1993-01-01

    This commentary, by a journalist, addresses the conflict between those who believe there is an "epidemic" of child sexual abuse and those who see a flood of "false allegations." Child protective workers are urged to make their achievements and limitations more visible to journalists. They are urged to not misuse confidentiality laws to protect…

  7. Toward improved influenza control through vaccination.

    PubMed

    Falleiros Arlant, Luiza Helena; Ferro Bricks, Lucia

    2015-04-01

    In August 27/2014, SLIPE organized the Master Class "Towards improved influenza control through vaccination", a panel with international influenza experts who shared their understanding of the disease and the control measures available, focusing on the most recent information about this serious diseases. In this report Dr Falleiros and Dr Bricks summarized the following topics: Global influenza epidemiology, presented by Dr Puig-Barbera; Influenza vaccine recommendations and coverage in Latin American countries, presented by Dr Bricks; Influenza vaccines efficacy and effectiveness, presented by Dr Fedson: Influenza burden ;md rational for prevention in children, presented by Dr Muiioz; Influenza burden in pregnancy, presented by Dr Ribeiro; Influenza vaccination in health care workers, presented by Dr Macias; Influenza vaccination in the elderly, presented by Dr Ribeiro; Rational to increase vaccination coverage rates Global Influenza Hospital Surveillance Network, presented by Dr Puig-Barbera; Influenza B epidemiology and vaccine strain mismatch in Latin American Region, presented by Dr Bricks; Modeling for quadrivalent influenza vaccines impact, presented by Dr Blank; Rational for quadrivalent influenza vaccines and the clinical development of QIV s, presented by Dr Desauziers and Modelling quadrivalent influenza vaccines impact, presented by Dr Blank. PMID:26065453

  8. Improved Sizing of Impact Damage in Composites Based on Thermographic Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winfree, William P.; Howell Patricia A.; Leckey, Cara A.; Rogge, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    Impact damage in thin carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites often results in a relatively small region of damage at the front surface, with increasing damage near the back surface. Conventional methods for reducing the pulsed thermographic responses of the composite tend to underestimate the size of the back surface damage, since the smaller near surface damage gives the largest thermographic indication. A method is presented for reducing the thermographic data to produce an estimated size for the impact damage that is much closer to the size of the damage estimated from other NDE techniques such as microfocus x-ray computed tomography and pulse echo ultrasonics. Examples of the application of the technique to experimental data acquired on specimens with impact damage are presented. The method is also applied to the results of thermographic simulations to investigate the limitations of the technique.

  9. Calcium-energized motor protein forisome controls damage in phloem: potential applications as biomimetic "smart" material.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Vineet Kumar; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-06-01

    Forisomes are ATP independent, mechanically active proteins from the Fabaceae family (also called Leguminosae). These proteins are located in sieve tubes of phloem and function to prevent loss of nutrient-rich photoassimilates, upon mechanical injury/wounding. Forisomes are SEO (sieve element occlusion) gene family proteins that have recently been shown to be involved in wound sealing mechanism. Recent findings suggest that forisomes could act as an ideal model to study self assembly mechanism for the development of nanotechnological devices like microinstruments, the microfluidic system frequently used in space exploration missions. Technology enabling improvement in micro instruments has been identified as a key technology by NASA in future space exploration missions. Forisomes are designated as biomimetic smart materials which are calcium-energized motor proteins. Since forisomes are biomolecules from plant systems it can be doctored through genetic engineering. In contrast, "smart" materials which are not derived from plants are difficult to modify in their properties. Current levels of understanding about forisomes conformational shifts with respect to calcium ions and pH changes requires supplement of future advances with relation to its 3D structure to understand self assembly processes. In plant systems it forms blood clots in the form of occlusions to prevent nutrient fluid leakage and thus proves to be a unique damage control system of phloem tissue. PMID:24020505

  10. Extended Kalman filter based structural damage detection for MR damper controlled structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chenhao; Jang, Shinae; Sun, Xiaorong; Jiang, Zhaoshuo; Christenson, Richard

    2016-04-01

    The Magneto-rheological (MR) dampers have been widely used in many building and bridge structures against earthquake and wind loadings due to its advantages including mechanical simplicity, high dynamic range, low power requirements, large force capacity, and robustness. However, research about structural damage detection methods for MR damper controlled structures is limited. This paper aims to develop a real-time structural damage detection method for MR damper controlled structures. A novel state space model of MR damper controlled structure is first built by combining the structure's equation of motion and MR damper's hyperbolic tangent model. In this way, the state parameters of both the structure and MR damper are added in the state vector of the state space model. Extended Kalman filter is then used to provide prediction for state variables from measurement data. The two techniques are synergistically combined to identify parameters and track the changes of both structure and MR damper in real time. The proposed method is tested using response data of a three-floor MR damper controlled linear building structure under earthquake excitation. The testing results show that the adaptive extended Kalman filter based approach is capable to estimate not only structural parameters such as stiffness and damping of each floor, but also the parameters of MR damper, so that more insights and understanding of the damage can be obtained. The developed method also demonstrates high damage detection accuracy and light computation, as well as the potential to implement in a structural health monitoring system.

  11. The evolution of damage control orthopedics: current evidence and practical applications of early appropriate care.

    PubMed

    D'Alleyrand, Jean-Claude G; O'Toole, Robert V

    2013-10-01

    This article summarizes the evolution of literature and practice related to fracture care in polytrauma patients. Particular emphasis is given to the management of femoral shaft fractures and the concept of damage control in these complex patients. The application of these guidelines in common clinical practice is also discussed. PMID:24095066

  12. DNA DAMAGE REPAIR AND CELL CYCLE CONTROL: A NATURAL BIO-DEFENSE MECHANISM

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA DAMAGE REPAIR AND CELL CYCLE CONTROL: A natural bio-defense mechanism
    Anuradha Mudipalli.

    Maintenance of genetic information, including the correct sequence of nucleotides in DNA, is essential for replication, gene expression, and protein synthesis. DNA lesions onto...

  13. Nek8 couples renal ciliopathies to DNA damage and checkpoint control.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Peter K

    2013-08-22

    In this issue, Choi et al. (2013) discover a molecular link between the Nek8 kinase, mutated in the renal ciliopathy nephronophthisis, and DNA damage control by cyclin A/Cdk2 and ATR-Chk1, providing new ideas for targeted therapies limiting tissue degeneration. PMID:23973371

  14. Melatonin Improves Outcomes of Heatstroke in Mice by Reducing Brain Inflammation and Oxidative Damage and Multiple Organ Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Shu-Fen; Lin, Mao-Tsun

    2013-01-01

    We report here that when untreated mice underwent heat stress, they displayed thermoregulatory deficit (e.g., animals display hypothermia during room temperature exposure), brain (or hypothalamic) inflammation, ischemia, oxidative damage, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis impairment (e.g., decreased plasma levels of both adrenocorticotrophic hormone and corticosterone during heat stress), multiple organ dysfunction or failure, and lethality. Melatonin therapy significantly reduced the thermoregulatory deficit, brain inflammation, ischemia, oxidative damage, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis impairment, multiple organ dysfunction, and lethality caused by heat stroke. Our data indicate that melatonin may improve outcomes of heat stroke by reducing brain inflammation, oxidative damage, and multiple organ dysfunction. PMID:24369441

  15. DNA damage among thyroid cancer and multiple cancer cases, controls, and long-lived individuals

    SciTech Connect

    Sigurdson, A J; Hauptmann, M; Alexander, B J; Doody, M M; Thomas, C B; Struewing, J P; Jones, I M

    2004-08-24

    Variation in the detection, signaling, and repair of DNA damage contributes to human cancer risk. To assess capacity to modulate endogenous DNA damage among radiologic technologists who had been diagnosed with breast cancer and another malignancy (breast-other; n=42), early-onset breast cancer (early-onset, age {<=} 35; n=38), thyroid cancer (n=68), long-lived cancer-free individuals (hyper-normals; n=20) and cancer-free controls (n=49) we quantified DNA damage (single strand breaks and abasic sites) in untreated lymphoblastoid cell lines using the alkaline comet assay. Komet{trademark} software provided comet tail length, % DNA in tail (tail DNA), comet distributed moment (CDM), and Olive tail moment (OTM) summarized as the geometric mean of 100 cells. Category cut-points (median and 75th percentile) were determined from the distribution among controls. Tail length (for {>=} 75% vs. below the median, age adjusted) was most consistently associated with the highest odds ratios in the breast-other, early-onset, and thyroid cancer groups (with risk increased 10-, 5- or 19-fold, respectively, with wide confidence intervals) and decreased risk among the hyper-normal group. For the other three Comet measures, risk of breast-other was elevated approximately three-fold. Risk of early-onset breast cancer was mixed and risk of thyroid cancer ranged from null to a two-fold increase. The hyper-normal group showed decreased odds ratios for tail DNA and OTM, but not CDM. DNA damage, as estimated by all Comet measures, was relatively unaffected by survival time, reproductive factors, and prior radiation treatment. We detected a continuum of endogenous DNA damage that was highest among cancer cases, less in controls, and suggestively lowest in hyper-normal individuals. Measuring this DNA damage phenotype may contribute to the identification of susceptible sub-groups. Our observations require replication in a prospective study with a large number of pre-diagnostic samples.

  16. A single portion of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L) improves protection against DNA damage but not vascular function in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Del Bó, Cristian; Riso, Patrizia; Campolo, Jonica; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Brambilla, Ada; Rizzolo, Anna; Porrini, Marisa

    2013-03-01

    It has been suggested that anthocyanin-rich foods may exert antioxidant effects and improve vascular function as demonstrated mainly in vitro and in the animal model. Blueberries are rich sources of anthocyanins and we hypothesized that their intake could improve cell protection against oxidative stress and affect endothelial function in humans. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of one portion (300 g) of blueberries on selected markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant protection (endogenous and oxidatively induced DNA damage) and of vascular function (changes in peripheral arterial tone and plasma nitric oxide levels) in male subjects. In a randomized cross-over design, separated by a wash out period ten young volunteers received one portion of blueberries ground by blender or one portion of a control jelly. Before and after consumption (at 1, 2, and 24 hours), blood samples were collected and used to evaluate anthocyanin absorption (through mass spectrometry), endogenous and H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage in blood mononuclear cells (through the comet assay), and plasma nitric oxide concentrations (through a fluorometric assay). Peripheral arterial function was assessed by means of Endo-PAT 2000. Blueberries significantly reduced (P < .01) H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage (-18%) 1 hour after blueberry consumption compared to control. No significant differences were observed for endogenous DNA damage, peripheral arterial function and nitric oxide levels after blueberry intake. In conclusion, one portion of blueberries seems sufficient to improve cell antioxidant defense against DNA damage, but further studies are necessary to understand their role on vascular function. PMID:23507228

  17. Controls on fault damage zone width, structure, and symmetry in the Bandelier Tuff, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Paul R.; Goodwin, Laurel B.; Lewis, Claudia J.

    2010-06-01

    We studied welded and glassy nonwelded ignimbrites of the Bandelier Tuff cut by the Pajarito fault system to examine the influence of primary lithology and structure on fault damage-zone characteristics. Our work supports previous studies that indicate welding and resulting rock strength are first-order controls on the type of fault-zone structure that forms in high porosity ignimbrites. However, inherited mechanical anisotropy is the most significant control on spatial variations in fault-zone width and orientation of structures for a given throw. Cooling joints in welded ignimbrite localize strain, producing a narrower damage zone than that in glassy nonwelded ignimbrite. The joints also control the orientations of discrete fractures formed during faulting, so fractures show the same patterns inside and outside damage zones, which we attribute to local reorientation of stresses adjacent to joints. In contrast, deformation bands formed in relatively isotropic, glassy nonwelded ignimbrite exhibit conjugate sets oblique to the Pajarito fault, consistent with left-lateral extension across a pre-existing structure. Where footwall and hanging wall damage-zone widths can be compared in welded ignimbrite, they reflect greater hanging wall deformation, consistent with near-surface faulting. These observations collectively record 3D strain of a physically heterogeneous system.

  18. Coagulation factor concentrate-based therapy for remote damage control resuscitation (RDCR): a reasonable alternative?

    PubMed

    Maegele, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The concept of remote damage control resuscitation (RDCR) is still in its infancy and there is significant work to be done to improve outcomes for patients with life-threatening bleeding secondary to injury. The prehospital phase of resuscitation is critical and if shock and coagulopathy can be rapidly minimized before hospital admission this will very likely reduce morbidity and mortality. The optimum transfusion strategy for these patients is still highly debated and the potential implications of the recently published pragmatic, randomize, optimal platelet, and plasma ratios trial (PROPPR) for RDCR have been reviewed. Identifying the appropriate transfusion strategy is mandatory before adopting prehospital hemostatic resuscitation strategies. An alternative approach is based on the early administration of coagulation factor concentrates combined with the antifibrinolytic tranexamic acid (TXA). The three major components to this approach in the context of RDCR target the following steps to achieve hemostasis: 1) stop (hyper)fibrinolysis; 2) support clot formation; and 3) increase thrombin generation. Strong evidence exists for the use of TXA. The data from the prospective fibrinogen in trauma induced coagulopathy (FIinTIC) study will inform on the prehospital use of fibrinogen in bleeding trauma patients. Deficits in thrombin generation may be addressed by the administration of prothrombin complex concentrates. Handheld point-of-care devices may be able to support and guide the prehospital and remote use of intravenous hemostatic agents including coagulation factor concentrates along with clinical presentation, assessment, and the extent of bleeding. Combinations may even be more effective for bleeding control. More studies are urgently needed. PMID:27100752

  19. Timing control improves seabed survey data quality

    SciTech Connect

    Green, R.

    1996-04-01

    Seateam has completed development of and field-proven the Dolphin data acquisition and timing system for high-density surveys offshore. The Dolphin project was initiated to improve quality control of survey sensor data and ensure time synchronization, thus leading to faster turnaround of seabed terrain information. Data received from survey sensors is asynchronous, so the system must provide for data correlation. This includes establishment of data latency, i.e., the time difference between data creation and timing of the message at first-byte arrival at the recording system. Until recently, asynchronous data from multiple sensors was collected by a single computer, regardless of whether it had additional intelligent or non-intelligent serial cards. This computer was fully responsible for time stamping all incoming data, plus associated storage and distribution. Though this initially sufficed and is still applicable to low-density data, increasingly larger data volumes required an associated boost in the capability to time stamp data prior to eventual correction.

  20. Inhibiting Amadori-modified albumin formation improves biomarkers of podocyte damage in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Margo P; Shearman, Clyde W

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that urinary excretion of podocyte proteins is an indicator of podocyte injury, and that podocyte abnormalities and elevated concentrations of Amadori-modified glycated albumin (AGA) are linked to the development of diabetic nephropathy and to each other. We evaluated relationships between urinary markers of podocyte damage, increased AGA and filtration function in rats made diabetic by streptozotocin injection and treated for 8 weeks with a compound that inhibits the formation of AGA, with age-matched nondiabetic and diabetic rats serving as controls. Blood and urine were collected for measurement of glycated albumin, creatinine, albumin, nephrin, podocalyxin, and βig-h3 protein. The elevated circulating concentrations of glycated albumin and higher urinary levels of these podocyte markers as well as of albumin that were observed in diabetic rats compared with nondiabetic controls were significantly reduced in animals receiving test compound, and decrease in urinary biomarkers correlated with reduction in AGA. The results provide evidence that lowering the concentration of AGA, independent of filtration status and hyperglycemia, reduces urinary nephrin, podocalyxin, and βig-h3 protein, linking the increased glycated albumin associated with diabetes to podocyte abnormalities and shedding of podocyte proteins into the urine. PMID:24303153

  1. Multifunctional system for active noise control and damage detection on a typical aeronautical structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecce, Leonardo; Viscardi, Massimo; Zumpano, Giuseppe

    2001-08-01

    The present work relates to the assessment and testing of a multifunctional intelligent system, based upon the use of piezoelectric devices, devoted both to the active noise and vibration control and to damage detection f the structure. In the control application, the piezoelectric devices (in form of patches) play the role of actuators; their induced secondary vibration field has the target to reduce the primary one through a specific control algorithm and system. In the health monitoring application, the piezo devices play both the roles of actuators and sensors. In fact the developed technique is primarily based upon the evaluation and comparison of the structure Frequency Response Functions (FRF) that intrinsically contains all the information regarding the structural properties whose change may be correlated with incipient damages. The aforementioned application were investigated and experimentally assessed with good results with reference to a typical partial fuselage structure (three frames, eight stringers and the skin panels: 1.2 m x 1.7 m). On the noise control application side, a height sensors/height actuators control architecture was then assessed and experimentally tested whose results may be synthesized in a 30 dB vibration level reduction at sensors locations and more than 20 dB of reduction of the associated noise field. In the optic of a multifunctional intelligent system, the aforementioned set of piezo's was decided to be used also for health monitoring application. As a preliminary activity, an extensive monitoring was performed on the integer structure to verify the sensibility of the system and the stability of the defined Damage Index (DI) in respect to environmental factor not related to structural real modification. To verify the sensibility of the technique to reveal and locate a typical shear clip damage, a set of rivets were successively cut in the area surrounding the frame shear clip, and relative FRF's were acquired and relative DI

  2. Damage-mitigating control of aircraft for high performance and life extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplin, Jeffrey

    1998-12-01

    A methodology is proposed for the synthesis of a Damage-Mitigating Control System for a high-performance fighter aircraft. The design of such a controller involves consideration of damage to critical points of the structure, as well as the performance requirements of the aircraft. This research is interdisciplinary, and brings existing knowledge in the fields of unsteady aerodynamics, structural dynamics, fracture mechanics, and control theory together to formulate a new approach towards aircraft flight controller design. A flexible wing model is formulated using the Finite Element Method, and the important mode shapes and natural frequencies are identified. The Doublet Lattice Method is employed to develop an unsteady flow model for computation of the unsteady aerodynamic loads acting on the wing due to rigid-body maneuvers and structural deformation. These two models are subsequently incorporated into a pre-existing nonlinear rigid-body aircraft flight-dynamic model. A family of robust Damage-Mitigating Controllers is designed using the Hinfinity-optimization and mu-synthesis method. In addition to weighting the error between the ideal performance and the actual performance of the aircraft, weights are also placed on the strain amplitude at the root of each wing. The results show significant savings in fatigue life of the wings while retaining the dynamic performance of the aircraft.

