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Sample records for improved dietary variety

  1. Simple measures of dietary variety are associated with improved dietary quality.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Foote, Janet A; Wilkens, Lynne R; Basiotis, P Peter; Carlson, Andrea; White, Kami K L; Yonemori, Kim M

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify a measure of dietary variety that was associated with improved dietary quality and easily understood by consumers. Dietary quality was measured by nutrient adequacy and intakes of added sugars, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium. We developed four definitions of dietary variety: (a) a count of basic commodities consumed; (b) a count of food codes reported; (c) a count of five Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) food groups consumed; and (d) a count of 22 FGP subgroups consumed. The analysis sample included 4,964 men and 4,797 women aged 19 years and older who participated in the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals 1994-96. For each day of dietary data, we examined associations of each type of dietary variety with several measures of dietary quality using Spearman's correlations and multivariate linear regression models. After adjusting for energy intake and the number of FGP food group servings, all types of dietary variety were positively associated with mean nutrient adequacy across 15 nutrients, but associations were strongest for commodity-based variety and for 22 FGP subgroup consumption variety. Likewise, all variety measures were inversely associated with intakes of added sugars and saturated fat, with commodity-based variety and 22 FGP subgroup variety the strongest. We conclude that variety measured using 22 FGP subgroups is preferable because it is a good predictor of dietary quality, is relatively simple to calculate, and is easy to explain to consumers. PMID:16503233

  2. Dietary Variety Impairs Habituation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Jennifer L.; Giacomelli, April M.; Roemmich, James N.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The purpose of these studies was to test the hypothesis that dietary variety decreases the rate of habituation and increases energy intake in children. Design In Experiment 1, salivation in response to the same or a variety of food cues was measured followed by consumption of the study food(s). In Experiment 2, children responded in a computer task to earn points for the same or a variety of low or high energy density foods, which were then consumed. Main Outcome Measures Salivation, number of responses, and energy intake were measured. Results Participants in the same groups habituated faster than those in the variety groups (p < .05), and in Experiment 2, the effect of variety was independent of energy density. Participants in the variety groups also consumed more energy than those in the same groups in both experiments (p < .05). Conclusions Dietary variety disrupted habituation and increased energy intake in children. In addition, the response to dietary variety was independent of energy density, suggesting that increasing variety of low energy density foods may increase consumption. PMID:18248101

  3. Dietary variety increases the probability of nutrient adequacy among adults.

    PubMed

    Foote, Janet A; Murphy, Suzanne P; Wilkens, Lynne R; Basiotis, P Peter; Carlson, Andrea

    2004-07-01

    Despite guidance to consume a variety of foods, the role of dietary variety in ensuring nutrient adequacy is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether a commodity-based measure of dietary variety was associated with the probability of nutrient adequacy after adjusting for energy and food group intakes. Subjects were 4969 men and 4800 women >/= 19 y old who participated in the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes for Individuals 1994-1996. Using 24-h recall data, the mean probability of adequacy across 15 nutrients was calculated using the Dietary Reference Intakes. Dietary variety was defined using a commodity-based method similar to that used for the Healthy Eating Index (HEI). Associations were examined in gender-specific multivariate regression models. Energy intake was a strong predictor of the mean probability of adequacy in models controlled for age, BMI, education level, and ethnicity (model R(2) = 0.60 and 0.54 for men and women, respectively). Adding the number of servings from each of the 5 Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) groups to the models significantly improved the model fit (R(2) = 0.69 and 0.66 for men and women). Adding dietary variety again significantly improved the model fit for both men and women (R(2) = 0.73 and 0.70, respectively). Variety counts within the dairy and grain groups were most strongly associated with improved nutrient adequacy. Dietary variety as defined by the HEI contributes an additional component of dietary quality that is not captured by FGP servings or energy intake. PMID:15226469

  4. Dietary(sensory)variety and energy balance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in US adults is currently 68%, compared with about 47% in the early 1970s. Many dietary factors have been proposed to contribute to the US obesity epidemic, including the percentage of energy intake from fat, carbohydrate and protein; glycemic index; fruit a...

  5. Can limiting dietary variety assist with reducing energy intake and weight loss?☆

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Hollie A.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high prevalence of overweight and obesity, developing strategies to improve weight loss and weight loss maintenance is imperative. One dietary environmental variable that has received little attention in being targeted in an intervention to assist with obesity treatment is dietary variety. Experimental research has consistently shown that greater dietary variety increases consumption, with the effect of variety on consumption hypothesized to be a consequence of the differential experience of the more varied sensory properties of food under those conditions with greater dietary variety. As reduced energy intake is required for weight loss, limiting variety, particularly in food groups that are high in energy-density and low in nutrient-density, may assist with reducing energy intake and improving weight loss. A series of investigations, both observational and experimental, were conducted to examine if limiting variety in an energydense, non-nutrient-dense food group, snack foods (i.e., cookies, chips), assisted with reducing energy intake of the food group and improving weight loss. Results of the investigations suggest that a prescription for limiting variety in a food group can be implemented during obesity treatment, limiting variety is associated with the occurrence of monotony, and that reducing food group variety is related to decreased consumption of that food group. Future research is needed to ascertain the long-term effect of prescriptions targeting dietary variety on weight loss and weight loss maintenance. PMID:22450259

  6. U.S. trends in dietary variety and its association with BMI and micronutrient intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One proposed contributor to excess energy intake is dietary variety, particularly energy-dense variety (McCrory et al 1999). Using national survey data, we examined the potential role of dietary variety in the obesity epidemic and relationships among variety and micronutrient intake. Usual dietary i...

  7. Breastfeeding and dietary variety among preterm children aged 1-3 years.

    PubMed

    Husk, Jesse S; Keim, Sarah A

    2016-04-01

    Among infants born at term, breastfeeding is associated with increased dietary variety in childhood. Preterm birth can limit early feeding options while simultaneously increasing risk for negative health outcomes that could benefit from dietary-based preventative measures. We assessed whether breastfeeding is associated with increased dietary variety at 1-3 years amongst children born preterm. We analyzed baseline data from two clinical trials investigating cognitive development after fatty-acid supplementation for 10-39 month-old children born before 35 weeks gestation (n = 189). At baseline, mothers reported breastfeeding history and completed a 161-item food-frequency questionnaire for their child. Dietary variety was assessed via 3 measures: (1) proportion items consumed at least once per month, (2) servings of a given item consumed relative to total monthly food servings, (3) daily probability of consuming a given item. Overall, 88% of children were ever breastfed (median duration = 89 days, range = 0-539), and 48% of children were ever exclusively breastfed (median duration = 59 days, range = 3-240). Exclusive breastfeeding duration was associated with dietary variety increases of 0.9% (95% CI = 0.1-1.7) for vegetables, 1.6% (95% CI = 0.2-3.0) for meat/fish, and 1.3% (95% CI = 0.2-2.4) for grain/starch, for each additional month of exclusive breastfeeding after adjustment for key confounders. Correspondingly, the variety of sweets consumed decreased by 1.2% (CI: -2.1, -0.3) per month of any breastfeeding after adjustment. These results are consistent with those in children born at term, and if causal, could provide additional support for exclusive breastfeeding to improve diet and health in children born preterm. PMID:26792771

  8. Low-Income, African American Adolescent Mothers and Their Toddlers Exhibit Similar Dietary Variety Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papas, Mia A.; Hurley, Kristen M.; Quigg, Anna M.; Oberlander, Sarah E.; Black, Maureen M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between maternal and toddler dietary variety. Design: Longitudinal; maternal and toddler dietary data were collected at 13 months; anthropometry was collected at 13 and 24 months. Setting: Data were collected in homes. Participants: 109 primiparous, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and…

  9. Dietary fibre components and pectin chemical features of peels during ripening in banana and plantain varieties.

    PubMed

    Happi Emaga, Thomas; Robert, Christelle; Ronkart, Sébastien N; Wathelet, Bernard; Paquot, Michel

    2008-07-01

    The effects of the ripeness stage of banana (Musa AAA) and plantain (Musa AAB) peels on neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, pectin contents, and pectin chemical features were studied. Plantain peels contained a higher amount of lignin but had a lower hemicellulose content than banana peels. A sequential extraction of pectins showed that acid extraction was the most efficient to isolate banana peel pectins, whereas an ammonium oxalate extraction was more appropriate for plantain peels. In all the stages of maturation, the pectin content in banana peels was higher compared to plantain peels. Moreover, the galacturonic acid and methoxy group contents in banana peels were higher than in plantain peels. The average molecular weights of the extracted pectins were in the range of 132.6-573.8 kDa and were not dependant on peel variety, while the stage of maturation did not affect the dietary fibre yields and the composition in pectic polysaccharides in a consistent manner. This study has showed that banana peels are a potential source of dietary fibres and pectins. PMID:17931857

  10. Food variety and dietary diversity as indicators of the dietary adequacy and health status of an elderly population in Sharpeville, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Oldewage-Theron, Wilna H; Kruger, Rozanne

    2008-01-01

    This cross-sectional, analytical study was a comprehensive health assessment focusing on dietary quality of 170 randomly selected elderly respondents in Sharpeville, South Africa. The methods included a sociodemographic, health food frequency questionnaire, 24h-recall questionnaires, and anthropometric and biochemical measurements. The low mean +/- standard deviation (SD) dietary diversity score (3.41 +/- 1.34) and food variety score (4.77 +/- 2.2) compared with poverty parameters confirmed household food insecurity in this community. Although three (n = 99, 58.6%) or two (n = 49, 28.9%) daily meals were mostly consumed, these were mainly carbohydrate-based and nutrient-deficient. The cereal group (2.01 +/- 0.81) had the highest mean food variety score +/- SD, followed by dairy (0.62 +/- 0.53) and flesh foods (0.40 +/- 0.53). When a mean adequacy ratio of 70% was used as a cut-off point for nutrient adequacy, it was found that the food variety score must be eight or higher and the dietary variety score must be at least six. These indicators thus have a high ability to identify those respondents with an inadequate diet but lower ability to identify those respondents with a nutritionally adequate diet. The data further showed a trend that with a higher food variety and dietary diversity, a better mean adequacy ratio is reached for this low-income group of elderly subjects. In conclusion, the results showed that food variety and dietary diversity scores give a fairly good assessment of the adequacy of the diet, and scoring dietary diversity is a significant, yet simple tool to identify elderly persons at risk of food and nutrition insecurity. PMID:18928193

  11. Why can't we control our food intake? The downside of dietary variety on learned satiety responses.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ashley A

    2016-08-01

    A striking feature of the modern food environment is the sheer amount of dietary choice available to the individual. In addition to an endless variety of highly palatable and energy dense foods, efforts to combat obesity have resulted in the production of several low- and reduced-calorie versions of these foods that are marketed to consumers. As a result, we are now confronted with a staggering amount of 'dietary variability'-the same food item can be obtained in a variety of different energy densities. This is a concern because evidence in rodents suggests that this kind of dietary variability can compromise one of the major cognitive determinants of food intake among non-human animals-flavor-nutrient satiety learning. Flavor-nutrient satiety learning enables animals to learn about the energy content or satiating quality of the foods they consume and adjust their intake to fit their energy needs. Notably, evidence suggests that dietary variability can disrupt this kind of learning, leading to overeating and weight gain. Here, I discuss the utility of flavor-nutrient satiety learning in human dietary behavior, highlighting certain features of the modern environment that can be disruptive to the acquisition of this kind of learning in humans. Special emphasis is placed on dietary variability, however I also highlight other aspects of the environment that can undermine this kind of learning, such as competition from other satiety-relevant cues (i.e., food labels), detrimental effects of Western diets on food-related cognitive processing, and the abundance of macronutrients that are inadequate at supporting learned satiety responses. The goal of this work is to highlight novel ways in which the environment may disrupt food-relevant learning and energy intake, and to provide some explanation for the elusive nature of flavor-nutrient learning in humans. PMID:27074352

  12. HIGHER DIETARY VARIETY IS ASSOCIATED WITH BETTER NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN FRAIL ELDERLY PEOPLE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: A narrow range of food choices may lead to dietary inadequacies, a particular concern in elderly people. We hypothesized that consumption of a more diverse diet would predict better nutritional status in frail elderly persons. SUBJECTS: Subjects included 98 frail nursing home residents (3...

  13. Association of Psychosocial Conditions, Oral Health, and Dietary Variety with Intellectual Activity in Older Community-Dwelling Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tomioka, Kimiko; Okamoto, Nozomi; Kurumatani, Norio; Hosoi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examined the factors related to intellectual activity in community-dwelling elderly persons. Methods Self-administered questionnaires mailed to all people aged ≥65 years in a dormitory suburb in Japan (n = 15,210). The response rate was 72.2%. Analytical subjects (n = 8,910) were those who lived independently and completely answered questions about independent and dependent variables and covariates. Independent variables included psychosocial conditions (i.e., social activities, hobbies, and a sense that life is worth living (ikigai)), oral health (i.e., dental health behaviors and oral function evaluated by chewing difficulties, swallowing difficulties, and oral dryness), and dietary variety measured using the dietary variety score (DVS). A dependent variable was intellectual activity measured using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence. Covariates included age, gender, family structure, pensions, body mass index, alcohol, smoking, medical history, self-rated health, medications, cognitive function, depression, and falling. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for poor intellectual activity. Results Poor intellectual activity was reported by 28.9% of the study population. After adjustment for covariates and independent variables, poor intellectual activity was significantly associated with nonparticipation in social activities (OR = 1.90, 95%CI = 1.61–2.24), having neither hobbies nor ikigai (3.13, 2.55–3.84), having neither regular dental visits nor daily brushing (1.70, 1.35–2.14), the poorest oral function (1.61, 1.31–1.98), and the lowest DVS quartile (1.96, 1.70–2.26). Conclusion These results indicate that psychosocial conditions, oral health, and dietary variety are independently associated with intellectual activity in elderly persons. The factors identified in this study may be used in community health programs for maintaining the intellectual activity ability of the

  14. Improvement of tomato local varieties by grafting in organic farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Marta M.; Villena, Jaime; Moreno, Carmen; García, Arántzazu M.; Mancebo, Ignacio; Meco, Ramón

    2015-04-01

    Grafting is the union of two or more pieces of living plant tissue that grow as a single plant. The early use of grafted vegetables was associated with protected cultivation which involves successive cropping (Lee et al., 2010). For this reason, in the past, grafting was used with vegetable crops to limit the effects of soil-borne diseases. However, the reasons for grafting as well as the kinds of vegetable grafted have increased considerably over the years. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), one of the most important horticultural crops in the world, the effect of grafting has also been widely studied. These effects on commercial tomato varieties can be summarized in increasing plant vigor and crop yield or inducing tolerance to abiotic stresses, although the effects on tomato fruit quality or on the sensory properties are not so patent (David et al., 2008). However, a few studies about the effect of grafting on local tomato varieties, which are especially recommended for organic production in spite of their lower yields in many cases, have been developed. In this work we evaluated the effect of grafting on tomato local varieties under organic management using vigorous commercial rootstocks, and aspects related to vigor, yield and tomato fruit composition were analyzed. In general terms, grafting increased the plant vigor, the crop yield and the fruit antioxidant content, although no modification of morphological fruit attributes was observed. Keywords: grafting, Solanum lycopersicum L., local varieties, organic farming. References: Davis A.R., Perkins-Veazie P., Hassell R., Levi A., King S.R., Zhang X. 2008. Grafting effects on vegetable quality. HortScience 43(6): 1670-1671. Lee J.M., Kubota C., Tsao S.J., Bie Z., Hoyos-Echevarría P., Morra L., Oda M. 2010. Current status of vegetable grafting: Diffusion, grafting techniques, automation. Scientia Horticulturae 127: 93-105.

  15. Vegetable variety is a key to improved diet quality in low-income women in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans include recommendations for quantity and quality of vegetable intake. The objective of this study was to determine if there is an association between variety of vegetable intake and measures of diet quality and diet cost in a sample of low-income women in Califor...

  16. Dietary rice bran supplementation prevents salmonella colonization differentially across varieties and by priming intestinal immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The global burden of enteric dysfunction and diarrhoeal disease remains a formidable problem that requires novel interventions. This study investigated the immune-modulatory capacity of bran across rice varieties with phytochemical differences. 129SvEvTac mice were fed a 10% rice bran or control die...

  17. Improving Asthma during Pregnancy with Dietary Antioxidants: The Current Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Grieger, Jessica A.; Wood, Lisa G.; Clifton, Vicki L.

    2013-01-01

    The complication of asthma during pregnancy is associated with a number of poor outcomes for the mother and fetus. This may be partially driven by increased oxidative stress induced by the combination of asthma and pregnancy. Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways associated with systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, which contributes to worsening asthma symptoms. Pregnancy alone also intensifies oxidative stress through the systemic generation of excess reactive oxidative species (ROS). Antioxidants combat the damaging effects of ROS; yet antioxidant defenses are reduced in asthma. Diet and nutrition have been postulated as potential factors to combat the damaging effects of asthma. In particular, dietary antioxidants may play a role in alleviating the heightened oxidative stress in asthma. Although there are some observational and interventional studies that have shown protective effects of antioxidants in asthma, assessment of antioxidants in pregnancy are limited and there are no antioxidant intervention studies in asthmatic pregnancies on asthma outcomes. The aims of this paper are to (i) review the relationships between oxidative stress and dietary antioxidants in adults with asthma and asthma during pregnancy, and (ii) provide the rationale for which dietary management strategies, specifically increased dietary antioxidants, might positively impact maternal asthma outcomes. Improving asthma control through a holistic antioxidant dietary approach might be valuable in reducing asthma exacerbations and improving asthma management during pregnancy, subsequently impacting perinatal health. PMID:23948757

  18. Improved Phytophthora resistance in commercial chickpea (Cicer arietinum) varieties negatively impacts symbiotic gene signalling and symbiotic potential in some varieties.

    PubMed

    Plett, Jonathan M; Plett, Krista L; Bithell, Sean L; Mitchell, Chris; Moore, Kevin; Powell, Jeff R; Anderson, Ian C

    2016-08-01

    Breeding disease-resistant varieties is one of the most effective and economical means to combat soilborne diseases in pulse crops. Commonalities between pathogenic and mutualistic microbe colonization strategies, however, raises the concern that reduced susceptibility to pathogens may simultaneously reduce colonization by beneficial microbes. We investigate here the degree of overlap in the transcriptional response of the Phytophthora medicaginis susceptible chickpea variety 'Sonali' to the early colonization stages of either Phytophthora, rhizobial bacteria or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. From a total of 6476 genes differentially expressed in Sonali roots during colonization by any of the microbes tested, 10.2% were regulated in a similar manner regardless of whether it was the pathogenic oomycete or a mutualistic microbe colonizing the roots. Of these genes, 49.7% were oppositely regulated under the same conditions in the moderately Phytophthora resistant chickpea variety 'PBA HatTrick'. Chickpea varieties with improved resistance to Phytophthora also displayed lower colonization by rhizobial bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi leading to an increased reliance on N and P from soil. Together, our results suggest that marker-based breeding in crops such as chickpea should be further investigated such that plant disease resistance can be tailored to a specific pathogen without affecting mutualistic plant:microbe interactions. PMID:27103212

  19. Food variety and dietary diversity scores to understand the food-intake pattern among selected Malaysian households.

    PubMed

    Zainal Badari, Shamsul A; Arcot, Jayashree; Haron, Sharifah A; Paim, Laily; Sulaiman, Norhasmah; Masud, Jariah

    2012-01-01

    Food variety scores (FVS) and dietary diversity scores (DDS) were estimated based on foods consumed weekly by 285 Malaysian households using a food frequency questionnaire. The scoring system of FVS and DDS was based on a scale of 0-7 and 0-6 respectively. The mean household FVS and DDS was 164.1 ± 93 and 6 ± 0.4. The age of respondents (husbands or wives; p < .01), sex (p < .05), and household food expenditure (p < .01) had a significant influence on both FVS and DDS. The food-intake pattern of Malaysian households showed that their typical diets had high protein and energy-based foods. PMID:22794127

  20. Dietary tannins improve lamb meat colour stability.

    PubMed

    Luciano, G; Monahan, F J; Vasta, V; Biondi, L; Lanza, M; Priolo, A

    2009-01-01

    Fourteen male Comisana lambs were divided into two groups at 45days of age: lambs fed a concentrate diet (C), or lambs fed the same concentrate with the addition of quebracho (Schinopsis lorentzii) tannins (T). Sheep were slaughtered at 105days of age. Lipid oxidation, colour coordinates, haem pigment concentration, and metmyoglobin percentages were measured on minced semimembranosus muscle (SM) over 14days of refrigerated storage in a high oxygen modified atmosphere. Tannin supplementation increased (P<0.01) a(∗) values and reduced (P<0.01) b(∗) values of the SM when compared to C. Lower hue angles (P<0.001) and metmyoglobin formation (P=0.07) were observed in lamb from T-fed compared to C-fed sheep during the 14-days storage period. Furthermore, feeding T resulted in greater (P<0.001) haem pigment concentrations in the SM during refrigerated storage; however, diet had no (P=0.28) effect on lipid oxidation. Therefore, including quebracho tannins in sheep diets can improve meat colour stability of fresh lamb during extended refrigerated storage. PMID:22063971

  1. Dietary management of heart failure: room for improvement?

    PubMed

    Butler, Thomas

    2016-04-14

    There is growing awareness of the role of diet in both health and disease management. Much data are available on the cardioprotective diet in the primary and secondary prevention of CVD. However, there is limited information on the role of diet in the management of heart failure (HF). Animal models of HF have provided interesting insight and potential mechanisms by which dietary manipulation may improve cardiac performance and delay the progression of the disease, and small-scale human studies have highlighted beneficial diet patterns. The aim of this review is to summarise the current data available on the role of diet in the management of human HF and to demonstrate that dietary manipulation needs to progress further than the simple recommendation of salt and fluid restriction. PMID:26857032

  2. Applied genetics: Speeding the development of improved varieties by developing breeding tools and genetic knowledge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geneticists improve the breeders ability to create new, improved varieties by finding genes, making the genes more available to breeders by moving them into improved germplasm, and devising improved selection techniques, whether based on visual trait evaluations or linkage between genes and molecula...

  3. Dietary fats and oils: technologies for improving cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Flickinger, Brent D; Huth, Peter J

    2004-11-01

    The role of dietary lipids in the etiology of coronary heart disease (CHD) continues to evolve as we gain a better understanding of the metabolic effects of individual fatty acids and their impact on surrogate markers of risk. A recent meta-analysis of 60 human studies suggests that for each 1% energy replacement of carbohydrates in the diet with saturated fat or trans fat, serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations increase by 0.032 (1.23 mg/dL) and 0.04 mmol/L (1.54 mg/dL), respectively. Current dietary recommendations to keep saturated fat and trans fat intake as low as possible, and to increase the intake of cis mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, as well as growing recognition of these recommendations by consumers and food regulatory agencies in the United States, have been major driving forces for the edible oil industry and food manufacturers to develop alternative fats and oils with nutritionally improved fatty acid compositions. As solutions for use of trans fatty acids are being sought, oilseeds with modified fatty acid compositions are being viewed as a means to provide such solutions. Additionally, oilseeds with modified fatty acid composition, such as enhanced content of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids or conjugated linoleic acid, have been developed as a way to increase delivery of these fatty acids directly into the food supply or indirectly as use for feed ingredients for livestock. New processing technologies are being utilized around the world to create dietary fats and oils with specific physiologic functions relevant to risk factors for cardiovascular disease. PMID:15485593

  4. Dietary lecithin improves dressing percentage and decreases chewiness in the longissimus muscle in finisher gilts.

    PubMed

    Akit, H; Collins, C L; Fahri, F T; Hung, A T; D'Souza, D N; Leury, B J; Dunshea, F R

    2014-03-01

    The influence of dietary lecithin at doses of 0, 4, 20 or 80 g/kg fed to finisher gilts for six weeks prior to slaughter on growth performance, carcass quality and pork quality was investigated. M. longissimus lumborum (loin) was removed from 36 pig carcasses at 24h post-mortem for Warner-Bratzler shear force, compression, collagen content and colour analyses. Dietary lecithin increased dressing percentage (P=0.009). Pork chewiness and collagen content were decreased by dietary lecithin (P<0.05, respectively), suggesting that improved chewiness may be due to decreased collagen content. However, dietary lecithin had no effect on shear force, cohesiveness or hardness (P>0.05, respectively). Dietary lecithin reduced loin muscle L* values and increased a* values (P<0.05, respectively) but no changes on b* values (P=0.56). The data showed that dietary lecithin improved dressing percentage and resulted in less chewy and less pale pork. PMID:24334033

  5. Acute dietary nitrate supplementation improves dry static apnea performance.

    PubMed

    Engan, Harald K; Jones, Andrew M; Ehrenberg, Fanny; Schagatay, Erika

    2012-07-01

    Acute dietary nitrate (NO₃⁻) supplementation has been reported to lower resting blood pressure, reduce the oxygen (O₂) cost of sub-maximal exercise, and improve exercise tolerance. Given the proposed effects of NO₃⁻ on tissue oxygenation and metabolic rate, it is possible that NO₃⁻ supplementation might enhance the duration of resting apnea. If so, this might have important applications both in medicine and sport. We investigated the effects of acute NO₃⁻ supplementation on pre-apnea blood pressure, apneic duration, and the heart rate (HR) and arterial O₂ saturation (SaO₂) responses to sub-maximal and maximal apneas in twelve well-trained apnea divers. Subjects were assigned in a randomized, double blind, crossover design to receive 70 ml of beetroot juice (BR; containing ∼5.0 mmol of nitrate) and placebo juice (PL; ∼0.003 mmol of nitrate) treatments. At 2.5 h post-ingestion, the subjects completed a series of two 2-min (sub-maximal) static apneas separated by 3 min of rest, followed by a maximal effort apnea. Relative to PL, BR reduced resting mean arterial pressure by 2% (PL: 86±7 vs. BR: 84 ± 6 mmHg; P=0.04). The mean nadir for SaO₂ after the two sub-maximal apneas was 97.2±1.6% in PL and 98.5±0.9% in BR (P=0.03) while the reduction in HR from baseline was not significantly different between PL and BR. Importantly, BR increased maximal apneic duration by 11% (PL: 250 ± 58 vs. BR: 278±64s; P=0.04). In the longer maximal apneas in BR, the magnitude of the reductions in HR and SaO₂ were greater than in PL (P ≤ 0.05). The results suggest that acute dietary NO₃⁻ supplementation may increase apneic duration by reducing metabolic costs. PMID:22588047

  6. Why is it important to improve dietary assessment methods?

    Cancer.gov

    Food frequency questionnaires, which measure a person's usual intake over a defined period of time, and 24-hour recalls, in which a person records everything eaten or drunk during the previous 24 hours, are commonly used to collect dietary information.

  7. Recommended Feeding and Dietary Practices To Improve Infant and Maternal Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, Washington, DC.

    The LINKAGES Project is intended to improve breastfeeding and related complementary feeding and maternal dietary practices. The project, in consultation with technical experts and program managers, identified a set of recommended feeding and dietary practices intended to break the cycle of poor health and nutrition that passes from generation to…

  8. Parental involvement in interventions to improve child dietary intake: A systematic review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interventions that aim to improve child dietary quality and reduce disease risk often involve parents. The most effective methods to engage parents remain unclear. A systematic review of interventions designed to change child and adolescent dietary behavior was conducted to answer whether parent inv...

  9. Dietary Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program's goals in Dietary Assessment are to increase the precision of dietary intake estimates by improving self-report of dietary intake and the analytic procedures for processing reported information.