  3. Role of the translationally controlled tumor protein in DNA damage sensing and repair.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; de Toledo, Sonia M; Pandey, Badri N; Guo, Guozheng; Pain, Debkumar; Li, Hong; Azzam, Edouard I

    2012-04-17

    The translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is essential for survival by mechanisms that as yet are incompletely defined. Here we describe an important role of TCTP in response to DNA damage. Upon exposure of normal human cells to low-dose γ rays, the TCTP protein level was greatly increased, with a significant enrichment in nuclei. TCTP up-regulation occurred in a manner dependent on ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase and the DNA-dependent protein kinase and was associated with protective effects against DNA damage. In chromatin of irradiated cells, coimmunoprecipitation experiments showed that TCTP forms a complex with ATM and γH2A.X, in agreement with its distinct localization with the foci of the DNA damage-marker proteins γH2A.X, 53BP1, and P-ATM. In cells lacking TCTP, repair of chromosomal damage induced by γ rays was compromised significantly. TCTP also was shown to interact with p53 and the DNA-binding subunits, Ku70 and Ku80, of DNA-dependent protein kinase. TCTP knockdown led to decreased levels of Ku70 and Ku80 in nuclei of irradiated cells and attenuated their DNA-binding activity. It also attenuated the radiation-induced G(1) delay but prolonged the G(2) delay. TCTP therefore may play a critical role in maintaining genomic integrity in response to DNA-damaging agents. PMID:22451927

  4. Advanced Mitigation Process (AMP) for Improving Laser Damage Threshold of Fused Silica Optics.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xin; Huang, Jin; Liu, Hongjie; Geng, Feng; Sun, Laixi; Jiang, Xiaodong; Wu, Weidong; Qiao, Liang; Zu, Xiaotao; Zheng, Wanguo

    2016-01-01

    The laser damage precursors in subsurface of fused silica (e.g. photosensitive impurities, scratches and redeposited silica compounds) were mitigated by mineral acid leaching and HF etching with multi-frequency ultrasonic agitation, respectively. The comparison of scratches morphology after static etching and high-frequency ultrasonic agitation etching was devoted in our case. And comparison of laser induce damage resistance of scratched and non-scratched fused silica surfaces after HF etching with high-frequency ultrasonic agitation were also investigated in this study. The global laser induce damage resistance was increased significantly after the laser damage precursors were mitigated in this case. The redeposition of reaction produce was avoided by involving multi-frequency ultrasonic and chemical leaching process. These methods made the increase of laser damage threshold more stable. In addition, there is no scratch related damage initiations found on the samples which were treated by Advanced Mitigation Process. PMID:27484188

  5. Advanced Mitigation Process (AMP) for Improving Laser Damage Threshold of Fused Silica Optics

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xin; Huang, Jin; Liu, Hongjie; Geng, Feng; Sun, Laixi; Jiang, Xiaodong; Wu, Weidong; Qiao, Liang; Zu, Xiaotao; Zheng, Wanguo

    2016-01-01

    The laser damage precursors in subsurface of fused silica (e.g. photosensitive impurities, scratches and redeposited silica compounds) were mitigated by mineral acid leaching and HF etching with multi-frequency ultrasonic agitation, respectively. The comparison of scratches morphology after static etching and high-frequency ultrasonic agitation etching was devoted in our case. And comparison of laser induce damage resistance of scratched and non-scratched fused silica surfaces after HF etching with high-frequency ultrasonic agitation were also investigated in this study. The global laser induce damage resistance was increased significantly after the laser damage precursors were mitigated in this case. The redeposition of reaction produce was avoided by involving multi-frequency ultrasonic and chemical leaching process. These methods made the increase of laser damage threshold more stable. In addition, there is no scratch related damage initiations found on the samples which were treated by Advanced Mitigation Process. PMID:27484188

  6. Advanced Mitigation Process (AMP) for Improving Laser Damage Threshold of Fused Silica Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xin; Huang, Jin; Liu, Hongjie; Geng, Feng; Sun, Laixi; Jiang, Xiaodong; Wu, Weidong; Qiao, Liang; Zu, Xiaotao; Zheng, Wanguo

    2016-08-01

    The laser damage precursors in subsurface of fused silica (e.g. photosensitive impurities, scratches and redeposited silica compounds) were mitigated by mineral acid leaching and HF etching with multi-frequency ultrasonic agitation, respectively. The comparison of scratches morphology after static etching and high-frequency ultrasonic agitation etching was devoted in our case. And comparison of laser induce damage resistance of scratched and non-scratched fused silica surfaces after HF etching with high-frequency ultrasonic agitation were also investigated in this study. The global laser induce damage resistance was increased significantly after the laser damage precursors were mitigated in this case. The redeposition of reaction produce was avoided by involving multi-frequency ultrasonic and chemical leaching process. These methods made the increase of laser damage threshold more stable. In addition, there is no scratch related damage initiations found on the samples which were treated by Advanced Mitigation Process.

  7. Improvement of Laser Damage Resistance and Diffraction Efficiency of Multilayer Dielectric Diffraction Gratings by HF-Etchback Linewidth Tailoring

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, H T; Larson, C C; Britten, J A

    2010-10-28

    Multilayer dielectric (MLD) diffraction gratings for Petawatt-class laser systems possess unique laser damage characteristics. Details of the shape of the grating lines and the concentration of absorbing impurities on the surface of the grating structures both have strong effects on laser damage threshold. It is known that electric field enhancement in the solid material comprising the grating lines varies directly with the linewidth and inversely with the line height for equivalent diffraction efficiency. Here, they present an overview of laser damage characteristics of MLD gratings, and describe a process for post-processing ion-beam etched grating lines using very dilute buffered hydrofluoric acid solutions. This process acts simultaneously to reduce grating linewidth and remove surface contaminants, thereby improving laser damage thresholds through two pathways.

  8. Optimal Ozone Control with Inclusion of Spatiotemporal Marginal Damages and Electricity Demand.

    PubMed

    Mesbah, S Morteza; Hakami, Amir; Schott, Stephan

    2015-07-01

    Marginal damage (MD), or damage per ton of emission, is a policy metric used for effective pollution control and reducing the corresponding adverse health impacts. However, for a pollutant such as NOx, the MD varies by the time and location of the emissions, a complication that is not adequately accounted for in the currently implemented economic instruments. Policies accounting for MD information would aim to encourage emitters with large MDs to reduce their emissions. An optimization framework is implemented to account for NOx spatiotemporal MDs calculated through adjoint sensitivity analysis and to simulate power plants' behavior under emission and simplified electricity constraints. The results from a case study of U.S. power plants indicate that time-specific MDs are high around noon and low in the evening. Furthermore, an emissions reduction of about 40% and a net benefit of about $1200 million can be gained for this subset of power plants if a larger fraction of the electricity demand is supplied by power plants at low-damage times and in low-damage locations. The results also indicate that the consideration of temporal effects in NOx control policies results in a comparable net benefit to the consideration of spatial or spatiotemporal effects, thus providing a promising option for policy development. PMID:26053406

  9. Methodology to improve process understanding of surface runoff causing damages to buildings by analyzing insurance data records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernet, Daniel; Prasuhn, Volker; Weingartner, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Several case studies in Switzerland highlight that many buildings which are damaged by floods are not located within the inundation zones of rivers, but outside the river network. In urban areas, such flooding can be caused by drainage system surcharge, low infiltration capacity of the urbanized landscape etc. However, in rural and peri-urban areas inundations are more likely caused by surface runoff formed on natural and arable land. Such flash floods have very short response time, occur rather diffusely and, thus, are very difficult to observe directly. In our approach, we use data records from private, but mostly from public insurance companies. The latter, present in 19 out of the total 26 Cantons of Switzerland, insure (almost) every building within the respective administrative zones and, in addition, hold a monopoly position. Damage claims, including flood damages, are usually recorded and, thus, data records from such public insurance companies are a very profitable data source to better understand surface runoff leading to damages. Although practitioners agree that this process is relevant, there seems to be a knowledge gap concerning spatial and temporal distributions as well as triggers and influencing factors of such damage events. Within the framework of a research project, we want to address this research gap and improve the understanding of the process chain from surface runoff formation up to possible damages to buildings. This poster introduces the methodology, which will be applied to a dataset including data from the majority of all 19 public insurance companies for buildings in Switzerland, counting over 50'000 damage claims, in order to better understand surface runoff. The goal is to infer spatial and temporal patterns as well as drivers and influencing factors of surface runoff possibly causing damages. In particular, the workflow of data acquisition, harmonization and treatment is outlined. Furthermore associated problems and challenges are

  10. Trauma hemostasis and oxygenation research position paper on remote damage control resuscitation: definitions, current practice, and knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Donald H; Rappold, Joseph F; Badloe, John F; Berséus, Olle; Blackbourne, Lorne; Brohi, Karim H; Butler, Frank K; Cap, Andrew P; Cohen, Mitchell Jay; Davenport, Ross; DePasquale, Marc; Doughty, Heidi; Glassberg, Elon; Hervig, Tor; Hooper, Timothy J; Kozar, Rosemary; Maegele, Marc; Moore, Ernest E; Murdock, Alan; Ness, Paul M; Pati, Shibani; Rasmussen, Todd; Sailliol, Anne; Schreiber, Martin A; Sunde, Geir Arne; van de Watering, Leo M G; Ward, Kevin R; Weiskopf, Richard B; White, Nathan J; Strandenes, Geir; Spinella, Philip C

    2014-05-01

    The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network held its third annual Remote Damage Control Resuscitation Symposium in June 2013 in Bergen, Norway. The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network is a multidisciplinary group of investigators with a common interest in improving outcomes and safety in patients with severe traumatic injury. The network's mission is to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality from traumatic hemorrhagic shock, in the prehospital phase of resuscitation through research, education, and training. The concept of remote damage control resuscitation is in its infancy, and there is a significant amount of work that needs to be done to improve outcomes for patients with life-threatening bleeding secondary to injury. The prehospital phase of resuscitation is critical in these patients. If shock and coagulopathy can be rapidly identified and minimized before hospital admission, this will very likely reduce morbidity and mortality. This position statement begins to standardize the terms used, provides an acceptable range of therapeutic options, and identifies the major knowledge gaps in the field. PMID:24430539

  11. Deoxyadenosine family: improved synthesis, DNA damage and repair, analogs as drugs.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Himadri; Kar, Indrani; Chattopadhyaya, Rajagopal

    2013-08-01

    Improved synthesis of 2'-deoxyadenosine using Escherichia coli overexpressing some enzymes and gram-scale chemical synthesis of 2'-deoxynucleoside 5'-triphosphates reported recently are described in this review. Other topics include DNA damage induced by chromium(VI), Fenton chemistry, photoinduction with lumazine, or by ultrasound in neutral solution; 8,5'-cyclo-2'-deoxyadenosine isomers as potential biomarkers; and a recapitulation of purine 5',8-cyclonucleoside studies. The mutagenicities of some products generated by oxidizing 2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate, nucleotide pool sanitization, and translesion synthesis are also reviewed. Characterizing cross-linking between nucleosides in opposite strands of DNA and endonuclease V-mediated deoxyinosine excision repair are discussed. The use of purine nucleoside analogs in the treatment of rarer chronic lymphoid leukemias is reviewed. Some analogs at the C8 position induced delayed polymerization arrest during HIV-1 reverse transcription. The susceptibility of clinically metronidazole-resistant Trichomonas vaginalis to two analogs, toyocamycin and 2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine, were tested in vitro. GS-9148, a dAMP analog, was translocated to the priming site in a complex with reverse transcriptase and double-stranded DNA to gain insight into the mechanism of reverse transcriptase inhibition. PMID:25436589

  12. Stimulation of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1 Improves Renal Function and Attenuates Tissue Damage after Ischemia/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Idrovo, Juan-Pablo; Yang, Weng-Lang; Nicastro, Jeffrey; Coppa, Gene F.; Wang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Background Renal injury as a result of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a major clinical problem with a high mortality rate and a lack of therapeutic treatment. During I/R, cellular homeostasis is disrupted due to energy depletion, leading to cell death. Fatty acid β-oxidation is the major metabolic pathway for generating ATP in the kidneys, which is governed by carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1). C75 is a synthetic compound that up-regulates CPT1 activity. Thus, we hypothesized that C75 treatment could increase energy production and alleviate the renal I/R injury. Methods Male adult rats were subjected to renal I/R by bilateral renal pedicle clamping with microvascular clips for 60 min, followed by administration of 8% DMSO (vehicle) or C75 (3 mg/kg BW) with 5 animals per group. Blood and renal tissues were collected 24 h after reperfusion and subjected to various measurements and histological examination. Results C75 treatment restored the loss of CPT1 activity and intracellular ATP levels in the kidneys after I/R. Administration of C75 significantly lowered serum creatinine, BUN, AST, and LDH levels elevated by I/R. C75 treatment preserved morphological features of the kidneys with a significant improvement in the damage score. In addition, C75 treatment inhibited the increase of TNF-α levels in serum and kidneys, and lowered MPO activity in the kidneys after I/R. Conclusions Stimulation of CPT1 activity by C75 recovered ATP depletion, improved renal function, attenuated tissue injury, and inhibited proinflammatory cytokine production and neutrophil infiltration after renal I/R injury. Therefore, enhancing the metabolism pathways for energy production may provide a novel modality to treat renal I/R injury. PMID:22698429

  13. Improved temperature control of liquid cooling garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flucher, C. W. G.

    1972-01-01

    Skin and auditory meatus temperature readings supply control signal for temperature control valve in fluid temperature control system which provides increased subject comfort and responds to directly measured physiological cooling needs. System applications include medical care and thermal protection garment manufacturing.

  14. Concepts for improving the damage tolerance of composite compression panels. [aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, M. D.; Williams, J. G.

    1984-01-01

    The residual strength of specimens with damage and the sensitivity to damage while subjected to an applied inplane compression load were determined for flatplate specimens and blade-stiffened panels. The results suggest that matrix materials that fail by delamination have the lowest damage tolerance capability. Alternate matrix materials or laminates which are transversely reinforced suppress the delamination mode of failure and change the failure mode to transverse shear crippling which occurs at a higher strain value. Several damage-tolerant blade-stiffened panel design concepts are evaluated. Structural efficiency studies conducted show only small mass penalties may result from incorporating these damage-tolerant features in panel design. The implication of test results on the design of aircraft structures was examined with respect to FAR requirements.

  15. [Tactics of "damage control" in the injured persons with severe combined trauma of abdominal organs].

    PubMed

    Boĭko, V V; Zamiatin, P N; Peev, S B; Nakonechnyĭ, E V; Miroshnichenko, Iu I

    2014-12-01

    In the clinic in 2000 - 2013 yrs of 42 injured persons with severe combined trauma of abdominal organs were treated, in 18 of them the method of a multi-staged treatment (damage control) with a short-term operative intervention on the first stage was applied, what permitted to lower postoperative lethality by 22.3%, and rate of purulent-septic complications--by 18.1%. PMID:25842874

  16. Improved laser damage threshold performance of calcium fluoride optical surfaces via Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam (ANAB) processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, S.; Walsh, M.; Svrluga, R.; Thomas, M.

    2015-11-01

    Optics are not keeping up with the pace of laser advancements. The laser industry is rapidly increasing its power capabilities and reducing wavelengths which have exposed the optics as a weak link in lifetime failures for these advanced systems. Nanometer sized surface defects (scratches, pits, bumps and residual particles) on the surface of optics are a significant limiting factor to high end performance. Angstrom level smoothing of materials such as calcium fluoride, spinel, magnesium fluoride, zinc sulfide, LBO and others presents a unique challenge for traditional polishing techniques. Exogenesis Corporation, using its new and proprietary Accelerated Neutral Atom Beam (ANAB) technology, is able to remove nano-scale surface damage and particle contamination leaving many material surfaces with roughness typically around one Angstrom. This surface defect mitigation via ANAB processing can be shown to increase performance properties of high intensity optical materials. This paper describes the ANAB technology and summarizes smoothing results for calcium fluoride laser windows. It further correlates laser damage threshold improvements with the smoothing produced by ANAB surface treatment. All ANAB processing was performed at Exogenesis Corporation using an nAccel100TM Accelerated Particle Beam processing tool. All surface measurement data for the paper was produced via AFM analysis on a Park Model XE70 AFM, and all laser damage testing was performed at Spica Technologies, Inc. Exogenesis Corporation's ANAB processing technology is a new and unique surface modification technique that has demonstrated to be highly effective at correcting nano-scale surface defects. ANAB is a non-contact vacuum process comprised of an intense beam of accelerated, electrically neutral gas atoms with average energies of a few tens of electron volts. The ANAB process does not apply mechanical forces associated with traditional polishing techniques. ANAB efficiently removes surface

  17. DNA replication and damage checkpoints and meiotic cell cycle controls in the fission and budding yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, H; Nurse, P

    2000-01-01

    The cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms ensure the order of cell cycle events to preserve genomic integrity. Among these, the DNA-replication and DNA-damage checkpoints prevent chromosome segregation when DNA replication is inhibited or DNA is damaged. Recent studies have identified an outline of the regulatory networks for both of these controls, which apparently operate in all eukaryotes. In addition, it appears that these checkpoints have two arrest points, one is just before entry into mitosis and the other is prior to chromosome separation. The former point requires the central cell-cycle regulator Cdc2 kinase, whereas the latter involves several key regulators and substrates of the ubiquitin ligase called the anaphase promoting complex. Linkages between these cell-cycle regulators and several key checkpoint proteins are beginning to emerge. Recent findings on post-translational modifications and protein-protein interactions of the checkpoint proteins provide new insights into the checkpoint responses, although the functional significance of these biochemical properties often remains unclear. We have reviewed the molecular mechanisms acting at the DNA-replication and DNA-damage checkpoints in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and the modifications of these controls during the meiotic cell cycle. We have made comparisons with the controls in fission yeast and other organisms, mainly the distantly related budding yeast. PMID:10861204

  18. Rotorcraft flying qualities improvement using advanced control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, D.; Postlethwaite, I.; Howitt, J.; Foster, N.

    1993-01-01

    We report on recent experience gained when a multivariable helicopter flight control law was tested on the Large Motion Simulator (LMS) at DRA Bedford. This was part of a study into the application of multivariable control theory to the design of full-authority flight control systems for high-performance helicopters. In this paper, we present some of the results that were obtained during the piloted simulation trial and from subsequent off-line simulation and analysis. The performance provided by the control law led to level 1 handling quality ratings for almost all of the mission task elements assessed, both during the real-time and off-line analysis.

  19. Applying nonlinear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy to improving thermal damage assessment in concrete.

    PubMed

    Payan, C; Garnier, V; Moysan, J; Johnson, P A

    2007-04-01

    Nonlinear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (NRUS) consists of evaluating one or more resonant frequency peak shifts while increasing excitation amplitude. NRUS exhibits high sensitivity to global damage in a large group of materials. Most studies conducted to date are aimed at interrogating the mechanical damage influence on the nonlinear response, applying bending, or longitudinal modes. The sensitivity of NRUS using longitudinal modes and the comparison of the results with a classical linear method to monitor progressive thermal damage (isotropic) of concrete are studied in this paper. In addition, feasibility and sensitivity of applying shear modes for the NRUS method are explored. PMID:17471756

  20. WNT AGONIST DECREASES TISSUE DAMAGE AND IMPROVES RENAL FUNCTION AFTER ISCHEMIA-REPERFUSION

    PubMed Central

    Kuncewitch, Michael; Yang, Weng-Lang; Corbo, Lana; Khader, Adam; Nicastro, Jeffrey; Coppa, Gene F.; Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury (IRI) following shock states or transplantation causes tissue damage and delayed graft function, respectively. The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays a critical role in nephrogenesis. We therefore hypothesized that pharmacological activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by Wnt agonist, a synthetic pyrimidine, could protect kidneys from IRI. Adult male rats were subjected to bilateral clamping of the renal pedicles with microvascular clips for 60 min, followed by reperfusion. Wnt agonist (5 mg/kg BW) or vehicle (20% DMSO in saline) was administered intravenously 1 h prior to ischemia. Blood and renal tissues were collected 24 h after IR for evaluation. Renal IR caused a significant reduction of β-catenin and its downstream target gene cyclin D1 by 65% and 39%, respectively, compared to the sham, while Wnt agonist restored them to the sham levels. The number and intensity of cells staining with the proliferation marker Ki67 in ischematized kidneys were enhanced by Wnt agonist. The integrity of the renal histological architecture in the Wnt agonist group was better preserved than the vehicle group. Wnt agonist significantly lowered serum levels of creatinine, AST, and LDH, inhibited the production of IL-6 and IL-1β, and MPO activities. Lastly, Wnt agonist reduced iNOS, nitrotyrosine proteins and 4-hydroxynonenal in the kidneys by 60%, 47% and 21%, respectively, compared to the vehicle. These results indicate that Wnt agonist improves renal regeneration and function while attenuating inflammation and oxidative stress in the kidneys after IR. Thus, pharmacologic stimulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling provides a beneficial effect on the prevention of renal IRI. PMID:25514428

  1. Iron-control additives improve acidizing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.; Dill, W. ); Besler, M. )

    1989-07-24

    Iron sulfide and sulfur precipitation in sour wells can be controlled with iron-sequestering agents and sulfide modifiers. Oil production has been routinely increased in sour wells where precipitation of iron sulfide and elemental sulfur has been brought under control. Production increases have been especially noteworthy on wells that had a history of rapid production decline after acid stimulation. Twenty-fold production increases have been recorded. Key to the production increase has been to increase permeability with: Iron chelating agents that control precipitation of iron sulfide. A sulfide modifier that reduces precipitation of solids in the presence of excessive amounts of hydrogen sulfide and prevents precipitation of elemental sulfur.