  10. Reduced foodborne toxin exposure is a benefit of improving dietary diversity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Felicia; Mitchell, Nicole J; Male, Denis; Kensler, Thomas W

    2014-10-01

    Naturally occurring foodborne toxins are common in subsistence diets of low-income human populations worldwide. Often, these populations rely on one or two staple foods for the bulk of their calories, making them more susceptible to chronic intake of certain toxins. Exposure to common foodborne toxins is associated with diverse conditions such as cancer, immunotoxicity, growth impairment, and neurological deficits. Interventions focused solely on reducing toxin levels have proven difficult to sustain. Using case studies of two foodborne toxins, aflatoxin and cassava cyanide, this article addresses the heightened risk of particular diseases from eating monotonous diets based in maize, groundnuts, and cassava: common in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Asia. We also discuss the potential role of increased dietary diversity in counteracting these diseases. Increased dietary diversity can reduce consumption of toxins and increase intake of nutrients that could counteract the toxicity of such chemicals. In Qidong, China, a population that previously consumed a monotonous maize-based diet and increased dietary diversity since the 1980s has experienced a dramatic reduction in liver cancer mortalities. That liver cancer decreased as dietary diversity increased is the catalyst for the hypothesis that dietary diversity could have a direct impact on reducing health effects of foodborne toxins. Future research, agricultural development, and food policy reforms should take into consideration the multifaceted benefits associated with improved dietary diversity. Collaborations between toxicologists, nutritionists, and policymakers are important to development of sustainable interventions to reduce foodborne toxin exposure and promote health through increased dietary diversity. PMID:25015663

  11. Reduced Foodborne Toxin Exposure Is a Benefit of Improving Dietary Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Felicia; Mitchell, Nicole J.; Male, Denis; Kensler, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring foodborne toxins are common in subsistence diets of low-income human populations worldwide. Often, these populations rely on one or two staple foods for the bulk of their calories, making them more susceptible to chronic intake of certain toxins. Exposure to common foodborne toxins is associated with diverse conditions such as cancer, immunotoxicity, growth impairment, and neurological deficits. Interventions focused solely on reducing toxin levels have proven difficult to sustain. Using case studies of two foodborne toxins, aflatoxin and cassava cyanide, this article addresses the heightened risk of particular diseases from eating monotonous diets based in maize, groundnuts, and cassava: common in sub-Saharan Africa and parts of Asia. We also discuss the potential role of increased dietary diversity in counteracting these diseases. Increased dietary diversity can reduce consumption of toxins and increase intake of nutrients that could counteract the toxicity of such chemicals. In Qidong, China, a population that previously consumed a monotonous maize-based diet and increased dietary diversity since the 1980s has experienced a dramatic reduction in liver cancer mortalities. That liver cancer decreased as dietary diversity increased is the catalyst for the hypothesis that dietary diversity could have a direct impact on reducing health effects of foodborne toxins. Future research, agricultural development, and food policy reforms should take into consideration the multifaceted benefits associated with improved dietary diversity. Collaborations between toxicologists, nutritionists, and policymakers are important to development of sustainable interventions to reduce foodborne toxin exposure and promote health through increased dietary diversity. PMID:25015663

  12. Improvement of β-Carotene Bioaccessibility from Dietary Supplements Using Excipient Nanoemulsions.

    PubMed

    Salvia-Trujillo, Laura; McClements, David Julian

    2016-06-01

    The influence of excipient nanoemulsions on β-carotene bioaccessibility from commercial dietary supplements (tablets or soft gels) was studied employing an in vitro gastrointestinal tract (GIT) model. Excipient nanoemulsions were formulated from long or medium chain triglycerides (LCT or MCT) to determine the impact of lipid type on carotenoid bioaccessibility. Dietary supplements were tested using the GIT model in the absence or presence of excipient nanoemulsions. β-carotene bioaccessibility from tablets (0.3%) or soft gels (2.4%) was low when tested in isolation. LCT nanoemulsions greatly improved β-carotene bioaccessibility from tablets (20%) and slightly improved it from soft gels (5%), whereas MCT nanoemulsions only slightly improved bioaccessibility. These results were attributed to the ability of large carotenoid molecules to be incorporated into large mixed micelles formed by LCT digestion but not by small ones formed by MCT digestion. Our results indicate that excipient nanoemulsions have considerable potential for improving nutraceutical bioavailability from dietary supplements. PMID:27198626

  13. Complex systems model of dietary choice with implications for improving diets and promoting vegetarianism.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C V

    1999-09-01

    An important step toward improving nutrition and promoting vegetarianism in the general population is to understand how consumers make dietary choices. Researchers from many clinical and social sciences are interested in dietary choice but have not combined their research into a comprehensive model to explain consumer actions. No one model has offered a good explanation for the fact that, although many people successfully change their diet significantly (often toward health-improving, plant-based diets) and are happy with the change, the public and health professionals often perceive dietary change as being difficult and unlikely to succeed. I have termed these observations "the paradox of dietary change." The present computer model uses the emerging science of complex systems analysis, which offers an intuitive method for studying evidence about dietary choice from many fields, including public health, clinical science, economics, sociology, marketing, and genetics, and for combining individual choice with social interaction. The results suggest an explanation for the paradox and methods for helping society shift toward healthier and more plant-based diets. In particular, they suggest how and why major changes might be easier to make than incremental ones, and why this makes dietary change seem more difficult to consumers than it actually is. PMID:10479239

  14. Nutrition Education by a Registered Dietitian Improves Dietary Intake and Nutrition Knowledge of a NCAA Female Volleyball Team

    PubMed Central

    Valliant, Melinda W.; Pittman Emplaincourt, Heather; Wenzel, Rachel Kieckhaefer; Garner, Bethany Hilson

    2012-01-01

    Eleven female participants from a NCAA Division I volleyball team were evaluated for adequate energy and macronutrient intake during two off-seasons. Total energy and macronutrient intake were assessed by food records and results were compared against estimated needs using the Nelson equation. Dietary intervention was employed regarding the individual dietary needs of each athlete as well as a pre- and post-sports nutrition knowledge survey. Post dietary intervention, total energy, and macronutrient intake improved, as well as a significant improvement in sports nutrition knowledge (p < 0.001). Nutrition education is useful in improving dietary intake and nutrition knowledge of female athletes. PMID:22822449

  15. Dietary Lecithin Supplementation Can Improve the Quality of the M. Longissimus thoracis

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Darryl N.; Blake, Bronwyn L.; Williams, Ian H.; Mullan, Bruce P.; Pethick, David W.; Dunshea, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Meat tenderness and texture can be influenced by the connective tissue content. Dietary lecithin offers a means of improving fat digestibility of pigs and reducing the connective tissue of pork. This feeding study confirmed that dietary lecithin decreased the chewiness and improved the fatty acid composition of pork without impacting on growth performance of pigs. Therefore, dietary lecithin supplementation has the potential to improve the quality attributes of pork. Abstract Forty crossbred (Large White × Landrace × Duroc) female pigs (16.4 kg ± 0.94 kg) were used to investigate the effect of dietary lecithin supplementation on growth performance and pork quality. Pigs were randomly allocated to a commercial diet containing either 0, 3, 15 or 75 g lecithin/kg of feed during the grower and finisher growth phase. Pork from pigs consuming the diets containing 15 g and 75 g lecithin/kg had lower hardness (P < 0.001) and chewiness (P < 0.01) values compared to the controls. Dietary lecithin supplementation at 75 g/kg significantly increased (P < 0.05) the linoleic acid and reduced (P < 0.05) the myristic acid levels of pork compared to the control and the 3 g/kg and 15 g/kg lecithin supplemented treatments. Pigs fed the 75 g/kg lecithin supplemented diet had lower plasma cholesterol (P < 0.05) at slaughter compared to pigs fed the control diet and the 3 g/kg and 15 g/kg lecithin supplemented treatments. These data indicate that dietary lecithin supplementation has the potential to improve the quality attributes of pork from female pigs. PMID:26610579

  16. Template to improve glycemic control without reducing adiposity or dietary fat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drugs that improve chronic hyperglycemia independently of insulin signaling or reduction of adiposity or dietary fat intake may be highly desirable. Ad36, a human adenovirus, promotes glucose uptake in vitro independently of adiposity or proximal insulin signaling. We tested the ability of Ad36 to i...

  17. May Diet and Dietary Supplements Improve the Wellness of Multiple Sclerosis Patients? A Molecular Approach

    PubMed Central

    Riccio, Paolo; Rossano, Rocco; Liuzzi, Grazia Maria

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a complex and multifactorial neurological disease, and nutrition is one of the environmental factors possibly involved in its pathogenesis. At present, the role of nutrition is unclear, and MS therapy is not associated to a particular diet. MS clinical trials based on specific diets or dietary supplements are very few and in some cases controversial. To understand how diet can influence the course of MS and improve the wellness of MS patients, it is necessary to identify the dietary molecules, their targets and the molecular mechanisms involved in the control of the disease. The aim of this paper is to provide a molecular basis for the nutritional intervention in MS by evaluating at molecular level the effect of dietary molecules on the inflammatory and autoimmune processes involved in the disease. PMID:21461338

  18. Dietary nitrate improves cardiac contractility via enhanced cellular Ca²⁺ signaling.

    PubMed

    Pironti, Gianluigi; Ivarsson, Niklas; Yang, Jiangning; Farinotti, Alex Bersellini; Jonsson, William; Zhang, Shi-Jin; Bas, Duygu; Svensson, Camilla I; Westerblad, Håkan; Weitzberg, Eddie; Lundberg, Jon O; Pernow, John; Lanner, Johanna; Andersson, Daniel C

    2016-05-01

    The inorganic anion nitrate (NO3 (-)), which is naturally enriched in certain vegetables (e.g., spinach and beetroot), has emerged as a dietary component that can regulate diverse bodily functions, including blood pressure, mitochondrial efficiency, and skeletal muscle force. It is not known if dietary nitrate improves cardiac contractility. To test this, mice were supplemented for 1-2 weeks with sodium nitrate in the drinking water at a dose similar to a green diet. The hearts from nitrate-treated mice showed increased left ventricular pressure and peak rate of pressure development as measured with the Langendorff heart technique. Cardiomyocytes from hearts of nitrate-treated and control animals were incubated with the fluorescent indicator Fluo-3 to measure cytoplasmic free [Ca(2+)] and fractional shortening. Cardiomyocytes from nitrate-treated mice displayed increased fractional shortening, which was linked to larger Ca(2+) transients. Moreover, nitrate hearts displayed increased protein expression of the L-type Ca(2+) channel/dihydropyridine receptor and peak L-type Ca(2+) channel currents. The nitrate-treated hearts displayed increased concentration of cAMP but unchanged levels of cGMP compared with controls. These findings provide the first evidence that dietary nitrate can affect the expression of important Ca(2+) handling proteins in the heart, resulting in increased cardiomyocyte Ca(2+) signaling and improved left ventricular contractile function. Our observation shows that dietary nitrate impacts cardiac function and adds understanding to inorganic nitrate as a physiological modulator. PMID:27071401

  19. Root Associated Bacillus sp. Improves Growth, Yield and Zinc Translocation for Basmati Rice (Oryza sativa) Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Rais, Afroz; Hassan, Muhammad Nadeem; Hafeez, Fauzia Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Plant associated rhizobacteria prevailing in different agro-ecosystems exhibit multiple traits which could be utilized in various aspect of sustainable agriculture. Two hundred thirty four isolates were obtained from the roots of basmati-385 and basmati super rice varieties growing in clay loam and saline soil at different locations of Punjab (Pakistan). Out of 234 isolates, 27 were able to solubilize zinc (Zn) from different Zn ores like zinc phosphate [Zn3 (PO4)2], zinc carbonate (ZnCO3) and zinc oxide (ZnO). The strain SH-10 with maximum Zn solubilization zone of 24 mm on Zn3 (PO4)2ore and strain SH-17 with maximum Zn solubilization zone of 14–15 mm on ZnO and ZnCO3ores were selected for further studies. These two strains solubilized phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) in vitro with a solubilization zone of 38–46 mm and 47–55 mm respectively. The strains also suppressed economically important rice pathogens Pyricularia oryzae and Fusarium moniliforme by 22–29% and produced various biocontrol determinants in vitro. The strains enhanced Zn translocation toward grains and increased yield of basmati-385 and super basmati rice varieties by 22–49% and 18–47% respectively. The Zn solubilizing strains were identified as Bacillus sp. and Bacillus cereus by 16S rRNA gene analysis. PMID:26635754

  20. Root Associated Bacillus sp. Improves Growth, Yield and Zinc Translocation for Basmati Rice (Oryza sativa) Varieties.

    PubMed

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Rais, Afroz; Hassan, Muhammad Nadeem; Hafeez, Fauzia Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Plant associated rhizobacteria prevailing in different agro-ecosystems exhibit multiple traits which could be utilized in various aspect of sustainable agriculture. Two hundred thirty four isolates were obtained from the roots of basmati-385 and basmati super rice varieties growing in clay loam and saline soil at different locations of Punjab (Pakistan). Out of 234 isolates, 27 were able to solubilize zinc (Zn) from different Zn ores like zinc phosphate [Zn3 (PO4)2], zinc carbonate (ZnCO3) and zinc oxide (ZnO). The strain SH-10 with maximum Zn solubilization zone of 24 mm on Zn3 (PO4)2ore and strain SH-17 with maximum Zn solubilization zone of 14-15 mm on ZnO and ZnCO3ores were selected for further studies. These two strains solubilized phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) in vitro with a solubilization zone of 38-46 mm and 47-55 mm respectively. The strains also suppressed economically important rice pathogens Pyricularia oryzae and Fusarium moniliforme by 22-29% and produced various biocontrol determinants in vitro. The strains enhanced Zn translocation toward grains and increased yield of basmati-385 and super basmati rice varieties by 22-49% and 18-47% respectively. The Zn solubilizing strains were identified as Bacillus sp. and Bacillus cereus by 16S rRNA gene analysis. PMID:26635754

  1. Transmissible microbial and metabolomic remodeling by soluble dietary fiber improves metabolic homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    He, Baokun; Nohara, Kazunari; Ajami, Nadim J.; Michalek, Ryan D.; Tian, Xiangjun; Wong, Matthew; Losee-Olson, Susan H.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Yoo, Seung-Hee; Shimomura, Kazuhiro; Chen, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fibers are increasingly appreciated as beneficial nutritional components. However, a requisite role of gut microbiota in fiber function and the overall impact of fibers on metabolomic flux remain unclear. We herein showed enhancing effects of a soluble resistant maltodextrin (RM) on glucose homeostasis in mouse metabolic disease models. Remarkably, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) caused pronounced and time-dependent improvement in glucose tolerance in RM recipient mice, indicating a causal relationship between microbial remodeling and metabolic efficacy. Microbial 16S sequencing revealed transmissible taxonomic changes correlated with improved metabolism, notably enrichment of probiotics and reduction of Alistipes and Bacteroides known to associate with high fat/protein diets. Metabolomic profiling further illustrated broad changes, including enrichment of phenylpropionates and decreases in key intermediates of glucose utilization, cholesterol biosynthesis and amino acid fermentation. These studies elucidate beneficial roles of RM-dependent microbial remodeling in metabolic homeostasis, and showcase prevalent health-promoting potentials of dietary fibers. PMID:26040234

  2. Transmissible microbial and metabolomic remodeling by soluble dietary fiber improves metabolic homeostasis.

    PubMed

    He, Baokun; Nohara, Kazunari; Ajami, Nadim J; Michalek, Ryan D; Tian, Xiangjun; Wong, Matthew; Losee-Olson, Susan H; Petrosino, Joseph F; Yoo, Seung-Hee; Shimomura, Kazuhiro; Chen, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fibers are increasingly appreciated as beneficial nutritional components. However, a requisite role of gut microbiota in fiber function and the overall impact of fibers on metabolomic flux remain unclear. We herein showed enhancing effects of a soluble resistant maltodextrin (RM) on glucose homeostasis in mouse metabolic disease models. Remarkably, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) caused pronounced and time-dependent improvement in glucose tolerance in RM recipient mice, indicating a causal relationship between microbial remodeling and metabolic efficacy. Microbial 16S sequencing revealed transmissible taxonomic changes correlated with improved metabolism, notably enrichment of probiotics and reduction of Alistipes and Bacteroides known to associate with high fat/protein diets. Metabolomic profiling further illustrated broad changes, including enrichment of phenylpropionates and decreases in key intermediates of glucose utilization, cholesterol biosynthesis and amino acid fermentation. These studies elucidate beneficial roles of RM-dependent microbial remodeling in metabolic homeostasis, and showcase prevalent health-promoting potentials of dietary fibers. PMID:26040234

  3. Intestinal Autophagy Improves Healthspan and Longevity in C. elegans during Dietary Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Gelino, Sara; Chang, Jessica T.; Kumsta, Caroline; She, Xingyu; Davis, Andrew; Nguyen, Christian; Panowski, Siler; Hansen, Malene

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) is a dietary regimen that extends lifespan in many organisms. One mechanism contributing to the conserved effect of DR on longevity is the cellular recycling process autophagy, which is induced in response to nutrient scarcity and increases sequestration of cytosolic material into double-membrane autophagosomes for degradation in the lysosome. Although autophagy plays a direct role in DR-mediated lifespan extension in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the contribution of autophagy in individual tissues remains unclear. In this study, we show a critical role for autophagy in the intestine, a major metabolic tissue, to ensure lifespan extension of dietary-restricted eat-2 mutants. The intestine of eat-2 mutants has an enlarged lysosomal compartment and flux assays indicate increased turnover of autophagosomes, consistent with an induction of autophagy in this tissue. This increase in intestinal autophagy may underlie the improved intestinal integrity we observe in eat-2 mutants, since whole-body and intestinal-specific inhibition of autophagy in eat-2 mutants greatly impairs the intestinal barrier function. Interestingly, intestinal-specific inhibition of autophagy in eat-2 mutants leads to a decrease in motility with age, alluding to a potential cell non-autonomous role for autophagy in the intestine. Collectively, these results highlight important functions for autophagy in the intestine of dietary-restricted C. elegans. PMID:27414651

  4. A Review of Clinical Trials Conducted With Oral, Multicomponent Dietary Supplements for Improving Photoaged Skin.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Jay; Le Moigne, Anne; Dispensa, Lisa; Buchner, Larry

    2015-12-01

    Although the FDA does not require documentation of efficacy of dietary supplements, prospective clinical studies, including randomized controlled trials, have been conducted with individual micronutrients alone and in combination with other ingredients for promoting skin health. Proposed mechanisms include antioxidation, anti-inflammation, photoprotection, collagen formation, reductions in matrix metalloproteinases, and other effects on photoaging. Literature searches were conducted to identify clinical trials assessing multicomponent dietary supplement formulations on photoaging outcomes. Sixteen studies of various nutrient and non-nutrient ingredients, including essential micronutrients (vitamins, minerals), plant extracts (polyphenols, carotenoids), and marine- or animal-derived ingredients, were identified. Studies were single center, 2-12 months in duration, primarily enrolled women, and evaluated numerous outcomes, including investigator/subject assessments and instrumental/objective measures. Methods to control for potential confounders were implemented in some studies, including limiting sun exposure, cosmetic procedures, and changes in dietary habits/body weight. Given the range of different products, clinical/methodologic heterogeneity, insufficient detail in reporting, and lack of comparable outcome measures, quantitative analysis of results was not possible. Results of individual studies revealed significant improvements from baseline for the dietary supplement group(s) on ≥ 1 endpoint across all studies; significant differences from placebo were observed in 7 of 12 controlled studies (although only 1 study designated a prospectively defined primary endpoint). Most products had only been tested in 1 study; confirmatory studies were rarely conducted per the publicly available literature. Meaningful assessment of dietary supplements, which typically contain nutrients found in the diet, requires unique methodologic considerations and endpoints

  5. Osmium ferricyanide fixation improves microfilament preservation and membrane visualization in a variety of animal cell types.

    PubMed

    McDonald, K

    1984-02-01

    Using a fixation formula which includes adding potassium ferricyanide (K3Fe(CN)6) to the osmium step and an en bloc aqueous uranyl acetate step before dehydration we have looked at cells from mammals, birds, amphibia, algae, and higher plants and we have collaborated in fixing cells of teleost fish. In every cell type except the algae and higher plants the final EM image was improved by the OsFeCN-uranium method. The most common improvement was an increase in the membrane contrast but more significantly, some cells show improved preservation of microfilaments. We conclude that the OsFeCN adds contrast to all classes of membrane and does not destroy microfilaments to the extent that osmium alone does. Adding uranyl acetate to the cells may protect delicate filamentous structures from collapse during dehydration and embedding. We have preliminary evidence in PtK1 cells that addition of tannic acid after OsFeCN may function in a similar manner. This method is recommended for any animal cell type where improved visualization of membranes and filaments is required. PMID:6539826

  6. Dietary quality improvement after a short-term nutritional counseling program in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Piovesan, Carla H; Macagnan, Fabricio E; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Feoli, Ana Maria P

    2014-06-01

    Metabolic Syndrome is a complex clinical condition that brings together a set of cardiovascular risk factors. Lifestyle changes, such as eating habit improvements, are first-choice therapies for the treatment of this clinical condition. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of short-term nutritional counseling, on the diet quality and total energetic value (TEV) in individuals with Metabolic Syndrome. Eighty subjects (men and women) aged 30 to 60 years with metabolic syndrome were followed over three months. The Healthy Eating Index tool adapted to the Brazilian population was used for the evaluation of diet quality. Mean age was 51 + 6 years, and 68.6% were women. The mean score of the dietary quality of the population studied increased significantly from 53.02 to 61.65 after intervention. The amount of individuals classified as Inappropriate Diet decreased significantly six-fold, the amount of individuals classified as Healthy Diet increased four-fold, and the percent of diets classified as Diet that Needs Change decreased by 25% when compared to the beginning of the study. Adequate intake of vegetables was inversely associated to abdominal circumference, as well as adequate intake of sodium and fasting serum insulin. The amount of TEV presented a significant reduction (p <0.000) after intervention. The short-term nutritional counseling showed to be efficient to improve dietary quality. Associations between dietary quality and variables studied highlight the importance of nutritional intervention in individuals with metabolic syndrome. PMID:25799685

  7. Dietary supplementation with short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides improves insulin sensitivity in obese horses.

    PubMed

    Respondek, F; Myers, K; Smith, T L; Wagner, A; Geor, R J

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are risk factors for laminitis in horses and ponies, and diet can play an important role in modulating these risk factors. Dietary supplementation with prebiotic fibers, such as short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS), has resulted in improvement of insulin sensitivity in obese dogs and rodents. Thus, we hypothesized that scFOS may reduce insulin resistance in obese horses and designed a study to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with scFOS on insulin sensitivity. Eight mature Arabian geldings (BW = 523.0 ± 56.5 kg) with an average BCS of 8 were included in a crossover study. In each period, 4 horses were provided 45 g/d per horse of maltodextrin (control) and 4 horses received the same amount of scFOS for 6 wk, with a 3-wk washout between periods. Resting plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and leptin were measured. Minimal model analysis of a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test was used to evaluate insulin sensitivity, glucose effectiveness, acute insulin response to glucose, and disposition index. Without affecting BW and BCS, dietary supplementation with scFOS increased (P < 0.05) insulin sensitivity and reduced (P < 0.05) acute insulin response to glucose in comparison with maltodextrin but did not alter (P > 0.05) glucose effectiveness and disposition index. Resting serum insulin concentration also was reduced (P < 0.05) by scFOS supplementation but not by maltodextrin (P > 0.05). There was no effect (P > 0.05) of scFOS supplementation on plasma glucose or serum triglyceride and leptin concentrations. This study demonstrated that scFOS can moderately improve insulin sensitivity of obese horses, a finding that has potential relevance to the dietary management of obese, insulin-resistant horses at increased risk for laminitis. PMID:20870952

  8. Improved Species-Specific Lysine Acetylation Site Prediction Based on a Large Variety of Features Set

    PubMed Central

    Wuyun, Qiqige; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Yanping; Ruan, Jishou; Hu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a major post-translational modification. It plays a vital role in numerous essential biological processes, such as gene expression and metabolism, and is related to some human diseases. To fully understand the regulatory mechanism of acetylation, identification of acetylation sites is first and most important. However, experimental identification of protein acetylation sites is often time consuming and expensive. Therefore, the alternative computational methods are necessary. Here, we developed a novel tool, KA-predictor, to predict species-specific lysine acetylation sites based on support vector machine (SVM) classifier. We incorporated different types of features and employed an efficient feature selection on each type to form the final optimal feature set for model learning. And our predictor was highly competitive for the majority of species when compared with other methods. Feature contribution analysis indicated that HSE features, which were firstly introduced for lysine acetylation prediction, significantly improved the predictive performance. Particularly, we constructed a high-accurate structure dataset of H.sapiens from PDB to analyze the structural properties around lysine acetylation sites. Our datasets and a user-friendly local tool of KA-predictor can be freely available at http://sourceforge.net/p/ka-predictor. PMID:27183223

  9. Improved Species-Specific Lysine Acetylation Site Prediction Based on a Large Variety of Features Set.

    PubMed

    Wuyun, Qiqige; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Yanping; Ruan, Jishou; Hu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a major post-translational modification. It plays a vital role in numerous essential biological processes, such as gene expression and metabolism, and is related to some human diseases. To fully understand the regulatory mechanism of acetylation, identification of acetylation sites is first and most important. However, experimental identification of protein acetylation sites is often time consuming and expensive. Therefore, the alternative computational methods are necessary. Here, we developed a novel tool, KA-predictor, to predict species-specific lysine acetylation sites based on support vector machine (SVM) classifier. We incorporated different types of features and employed an efficient feature selection on each type to form the final optimal feature set for model learning. And our predictor was highly competitive for the majority of species when compared with other methods. Feature contribution analysis indicated that HSE features, which were firstly introduced for lysine acetylation prediction, significantly improved the predictive performance. Particularly, we constructed a high-accurate structure dataset of H.sapiens from PDB to analyze the structural properties around lysine acetylation sites. Our datasets and a user-friendly local tool of KA-predictor can be freely available at http://sourceforge.net/p/ka-predictor. PMID:27183223

  10. Comparative studies on egg, meat, and semen qualities of native and improved chicken varieties developed for backyard poultry production.

    PubMed

    Haunshi, Santosh; Doley, Sunil; Kadirvel, G

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate/compare the sensory attributes of eggs and meat, egg qualities, proximate composition of eggs, and semen qualities of slow growing native (Miri and Mizo-local) and fast growing improved chicken varieties (Gramapriya and Vanaraja) under hill ecosystem of northeastern India. Significantly higher egg weight, egg volume, and albumen volume were observed in Gramapriya followed by Vanaraja, Mizo-local, and Miri chickens. However, yolk volume was significantly higher in Vanaraja and Gramapriya varieties as compared to native chickens. Yolk to albumen ratio was significantly lower in Gramapriya as compared to Vanaraja and Miri chicken. Consumer liking of eggs for aroma, flavor, and overall acceptability of Miri, Mizo-local, and Vanaraja were significantly higher than that of Gramapriya. Genetic groups did not differ significantly in appearance and proximate composition of eggs. No significant differences were observed between various genetic groups for sensory attributes of meat samples. Semen volume was significantly (p < or = 0.01) lower while sperm concentration was significantly (p < or = 0.01) higher in native chicken as compared to the improved chicken varieties. However, pH, mass activity, sperm motility, and livability did not differ significantly among genetic groups although Mizo-local had significantly higher abnormal sperm count. The study concluded that the genetic groups with different growth rate differed significantly for various egg quality parameters and semen characteristics but not for sensory attributes of meat and proximate composition of eggs. PMID:20063057

  11. Spouses use of social control to improve diabetic patients' dietary adherence.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Mary Ann Parris; Rook, Karen S; Franks, Melissa M; Khan, Cynthia; Iida, Masumi

    2010-09-01

    We investigated two types of negative and positive social control strategies, warning and encouragement, used by spouses to urge patients with type II diabetes to improve adherence to the diabetic diet. Warning refers to things a spouse may say or do to caution the patient about the consequences of eating a poor diet, and encouragement refers to things a spouse may say or do to promote healthier food choices by the patient. Our dyadic design (n=109 couples) assessed spouses' use of warning and encouragement (reported by spouses and by patients), as well as patients' reports of dietary adherence. Spouses being actively involved in patients' dietary choices was the largest category of open-ended descriptors of both warning and encouragement. Both spousal warning and encouragement were associated with patients' adherence to the recommended diabetic diet, with warning associated with poorer adherence and encouragement associated with better adherence. Moreover, it was the spouses' perceptions of their own influence attempts, and not patients' reports, that were consequential for patients' adherence. Patients' dietary behavior, and ultimately disease management, appears to be best served when the spouse uses more positively toned and less coercive influence attempts. PMID:20939625

  12. Dietary Lecithin Supplementation Can Improve the Quality of the M. Longissimus thoracis.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Darryl N; Blake, Bronwyn L; Williams, Ian H; Mullan, Bruce P; Pethick, David W; Dunshea, Frank R

    2015-01-01

    Forty crossbred (Large White × Landrace × Duroc) female pigs (16.4 kg ± 0.94 kg) were used to investigate the effect of dietary lecithin supplementation on growth performance and pork quality. Pigs were randomly allocated to a commercial diet containing either 0, 3, 15 or 75 g lecithin/kg of feed during the grower and finisher growth phase. Pork from pigs consuming the diets containing 15 g and 75 g lecithin/kg had lower hardness ( P < 0.001) and chewiness ( P < 0.01) values compared to the controls. Dietary lecithin supplementation at 75 g/kg significantly increased ( P < 0.05) the linoleic acid and reduced ( P < 0.05) the myristic acid levels of pork compared to the control and the 3 g/kg and 15 g/kg lecithin supplemented treatments. Pigs fed the 75 g/kg lecithin supplemented diet had lower plasma cholesterol ( P < 0.05) at slaughter compared to pigs fed the control diet and the 3 g/kg and 15 g/kg lecithin supplemented treatments. These data indicate that dietary lecithin supplementation has the potential to improve the quality attributes of pork from female pigs. PMID:26610579

  13. Improvement in the technological feasibility of a web-based dietary survey system in local settings.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun Ju; Lee, Sang Eun; Kim, Dongwoo; Noh, Hwayoung; Song, Sujin; Kang, Minji; Song, Yoon Ju; Paik, Hee-Young

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of a dietary survey tool is crucial for successful nutritional assessment via a community survey and for nutritional epidemiology. In 2012, we identified a newly developed computerized dietary survey system, the Diet Evaluation System (DES), which could be successfully applied to a community survey delivered during home visits using notebook computers when the internet environment was adequate, using either a WiBro modem or a smartphone as a tethered modem. In 2013, we retested DES feasibility using various mobile devices and in a larger number of subjects. We conducted a total of 430 interviews, representing two for each of 215 subjects of various ages, using tablet personal computers (PCs) and laptops. In addition, a group discussion with the interviewers was conducted. The interview success rate was improved to 84% (compared to 67% in 2012). Completing each interview took 14 min 1 s, and data processing was conducted automatically. The subjects' age, gender, and the type of mobile device used influenced the DES interview time. This study implies that the DES is an effective one-stop dietary survey system for use in a local setting. The interviewers' group discussion revealed that a one-stop system using the DES is convenient and that DES optimization for tablet PCs and continued database updating is needed. PMID:26078248

  14. Comparison of dietary and smoking habit changes in physical fitness improvers and nonimprovers.

    PubMed

    Blair, S N; Goodyear, N N; Wynne, K L; Saunders, R P

    1984-07-01

    Changes in dietary, smoking, and alcohol intake habits of men who voluntarily increased their physical fitness level (n = 532) were compared with men who did not increase physical fitness (n = 390). These men were middle-aged (average age = 43 years), initially sedentary and free of disease, and had been examined twice at a preventive medicine clinic within a 1- to 6-year period. Subjects were retrospectively assigned to two fitness groups--improvers and nonimprovers--based on changes in treadmill performance between baseline and follow-up examinations. Fifteen lifestyle variables were assessed by questionnaire and evaluated for change. At baseline the two groups were similar in demographic variables and diet, differing significantly only in follow-up interval (P less than 0.001), treadmill time (P less than 0.001), whole milk consumption (P less than 0.003), and smoking (P less than 0.001). At follow-up, positive changes in health habits were seen for both groups. Statistically significant differences in health habit change between the groups were seen only for beef (P less than 0.003) and coffee (P less than 0.003) consumption (consumption of both decreasing in more improvers than nonimprovers). Smokers at baseline were less likely to improve their physical fitness. We concluded that individuals who voluntarily increased their physical fitness level were not more likely to change their dietary and alcohol habits than persons who maintained a more sedentary lifestyle. PMID:6504869

  15. What factors were important for dietary improvement in emergency shelters after the Great East Japan Earthquake?

    PubMed

    Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Hoshi, Yuko; Onodera, Kazue; Mizuno, Shoichi; Sako, Kazuko

    2014-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011 left many evacuees with insufficient food and emergency shelter. However, there is no evidence concerning the factors affecting dietary circumstances in emergency shelters after disasters. To clarify the factors that influenced the provision of meals, we reanalyzed a data set from a dietary survey conducted in emergency shelters one month after the Great East Japan Earthquake (2011). Among the 69 shelters in "city A," 53 (79.1%) had food shortages. The possibility of cooking in the emergency shelter improved the provision of meals to evacuees. When comparing emergency shelters with and without cooking equipment, the shelters with cooking equipment provided more meals, as well as more dishes containing grains and vegetables. When there was a gas supply, the twice per day provision of "balanced" meals (containing grains, vegetables, and meat/fish) was more frequent than when there was no gas supply. Interestingly, neither the water supply nor the electricity supply affected the provision of balanced meals. Further, emergency shelters with larger numbers of evacuees had a lower possibility of cooking and lower availability of gas supply. Our results demonstrate that early improvements to post-disaster meal provision may maintain the health of evacuees. Such improvements could be achieved by 1) the speedy restoration of the gas supply to enable cooking, and 2) limiting the number of evacuees per emergency shelter. PMID:24561984

  16. Improved performance and immunological responses as the result of dietary genistein supplementation of broiler chicks.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, E; Jahanian, R

    2015-09-01

    levels seen by control and antibiotics chicks. Dietary inclusion of genistein increased (P<0.05) lymphocytes and subsequently reduced (P<0.01) heterophil to lymphocyte ratio. The present findings indicate that dietary genistein supplementation at the levels of 20 to 80 mg/kg not only improves growth performance, but also could beneficially affect immunological responses in broiler chicks. PMID:25998982

  17. A dietary supplement to improve the quality of sleep: a randomized placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, in association with Humulus lupulus extract, on the quality of sleep using the Leeds sleep evaluation questionnaire (LSEQ) in subjects with moderate to severe sleep disorders. Methods Randomized placebo-controlled trial, in a Population-based setting. Participants were adult patients 25 to 65 years old with a chronic primary insomnia who volunteered for the study. The tested intervention consisted of two soft gelatine capsules per day, containing either the dietary supplement (active group) or olive oil (placebo group) for a month. Subjects could also volunteer for two ancillary studies on melatonin and actigraphy. Evaluation criteria included i) perception of the quality of sleep at the end of treatment using the LSEQ questionnaire, ii) sleep efficiency measured by one-week actigraphic movement measurement performed before and during the treatment in a subsample of subjects, iii) night melatonin and 6 sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6S) urine rates in a subsample of subjects. Results The average of Leeds score was similar in both groups (p = 0.95). A marked improvement in the quality of sleep was observed in both placebo (62%) and active (65%) group (p = 0.52). The evolution of urinary melatonin, aMT6S, and of the Mel/aMT6S ratio showed no differences between the two groups. Sleep efficiency, as measured by actigraphy, improved similarly in both groups during the treatment period, from 72% to 76% and 75% in the active and placebo group respectively (p = 0.91). Conclusions The dietary supplement had neither effect on the perceived quality of sleep, nor on the melatonin metabolism and sleep-wake cycle. Trial registration: clinical trials.gov:NCT00484497 PMID:20569455

  18. Randomization to plant-based dietary approaches leads to larger short-term improvements in Dietary Inflammatory Index scores and macronutrient intake compared with diets that contain meat.

    PubMed

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Wirth, Michael D; Shivappa, Nitin; Wingard, Ellen E; Fayad, Raja; Wilcox, Sara; Frongillo, Edward A; Hébert, James R

    2015-02-01

    Studies have examined nutrient differences among people following different plant-based diets. However, all of these studies have been observational. The aim of the present study was to examine differences in nutrient intake and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) scores among overweight and obese (body mass index 25.0-49.9 kg/m(2)) adults randomized to receive dietary instruction on a vegan (n = 12), vegetarian (n = 13), pescovegetarian (n = 13), semivegetarian (n = 13), or omnivorous (n = 12) diet during a 6-month randomized controlled trial. Nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and DII score were assessed via two 24-hour dietary recalls (Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall) at baseline and at 2 and 6 months. Differences in nutrient intake and the DII were examined using general linear models with follow-up tests at each time point. We hypothesized that individuals randomized to the vegan diet would have lower DII scores and greater improvements in fiber, carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol at both 2 and 6 months as compared with the other 4 diets. Participants randomized to the vegan diet had significantly greater changes in most macronutrients at both time points, including fat and saturated fat, as well as cholesterol and, at 2 months, fiber, as compared with most of the other diet groups (Ps < .05). Vegan, vegetarian, and pescovegetarian participants all saw significant improvements in the DII score as compared with semivegetarian participants at 2 months (Ps < .05) with no differences at 6 months. Given the greater impact on macronutrients and the DII during the short term, finding ways to provide support for adoption and maintenance of plant-based dietary approaches, such as vegan and vegetarian diets, should be given consideration. PMID:25532675

  19. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves rowing performance in well-trained rowers.

    PubMed

    Bond, Hannah; Morton, Lillian; Braakhuis, Andrea J

    2012-08-01

    Increased plasma nitrate concentrations from dietary sources of nitrate have proven to benefit exercise performance. Beetroot (BR) contains relatively high levels of nitrate (NO₃⁻), which increases nitric oxide stores. This study investigated whether dietary nitrate supplementation, in the form of a BR beverage, would improve rowing performance during ergometer repetitions. In a randomized crossover design, 14 well-trained junior male rowers consumed 500 ml of either BR or placebo (PL) daily for 6 d. After supplementation, rowers completed 6 maximal 500-m ergometer repetitions and times were recorded. A 7-d washout period separated the 2 trials. Blood pressure, oxygen saturation, maximum heart rate, urine (specific gravity, pH, and nitrites), and lactates were collected for analysis at baseline and pre- and postperformance. Changes in the mean with 95% confidence limits were calculated. There was a likely benefit to average repetition time in the BR condition, compared with PL (0.4%, 95% confidence limits, ± 1.0%). In particular, Repetitions 4-6 showed an almost certain benefit in rowing time on BR (1.7%, 95% CL, ± 1.0%). The underlying mechanism for the observed results remains unknown, as differences observed in rowers' physiological measures between the 2 conditions were unclear. Conclusively, nitrate supplementation in the form of BR juice resulted in improved maximal rowing-ergometer repetitions, particularly in the later stages of exercise. PMID:22710356

  20. Dietary glutamine supplementation improves growth performance, meat quality and colour stability of broilers under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Dai, S F; Wang, L K; Wen, A Y; Wang, L X; Jin, G M

    2009-05-01

    1. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary glutamine (Gln) supplementation on growth performance, carcase characteristics and meat quality in broilers exposed to high ambient temperature. 2. A total of 240 35-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups (three replicates of 20 birds per cage). The broilers were kept in a temperature-controlled room at either 23 degrees C (no-stress groups, NS) or 28 degrees C (heat stress groups, HS). The broilers were fed either on a basal diet (control, NS) or on the basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.5 or 1.0% Gln (HS). 3. Compared with the NS, the HS (0% Gln) group gained less weight and consumed less feed, had lower final body weight, gain-to-feed ratio, and abdominal fat yield. Breast meat in HS (0% Gln) had lower pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), a* value, ether extract (EE) content and crude protein (CP) content, and had higher shear force (SF) and L* value. 4. Linear increase were found in groups supplemented with Gln (0, 0.5% and 1.0%) for final body weight, weight gain, feed consumption, gain-to-feed ratio and abdominal fat yield. Supplementation with Gln improved breast meat pH, WHC, SF, L* value, a* value, EE content and CP content in broilers exposed to heat stress. No significant difference was observed in all the indices determined between the HS (1% Gln) and the NS. 5. Heat stress caused obvious breast meat discoloration in L*, a* and b* values. However, dietary supplementation with Gln gave a better colour stability. 6. The results indicated that dietary supplementation with Gln may alleviate heat stress-caused deterioration in growth performance, carcase characteristics, meat quality and meat colour stability of broilers. PMID:19637033

  1. Iron and the female athlete: a review of dietary treatment methods for improving iron status and exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Alaunyte, Ieva; Stojceska, Valentina; Plunkett, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Iron is a functional component of oxygen transport and energy production in humans and therefore is a critically important micronutrient for sport and exercise performance. Athletes, particularly female athletes participating in endurance sport, are at increased risk of compromised iron status due to heightened iron losses through menstruation and exercise-induced mechanisms associated with endurance activity. Conventionally oral iron supplementation is used in prevention or/and treatment of iron deficiency. However, this approach has been criticised because of the side effects and increased risk of iron toxicity associated with the use of supplements. Thus, more recently there has been a growing interest in using dietary modification rather than the use of supplements to improve iron status of athletes. Dietary iron treatment methods include the prescription of an iron-rich diet, or/and haem iron-based diet, dietary advice counselling and inclusion of novel iron-rich products into the daily diet. Although studies using dietary modification are still scarce, current literature suggests that dietary iron interventions can assist in maintaining iron status in female athletes, especially during intensive training and competition. Future research should focus on the most efficient method(s) of dietary modification for improvement of iron status and whether these approaches can have a favourable impact on sports and exercise performance. PMID:26448737

  2. Does an Adolescent's Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    PubMed

    Kerr, Deborah A; Wright, Janine L; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Boushey, Carol J

    2015-05-01

    The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents' accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage) of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01), detailed description (p < 0.05) and portion size matching (p < 0.05). Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods). The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05) and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8%) compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents' accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days. PMID:25984743

  3. Tea Dietary Fiber Improves Serum and Hepatic Lipid Profiles in Mice Fed a High Cholesterol Diet.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenxin; Shu, Yang; Yang, Xiaoping

    2016-06-01

    Tea dietary fiber (TDF) was prepared from tea residues and modified to get cellulose-modified TDF (CTDF) by cellulase or micronized TDF (MTDF) by ultrafine grinding. The in vitro lipid-binding capacities of the three fibers and their effects on serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet were evaluated. The results showed that the three fibers had excellent lipid-binding capacities, and the cholesterol- and sodium cholate-binding capacities of CTDF and MTDF were significantly higher than those of TDF. Animal studies showed that, compared to model control, the three fibers significantly decreased mice average daily gain, gain: feed, and liver index, reduced total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol of serum and liver, increased serum and hepatic high density lipoprotein-cholesterol to TC ratio, and promoted the excretion of fecal lipids, and they also significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase of serum and liver, and decreased lipid peroxidation; moreover, the effects of CTDF and MTDF were better than that of TDF. It was concluded that the three fibers could improve serum and hepatic lipid profiles in mice fed a high cholesterol diet and the mechanism of action might be due to the promotion of fecal excretion of lipids through their lipid-binding ability and the inhibition of lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that tea dietary fiber has the potential to be used as a functional ingredient to control cardiovascular disease. PMID:27040277

  4. Does an Adolescent’s Accuracy of Recall Improve with a Second 24-h Dietary Recall?

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Deborah A.; Wright, Janine L.; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Boushey, Carol J.

    2015-01-01

    The multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall is used in most national dietary surveys. Our purpose was to assess if adolescents’ accuracy of recall improved when a 5-step multiple-pass 24-h recall was repeated. Participants (n = 24), were Chinese-American youths aged between 11 and 15 years and lived in a supervised environment as part of a metabolic feeding study. The 24-h recalls were conducted on two occasions during the first five days of the study. The four steps (quick list; forgotten foods; time and eating occasion; detailed description of the food/beverage) of the 24-h recall were assessed for matches by category. Differences were observed in the matching for the time and occasion step (p < 0.01), detailed description (p < 0.05) and portion size matching (p < 0.05). Omission rates were higher for the second recall (p < 0.05 quick list; p < 0.01 forgotten foods). The adolescents over-estimated energy intake on the first (11.3% ± 22.5%; p < 0.05) and second recall (10.1% ± 20.8%) compared with the known food and beverage items. These results suggest that the adolescents’ accuracy to recall food items declined with a second 24-h recall when repeated over two non-consecutive days. PMID:25984743

  5. An improved high-throughput Nile red fluorescence assay for estimating intracellular lipids in a variety of yeast species

    PubMed Central

    Sitepu, I.R.; Ignatia, L.; Franz, A. K.; Wong, D. M.; Faulina, S.A.; Tsui, M.; Kanti, A.; Boundy-Mills, K.

    2012-01-01

    A rapid and inexpensive method for estimating lipid content of yeasts is needed for screening large numbers of yeasts samples. Nile red is a fluorescent lipophilic dye used for detection and quantification of intracellular lipid droplets in various biological system including algae, yeasts and filamentous fungi. However, a published assay for yeast is affected by variable diffusion across the cell membrane, and variation in the time required to reach maximal fluorescence emission. In this study, parameters that may influence the emission were varied to determine optimal assay conditions. An improved assay with a high-throughput capability was developed that includes the addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent to improve cell permeability, elimination of the washing step, the reduction of Nile red concentration, kinetic readings rather than single time-point reading, and utilization of a black 96-well microplate. The improved method was validated by comparison to gravimetric determination of lipid content of a broad variety of ascomycete and basidiomycete yeast species. PMID:22985718

  6. A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Shahril, Mohd Razif; Wan Dali, Wan Putri Elena; Lua, Pei Lin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI) to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG) or control group (CG) according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages) while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students. PMID:24069535

  7. The Michigan Healthy School Action Tools process generates improvements in school nutrition policies and practices, and student dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Alaimo, Katherine; Oleksyk, Shannon; Golzynski, Diane; Drzal, Nick; Lucarelli, Jennifer; Reznar, Melissa; Wen, Yalu; Krabill Yoder, Karen

    2015-05-01

    The Michigan Healthy School Action Tools (HSAT) is an online self-assessment and action planning process for schools seeking to improve their health policies and practices. The School Nutrition Advances Kids study, a 2-year quasi-experimental intervention with low-income middle schools, evaluated whether completing the HSAT with a facilitator assistance and small grant funding resulted in (1) improvements in school nutrition practices and policies and (2) improvements in student dietary intake. A total of 65 low-income Michigan middle schools participated in the study. The Block Youth Food Frequency Questionnaire was completed by 1,176 seventh-grade students at baseline and in eighth grade (during intervention). Schools reported nutrition-related policies and practices/education using the School Environment and Policy Survey. Schools completing the HSAT were compared to schools that did not complete the HSAT with regard to number of policy and practice changes and student dietary intake. Schools that completed the HSAT made significantly more nutrition practice/education changes than schools that did not complete the HSAT, and students in those schools made dietary improvements in fruit, fiber, and cholesterol intake. The Michigan HSAT process is an effective strategy to initiate improvements in nutrition policies and practices within schools, and to improve student dietary intake. PMID:25733730

  8. Thermodynamic analysis questions claims of improved cardiac efficiency by dietary fish oil.

    PubMed

    Loiselle, Denis S; Han, June-Chiew; Goo, Eden; Chapman, Brian; Barclay, Christopher J; Hickey, Anthony J R; Taberner, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Studies in the literature describe the ability of dietary supplementation by omega-3 fish oil to increase the pumping efficiency of the left ventricle. Here we attempt to reconcile such studies with our own null results. We undertake a quantitative analysis of the improvement that could be expected theoretically, subject to physiological constraints, by posing the following question: By how much could efficiency be expected to increase if inefficiencies could be eliminated? Our approach utilizes thermodynamic analyses to investigate the contributions, both singly and collectively, of the major components of cardiac energetics to total cardiac efficiency. We conclude that it is unlikely that fish oils could achieve the required diminution of inefficiencies without greatly compromising cardiac performance. PMID:27574288

  9. Improving lipids with prescription icosapent ethyl after previous use of fish oil dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kota J; Chowdhury, Sumita

    2016-05-01

    Managing dyslipidemia can be challenging in patients with statin intolerance. We describe the lipid effects of icosapent ethyl 4 g/day (high-purity prescription omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid) in two coronary artery disease patients with statin intolerance who were self-treating with fish oil dietary supplements. After initiating icosapent ethyl, improvements were noted in the first and second patients, respectively, in total cholesterol (-12%; -21%), LDL cholesterol (-3%; -24%), triglycerides (-34%; -16%), non-HDL cholesterol (-12%; -22%), the omega-3 index (+42%; +8%) and eicosapentaenoic acid levels (+275%; +138%). Icosapent ethyl was well tolerated with no adverse events reported. These cases demonstrated favorable lipid effects with prescription icosapent ethyl treatment that may help optimize the care of high-risk coronary artery disease patients with statin intolerance. PMID:27070379

  10. [THE EFFECTIVENESS OF EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF POPULATION DIETARY PATTERNS AND PREVENTION OF ANEMIAS].

    PubMed

    Glagoleva, O N; Turchaninov, D V; Vilms, E A

    2015-01-01

    There was performed an experimental study of the use of educational programs as tools of the improvement of the structure of nutrition and primary prevention of anemias associated with nutrition. Educational programs were differentiated for each of the target audience (pupils of 5-7 classes, 1-4 year students of the medical school, the adult unorganized population; n = 645). Their efficacy was evaluated with the use of issues included in the educational program and analysis of the actual nutrition (only in groups of students and adults). Performance assessment were: testing on the issues included in the educational program and analysis of actual of dietary intake (only in groups of students and adults). Testing was performed at the points: before the intervention, immediately after 6 and 12 months after intervention. An analysis of the frequency of food consumption with an estimation of the actual consumption of nutrients was carried out at the initial and final points. There was noted the low level of public knowledge about the principles ofrational nutrition: the proportion ofcorrect answers, reflecting the level of awareness ofconstructing an optimal diet in the starting point of the study was 25%for schoolchildren, 45%--in adults, 35%--the students, after the intervention--75%, 90% and 85% respectively. One year after the implementation of the educational program the level ofresidual knowledge of study participants remained at a level above the original (the proportion of correct answers during testing of schoolchildren--50% (p < 0.001 to baseline), in adults--60% (p = 0.0005), students--60% (p < 0.001). There were also noted positive changes in the structure of nutrition of study participants 12 months after the intervention: in relation to the initial level there was increased consumption of ascorbic acid and calcium in students, decreased consumption of animal fats in adults and students, there was noted a trend towards increased consumption of dietary iron

  11. Dietary nitrate improves muscle but not cerebral oxygenation status during exercise in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Masschelein, Evi; Van Thienen, Ruud; Wang, Xu; Van Schepdael, Ann; Thomis, Martine; Hespel, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Exercise tolerance is impaired in hypoxia, and it has recently been shown that dietary nitrate supplementation can reduce the oxygen (O(2)) cost of muscle contractions. Therefore, we investigated the effect of dietary nitrate supplementation on arterial, muscle, and cerebral oxygenation status, symptoms of acute mountain sickness (AMS), and exercise tolerance at simulated 5,000 m altitude. Fifteen young, healthy volunteers participated in three experimental sessions according to a crossover study design. From 6 days prior to each session, subjects received either beetroot (BR) juice delivering 0.07 mmol nitrate/kg body wt/day or a control drink (CON). One session was in normoxia with CON (NOR(CON)); the two other sessions were in hypoxia (11% O(2)), with either CON (HYP(CON)) or BR (HYP(BR)). Subjects first cycled for 20 min at 45% of peak O(2) consumption (VO(2)peak; EX(45%)) and thereafter, performed a maximal incremental exercise test (EX(max)). Whole-body VO(2), arterial O(2) saturation (%SpO(2)) via pulsoximetry, and tissue oxygenation index of both muscle (TOI(M)) and cerebral (TOI(C)) tissue by near-infrared spectroscopy were measured. Hypoxia per se substantially reduced VO(2)peak, %SpO(2), TOI(M), and TOI(C) (NOR(CON) vs. HYP(CON), P < 0.05). Compared with HYP(CON), VO(2) at rest and during EX(45%) was lower in HYP(BR) (P < 0.05), whereas %SpO(2) was higher (P < 0.05). TOI(M) was ~4-5% higher in HYP(BR) than in HYP(CON) both at rest and during EX(45%) and EX(max) (P < 0.05). TOI(C) as well as the incidence of AMS symptoms were similar between HYP(CON) and HYP(BR) at any time. Hypoxia reduced time to exhaustion in EX(max) by 36% (P < 0.05), but this ergolytic effect was partly negated by BR (+5%, P < 0.05). Short-term dietary nitrate supplementation improves arterial and muscle oxygenation status but not cerebral oxygenation status during exercise in severe hypoxia. This is associated with improved exercise tolerance against the background of a similar

  12. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves team sport-specific intense intermittent exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Lee J; Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter; Jackman, Sarah R; Ermιdis, Georgios; Kelly, James; Black, Matthew I; Bailey, Stephen J; Vanhatalo, Anni; Jones, Andrew M

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have suggested that dietary inorganic nitrate (NO₃(-)) supplementation may improve muscle efficiency and endurance exercise tolerance but possible effects during team sport-specific intense intermittent exercise have not been examined. We hypothesized that NO₃(-) supplementation would enhance high-intensity intermittent exercise performance. Fourteen male recreational team-sport players were assigned in a double-blind, randomized, crossover design to consume 490 mL of concentrated, nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BR) and nitrate-depleted placebo juice (PL) over ~30 h preceding the completion of a Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test (Yo-Yo IR1). Resting plasma nitrite concentration ([NO₂(-)]) was ~400% greater in BR compared to PL. Plasma [NO₂(-)] declined by 20% in PL (P < 0.05) and by 54 % in BR (P < 0.05) from pre-exercise to end-exercise. Performance in the Yo-Yo IR1 was 4.2% greater (P < 0.05) with BR (1,704 ± 304 m) compared to PL (1,636 ± 288 m). Blood [lactate] was not different between BR and PL, but the mean blood [glucose] was lower (3.8 ± 0.8 vs. 4.2 ± 1.1 mM, P < 0.05) and the rise in plasma [K(+)] tended to be reduced in BR compared to PL (P = 0.08). These findings suggest that NO₃(-) supplementation may promote NO production via the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway and enhance Yo-Yo IR1 test performance, perhaps by facilitating greater muscle glucose uptake or by better maintaining muscle excitability. Dietary NO₃(-) supplementation improves performance during intense intermittent exercise and may be a useful ergogenic aid for team sports players. PMID:23370859

  13. Early problematic eating behaviours are associated with lower fruit and vegetable intake and less dietary variety at 4-5 years of age. A prospective analysis of three European birth cohorts.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A; Jones, L; de Lauzon-Guillain, B; Emmett, P; Moreira, P; Charles, M A; Lopes, C

    2015-09-14

    Problematic eating behaviours during early childhood could be mediators of poor dietary habits. This study aims to prospectively relate early eating behaviours with fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake and a healthy diet variety score of children aged between 4 and 5 years. Eating behaviours were assessed in three European birth cohorts (Generation XXI from Portugal, ALSPAC from the UK and EDEN from France) at 4-6, 12-15, 24 and 48-54 months of age, based on the child's feeding difficulties, mother's perception of child's poor eating (eating small quantities at each meal, not eating enough or needing to be stimulated to eat), food refusal and difficulties in the establishment of daily food routines. Daily servings of F&V (>1 v. ≤1 serving/d, except in Generation XXI: >3 v. ≤3) and the Healthy Plate Variety Score (categorised by the median score of each sample) were calculated using FFQ. Associations were tested by logistic regressions adjusted for maternal age, education, smoking during pregnancy, any breast-feeding and the child's z-score BMI at 4-5 years of age. Children with more feeding difficulties, poor eating, food refusal/neophobia and difficulties in establishing a daily routine at 12-15, 24 and 48-54 months of age had in general lower F&V intake at 4-5 years of age. The association with vegetables was slightly stronger than with fruits. These early feeding problems were also inversely associated with the variety score at 4-5 years of age, particularly when eating behaviours were reported after 12-15 months of age. A better understanding of these early feeding difficulties may help define strategies to increase the dietary quality in children. PMID:26195187

  14. Improving prediction of binge episodes by modelling chronicity of dietary restriction.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Millicent; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Skouteris, Helen; Broadbent, Jaclyn

    2014-11-01

    This study evaluates the influences of chronicity of, and time lag between, dietary restriction and binge outcome for predicting binge episode onset. Sixty-two women aged 18 to 40 years old completed an online survey at random intervals seven times daily for a 7-day period. Participants self-reported engagement in dietary restriction and/or binging, and temptation to binge. Consecutive instances of reported dietary restriction better predicted subsequent binges than single instances. As the time lag between the first report of dietary restriction and binge onset increased, a clear linear trend emerged, such that the value of restriction for predicting binges increased with the number of consecutive assessments in which they reported dietary restriction. A similar pattern was found when predicting temptation to binge. Present findings suggest that duration of restriction is a crucial determinant of binge onset. These findings have implications for clinical practice by highlighting the time course from dietary restriction to binging. PMID:25113897

  15. Improved cognitive performance after dietary supplementation with a Pinus radiata bark extract formulation.

    PubMed

    Pipingas, Andrew; Silberstein, Richard B; Vitetta, Luis; Rooy, Cindy Van; Harris, Elizabeth V; Young, Joanna M; Frampton, Christopher M; Sali, Avni; Nastasi, Joseph

    2008-09-01

    Dietary interventions may have the potential to counter age-related cognitive decline. Studies have demonstrated an improvement in age-related cognitive impairment in animals after supplementation with plant extracts containing flavonoids but there are few human studies. This double-blind, controlled study examined the effects on cognitive performance of a 5 week supplementation with Enzogenol Pinus radiata bark extract containing flavonoids, in 42 males aged 50-65 years, with a body mass index >25. Participants were supplemented for 5 weeks either with Enzogenol plus vitamin C, or with vitamin C only. A battery of computerized cognitive tests was administered, and cardiovascular and haematological parameters were assessed prior to and following supplementation. The speed of response for the spatial working memory and immediate recognition tasks improved after supplementation with Enzogenol plus vitamin C, whereas vitamin C alone showed no improvements. A trend in a reduction of systolic blood pressure was observed with Enzogenol plus vitamin C, but not with vitamin C alone. The blood safety parameters were unchanged. The findings suggest a beneficial effect of supplementation with Enzogenol on cognition in older individuals. Larger studies are needed to ascertain its potential as a preventive treatment for age-related cognitive decline. PMID:18683195

  16. A church-based pilot study designed to improve dietary quality for rural, Lower Mississippi Delta, African American Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess the feasibility of implementing a six-month, church-based, dietary, pilot intervention, called Delta Body and Soul (DBS), for African American (AA) adults in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of Mississippi. Effectiveness of the intervention to improve diet quality [measured using t...