  2. Melatonin is more effective than ascorbic acid and β-carotene in improvement of gastric mucosal damage induced by intensive stress

    PubMed Central

    Akinci, Aysin; Cetin, Asli; Ates, Burhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oxidative stress has been considered to play a primary role in the pathogenesis of stress-induced gastric damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of melatonin, ascorbic acid and β-carotene on stress-induced gastric mucosal damage. Material and methods Fifty-six male Wistar albino rats were divided into control, stress, stress + standard diet, stress + saline, stress + melatonin, stress + ascorbic acid and stress + β-carotene groups. The rats from stress groups were exposed to starvation, immobilization and cold by immobilizing for 8 h at +4°C following 72-hour food restriction. Following stress application, melatonin, ascorbic acid and β-carotene were administered for 7 days. Specimens of gastric tissue were prepared for microscopic and biochemical examinations. Results Mean histopathological damage scores and mean tissue malondialdehyde levels were significantly decreased but mean tissue glutathione levels and glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were increased in treatment groups vs. stress groups in general. Mean histopathological damage scores of the stress + Mel group was lower than those of stress + D, stress + S, stress + β-car (p < 0.05) and stress + Asc groups (p < 0.005). Additionally, mean tissue catalase activity of the stress + Mel group was higher than that of stress + S (p < 0.005), stress + D (p < 0.05) and stress + β-car groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions Melatonin is more effective than ascorbic acid and β-carotene in improvement of gastric damage induced by intensive stress. We suggest that as well as the direct antioxidant and free radical scavenging potency of melatonin, its indirect effect via the brain-gut axis might account for its greater beneficial action against stress-induced gastric damage. PMID:26528359

  3. Improving Instruction Using Statistical Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Ronald C.; Messer, George H.

    1990-01-01

    Two applications of statistical process control to the process of education are described. Discussed are the use of prompt feedback to teachers and prompt feedback to students. A sample feedback form is provided. (CW)

  4. Development of advanced drilling, completion, and stimulation systems for minimum formation damage and improved efficiency: A program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Layne, A.W.; Yost, A.B. II

    1994-07-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Natural Gas Resource and Extraction Program consists of industry/government co-sponsored research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) projects, which focus on gas recovery from both conventional and nonconventional resources. The Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation (DCS) Project focuses on advanced, non-damaging technology systems and equipment for improving gas recovery from conventional and nonconventional reservoirs. As operators move from development of current day economically attractive gas-field development to the lower permeability geologic regions of domestic onshore plays, increasing the emphasis on minimum formation damage DCS will permit economic development of gas reserves. The objective of the Project is to develop and demonstrate cost-effective, advanced technology to accelerate widespread use and acceptance of minimum formation damage DCS systems. The goal of this product development effort is to reduce costs and improve the overall efficiency of vertical, directional, and horizontally drilled wells in gas formations throughout the US. The current focus of the Project is on the development of underbalanced drilling technology and minimum formation damage stimulation technology concurrently with the appropriate completion hardware to improve the economics of domestic natural gas field development. Ongoing drilling technology projects to be discussed include development of an electromagnetic measurement while drilling system for directional and horizontal drilling in underbalanced drilling applications and the development of a steerable air percussion drilling system for hard formation drilling and improved penetration rates. Ongoing stimulation technology projects to be discussed include introduction of carbon dioxide/sand fracturing technology for minimal formation damage.

  5. A newly developed hydroxyl radical scavenger, EPC-K1 can improve the survival of swine warm ischemia-damaged transplanted liver grafts.

    PubMed

    Yagi, T; Sakagami, K; Nakagawa, H; Takaishi, Y; Orita, K

    1992-01-01

    Using a swine orthotopic liver transplantation (SOLTx) model, we assessed the effect of a new hydroxyl radical scavenger EPC-K1 on warm ischemic damage of the liver graft and recipient survival. Animals were divided into 5 groups. The first group (control group 1) consisted of 5 pigs which were not operated on but served as controls for the indocianine green disappearance rate (K-ICG) determinations. In the second group (control group 2), 10 livers were transplanted without warm ischemia (WI) and the K-ICG values were measured. The third group (control group 3) was the main control group for the study groups and consisted of 5 liver transplants with 30 min of WI without any special treatment. The fourth and fifth groups served as study groups 1 and 2. Five transplants were carried out in each group, as in control group 3. In study group 1 recipients were treated with an additional 5 mg/kg i.v. EPC-K1 and in study group 2 with 20 mg/kg i.v. EPC-K1. Significant improvement in glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels, K-ICG values and histological findings were observed in the EPC-K1 treated groups. The intravenous administration of this agent had a strong protective effect on warm ischemic damage after 30 min of WI and could significantly prolong the graft and recipient survival. PMID:14621836

  6. Treatment with novel RSV Ig RI-002 controls viral replication and reduces pulmonary damage in immunocompromised Sigmodon hispidus.

    PubMed

    Boukhvalova, M; Blanco, J C G; Falsey, A R; Mond, J

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a significant cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in several high health risk populations, including infants, elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Mortality in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with lower respiratory tract RSV infection can exceed 80%. It has been shown that RSV replication in immunosuppressed individuals is significantly prolonged, but the contribution of pulmonary damage, if any, to the pathogenesis of RSV disease in this susceptible population is not known. In this work, we tested RI-002, a novel standardized Ig formulation containing a high level of RSV-neutralizing Ab, for its ability to control RSV infection in immunocompromised cotton rats Sigmodon hispidus. Animals immunosuppressed by repeat cyclophosphamide injections were infected with RSV and treated with RI-002. Prolonged RSV replication, characteristic of immunosuppressed cotton rats, was inhibited by RI-002 administration. Ab treatment reduced detection of systemic dissemination of viral RNA. Importantly, pulmonary interstitial inflammation and epithelial hyperplasia that were significantly elevated in immunosuppressed animals were reduced by RI-002 administration. These results indicate the potential of RI-002 to improve outcome of RSV infection in immunocompromised subjects not only by controlling viral replication, but also by reducing damage to lung parenchyma and epithelial airway lining, but further studies are needed. PMID:26367224

  7. Magnetic Bearing Controller Improvements for High Speed Flywheel System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Timothy P.; Brown, Gerald V.; Jansen, Ralph H.; Kascak, Peter E.; Provenza, Andrew J.

    2003-01-01

    A magnetic bearing control system for a high-speed flywheel system is described. The flywheel utilizes a five axis active magnetic bearing system, using eddy current sensors for position feedback to the bearing controller. Magnetic bearing controller features designed to improve flywheel operation and testing are described. Operational improvements include feed forward control to compensate for rotor imbalance, moving notch filtering to compensate for synchronous and harmonic rotational noise, and fixed notching to prevent rotor bending mode excitation. Testing improvements include adding safe gain, bearing current hold, bearing current zero, and excitation input features. Performance and testing improvements provided by these features are measured and discussed.

  8. GC-directed control improves refining

    SciTech Connect

    Hail, G.F. )

    1991-02-01

    The increasing role of refinery product quality control is significant. Driven not only for meeting product specification and economic goals, refiners must also satisfy new purchaser demands. That is, the emphasis to monitor product quality on-line in an accurate, timely manner is greater now than ever, due largely to the expanding use of statistical methods (SQC/SPC) in analyzing and manipulating process operation. Consequently, the need for reliable composition control is essential in maintaining refinery prosperity. Process gas chromatographs are frequently used to monitor the performance of distillation, absorption and stripping towers by providing near-real-time stream composition, particular component concentration, or calculated parameter (Rvp, Btu content, etc.) information. This paper reports that appreciably greater benefit can be achieved when process gas chromatographs (or GCs) provide on-line feedback data to process control schemes.

  9. 48 CFR 970.0370 - Management Controls and Improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0370 Management Controls and Improvements. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Management Controls...

  10. 48 CFR 970.0370 - Management Controls and Improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0370 Management Controls and Improvements. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Management Controls...

  11. 48 CFR 970.0370 - Management Controls and Improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0370 Management Controls and Improvements. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Management Controls...

  12. 48 CFR 970.0370 - Management Controls and Improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0370 Management Controls and Improvements. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Management Controls...

  13. 48 CFR 970.0370 - Management Controls and Improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Improper Business Practices and Personal Conflicts of Interest 970.0370 Management Controls and Improvements. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Management Controls...

  14. Experimental Analysis of Proton-Induced Displacement and Ionization Damage Using Gate-Controlled Lateral PNP Bipolar Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ball, D. R.; Schrimpf, R. D.; Barnaby, H. J.

    2006-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of proton-irradiated bipolar transistors are affected by ionization damage to the insulating oxide and displacement damage to the semiconductor bulk. While both types of damage degrade the transistor, it is important to understand the mechanisms individually and to be able to analyze them separately. In this paper, a method for analyzing the effects of ionization and displacement damage using gate-controlled lateral PNP bipolar junction transistors is described. This technique allows the effects of oxide charge, surface recombination velocity, and bulk traps to be measured independently.

  15. G6PD protects from oxidative damage and improves healthspan in mice

    PubMed Central

    Nóbrega-Pereira, Sandrina; Fernandez-Marcos, Pablo J.; Brioche, Thomas; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Salvador-Pascual, Andrea; Flores, Juana M.; Viña, Jose; Serrano, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly generated by cells and ROS-derived damage contributes to ageing. Protection against oxidative damage largely relies on the reductive power of NAPDH, whose levels are mostly determined by the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). Here, we report a transgenic mouse model with moderate overexpression of human G6PD under its endogenous promoter. Importantly, G6PD-Tg mice have higher levels of NADPH, lower levels of ROS-derived damage, and better protection from ageing-associated functional decline, including extended median lifespan in females. The G6PD transgene has no effect on tumour development, even after combining with various tumour-prone genetic alterations. We conclude that a modest increase in G6PD activity is beneficial for healthspan through increased NADPH levels and protection from the deleterious effects of ROS. PMID:26976705

  16. Air Traffic Control Improvement Using Prioritized CSMA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2001-01-01

    Version 7 simulations of the industry-standard network simulation software "OPNET" are presented of two applications of the Aeronautical Telecommunications Network (ATN), Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast mode (ADS-B), over VHF Data Link mode 2 (VDL-2). Communication is modeled for air traffic between just three cities. All aircraft are assumed to have the same equipage. The simulation involves Air Traffic Control (ATC) ground stations and 105 aircraft taking off, flying realistic free-flight trajectories, and landing in a 24-hr period. All communication is modeled as unreliable. Collision-less, prioritized carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) is successfully tested. The statistics presented include latency, queue length, and packet loss. This research may show that a communications system simpler than the currently accepted standard envisioned may not only suffice, but also surpass performance of the standard at a lower cost of deployment.

  17. Blending Gyro Signals To Improve Control Stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. F. L.

    1986-01-01

    Interference by structural vibrations reduced by adding signals from spatially separated gyros. Technique involves blending signals from rate gyroscopes located at different parts of structure to obtain composite signal that more nearly represents rotation of entire structure. Aircraft vibrations perpendicular to pitch axis contribute to rotations sensed by pitch-rate gyros. Proper blending of signals from gyros suppress contribution of dominant vibrational mode. Most likely applications of concept are flight-control systems for aircraft.

  18. How intense quality control improves hydraulic fracturing

    SciTech Connect

    Ely, J.W.

    1996-11-01

    Not unlike the subject of Forced Closure, Intense Quality Control is probably misnamed. What actually is discussed in this article is pilot testing of the fracturing fluids actually pumped at in-situ conditions of temperature and shear. Presented here is development of the need for onsite testing, equipment used, shear and viscosity curves from several jobs showing what went wrong that would otherwise not have been known, and a discussion of borate gel fluids.

  19. Interfacing brain with computer to improve communication and rehabilitation after brain damage.

    PubMed

    Riccio, A; Pichiorri, F; Schettini, F; Toppi, J; Risetti, M; Formisano, R; Molinari, M; Astolfi, L; Cincotti, F; Mattia, D

    2016-01-01

    Communication and control of the external environment can be provided via brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) to replace a lost function in persons with severe diseases and little or no chance of recovery of motor abilities (ie, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, brainstem stroke). BCIs allow to intentionally modulate brain activity, to train specific brain functions, and to control prosthetic devices, and thus, this technology can also improve the outcome of rehabilitation programs in persons who have suffered from a central nervous system injury (ie, stroke leading to motor or cognitive impairment). Overall, the BCI researcher is challenged to interact with people with severe disabilities and professionals in the field of neurorehabilitation. This implies a deep understanding of the disabled condition on the one hand, and it requires extensive knowledge on the physiology and function of the human brain on the other. For these reasons, a multidisciplinary approach and the continuous involvement of BCI users in the design, development, and testing of new systems are desirable. In this chapter, we will focus on noninvasive EEG-based systems and their clinical applications, highlighting crucial issues to foster BCI translation outside laboratories to eventually become a technology usable in real-life realm. PMID:27590975

  20. Fabrication of mitigation pits for improving laser damage resistance in dielectric mirrors by femtosecond laser machining

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, Justin E.; Qiu, S. Roger; Stolz, Christopher J.

    2011-03-20

    Femtosecond laser machining is used to create mitigation pits to stabilize nanosecond laser-induced damage in multilayer dielectric mirror coatings on BK7 substrates. In this paper, we characterize features and the artifacts associated with mitigation pits and further investigate the impact of pulse energy and pulse duration on pit quality and damage resistance. Our results show that these mitigation features can double the fluence-handling capability of large-aperture optical multilayer mirror coatings and further demonstrate that femtosecond laser macromachining is a promising means for fabricating mitigation geometry in multilayer coatings to increase mirror performance under high-power laser irradiation.

  1. Development of advanced drilling, completion, and stimulation systems for minimum formation damage and improved efficiency: A program overview

    SciTech Connect

    Layne, A.W.; Yost, A.B. II

    1994-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Natural Gas Resource and Extraction Program consists of industry/government co-sponsored research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) projects, which focus on gas recovery from both conventional and nonconventional resources. The current focus of the Project is on the development of underbalanced drilling technology and minimum formation damage stimulation technology concurrently with the appropriate completion hardware to improve the economics of domestic natural gas field development. Ongoing drilling technology projects to be discussed include development of an electromagnetic measurement while drilling system for directional and horizontal drilling in underbalanced drilling applications and the development of a steerable air percussion drilling system for hard formation drilling and improved penetration rates. Ongoing stimulation technology projects to be discussed include introduction of carbon dioxide/sand fracturing technology for minimal formation damage.

  2. Damage Control Plan for International Space Station Recharge Tank Assembly Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    As NASA has retired the Space Shuttle Program, a new method of transporting compressed gaseous nitrogen and oxygen needed to be created for delivery of these crucial life support resources to the International Space Station (ISS). One of the methods selected by NASA includes the use of highly pressurized, unprotected Recharge Tank Assemblies (RTAs) utilizing Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs). A COPV consists of a thin liner wrapped with a fiber composite and resin or epoxy. It is typically lighter weight than an all metal pressure vessel of similar volume and therefore provides a higher-efficiency means for gas storage. However COPVs are known to be susceptible to damage resulting from handling, tool drop impacts, or impacts from other objects. As a result, a comprehensive Damage Control Plan has been established to mitigate damage to the RTA COPV throughout its life cycle. The DCP is intended to evaluate and mitigate defined threats during manufacturing, shipping and handling, test, assembly level integration, shipment while pressurized, launch vehicle integration and mission operations by defining credible threats and methods for preventing potential damage while still maintaining the primary goal of resupplying ISS gas resources. A comprehensive threat assessment is performed to identify all threats posed to the COPV during the different phases of its lifecycle. The threat assessment is then used as the basis for creating a series of general inspection, surveillance and reporting requirements which apply across all phases of the COPV's life, targeted requirements only applicable to specific work phases and a series of training courses for both ground personnel and crew aboard the ISS. A particularly important area of emphasis deals with creating DCP requirements for a highly pressurized, large and unprotected RTA COPV for use during Inter Vehicular Activities (IVA) operations in the micro gravity environment while supplying pressurized gas to the

  3. Reappraisal generation after acquired brain damage: The role of laterality and cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Christian E.; Gross, James J.; Turnbull, Oliver H.

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been growing interest in the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological bases of reappraisal. Findings suggest that reappraisal activates a set of areas in the left hemisphere (LH), which are commonly associated with language abilities and verbally mediated cognitive control. The main goal of this study was to investigate whether individuals with focal damage to the LH (n = 8) were more markedly impaired on a reappraisal generation task than individuals with right hemisphere lesions (RH, n = 8), and healthy controls (HC, n = 14). The reappraisal generation task consisted of a set of ten pictures from the IAPS, depicting negative events of different sorts. Participants were asked to quickly generate as many positive reinterpretations as possible for each picture. Two scores were derived from this task, namely difficulty and productivity. A second goal of this study was to explore which cognitive control processes were associated with performance on the reappraisal task. For this purpose, participants were assessed on several measures of cognitive control. Findings indicated that reappraisal difficulty – defined as the time taken to generate a first reappraisal – did not differ between LH and RH groups. However, differences were found between patients with brain injury (LH + RH) and HC, suggesting that brain damage in either hemisphere influences reappraisal difficulty. No differences in reappraisal productivity were found across groups, suggesting that neurological groups and HC are equally productive when time constraints are not considered. Finally, only two cognitive control processes inhibition and verbal fluency- were inversely associated with reappraisal difficulty. Implications for the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological bases of reappraisal generation are discussed, and implications for neuro-rehabilitation are considered. PMID:24711799

  4. Damage control – trauma care in the first hour and beyond: a clinical review of relevant developments in the field of trauma care

    PubMed Central

    Midwinter, M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Trauma provision in the UK is a topic of interest. Regional trauma networks and centres are evolving and research is blossoming, but what bearing does all this have on the care that is delivered to the individual patient? This article aims to provide an overview of key research concepts in the field of trauma care, to guide the clinician in decision making in the management of major trauma. Methods The Ovid MEDLINE®, EMBASE™ and PubMed databases were used to search for relevant articles on haemorrhage control, damage control resuscitation and its exceptions, massive transfusion protocols, prevention and correction of coagulopathy, acidosis and hypothermia, and damage-control surgery. Findings A wealth of research is available and a broad range has been reviewed to summarise significant developments in trauma care. Research has been categorised into disciplines and it is hoped that by considering each, a tailored management plan for the individual trauma patient will evolve, potentially improving patient outcome. PMID:23827287

  5. Decay-Accelerating Factor Mitigates Controlled Hemorrhage-Instigated Intestinal and Lung Tissue Damage and Hyperkalemia in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Dalle Lucca, Jurandir J.; Simovic, Milomir; Li, Yansong; Moratz, Chantal; Falabella, Michael; Tsokos, George C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Activation of complement system has been associated with tissue injury after hemorrhage and resuscitation in rats and swine. This study investigated whether administration of human recombinant decay-accelerating factor (DAF; a complement regulatory protein that inhibits classical and alternative pathways) reduces tissue damage in a porcine model of hemorrhagic shock. Methods Male Yorkshire swine assigned to four groups were subjected to controlled, isobaric hemorrhage over 15 minutes to a target mean arterial pressure of 35 mmHg. Hypotension was maintained for 20 minutes followed by a bolus intravenous injection of DAF or vehicle then animals were observed for 200 minutes. Blood chemistry and physiological parameters were recorded. Tissue samples from lung and small intestine were subjected to histopathological evaluation and detection of tissue deposition of complement proteins by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses. Results Administration of DAF significantly reduced intestinal and lung tissue damage in a dose-dependent manner (5, 25, and 50 µg/kg). In addition, DAF treatment improved hemorrhage-induced hyperkalemia. The protective effects of DAF appear to be related to its ability to reduce tissue complement activation and deposition on affected tissues. Conclusions DAF treatment decreased tissue complement activation and deposition in hemorrhaged animals and attenuated tissue damage at 200 minutes post treatment. The observed beneficial effects of DAF treatment on tissue injury after 20 minutes of severe hypotension presents an attractive model of small volume resuscitation, particularly in situations with a restrictive medical logistical footprint such as far-forward access to first responders in the battlefield or in remote rural or mountainous environments. PMID:21795874

  6. Advances in damage control resuscitation and surgery: implications on the organization of future military field forces.