  17. Increased dietary saturated fat intake is negatively associated with compliance to exercise regimen and improvement in fitness parameters.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To determine if dietary intake of fat, sugar, and/or sodium affects improvement in aerobic fitness in response to a 6- mo endurance and resistance training program in peri-menopausal women. Methods:18 women aged 42-52y underwent a 6 mo exercise intervention, working out 6 d/wk, 60 min/d. ...

  18. Dietary nitrate supplementation improves exercise performance and decreases blood pressure in COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Berry, Michael J; Justus, Nicholas W; Hauser, Jordan I; Case, Ashlee H; Helms, Christine C; Basu, Swati; Rogers, Zachary; Lewis, Marc T; Miller, Gary D

    2015-08-01

    Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation via beetroot juice has been shown to increase the exercise capacity of younger and older adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of acute NO3(-) ingestion on the submaximal constant work rate exercise capacity of COPD patients. Fifteen patients were assigned in a randomized, single-blind, crossover design to receive one of two treatments (beetroot juice then placebo or placebo then beetroot juice). Submaximal constant work rate exercise time at 75% of the patient's maximal work capacity was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included plasma NO3(-) and nitrite (NO2(-)) levels, blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen consumption (VO2), dynamic hyperinflation, dyspnea and leg discomfort. Relative to placebo, beetroot ingestion increased plasma NO3(-) by 938% and NO2(-) by 379%. Median (+interquartile range) exercise time was significantly longer (p = 0.031) following the ingestion of beetroot versus placebo (375.0 + 257.0 vs. 346.2 + 148.0 s, respectively). Compared with placebo, beetroot ingestion significantly reduced iso-time (p = 0.001) and end exercise (p = 0.008) diastolic blood pressures by 6.4 and 5.6 mmHg, respectively. Resting systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced (p = 0.019) by 8.2 mmHg for the beetroot versus the placebo trial. No other variables were significantly different between the beetroot and placebo trials. These results indicate that acute dietary NO3(-) supplementation can elevate plasma NO3(-) and NO2(-) concentrations, improve exercise performance, and reduce blood pressure in COPD patients. PMID:25445634

  19. Room for Improvement in Nutrition Knowledge and Dietary Intake of Male Football (Soccer) Players in Australia.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Michael C; Itsiopoulos, Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Athletes require sufficient nutrition knowledge and skills to enable appropriate selection and consumption of food and fluids to meet their health, body composition, and performance needs. This article reports the nutrition knowledge and dietary habits of male football (soccer) players in Australia. Players age 18 years and older were recruited from 1 A-League club (professional) and 4 National Premier League clubs (semiprofessional). No significant difference in general nutrition knowledge (GNK; 54.1% ± 13.4%; 56.8% ± 11.7%; M ± SD), t(71) = -0.91, p = .37, or sports nutrition knowledge (SNK; 56.9% ± 15.5%; 61.3% ± 15.9%), t(71) = -1.16, p = .25) were noted between professional (n = 29) and semiprofessional (n = 44) players. In general, players lacked knowledge in regard to food sources and types of fat. Although nutrition knowledge varied widely among players (24.6-82.8% correct responses), those who had recently studied nutrition answered significantly more items correctly than those who reported no recent formal nutrition education (62.6% ± 11.9%; 54.0% ± 11.4%), t(67) = 2.88, p = .005). Analysis of 3-day estimated food diaries revealed both professionals (n = 10) and semiprofessionals (n = 31) consumed on average less carbohydrate (3.5 ± 0.8 gC/kg; 3.9 ± 1.8 gC/kg) per day than football-specific recommendations (FIFA Medical and Assessment Research Centre [F-MARC]: 5-10 gC/kg). There was a moderate, positive correlation between SNK and carbohydrate intake (n = 41, ρ = 0.32, p = .04), indicating that players who exhibited greater SNK had higher carbohydrate intakes. On the basis of these findings, male football players in Australia would benefit from nutrition education targeting carbohydrate and fat in an attempt to improve nutrition knowledge and dietary practices. PMID:26251549

  20. Dietary administration of laminarin improves the growth performance and immune responses in Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guangwen; Li, Wenwu; Lin, Qian; Lin, Xi; Lin, Jianbin; Zhu, Qingguo; Jiang, Heji; Huang, Zhijian

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of laminarin on the growth performance, immunological and biochemical parameters, as well as immune related genes expression in the grouper, Epinephelus coioides. One hundred and eight fish were randomly divided into four groups (45 groupers/group). Blank control group was fed with the basal diet, while low, medium and high doses of laminarin groups were fed with the basal diet supplemented with 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% laminarin, respectively, for 48 days. The immunological and biochemical parameters in blood were investigated. The mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-8, and TLR2 in midgut were also evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. Dietary laminarin supplementation significantly improved the specific growth rate and the feed efficiency ratio of the fish. The level of TP and the activity of LZM, CAT and SOD were higher than that of the control. The levels of UREA and CREA as well as the activity of ALP were lower than of the control. There was no significant difference in the levels of ALT and AST between control groups and treated groups. In addition, dietary laminarin supplementation decreased the levels of C3 and C4. The expression of immune response genes IL-1β, IL-8, and TLR2 showed significant increases (P < 0.05) in groupers fed low dose (0.5%) and medium dose (1.0%) of laminarin compared with the blank control. These results suggest that laminarin modulates the immune response and stimulates growth of the fish. PMID:25266890

  1. Dietary Supplementation with Organoselenium Accelerates Recovery of Bladder Expression, but Does Not Improve Locomotor Function, following Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Carolyn A.; Singh, Ranjana; Jones, Mackenzie T.; Yu, Chen-Guang; Power, Ronan F.; Geddes, James W.

    2016-01-01

    Selenium is an essential element required for activity of several antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase. Because of the critical role of the antioxidant system in responding to traumatic events, we hypothesized that dietary selenium supplementation would enhance neuroprotection in a rodent model of spinal cord injury. Rats were maintained on either a control or selenium-enriched diet prior to, and following, injury. Dietary selenium supplementation, provided as selenized yeast added to normal rat chow, resulted in a doubling of selenium levels in the spinal cord. Dietary selenium reduced the time required for recovery of bladder function following thoracic spinal cord injury. However, this was not accompanied by improvement in locomotor function or tissue sparing. PMID:26824231

  2. ABSORPTION ESTIMATES IMPROVE THE VALIDITY OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIETARY AND SERUM LYCOPENE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Studies show low correlations between dietary intakes and serum concentrations of lycopene, which makes it difficult to assess the effectiveness of dietary interventions with lycopene. We hypothesized: 1) that the primary reason for these poor correlations was the difficulty of obtaining...

  3. Dietary chitosan improves hypercholesterolemia in rats fed high-fat diets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiali; Liu, Jingna; Li, Ling; Xia, Wenshui

    2008-06-01

    The hypolipidemic mechanism of chitosan was investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were divided into 5 groups (n = 8): a normal fat control group, a high-fat control group (HF), a positive control group (CR), and 2 chitosan groups (CIS1 and CIS2). Chitosan was fed at the beginning (CIS1) and after 2 weeks (CIS2). A commercial diet with 5% (wt/wt) cellulose (HF), cholestyramine (CR), or chitosan (CIS1, CIS2) was fed for 6 weeks. Chitosan did not affect food intake but decreased body weight gain and significantly increased fecal fat and cholesterol excretion, reduced the lipid level in plasma and liver, increased liver hepatic and lipoprotein lipase activities compared with HF (P < .05), and tended to relieve the degenerated fatty liver tissue. No significant differences in all measurements were found between the CIS1 and CIS2 groups although the CIS1 rats exhibited lower lipid levels compared to those in the CIS2 group. The results suggest that chitosan reduced the absorption of dietary fat and cholesterol in vivo and could effectively improve hypercholesterolemia in rats. PMID:19083436

  4. DIETARY BILE ACID SUPPLEMENTATION IMPROVES INTESTINAL INTEGRITY AND SURVIVAL IN A MURINE MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Perrone, Erin E.; Chen, Chen; Longshore, Shannon W.; Okezie, Oneybuchi; Warner, Brad W.; Sun, Chen-Chih; Alaish, Samuel M.; Strauch, Eric D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose In vitro supplementation of the bile salt, taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA), has been shown to stimulate proliferation and prevent intestinal apoptosis in IEC-6 cells. We hypothesize that addition of TDCA to a rodent liquid diet will be protective against induced intestinal injury. Methods C57Bl6 mice were fed a liquid diet with or without 50mg/kg/day TDCA supplementation. After 6 days, the mice were injected with LPS (10mg/kg) to induce intestinal injury. Specimens were obtained 24 hours later and evaluated for intestinal apoptosis, crypt proliferation, and villus length. A separate cohort of animals were injected with LPS (25mg/kg) and followed 7 days for survival. Results Mice whose diet was supplemented with TDCA had significantly increased survival. After LPS-induced injury, mice supplemented with TDCA showed decreased intestinal apoptosis by both H&E and caspase-3. They also had increased intestinal proliferation by BrdU-staining and increased villus length. Conclusions Dietary taurodeoxycholic acid supplementation alleviates mucosal damage and improves survival after LPS-induced intestinal injury. TDCA is protective of the intestinal mucosa by increasing resistance to injury-induced apoptosis, stimulating enterocyte proliferation and increasing villus length. TDCA supplementation also results in an increased survival benefit. Therefore, bile acid supplementation may potentially protect the intestine from injury or infection. PMID:20620329

  5. Dietary N,N-dimethylglycine supplementation improves nutrient digestibility and attenuates pulmonary hypertension syndrome in broilers.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, I D; Cools, A; Buyse, J; Roose, P; Janssens, G P J

    2010-12-01

    N,N-dimethylglycine (DMG) is an intermediary metabolite in cellular choline and betaine metabolism. The present trial aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary DMG on nutrient digestibility and development of pulmonary hypertension syndrome in broilers. A total of 64 14-day-old broiler hens (Ross-308) were raised until age 40 days under cold environmental temperature conditions (15 °C) and were fed a high energy feed in order to incite pulmonary hypertension. Birds were randomly assigned to two groups of which each group had eight replicate pens of four birds each. Test diets contained 0 or 167 mg Na-DMG (Taminizer(®) D; Taminco N.V., Ghent, Belgium)/kg feed. N,N-dimethylglycine supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in apparent faecal digestibility of crude protein and nitrogen-free extract. Further, fulminant ascites was numerically lowered by DMG and incidence of pulmonary hypertension decreased significantly from 44.8% in the control group to 14.6% in the DMG group. Finally, fasted plasma level of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) was twofold in the control group in relation to the DMG group. In conclusion, these data demonstrate beneficial effects of DMG on digestibility of non-fat fractions, on fat metabolism and on progression towards broiler ascites syndrome. PMID:20662970

  6. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Paola; Buonocore, Daniela; Altobelli, Elisa; Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Iozzi, Davide; Savino, Elena; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day), in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in "Gran Fondo" cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity). A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes' serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress. PMID:24799948

  7. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Paola; Buonocore, Daniela; Altobelli, Elisa; Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Iozzi, Davide; Savino, Elena; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day), in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in “Gran Fondo” cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity). A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes' serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress. PMID:24799948

  8. Dietary acylated starch improves performance and gut health in necrotic enteritis challenged broilers.

    PubMed

    M'Sadeq, Shawkat A; Wu, Shu-Biao; Swick, Robert A; Choct, Mingan

    2015-10-01

    Resistant starch has been reported to act as a protective agent against pathogenic organisms in the gut and to encourage the proliferation of beneficial organisms. This study examined the efficacy of acetylated high amylose maize starch (SA) and butyralated high-amylose maize starch (SB) in reducing the severity of necrotic enteritis (NE) in broilers under experimental challenge. A total of 720 one-day-old male Ross 308 chicks were assigned to 48 floor pens with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors were a) challenge: no or yes; and b) feed additive: control, antibiotics (AB), SA, or SB. Birds were challenged with Eimeria and C. perfringens according to a previously reported protocol. On d 24 and 35, challenged birds had lower (P < 0.001) livability (LV), weight gain (WG), and feed intake (FI) compared to unchallenged birds. Challenged birds fed SA and SB had higher FI and WG at d 24 and 35 (P < 0.05) compared to birds fed the control diet, while being significantly lower than those fed AB. Unchallenged birds fed SA or SB had higher FI at d 24 and 35 compared to those fed the control diet (P < 0.05). Birds fed SB had increased (P < 0.001) jejunal villus height/crypt depth (VH:CD) ratios at d 15, increased ileal (P < 0.001) and caecal (P < 0.001) butyrate levels at d 15 and 24, and decreased (P < 0.01) caecal pH at d 15. Birds fed SA had increased (P < 0.001) ileal acetate content at d 24 and decreased (P < 0.01) caecal pH at d 15. These results demonstrated that dietary acylated starch improved WG in birds challenged with necrotic enteritis. Depending on the acid used, starch acylation also offers a degree of specificity in short chain fatty acid (SCFA) delivery to the lower intestinal tract which improves gut health. PMID:26287000

  9. The use of certified seeds of improved wheat varieties in farms and the contributions of certified seed usage to enterprise economies: the case of Ankara province in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tanrivermiş, Harun; Akdoğan, Ilyas

    2007-12-15

    In this research, the use of certificated seeds of improved wheat varieties in farms of Ankara, which have an important share in wheat production of Turkey and the contributions of the certified seeds usage to enterprise economy have been evaluated by using data collected from farms via a questionnaire. The low level of use of certificated wheat seed in farms is associated with many factors, such as price of the seed (cost), yield gains and suitability of the varieties for the farming aims of producers. Average productivity is 49.5% and average net profit is 39.7% higher in the production of wheat with certificated seeds of improved varieties in farms in comparison to farming with traditional varieties. Average productivity in wheat production with uncertified seeds of improved varieties is 24.9% and net profit per unit area is 24.3% higher than wheat production with traditional varieties. The net economic benefit of wheat production using certificated seeds of improved varieties and that of wheat farming with uncertified seeds has been estimated at $ 102.40 and $ 62.70 ha(-1), respectively. Some $ 6.4 benefit is generated in return for $ 1 of expense in wheat farming with certificated seeds of improved varieties instead of traditional varieties. In the absence of state subsidies for certificated seeds the use of uncertified seeds seems to be advantageous for producers. While the amount of subsidy per hectare will be a minimum of $ 101 for certificated seeds per hectare of planting area (as technological improvement), the support will be encouraging for usage of certified seeds. Many variables, such as farm size, use of certified seeds, topography of land, production system, education level and frequency of visiting the agriculture organizations of the producers influence the level of gross profit per unit area in wheat farming. Low level of use of certificated seed in farms decreases the economic benefit of new varieties which are developed as a result of long

  10. Dietary nitrate improves vascular function in patients with hypercholesterolemia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study123

    PubMed Central

    Velmurugan, Shanti; Gan, Jasmine Ming; Rathod, Krishnaraj S; Khambata, Rayomand S; Ghosh, Suborno M; Hartley, Amy; Van Eijl, Sven; Sagi-Kiss, Virag; Chowdhury, Tahseen A; Curtis, Mike; Kuhnle, Gunter GC; Wade, William G; Ahluwalia, Amrita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The beneficial cardiovascular effects of vegetables may be underpinned by their high inorganic nitrate content. Objective: We sought to examine the effects of a 6-wk once-daily intake of dietary nitrate (nitrate-rich beetroot juice) compared with placebo intake (nitrate-depleted beetroot juice) on vascular and platelet function in untreated hypercholesterolemics. Design: A total of 69 subjects were recruited in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study. The primary endpoint was the change in vascular function determined with the use of ultrasound flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). Results: Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups, with primary outcome data available for 67 patients. Dietary nitrate resulted in an absolute increase in the FMD response of 1.1% (an ∼24% improvement from baseline) with a worsening of 0.3% in the placebo group (P < 0.001). A small improvement in the aortic pulse wave velocity (i.e., a decrease of 0.22 m/s; 95% CI: −0.4, −0.3 m/s) was evident in the nitrate group, showing a trend (P = 0.06) to improvement in comparison with the placebo group. Dietary nitrate also caused a small but significant reduction (7.6%) in platelet-monocyte aggregates compared with an increase of 10.1% in the placebo group (P = 0.004), with statistically significant reductions in stimulated (ex vivo) P-selectin expression compared with the placebo group (P < 0.05) but no significant changes in unstimulated expression. No adverse effects of dietary nitrate were detected. The composition of the salivary microbiome was altered after the nitrate treatment but not after the placebo treatment (P < 0.01). The proportions of 78 bacterial taxa were different after the nitrate treatment; of those taxa present, 2 taxa were responsible for >1% of this change, with the proportions of Rothia mucilaginosa trending to increase and Neisseria flavescens (P < 0.01) increased after nitrate treatment relative to after placebo

  11. Replacing dietary soybean meal with canola meal improves production and efficiency of lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Broderick, Glen A; Faciola, Antonio P; Armentano, Louis E

    2015-08-01

    Previous research suggested that crude protein (CP) from canola meal (CM) was used more efficiently than CP from solvent soybean meal (SBM) by lactating dairy cows. We tested whether dietary CP content influenced relative effectiveness of equal supplemental CP from either CM or SBM. Fifty lactating Holstein cows were blocked by parity and days in milk into 10 squares (2 squares with ruminal cannulas) in a replicated 5×5 Latin square trial. Five squares were fed: (1) low (14.5-14.8%) CP with SBM, (2) low CP with CM, (3) low CP with SBM plus CM, (4) high (16.4-16.7%) CP with SBM, and (5) high CP with CM; the other 5 squares were fed the same diets except with rumen-protected Met plus Lys (RPML) added as Mepron (Degussa Corp., Kennesaw, GA) and AminoShure-L (Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY), which were assumed to provide 8g/d of absorbed dl-Met and 12g/d of absorbed l-Lys. Diets contained [dry matter (DM) basis] 40% corn silage, 26% alfalfa silage, 14 to 23% corn grain, 2.4% mineral-vitamin premixes, and 29 to 33% neutral detergent fiber. Periods were 3wk (total 15wk), and data from the last week of each period were analyzed using the Mixed procedures of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The only effects of RPML were increased DM intake and milk urea N (MUN) and urinary N excretion and trends for decreased milk lactose and solids-not-fat concentrations and milk-N:N intake; no significant RPML × protein source interactions were detected. Higher dietary CP increased milk fat yield and tended to increase milk yield but also elevated MUN, urine volume, urinary N excretion, ruminal concentrations of ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA), lowered milk lactose concentration and milk-N:N intake, and had no effect on milk true protein yield. Feeding CM instead of SBM increased feed intake, yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, and true protein, and milk-N:N intake, tended to increase fat and lactose yields, and reduced MUN, urine volume, and urinary N

  12. Dietary nitrate reduces muscle metabolic perturbation and improves exercise tolerance in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Vanhatalo, Anni; Fulford, Jonathan; Bailey, Stephen J; Blackwell, James R; Winyard, Paul G; Jones, Andrew M

    2011-11-15

    Exercise in hypoxia is associated with reduced muscle oxidative function and impaired exercise tolerance. We hypothesised that dietary nitrate supplementation (which increases plasma [nitrite] and thus NO bioavailability) would ameliorate the adverse effects of hypoxia on muscle metabolism and oxidative function. In a double-blind, randomised crossover study, nine healthy subjects completed knee-extension exercise to the limit of tolerance (T(lim)), once in normoxia (20.9% O(2); CON) and twice in hypoxia (14.5% O(2)). During 24 h prior to the hypoxia trials, subjects consumed 0.75 L of nitrate-rich beetroot juice (9.3 mmol nitrate; H-BR) or 0.75 L of nitrate-depleted beetroot juice as a placebo (0.006 mmol nitrate; H-PL). Muscle metabolism was assessed using calibrated (31)P-MRS. Plasma [nitrite] was elevated (P < 0.01) following BR (194 ± 51 nm) compared to PL (129 ± 23 nm) and CON (142 ± 37 nM). T(lim) was reduced in H-PL compared to CON (393 ± 169 vs. 471 ± 200 s; P < 0.05) but was not different between CON and H-BR (477 ± 200 s). The muscle [PCr], [P(i)] and pH changed at a faster rate in H-PL compared to CON and H-BR. The [PCr] recovery time constant was greater (P < 0.01) in H-PL (29 ± 5 s) compared to CON (23 ± 5 s) and H-BR (24 ± 5 s). Nitrate supplementation reduced muscle metabolic perturbation during exercise in hypoxia and restored exercise tolerance and oxidative function to values observed in normoxia. The results suggest that augmenting the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway may have important therapeutic applications for improving muscle energetics and functional capacity in hypoxia. PMID:21911616

  13. Dietary nitrate reduces muscle metabolic perturbation and improves exercise tolerance in hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Vanhatalo, Anni; Fulford, Jonathan; Bailey, Stephen J; Blackwell, James R; Winyard, Paul G; Jones, Andrew M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Exercise in hypoxia is associated with reduced muscle oxidative function and impaired exercise tolerance. We hypothesised that dietary nitrate supplementation (which increases plasma [nitrite] and thus NO bioavailability) would ameliorate the adverse effects of hypoxia on muscle metabolism and oxidative function. In a double-blind, randomised crossover study, nine healthy subjects completed knee-extension exercise to the limit of tolerance (Tlim), once in normoxia (20.9% O2; CON) and twice in hypoxia (14.5% O2). During 24 h prior to the hypoxia trials, subjects consumed 0.75 L of nitrate-rich beetroot juice (9.3 mmol nitrate; H-BR) or 0.75 L of nitrate-depleted beetroot juice as a placebo (0.006 mmol nitrate; H-PL). Muscle metabolism was assessed using calibrated 31P-MRS. Plasma [nitrite] was elevated (P < 0.01) following BR (194 ± 51 nm) compared to PL (129 ± 23 nm) and CON (142 ± 37 nM). Tlim was reduced in H-PL compared to CON (393 ± 169 vs. 471 ± 200 s; P < 0.05) but was not different between CON and H-BR (477 ± 200 s). The muscle [PCr], [Pi] and pH changed at a faster rate in H-PL compared to CON and H-BR. The [PCr] recovery time constant was greater (P < 0.01) in H-PL (29 ± 5 s) compared to CON (23 ± 5 s) and H-BR (24 ± 5 s). Nitrate supplementation reduced muscle metabolic perturbation during exercise in hypoxia and restored exercise tolerance and oxidative function to values observed in normoxia. The results suggest that augmenting the nitrate–nitrite–NO pathway may have important therapeutic applications for improving muscle energetics and functional capacity in hypoxia. PMID:21911616

  14. Anti-inflammatory Dietary Interventions and Supplements to Improve Performance during Athletic Training.

    PubMed

    Buonocore, Daniela; Negro, Massimo; Arcelli, Enrico; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    Despite the numerous positive effects of physical exercise, some negative physiological changes occur in long-lasting heavy training with transient dysfunction of the immune system, increased inflammation, and oxidative stress. This is the case of elite athletes, who train intensively to compete at the highest levels. However, these athletes can counteract the negative effects of heavy training, reducing acute and chronic inflammations and supporting the immune system, with nutritional and supplementation countermeasures. For this purpose, macronutrient manipulation with an appropriate use of certain supplements can be considered as an intervention to reduce exercise-induced immune changes and inflammatory risk. For example, branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation may promote such immune responses in skeletal muscle. Furthermore, micronutrients play an important role in immune function; in particular, the antioxidant capacity of several dietary micronutrients (e.g., tocopherols, docosahexaenoate, and flavonoids) is very interesting to support the endogenous antioxidant defense systems of the athletes, counterbalancing the negative effects of oxidative damage due to free radicals. Some of these nutrients have potential anti-inflammatory properties as assessed by the attenuated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Key Teaching Points: Long-lasting heavy training plan and competition can lead to chronic immune suppression in athletes, increasing infection risk. Chronic exercise increases mobilization of neutrophils, decreases mobilization of lymphocytes, and decreases the absolute and relative numbers of neutrophils at rest. Nutritional deficiencies alter the immuno-system and increase infection risk. Nutrition can influence exercise-induced immune suppression. Elite athletes competing at the highest levels can benefit from nutritional and supplementation support to improve immunity and reduce acute and chronic inflammations. PMID

  15. A social marketing theory-based diet-education program for women ages 54 to 83 years improved dietary status.

    PubMed

    Francis, Sarah L; Taylor, Martha L

    2009-12-01

    Social Marketing Theory is a comprehensive approach of program development encompassing the needs and preferences of the intended audience. It was hypothesized a Social Marketing Theory-based, registered dietitian-led, in-home, cardiovascular disease-targeted diet-education program would improve the dietary status of community-residing older women. Using a randomized control group design, this 90-day program in two North Carolina counties included 58 women (30 control; 28 intervention) ages 54 to 83 years. Data were collected using the Mini Nutritional Assessment, three 3-day food records, and program evaluations. The intervention group received two individual registered dietitian-led in-home education sessions and the control group received education material mailings (Visits 2 and 3). Pretested education materials were used. Visits/mailings were scheduled 28 to 30 days apart. Variables measured included cardiovascular disease-related dietary practices and dietary status (Mini Nutritional Assessment). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired sample t tests, multivariant analyses, and independent t tests. Intervention and control Mini Nutritional Assessment scores improved (P=0.0001). Intervention subjects consumed more fiber than control (P=0.013) and reduced sodium intake (P=0.02). Controls reduced energy (P=0.01) and cholesterol intakes (P=0.029), likely because of the decreased food intake. The majority (n=51, 87.9%) rated the program as good to excellent and almost all (n=55, 94.8%) would recommend the program to a friend. The most popular features of the program were the individualized sessions (n=20, 34.5%) and diet analyses (n=11, 19%). These results suggest that cardiovascular disease diet-education materials utilizing Social Marketing Theory principles can lead to improved dietary status among community-residing older women. PMID:19942023

  16. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids robustly promotes neurovascular restorative dynamics and improves neurological functions after stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenting; Wang, Hailian; Zhang, Hui; Leak, Rehana K; Shi, Yejie; Hu, Xiaoming; Gao, Yanqin; Chen, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Stroke is a devastating neurological disease with no satisfactory therapies to preserve long-term neurological function, perhaps due to the sole emphasis on neuronal survival in most preclinical studies. Recent studies have revealed the importance of protecting multiple cell types in the injured brain, such as oligodendrocytes and components of the neurovascular unit, before long-lasting recovery of function can be achieved. For example, revascularization in the ischemic penumbra is critical to provide various neurotrophic factors that enhance the survival and activity of neurons and other progenitor cells, such as oligodendrocyte precursor cells. In the present study, we hypothesized that chronic dietary supplementation with fish oil promotes post-stroke angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and oligodendrogenesis, thereby leading to long-term functional improvements. Mice received dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFA-enriched fish oil for three months before and up to one month after stroke. As expected, dietary n-3 PUFAs significantly increased levels of n-3 PUFAs in the brain and improved long-term behavioral outcomes after cerebral ischemia. n-3 PUFAs also robustly improved revascularization and angiogenesis and boosted the survival of NeuN/BrdU labeled newborn neurons up to 35days after stroke injury. Furthermore, these pro-neurogenic effects were accompanied by robust oligodendrogenesis. Thus, this is the first study to demonstrate that chronic dietary intake of n-3 PUFAs is an effective prophylactic measure not only to protect against ischemic injury for the long term but also to actively promote neurovascular restorative dynamics and brain repair. PMID:25771800

  17. Paleolithic nutrition improves plasma lipid concentrations of hypercholesterolemic adults to a greater extent than traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Robert L; Brooks, Judith T; Carbone, John W

    2015-06-01

    Recent research suggests that traditional grain-based heart-healthy diet recommendations, which replace dietary saturated fat with carbohydrate and reduce total fat intake, may result in unfavorable plasma lipid ratios, with reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and an elevation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triacylglycerols (TG). The current study tested the hypothesis that a grain-free Paleolithic diet would induce weight loss and improve plasma total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and TG concentrations in nondiabetic adults with hyperlipidemia to a greater extent than a grain-based heart-healthy diet, based on the recommendations of the American Heart Association. Twenty volunteers (10 male and 10 female) aged 40 to 62 years were selected based on diagnosis of hypercholesterolemia. Volunteers were not taking any cholesterol-lowering medications and adhered to a traditional heart-healthy diet for 4 months, followed by a Paleolithic diet for 4 months. Regression analysis was used to determine whether change in body weight contributed to observed changes in plasma lipid concentrations. Differences in dietary intakes and plasma lipid measures were assessed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Four months of Paleolithic nutrition significantly lowered (P < .001) mean total cholesterol, LDL, and TG and increased (P < .001) HDL, independent of changes in body weight, relative to both baseline and the traditional heart-healthy diet. Paleolithic nutrition offers promising potential for nutritional management of hyperlipidemia in adults whose lipid profiles have not improved after following more traditional heart-healthy dietary recommendations. PMID:26003334

  18. Dietary Leucine Supplementation Improves the Mucin Production in the Jejunal Mucosa of the Weaned Pigs Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiangbing; Liu, Minghui; Tang, Jun; Chen, Hao; Chen, Daiwen; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The present study was mainly conducted to determine whether dietary leucine supplementation could attenuate the decrease of the mucin production in the jejunal mucosa of weaned pigs infected by porcine rotavirus (PRV). A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets supplemented with 1.00% L-leucine or 0.68% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) for 17 d. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused PRV or the sterile essential medium. During the first 10 d of trial, dietary leucine supplementation could improve the feed efficiency (P = 0.09). The ADG and feed efficiency were impaired by PRV infusion (P<0.05). PRV infusion also increased mean cumulative score of diarrhea, serum rotavirus antibody concentration and crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and decreased villus height: crypt depth (P = 0.07), goblet cell numbers (P<0.05), mucin 1 and 2 concentrations (P<0.05) and phosphorylated mTOR level (P<0.05) of the jejunal mucosa in weaned pigs. Dietary leucine supplementation could attenuate the effects of PRV infusion on feed efficiency (P = 0.09) and mean cumulative score of diarrhea (P = 0.09), and improve the effects of PRV infusion on villus height: crypt depth (P = 0.06), goblet cell numbers (P<0.05), mucin 1 (P = 0.08) and 2 (P = 0.07) concentrations and phosphorylated mTOR level (P = 0.08) of the jejunal mucosa in weaned pigs. These results suggest that dietary 1% leucine supplementation alleviated the decrease of mucin production and goblet cell numbers in the jejunal mucosa of weaned pigs challenged by PRV possibly via activation of the mTOR signaling. PMID:26336074

  19. Dietary Leucine Supplementation Improves the Mucin Production in the Jejunal Mucosa of the Weaned Pigs Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xiangbing; Liu, Minghui; Tang, Jun; Chen, Hao; Chen, Daiwen; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping

    2015-01-01

    The present study was mainly conducted to determine whether dietary leucine supplementation could attenuate the decrease of the mucin production in the jejunal mucosa of weaned pigs infected by porcine rotavirus (PRV). A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets supplemented with 1.00% L-leucine or 0.68% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control) for 17 d. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused PRV or the sterile essential medium. During the first 10 d of trial, dietary leucine supplementation could improve the feed efficiency (P = 0.09). The ADG and feed efficiency were impaired by PRV infusion (P<0.05). PRV infusion also increased mean cumulative score of diarrhea, serum rotavirus antibody concentration and crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and decreased villus height: crypt depth (P = 0.07), goblet cell numbers (P<0.05), mucin 1 and 2 concentrations (P<0.05) and phosphorylated mTOR level (P<0.05) of the jejunal mucosa in weaned pigs. Dietary leucine supplementation could attenuate the effects of PRV infusion on feed efficiency (P = 0.09) and mean cumulative score of diarrhea (P = 0.09), and improve the effects of PRV infusion on villus height: crypt depth (P = 0.06), goblet cell numbers (P<0.05), mucin 1 (P = 0.08) and 2 (P = 0.07) concentrations and phosphorylated mTOR level (P = 0.08) of the jejunal mucosa in weaned pigs. These results suggest that dietary 1% leucine supplementation alleviated the decrease of mucin production and goblet cell numbers in the jejunal mucosa of weaned pigs challenged by PRV possibly via activation of the mTOR signaling. PMID:26336074

  20. On the mechanism by which dietary nitrate improves human skeletal muscle function

    PubMed Central

    Affourtit, Charles; Bailey, Stephen J.; Jones, Andrew M.; Smallwood, Miranda J.; Winyard, Paul G.