    PubMed

    Tien, Homer; Beckett, Andrew; Garraway, Naisan; Talbot, Max; Pannell, Dylan; Alabbasi, Thamer

    2015-06-01

    Medical support to deployed field forces is increasingly becoming a shared responsibility among allied nations. National military medical planners face several key challenges, including fiscal restraints, raised expectations of standards of care in the field and a shortage of appropriately trained specialists. Even so, medical services are now in high demand, and the availability of medical support may become the limiting factor that determines how and where combat units can deploy. The influence of medical factors on operational decisions is therefore leading to an increasing requirement for multinational medical solutions. Nations must agree on the common standards that govern the care of the wounded. These standards will always need to take into account increased public expectations regarding the quality of care. The purpose of this article is to both review North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) policies that govern multinational medical missions and to discuss how recent scientific advances in prehospital battlefield care, damage control resuscitation and damage control surgery may inform how countries within NATO choose to organize and deploy their field forces in the future. PMID:26100784

  7. Advances in damage control resuscitation and surgery: implications on the organization of future military field forces

    PubMed Central

    Tien, Col Homer; Beckett, Maj Andrew; Garraway, LCol Naisan; Talbot, LCol Max; Pannell, Capt Dylan; Alabbasi, Thamer

    2015-01-01

    Medical support to deployed field forces is increasingly becoming a shared responsibility among allied nations. National military medical planners face several key challenges, including fiscal restraints, raised expectations of standards of care in the field and a shortage of appropriately trained specialists. Even so, medical services are now in high demand, and the availability of medical support may become the limiting factor that determines how and where combat units can deploy. The influence of medical factors on operational decisions is therefore leading to an increasing requirement for multinational medical solutions. Nations must agree on the common standards that govern the care of the wounded. These standards will always need to take into account increased public expectations regarding the quality of care. The purpose of this article is to both review North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) policies that govern multinational medical missions and to discuss how recent scientific advances in prehospital battlefield care, damage control resuscitation and damage control surgery may inform how countries within NATO choose to organize and deploy their field forces in the future. PMID:26100784

  8. Controlled DNA double-strand break induction in mice reveals post-damage transcriptome stability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongkyu; Sturgill, David; Tran, Andy D; Sinclair, David A; Oberdoerffer, Philipp

    2016-04-20

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and their repair can cause extensive epigenetic changes. As a result, DSBs have been proposed to promote transcriptional and, ultimately, physiological dysfunction via both cell-intrinsic and cell-non-autonomous pathways. Studying the consequences of DSBs in higher organisms has, however, been hindered by a scarcity of tools for controlled DSB induction. Here, we describe a mouse model that allows for both tissue-specific and temporally controlled DSB formation at ∼140 defined genomic loci. Using this model, we show that DSBs promote a DNA damage signaling-dependent decrease in gene expression in primary cells specifically at break-bearing genes, which is reversed upon DSB repair. Importantly, we demonstrate that restoration of gene expression can occur independently of cell cycle progression, underlining its relevance for normal tissue maintenance. Consistent with this, we observe no evidence for persistent transcriptional repression in response to a multi-day course of continuous DSB formation and repair in mouse lymphocytesin vivo Together, our findings reveal an unexpected capacity of primary cells to maintain transcriptome integrity in response to DSBs, pointing to a limited role for DNA damage as a mediator of cell-autonomous epigenetic dysfunction. PMID:26687720

  9. Controlled DNA double-strand break induction in mice reveals post-damage transcriptome stability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongkyu; Sturgill, David; Tran, Andy D.; Sinclair, David A.; Oberdoerffer, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and their repair can cause extensive epigenetic changes. As a result, DSBs have been proposed to promote transcriptional and, ultimately, physiological dysfunction via both cell-intrinsic and cell-non-autonomous pathways. Studying the consequences of DSBs in higher organisms has, however, been hindered by a scarcity of tools for controlled DSB induction. Here, we describe a mouse model that allows for both tissue-specific and temporally controlled DSB formation at ∼140 defined genomic loci. Using this model, we show that DSBs promote a DNA damage signaling-dependent decrease in gene expression in primary cells specifically at break-bearing genes, which is reversed upon DSB repair. Importantly, we demonstrate that restoration of gene expression can occur independently of cell cycle progression, underlining its relevance for normal tissue maintenance. Consistent with this, we observe no evidence for persistent transcriptional repression in response to a multi-day course of continuous DSB formation and repair in mouse lymphocytes in vivo. Together, our findings reveal an unexpected capacity of primary cells to maintain transcriptome integrity in response to DSBs, pointing to a limited role for DNA damage as a mediator of cell-autonomous epigenetic dysfunction. PMID:26687720

  10. Towards an improved wind speed scale and damage description adapted for Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuerstein, Bernold; Groenemeijer, Pieter; Dirksen, Erik; Hubrig, Martin; Holzer, Alois M.; Dotzek, Nikolai

    2011-06-01

    We propose an updated wind speed scale description adapted for Central Europe considering wind impact to buildings as well as to vegetation. The scale is motivated by the need of a broadly applicable, accurate and consistent tornado or downburst intensity rating system based on a standardised wind speed scale for the purpose of climatological homogeneity. The description comprises building and vegetation damage characteristics, which can be found in Central Europe - but similar in other parts of the world, occurring with the various classes of the Fujita- and T-scales. The scale description is supplemented by photographs of typical damage. For practical application, an ensemble-based use of a decision matrix for specific building structures and vegetation types is suggested.

  11. An experimental study on drugs for improving blood circulation and removing blood stasis in treating mild chronic hepatic damage.

    PubMed

    Xie, F; Li, X; Sun, K; Chu, Y; Cao, H; Chen, N; Wang, W; Liu, M; Liu, W; Mao, D

    2001-09-01

    Large and small doses of drugs for improving blood circulation and removing blood stasis were used in model rats to treat mild chronic hepatic damage induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The results show that large dose of Dang Gui ([symbol: see text] Radix Angelicae Sinensis) and Dan Shen ([symbol: see text] Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae) (drugs for regulating blood flow) and small dose of Yu Jin ([symbol: see text] Radix Curcumae) and Niu Xi ([symbol: see text] Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae) (drugs for activating blood flow) can significantly elevate the activity of SOD (P < 0.05) and/or lower the T/K ratio, markedly reduce the MDA content (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) and significantly decrease the activities of ALT and AST (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), demonstrating that these drugs are effective in combating oxygen free radicals (OFR) in chronic liver damage. On the contrary, large dose of Tu Bie Chong ([symbol: see text] Eupolyphaga seu Steleophaga) and E Zhu ([symbol: see text] Rhizoma Curcumae) (drugs for removing blood stasis) tend to increase the ALT and AST (P < 0.05) activities. The results suggest that the synergism of elevation of the SOD activity and reduction of T/K ratio contributes to the action of drugs for improving blood circulation and removing blood stasis in combating the liver damage induced by CCl4. PMID:11789334

  12. Citric acid improves lead (pb) phytoextraction in brassica napus L. by mitigating pb-induced morphological and biochemical damages.

    PubMed

    Shakoor, Muhammad Bilal; Ali, Shafaqat; Hameed, Amjad; Farid, Mujahid; Hussain, Sabir; Yasmeen, Tahira; Najeeb, Ullah; Bharwana, Saima Aslam; Abbasi, Ghulam Hasan

    2014-11-01

    Phytoextraction is an environmentally friendly and a cost-effective strategy for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. However, lower bioavailability of some of the metals in polluted environments e.g. lead (Pb) is a major constraint of phytoextraction process that could be overcome by applying organic chelators. We conducted a glasshouse experiment to evaluate the role of citric acid (CA) in enhancing Pb phytoextraction. Brassica napus L. seedlings were grown in hydroponic media and exposed to various treatments of Pb (50 and 100 μM) as alone or in combination with CA (2.5mM) for six weeks. Pb-induced damage in B. napus toxicity was evident from elevated levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and H2O2 that significantly inhibited plant growth, biomass accumulation, leaf chlorophyll contents and gas exchange parameters. Alternatively, CA application to Pb-stressed B. napus plants arrested lipid membrane damage by limiting MDA and H2O2 production and by improving antioxidant enzyme activities. In addition, CA significantly increased the Pb accumulation in B. napus plants. The study concludes that CA has a potential to improve Pb phytoextraction without damaging plant growth. PMID:25164201

  13. An improved output feedback control of flexible large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y. H.; Lin, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    A special output feedback control design technique for flexible large space structures is proposed. It is shown that the technique will increase both the damping and frequency of selected modes for more effective control. It is also able to effect integrated control of elastic and rigid-body modes and, in particular, closed-loop system stability and robustness to modal truncation and parameter variation. The technique is seen as marking an improvement over previous work concerning large space structures output feedback control.

  14. Spectral and temperature-dependent infrared emissivity measurements of painted metals for improved temperature estimation during laser damage testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Sean M.; Keenan, Cameron; Marciniak, Michael A.; Perram, Glen P.

    2014-10-01

    A database of spectral and temperature-dependent emissivities was created for painted Al-alloy laser-damage-testing targets for the purpose of improving the uncertainty to which temperature on the front and back target surfaces may be estimated during laser-damage testing. Previous temperature estimates had been made by fitting an assumed gray-body radiance curve to the calibrated spectral radiance data collected from the back surface using a Telops Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS). In this work, temperature-dependent spectral emissivity measurements of the samples were made from room temperature to 500 °C using a Surface Optics Corp. SOC-100 Hemispherical Directional Reflectometer (HDR) with Nicolet FTS. Of particular interest was a high-temperature matte-black enamel paint used to coat the rear surfaces of the Al-alloy samples. The paint had been assumed to have a spectrally flat and temperatureinvariant emissivity. However, the data collected using the HDR showed both spectral variation and temperature dependence. The uncertainty in back-surface temperature estimation during laser-damage testing made using the measured emissivities was improved from greater than +10 °C to less than +5 °C for IFTS pixels away from the laser burn-through hole, where temperatures never exceeded those used in the SOC-100 HDR measurements. At beam center, where temperatures exceeded those used in the SOC-100 HDR, uncertainty in temperature estimates grew beyond those made assuming gray-body emissivity. Accurate temperature estimations during laser-damage testing are useful in informing a predictive model for future high-energy-laser weapon applications.

  15. Improved Process control of wood waste fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Process Control Solutions, Inc.

    2004-01-30

    This project's principal aim was the conceptual and feasibility stage development of improved process control methods for wood-waste-fired water-tube boilers operating in industrial manufacturing applications (primarily pulp and paper). The specific objectives put forth in the original project proposal were as follows: (1) fully characterize the wood-waste boiler control inter-relationships and constraints through data collection and analysis; (2) design an improved control architecture; (3) develop and test an appropriate control and optimization algorithm; and (4) develop and test a procedure for reproducing the approach and deriving the benefits on similar pulp and paper wood-waste boilers. Detailed tasks were developed supporting these objectives.

  16. Summary of property damage control programs of the United States Department of Energy CY 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Dix, George P.; Maybee, Walter W.

    1980-10-01

    Calendar year 1979 was the second full year of operation of the Department of Energy. This report summarizes the loss experience in overall terms and itemizes facility and program achievements in property protection. Planned projects for CY 1980 are included and several subjects of interest to loss-control specialists are discussed in detail. Property damage from all causes was $2.5 million, of which $0.65 million was due to fire, the major cause of losses in both the Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies. Combined losses for the 2 full years of Department of Energy experience total over $20 million, of which over $13 million is due to fire. The fire loss ratio for 1979 was 0.13 cents for each $100 of property values at risk, more than an order-of-magnitude less than that expeienced by the better class of insured private property. Final decontamination and cleanup costs necessitated by a product spill at a solvent-refined coal pilot plant at the end of 1979 may exceed $2 million. Even including this estimate, the total loss from all causes (fire, explosion, mechanical or electrical damage, acts of nature, radioactive and non-radioactive contamination/cleanup costs, and a variety of miscellaneous causes), would yield a loss ratio of about 1 cent for each $100 of property. This indicated the overall property protection program is exemplary.

  17. Image Processing and control of a programmable spatial light modulator for optic damage protection

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, A; Leach, R; Brunton, G; Tse, E; Matone, J; Heebner, J

    2010-12-06

    The heart of the National Ignition Facility is a megajoule-class laser system consisting of 192 beams used to drive inertial confinement fusion reactions. A recently installed system of programmable, liquid-crystal-based spatial light modulators adds the capability of arbitrarily shaping the spatial beam profiles in order to enhance operational flexibility. Its primary intended use is for introducing 'blocker' obscurations shadowing isolated flaws on downstream optical elements that would otherwise be damaged by high fluence laser illumination. Because an improperly shaped blocker pattern can lead to equipment damage, both the position and shape of the obscurations must be carefully verified prior to high-fluence operations. An automatic alignment algorithm is used to perform detection and estimation of the imposed blocker centroid positions compared to their intended locations. Furthermore, in order to minimize the spatially-varying nonlinear response of the device, a calibration of the local magnification is performed at multiple sub-image locations. In this paper, we describe the control and associated image processing of this device that helps to enhance the safety and longevity of the overall system.

  18. The marriage of surgical simulation and telementoring for damage-control surgical training of operational first responders: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Tien, Homer; LaPorta, Anthony T.; Lavell, Kit; Keillor, Jocelyn; Wright Beatty, Heather E.; McKee, Jessica Lynn; Brien, Susan; Roberts, Derek J.; Wong, Jonathan; Ball, Chad G.; Beckett, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hemorrhage is the leading cause of preventable posttraumatic death. Many such deaths may be potentially salvageable with remote damage-control surgical interventions. As recent innovations in information technology enable remote specialist support to point-of-care providers, advanced interventions, such as remote damage-control surgery, may be possible in remote settings. METHODS An anatomically realistic perfused surgical training mannequin with intrinsic fluid loss measurements (the “Cut Suit”) was used to study perihepatic packing with massive liver hemorrhage. The primary outcome was loss of simulated blood (water) during six stages, namely, incision, retraction, direction, identification, packing, and postpacking. Six fully credentialed surgeons performed the same task as 12 military medical technicians who were randomized to remotely telementored (RTM) (n = 7) or unmentored (UTM) (n=5) real-time guidance by a trauma surgeon. RESULTS There were no significant differences in fluid loss between the surgeons and the UTM group or between the UTM and RTM groups. However, when comparing the RTM group with the surgeons, there was significantly more total fluid loss (p = 0.001) and greater loss during the identification (p = 0.002), retraction (p = 0.035), direction (p = 0.014), and packing(p = 0.022) stages. There were no significant differences in fluid loss after packing between the groups despite differences in the number of sponges used; RTM group used more sponges than the surgeons and significantly more than the UTM group (p = 0.048). However, mentoring significantly increased self-assessed nonsurgeon procedural confidence (p = 0.004). CONCLUSION Perihepatic packing of an exsanguinating liver hemorrhage model was readily performed by military medical technicians after a focused briefing. While real-time telementoring did not improve fluid loss, it significantly increased nonsurgeon procedural confidence, which may augment the feasibility of the

  19. Exploiting radiation damage control on apatite (U Th)/He dates in cratonic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flowers, Rebecca M.

    2009-01-01

    Apatites from four pairs of samples of Precambrian basement from the western Canadian shield were analyzed by (U-Th)/He thermochronometry to test for the influence of radiation damage on apatite (U-Th)/He dates in this cratonic region. Recent studies have demonstrated that the accumulation of radiation damage increases the apatite He retentivity, so that apatites with a span of effective U concentrations, eU, that experienced the same thermal history may be characterized by a range of closure temperatures. In this investigation, each sample pair consisted of a mafic dike cross-cutting felsic gneisses from a single outcrop or nearby outcrops that contained apatites with a span of eU. The apatites yielded (U-Th)/He dates from 846 to 123 Ma, and were positively correlated with eU within each sample pair. These results can be explained using a model that tracks the evolution of He mobility in response to the accumulation of radiation damage. When coupled with regional geological constraints, the data appear to require partial to complete He loss due to burial and reheating in Phanerozoic time. New apatite fission- track dates and length data were obtained for five of these samples. The apatite fission- track dates are Proterozoic regardless of apatite eU. Thermal history simulations indicate that the apatite fission-track data are compatible with the (U-Th)/He results, although the thermal histories are not identical in detail and the fission-track results alone do not require Phanerozoic heating. Together the data are consistent with burial of this region by ≥ 1 km of Phanerozoic strata that were subsequently denuded, thus pointing toward significant Phanerozoic deposition in the North American cratonic interior hundreds of kilometers east of where previously documented. The results suggest that exploiting radiation damage control on apatite (U-Th)/He dates through investigation of surface sample apatites with a span of closure temperatures can impose tighter

  20. Translational Control Protein 80 Stimulates IRES-Mediated Translation of p53 mRNA in Response to DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Halaby, Marie-Jo; Li, Yan; Harris, Benjamin R.; Jiang, Shuxia; Miskimins, W. Keith; Cleary, Margot P.; Yang, Da-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of the p53 tumor suppressor increases following DNA damage. This increase and subsequent activation of p53 are essential for the protection of normal cells against tumorigenesis. We previously discovered an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that is located at the 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of p53 mRNA and found that the IRES activity increases following DNA damage. However, the mechanism underlying IRES-mediated p53 translation in response to DNA damage is still poorly understood. In this study, we discovered that translational control protein 80 (TCP80) has increased binding to the p53 mRNA in vivo following DNA damage. Overexpression of TCP80 also leads to increased p53 IRES activity in response to DNA damage. TCP80 has increased association with RNA helicase A (RHA) following DNA damage and overexpression of TCP80, along with RHA, leads to enhanced expression of p53. Moreover, we found that MCF-7 breast cancer cells with decreased expression of TCP80 and RHA exhibit defective p53 induction following DNA damage and diminished expression of its downstream target PUMA, a proapoptotic protein. Taken together, our discovery of the function of TCP80 and RHA in regulating p53 IRES and p53 induction following DNA damage provides a better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate IRES-mediated p53 translation in response to genotoxic stress. PMID:26273641

  1. Relaxin Does Not Improve Angiotensin II-Induced Target-Organ Damage

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Nadine; Rugor, Julianna; Przybyl, Lukasz; Qadri, Fatimunnisa; Müller, Dominik N.; Dechend, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Relaxin is a corpus-luteum produced protein hormone with vasodilatatory, anti-fibrotic, and angiogenic properties that are opposite to angiotensin (Ang) II. We investigated whether or not relaxin ameliorates Ang II-induced target-organ damage. We used double transgenic rats harboring both human renin and angiotensinogen genes (dTGR) that develop severe hypertension, target-organ damage, and die untreated within 7–8 weeks. Recombinant relaxin at a low (26 μg/kg/d) and a high dose (240 μg/kg/d) was given to 4 week-old dTGR and age-matched Sprague-Dawley rats (SD). Systolic blood pressure increased progressively in untreated dTGRs from 162±3 mmHg at week 5 to 225±5 mmHg at week 7. Relaxin had no effect on blood pressure whereas SD rats were normotensive (106±1 mmHg). Untreated and relaxin-treated dTGR had similarly severe cardiac hypertrophy indices. Relaxin did not ameliorate albuminuria and did not prevent matrix-protein deposition in the heart and kidney in dTGR. Finally, relaxin treatment did not reduce mortality. These data suggest that pharmacological doses of relaxin do not reverse severe effects of Ang II. PMID:24710077

  2. Tf-lipoplex-mediated c-Jun silencing improves neuronal survival following excitotoxic damage in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, A L C; Costa, P; de Almeida, L P; Simões, S; Plesnila, N; Culmsee, C; Wagner, E; de Lima, M C Pedroso

    2010-03-19

    Excitotoxicity is one of the main features responsible for neuronal cell death after acute brain injury and in several neurodegenerative disorders, for which only few therapeutic options are currently available. In this work, RNA interference was employed to identify and validate a potential target for successful treatment of excitotoxic brain injury, the transcription factor c-Jun. The nuclear translocation of c-Jun and its upregulation are early events following glutamate-induced excitotoxic damage in primary neuronal cultures. We present evidence for the efficient knockdown of this transcription factor using a non-viral vector consisting of cationic liposomes associated to transferrin (Tf-lipoplexes). Tf-lipoplexes were able to deliver anti-c-Jun siRNAs to neuronal cells in culture, resulting in efficient silencing of c-Jun mRNA and protein and in a significant decrease of cell death following glutamate-induced damage or oxygen-glucose deprivation. This formulation also leads to a significant c-Jun knockdown in the mouse hippocampus in vivo, resulting in the attenuation of both neuronal death and inflammation following kainic acid-mediated lesion of this region. Furthermore, a strong reduction of seizure activity and cytokine production was observed in animals treated with anti-c-Jun siRNAs. These findings demonstrate the efficient delivery of therapeutic siRNAs to the brain by Tf-lipoplexes and validate c-Jun as a promising therapeutic target in neurodegenerative disorders involving excitotoxic lesions. PMID:19913061

  3. Genetic improvement of tomato by targeted control of fruit softening.

    PubMed

    Uluisik, Selman; Chapman, Natalie H; Smith, Rebecca; Poole, Mervin; Adams, Gary; Gillis, Richard B; Besong, Tabot M D; Sheldon, Judith; Stiegelmeyer, Suzy; Perez, Laura; Samsulrizal, Nurul; Wang, Duoduo; Fisk, Ian D; Yang, Ni; Baxter, Charles; Rickett, Daniel; Fray, Rupert; Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Powell, Ann L T; Harding, Stephen E; Craigon, Jim; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Fich, Eric A; Sun, Li; Domozych, David S; Fraser, Paul D; Tucker, Gregory A; Grierson, Don; Seymour, Graham B

    2016-09-01

    Controlling the rate of softening to extend shelf life was a key target for researchers engineering genetically modified (GM) tomatoes in the 1990s, but only modest improvements were achieved. Hybrids grown nowadays contain 'non-ripening mutations' that slow ripening and improve shelf life, but adversely affect flavor and color. We report substantial, targeted control of tomato softening, without affecting other aspects of ripening, by silencing a gene encoding a pectate lyase. PMID:27454737

  4. Prioritization of reactor control components susceptible to fire damage as a consequence of aging

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, W.; Vigil, R.; Nowlen, S.

    1994-01-01

    The Fire Vulnerability of Aged Electrical Components Test Program is to identify and assess issues of plant aging that could lead to an increase in nuclear power plant risk because of fires. Historical component data and prior analyses are used to prioritize a list of components with respect to aging and fire vulnerability and the consequences of their failure on plant safety systems. The component list emphasizes safety system control components, but excludes cables, large equipment, and devices encompassed in the Equipment Qualification (EQ) program. The test program selected components identified in a utility survey and developed test and fire conditions necessary to maximize the effectiveness of the test program. Fire damage considerations were limited to purely thermal effects.

  5. Control of small mammal damage in the Alberta oil sands reclamation and afforestation program

    SciTech Connect

    Radvanyi, A.

    1980-12-01

    Open-pit mining procedures being conducted in the oil sands of northeast Alberta greatly disrupt many acres of the environment. The reclamation and afforestation program intended to restore the forest habitat encountered an unanticipated problem when a large percentage of young nursery-raised trees planted on a tailings pond dyke and on overburden dump sites were found to have been girdled by a population of meadow voles which had become established in the dense grass habitat created to stabilize steep sandy slopes of the spoil piles. The study monitored small mammal populations through a high, low, and a second high level commensurate with the 3- to 4-year population cycle of small mammals. A control technique utilizing grain treated with an anticoagulant rodenticide made available to the mice in poisoned bait feeder stations effectively reduced small mammal numbers to very low levels and reduced girdling damage from an average of 50% to 1-2%.

  6. Mechanisms controlling fatigue damage development in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1989-01-01

    Damage in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composite materials can be quite complex since there are a number of different constituents (fiber, matrix, and the fiber/matrix interface) that can fail. Multidirectional lay-ups have an even greater number of possible damage orientations and mechanisms. Based on the simplifying assumption of equivalent constituent strain states in the absence of damage, a strain based failure criteria may be applied to determine when and where initial damage will occur. Based on the relative strain to fatigue failure of the fiber and matrix, the possible damage mechanisms of an MMC can be grouped into three categories: (1) matrix dominated, (2) fiber dominated, and (3) self-similar damage growth. A fourth type of damage development, fiber/matrix interface failure, is dependent on the relative strength of the fiber/matrix interface and the matrix yield strength. These four types of damage are discussed and illustrated by examples.

  7. Benefits of Improved HP Turbine Active Clearance Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz, Rafael; Albers, Bob; Sak, Wojciech; Seitzer, Ken; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the NASA Propulsion 21 program, GE Aircraft Engines was contracted to develop an improved high pressure turbine(HPT) active clearance control (ACC) system. The system is envisioned to minimize blade tip clearances to improve HPT efficiency throughout the engine operation range simultaneously reducing fuel consumption and emissions.

  8. An Experimental Evaluation of an Audio Tape Learning Program for Shipboard Damage Control Central Sound Powered Telephone Talker Procedures. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, John F.; McCutcheon, Richard E., Jr.

    In the event of an emergency aboard a vessel, the sound powered telephone talkers have the responsibility of receiving damage reports from various portions of the ship, logging them, and passing them on to a Damage Control Assistant (DCA) who then can direct the damage control procedures. The talker must not only be thoroughly familiar with sound…

  9. Lectin from Crataeva tapia Bark Improves Tissue Damages and Plasma Hyperglycemia in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    da Rocha, Amanda Alves; Araújo, Tiago Ferreira da Silva; da Fonseca, Caíque Silveira Martins; da Mota, Diógenes Luís; de Medeiros, Paloma Lys; Paiva, Patrícia Maria Guedes; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos; Lima, Vera Lúcia de Menezes

    2013-01-01

    Crataeva tapia is a plant popularly used for diabetes treatment, in Brazil. Progressive decline in renal and hepatic functions has been described in patients with diabetes mellitus, and mortality rate is increased in patients with chronic liver and renal disease. This study aimed to evaluate whether Crataeva tapia bark lectin (CrataBL) improves hyperglycemia and renal and hepatic damage in diabetic mice. CrataBL was purified by ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose, and intraperitoneal administration of CrataBL to alloxan-induced diabetic mice at dose of 10 mg/Kg/day and 20 mg/Kg/day for 10 days significantly reduced serum glucose levels by 14.9% and 55.9%, respectively. Serum urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were also significantly reduced after treatment with both doses of CrataBL. Furthermore, histological analysis of liver, kidney, and pancreas revealed an improvement in the tissue morphology upon treatment with CrataBL. The results suggest that CrataBL has a beneficial hypoglycemic activity and improves the renal and hepatic complications of diabetes. Therefore, this lectin may be a promising agent for the treatment of diabetes, and this might be the basis for its use in the folk medicine as an alternative treatment to manage diabetes-related complications such as hyperglycemia and tissue damage. PMID:24324521

  10. The Impact of Damage Control Surgery on Major Abdominal Vascular Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Sorrentino, Talia A; Moore, Ernest E; Wohlauer, Max V; Biffl, Walter L; Pieracci, Fredric M; Johnson, Jeffrey L; Barnett, Carlton C; Bensard, Denis D; Burlew, Clay Cothren

    2012-01-01

    Background Thirty years ago we reported our experience with abdominal vascular trauma, highlighting the critical role of hypothermia, acidosis, and coagulopathy. Damage control surgery was subsequently introduced to address this “lethal triad.” The purpose of this study is to evaluate outcomes from our most recent 6-year experience compared to 30 years ago. Methods Patients with major abdominal vascular injuries were examined; the most recent 6-year period was compared with archived data from a similar 6-year period three decades ago. Results The number of patients with major abdominal vascular injuries decreased from 123 patients (1975–1980) to 64 patients (2004–2009). The mean initial pH decreased from 7.21 to 6.96 (1975–1980 vs. 2004–2009]) for patients with overt coagulopathy. In spite of increasingly protracted acidosis, mortality attributable to refractory coagulopathy has decreased from 46% to 19% (1975–1980 vs. 2004–2009, χ2 = 4.36, p = 0.04). There was no significant difference in mortality due to exsanguinating injuries (43% vs. 62%, 1975–1980 vs. 2004–2009, χ2 = 1.96, p = 0.16). Prehospital transport times were unchanged (22 min vs. 20 min, 1975–1980 vs. 2004–2009). Despite the administration of additional clotting factors and the advent of DCS, the overall mortality remains largely unchanged (37% vs. 33%, 1975–1980 vs. 2004–2009, χ2 = 0.385, p = 0.53). Conclusions Adoption of damage control surgery, including the implementation of a massive transfusion protocol, is associated with a reduction in mortality for abdominal vascular injuries due to coagulopathy, however, patients continue to die from exsanguination. PMID:22682716

  11. Optical Coherence Tomography Compared With Colposcopy for Assessment of Vaginal Epithelial Damage: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Kathleen L.; Stanberry, Lawrence R.; Moench, Thomas R.; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Loza, Melissa L.; Wei, Jingna; Grady, James; Paull, Jeremy; Motamedi, Massoud; Rosenthal, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Colposcopy has been used to detect epithelial damage with vaginal microbicides. In animal models, optical coherence tomography (OCT) provided increased sensitivity over colposcopy in detecting epithelial injury. This randomized double-blinded clinical study compared OCT to colposcopy for the evaluation of epithelial injury in women using placebo or nonoxynol-9. Methods Thirty women aged 18–45 were randomized to use hydroxyethyl cellulose placebo or nonoxynol-9 vaginal gel twice daily for 5.5 days. Imaging with colposcopy and OCT was performed prior to product use, after the last dose, and 1 week later. Colposcopy was graded using standard criteria. OCT images were scored for epithelial integrity based on a published scoring system and measured for epithelial thickness. Results Colposcopy findings and OCT scores and epithelial thicknesses were similar between treatment groups at baseline. After treatment, there were significant differences between the nonoxynol-9 (1.37) and control group (1.15) OCT scores (p<0.001, indicating epithelial injury, and there was epithelial thinning in the nonoxynol-9 group (237μm) compared to the control group (292μm) (p=0.008). There were no significant posttreatment colposcopic differences in epithelial disruption between treatment groups, with only increased erythema noted after nonoxynol-9 use (p=0.02). Conclusion OCT detected epithelial disruption and thinning not identified by colposcopy. Vaginal epithelial thickness, a measure previously available only through biopsy, decreased after nonoxynol-9 use, a finding that may contribute to increased susceptibility to HIV after frequent use. OCT shows promise for the noninvasive clinical assessment of vaginal epithelial damage. Clinical Trial Registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry, www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm, R000006186. PMID:22105265

  12. Characterization of propagation and scattering via wavefield imaging for improved in situ imaging of damage in composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Westin B.; Michaels, Jennifer E.; Michaels, Thomas E.

    2016-04-01

    Detection, localization, and characterization of impact damage in composites using in situ transducers are important objectives for the aerospace industry to both reduce maintenance costs and prevent failures. A network of piezoelectric transducers spatially distributed over an area of interest is one practical configuration for utilizing guided waves to accomplish these objectives. Detecting and localizing barely visible impact damage with such a sparse array has been demonstrated in prior work, and improvements in localization were demonstrated by incorporating fairly crude estimates of scattering patterns in the imaging algorithms. Here we obtain more estimates of scattering patterns from a simulated defect by employing baseline subtraction of wavefield data recorded in a circle centered at the scatterer. Scattering patterns are estimated from the wavefield residual signals before and after simulated damage is introduced and the estimated scattering patterns are then incorporated into sparse array imaging via the minimum variance imaging method. Images created with different scattering patterns are compared and the efficacy of the methodology is assessed.

  13. An Improved Method of Mitigating Laser Induced Surface Damage Growth in Fused Silica Using a Rastered, Pulsed CO2 Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, I L; Guss, G M; Nostrand, M J; Wegner, P L

    2010-10-21

    A new method of mitigating (arresting) the growth of large (>200 m diameter and depth) laser induced surface damage on fused silica has been developed that successfully addresses several issues encountered with our previously-reported large site mitigation technique. As in the previous work, a tightly-focused 10.6 {micro}m CO{sub 2} laser spot is scanned over the damage site by galvanometer steering mirrors. In contrast to the previous work, the laser is pulsed instead of CW, with the pulse length and repetition frequency chosen to allow substantial cooling between pulses. This cooling has the important effect of reducing the heat-affected zone capable of supporting thermo-capillary flow from scale lengths on the order of the overall scan pattern to scale lengths on the order of the focused laser spot, thus preventing the formation of a raised rim around the final mitigation site and its consequent down-stream intensification. Other advantages of the new method include lower residual stresses, and improved damage threshold associated with reduced amounts of redeposited material. The raster patterns can be designed to produce specific shapes of the mitigation pit including cones and pyramids. Details of the new technique and its comparison with the previous technique will be presented.

  14. Perpendicular cultivation for improved weed control in organic peanut production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive cultivation in organic peanut is partially effective, but in-row weed control remains problematic. In an attempt to improve in-row weed control, trials were conducted to determine the feasibility of early-season cultivation perpendicular to row direction using a tine weeder when integrate...

  15. An Improved Gaussian Mixture Model for Damage Propagation Monitoring of an Aircraft Wing Spar under Changing Structural Boundary Conditions.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Fang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technology is considered to be a key technology to reduce the maintenance cost and meanwhile ensure the operational safety of aircraft structures. It has gradually developed from theoretic and fundamental research to real-world engineering applications in recent decades. The problem of reliable damage monitoring under time-varying conditions is a main issue for the aerospace engineering applications of SHM technology. Among the existing SHM methods, Guided Wave (GW) and piezoelectric sensor-based SHM technique is a promising method due to its high damage sensitivity and long monitoring range. Nevertheless the reliability problem should be addressed. Several methods including environmental parameter compensation, baseline signal dependency reduction and data normalization, have been well studied but limitations remain. This paper proposes a damage propagation monitoring method based on an improved Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). It can be used on-line without any structural mechanical model and a priori knowledge of damage and time-varying conditions. With this method, a baseline GMM is constructed first based on the GW features obtained under time-varying conditions when the structure under monitoring is in the healthy state. When a new GW feature is obtained during the on-line damage monitoring process, the GMM can be updated by an adaptive migration mechanism including dynamic learning and Gaussian components split-merge. The mixture probability distribution structure of the GMM and the number of Gaussian components can be optimized adaptively. Then an on-line GMM can be obtained. Finally, a best match based Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence is studied to measure the migration degree between the baseline GMM and the on-line GMM to reveal the weak cumulative changes of the damage propagation mixed in the time-varying influence. A wing spar of an aircraft is used to validate the proposed method. The results indicate that the crack

  16. An Improved Gaussian Mixture Model for Damage Propagation Monitoring of an Aircraft Wing Spar under Changing Structural Boundary Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Fang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technology is considered to be a key technology to reduce the maintenance cost and meanwhile ensure the operational safety of aircraft structures. It has gradually developed from theoretic and fundamental research to real-world engineering applications in recent decades. The problem of reliable damage monitoring under time-varying conditions is a main issue for the aerospace engineering applications of SHM technology. Among the existing SHM methods, Guided Wave (GW) and piezoelectric sensor-based SHM technique is a promising method due to its high damage sensitivity and long monitoring range. Nevertheless the reliability problem should be addressed. Several methods including environmental parameter compensation, baseline signal dependency reduction and data normalization, have been well studied but limitations remain. This paper proposes a damage propagation monitoring method based on an improved Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). It can be used on-line without any structural mechanical model and a priori knowledge of damage and time-varying conditions. With this method, a baseline GMM is constructed first based on the GW features obtained under time-varying conditions when the structure under monitoring is in the healthy state. When a new GW feature is obtained during the on-line damage monitoring process, the GMM can be updated by an adaptive migration mechanism including dynamic learning and Gaussian components split-merge. The mixture probability distribution structure of the GMM and the number of Gaussian components can be optimized adaptively. Then an on-line GMM can be obtained. Finally, a best match based Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence is studied to measure the migration degree between the baseline GMM and the on-line GMM to reveal the weak cumulative changes of the damage propagation mixed in the time-varying influence. A wing spar of an aircraft is used to validate the proposed method. The results indicate that the crack

  17. An Approach to Bilateral Control System for Improvement of Operationality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    Many types of bilateral control architectures to transmit force sensation have been proposed. Some control methods obtain good performance. Operationality is not satisfactory, however, when these methods are implemented in bilateral systems with large inertia and friction force. In this paper, a novel bilateral control method is proposed to improve operationality of bilateral systems with large inertia and friction force. The proposed method is compared with a conventional method, and the effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by coordinate transformation and experiments.

  18. Achieving process control through improved grinding techniques for ferrite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, J.

    1995-09-01

    In manufacturing soft ferrite materials the particle size of the raw material has a significant impact on the reactivity of calcination. The control of particle size distribution and final formulation at wet milling after calcining impacts the reactivity during sintering and the magnetic properties of the final product. This paper will deal with steps taken to improve process control during the grinding operations of raw material and calcine in soft ferrite production. Equipment modifications as well as changes to the grinding and material handling techniques will be included. All examples of process control and improvements will be supported by data.