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic nitrate is present at high levels in beetroot and celery, and in green leafy vegetables such as spinach and lettuce. Though long believed inert, nitrate can be reduced to nitrite in the human mouth and, further, under hypoxia and/or low pH, to nitric oxide. Dietary nitrate has thus been associated favorably with nitric-oxide-regulated processes including blood flow and energy metabolism. Indeed, the therapeutic potential of dietary nitrate in cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome—both aging-related medical disorders—has attracted considerable recent research interest. We and others have shown that dietary nitrate supplementation lowers the oxygen cost of human exercise, as less respiratory activity appears to be required for a set rate of skeletal muscle work. This striking observation predicts that nitrate benefits the energy metabolism of human muscle, increasing the efficiency of either mitochondrial ATP synthesis and/or of cellular ATP-consuming processes. In this mini-review, we evaluate experimental support for the dietary nitrate effects on muscle bioenergetics and we critically discuss the likelihood of nitric oxide as the molecular mediator of such effects. PMID:26283970

  1. On the mechanism by which dietary nitrate improves human skeletal muscle function.

    PubMed

    Affourtit, Charles; Bailey, Stephen J; Jones, Andrew M; Smallwood, Miranda J; Winyard, Paul G

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic nitrate is present at high levels in beetroot and celery, and in green leafy vegetables such as spinach and lettuce. Though long believed inert, nitrate can be reduced to nitrite in the human mouth and, further, under hypoxia and/or low pH, to nitric oxide. Dietary nitrate has thus been associated favorably with nitric-oxide-regulated processes including blood flow and energy metabolism. Indeed, the therapeutic potential of dietary nitrate in cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome-both aging-related medical disorders-has attracted considerable recent research interest. We and others have shown that dietary nitrate supplementation lowers the oxygen cost of human exercise, as less respiratory activity appears to be required for a set rate of skeletal muscle work. This striking observation predicts that nitrate benefits the energy metabolism of human muscle, increasing the efficiency of either mitochondrial ATP synthesis and/or of cellular ATP-consuming processes. In this mini-review, we evaluate experimental support for the dietary nitrate effects on muscle bioenergetics and we critically discuss the likelihood of nitric oxide as the molecular mediator of such effects. PMID:26283970

  2. The role of yogurt in improving the quality of the American diet and meeting dietary guidelines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) recommend 3 daily servings of lowfat or nonfat dairy products, however, two-thirds of Americans do not meet that goal. Including lowfat or nonfat yogurt as part of an overall healthful diet can be a positive step towards meeting the DGA. Yogurt contains cal...

  3. A Dietary Treatment Improves Cerebral Blood Flow and Brain Connectivity in Aging apoE4 Mice.

    PubMed

    Wiesmann, Maximilian; Zerbi, Valerio; Jansen, Diane; Haast, Roy; Lütjohann, Dieter; Broersen, Laus M; Heerschap, Arend; Kiliaan, Amanda J

    2016-01-01

    APOE ε4 (apoE4) polymorphism is the main genetic determinant of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). A dietary approach (Fortasyn) including docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, uridine, choline, phospholipids, folic acid, vitamins B12, B6, C, and E, and selenium has been proposed for dietary management of AD. We hypothesize that the diet could inhibit AD-like pathologies in apoE4 mice, specifically cerebrovascular and connectivity impairment. Moreover, we evaluated the diet effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF), functional connectivity (FC), gray/white matter integrity, and postsynaptic density in aging apoE4 mice. At 10-12 months, apoE4 mice did not display prominent pathological differences compared to wild-type (WT) mice. However, 16-18-month-old apoE4 mice revealed reduced CBF and accelerated synaptic loss. The diet increased cortical CBF and amount of synapses and improved white matter integrity and FC in both aging apoE4 and WT mice. We demonstrated that protective mechanisms on vascular and synapse health are enhanced by Fortasyn, independent of apoE genotype. We further showed the efficacy of a multimodal translational approach, including advanced MR neuroimaging, to study dietary intervention on brain structure and function in aging. PMID:27034849

  4. A theory-based newsletter nutrition education program reduces nutritional risk and improves dietary intake for congregate meal participants.

    PubMed

    Francis, Sarah L; MacNab, Lindsay; Shelley, Mack

    2014-01-01

    At-risk older adults need community-based nutrition programs that improve nutritional status and practices. This 6-month study assessed the impact of the traditional Chef Charles (CC) program (Control) compared to a theory-based CC program (Treatment) on nutritional risk (NR), dietary intakes, self-efficacy (SE), food security (FS), and program satisfaction for congregate meal participants. Participants were mostly educated, single, "food secure" White females. NR change for the treatment group was significantly higher (P = 0.042) than the control group. No differences were noted for SE or FS change and program satisfaction between groups. The overall distribution classification levels of FS changed significantly (P < .001) from pre to post. Over half (n = 46, 76.7%) reported making dietary changes and the majority (n = 52, 86.7%) rated CC as good to excellent. Results suggest the theory-based CC program (treatment) is more effective in reducing NR and dietary practices than the traditional CC program (control). PMID:24827061

  5. A Dietary Treatment Improves Cerebral Blood Flow and Brain Connectivity in Aging apoE4 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wiesmann, Maximilian; Zerbi, Valerio; Jansen, Diane; Haast, Roy; Lütjohann, Dieter; Broersen, Laus M.; Heerschap, Arend

    2016-01-01

    APOE ε4 (apoE4) polymorphism is the main genetic determinant of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). A dietary approach (Fortasyn) including docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, uridine, choline, phospholipids, folic acid, vitamins B12, B6, C, and E, and selenium has been proposed for dietary management of AD. We hypothesize that the diet could inhibit AD-like pathologies in apoE4 mice, specifically cerebrovascular and connectivity impairment. Moreover, we evaluated the diet effect on cerebral blood flow (CBF), functional connectivity (FC), gray/white matter integrity, and postsynaptic density in aging apoE4 mice. At 10–12 months, apoE4 mice did not display prominent pathological differences compared to wild-type (WT) mice. However, 16–18-month-old apoE4 mice revealed reduced CBF and accelerated synaptic loss. The diet increased cortical CBF and amount of synapses and improved white matter integrity and FC in both aging apoE4 and WT mice. We demonstrated that protective mechanisms on vascular and synapse health are enhanced by Fortasyn, independent of apoE genotype. We further showed the efficacy of a multimodal translational approach, including advanced MR neuroimaging, to study dietary intervention on brain structure and function in aging. PMID:27034849

  6. Surface Variety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02175 Surface Variety This image of part of Aram Chaos shows two different surface textures with distinctly different brightnesses. The lighter layer appears to be on top (therefore younger) than the darker surface.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 2.1N, Longitude 338.7E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  7. Dune Variety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02173 Dune Variety

    This image of the east end of Coprates Chasma contains several dune fields. The dunes in the center of the image are larger and darker than the dunes at the bottom.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -14.8N, Longitude 304.3E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Canyon Variety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03281 Canyon Variety

    This image shows paret of the west end of Melas Chasma. Landslide deposits are visible at the top of the image, with dark dunes appearing at the bottom.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8.2N, Longitude 281.0E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Dietary supplements in sport.

    PubMed

    Burke, L M; Read, R S

    1993-01-01

    Studies of the dietary practices of athletes report that nutritional supplements are commonly used. Supplementation practices vary between sports and individual athletes; however, there is evidence that at least some athletes use a large number of supplements concurrently, often in doses that are very high in comparison with normal dietary intakes. In exploring supplementation practices we propose a classification system separating the supplements into dietary supplements and nutritional erogogenic aids. The dietary supplement is characterised as a product which can be used to address physiological or nutritional issues arising in sport. It may provide a convenient or practical means of consuming special nutrient requirements for exercise, or it may be used to prevent/reverse nutritional deficiencies that commonly occur among athletes. The basis of the dietary supplement is an understanding of nutritional requirements and physiological effects of exercise. When the supplement is used to successfully meet a physiological/nutritional goal arising in sport it may be demonstrated to improve sports performance. While there is some interest in refining the composition or formulation of some dietary supplements, the real interest belongs to the use or application of the supplement; i.e. educating athletes to understand and achieve their nutritional needs in a specific sports situation. The sports drink (carbohydrate-electrolyte replacement drink) is a well known example of a dietary supplement. Scientific attitudes towards the sports drink have changed over the past 20 years. Initial caution that carbohydrate-electrolyte fluids compromise gastric emptying during exercise has now been shown to be unjustified. Numerous studies have shown that 5 to 10% solutions of glucose, glucose polymers (maltodextrins) and other simple sugars all have suitable gastric emptying characteristics for the delivery of fluid and moderate amounts of carbohydrate substrate. The optimal

  10. Optimal dietary protein level improved growth, disease resistance, intestinal immune and physical barrier function of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella).

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Wu, Pei; Jiang, Wei-Dan; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Jun; Kuang, Sheng-Yao; Tang, Ling; Tang, Wu-Neng; Zhang, Yong-An; Zhou, Xiao-Qiu; Feng, Lin

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary proteins on the growth, disease resistance, intestinal immune and physical barrier functions of young grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). A total of 540 young grass carp (264.11 ± 0.76 g) were fed six diets containing graded levels of protein (143.1, 176.7, 217.2, 257.5, 292.2 and 322.8 g digestible protein kg(-1) diet) for 8 weeks. After the growth trial, fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and mortalities were recorded for 14 days. The results indicated that optimal dietary protein levels: increased the production of antibacterial components, up-regulated anti-inflammatory cytokines, inhibitor of κBα, target of rapamycin and ribosomal protein S6 kinases 1 mRNA levels, whereas down-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) P65, NF-κB P52, c-Rel, IκB kinase β, IκB kinase γ and eIF4E-binding proteins 2 mRNA levels in three intestinal segments of young grass carp (P < 0.05), suggesting that optimal dietary protein level could enhance fish intestinal immune barrier function; up-regulated the mRNA levels of tight junction complexes, B-cell lymphoma protein-2, inhibitor of apoptosis proteins, myeloid cell leukemia-1 and NF-E2-related factor 2, and increased the activities and mRNA levels of antioxidant enzymes, whereas down-regulated myosin light chain kinase, cysteinyl aspartic acid-protease 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, fatty acid synthetase ligand, apoptotic protease activating factor-1, Bcl-2 associated X protein, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase and Kelch-like-ECH-associated protein 1b mRNA levels, and decreased reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl contents in three intestinal segments of young grass carp (P < 0.05), indicating that optimal dietary protein level could improve fish intestinal physical barrier function. Finally, the optimal dietary protein levels for the growth performance (PWG) and against enteritis

  11. A food store intervention trial improves caregiver psychosocial factors and children's dietary intake in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Vijayadeva, Vinutha; Davison, Nicola; Ramirez, Vickie; Cheung, Leo W K; Murphy, Suzanne; Novotny, Rachel

    2010-02-01

    Diet-related chronic diseases are at epidemic levels in low-income ethnic minority populations. The purpose of this study is to decrease risk for obesity in children by modifying the food environment and conducting point-of-purchase promotions that will lead to changes in psychosocial factors and behaviors associated with healthier food choices among low-income communities with a preponderance of Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders. We implemented an intervention trial over a 9-11-month period in five food stores in two low-income multiethnic communities in Hawaii, targeting both children and their adult caregivers. The Healthy Foods Hawaii (HFH) intervention consisted of an environmental component to increase store stocking of nutritious foods, point-of-purchase promotions, interactive sessions, and involved local producers and distributors. We evaluated the impact of the program on 116 child-caregiver dyads, sampled from two intervention and two comparison areas before and after intervention implementation. Program impacts were evaluated using multivariable linear regression. The HFH program had a significant impact on caregiver knowledge and the perception that healthy foods are convenient. Intervention children significantly increased their Healthy Eating Index (HEI) score for servings of grains, their total consumption of water, and showed an average 8.5 point (out of 90 total, eliminating the 10 points for variety, giving a 9.4% increase) increase in overall HEI score. A food store intervention was effective in improving healthy food knowledge and perception that healthy foods are convenient among caregivers, and increased the consumption of several targeted healthy foods by their children. Greater intensity, sustained food system change, and further targeting for children are needed to show greater and sustained change in food-related behaviors in low-income Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander communities. PMID:20107467

  12. Optimisation Modelling to Assess Cost of Dietary Improvement in Remote Aboriginal Australia

    PubMed Central

    Brimblecombe, Julie; Ferguson, Megan; Liberato, Selma C.; O'Dea, Kerin; Riley, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Background The cost and dietary choices required to fulfil nutrient recommendations defined nationally, need investigation, particularly for disadvantaged populations. Objective We used optimisation modelling to examine the dietary change required to achieve nutrient requirements at minimum cost for an Aboriginal population in remote Australia, using where possible minimally-processed whole foods. Design A twelve month cross-section of population-level purchased food, food price and nutrient content data was used as the baseline. Relative amounts from 34 food group categories were varied to achieve specific energy and nutrient density goals at minimum cost while meeting model constraints intended to minimise deviation from the purchased diet. Results Simultaneous achievement of all nutrient goals was not feasible. The two most successful models (A & B) met all nutrient targets except sodium (146.2% and 148.9% of the respective target) and saturated fat (12.0% and 11.7% of energy). Model A was achieved with 3.2% lower cost than the baseline diet (which cost approximately AUD$13.01/person/day) and Model B at 7.8% lower cost but with a reduction in energy of 4.4%. Both models required very large reductions in sugar sweetened beverages (−90%) and refined cereals (−90%) and an approximate four-fold increase in vegetables, fruit, dairy foods, eggs, fish and seafood, and wholegrain cereals. Conclusion This modelling approach suggested population level dietary recommendations at minimal cost based on the baseline purchased diet. Large shifts in diet in remote Aboriginal Australian populations are needed to achieve national nutrient targets. The modeling approach used was not able to meet all nutrient targets at less than current food expenditure. PMID:24391790

  13. Dietary Supplementation with Lactobacilli Improves Emergency Granulopoiesis in Protein-Malnourished Mice and Enhances Respiratory Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Matias; Salva, Susana; Villena, Julio; Barbieri, Natalia; Marranzino, Gabriela; Alvarez, Susana

    2014-01-01

    This work studied the effect of protein malnutrition on the hemato-immune response to the respiratory challenge with Streptococcus pneumoniae and evaluated whether the dietary recovery with a probiotic strain has a beneficial effect in that response. Three important conclusions can be inferred from the results presented in this work: a) protein-malnutrition significantly impairs the emergency myelopoiesis induced by the generation of the innate immune response against pneumococcal infection; b) repletion of malnourished mice with treatments including nasally or orally administered Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505 are able to significantly accelerate the recovery of granulopoiesis and improve innate immunity and; c) the immunological mechanisms involved in the protective effect of immunobiotics vary according to the route of administration. The study demonstrated that dietary recovery of malnourished mice with oral or nasal administration of L. rhamnosus CRL1505 improves emergency granulopoiesis and that CXCR4/CXCR12 signaling would be involved in this effect. Then, the results summarized here are a starting point for future research and open up broad prospects for future applications of probiotics in the recovery of immunocompromised malnourished hosts. PMID:24691464

  14. Improvement of Basmati rice varieties for resistance to blast and bacterial blight diseases using marker assisted backcross breeding.

    PubMed

    Ellur, Ranjith K; Khanna, Apurva; Yadav, Ashutosh; Pathania, Sandeep; Rajashekara, H; Singh, Vikas K; Gopala Krishnan, S; Bhowmick, Prolay K; Nagarajan, M; Vinod, K K; Prakash, G; Mondal, Kalyan K; Singh, Nagendra K; Vinod Prabhu, K; Singh, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    Marker assisted backcross breeding was employed to incorporate the blast resistance genes, Pi2 and Pi54 and bacterial blight (BB) resistance genes xa13 and Xa21 into the genetic background of Pusa Basmati 1121 (PB1121) and Pusa Basmati 6. Foreground selection for target gene(s) was followed by arduous phenotypic and background selection which fast-tracked the recovery of recurrent parent genome (RPG) to an extent of 95.8% in one of the near-isogenic lines (NILs) namely, Pusa 1728-23-33-31-56, which also showed high degree of resemblance to recurrent parent, PB6 in phenotype. The phenotypic selection prior to background selection provided an additional opportunity for identifying the novel recombinants viz., Pusa 1884-9-12-14 and Pusa 1884-3-9-175, superior to parental lines in terms of early maturity, higher yield and improved quality parameters. There was no significant difference between the RPG recovery estimated based on SSR or SNP markers, however, the panel of SNPs markers was considered as the better choice for background selection as it provided better genome coverage and included SNPs in the genic regions. Multi-location evaluation of NILs depicted their stable and high mean performance in comparison to the respective recurrent parents. The Pi2+Pi54 carrying NILs were effective in combating a pan-India panel of Magnaporthe oryzae isolates with high level of field resistance in northern, eastern and southern parts of India. Alongside, the PB1121-NILs and PB6-NILs carrying BB resistance genes xa13+Xa21 were resistant against Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae races of north-western, southern and eastern parts of the country. Three of NILs developed in this study, have been promoted to final stage of testing during the ​Kharif 2015 in the Indian National Basmati Trial. PMID:26566849

  15. Molar microwear of subfossil lemurs: improving the resolution of dietary inferences.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, K L; Teaford, M F; Jungers, W L

    2002-11-01

    In this study we use molar microwear analyses to examine the trophic distinctions among various taxa of Malagasy subfossil lemurs. High resolution casts of the teeth of Megaladapis, Archaeolemur, Palaeopropithecus, Babakotia, and Hadropithecus were examined under a scanning electron microscope. Megaladapis was undoubtedly a browsing folivore, but there are significant differences between species of this genus. However, dietary specialists appear to be the exception; for example, Palaeopropithecus and Babakotia probably supplemented their leaf-eating with substantial amounts of seed-predation, much like modern indrids. Hadropithecus was decidedly not like the modern gelada baboon, but probably did feed on hard objects. Evidence from microwear and coprolites suggests that Archaeolemur probably had an eclectic diet that differed regionally and perhaps seasonally. Substantial trophic diversity within Madgascar's primate community was diminished by the late Quaternary extinctions of the large-bodied species (>9 kg). PMID:12457853

  16. Nutritional composition of Pakistani wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Ikhtiar, Khan; Alam, Zeb

    2007-08-01

    Pakistani wheat varieties are grown over a wide agro-climatic range and as such are anticipated to exhibit yield and quality differences. It is therefore necessary to investigate the nutritional status of wheat varieties in terms of biochemical and physiochemical characteristics available for food and nutritional purposes in Pakistan. The result shows that wheat grains of different varieties contain a net protein level of 9.15%-10.27%, 2.15%-2.55% total fats, 1.72%-1.85% dietary fibers, 77.65x10(-6)-84.25x10(-6) of potassium and 7.70x10(-6)-35.90x10(-6) of sodium ions concentration, 0.24x10(-6)-0.84x10(-6) of phosphorus, 1.44%-2.10% ash, 31.108-43.602 g of thousand grain mass (TGM) and 8.38%-9.67% moisture contents. This study is significant in providing an opportunity to explore the available wheat varieties and to further improve their nutritional excellence and also essential for setting nutritional regulations for domestic and export purposes. PMID:17657856

  17. Dietary Phytoncide Supplementation Improved Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Han Lin; Zhao, Pin Yao; Lei, Yan; Hossain, Md Manik; Kang, Jungsun; Kim, In Ho

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this 10-wk experiment to evaluate the effects of dietary phytoncide, Korean pine extract as phytogenic feed additive (PFA), on growth performance, blood characteristics, and meat quality in finishing pigs. A total of 160 pigs ([Landrace×Yorkshire]×Duroc, body weight (BW) = 58.2±1.0 kg) were randomly allocated into 1 of 4 treatments according to their BW and sex, 10 replicate pens per treatment with 4 pigs per pen were used (2 barrows and 2 gilts). Dietary treatments were: CON, control diet; PT2, CON+0.02% PFA; PT4, CON+0.04% PFA; PT6, CON+0.06% PFA. Overall, average daily gain (ADG) was higher in PT4 (p<0.05) than in PT6, average daily feed intake (ADFI) was lower in PT6 than in CON (p<0.05). Besides ADFI decreased linearly (p<0.05) with the increased level of phytoncide and gain:feed ratio in PT4 treatment was higher (p<0.05) than CON treatment. During 5 to 10 weeks and overall, quadratic (p<0.05) effect was observed in ADG among the treatments. At the end of this experiment, pigs fed with PT4 diet had a greater (p<0.05) red blood cell concentration compared to the pigs fed CON diet. Water holding capacity increased linearly (p<0.05) with the increased level of phytoncide supplementation. Moreover, firmness, redness, yellowness, and drip loss at day 3 decreased linearly (p<0.05) with the increase in the level of phytoncide supplementation. In conclusion, inclusion of phytoncide could enhance growth performance without any adverse effects on meat quality in finishing pigs. PMID:26954131

  18. Dietary Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Supplementation Improves the Mucosal Barrier Function in the Intestine of Weaned Piglets Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xiangbing; Gu, Changsong; Hu, Haiyan; Tang, Jun; Chen, Daiwen; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Luo, Junqiu; Tian, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) has been regarded as a safe probiotic strain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary LGG supplementation could alleviate diarrhea via improving jejunal mucosal barrier function in the weaned piglets challenged by RV, and further analyze the potential roles for apoptosis of jejunal mucosal cells and intestinal microbiota. A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets: the basal diet and LGG supplementing diet. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused RV or the sterile essential medium. RV infusion increased the diarrhea rate, increased the RV-Ab, NSP4 and IL-2 concentrations and the Bax mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), decreased the villus height, villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4 and mucin 1 concentrations and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and affected the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05) in the weaned pigs. Dietary LGG supplementation increased the villus height and villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations, and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) reduced the Bax mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) in weaned pigs. Furthermore, dietary LGG supplementation alleviated the increase of diarrhea rate in the weaned pigs challenged by RV (P<0.05), and relieve the effect of RV infection on the villus height, crypt depth and the villus height: crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), the NSP4, sIgA, IL-2, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), the ZO-1, occludin, Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05) in the weaned pigs challenged by RV. These results suggest that supplementing LGG in diets alleviated the diarrhea of weaned piglets challenged by RV via inhibiting the virus multiplication and improving the jejunal mucosal barrier function

  19. Dietary Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG Supplementation Improves the Mucosal Barrier Function in the Intestine of Weaned Piglets Challenged by Porcine Rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xiangbing; Gu, Changsong; Hu, Haiyan; Tang, Jun; Chen, Daiwen; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Luo, Junqiu; Tian, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) has been regarded as a safe probiotic strain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary LGG supplementation could alleviate diarrhea via improving jejunal mucosal barrier function in the weaned piglets challenged by RV, and further analyze the potential roles for apoptosis of jejunal mucosal cells and intestinal microbiota. A total of 24 crossbred barrows weaned at 21 d of age were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 diets: the basal diet and LGG supplementing diet. On day 11, all pigs were orally infused RV or the sterile essential medium. RV infusion increased the diarrhea rate, increased the RV-Ab, NSP4 and IL-2 concentrations and the Bax mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), decreased the villus height, villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4 and mucin 1 concentrations and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and affected the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05) in the weaned pigs. Dietary LGG supplementation increased the villus height and villus height: crypt depth, the sIgA, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations, and the ZO-1, occludin and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) reduced the Bax mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05) in weaned pigs. Furthermore, dietary LGG supplementation alleviated the increase of diarrhea rate in the weaned pigs challenged by RV (P<0.05), and relieve the effect of RV infection on the villus height, crypt depth and the villus height: crypt depth of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), the NSP4, sIgA, IL-2, IL-4, mucin 1 and mucin 2 concentrations of jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), the ZO-1, occludin, Bax and Bcl-2 mRNA levels of the jejunal mucosa (P<0.05), and the microbiota of ileum and cecum (P<0.05) in the weaned pigs challenged by RV. These results suggest that supplementing LGG in diets alleviated the diarrhea of weaned piglets challenged by RV via inhibiting the virus multiplication and improving the jejunal mucosal barrier function

  20. Phytase supplementation improved growth performance and bone characteristics in broilers fed varying levels of dietary calcium.

    PubMed

    Powell, S; Bidner, T D; Southern, L L

    2011-03-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary Ca level on the efficacy of phytase. A total of 288 male Ross × Ross 708 broilers with initial and final BW of 37 and 705 g, respectively, were used in brooder batteries from 0 to 21 d posthatch. Each treatment had 8 replications with 6 broilers/replicate pen. All diets were corn-soybean meal based and formulated to contain 1.26% total Lys. The treatments were positive control with 0.45% nonphytate P and 1% Ca and a negative control with 0.20% nonphytate P with 0.67, 1.00, or 1.33% Ca fed with or without 500 phytase units of Optiphos (Escherichia coli-derived phytase; JBS United Inc., Sheridan, IN). Increasing Ca from 0.67 to 1.33% linearly decreased (P ≤ 0.003) ADG, ADFI, bone breaking strength, bone weight, tibia ash weight, and percentage tibia ash; however, quadratic effects were found for ADFI, G:F, percentage tibia ash, and mortality (P ≤ 0.09). Phytase supplementation increased (P < 0.001) ADG, ADFI, bone breaking strength, bone weight, ash weight, and percentage tibia ash and decreased (P = 0.054) mortality. The increase in ADG, ADFI, bone weight, ash weight, and percentage tibia ash (P ≤ 0.026) and decrease in mortality (phytase × Ca linear; P = 0.058) from phytase supplementation was greater in broilers fed the higher levels of Ca. Calcium utilization was linearly decreased (P < 0.002) with increasing Ca. Phosphorus digestibility and utilization were increased with increasing levels of Ca (P ≤ 0.002); however, P utilization decreased at 1% Ca and increased at 1.33% (quadratic; P < 0.070). Phytase supplementation increased Ca utilization (P < 0.024), P digestibility (P < 0.001), and P utilization (P < 0.029). However, the increase in P digestibility (phytase × Ca; P < 0.021) was greater at the lower levels of Ca whereas P utilization (phytase × Ca; P < 0.001) was greater at 1.33% Ca with phytase supplementation. The results of this research indicate that dietary Ca level, within

  1. Dietary supplementation with sodium bicarbonate improves calcium absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during peak production.

    PubMed

    Jiang, M J; Zhao, J P; Jiao, H C; Wang, X J; Zhang, Q; Lin, H

    2015-01-01

    The advantage of supplemental sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on eggshell quality in laying hens changes with age. Besides increasing calcium (Ca) secretion in the eggshell gland, it may improve Ca absorption in the intestine or kidney. Hy-Line Brown layers (n = 384), 25 weeks of age, were allocated to two treatment groups in two experiments, each of which included 4 replicates of 24 hens. Hens were fed a basal diet (control) or the basal diet containing 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg for 50 or 20 weeks in Experiment 1 or 2, respectively. A 24-h continuous lighting regimen was used to allow hens to consume the dietary supplements during the period of active eggshell formation. In Experiment 1, particularly from 25 to 50 weeks of age, and in Experiment 2, NaHCO3 supplementation favoured hen-d egg production at the expense of lower egg weight. The increased eggshell thickness should have nothing to do with the additional eggshell formation, because of the unchanged egg mass and daily eggshell calcification. At 35 weeks of age in both experiments, NaHCO3 supplementation increased duodenal expression of calbindin-d28k (CaBP-D28k) protein, contributing to higher Ca retention and balance. From 50 to 75 weeks of age in Experiment 1, the hens had little response to NaHCO3 supplementation and showed a negative trend on eggshell thickness and strength. It is concluded that dietary supplementation with 3 g NaHCO3 g/kg improves Ca absorption and eggshell quality of laying hens during the peak but not late production period, with the introduction of continuous lighting. PMID:26569471

  2. A nutrition intervention is effective in improving dietary components linked to cardiometabolic risk in youth with first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Teasdale, Scott B; Ward, Philip B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Watkins, Andrew; Curtis, Jackie; Kalucy, Megan; Samaras, Katherine

    2016-06-01

    Severe mental illness is characterised by a 20-year mortality gap due to cardiometabolic disease. Poor diet in those with severe mental illness is an important and modifiable risk factor. The present study aimed to (i) examine baseline nutritional intake in youth with first-episode psychosis (FEP), (ii) evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of nutritional intervention early in FEP and (iii) to evaluate the effectiveness of early dietary intervention on key nutritional end points. Participants were recruited over a 12-month period from a community-based programme specifically targeting young people aged 15-25 years with newly diagnosed FEP. Individual dietetic consultations and practical group sessions were offered as part of a broader lifestyle programme. Dietary assessments were conducted before and at the end of the 12-week intervention. Participants exceeded recommended energy and Na intakes at baseline. Retention within the nutrition intervention was 67 %, consistent with other interventions offered to FEP clients. There was a 47 % reduction in discretionary food intake (-94 g/d, P<0·001) and reductions in daily energy (-24 %, P<0·001) and Na (-26 %, P<0·001) intakes. Diet quality significantly improved, and the mean change was 3·6 (95 % CI 0·2, 6·9, P<0·05), although this finding was not significant after Bonferroni's correction. Increased vegetable intake was the main factor contributing to improved diet quality. Nutrition intervention delivered shortly after initiation of antipsychotic medication is feasible, acceptable and effective in youth with FEP. Strategies to prevent weight gain and metabolic decline will contribute to prevent premature cardiometabolic disease in this vulnerable population. PMID:27153205

  3. Dietary anaplerotic therapy improves peripheral tissue energy metabolism in patients with Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Mochel, Fanny; Duteil, Sandrine; Marelli, Cécilia; Jauffret, Céline; Barles, Agnès; Holm, Janette; Sweetman, Lawrence; Benoist, Jean-François; Rabier, Daniel; Carlier, Pierre G; Durr, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    We previously identified a systemic metabolic defect associated with early weight loss in patients with Huntington's disease (HD), suggesting a lack of substrates for the Krebs cycle. Dietary anaplerotic therapy with triheptanoin is used in clinical trials to promote energy production in patients with peripheral and brain Krebs cycle deficit, as its metabolites – C5 ketone bodies – cross the blood–brain barrier. We conducted a short-term clinical trial in six HD patients (UHDRS (Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale)=33±13, 15–49) to monitor the tolerability of triheptanoin. We also assessed peripheral markers of short-term efficacy that were shown to be altered in the early stages of HD, that is, low serum IGF1 and 31P-NMR spectroscopy (NMRS) in muscle. At baseline, 31P-NMRS displayed two patients with end-exercise muscle acidosis despite a low work output. On day 2, the introduction of triheptanoin was well tolerated in all patients, and in particular, there was no evidence of mitochondrial overload from triheptanoin-derived metabolites. After 4 days of triheptanoin-enriched diet, muscle pH regulation was normalized in the two patients with pretreatment metabolic abnormalities. A significant increase in serum IGF1 was also observed in all patients (205±60 ng/ml versus 246±68 ng/ml, P=0.010). This study provides a rationale for extending our anaplerotic approach with triheptanoin in HD. PMID:20512158

  4. Dietary anaplerotic therapy improves peripheral tissue energy metabolism in patients with Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Mochel, Fanny; Duteil, Sandrine; Marelli, Cécilia; Jauffret, Céline; Barles, Agnès; Holm, Janette; Sweetman, Lawrence; Benoist, Jean-François; Rabier, Daniel; Carlier, Pierre G; Durr, Alexandra

    2010-09-01

    We previously identified a systemic metabolic defect associated with early weight loss in patients with Huntington's disease (HD), suggesting a lack of substrates for the Krebs cycle. Dietary anaplerotic therapy with triheptanoin is used in clinical trials to promote energy production in patients with peripheral and brain Krebs cycle deficit, as its metabolites - C5 ketone bodies - cross the blood-brain barrier. We conducted a short-term clinical trial in six HD patients (UHDRS (Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale)=33+/-13, 15-49) to monitor the tolerability of triheptanoin. We also assessed peripheral markers of short-term efficacy that were shown to be altered in the early stages of HD, that is, low serum IGF1 and (31)P-NMR spectroscopy (NMRS) in muscle. At baseline, (31)P-NMRS displayed two patients with end-exercise muscle acidosis despite a low work output. On day 2, the introduction of triheptanoin was well tolerated in all patients, and in particular, there was no evidence of mitochondrial overload from triheptanoin-derived metabolites. After 4 days of triheptanoin-enriched diet, muscle pH regulation was normalized in the two patients with pretreatment metabolic abnormalities. A significant increase in serum IGF1 was also observed in all patients (205+/-60 ng/ml versus 246+/-68 ng/ml, P=0.010). This study provides a rationale for extending our anaplerotic approach with triheptanoin in HD. PMID:20512158

  5. Dietary flavonoids added to pharmacological antihypertensive therapy are effective in improving blood pressure.

    PubMed

    de Jesús Romero-Prado, Marina María; Curiel-Beltrán, Jesús Aarón; Miramontes-Espino, María Viviana; Cardona-Muñoz, Ernesto Germán; Rios-Arellano, Angeles; Balam-Salazar, Lol-Be

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that the daily intake of flavonoids is associated with a decreased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of the addition of dietary flavonoids (DF) to antihypertensive treatment (AHT), based on telmisartan (Tms) or captopril (Cpr), on blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), waist/hip ratio, leptin, lipid profile and inflammation in hypertensive young patients. An open-label, randomized, controlled trial was performed among 79 patients aged 20-55 years with grade I or grade II systemic arterial hypertension. The subjects were assigned to one of four groups for AHT plus DF during 6 months: Cpr (n = 14), Cpr + DF (n = 19), Tms (n = 25) and Tms + DF (n = 21). DF consisted of dark chocolate, dehydrated red apple and green tea in an infusion to obtain a daily dose of 425.8 ± 13.9 mg epicatechin equivalents. The BP and anthropometric parameters were measured every 2 weeks. Lipid profile, leptin and hsCRP were determined by standard methods. The combination AHT-DF produced an additional and significant reduction in (i) SBP/DBP of -5/-4 mmHg, being -7/-5 for Cpr + DF and -4/-3 for Tms + DF; (ii) triglyceride levels (-30.6%) versus AHT alone (-9.6%); and (iii) leptin: Cpr + DF versus Tms + DF (p < 0.005). Finally, C-reactive protein plasma levels were reduced significantly in all groups independently of the applied treatment. We conclude that the addition of flavonoids to pharmacological antihypertensive therapy shows additional benefits on BP, lipid profile, leptin, obesity and inflammation. PMID:25441094

  6. Project Renourish: A Dietary Intervention to Improve Nutritional Status in People with Multiple Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beange, H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    An intervention in Australia to improve the nutrition of 69 underweight, institutionalized persons (mean age 27) with multiple disabilities including severe intellectual disability involved an enriched diet for a year with increased energy density. Results included increased weight, improved vitamin and mineral levels, and fewer infections.…

  7. Replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils improves the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Qingyuan; Mai, Kangsen; Shentu, Jikang; Ai, Qinghui; Zhong, Huiying; Jiang, Yujian; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Chunxiao; Guo, Sitong

    2014-06-01

    We investigated the effect of the replacement of dietary fish oil with vegetable oils on the growth and flesh quality of large yellow croaker ( Larmichthys crocea). The basal diet (FO) was formulated to contain 66.5% fish meal and 6.4% menhaden fish oil; whereas the other 3 experimental diets were formulated by replacing the fish oil with 50% soybean oil (SO50), 100% soybean oil (SO100) and 100% palm oil (PO100), respectively. The 4 diets were randomly assigned to 4 floating sea cages (3.0 m × 3.0 m × 3.0 m), and each was stocked with 250 fish individuals with an initial average weight of 245.29 g ± 7.45 g. The fish were fed to apparent satiation twice a day at 5:00 and 17:00, respectively, for 12 weeks. Experimental analysis showed that the specific growth rate of fish fed SO50 or PO100 were significantly higher than that of fish fed FO or SO100 ( P<0.05), and crude lipid contents of ventral muscle and viscera were significantly lower in fish fed FO than in those fed the other 3 diets ( P<0.05). No significant differences in condition factor, viscerosomatic index, hepatosomatic index, gutted yield and colorimetric values of fish among the dietary treatments were observed ( P>0.05). Compared to FO diet, SO50, SO100 and PO100 diets led to substantial decreases in the liquid loss and water loss from fresh fillets (1 d, 4°C) ( P<0.05). Similarly, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of fillets under different storage conditions (1 d, 4°C; 7 d, 4°C; 4 weeks, -20°C; 8 weeks, -20°C) decreased significantly after partial or complete replacement of fish oil with vegetable oils. These findings indicated that the growth performance and selected flesh quality properties (liquid holding capacity and TBARS value) of large yellow croaker were substantially improved by replacing dietary fish oil with vegetable oils.

  8. Dietary spray-dried chicken plasma improves intestinal barrier function and modulates immune status in weaning piglets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Zheng, P; Yu, B; He, J; Yu, J; Mao, X B; Wang, J X; Luo, J Q; Huang, Z Q; Cheng, G X; Chen, D W

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary addition of spray-dried chicken plasma (SDCP) as a replacement for spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) on serum biochemistry, intestinal barrier function, immune parameters, and the expression of intestinal development-related genes in weaning pigs. One hundred and forty-four 25-d-old weaning piglets with BW of 6.43 ± 0.39 kg were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: 1) CON (basal diet; control), 2) SDPP (containing 5% SDPP), 3) SDPP + SDCP (containing 2.5% SDPP and 2.5% SDCP), and 4) SDCP (containing 5% SDCP). After a 28-d trial, 6 pigs from each treatment were randomly selected to collect serum and intestinal samples. On d 14 after the initiation of the trial, pigs in the SDPP, SDPP + SDCP, and SDCP groups had an increase ( < 0.05) in serum concentrations of total protein and IgG and a decrease ( < 0.05) in activities of alanine aminotransferase and diamine oxidase compared with the CON group. In the jejunum, supplementation with SDPP and SDCP reduced ( < 0.05) the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and upregulated ( < 0.05) the mRNA levels of zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1), zonula occludens 2 (ZO-2), occludin (OCLN), Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2), and IGF-1 compared with the CON group. In the ileum, feeding SDPP, SDPP + SDCP, and SDCP decreased ( < 0.05) the concentrations of TNF-α and secretory IgA (sIgA) and upregulated ( < 0.05) the mRNA levels of claudin 1 (CLDN-1) and TLR2 compared with feeding CON. However, there were no differences among the SDPP, SDPP + SDCP, and SDCP groups. Furthermore, supplementation with SDCP reduced ( < 0.05) the concentration of IL-10 and upregulated ( < 0.05) the mRNA levels of GLP-2, mucin 2 (MUC2), and trefoil factor family 3 (TFF3) in the ileum compared with feeding CON. Collectively, the current results indicate that dietary addition of SDCP has a beneficial influence on the health condition of weaning pigs

  9. Intestinal morphology adjustments caused by dietary restriction improves the nutritional status during the aging process of rats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Belém, Mônica; Cirilo, Carla Possani; de Santi-Rampazzo, Ana Paula; Schoffen, João Paulo Ferreira; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; de Almeida Araújo, Eduardo José

    2015-09-01

    During the aging process, the body's systems change structurally and loss of function can occur. Ingesting a smaller amount of food has been considered a plausible proposal for increased longevity with the quality of life. However, the effects of dietary restriction (DR) during aging are still poorly understood, especially for organs of the digestive system. This study aimed to describe the body weight, oxidative status and possible morphological changes of the intestinal wall of rats submitted to DR during the aging process (7 to 18months old). Twelve 7-month-old male Wistar rats fed ad libitum since birth were assigned to two groups: control group (CG, n=6) fed ad libitum from 7 to 18months old; and dietary restriction group (DRG, n=6) fed 50% of the amount of chow consumed by the CG from 7 to 18months old. The body weight, feed and water intake were monitored throughout the experiment. Blood, periepididymal adipose tissue (PAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RAT), and the small intestine were collected at 18months old. The blood was collected to evaluate its components and oxidative status. Sections from the duodenum and ileum were stained with HE, PAS and AB pH2.5 for morphometric analyses of the intestinal wall components, and to count intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), goblet cells and cells in mitosis in the epithelium. DR rats showed a reduction in weight, naso-anal length, PAT, RAT and intestinal length; however, they consumed more water. Blood parameters indicate that the DR rats remained well nourished. In addition, they showed lower lipid peroxidation. Hypertrophy of the duodenal mucosa and atrophy of the ileal mucosa were observed. The number of goblet cells and IELs was reduced, but the mitotic index remained unaltered in both duodenum and ileum. In conclusion, 50% dietary restriction for rats from 7 to 18months old contributed to improving their nutritional parameters but, to achieve this, adjustments were required in the structure of the body

  10. Consumption of Calcium-Fortified Cereal Bars to Improve Dietary Calcium Intake of Healthy Women: Randomized Controlled Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jennifer T.; Moore, Carolyn E.; Radcliffe, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day) (intervention) to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control). At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d) when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001) or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001) periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted. Trial Registration Clinical

  11. Improving Effect of the Acute Administration of Dietary Fiber-Enriched Cereals on Blood Glucose Levels and Gut Hormone Secretion

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fiber improves hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes through its physicochemical properties and possible modulation of gut hormone secretion, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). We assessed the effect of dietary fiber-enriched cereal flakes (DC) on postprandial hyperglycemia and gut hormone secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thirteen participants ate isocaloric meals based on either DC or conventional cereal flakes (CC) in a crossover design. DC or CC was provided for dinner, night snack on day 1 and breakfast on day 2, followed by a high-fat lunch. On day 2, the levels of plasma glucose, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and insulin were measured. Compared to CC, DC intake exhibited a lower post-breakfast 2-hours glucose level (198.5±12.8 vs. 245.9±15.2 mg/dL, P<0.05) and a lower incremental peak of glucose from baseline (101.8±9.1 vs. 140.3±14.3 mg/dL, P<0.001). The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of glucose after breakfast was lower with DC than with CC (P<0.001). However, there were no differences in the plasma insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, and GIP levels. In conclusion, acute administration of DC attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia without any significant change in the representative glucose-regulating hormones in patients with type 2 diabetes (ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT 01997281). PMID:26839476

  12. Dietary Enterococcus faecalis LAB31 Improves Growth Performance, Reduces Diarrhea, and Increases Fecal Lactobacillus Number of Weaned Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yuanliang; Dun, Yaohao; Li, Shenao; Zhang, Dongxiao; Peng, Nan; Zhao, Shumiao; Liang, Yunxiang

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been shown to enhance performance of weaned piglets. However, few studies have reported the addition of LAB Enterococcus faecalis as alternatives to growth promoting antibiotics for weaned piglets. This study evaluated the effects of dietary E. faecalis LAB31 on the growth performance, diarrhea incidence, blood parameters, fecal bacterial and Lactobacillus communities in weaned piglets. A total of 360 piglets weaned at 26 ± 2 days of age were randomly allotted to 5 groups (20 pens, with 4 pens for each group) for a trial of 28 days: group N (negative control, without antibiotics or probiotics); group P (Neomycin sulfate, 100 mg/kg feed); groups L, M and H (supplemented with E. faecalis LAB31 0.5×109, 1.0×109, and 2.5×109 CFU/kg feed, respectively). Average daily gain and feed conversion efficiency were found to be higher in group H than in group N, and showed significant differences between group H and group P (P0 < 0.05). Furthermore, groups H and P had a lower diarrhea index than the other three groups (P0 < 0.05). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that the application of probiotics to the diet changed the bacterial community, with a higher bacterial diversity in group M than in the other four groups. Real-time PCR revealed that the relative number of Lactobacillus increased by addition of probiotics, and was higher in group H than in group N (P0 < 0.05). However, group-specific PCR-DGGE showed no obvious difference among the five groups in Lactobacillus composition and diversity. Therefore, the dietary addition of E. faecalis LAB31 can improve growth performance, reduce diarrhea, and increase the relative number of Lactobacillus in feces of weaned piglets. PMID:25617897

  13. Comparative effect of salinity on growth, grain yield, water use efficiency, δ(13)C and δ(15)N of landraces and improved durum wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Chamekh, Zoubeir; Ayadi, Sawsen; Karmous, Chahine; Trifa, Youssef; Amara, Hajer; Boudabbous, Khaoula; Yousfi, Salima; Serret, Maria Dolors; Araus, José Luis

    2016-10-01

    Supplemental irrigation with low-quality water will be paramount in Mediterranean agriculture in the future, where durum wheat is a major crop. Breeding for salinity tolerance may contribute towards improving resilience to irrigation with brackish water. However, identification of appropriate phenotyping traits remains a bottleneck in breeding. A set of 25 genotypes, including 19 landraces and 6 improved varieties most cultivated in Tunisia, were grown in the field and irrigated with brackish water (6, 13 and 18dSm(-1)). Improved genotypes exhibited higher grain yield (GY) and water use efficiency at the crop level (WUEyield or 'water productivity'), shorter days to flowering (DTF), lower N concentration (N) and carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) in mature kernels and lower nitrogen isotope composition (δ(15)N) in the flag leaf compared with landraces. GY was negatively correlated with DTF and the δ(13)C and N of mature kernels and was positively correlated with the δ(15)N of the flag leaf. Moreover, δ(13)C of mature kernels was negatively correlated with WUEyield. The results highlight the importance of shorter phenology together with photosynthetic resilience to salt-induced water stress (lower δ(13)C) and nitrogen metabolism (higher N and δ(15)N) for assessing genotypic performance to salinity. PMID:27593462

  14. Optimizing dietary lipid use to improve essential fatty acid status and reproductive performance of the modern lactating sow: a review.

    PubMed

    Rosero, David S; Boyd, R Dean; Odle, Jack; van Heugten, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Dietary lipid supplementation benefits the prolific and high-producing modern lactating sow. A comprehensive review of recent studies showed that lipid supplementation increases average daily energy intake, which is partitioned for lactation as indicated by greater milk fat output and improved litter growth rate. Recent compelling findings showed that addition of particular lipids during lactation improved the subsequent reproductive outcome of sows. Such benefits were related to the level of dietary essential fatty acids (EFA, linoleic acid, C18:2n-6; and α-linolenic acid, C18:3n-3) during lactation. Lactation diets without supplemental EFA resulted in a pronounced negative balance (intake minus milk output) of linoleic (-25.49 g/d) and α-linolenic acid (-2.75 g/d); which compromised sow fertility (farrowing rate < 75 % and culling rates > 25 % of weaned sows). This phenomenon seems to be increasingly important with advancing sow age because of a progressive reduction of body EFA pool over successive lactations. The net effect of supplemental EFA during lactation was to create a positive EFA balance, which improved the subsequent reproduction of sows. Adequate linoleic acid intake improved the proportion of sows that farrowed in the subsequent cycle (Farrowing rate (%) = [(-1.5 × 10(-3) × linoleic acid intake (g/d)(2)) + (0.53 × linoleic acid intake (g/d)) + (45.2)]; quadratic P = 0.002, R(2) = 0.997, RMSE = 0.031). In addition, increasing linoleic acid intake increased the number of pigs born in the subsequent cycle (total pigs born (n) = [(9.4 × 10(-5) × linoleic acid intake (g/d)(2)) + (0.04 × linoleic acid intake (g/d)) + (10.94)]; quadratic P = 0.002, R(2) = 0.997, RMSE = 0.031). Supplemental α-linolenic acid resulted in a rapid return to estrus (sows bred: sows weaned = 94.2 %; wean-to-estrus interval = 4.0 d) and achieved a high retention of pregnancy (sows

  15. Antioxidant and Anticoagulant Status Were Improved by Personalized Dietary Intervention Based on Biochemical and Clinical Parameters in Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ga-Yi; Lee, Jong Jyun; Lee, Seung-Min

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether personalized dietary intervention could improve clinical measurements such as immune cell-mediated cytotoxicity, serum albumin, derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (D-ROMS), D-dimer, and fibrinogen. Cancer patients received either a treatment support diet (TD, for those with chemotherapy), or a remission support diet (RD; for those in remission) for at least 3 wk (21-61 days). Both diets were low glycemic, low fat, and high plant protein diets; the diet for the TD group contained an additional 0.5 servings of protein. Based on clinical values, additional amounts of garlic, onion, tomato, shiitake, rice bran, kale, blueberry, pineapples, and/or turmeric powder were provided in regular meals. Estimated daily intake of protein, plant fat, garlic, onion, allicin, and quercetin was greater in the TD compared to the RD. An increased intake of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E and selenium and a reduction in D-dimer were noted compared to baseline diets in both groups. A decrease in D-ROMS in the RD and an increase in albumin and an increased tendency in cytotoxicity in the TD were observed. In conclusion, personalized diets with supplemented functional ingredients improved antioxidant status and/or anticoagulant activity in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and in remission. PMID:26333154

  16. A Fine Balance of Dietary Lipids Improves Pathology of a Murine Model of VCP-Associated Multisystem Proteinopathy.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, Katrina J; Walker, Naomi; Nguyen, Christopher; Tan, Baichang; BenMohamed, Lbachir; Kimonis, Virginia E; Nalbandian, Angèle

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of effective therapies and of disease mechanisms underlying valosin containing protein (VCP)-associated myopathies and neurodegenerative disorders remains elusive. VCP disease, caused by mutations in the VCP gene, are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of disorders with manifestations varying from hereditary inclusion body myopathy, Paget's disease of bone, frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In the present study, we examined the effects of higher dietary lipid percentages on VCPR155H/R155H, VCPR155H/+ and Wild Type (WT) mice from birth until 15 months of age by immunohistochemical and biochemical assays. Findings illustrated improvement in the muscle strength, histology, and autophagy signaling pathway in the heterozygote mice when fed 9% lipid-enriched diets (LED). However, increasing the LED by 12%, 30%, and 48% showed no improvement in homozygote and heterozygote survival, muscle pathology, lipid accumulation or the autophagy cascade. These findings suggest that a balanced lipid supplementation may have a therapeutic strategy for patients with VCP-associated multisystem proteinopathies. PMID:26134519

  17. Dietary Betaine Supplementation Increases Fgf21 Levels to Improve Glucose Homeostasis and Reduce Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ejaz, Asma; Martinez-Guino, Laura; Goldfine, Allison B; Ribas-Aulinas, Francesc; De Nigris, Valeria; Ribó, Sílvia; Gonzalez-Franquesa, Alba; Garcia-Roves, Pablo M; Li, Elizabeth; Dreyfuss, Jonathan M; Gall, Walt; Kim, Jason K; Bottiglieri, Teodoro; Villarroya, Francesc; Gerszten, Robert E; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Lerin, Carles

    2016-04-01

    Identifying markers of human insulin resistance may permit development of new approaches for treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes. To this end, we analyzed the fasting plasma metabolome in metabolically characterized human volunteers across a spectrum of insulin resistance. We demonstrate that plasma betaine levels are reduced in insulin-resistant humans and correlate closely with insulin sensitivity. Moreover, betaine administration to mice with diet-induced obesity prevents the development of impaired glucose homeostasis, reduces hepatic lipid accumulation, increases white adipose oxidative capacity, and enhances whole-body energy expenditure. In parallel with these beneficial metabolic effects, betaine supplementation robustly increased hepatic and circulating fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)21 levels. Betaine administration failed to improve glucose homeostasis and liver fat content in Fgf21(-/-) mice, demonstrating that Fgf21 is necessary for betaine's beneficial effects. Together, these data indicate that dietary betaine increases Fgf21 levels to improve metabolic health in mice and suggest that betaine supplementation merits further investigation as a supplement for treatment or prevention of type 2 diabetes in humans. PMID:26858359

  18. Improving halva quality with dietary fibres of sesame seed coats and date pulp, enriched with emulsifier.

    PubMed

    Elleuch, Mohamed; Bedigian, Dorothea; Maazoun, Bouthaina; Besbes, Souhail; Blecker, Christophe; Attia, Hamadi

    2014-02-15

    Supplementation of halva with waste products of manufacturing, for example defatted sesame seed coats (testae) and date fibre concentrate, can improve its nutritional and organoleptic qualities. These constituents provide high fibre content and technological potential for retaining water and fat. Standard halva supplemented with date fibre concentrate, defatted sesame testae and emulsifier was evaluated for oil separation, texture and colour changes, sensory qualities and acceptability to a taste panel. Addition of both fibres with an emulsifier, improved emulsion stability and increased the hardness of halva significantly. The functional properties of sesame testae and date fibres promote nutrition and health, supplying polyphenol antioxidants and laxative benefits. PMID:24128542

  19. Characterisation of European varieties of triticale with special emphasis on the ability of plant phytase to improve phytate phosphorus availability to chickens.

    PubMed

    Jondreville, C; Genthon, C; Bouguennec, A; Carre, B; Nys, Y

    2007-12-01

    1. A total of 30 varieties and selection lines of triticale grown under similar conditions were characterised. Thousand grain weight, specific weight, Hagberg falling number and N were 50.2 +/- 5.0 g, 72.4 +/- 2.1 kg/hl, 96 +/- 48 s and 16.1 +/- 0.11 g/kg, respectively. 2. Mean phosphorus (P) concentration was 2.86 +/- 0.31 g/kg, of which 77% was of phytic origin. Mean phytase activity was 1018 +/- 319 phytase units (PU)/kg. A genotypic effect on phytase activity was detected amongst 5 varieties studied out of 30. Potential and real applied viscosities were positively correlated and mean values were 3.53 +/- 0.66 and 2.15 +/- 0.31 ml/g, respectively. 3. The efficacy of plant phytase in improving P availability was assessed in chickens up to 3 weeks of age. Growth performance and bone ash concentration were compared in birds given either a maize (450 g/kg) and soybean meal (230 g/kg) phosphorus deficient diet containing 3.5 g P/kg, this basal diet supplemented with 1 or 2 g P/kg as monocalcium phosphate (MCP) or triticale (450 g/kg) and soybean meal (230 g/kg) diets containing 3.2 to 3.8 g P/kg with no MCP. To achieve graded levels of phytase activity, 4 varieties of triticale, intact or in which phytase was denaturated by heat treatment, were used. Estimated metabolisable energy, protein, amino acids and calcium concentrations were similar in all diets. 4. Phytase activity in the triticale-based diets ranged between 135 and 1390 PU/kg. Growth performance and bone ash were responsive to plant phytase and to MCP. Non-linear models of these responses were adjusted with the best fit for bone ash parameters. The values of 250, 500 and 1000 PU of plant phytase were estimated to be equivalent to 0.46, 0.67 and 0.81 g P as MCP, respectively. PMID:18085450

  20. Food variety and biodiversity: Econutrition.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, M L; Specht, R L

    1998-12-01

    Both annual biomass production and biodiversity at any locality on earth are continually under threat as the population of Homo sapiens steadily increases, with the resultant pollution of atmosphere, soil and water. Today, environmental degradation and global warming (with its effect on evaporative aerodynamics and cellular respiration) have increased at an alarming rate. The ABP of all terrestrial plant communities (natural or cultivated) is slowly declining, thus reducing the energy supply of component plants and resident animals; in turn, the biodiversity of all the world's ecosystems, plant and animal, is threatened. The maintenance of biodiversity is important to human health for several reasons: (i) a varied food supply is essential to maintain the health of the omnivorous human species; (ii) a range of diverse food sources is necessary to safe-guard against climatic and pestilent disasters which may affect one or more of the food sources; (iii) a diversity of plants and animals may provide a rich source of medicinal material, essential for the extraction of undiscovered therapeutic compounds; (iv) intact ecosystems of indigenous plants and animals appear to act as a buffer to the spread of invasive plants and animals, and of pathogens and toxins, thus contributing to the health of populations nearby; and (v) the 'spiritual' values of exploring the diversity of plants, animals and ecosystems in an area appear to have a beneficial effect on mental health, strengthening the feeling of 'belonging to the landscape'. The variety of foods, their energy contents and food values, consumed throughout the year is amenable to scientific enquiry; as is the amount of energy expended in this collection or production. The control and management of food production and of water supplies, with attention to safety issues, has led to an improvement in life expectancy for a proportion of the world's population. The question is at what point might human health be disadvantaged by

  1. Nutrition education based on health belief model improves dietary calcium intake among female students of junior high schools.