  19. Hybrid Automaton Based Controller Design for Damage Mitigation of Islanded Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, Sudipta

    Spurred by increasingly unpredictable weather, high penetration of renewable resources and a period of focused US government policy, it is widely expected that microgrids within the electric distribution system will show exponential growth in the coming decade. Microgrids comprise of power generation, delivery and consumption assets within restricted electrical boundaries and under contiguous control oversight that enables holistic management of these assets. Microgrids can be islanded and operated independent of a larger electric power network, and as such, a primary function of microgrids is to enhance the energy reliability of the underlying loads. In this work, we focus on naval shipboard power systems. Apart from being islanded, in the true sense, resiliency and damage mitigation are key considerations in the design and operation of these power systems. Islanded power systems encompass a rich diversity of discrete and continuous dynamic behavior in multiple time-scales. A high penetration of devices with power electronics interface, low inherent system inertia, and high density of switching devices can lead to rapid disturbance propagation and system failure without advanced damage mitigation strategies. Hybrid systems formalism incorporates continuous dynamics as well as discrete switching behavior into a modeling and control framework, thus allowing a complete system description while crystallizing concepts of safety into system design criteria. We build on existing work to enhance a Dynamic Mixed Integer Programming (DMIP) model of a power system that combines continuous time differential algebraic models with switching dynamics synthesized into mixed integer inequalities. We use this model to derive an optimal system reconfiguration strategy to prevent voltage collapse of a benchmark shipboard power system. However, this methodology is restricted by the computational complexity of dynamic programming and scalability of non-automated processes. To overcome

  20. Protective Effect of Folic Acid on Oxidative DNA Damage: A Randomized, Double-Blind, and Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Cui, Huan; Zhang, Haiyang; Guan, Xiaoju; Zhang, Zheng; Jia, Chaonan; Wu, Jia; Yang, Hui; Qiu, Wenting; Zhang, Chuanwu; Yang, Zuopeng; Chen, Zhu; Mao, Guangyun

    2015-11-01

    Although previous reports have linked DNA damage with both transmissions across generations as well as our own survival, it is unknown how to reverse the lesion. Based on the data from a Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial, this study aimed to assess the efficacy of folic acid supplementation (FAS) on DNA oxidative damage reversal.In this randomized clinical trial (RCT), a total of 450 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to 3 groups to receive folic acid (FA) 0.4 mg/day (low-FA), 0.8 mg/day (high-FA), or placebo (control) for 8 weeks. The urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and creatinine (Cr) concentration at pre- and post-FAS were measured with modified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. A multivariate general linear model was applied to assess the individual effects of FAS and the joint effects between FAS and hypercholesterolemia on oxidative DNA damage improvement. This clinical trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02235948.Of the 438 subjects that received FA fortification or placebo, the median (first quartile, third quartile) of urinary 8-OHdG/Cr for placebo, low-FA, and high-FA groups were 58.19 (43.90, 82.26), 53.51 (38.97, 72.74), 54.73 (39.58, 76.63) ng/mg at baseline and 57.77 (44.35, 81.33), 51.73 (38.20, 71.30), and 50.65 (37.64, 76.17) ng/mg at the 56th day, respectively. A significant decrease of urinary 8-OHdG was observed after 56 days FA fortification (P < 0.001). Compared with the placebo, after adjusting for some potential confounding factors, including the baseline urinary 8-OHdG/Cr, the urinary 8-OHdG/Cr concentration significantly decreased after 56 days FAS [β (95% confidence interval) = -0.88 (-1.62, -0.14) and P = 0.020 for low-FA; and β (95% confidence interval) = -2.68 (-3.42, -1.94) and P < 0.001 for high-FA] in a dose-response fashion (Ptrend < 0.001). Test of

  1. Improvement of bovine semen quality by removal of membrane-damaged sperm cells with DNA aptamers and magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Farini, Veronica L; Camaño, Carla V; Ybarra, Gabriel; Viale, Diego L; Vichera, Gabriel; Yakisich, Juan S; Radrizzani, Martín

    2016-07-10

    In cattle, cryopreservation of semen and sex-sorting kill up to 50% of spermatozoa and decrease the success of assisted insemination (AI). Therefore, significant efforts are being carried out to improve the quality of semen prior to AI. In this work we used the Cell-SELEX technique to select single strand DNA aptamers able to recognize with high affinity and specificity damaged sperm cells generated by heat-treatment. We first isolated aptamers with a conserved two motifs of 6 nucleotides of length that bind to the membrane of heat-treated spermatozoa. Then, we used synthetic biotin-labeled aptamers containing the conserved motif to recognize membrane-damaged cells and separate them from viable cells by the use of avidin-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION). This procedure improved the quality of semen by significantly increasing the percentage of healthy sperm cells without affecting the rate of blastocyst cleavage. This technique was successfully applied to both unsorted and sex-sorted sperm suspension. PMID:27164256

  2. Controllable Solid Propulsion Combustion and Acoustic Knowledge Base Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCauley, Rachel; Fischbach, Sean; Fredrick, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Controllable solid propulsion systems have distinctive combustion and acoustic environments that require enhanced testing and analysis techniques to progress this new technology from development to production. In a hot gas valve actuating system, the movement of the pintle through the hot gas exhibits complex acoustic disturbances and flow characteristics that can amplify induced pressure loads that can damage or detonate the rocket motor. The geometry of a controllable solid propulsion gas chamber can set up unique unsteady flow which can feed acoustic oscillations patterns that require characterization. Research in this area aids in the understanding of how best to design, test, and analyze future controllable solid rocket motors using the lessons learned from past government programs as well as university research and testing. This survey paper will give the reader a better understanding of the potentially amplifying affects propagated by a controllable solid rocket motor system and the knowledge of the tools current available to address these acoustic disturbances in a preliminary design. Finally the paper will supply lessons learned from past experiences which will allow the reader to come away with understanding of what steps need to be taken when developing a controllable solid rocket propulsion system. The focus of this survey will be on testing and analysis work published by solid rocket programs and from combustion and acoustic books, conference papers, journal articles, and additionally from subject matter experts dealing currently with controllable solid rocket acoustic analysis.

  3. Targeting Chk2 improves gastric cancer chemotherapy by impairing DNA damage repair.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-González, A; Belda-Iniesta, C; Bargiela-Iparraguirre, J; Dominguez, G; García Alfonso, P; Perona, R; Sanchez-Perez, I

    2013-03-01

    Our results demonstrate that the addition of cisplatin after paclitaxel-induced mitotic arrest was more effective than individual treatment on gastric adenocarcinoma cells (MKN45). However, the treatment did not induce benefits in cells derived from lymph node metastasis (ST2957). Time-lapse microscopy revealed that cell death was caused by mitotic catastrophe and apoptosis induction, as the use of the caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk decreased cell death. We propose that the molecular mechanism mediating this cell fate is a slippage suffered by these cells, given that our Western blot (WB) analysis revealed premature cyclin B degradation. This resulted in the cell exiting from mitosis without undergoing DNA damage repair, as demonstrated by the strong phosphorylation of H2AX. A comet assay indicated that DNA repair was impaired, and Western blotting showed that the Chk2 protein was degraded after sequential treatment (paclitaxel-cisplatin). Based on these results, the modulation of cell death during mitosis may be an effective strategy for gastric cancer therapy. PMID:23271172

  4. Inhibition of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Improves Myelination and Attenuates Tissue Damage of Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Si; Ju, Peijun; Tjandra, Editha; Yeap, Yeeshan; Owlanj, Hamed; Feng, Zhiwei

    2016-10-01

    Preventing demyelination and promoting remyelination of denuded axons are promising therapeutic strategies for spinal cord injury (SCI). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition was reported to benefit the neural functional recovery and the axon regeneration after SCI. However, its role in de- and remyelination of axons in injured spinal cord is unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of EGFR inhibitor, PD168393 (PD), on the myelination in mouse contusive SCI model. We found that expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) in the injured spinal cords of PD treated mice was remarkably elevated. The density of glial precursor cells and oligodendrocytes (OLs) was increased and the cell apoptosis in lesions was attenuated after PD168393 treatment. Moreover, PD168393 treatment reduced both the numbers of OX42 + microglial cells and glial fibrillary acidic protein + astrocytes in damaged area of spinal cords. We thus conclude that the therapeutic effects of EGFR inhibition after SCI involves facilitating remyelination of the injured spinal cord, increasing of oligodendrocyte precursor cells and OLs, as well as suppressing the activation of astrocytes and microglia/macrophages. PMID:26883518

  5. Improved PWM control for GTO inverters with pulse number modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tadakuma, Susuma; Tanaka, Shigeru; Miura, Kazutoshi; Ofosu-Amaah, W.

    1996-05-01

    This paper proposes pulse number modulation (PNM)-assisted pulse-width modulation (PWM) control to improve the modulation factor of bridge inverters and to solve voltage uncontrollability in neutral point clamped (NPC) inverters. The basic idea is to enlarge the linear region of PWM control via PNM technology. The authors will show the following through simulation and experimental results: (1) conventional bridge inverters can utilize at most 80% of the nominal inverter capacity because of the limit of the modulation factor. The PWM and PNM combined control is able to improve the modulation factor up to approximately 1.0; (2) the PWM and PNM control enables linear voltage control in the NPC inverter even for an extremely small reference. The PNM technology also contributes to a reduction in switching losses.

  6. Power system stability improvement with multivariable self-tuning control

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, J.Y.; Ortmeyer, T.H.; Mukundan, R. )

    1990-02-01

    A multivariable self-tuning adaptive control scheme is presented. This scheme is of a decentralized nature and is implemented locally for individual generating units. A discrete multivariable auto-regressive-moving-average model is developed to represent a generating unit. The recursive-least-squares (RLS) estimation algorithm with variable-forgetting factor and the generalized-minimum-variance control technique are utilized to synthesize the local controllers. A dynamic goal-point-generating model is introduced to provide varying goal point for the local controller which leads the subsystem output to its equilibrium gradually. Extensive simulations are performed on the IEEE 10-machine test system. The results show that the proposed multivariable adaptive control scheme is effective in damping the severe oscillations after large disturbances as well as improving the system dynamics under small oscillations and is better than the conventional PSS method. The controller demonstrates robustness and is compatible with the existing conventional controllers in multimachine systems.

  7. Use of controlled vocabularies to improve biomedical information retrieval tasks.

    PubMed

    Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Vishnyakova, Dina; Ruch, Patrick; Lovis, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The high heterogeneity of biomedical vocabulary is a major obstacle for information retrieval in large biomedical collections. Therefore, using biomedical controlled vocabularies is crucial for managing these contents. We investigate the impact of query expansion based on controlled vocabularies to improve the effectiveness of two search engines. Our strategy relies on the enrichment of users' queries with additional terms, directly derived from such vocabularies applied to infectious diseases and chemical patents. We observed that query expansion based on pathogen names resulted in improvements of the top-precision of our first search engine, while the normalization of diseases degraded the top-precision. The expansion of chemical entities, which was performed on the second search engine, positively affected the mean average precision. We have shown that query expansion of some types of biomedical entities has a great potential to improve search effectiveness; therefore a fine-tuning of query expansion strategies could help improving the performances of search engines. PMID:23920842

  8. A smart sensor using a mechanical memory for structural health monitoring of a damage-controlled building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mita, Akira; Takhira, Shinpei

    2003-04-01

    A smart sensor using a mechanical memory that can monitor peak strain or displacement was developed. The mechanism of the mechanical memory relies on the pure plastic extension of the sensing section that is realized by elastic buckling of a thin wire. The change in length of the sensing section is detected via a change in resistance, inductance or capacitance. In addition, by introducing an LC-circuit into the sensor we can add a capability for wireless retrieval of the measured data. Basically, the sensor does not need any power supply for measurements. A small power supply is required only when the data retrieval becomes necessary. Theoretical and experimental studies show the feasibility of using the sensor developed for structural health monitoring of damage-controlled structures. Though the sensor is designed to memorize the peak strain or displacement only, it can be easily modified to measure other damage indices that are physical values well correlated with the critical damage in a structure. Typical damage indices include peak strain, peak displacement, peak acceleration, absorbed energy and accumulated plastic deformation. Simple and inexpensive passive sensors that can monitor such damage indices are particularly useful for quantifying the performance of a damage-controlled building, as most damaging energy due to a large earthquake is taken care of by structural control devices. The devices are usually covered by a wall or a fire-protection material, so a simple inspection by eye is not possible without removing cover materials. We believe the installation of the sensors developed will ensure the safety of such a building with minimal cost.

  9. HIPK2 restricts SIRT1 activity upon severe DNA damage by a phosphorylation-controlled mechanism.

    PubMed

    Conrad, E; Polonio-Vallon, T; Meister, M; Matt, S; Bitomsky, N; Herbel, C; Liebl, M; Greiner, V; Kriznik, B; Schumacher, S; Krieghoff-Henning, E; Hofmann, T G

    2016-01-01

    Upon severe DNA damage a cellular signalling network initiates a cell death response through activating tumour suppressor p53 in association with promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) nuclear bodies. The deacetylase Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) suppresses cell death after DNA damage by antagonizing p53 acetylation. To facilitate efficient p53 acetylation, SIRT1 function needs to be restricted. How SIRT1 activity is regulated under these conditions remains largely unclear. Here we provide evidence that SIRT1 activity is limited upon severe DNA damage through phosphorylation by the DNA damage-responsive kinase HIPK2. We found that DNA damage provokes interaction of SIRT1 and HIPK2, which phosphorylates SIRT1 at Serine 682 upon lethal damage. Furthermore, upon DNA damage SIRT1 and HIPK2 colocalize at PML nuclear bodies, and PML depletion abrogates DNA damage-induced SIRT1 Ser682 phosphorylation. We show that Ser682 phosphorylation inhibits SIRT1 activity and impacts on p53 acetylation, apoptotic p53 target gene expression and cell death. Mechanistically, we found that DNA damage-induced SIRT1 Ser682 phosphorylation provokes disruption of the complex between SIRT1 and its activator AROS. Our findings indicate that phosphorylation-dependent restriction of SIRT1 activity by HIPK2 shapes the p53 response. PMID:26113041

  10. HIPK2 restricts SIRT1 activity upon severe DNA damage by a phosphorylation-controlled mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, E; Polonio-Vallon, T; Meister, M; Matt, S; Bitomsky, N; Herbel, C; Liebl, M; Greiner, V; Kriznik, B; Schumacher, S; Krieghoff-Henning, E; Hofmann, T G

    2016-01-01

    Upon severe DNA damage a cellular signalling network initiates a cell death response through activating tumour suppressor p53 in association with promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) nuclear bodies. The deacetylase Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) suppresses cell death after DNA damage by antagonizing p53 acetylation. To facilitate efficient p53 acetylation, SIRT1 function needs to be restricted. How SIRT1 activity is regulated under these conditions remains largely unclear. Here we provide evidence that SIRT1 activity is limited upon severe DNA damage through phosphorylation by the DNA damage-responsive kinase HIPK2. We found that DNA damage provokes interaction of SIRT1 and HIPK2, which phosphorylates SIRT1 at Serine 682 upon lethal damage. Furthermore, upon DNA damage SIRT1 and HIPK2 colocalize at PML nuclear bodies, and PML depletion abrogates DNA damage-induced SIRT1 Ser682 phosphorylation. We show that Ser682 phosphorylation inhibits SIRT1 activity and impacts on p53 acetylation, apoptotic p53 target gene expression and cell death. Mechanistically, we found that DNA damage-induced SIRT1 Ser682 phosphorylation provokes disruption of the complex between SIRT1 and its activator AROS. Our findings indicate that phosphorylation-dependent restriction of SIRT1 activity by HIPK2 shapes the p53 response. PMID:26113041

  11. Organization features of the work control quality improvement project

    SciTech Connect

    Dulin, R.

    1994-12-31

    One consequence of {open_quotes}reengineering{close_quotes} - the systematic review, design, and implementation of process, technology, and organization - is improvement in process efficiency. This improvement also causes change in organization size and function. This paper describes some of the key changes to organizational function brought about by Duke Power Company`s reengineering of the work control process. The fundamental principle observed during the Duke nuclear stations` recent organizational realignment is focus on the process. The process of work control must satisfy the customer needs of the station equipment owners. The changes to the organization serve to fulfill the numerous process requirements.

  12. Genes and gene expression: Localization, damage and control: A multilevel and inter-disciplinary study

    SciTech Connect

    Ts'o, P.O.P.

    1990-09-01

    The main objectives of this Program Project is to develop strategy and technology for the study of gene structure, organization and function in a multi-disciplinary, highly coordinated manner. In Project I, Molecular Cytology, the establishment of all instrumentation for the computerized microscopic imaging system (CMIS) has been completed with the software in place, including measurement of the third dimension (along the Z-axis). The technique is now at hand to measure single copy DNA in the nucleus, single copy mRNA in the cell, and finally, we are in the process of developing mathematical approaches for the analysis of the relative spatial 3-D relationship among the chromosomes and the individual genes in the interphasal nucleus. Also, we have a sensitive and reliable method for measuring single-stranded DNA breaks which will be useful for the determination of damage to DNA caused by ionizing radiation. In Project II, the mapping of restriction fragments by 2-D enzymatic and electrophoretic analysis has been perfected for application. In Project III, a major finding is that the binding constant and effectiveness of antisense oligonucleotide analogues, Matagen, can be significantly improved by substituting 2{prime}-O-methylribos methylphosphonate backbones for the current 2{prime}-deoxyribomethylphosphonate backbones. 15 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. IpsiHand Bravo: an improved EEG-based brain-computer interface for hand motor control rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Charles Damian; Wronkiewicz, Mark; Somers, Thane; Liu, Jenny; Russell, Elizabeth; Kim, DoHyun; Rhoades, Colleen; Dunkley, Jason; Bundy, David; Galboa, Elad; Leuthardt, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Stroke and other nervous system injuries can damage or destroy hand motor control and greatly upset daily activities. Brain computer interfaces (BCIs) represent an emerging technology that can bypass damaged nerves to restore basic motor function and provide more effective rehabilitation. A wireless BCI system was implemented to realize these goals using electroencephalographic brain signals, machine learning techniques, and a custom designed orthosis. The IpsiHand Bravo BCI system is designed to reach a large demographic by using non-traditional brain signals and improving on past BCI system pitfalls. PMID:23366248

  14. Hyperbaric oxygen can induce neuroplasticity and improve cognitive functions of patients suffering from anoxic brain damage

    PubMed Central

    Hadanny, A.; Golan, H.; Fishlev, G.; Bechor, Y.; Volkov, O.; Suzin, G.; Ben-Jacob, E.; Efrati, S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Cognitive impairment may occur in 42–50% of cardiac arrest survivors. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO2) has recently been shown to have neurotherapeutic effects in patients suffering from chronic cognitive impairments (CCI) consequent to stroke and mild traumatic brain injury. The objective of this study was to assess the neurotherapeutic effect of HBO2 in patients suffering from CCI due to cardiac arrest. Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients with CCI caused by cardiac arrest, treated with 60 daily sessions of HBO2. Evaluation included objective computerized cognitive tests (NeuroTrax), Activity of Daily Living (ADL) and Quality of life questionnaires. The results of these tests were compared with changes in brain activity as assessed by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain imaging. Results: The study included 11 cases of CCI patients. Patients were treated with HBO2, 0.5–7.5 years (mean 2.6 ± 0.6 years) after the cardiac arrest. HBO2 was found to induce modest, but statistically significant improvement in memory, attention and executive function (mean scores) of 12% , 20% and 24% respectively. The clinical improvements were found to be well correlated with increased brain activity in relevant brain areas as assessed by computerized analysis of the SPECT imaging. Conclusions: Although further research is needed, the results demonstrate the beneficial effects of HBO2 on CCI in patients after cardiac arrest, even months to years after the acute event. PMID:26409406

  15. Growth control switch by a DNA-damage-inducible toxin-antitoxin system in Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Clare L; Martins, Daniel; Redder, Peter; Frandi, Antonio; Mignolet, Johann; Chapalay, Julien Bortoli; Chambon, Marc; Turcatti, Gerardo; Viollier, Patrick H

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems (TASs) are thought to respond to various stresses, often inducing growth-arrested (persistent) sub-populations of cells whose housekeeping functions are inhibited. Many such TASs induce this effect through the translation-dependent RNA cleavage (RNase) activity of their toxins, which are held in check by their cognate antitoxins in the absence of stress. However, it is not always clear whether specific mRNA targets of orthologous RNase toxins are responsible for their phenotypic effect, which has made it difficult to accurately place the multitude of TASs within cellular and adaptive regulatory networks. Here, we show that the TAS HigBA of Caulobacter crescentus can promote and inhibit bacterial growth dependent on the dosage of HigB, a toxin regulated by the DNA damage (SOS) repressor LexA in addition to its antitoxin HigA, and the target selectivity of HigB's mRNA cleavage activity. HigB reduced the expression of an efflux pump that is toxic to a polarity control mutant, cripples the growth of cells lacking LexA, and targets the cell cycle circuitry. Thus, TASs can have outcome switching activity in bacterial adaptive (stress) and systemic (cell cycle) networks. PMID:27572440

  16. A directed-overflow and damage-control N-glycosidase in riboflavin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Frelin, Océane; Huang, Lili; Hasnain, Ghulam; Jeffryes, James G.; Ziemak, Michael J.; Rocca, James R.; Wang, Bing; Rice, Jennifer; Roje, Sanja; Yurgel, Svetlana N.; Gregory, Jesse F.; Edison, Arthur S.; Henry, Christopher S.; deCrécy-Lagard, Valérie; Hanson, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Plants and bacteria synthesize the essential human micronutrient riboflavin (vitamin B2) via the same multistep pathway. The early intermediates of this pathway are notoriously reactive, and may be overproduced in vivo because riboflavin biosynthesis enzymes lack feedback controls. Here we demonstrate disposal of riboflavin intermediates by COG3236 (DUF1768), a protein of previously unknown function that is fused to two different riboflavin pathway enzymes in plants and bacteria (RIBR and RibA, respectively). We present cheminformatic, biochemical, genetic, and genomic evidence to show that: (i) plant and bacterial COG3236 proteins cleave the N-glycosidic bond of the first two intermediates of riboflavin biosynthesis, yielding relatively innocuous products; (ii) certain COG3236 proteins are in a multienzyme riboflavin biosynthesis complex that gives them privileged access to riboflavin intermediates; and (iii) COG3236 action in Arabidopsis thaliana and Escherichia coli helps maintain flavin levels. COG3236 proteins thus illustrate two emerging principles in chemical biology: directed overflow metabolism, in which excess flux is diverted out of a pathway, and the pre-emption of damage from reactive metabolites. PMID:25431972

  17. Transition from dislocation glide to creep controlled damage in fatigued thin Cu films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinks, C.; Volkert, C. A.