    PubMed

    Naghashpour, Mahshid; Shakerinejad, Ghodratollah; Lourizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Hajinajaf, Saeedeh; Jarvandi, Farzaneh

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effects of a nutrition education programme based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of dietary calcium in female students. In this interventional study, 188 students were placed into intervention (95) and control (93) groups. The intervention group participated in a nutrition education programme. Students in both the groups completed KAP and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) at baseline and after two and three months of follow-up respectively. The data were analyzed by independent and paired t-tests. Those who received the intervention were found to have better attitude (p=0.049) and practice (p=0.005) scores compared to the controls. The HBM constructs, including perceived susceptibility (p=0.006), perceived severity (p=0.001), perceived benefits (p=0.002), perceived barriers (p=0.001), and taking health action (p=0.02) scores, were also significantly higher. The findings support the effectiveness of nutrition education based on the HBM in improving the knowledge, attitude, and practice relating to calcium intake among adolescent students. PMID:25395905

  2. Dietary strategies for improving post-prandial glucose, lipids, inflammation, and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, James H; Gheewala, Neil M; O'Keefe, Joan O

    2008-01-22

    The highly processed, calorie-dense, nutrient-depleted diet favored in the current American culture frequently leads to exaggerated supraphysiological post-prandial spikes in blood glucose and lipids. This state, called post-prandial dysmetabolism, induces immediate oxidant stress, which increases in direct proportion to the increases in glucose and triglycerides after a meal. The transient increase in free radicals acutely triggers atherogenic changes including inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, hypercoagulability, and sympathetic hyperactivity. Post-prandial dysmetabolism is an independent predictor of future cardiovascular events even in nondiabetic individuals. Improvements in diet exert profound and immediate favorable changes in the post-prandial dysmetabolism. Specifically, a diet high in minimally processed, high-fiber, plant-based foods such as vegetables and fruits, whole grains, legumes, and nuts will markedly blunt the post-meal increase in glucose, triglycerides, and inflammation. Additionally, lean protein, vinegar, fish oil, tea, cinnamon, calorie restriction, weight loss, exercise, and low-dose to moderate-dose alcohol each positively impact post-prandial dysmetabolism. Experimental and epidemiological studies indicate that eating patterns, such as the traditional Mediterranean or Okinawan diets, that incorporate these types of foods and beverages reduce inflammation and cardiovascular risk. This anti-inflammatory diet should be considered for the primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease and diabetes. PMID:18206731

  3. Exploitation of dietary tannins to improve rumen metabolism and ruminant nutrition.

    PubMed

    Patra, Amlan K; Saxena, Jyotisna

    2011-01-15

    Tannins (hydrolysable and condensed tannin) are polyphenolic polymers of relatively high molecular weight with the capacity to form complexes mainly with proteins due to the presence of a large number of phenolic hydroxyl groups. They are widely distributed in nutritionally important forage trees, shrubs and legumes, cereals and grains, which are considered as anti-nutritional compounds due to their adverse effects on intake and animal performance. However, tannins have been recognised to modulate rumen fermentation favourably such as reducing protein degradation in the rumen, prevention of bloat, inhibition of methanogenesis and increasing conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in ruminant-derived foods. The inclusion of tannins in diets has been shown to improve body weight and wool growth, milk yields and reproductive performance. However, the beneficial effects on rumen modulation and animal performance have not been consistently observed. This review discusses the effects of tannins on nitrogen metabolism in the rumen and intestine, and microbial populations (bacteria, protozoa, fungi and archaea), metabolism of tannins, microbial tolerance mechanisms to tannins, inhibition of methanogenesis, ruminal biohydrogenation processes and performance of animals. The discrepancies of responses of tannins among different studies are attributed to the different chemical structures (degree of polymerisation, procyanidins to propdelphinidins, stereochemistry and C-C bonding) and concentrations of tannins, and type of diets. An establishment of structure-activity relationship would be required to explain differences among studies and obtain consistent beneficial tannin effects. PMID:20815041

  4. Enhancing dentate gyrus function with dietary flavanols improves cognition in older adults.

    PubMed

    Brickman, Adam M; Khan, Usman A; Provenzano, Frank A; Yeung, Lok-Kin; Suzuki, Wendy; Schroeter, Hagen; Wall, Melanie; Sloan, Richard P; Small, Scott A

    2014-12-01

    The dentate gyrus (DG) is a region in the hippocampal formation whose function declines in association with human aging and is therefore considered to be a possible source of age-related memory decline. Causal evidence is needed, however, to show that DG-associated memory decline in otherwise healthy elders can be improved by interventions that enhance DG function. We addressed this issue by first using a high-resolution variant of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map the precise site of age-related DG dysfunction and to develop a cognitive task whose function localized to this anatomical site. Then, in a controlled randomized trial, we applied these tools to study healthy 50-69-year-old subjects who consumed either a high or low cocoa flavanol-containing diet for 3 months. A high-flavanol intervention was found to enhance DG function, as measured by fMRI and by cognitive testing. Our findings establish that DG dysfunction is a driver of age-related cognitive decline and suggest non-pharmacological means for its amelioration. PMID:25344629

  5. Enhancing dentate gyrus function with dietary flavanols improves cognition in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Brickman, Adam M; Khan, Usman A; Provenzano, Frank A; Yeung, Lok-Kin; Suzuki, Wendy; Schroeter, Hagen; Wall, Melanie; Sloan, Richard P; Small, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    The dentate gyrus (DG) is a region in the hippocampal formation whose function declines in association with human aging and is therefore considered to be a possible source of age-related memory decline. Causal evidence is needed, however, to show that DG-associated memory decline in otherwise healthy elders can be improved by interventions that enhance DG function. We addressed this issue by first using a high-resolution variant of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map the precise site of age-related DG dysfunction and to develop a cognitive task whose function localized to this anatomical site. Then, in a controlled randomized trial, we applied these tools to study healthy 50–69-year-old subjects who consumed either a high or low cocoa–containing diet for 3 months. A high-flavanol intervention was found to enhance DG function, as measured by fMRI and by cognitive testing. Our findings establish that DG dysfunction is a driver of age-related cognitive decline and suggest non-pharmacological means for its amelioration. PMID:25344629

  6. Reduced severity of ischemic stroke and improvement of mitochondrial function after dietary treatment with the anaplerotic substance triheptanoin.

    PubMed

    Schwarzkopf, T M; Koch, K; Klein, J

    2015-08-01

    Triheptanoin, an oily substance, consists of glycerol bound to three molecules of heptanoic acid, a C7 odd-chain fatty acid. A triheptanoin-rich diet has anaplerotic effects because heptanoate metabolism yields succinate which delivers substrates to the Krebs cycle. While previous studies on the effects of triheptanoin focused on metabolic disorders and epilepsy, we investigated triheptanoin's effect on ischemic stroke. Mice were fed a triheptanoin-enriched diet for 14days; controls received soybean oil. Only mice fed triheptanoin had measurable quantities of odd-numbered fatty acids in the plasma and brain. Transient ischemia was induced in the brain by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO) for 60min. One day later, mice were tested for neurological function (chimney, rotarod and corner tests) which was found to be better preserved in the triheptanoin group. Microdialysis demonstrated that the strong, neurotoxic increase of extracellular glutamate, which was observed in the mouse striatum during MCAO, was strongly reduced in triheptanoin-fed mice while glucose levels were not affected. Triheptanoin diet reduced the infarct area in stroked mice by about 40%. In ex vivo-experiments with isolated mitochondria, ischemia was found to cause a reduction of mitochondrial respiratory activity. This reduction was attenuated by triheptanoin diet in complex II and IV. In parallel measurements, ATP levels and mitochondrial membrane potential were reduced in control animals but were preserved in triheptanoin-fed mice. We conclude that triheptanoin-fed mice which sustained an experimental stroke had a significantly improved neurological outcome. This beneficial effect is apparently due to an improvement of mitochondrial function and preservation of the cellular energy state. Our findings identify triheptanoin as a promising new dietary agent for neuroprotection. PMID:25982559

  7. DIETARY SUPPLEMENTATION WITH BLUEBERRY EXTRACTS IMPROVES THE SURVIVAL AND FUNCTION OF GRAFTED EMBRYONIC DOPAMINE NEURONS IN RATS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transplantation of embryonic dopamine (DA) neurons into the striatum is a viable treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, transplanted cells survive poorly. This study provides evidence that dietary supplementation with blueberry extract (BBE) provides an efficacious, easily administered a...

  8. Dietary Pseudopurpurin Improves Bone Geometry Architecture and Metabolism in Red-Bone Guishan Goats

    PubMed Central

    Han, TieSuo; Li, Peng; Wang, JianGuo; Liu, GuoWen; Wang, Zhe; Ge, ChangRong; Gao, ShiZheng

    2012-01-01

    Red-colored bones were found initially in some Guishan goats in the 1980s, and they were designated red-boned goats. However, it is not understood what causes the red color in the bone, or whether the red material changes the bone geometry, architecture, and metabolism of red-boned goats. Pseudopurpurin was identified in the red-colored material of the bone in red-boned goats by high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–mass spetrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Pseudopurpurin is one of the main constituents of Rubia cordifolia L, which is eaten by the goats. The assessment of the mechanical properties and micro-computed tomography showed that the red-boned goats displayed an increase in the trabecular volume fraction, trabecular thickness, and the number of trabeculae in the distal femur. The mean thickness, inner perimeter, outer perimeter, and area of the femoral diaphysis were also increased. In addition, the trabecular separation and structure model index of the distal femur were decreased, but the bone mineral density of the whole femur and the mechanical properties of the femoral diaphysis were enhanced in the red-boned goats. Meanwhile, expression of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin mRNA was higher, and the ratio of the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa B ligand to osteoprotegerin was markedly lower in the bone marrow of the red-boned goats compared with common goats. To confirm further the effect of pseudopurpurin on bone geometry, architecture, and metabolism, Wistar rats were fed diets to which pseudopurpurin was added for 5 months. Similar changes were observed in the femurs of the treated rats. The above results demonstrate that pseudopurpurin has a close affinity with the mineral salts of bone, and consequently a high level of mineral salts in the bone cause an improvement in bone strength and an enhancement in the structure and metabolic functions of the bone. PMID:22624037

  9. Wild bitter gourd improves metabolic syndrome: A preliminary dietary supplementation trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) is a common tropical vegetable that has been used in traditional or folk medicine to treat diabetes. Wild bitter gourd (WBG) ameliorated metabolic syndrome (MetS) in animal models. We aimed to preliminarily evaluate the effect of WBG supplementation on MetS in Taiwanese adults. Methods A preliminary open-label uncontrolled supplementation trial was conducted in eligible fulfilled the diagnosis of MetS from May 2008 to April 2009. A total of 42 eligible (21 men and 21 women) with a mean age of 45.7 ± 11.4 years (23 to 63 years) were supplemented with 4.8 gram lyophilized WBG powder in capsules daily for three months and were checked for MetS at enrollment and follow-up monthly. After supplementation was ceased, the participants were continually checked for MetS monthly over an additional three-month period. MetS incidence rate were analyzed using repeated-measures generalized linear mixed models according to the intention-to-treat principle. Results After adjusting for sex and age, the MetS incidence rate (standard error, p value) decreased by 7.1% (3.7%, 0.920), 9.5% (4.3%, 0.451), 19.0% (5.7%, 0.021), 16.7% (5.4%, 0.047), 11.9% (4.7%, 0.229) and 11.9% (4.7%, 0.229) at visit 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 compared to that at baseline (visit 1), respectively. The decrease in incidence rate was highest at the end of the three-month supplementation period and it was significantly different from that at baseline (p = 0.021). The difference remained significant at end of the 4th month (one month after the cessation of supplementation) (p = 0.047) but the effect diminished at the 5th and 6th months after baseline. The waist circumference also significantly decreased after the supplementation (p < 0.05). The WBG supplementation was generally well-tolerated. Conclusion This is the first report to show that WBG improved MetS in human which provides a firm base for further randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy of WBG

  10. Dietary supplementation of organic selenium could improve performance, antibody response, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed on diets containing oxidized fat.

    PubMed

    Laika, M; Jahanian, R

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of organic selenium (Se) on performance, egg quality indices, and yolk oxidative stability in laying hens fed diets with different fat sources. A total of 270 Hy-line W-36 Leghorn hens of 47 weeks of age were randomly distributed into the 5 replicate cages of 9 dietary treatments. Experimental diets consisted of a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with three different fat sources (soybean oil, SO; yellow grease, YG; and palm fat powder, PFP) and three different levels of supplemental Se (0, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/kg of diet) as supplied by zinc-L-selenomethionine (ZnSeMet) complex, which fed during a 77-day feeding trial including 7 days for adaptation and 70 days as the main recording period. Results showed that the highest (P < 0.05) egg weights assigned to the hens fed on SO-supplemented diets. Hen-day egg production was affected by both dietary fat source (P < 0.01) and Se level (P < 0.05) throughout the trial period. Regardless of dietary fat source, dietary supplementation of ZnSeMet improved (P < 0.05) egg mass during all trial periods. Moreover, the significant (P < 0.05) fat  source× Se interactions were observed for egg mass, so that dietary supplementation with 0.4 mg/kg Se was more effective in diets supplemented with YG. Although feed intake was not affected by experimental diets during the first 35-day period, dietary inclusion of PFP reduced feed intake during both second 35-day (P < 0.01) and entire trial period (P < 0.05). The best (P < 0.01) feed conversion ratio during the first 35-day period was assigned to the birds fed on SO-diets, followed by those fed YG-diets. Dietary supplementation of ZnSeMet improved (P < 0.05) feed efficiency during the first 35-day period. Supplementation of ZnSeMet into the diets increased yolk index, with more impact in hens fed on YG-diets. The highest concentration of yolk

  11. Improvement of Endurance Based on Muscle Fiber-Type Composition by Treatment with Dietary Apple Polyphenols in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Shinpei; Akahoshi, Mariko; Suzuki, Takahiro; Do, Mai-Khoi Q.; Ohtsubo, Hideaki; Komiya, Yusuke; Lan, Mu; Waga, Toshiaki; Iwata, Akira; Nakazato, Koichi; Ikeuchi, Yoshihide; Anderson, Judy E.; Tatsumi, Ryuichi

    2015-01-01

    A recent study demonstrated a positive effect of apple polyphenol (APP) intake on muscle endurance of young-adult animals. While an enhancement of lipid metabolism may be responsible, in part, for the improvement, the contributing mechanisms still need clarification. Here we show that an 8-week intake of 5% (w/w) APP in the diet, up-regulates two features related to fiber type: the ratio of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) type IIx/IIb and myoglobin protein expression in plantaris muscle of 9-week-old male Fischer F344 rats compared to pair-fed controls (P < 0.05). Results were demonstrated by our SDS-PAGE system specialized for MyHC isoform separation and western blotting of whole muscles. Animal-growth profiles (food intake, body-weight gain, and internal-organ weights) did not differ between the control and 5% APP-fed animals (n = 9/group). Findings may account for the increase in fatigue resistance of lower hind limb muscles, as evidenced by a slower decline in the maximum isometric planter-flexion torque generated by a 100-s train of electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve. Additionally, the fatigue resistance was lower after 8 weeks of a 0.5% APP diet than after 5% APP, supporting an APP-dose dependency of the shift in fiber-type composition. Therefore, the present study highlights a promising contribution of dietary APP intake to increasing endurance based on fiber-type composition in rat muscle. Results may help in developing a novel strategy for application in animal sciences, and human sports and age-related health sciences. PMID:26222548

  12. Improvement of Endurance Based on Muscle Fiber-Type Composition by Treatment with Dietary Apple Polyphenols in Rats.

    PubMed

    Mizunoya, Wataru; Miyahara, Hideo; Okamoto, Shinpei; Akahoshi, Mariko; Suzuki, Takahiro; Do, Mai-Khoi Q; Ohtsubo, Hideaki; Komiya, Yusuke; Lan, Mu; Waga, Toshiaki; Iwata, Akira; Nakazato, Koichi; Ikeuchi, Yoshihide; Anderson, Judy E; Tatsumi, Ryuichi

    2015-01-01

    A recent study demonstrated a positive effect of apple polyphenol (APP) intake on muscle endurance of young-adult animals. While an enhancement of lipid metabolism may be responsible, in part, for the improvement, the contributing mechanisms still need clarification. Here we show that an 8-week intake of 5% (w/w) APP in the diet, up-regulates two features related to fiber type: the ratio of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) type IIx/IIb and myoglobin protein expression in plantaris muscle of 9-week-old male Fischer F344 rats compared to pair-fed controls (P < 0.05). Results were demonstrated by our SDS-PAGE system specialized for MyHC isoform separation and western blotting of whole muscles. Animal-growth profiles (food intake, body-weight gain, and internal-organ weights) did not differ between the control and 5% APP-fed animals (n = 9/group). Findings may account for the increase in fatigue resistance of lower hind limb muscles, as evidenced by a slower decline in the maximum isometric planter-flexion torque generated by a 100-s train of electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve. Additionally, the fatigue resistance was lower after 8 weeks of a 0.5% APP diet than after 5% APP, supporting an APP-dose dependency of the shift in fiber-type composition. Therefore, the present study highlights a promising contribution of dietary APP intake to increasing endurance based on fiber-type composition in rat muscle. Results may help in developing a novel strategy for application in animal sciences, and human sports and age-related health sciences. PMID:26222548

  13. Dietary chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) rich in alpha-linolenic acid improves adiposity and normalises hypertriacylglycerolaemia and insulin resistance in dyslipaemic rats.

    PubMed

    Chicco, Adriana G; D'Alessandro, Maria E; Hein, Gustavo J; Oliva, Maria E; Lombardo, Yolanda B

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigates the benefits of the dietary intake of chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) rich in alpha-linolenic acid and fibre upon dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance (IR), induced by intake of a sucrose-rich (62.5 %) diet (SRD). To achieve these goals two sets of experiments were designed: (i) to study the prevention of onset of dyslipidaemia and IR in Wistar rats fed during 3 weeks with a SRD in which chia seed was the dietary source of fat; (ii) to analyse the effectiveness of chia seed in improving or reversing the metabolic abnormalities described above. Rats were fed a SRD during 3 months; by the end of this period, stable dyslipidaemia and IR were present in the animals. From months 3-5, half the animals continued with the SRD and the other half were fed a SRD in which the source of fat was substituted by chia seed (SRD+chia). The control group received a diet in which sucrose was replaced by maize starch. The results showed that: (i) dietary chia seed prevented the onset of dyslipidaemia and IR in the rats fed the SRD for 3 weeks--glycaemia did not change; (ii) dyslipidaemia and IR in the long-term SRD-fed rats were normalised without changes in insulinaemia when chia seed provided the dietary fat during the last 2 months of the feeding period. Dietary chia seed reduced the visceral adiposity present in the SRD rats. The present study provides new data regarding the beneficial effect of chia seed upon lipid and glucose homeostasis in an experimental model of dislipidaemia and IR. PMID:18492301

  14. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, ... possible Tell your health care provider about any dietary supplements you use Do not take a bigger dose ...

  15. Chronic aerobic exercise associated to dietary modification improve endothelial function and eNOS expression in high fat fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Boa, Beatriz C S; Souza, Maria das Graças C; Leite, Richard D; da Silva, Simone V; Barja-Fidalgo, Thereza Christina; Kraemer-Aguiar, Luiz Guilherme; Bouskela, Eliete

    2014-01-01

    -independent microvascular reactivity was similar between groups, suggesting that only endothelial damage had occurred. Our results indicate that an aerobic routine and/or dietary modification may cause significant improvements to high fat fed animals, diminishing visceral depots, increasing eNOS expression and reducing microcirculatory dysfunction. PMID:25036223

  16. Use of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and dietary calcium to improve tenderness of beef from the round of beef cows.

    PubMed

    Carnagey, K M; Huff-Lonergan, E J; Lonergan, S M; Trenkle, A; Horst, R L; Beitz, D C

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this trial was to determine how 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25-OH D(3)) supplementation, altering supplemental dietary calcium, or their combination influence postmortem biochemical and tenderness changes in muscles from the round of mature cows. Twenty-seven Angus cows (3 to 7 yr old) were allotted randomly to 9 pens with 3 cows per pen. Treatments were arranged in a 3 x 3 factorial design with 3 dosages of 25-OH D(3) (0, 250, or 500 mg of 25-OH D(3) administered as a 1-time oral bolus 7 d before slaughter) and 3 percentages of supplemental limestone (0.5, 0.75, and 1.0%) replenished in the diet for 3 d before slaughter and after a 2-wk limestone withdrawal. Plasma samples were obtained during the feeding period. Upon slaughter, adductor, gracilus, pectineus, sartorius, semimembranosus, vastus intermedius, and vastus lateralis muscles were obtained and aged for 1, 3, or 7 d. Calcium concentrations were increased in plasma when 250 or 500 mg of 25-OH D(3) were administered (P improve tenderness, but improved tenderness was not observed. PMID:18344286

  17. Menu modeling with MyPyramid food patterns: Incremental dietary changes lead to dramatic improvements in diet quality of menus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The MyPyramid food guidance system provides recommended food intake patterns for members of each sex at various age and activity levels. These food intake patterns are based on recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005. Actual consumption patterns of American adults compared to My...

  18. Evaluation of supplemental dietary lipids to improve reproductive performance of female channel catfish in hybrid catfish production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Presently, hormone-induced spawning of channel catfish is a viable method for commercial hybrid catfish production. Nutritional status of the broodstock determines the quality of the egg. Lipids can be incorporated into egg yolk from dietary sources, or from reserves that are stored before vitello...

  19. Vegetable dietary fibres made with minimal processing improve health-related faecal parameters in a valid rat model.

    PubMed

    Monro, John; Mishra, Suman; Redman, Claire; Somerfield, Sheryl; Ng, Jovyn

    2016-06-15

    Dietary fibre-induced faecal bulking and hydration are important contributors to large bowel function and health, and are affected by the dietary fibre structure. To determine faecal bulk-related parameters for vegetable dietary fibres with retained structure, cold water fragmentation of vegetables was used to make minimally processed vegetable fibres (MPVF) from swede, broccoli and asparagus. A valid adult rat model was used to subject the fibres to processes of hind gut fermentation and faecal accumulation similar to those in humans. All the MPVFs had high faecal bulking indexes (FBIs, mean ± sem: wheat bran (reference), 100 ± 6.0; asparagus 168 ± 5.7; swede 135 ± 6.1; broccoli 135 ± 5.9; broccoli rind 205 ± 10.4), and caused large increases in the theoretical colonic water load at 10 g per 100 g diet (increase over baseline (%): wheat bran, 137 ± 8.3; asparagus, 236 ± 25, swede 193 ± 8.8; broccoli 228 ± 12; broccoli rind 223 ± 8.5). Faecal bulking by MPVFs was much greater than by fermentable extracted polysaccharides such as pectin and raftilose, or by commercial fibres made from highly processed cell walls. The results show natural, non-degraded vegetable fibres with retained botanical structure have beneficial effects not provided by structure-less fermentable dietary fibres. Dietary fibre-deficient diets supplemented with prebiotics cannot, therefore, adequately substitute for varied diets containing adequate vegetables, fruits and wholegrain cereals in which fermentation is associated with enough retained structure to conserve physicochemical properties of benefit to colonic function. PMID:27219511

  20. New Developments in Forage Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage crops harvested for hay or haylage or grazed support dairy, beef, sheep and horse production. Additional livestock production from reduced forage acreage supports the need for forage variety improvement. The Consortium for Alfalfa Improvement is a partnership model of government, private no...

  1. The SCRI Acrylamide Project: Improved breeding and variety evaluation methods to reduce acrylamide content and increase quality in processed potato products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The highest priority of the US potato industry is the need to introduce new varieties that reduce the acrylamide content of processed products and minimize health concerns related to acrylamide consumption. The SCRI acrylamide project is a national, coordinated effort that addresses this need. Thi...

  2. Dietary Aloe vera improves plasma lipid profile, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after Streptococcus iniae challenge.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; Ma, Xin Yu; He, Jie; Xu, Pao; Liu, Kai

    2015-10-01

    The current study investigated the effects of dietary Aloe vera on plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities of GIFT-tilapia juveniles under Streptococcus iniae challenge. Five dietary groups were designed including a control and 100 % Aloe powder incorporated into a tilapia feed at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 %/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed dietary Aloe at 4 %/kg feed significantly reduced in total cholesterol, while triacylglycerol reduced (P < 0.05) in those fed 0.5, 2, and 4 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones. High-density lipoprotein was significantly elevated in fish fed 0.5 and 1 % Aloe/kg feed compared to unsupplemented ones, and no significant changes (P > 0.05) were noted in low-density lipoprotein among test groups. Furthermore, high activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxide in liver tissues were observed in Aloe-supplemented fish compared to unsupplemented ones, before and after S. iniae challenge (7.7 × 10(6) CFU cells/mL). Variations were also noted in malondialdehyde activity throughout the trial, but no significant difference (P > 0.05) was observed between groups. Meanwhile, Aloe-supplemented fish reduced serum aspartate and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT) activities before and after challenge. Based on the second-order polynomial regression analysis, dietary Aloe inclusion levels less than or equal to 1.88, 1.86, and 2.79 %/kg feed were determined to be suitable in improving plasma lipid profile status, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective enzyme activities in GIFT-tilapia in this study, respectively. Thus, A. vera extracts may be recommended as a tilapia feed supplement to enhance fish antioxidant and hepatoprotective capacities, especially during disease outbreaks. PMID:26109009

  3. Dietary vitamin A supplementation improved reproductive performance by regulating ovarian expression of hormone receptors, caspase-3 and Fas in broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Jiang, Zongyong; Jiang, Shouqun; Li, Long; Lin, Xiajing; Gou, Zongyong; Fan, Qiuli

    2016-01-01

    The effects of dietary vitamin A (VA) supplementation on reproductive performance, VA deposition, and potential mechanisms of action were studied in Chinese yellow-feathered broiler breeders. A total of 528 yellow-feathered broiler breeders that were 46 wk old were fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet supplemented with 0; 5,400; 10,800; or 21,600 IU/kg VA for 9 wk. Each dietary treatment had 6 replicates with 22 birds per replicate. After 7 wk of treatment, 60 settable eggs per replicate were collected for hatching. The results showed that dietary VA improved the laying rate, egg-to-feed ratio, and hatch weight of offspring (P < 0.05). Hepatic retinyl palmitate in broiler breeders and hatchlings (within 12 h) increased with increasing VA (P < 0.05). VA supplementation increased insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) receptor transcripts in the ovarian stroma and the walls of yellow follicles, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor expression in the walls of white and yellow follicles, and luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor and growth hormone (GH) receptor transcripts in the walls of yellow follicles (P < 0.05). Caspase-3 and Fas mRNA levels in the ovarian stroma and the walls of white and yellow follicles decreased with VA supplementation (P < 0.05). The relative expression of retinol dehydrogenase 10 (RDH10) transcripts in the walls of white follicles increased with 5,400 IU/kg VA supplementation (P < 0.05). Supplemental 21,600 IU/kg VA increased cytochrome P450 26A1 (CYP26A1) transcripts in the ovarian stroma and the walls of white follicles (P < 0.05). Dietary VA elevated retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) expression in the ovarian stroma and the walls of yellow follicles and retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) expression in the walls of yellow follicles. It was concluded that VA supplementation improved reproductive performance and hepatic storage of VA, and this was associated with the regulation of ovarian hormone receptor expression and suppression of apoptosis

  4. Dietary Vitamin E Is More Effective than Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acid for Improving The Kinematic Characteristics of Rat Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, AliReza; Taleb, Zeinab; Ebrahimi, Bita; Esmaeili, Vahid; Shaverdi, Abdolhossein; Nasr, Javad; Kheimeh, Abolfazl; Yazdi, Reza Salman

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although key roles for dietary vitamin E (VITE) and fatty acid (FA) in fertility have been confirmed, limited data are available on the effects of VITE alone, or a constant level of VITE supplemented by dietary omega-6 and omega-3 FAs in combination on male reproduction. Consequently in this paper, the effects of VITE, sunflower oil, fish oil and their combination on rat sperm were investigated. Materials and Methods We divided 50 mature male Wistar rats into 5 groups (n=10) in a experimental completely randomized design for eight weeks: i. Control (CTR): standard diet; ii. Vitamin E diet (VITE): 2 times greater than recommendations; iii. Sunflower oil group (n-6) [gavaged with 0.5 ml/day/rat sunflower oil+VITE diet]; iv. Fish oil group (n-3): [gavaged with 0.5 ml/day/rat fish oil+VITE diet] and v. n-3+n-6 group [gavaged with 0.3 ml fish oil/day/rat+0.2 ml sunflower oil/day/rat+VITE diet]. The sperm parameters were measured by computer assisted semen analyzer (CASA). All data were analyzed with SPSS software. Results Feed intake decreased in groups which were administered sunflower oil compared with the other groups (P<0.05). The groups which received only VITE or fish oil+VITE had a significantly higher concentration of sperm compared with the n-6+n-3 and CTR group (P<0.05). VITE and n-3 showed significant improved progressive motility compared to the CTR group, whereas the n-6 and n-6+n-3 groups were in the middle (P<0.05). The highest sperm kinematic parameters were observed in the VITE only group. There was no strong correlation between sperm parameters and blood lipid profiles. Conclusion Dietary VITE and fish oil+VITE can improve sperm quality. Our findings can be a focus for improvements in sperm quantity and motility in fertile animals using only dietary VITE. PMID:27540532

  5. Dietary Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble fiber or insoluble fiber. Both types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts ...