    2013-09-01

    The ultra-high cycle fatigue behavior of supported Cu films with thicknesses between 40 and 360 nm has been investigated using a novel atomic force microscope (AFM)-based resonance method. The damage created under strain controlled fatigue loading is investigated as a function of applied strain, film thickness, and cycle numbers up to 5 × 1010. For films thicker than 100 nm, extrusions and boundary cracks limit the fatigue performance but only appear above a threshold in the applied strain amplitude which scales inversely with the square root of the film thickness. The extrusion formation is attributed to dislocation activation. The grain boundary cracks are replaced by grain boundary grooves in films of 100 nm and thinner. The grooves are believed to form by diffusion mediated creep processes, similar to observations at higher temperatures but here driven by cyclic stresses and capillarity, and become detectable once the accumulated plastic strain exceeds a critical value. These results indicate that due to creep processes, thinner films can be less resistant to fatigue than thicker films, particularly for large cycle numbers.

  18. Structural damage to meiotic chromosomes impairs DNA recombination and checkpoint control in mammalian oocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Höög, Christer

    2006-05-22

    Meiosis in human oocytes is a highly error-prone process with profound effects on germ cell and embryo development. The synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SYCP3) transiently supports the structural organization of the meiotic chromosome axis. Offspring derived from murine Sycp3(-)(/)(-) females die in utero as a result of aneuploidy. We studied the nature of the proximal chromosomal defects that give rise to aneuploidy in Sycp3(-)(/)(-) oocytes and how these errors evade meiotic quality control mechanisms. We show that DNA double-stranded breaks are inefficiently repaired in Sycp3(-)(/)(-) oocytes, thereby generating a temporal spectrum of recombination errors. This is indicated by a strong residual gammaH2AX labeling retained at late meiotic stages in mutant oocytes and an increased persistence of recombination-related proteins associated with meiotic chromosomes. Although a majority of the mutant oocytes are rapidly eliminated at early postnatal development, a subset with a small number of unfinished crossovers evades the DNA damage checkpoint, resulting in the formation of aneuploid gametes. PMID:16717125

  19. A directed-overflow and damage-control N -glycosidase in riboflavin biosynthesis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Frelin, Océane; Huang, Lili; Hasnain, Ghulam; Jeffryes, James G.; Ziemak, Michael J.; Rocca, James R.; Wang, Bing; Rice, Jennifer; Roje, Sanja; Yurgel, Svetlana N.; et al

    2015-02-15

    Plants and bacteria synthesize the essential human micronutrient riboflavin (vitamin B2) via the same multistep pathway. The early intermediates of this pathway are notoriously reactive, and may be overproduced in vivo because riboflavin biosynthesis enzymes lack feedback controls. Here we demonstrate disposal of riboflavin intermediates by COG3236 (DUF1768), a protein of previously unknown function that is fused to two different riboflavin pathway enzymes in plants and bacteria (RIBR and RibA, respectively). We present cheminformatic, biochemical, genetic, and genomic evidence to show that: (i) plant and bacterial COG3236 proteins cleave the N-glycosidic bond of the first two intermediates of riboflavin biosynthesis,more » yielding relatively innocuous products; (ii) certain COG3236 proteins are in a multienzyme riboflavin biosynthesis complex that gives them privileged access to riboflavin intermediates; and (iii) COG3236 action in Arabidopsis thaliana and Escherichia coli helps maintain flavin levels. We find COG3236 proteins thus illustrate two emerging principles in chemical biology: directed overflow metabolism, in which excess flux is diverted out of a pathway, and the pre-emption of damage from reactive metabolites.« less

  20. A directed-overflow and damage-control N -glycosidase in riboflavin biosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Frelin, Océane; Huang, Lili; Hasnain, Ghulam; Jeffryes, James G.; Ziemak, Michael J.; Rocca, James R.; Wang, Bing; Rice, Jennifer; Roje, Sanja; Yurgel, Svetlana N.; Gregory, Jesse F.; Edison, Arthur S.; Henry, Christopher  S.; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Hanson, Andrew D.

    2015-02-15

    Plants and bacteria synthesize the essential human micronutrient riboflavin (vitamin B2) via the same multistep pathway. The early intermediates of this pathway are notoriously reactive, and may be overproduced in vivo because riboflavin biosynthesis enzymes lack feedback controls. Here we demonstrate disposal of riboflavin intermediates by COG3236 (DUF1768), a protein of previously unknown function that is fused to two different riboflavin pathway enzymes in plants and bacteria (RIBR and RibA, respectively). We present cheminformatic, biochemical, genetic, and genomic evidence to show that: (i) plant and bacterial COG3236 proteins cleave the N-glycosidic bond of the first two intermediates of riboflavin biosynthesis, yielding relatively innocuous products; (ii) certain COG3236 proteins are in a multienzyme riboflavin biosynthesis complex that gives them privileged access to riboflavin intermediates; and (iii) COG3236 action in Arabidopsis thaliana and Escherichia coli helps maintain flavin levels. We find COG3236 proteins thus illustrate two emerging principles in chemical biology: directed overflow metabolism, in which excess flux is diverted out of a pathway, and the pre-emption of damage from reactive metabolites.

  1. A directed-overflow and damage-control N-glycosidase in riboflavin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Frelin, Océane; Huang, Lili; Hasnain, Ghulam; Jeffryes, James G; Ziemak, Michael J; Rocca, James R; Wang, Bing; Rice, Jennifer; Roje, Sanja; Yurgel, Svetlana N; Gregory, Jesse F; Edison, Arthur S; Henry, Christopher S; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Hanson, Andrew D

    2015-02-15

    Plants and bacteria synthesize the essential human micronutrient riboflavin (vitamin B2) via the same multi-step pathway. The early intermediates of this pathway are notoriously reactive and may be overproduced in vivo because riboflavin biosynthesis enzymes lack feedback controls. In the present paper, we demonstrate disposal of riboflavin intermediates by COG3236 (DUF1768), a protein of previously unknown function that is fused to two different riboflavin pathway enzymes in plants and bacteria (RIBR and RibA respectively). We present cheminformatic, biochemical, genetic and genomic evidence to show that: (i) plant and bacterial COG3236 proteins cleave the N-glycosidic bond of the first two intermediates of riboflavin biosynthesis, yielding relatively innocuous products; (ii) certain COG3236 proteins are in a multi-enzyme riboflavin biosynthesis complex that gives them privileged access to riboflavin intermediates; and (iii) COG3236 action in Arabidopsis thaliana and Escherichia coli helps maintain flavin levels. COG3236 proteins thus illustrate two emerging principles in chemical biology: directed overflow metabolism, in which excess flux is diverted out of a pathway, and the pre-emption of damage from reactive metabolites. PMID:25431972

  2. Interhemispheric and Intrahemispheric Control of Emotion: A Focus on Unilateral Brain Damage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borod, Joan C.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses neocortical contributions to emotional processing. Examines parameters critical to neuropsychological study of emotion: interhemispheric and intrahemispheric factors, processing mode, and communication channel. Describes neuropsychological theories of emotion. Reviews studies of right-brain-damaged, left-brain-damaged, and normal adults,…

  3. Impaired L1 and Executive Control after Left Basal Ganglia Damage in a Bilingual Basque-Spanish Person with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrover-Roig, Daniel; Galparsoro-Izagirre, Nekane; Marcotte, Karine; Ferre, Perrine; Wilson, Maximiliano A.; Ansaldo, Ana Ines

    2011-01-01

    Bilinguals must focus their attention to control competing languages. In bilingual aphasia, damage to the fronto-subcortical loop may lead to pathological language switching and mixing and the attrition of the more automatic language (usually L1). We present the case of JZ, a bilingual Basque-Spanish 53-year-old man who, after haematoma in the…

  4. Progesterone Reduces Secondary Damage, Preserves White Matter, and Improves Locomotor Outcome after Spinal Cord Contusion

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Ovejero, Daniel; González, Susana; Paniagua-Torija, Beatriz; Lima, Analía; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; De Nicola, Alejandro F.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Progesterone is an anti-inflammatory and promyelinating agent after spinal cord injury, but its effectiveness on functional recovery is still controversial. In the current study, we tested the effects of chronic progesterone administration on tissue preservation and functional recovery in a clinically relevant model of spinal cord lesion (thoracic contusion). Using magnetic resonance imaging, we observed that progesterone reduced both volume and rostrocaudal extension of the lesion at 60 days post-injury. In addition, progesterone increased the number of total mature oligodendrocytes, myelin basic protein immunoreactivity, and the number of axonal profiles at the epicenter of the lesion. Further, progesterone treatment significantly improved motor outcome as assessed using the Basso-Bresnahan-Beattie scale for locomotion and CatWalk gait analysis. These data suggest that progesterone could be considered a promising therapeutical candidate for spinal cord injury. PMID:24460450

  5. Antecedent conditions control carbon loss and downstream water quality from shallow, damaged peatlands.

    PubMed

    Grand-Clement, E; Luscombe, D J; Anderson, K; Gatis, N; Benaud, P; Brazier, R E

    2014-09-15

    Losses of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from drained peatlands are of concern, due to the effects this has on the delivery of ecosystem services, and especially on the long-term store of carbon and the provision of drinking water. Most studies have looked at the effect of drainage in deep peat; comparatively, little is known about the behaviour of shallow, climatically marginal peatlands. This study examines water quality (DOC, Abs(400), pH, E4/E6 and C/C) during rainfall events from such environments in the south west UK, in order to both quantify DOC losses, and understand their potential for restoration. Water samples were taken over a 19 month period from a range of drains within two different experimental catchments in Exmoor National Park; data were analysed on an event basis. DOC concentrations ranging between 4 and 21 mg L(-1) are substantially lower than measurements in deep peat, but remain problematic for the water treatment process. Dryness plays a critical role in controlling DOC concentrations and water quality, as observed through spatial and seasonal differences. Long-term changes in depth to water table (30 days before the event) are likely to impact on DOC production, whereas discharge becomes the main control over DOC transport at the time scale of the rainfall/runoff event. The role of temperature during events is attributed to an increase in the diffusion of DOC, and therefore its transport. Humification ratios (E4/E6) consistently below 5 indicate a predominance of complex humic acids, but increased decomposition during warmer summer months leads to a comparatively higher losses of fulvic acids. This work represents a significant contribution to the scientific understanding of the behaviour and functioning of shallow damaged peatlands in climatically marginal locations. The findings also provide a sound baseline knowledge to support research into the effects of landscape restoration in the future. PMID:25010944

  6. Process control improvements realized in a vertical reactor cluster tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werkhoven, Chris J.; Granneman, E. H.; Lindow, E.

    1993-04-01

    Advance cell structures present in high-density memories and logic devices require high quality, ultra thin dielectric and conductor films. By controlling the interface properties of such films, remarkable process control enhancements of manufacturing proven, vertical LPCVD and oxidation processes are realized. To this end, an HF/H2O vapor etch reactor is integrated in a vacuum cluster tool comprising vertical reactors for the various LPCVD and oxidation processes. Data of process control improvement are provided for polysilicon emitters, polysilicon contacts, polysilicon gates, and NO capacitors. Finally, the cost of ownership of cluster tool use is compared with that of stand-along equipment.

  7. Development and applications of Krotov method of global control improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasina, Irina V.; Trushkova, Ekaterina A.; Baturina, Olga V.; Bulatov, Alexander V.; Guseva, Irina S.

    2016-06-01

    This is a survey of works on main properties, application and development of the Krotov method of global control improvement very popular among researchers of modern problems in quantum physics and quantum chemistry, applying actively optimal control methods. The survey includes a brief description of the method in comparison with well known gradient method demonstrating such its serious advantage as absence of tuning parameters; investigations aimed to make its special version for the quantum system well defined and more effective; and generalization for wide classes of control systems, including the systems of heterogeneous structure.

  8. ACHIEVING IRRIGATION RETURN FLOW QUALITY CONTROL THROUGH IMPROVED LEGAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The key to irrigated agricultural return flow quality control is proper utilization and management of the resource itself, and an accepted tool in out society is the law. This project is designed to develop legal alternatives that will facilitate the implementation of improved wa...

  9. The process of managerial control in quality improvement initiatives.

    PubMed

    Slovensky, D J; Fottler, M D

    1994-11-01

    The fundamental intent of strategic management is to position an organization with in its market to exploit organizational competencies and strengths to gain competitive advantage. Competitive advantage may be achieved through such strategies as low cost, high quality, or unique services or products. For health care organizations accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, continually improving both processes and outcomes of organizational performance--quality improvement--in all operational areas of the organization is a mandated strategy. Defining and measuring quality and controlling the quality improvement strategy remain problematic. The article discusses the nature and processes of managerial control, some potential measures of quality, and related information needs. PMID:10138526

  10. Bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation improves balance control in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Colnat-Coulbois, S; Gauchard, G; Maillard, L; Barroche, G; Vespignani, H; Auque, J; Perrin, P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Parkinson's disease (PD), the most common basal ganglia degenerative disease, affects balance control, especially when patients change balance strategy during postural tasks. Bilateral chronic stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is therapeutically useful in advanced PD, and reduces the motor signs of patients. Nevertheless, the effects of STN stimulation on postural control are still debatable. Aims: To assess the impact of bilateral STN stimulation on balance control in PD and to determine how basal ganglia related sensorimotor modifications act on neurosensorial organisation of balance and motor postural programming. Methods: Twelve subjects aged 45–70 years underwent unified Parkinson's disease rating scale motor (part III) clinical tests, static and dynamic posturography, including sensory organisation and adaptation tests, shortly before and six months after bilateral implantation of electrodes into the STN. Results: The postoperative static test showed an improvement in postural control precision both in eyes open and eyes closed conditions. The dynamic test highlighted the decreased number of falls and the ability of the patients to develop more appropriate sensorimotor strategies when stimulated. The sensory organisation test showed an improvement of equilibrium score and, thus, a better resolution of sensorial conflicts. Conclusions: STN stimulation allowed a reduction in rigidity and therefore an improvement in the ability to use muscular proprioception as reliable information, resulting in vestibulo-proprioceptive conflict suppression. STN stimulation has a synergistic effect with levodopa for postural control. Accordingly, non-dopaminergic pathways could be involved in postural regulation and STN stimulation may influence the functioning of these pathways. PMID:15897498

  11. Physician/Pharmacist Collaboration to Improve Blood Pressure Control

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Barry L.; Ardery, Gail; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; James, Paul A.; Bergus, George R.; Doucette, William R.; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A.; Franciscus, Carrie L.; Xu, Yinghui

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies have demonstrated that blood pressure (BP) control can be improved when clinical pharmacists assist with patient management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a physician/pharmacist intervention to improve BP control. Methods This was a prospective, cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial with clinics randomized to control (n=3) or intervention (n=3) groups. The study enrolled 402 patients with uncontrolled hypertension (mean age 58.3 years). Clinical pharmacists made drug-therapy recommendations to physicians based on national guidelines. Research nurses performed BP measurements and 24-hour BP monitoring. Results Guideline adherence scores increased from 49.4 ± 19.3 at baseline to 53.4 ± 18.1 at 6 months (9% increase) in the control group and from 40.4 ± 22.6 to 62.8 ± 13.5 (57% increase) in the intervention group (p=0.089 adjusted comparison between groups). Mean BP decreased 6.8/4.5 and 20.7/9.7 mm Hg in the control and intervention groups, respectively, (p<0.05 for between-group systolic BP (SBP) comparison). The adjusted difference in SBP was −12.0 (95% CI: −24.0, 0.0) mm Hg, while the difference in diastolic BP (DBP) was −1.8 (CI: −11.9, 8.3). The 24-hour BP levels showed similar effect sizes. BP was controlled in 29.9% of patients in the control group and 63.9% in the intervention group (adjusted odds ratio 3.2; CI: 2.0, 5.1; p<0.001). Conclusions A physician/pharmacist collaborative intervention achieved significantly better mean BP and overall BP control rates when compared to a control group. Additional research should be conducted to evaluate efficient strategies to implement team-based chronic disease management. PMID:19933962

  12. No effect of short-term amino acid supplementation on variables related to skeletal muscle damage in 100 km ultra-runners - a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term supplementation of amino acids before and during a 100 km ultra-marathon on variables of skeletal muscle damage and muscle soreness. We hypothesized that the supplementation of amino acids before and during an ultra-marathon would lead to a reduction in the variables of skeletal muscle damage, a decrease in muscle soreness and an improved performance. Methods Twenty-eight experienced male ultra-runners were divided into two groups, one with amino acid supplementation and the other as a control group. The amino acid group was supplemented a total of 52.5 g of an amino acid concentrate before and during the 100 km ultra-marathon. Pre- and post-race, creatine kinase, urea and myoglobin were determined. At the same time, the athletes were asked for subjective feelings of muscle soreness. Results Race time was not different between the groups when controlled for personal best time in a 100 km ultra-marathon. The increases in creatine kinase, urea and myoglobin were not different in both groups. Subjective feelings of skeletal muscle soreness were not different between the groups. Conclusions We concluded that short-term supplementation of amino acids before and during a 100 km ultra-marathon had no effect on variables of skeletal muscle damage and muscle soreness. PMID:21473783

  13. Redox-dependent regulation, redox control and oxidative damage in plant cells subjected to abiotic stress.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2010-01-01

    Stress development intricately involves uncontrolled redox reactions and oxidative damage to functional macromolecules. Three phases characterize progressing abiotic stress and the stress strength; in the first phase redox-dependent deregulation in metabolism, in the second phase detectable development of oxidative damage and in the third phase cell death. Each phase is characterized by traceable biochemical features and specific molecular responses that reflect on the one hand cell damage but on the other hand indicate specific regulation and redox signalling aiming at compensation of stress impact. PMID:20387040

  14. Can external quality control improve pig AI efficiency?

    PubMed

    Waberski, D; Petrunkina, A M; Töpfer-Petersen, E

    2008-11-01

    External quality control programmes carried out by central laboratories have been long established in human andrology with the aim of enhancing the accuracy and reproducibility of semen assessment. Compared to human, demands on boar semen assessment in AI stations are more complex, with the need both to identify boars with poor ejaculate quality and to monitor individual boar differences for semen storage. Additionally, appropriate assessment serves as a control instrument to ensure the security and efficiency of semen processing. Despite current limitations regarding the ability of sperm assays to estimate the potential fertility of males, it is evident that boar fertility is related to certain conventional semen tests, e.g. sperm morphology. In central studies carried out on stored semen from 11 AI stations, flow cytometric assessment of plasma and acrosome membrane integrity proved to be more sensitive in detecting sperm damage associated with ageing and temperature stress as compared to light microscopy. Membrane integrity of stored semen differed between AI stations indicating significant influences of semen processing on sperm quality. Thus external control of semen quality in reference laboratories may be useful to monitor the efficiency of internal semen quality control in individual AI stations, to identify males with lower semen quality and/or poor response to semen storage, and to verify the precision of sperm counting. The possibility that central laboratories with sufficient resources may be able to identify functionally different responding sperm subpopulations for better estimation of fertility is discussed. Ideally, external quality control schemes for AI stations would comprise application of validated tests with high relevance for fertility (including bacterial status), analysis of semen processing on the AI station, and training courses for laboratory personnel. PMID:18656253

  15. Improved Continuous-Time Higher Harmonic Control Using Hinfinity Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Frank H.

    The helicopter is a versatile aircraft that can take-off and land vertically, hover efficiently, and maneuver in confined space. This versatility is enabled by the main rotor, which also causes undesired harmonic vibration during operation. This unwanted vibration has a negative impact on the practicality of the helicopter and also increases its operational cost. Passive control techniques have been applied to helicopter vibration suppression, but these methods are generally heavy and are not robust to changes in operating conditions. Feedback control offers the advantages of robustness and potentially higher performance over passive control techniques, and amongst the various feedback schemes, Shaw's higher harmonic control algorithm has been shown to be an effective method for attenuating harmonic disturbance in helicopters. In this thesis, the higher harmonic disturbance algorithm is further developed to achieve improved performance. One goal in this thesis is to determine the importance of periodicity in the helicopter rotor dynamics for control synthesis. Based on the analysis of wind tunnel data and simulation results, we conclude the helicopter rotor can be modeled reasonably well as linear and time-invariant for control design purposes. Modeling the helicopter rotor as linear time-invariant allows us to apply linear control theory concepts to the higher harmonic control problem. Another goal in this thesis is to find the limits of performance in harmonic disturbance rejection. To achieve this goal, we first define the metrics to measure the performance of the controller in terms of response speed and robustness to changes in the plant dynamics. The performance metrics are incorporated into an Hinfinity control problem. For a given plant, the resulting Hinfinity controller achieves the maximum performance, thus allowing us to identify the performance limitation in harmonic disturbance rejection. However, the Hinfinity controllers are of high order, and may

  16. [Arm Motor Function Recovery during Rehabilitation with the Use of Hand Exoskeleton Controlled by Brain-Computer Interface: a Patient with Severe Brain Damage].

    PubMed

    Biryukova, E V; Pavlova, O G; Kurganskaya, M E; Bobrov, P D; Turbina, L G; Frolov, A A; Davydov, V I; Sil'tchenko, A V; Mokienko, O A

    2016-01-01

    We studied the dynamics of motor function recovery in a patient with severe brain damage in the course of neurorehabilitation using hand exoskeleton controlled by brain-computer interface. For estimating the motor function of paretic arm, we used the biomechanical analysis of movements registered during the course of rehabilitation. After 15 weekly sessions of hand exoskeleton control, the following results were obtained: a) the velocity profile of goal-directed movements of paretic hand became bell-shaped, b) the patient began to extend and abduct the hand which was flexed and adducted in the beginning of rehabilitation, and c) the patient began to supinate the forearm which was pronated in the beginning of rehabilitation. The first result is an evidence of the general improvement of the quality of motor control, while the second and third results prove that the spasticity of paretic arm has decreased. PMID:27188144

  17. Control systems improvements in a precision coordinate measuring machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, S. S.; Babelay, E. F., Jr.; Igou, R. E.; Woodard, L. M.; Green, W. L.

    1981-09-01

    A conventional, manually driven Moore No. 3 coordinate measuring machine at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is being upgraded to provide a continuous-path numerical control capability and simultaneously serve as a vehicle for testing new machine slide-control concepts. Besides new lead screw drive motors, an NC machine control unit, and a closed-loop servo system, the machine has also been equipped with vibration isolation, air-bearing slideways, and laser interferometric position feedback. The present conventional slide servo system will be replaced with a digital servo system wherein various feedback and compensation techniques can be realized through the use of a high speed, dedicated digital processor. The improvements to data are described with emphasis on identification and compensation of the slide control systems.

  18. Instrumentation and control improvements at Experimental Breeder Reactor II

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, L.J.; Planchon, H.P.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe instrumentation and control (I C) system improvements at Experimental Breeder Reactor 11 (EBR-11). The improvements are focused on three objectives; to keep the reactor and balance of plant (BOP) I C systems at a high level of reliability, to provide diagnostic systems that can provide accurate information needed for analysis of fuel performance, and to provide systems that will be prototypic of I C systems of the next generation of liquid metal reactor (LMR) plants.

  19. Instrumentation and control improvements at Experimental Breeder Reactor II

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, L.J.; Planchon, H.P.

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe instrumentation and control (I&C) system improvements at Experimental Breeder Reactor 11 (EBR-11). The improvements are focused on three objectives; to keep the reactor and balance of plant (BOP) I&C systems at a high level of reliability, to provide diagnostic systems that can provide accurate information needed for analysis of fuel performance, and to provide systems that will be prototypic of I&C systems of the next generation of liquid metal reactor (LMR) plants.

  20. No association between alcohol supplementation and autoantibodies to DNA damage in postmenopausal women in a controlled feeding study.

    PubMed

    Mahabir, S; Baer, D J; Johnson, L L; Frenkel, K; Dorgan, J F; Cambell, W; Hartman, T J; Clevidence, B; Albanes, D; Judd, J T; Taylor, P R

    2005-08-01

    Alcohol consumption is linked to increased breast cancer risk. Since oestrogens increase breast cancer risk, possibly through oxidative damage, and we have shown that alcohol consumption increases serum oestrogens, we tested whether moderate alcohol supplementation increased oxidative DNA damage among healthy postmenopausal women not on hormone replacement therapy in a randomized controlled crossover study. We used serum 5-hydroxymethyl-2-deoxyuridine (5-HMdU) autoantibodies (aAbs) as a marker of oxidative DNA damage. The results showed no evidence for increased or decreased levels of oxidative DNA damage among women who consumed 15 g or 30 g alcohol per day for 8 weeks compared with women in the 0 g alcohol group. We conclude that among healthy women, it is possible that an 8-week trial of moderate alcohol supplementation might be too short to make enough 5-HMdU aAbs to compare differences by alcohol dose. In future studies, a panel of biomarkers for DNA damage should be used. PMID:16030435

  1. A novel eye drop of alpha tocopherol to prevent ocular oxidant damage: improve the stability and ocular efficacy.

    PubMed

    Xin, Jiayu; Tang, Jingling; Bu, Meng; Sun, Yanhui; Wang, Xinyu; Wu, Linhua; Liu, Hongzhuo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to design novel mixed micelles as an ophthalmic delivery system for alpha-tocopherol (TOC) to prevent its degradation and improve ocular efficacy. The nonionic polymers, Polyoxyl 15 Hydroxystearate (Solutol® HS15) and Pluronic® F127, were discovered to be the most effective agents for retaining the activity and solubilization of TOC, respectively. Prepared by a thin-film hydration method, HS15/Pluronic® F127 yielded good encapsulation percentages of TOC, with a 27.7% drug loading efficiency. Incorporation of cetalkonium chloride (CKC) into HS15/Pluronic® F127 mixed micelles made the zeta potential of the micelles +17 mV, potentially prolonging the residence time of formulations on ocular surfaces. The optimized micelle preparation remained stable when diluted in a synthetic tear solution. It is known that the antioxidant ability of TOC in typical formulations reduces to around 85% of its initial value after 1 month when stored at 4 or 25 °C under an air atmosphere, which limits ophthalmic applications to less than 1 month. However, encapsulated TOC in investigated micelles remained stable for at least 6 months when sealed with N2. Finally, the cationic micelles were well tolerated after multiple administrations in rabbits, and they improved ocular accumulation of TOC. Taken together, these data suggest that the optimized micelle preparations described in this study may be suitable drug carriers for the treatment of ocular oxidant damage. PMID:26340610

  2. Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors for Improved Wind Turbine Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mehul P. Patel; Srikanth Vasudevan; Robert C. Nelson; Thomas C. Corke

    2008-08-01

    Orbital Research Inc is developing an innovative Plasma Aerodynamic Control Effectors (PACE) technology for improved performance of wind turbines. The PACE system is aimed towards the design of "smart" rotor blades to enhance energy capture and reduce aerodynamic loading and noise using flow-control. The PACE system will provide ability to change aerodynamic loads and pitch distribution across the wind turbine blade without any moving surfaces. Additional benefits of the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that should translate into a substantially reduced initial cost. During the Phase I program, the ORI-UND Team demonstrated (proof-of-concept) performance improvements on select rotor blade designs using PACE concepts. Control of both 2-D and 3-D flows were demonstrated. An analytical study was conducted to estimate control requirements for the PACE system to maintain control during wind gusts. Finally, independent laboratory experiments were conducted to identify promising dielectric materials for the plasma actuator, and to examine environmental effects (water and dust) on the plasma actuator operation. The proposed PACE system will be capable of capturing additional energy, and reducing aerodynamic loading and noise on wind turbines. Supplementary benefits from the PACE system include reduced blade structure weight and complexity that translates into reduced initial capital costs.

  3. Controlled architecture for improved macromolecular memory within polymer networks.

    PubMed

    DiPasquale, Stephen A; Byrne, Mark E

    2016-08-01

    This brief review analyzes recent developments in the field of living/controlled polymerization and the potential of this technique for creating imprinted polymers with highly structured architecture with macromolecular memory. As a result, it is possible to engineer polymers at the molecular level with increased homogeneity relating to enhanced template binding and transport. Only recently has living/controlled polymerization been exploited to decrease heterogeneity and substantially improve the efficiency of the imprinting process for both highly and weakly crosslinked imprinted polymers. Living polymerization can be utilized to create imprinted networks that are vastly more efficient than similar polymers produced using conventional free radical polymerization, and these improvements increase the role that macromolecular memory can play in the design and engineering of new drug delivery and sensing platforms. PMID:27322505

  4. Improved Controller for a Three-Axis Piezoelectric Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Shanti; Palmer, Dean

    2009-01-01

    An improved closed-loop controller has been built for a three-axis piezoelectric positioning stage. The stage can be any of a number of commercially available or custom-made units that are used for precise three-axis positioning of optics in astronomical instruments and could be used for precise positioning in diverse fields of endeavor that include adaptive optics, fabrication of semiconductors, and nanotechnology.

  5. Efficient Phase Locking of Fiber Amplifiers Using a Low-Cost and High-Damage-Threshold Phase Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Pu; Ma, Yan-Xing; Wang, Xiao-Lin; Ma, Hao-Tong; Xu, Xiao-Jun; Liu, Ze-Jin

    2010-03-01

    We propose a low-cost and high-damage-threshold phase control system that employs a piezoelectric ceramic transducer modulator controlled by a stochastic parallel gradient descent algorithm. Efficient phase locking of two fiber amplifiers is demonstrated. Experimental results show that energy encircled in the target pinhole is increased by a factor of 1.76 and the visibility of the fringe pattern is as high as 90% when the system is in close-loop. The phase control system has potential in phase locking of large-number and high-power fiber laser endeavors.

  6. Traffic improvement and transportation pollution control in Xiamen

    SciTech Connect

    Dongxing Yuan; Zilin, Wu

    1996-12-31

    in this paper, the urban traffic improvement and transportation control in Xiamen are highlighted. Xiamen is a port city and an economical special zone of China. As the economy grows, the transportation is developing dramatically and becoming the key for further economic development. The air quality is threatened by the rapid growth of the vehicles in the city. The most urgent task in improving urban traffic is to establish a sound traffic system. The municipal government takes great effort to improve the traffic condition, as well as to reduce green house gases and protect air environment. Some management and technical measures are carried out. Those management measures are mainly as follows: (1) systematic planning of the city arrangement and city functional division, and integrated planning of the urban roads system, (2) putting great emphasis on tail gas monitoring and management, and (3) establishing optimized utilization of motor vehicles. Those included in the main technical measures are (1) making the roads clear, (2) enlarging traffic capacity, and (3) developing the public transport. The most urgent task in improving urban traffic is to establish a sound traffic system. The city municipal government and Transportation Management Bureau plan to make a series of reforms to improve the urban traffic condition, such as building high quality road around the city, reducing the number of one way roads and replacing gasoline buses with electric buses. An optimized traffic system of Xiamen, taking public transport as the main means, is the key to meet the needs of both traffic improvement and urban transportation pollution control.

  7. Translating research into improved outcomes in comprehensive cancer control.

    PubMed

    Kerner, Jon F; Guirguis-Blake, Janelle; Hennessy, Kevin D; Brounstein, Paul J; Vinson, Cynthia; Schwartz, Randy H; Myers, Bradford A; Briss, Peter

    2005-10-01

    A key question in moving comprehensive cancer control (CCC) plans into action is, to what extent should the knowledge gained from investments in cancer prevention and control research influence the actions taken by states, tribes, and territories during implementation? Underlying this 'should' is the assumption that evidence-based approaches (i.e., a public health or clinical intervention or policy that has resulted in improved outcomes when scientifically tested), when implemented in a real-world setting, will increase the likelihood of improved outcomes. This article elucidates the barriers and opportunities for integrating science with practice across the cancer control continuum. However, given the scope of CCC and the substantial investment in generating new knowledge through science, it is difficult for any one agency, on its own, to make a sufficient investment to ensure new knowledge is translated and implemented at a national, state, or local level. Thus, if greater demand for evidence-based interventions and increased resources for adopting them are going to support the dissemination initiatives described herein, new interagency partnerships must be developed to ensure that sufficient means are dedicated to integrating science with service. Furthermore, for these collaborations to increase both in size and in frequency, agency leaders must clearly articulate their support for these collaborative initiatives and explicitly recognize those collaborative efforts that are successful. In this way, the whole (in this context, comprehensive cancer control) can become greater than the sum of its parts. PMID:16208572

  8. Low doses of ionizing radiation to mammalian cells may rather control than cause DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Feinendegen, L.E.; Bond, V.P.; Sondhaus, C.A.; Altman, K.I.

    1998-12-31

    This report examines the origin of tissue effects that may follow from different cellular responses to low-dose irradiation, using published data. Two principal categories of cellular responses are considered. One response category relates to the probability of radiation-induced DNA damage. The other category consists of low-dose induced metabolic changes that induce mechanisms of DNA damage mitigation, which do not operate at high levels of exposure. Modeled in this way, tissue is treated as a complex adaptive system. The interaction of the various cellular responses results in a net tissue dose-effect relation that is likely to deviate from linearity in the low-dose region. This suggests that the LNT hypothesis should be reexamined. This paper aims at demonstrating tissue effects as an expression of cellular responses, both damaging and defensive, in relation to the energy deposited in cell mass, by use of microdosimetric concepts.

  9. The Opa1-Dependent Mitochondrial Cristae Remodeling Pathway Controls Atrophic, Apoptotic, and Ischemic Tissue Damage

    PubMed Central

    Varanita, Tatiana; Soriano, Maria Eugenia; Romanello, Vanina; Zaglia, Tania; Quintana-Cabrera, Rubén; Semenzato, Martina; Menabò, Roberta; Costa, Veronica; Civiletto, Gabriele; Pesce, Paola; Viscomi, Carlo; Zeviani, Massimo; Di Lisa, Fabio; Mongillo, Marco; Sandri, Marco; Scorrano, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Summary Mitochondrial morphological and ultrastructural changes occur during apoptosis and autophagy, but whether they are relevant in vivo for tissue response to damage is unclear. Here we investigate the role of the optic atrophy 1 (OPA1)-dependent cristae remodeling pathway in vivo and provide evidence that it regulates the response of multiple tissues to apoptotic, necrotic, and atrophic stimuli. Genetic inhibition of the cristae remodeling pathway in vivo does not affect development, but protects mice from denervation-induced muscular atrophy, ischemic heart and brain damage, as well as hepatocellular apoptosis. Mechanistically, OPA1-dependent mitochondrial cristae stabilization increases mitochondrial respiratory efficiency and blunts mitochondrial dysfunction, cytochrome c release, and reactive oxygen species production. Our results indicate that the OPA1-dependent cristae remodeling pathway is a fundamental, targetable determinant of tissue damage in vivo. PMID:26039448

  10. Predicted Role of NAD Utilization in the Control of Circadian Rhythms during DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Augustin; McFadden, Geoffrey B.; Aladjem, Mirit I.; Kohn, Kurt W.

    2015-01-01

    The circadian clock is a set of regulatory steps that oscillate with a period of approximately 24 hours influencing many biological processes. These oscillations are robust to external stresses, and in the case of genotoxic stress (i.e. DNA damage), the circadian clock responds through phase shifting with primarily phase advancements. The effect of DNA damage on the circadian clock and the mechanism through which this effect operates remains to be thoroughly investigated. Here we build an in silico model to examine damage-induced circadian phase shifts by investigating a possible mechanism linking circadian rhythms to metabolism. The proposed model involves two DNA damage response proteins, SIRT1 and PARP1, that are each consumers of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), a metabolite involved in oxidation-reduction reactions and in ATP synthesis. This model builds on two key findings: 1) that SIRT1 (a protein deacetylase) is involved in both the positive (i.e. transcriptional activation) and negative (i.e. transcriptional repression) arms of the circadian regulation and 2) that PARP1 is a major consumer of NAD during the DNA damage response. In our simulations, we observe that increased PARP1 activity may be able to trigger SIRT1-induced circadian phase advancements by decreasing SIRT1 activity through competition for NAD supplies. We show how this competitive inhibition may operate through protein acetylation in conjunction with phosphorylation, consistent with reported observations. These findings suggest a possible mechanism through which multiple perturbations, each dominant during different points of the circadian cycle, may result in the phase advancement of the circadian clock seen during DNA damage. PMID:26020938