  6. Dietary Fiber

    MedlinePlus

    Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It's a type of carbohydrate. You may also see it listed on a food label as soluble ... types have important health benefits. Good sources of dietary fiber include Whole grains Nuts and seeds Fruit and ...

  7. Dietary flaxseed administered post thoracic radiation treatment improves survival and mitigates radiation-induced pneumonopathy in mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Flaxseed (FS) is a dietary supplement known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Radiation exposure of lung tissues occurs either when given therapeutically to treat intrathoracic malignancies or incidentally, such as in the case of exposure from inhaled radioisotopes released after the detonation of a radiological dispersion devise (RDD). Such exposure is associated with pulmonary inflammation, oxidative tissue damage and irreversible lung fibrosis. We previously reported that dietary FS prevents pneumonopathy in a rodent model of thoracic X-ray radiation therapy (XRT). However, flaxseed's therapeutic usefulness in mitigating radiation effects post-exposure has never been evaluated. Methods We evaluated the effects of a 10%FS or isocaloric control diet given to mice (C57/BL6) in 2 separate experiments (n = 15-25 mice/group) on 0, 2, 4, 6 weeks post a single dose 13.5 Gy thoracic XRT and compared it to an established radiation-protective diet given preventively, starting at 3 weeks prior to XRT. Lungs were evaluated four months post-XRT for blood oxygenation levels, inflammation and fibrosis. Results Irradiated mice fed a 0%FS diet had a 4-month survival rate of 40% as compared to 70-88% survival in irradiated FS-fed mouse groups. Additionally, all irradiated FS-fed mice had decreased fibrosis compared to those fed 0%FS. Lung OH-Proline content ranged from 96.5 ± 7.1 to 110.2 ± 7.7 μg/ml (Mean ± SEM) in all irradiated FS-fed mouse groups, as compared to 138 ± 10.8 μg/ml for mice on 0%FS. Concomitantly, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) protein and weight loss associated with radiation cachexia was significantly decreased in all FS-fed groups. Inflammatory cell influx to lungs also decreased significantly except when FS diet was delayed by 4 and 6 weeks post XRT. All FS-fed mice (irradiated or not), maintained a higher blood oxygenation level as compared to mice on 0%FS. Similarly, multiplex cytokine analysis in the BAL fluid revealed a

  8. Aging and variety seeking.

    PubMed

    Novak, Deanna L; Mather, Mara

    2007-12-01

    The authors examined the influence of age on variety seeking in 3 experiments. When given choices among jellybeans or music, age differences in variety seeking emerged. Younger adults selected similar levels of variety when choosing what to consume immediately and what to consume later. In contrast, older adults consistently chose less variety when making choices to be consumed at a later time than when making choices to be consumed immediately. This pattern may be related to an increased focus on regulating future emotional experience that is associated with age. PMID:18179293

  9. A pilot study to determine whether using a lightweight, wearable micro-camera improves dietary assessment accuracy and offers information on macronutrients and eating rate.

    PubMed

    Pettitt, Claire; Liu, Jindong; Kwasnicki, Richard M; Yang, Guang-Zhong; Preston, Thomas; Frost, Gary

    2016-01-14

    A major limitation in nutritional science is the lack of understanding of the nutritional intake of free-living people. There is an inverse relationship between accuracy of reporting of energy intake by all current nutritional methodologies and body weight. In this pilot study we aim to explore whether using a novel lightweight, wearable micro-camera improves the accuracy of dietary intake assessment. Doubly labelled water (DLW) was used to estimate energy expenditure and intake over a 14-d period, over which time participants (n 6) completed a food diary and wore a micro-camera on 2 of the days. Comparisons were made between the estimated energy intake from the reported food diary alone and together with the images from the micro-camera recordings. There was an average daily deficit of 3912 kJ using food diaries to estimate energy intake compared with estimated energy expenditure from DLW (P=0·0118), representing an under-reporting rate of 34 %. Analysis of food diaries alone showed a significant deficit in estimated daily energy intake compared with estimated intake from food diary analysis with images from the micro-camera recordings (405 kJ). Use of the micro-camera images in conjunction with food diaries improves the accuracy of dietary assessment and provides valuable information on macronutrient intake and eating rate. There is a need to develop this recording technique to remove user and assessor bias. PMID:26537614

  10. Inclusion of red meat in healthful dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    McNeill, Shalene H

    2014-11-01

    Dietary patterns are an important concept in dietary recommendations. The Western pattern is most commonly defined as a diet characterized by high intakes of refined grains, sugar and red meat, and has been shown to be associated with increased risks for certain types of cancer, coronary heart disease, diabetes, and obesity. However, isolating the independent effects of individual foods on health outcomes is central to helping individuals choose foods to build healthier dietary patterns to which they can adhere. Red meat is a popular source of high quality protein and provides a variety of essential nutrients that improve overall diet quality. It is also a source of saturated fatty acids, which observational evidence suggests are associated with heart disease, although recent data challenge this. Several studies have shown that lean red meat can be successfully included in recommended heart-healthy dietary patterns without detriment to blood lipids. Furthermore, increased dietary protein has been shown to promote healthy body weight and composition, in part by increasing satiety, and to improve vitality and stamina. PMID:25034452

  11. An Antioxidant Dietary Supplement Improves Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels in Serum of Aged Dogs: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Sechi, Sara; Chiavolelli, Francesca; Spissu, Nicoletta; Di Cerbo, Alessandro; Canello, Sergio; Guidetti, Gianandrea; Fiore, Filippo; Cocco, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Biological aging is characterized by a progressive accumulation of oxidative damage and decreased endogenous antioxidant defense mechanisms. The production of oxidants by normal metabolism damages proteins, lipids, and nucleotides, which may contribute to cognitive impairment. In this study 36 dogs were randomly divided into four groups and fed croquettes of different compositions for 6 months. We monitored derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (dROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) levels in dogs' plasma samples as well as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serum levels at the beginning and at the end of the dietary regime. Our results showed that a dietary regime, enriched with antioxidants, induced a significant decrease of plasma levels of dROMs (p < 0.005) and a significant increase in BDNF serum levels (p < 0.005) after six months. Thus, we hypothesized a possible role of the diet in modulating pro- and antioxidant species as well as BDNF levels in plasma and serum, respectively. In conclusion the proposed diet enriched with antioxidants might be considered a valid alternative and a valuable strategy to counteract aging-related cognitive decline in elderly dogs. PMID:26464952

  12. Peanut variety tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Beckham, and Custer counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 9 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 7 Virginia types...

  13. Varieties of Musical Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bharucha, J. Jamshed; Curtis, Meagan; Paroo, Kaivon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that music cognition involves the use of acoustic and auditory codes to evoke a variety of conscious experiences. The variety of domains that are encompassed by music is so diverse that it is unclear whether a single domain of structure or experience is defining. Music is best understood as a form of communication in which…

  14. Peanut Variety Tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Custer, and Tillman counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 8 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 4 Virginia types...

  15. Varieties of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, G. L.

    The English language is not a monolithic entity but an amalgam of many different varieties that can be associated respectively with groups of speakers, with individuals, and with the occasion. Among such varieties are slang, regional and class dialects, the language of children, and the language used by public speakers, journalists, lawyers,…

  16. Peanut variety tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Beckham, and Custer counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 10 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 6 Virginia type...

  17. Improved bioavailability of dietary phenolic acids in whole grain barley and oat groat following fermentation with probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus , Lactobacillus johnsonii , and Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Hole, Anastasia S; Rud, Ida; Grimmer, Stine; Sigl, Stefanie; Narvhus, Judith; Sahlstrøm, Stefan

    2012-06-27

    The aim of this study was to improve the bioavailability of the dietary phenolic acids in flours from whole grain barley and oat groat following fermentation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) exhibiting high feruloyl esterase activity (FAE). The highest increase of free phenolic acids was observed after fermentation with three probiotic strains, Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1, Lactobacillus reuteri SD2112, and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5, with maximum increases from 2.55 to 69.91 μg g(-1) DM and from 4.13 to 109.42 μg g(-1) DM in whole grain barley and oat groat, respectively. Interestingly, higher amounts of bound phenolic acids were detected after both water treatment and LAB fermentation in whole grain barley, indicating higher bioaccessibility, whereas some decrease was detected in oat groat. To conclude, cereal fermentation with specific probiotic strains can lead to significant increase of free phenolic acids, thereby improving their bioavailability. PMID:22676388

  18. DIETARY INTAKE OF YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dietary exposure research supports the requirements of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 by improving methods of aggregate and cumulative exposure assessments for children. The goal of this research is to reduce the level of uncertainty in assessing the dietary path...

  19. Dietary organic selenium improves growth, survival and resistance to Vibrio mimicus in cultured marron, Cherax cainii (Austin, 2002).

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Rudy Agung; Fotedar, Ravi

    2013-07-01

    To determine the effects of dietary organic selenium (OS) supplementation on the growth performance and immune competence of marron, Cherax cainii (Austin, 2002), a group of marron were fed 0.2 g kg(-1) of Sel-Plex(®) supplemented basal diet and then compared with another group (control) of marron fed basal diet without any supplementation. After 90 days of feeding, final weight, average weekly gains (AWG), relative gain rate (RGR), specific growth rate (SGR), survival, total and differential haemocyte counts (THC and DHC), were compared between the two groups. Surviving marron from each group were then divided into three sub-groups (three tanks per sub-group with seven marron per tank); (1) first sub-group was injected with 20 μL of 3.24 × 10(6) cfu Vibrio mimicus; (2) the second sub-group was injected with 20 μL normal saline and (3) the third sub-group was not subjected to injection and became the control group. THC, DHC, neutral red retention time (NRRT) and Vibrio ranks of post-injected marron were evaluated for 96 h, at every 24-h interval. The results showed that after 90 days of feeding, final weight, AWG, RGR, SGR, survival, THC, proportion of hyaline cells of OS-fed marron were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the control group, whereas proportion of granular and semigranular cells were not affected by dietary OS. After challenging with V. mimicus, survival rate of marron without dietary OS significantly decreased (P < 0.05) as compared to the control group of marron. THC of marron in all sub-groups were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) after the challenge. However, THC and granular cells of sub-groups fed OS were higher than other sub-groups. Vibrio ranks and NRRT of marron fed OS were significantly lower and slower, respectively, than marron fed without OS. These findings demonstrated the benefits of OS inclusion in the marron diet in terms of growth, health and disease resistance. PMID:23603239

  20. Dietary antioxidants at supranutritional doses improve oxidative status and reduce the negative effects of heat stress in sheep.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, S S; Celi, P; Leury, B J; Clarke, I J; Dunshea, F R

    2014-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the impact of heat (thermal) stress and dietary antioxidant supplementation on the oxidative and physiological status of sheep. Twenty-four Merino × Poll Dorset crossbred ewes were housed in 1 of 2 climatic chambers (thermoneutral or heat stress) and offered either a control (10 IU vitamin E/kg DM and 0.24 mg Se/kg DM) or high antioxidant (100 IU vitamin E/kg DM and 1.20 mg Se/kg DM) diet. The sheep were exposed to 2 thermal (temperature) treatments (thermoneutral [TN]: 18-21°C and 26-30% relative humidity; and heat stress [HS]: 28-40°C and 40-50% relative humidity) for 2 wk in a single reversal design. After 1 wk of dietary treatment, animals in 1 chamber were subjected to HS for 1 wk, with the temperature being increased to 40°C between 0900 and 1700 h and then maintained at 28°C overnight. Those sheep in the TN group were maintained at 18 to 21°C. Physiological parameters were recorded 4 times a day (0900, 1300, 1700, and 2100 h) and blood samples were collected on d 1 and 7 of heat treatment. Plasma samples and red blood cell lysates were assayed for oxidative stress biomarkers. The thermal treatments were then reversed and the above measures repeated. All measured physiological parameters were elevated (P < 0.001) by thermal treatment. Respiration rate was lower during HS in sheep supplemented with antioxidants as indicated by a diet × temperature × time interaction (P = 0.010). There was 13% decline (P = 0.014) in feed intake of the unsupplemented animals during HS whereas the same was maintained in sheep supplemented with high doses of antioxidants. Plasma reactive oxygen metabolites concentrations were reduced (114 vs. 85 units/dL; P < 0.005) while biological antioxidant potential tended to be increased (3,688 vs. 3,985 μmol/L; P = 0.070) in heat stressed sheep supplemented with antioxidants. The oxidative stress index was 30% lower (P < 0.001) in supplemented sheep (2.16 ± 0.06 arbitrary units

  1. Child Care: States Have Undertaken a Variety of Quality Improvement Initiatives, but More Evaluations of Effectiveness Are Needed. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaul, Marnie S.

    Expressing concern for the quality of care supported by Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF) funds, welfare reform legislation required states to set aside at least 4 percent of their total grant to improve child care quality and availability. In preparation for reauthorizing CCDF, this General Accounting Office report was commissioned to…

  2. Improved interpretation of studies comparing methods of dietary assessment: combining equivalence testing with the limits of agreement.

    PubMed

    Batterham, Marijka J; Van Loo, Christel; Charlton, Karen E; Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D

    2016-04-14

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the use of testing for equivalence in combination with the Bland and Altman method when assessing agreement between two dietary methods. A sample data set, with eighty subjects simulated from previously published studies, was used to compare a FFQ with three 24 h recalls (24HR) for assessing dietary I intake. The mean I intake using the FFQ was 126·51 (sd 54·06) µg and using the three 24HR was 124·23 (sd 48·62) µg. The bias was -2·28 (sd 43·93) µg with a 90% CI 10·46, 5·89 µg. The limits of agreement (LOA) were -88·38, 83·82 µg. Four equivalence regions were compared. Using the conventional 10 % equivalence range, the methods are shown to be equivalent both by using the CI (-12·4, 12·4 µg) and the two one-sided tests approach (lower t=-2·99 (79 df), P=0·002; upper t=2·06 (79 df), P=0·021). However, we make a case that clinical decision making should be used to set the equivalence limits, and for nutrients where there are potential issues with deficiency or toxicity stricter criteria may be needed. If the equivalence region is lowered to ±5 µg, or ± 10 µg, these methods are no longer equivalent, and if a wider limit of ±15 µg is accepted they are again equivalent. Using equivalence testing, acceptable agreement must be assessed a priori and justified; this makes the process of defining agreement more transparent and results easier to interpret than relying on the LOA alone. PMID:26879342

  3. Dietary nano-selenium relieves hypoxia stress and, improves immunity and disease resistance in the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis).

    PubMed

    Qin, Fenju; Shi, Miaomiao; Yuan, Hongxia; Yuan, Linxi; Lu, Wenhao; Zhang, Jie; Tong, Jian; Song, Xuehong

    2016-07-01

    Hypoxia is a relevant physiological challenge for crab culture, and the hemolymph plays a crucial role in response to the hypoxia. In a 60 d feeding trial, Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis) fed a diet containing 0.2 mg/kg nano-selenium (nanoSe) showed a significantly increased weight gain rate (WGR) and a reduced feed coefficient (FC) compared to those fed diets with 0, 0.1, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6 mg/kg nanoSe. Another 90 d feeding trial was conducted to determine the influence of dietary nanoSe on the immune response in juvenile Chinese mitten crabs kept under the condition of hypoxia. The results showed that hypoxia stress resulted in significantly increased hemocyte counts (THC, LGC, SGC, and HC), expression levels of the hemocyanin gene and protein, lactic acid level, and antioxidant capacity (T-AOC activities, SOD activities, GSH-Px and GSH content) in hemolymph supernatant. When these crabs were infected with Aeromonas hydrophila bacteria, hypoxia exposure increased mortality, but it was alleviated by a diet supplemented with 0.2 mg/kg nanoSe. The up-regulative effects of nanoSe (0.2 mg/kg) on antioxidant capacity, hemocyte counts, and hemocyanin expression under hypoxia exposure were further strengthened throughout, whereas lactic acid levels induced by hypoxia stress were restored. Thus, the observations in this study indicate that the level of dietary nanoSe is important in regulating immunity and disease resistance in crabs kept under hypoxia stress. PMID:27153751

  4. Dietary onion intake as part of a typical high fat diet improves indices of cardiovascular health using the mixed sex pig model.

    PubMed

    Gabler, Nicholas K; Osrowska, Ewa; Imsic, Micheal; Eagling, David R; Jois, Mark; Tatham, Brendan G; Dunshea, Frank R

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential health benefits of onions consumed at two levels of intake, using the pig model. The dietary fat content was set at a level typical of a "western" diet (25% w/w). Fifteen female and fifteen male pigs (Large White x Landrace) were allocated to one of three dietary treatments in a randomised block design. Treatments consisted of control diet (no onion) and onion supplementation at either 8.6 or 21.4 g of onion/MJ DE fed for six weeks. Onion consumption reduced plasma triglyceride levels by 15% (P=0.030) regardless of sex and onion dose. Total plasma cholesterol and cholesterol fractions were unaffected by onion supplementation (P>0.050). The bioactivity of onion was evident in haematocrit measures, where red blood cell and haemoglobin were significantly reduced in a dose dependant manner (P<0.001 and P=0.011, respectively), while other cell counts, with exception of segmented neutrophils (-18%, P=0.012), were largely unaffected. Serum oxidative status was improved (P=0.007) in pigs consuming onions. These data demonstrate that consumption of onions can have positive health effects in both male and female pigs consuming a high fat diet. PMID:17123162

  5. Dehulling reduces toxicity and improves in vivo biological value of proteins in vegetal milk derived from two mucuna (Mucuna pruriens L.) seeds varieties.

    PubMed

    Mang, Yannick Dimitry; Njintang, Yanou Nicolas; Abdou, Bouba Armand; Scher, Joel; Bernard, Clémence; Mbofung, Moses C

    2016-06-01

    The present work was carried out to evaluate the nutritive quality (proximate and antinutrients composition) of vegetable milks prepared from whole and dehulled mucuna bean flours. Casein and mucuna milk diets were fed to rats (four weeks old; n = 8 per group) for 28 days to determine protein efficiency ratio (PER), net protein efficiency ratio (NPER), true and apparent digestibility (TD and AD, respectively), organ-to-body weight ratios and hematological parameters. The experimental design was a factorial design with two variety of mucuna (cochinchinensis and veracruz) and two treatments (whole and dehulled beans). Protein, total sugar, dry matter and ash-content of mucuna milks ranged from 6.40 to 12.13 g/100 mL, 10.52 to 13.08 g/100 mL, 8.59 to 12.88 g/100 g and 0.31 to 0.92 g/100 g, respectively. Milks from dehulled flours had lower contents of tannins (80-87.08 %), phytates (76.67-78.16 %) and L-Dopamine (44.45-66.66 %) than that from whole flours. The PER of dehulled mucuna diets were 22.76-21.74 %, but negative PER and low NPER was observed for whole mucuna milk diets. TD for dehulled mucuna milk (85.15-85.96 %) were higher and similar to casein when compared to that of whole mucuna milk (47.87-51.17 %). Rats fed with diets containing whole mucuna milk lost weight and had higher kidney weight. In addition, the rats fed with milk from whole mucuna flours showed significantly lower levels of lymphocytes, granulocytes, red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit than that fed with dehulled mucuna milk. PMID:27478210

  6. Effect of Improving Dietary Quality on Arterial Stiffness in Subjects with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes: A 12 Months Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Kristina S.; Clifton, Peter M.; Lister, Natalie; Keogh, Jennifer B.

    2016-01-01

    People with diabetes have accelerated arterial stiffening. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of increasing fruit, vegetable and dairy intake for 12 months on carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), augmentation index (AIx), and central blood pressure (cBP), compared to a usual diet control, in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In a 12 months randomised controlled trial, cfPWV, AIx and cBP were measured every 3 months. The intervention group received dietary counselling to increase consumption of fruit (+1 serving/day; 150 g/day), vegetables (+2 servings/day; 150 g/day) and dairy (+1 serving/day; 200–250 g/day) at baseline, 1, 3, 6 and 9 months. The control group continued on their usual diet. One hundred and nine participants were randomised and 92 (intervention n = 45; control n = 47) completed. At 3 months, fruit (184 g/day; p = 0.001) and dairy (83 g/day; p = 0.037) intake increased in the intervention group compared with the control group but this increase was not maintained at 12 months. After adjustment for baseline measurements there was no time by treatment effect for central systolic or diastolic BP, AIx or cfPWV. A time effect existed for AIx which modestly increased over time. Peripheral diastolic BP and central pulse pressure were improved in the intervention group compared with the control group at 12 months. In the cohort with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, improving dietary quality by increasing consumption of fruit, vegetables and dairy did not improve cBP, AIx or cfPWV, compared with a control group continuing on their usual diet, after 12 months. PMID:27338467

  7. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some ...

  8. DIETARY EXPOSURE MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research constitutes the MCEARD base dietary exposure research program and is conducted to complement the NERL total human exposure program. The research builds on previous work to reduce the level of uncertainty in exposure assessment by improving NERL's ability to evaluat...

  9. Dietary manipulation of platelet function.

    PubMed

    Bachmair, E M; Ostertag, L M; Zhang, X; de Roos, B

    2014-11-01

    Activated platelets contribute to plaque formation within blood vessels in the early and late stages of atherogenesis, and therefore they have been proposed as risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Anti-platelet drugs, such as aspirin, are now the most prescribed pharmacological treatment in Europe. Certain dietary bioactives also beneficially affect platelet function, and with less side effects, albeit that effects are generally more subtle. Therefore, consumption of dietary bioactives could play a role in the prevention of atherothrombotic vascular disease. Here we review the efficacy of dietary treatment strategies, especially those involving certain dietary fatty acids and polyphenols, to modulate platelet function in healthy subjects or in patients with cardiovascular disease. Variation in study populations, small study sizes and lack of comparability between methods to assess platelet function currently limit robust evidence on the efficacy of dietary bioactives in healthy subjects or specific patient groups. Also, limited knowledge of the metabolism of dietary bioactives, and therefore of the bioavailability of bioactive ingredients, restricts our ability to identify the most effective dietary regimes to improve platelet function. Implementation of uniform point-of-care tests to assess platelet function, and enhanced knowledge of the efficacy by which specific dietary compounds and their metabolites affect platelet function, may enable the identification of functional anti-platelet ingredients that are eligible for a health claim, or combined treatment strategies, including both pharmacological anti-platelet treatment as well as dietary intervention, to tackle atherothrombotic vascular disease. PMID:24858060

  10. Improvement of neuropathology and transcriptional deficits in CAG 140 knock-in mice supports a beneficial effect of dietary curcumin in Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Backgound No disease modifying treatment currently exists for Huntington's disease (HD), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the formation of amyloid-like aggregates of the mutated huntingtin protein. Curcumin is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound with Congo red-like amyloid binding properties and the ability to cross the blood brain barrier. CAG140 mice, a knock-in (KI) mouse model of HD, display abnormal aggregates of mutant huntingtin and striatal transcriptional deficits, as well as early motor, cognitive and affective abnormalities, many months prior to exhibiting spontaneous gait deficits, decreased striatal volume, and neuronal loss. We have examined the ability of life-long dietary curcumin to improve the early pathological phenotype of CAG140 mice. Results KI mice fed a curcumin-containing diet since conception showed decreased huntingtin aggregates and increased striatal DARPP-32 and D1 receptor mRNAs, as well as an amelioration of rearing deficits. However, similar to other antioxidants, curcumin impaired rotarod behavior in both WT and KI mice and climbing in WT mice. These behavioral effects were also noted in WT C57Bl/6 J mice exposed to the same curcumin regime as adults. However, neither locomotor function, behavioral despair, muscle strength or food utilization were affected by curcumin in this latter study. The clinical significance of curcumin's impairment of motor performance in mice remains unclear because curcumin has an excellent blood chemistry and adverse event safety profile, even in the elderly and in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Conclusion Together with this clinical experience, the improvement in several transgene-dependent parameters by curcumin in our study supports a net beneficial effect of dietary curcumin in HD. PMID:22475209

  11. The association between acculturation and dietary patterns of South Asian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Lesser, Iris A; Gasevic, Danijela; Lear, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Dietary acculturation, specifically the adoption of western dietary habits, may result in adverse health effects such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the role of acculturation in dietary patterns as well as awareness and knowledge of healthy nutrition among South Asian immigrants. This is an especially important population to target as South Asians have higher prevalence rates of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which may be magnified with immigration. The current investigation is a sub-study of the Multi-Cultural Community Health Assessment Trial (M-CHAT). There were 207 participants of South Asian origin included in the initial study, 129 were born outside of Canada and had immigrated after the age of 18. The length of residence in Canada was used as a marker for acculturation. A questionnaire addressing perceived changes in dietary patterns, food preparation, and nutrition knowledge and awareness since immigration was used to assess dietary practices. The association between length of residence and variables related to perceived changes in dietary patterns was explored with Spearman correlation and significant associations were subsequently analyzed with ordinal logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, education and body mass index. South Asian immigrants in Canada reported a variety of positive dietary practices, including an increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and an improvement in food preparation (including an increase in grilling and a decrease in deep frying when cooking). However, there was a reported increase in the consumption of convenience foods, sugar-sweetened beverages, red meat and in dining out. South Asian immigrants in Canada reported a variety of positive dietary practices including an improvement in food preparation. Future health promotion strategies should encourage cultural sensitivity in efforts to reduce the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage, convenience foods

  12. Taking Advantage of the Strengths of 2 Different Dietary Assessment Instruments to Improve Intake Estimates for Nutritional Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Raymond J.; Midthune, Douglas; Subar, Amy F.; Shumakovich, Marina; Freedman, Laurence S.; Thompson, Frances E.; Kipnis, Victor

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of Internet-based 24-hour recall (24HR) instruments, it is now possible to envision their use in cohort studies investigating the relation between nutrition and disease. Understanding that all dietary assessment instruments are subject to measurement errors and correcting for them under the assumption that the 24HR is unbiased for usual intake, here the authors simultaneously address precision, power, and sample size under the following 3 conditions: 1) 1–12 24HRs; 2) a single calibrated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ); and 3) a combination of 24HR and FFQ data. Using data from the Eating at America’s Table Study (1997–1998), the authors found that 4–6 administrations of the 24HR is optimal for most nutrients and food groups and that combined use of multiple 24HR and FFQ data sometimes provides data superior to use of either method alone, especially for foods that are not regularly consumed. For all food groups but the most rarely consumed, use of 2–4 recalls alone, with or without additional FFQ data, was superior to use of FFQ data alone. Thus, if self-administered automated 24HRs are to be used in cohort studies, 4–6 administrations of the 24HR should be considered along with administration of an FFQ. PMID:22273536

  13. High Incubation Temperature and Threonine Dietary Level Improve Ileum Response Against Post-Hatch Salmonella Enteritidis Inoculation in Broiler Chicks

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Heraldo Bezerra; Campos, Danila Barreiro; Guerra, Ricardo Romão; Costa, Fernando Guilherme Perazzo

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of both embryonic thermal manipulation and dietary threonine level on the response of broilers inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, considering bacterial counts in the cecal contents, intestinal morphology, mucin and heat shock protein 70 gene expression, body weight and weight gain. Thermal manipulation was used from 11 days of incubation until hatch, defining three treatments: standard (37.7°C), continuous high temperature (38.7°C) and continuous low temperature (36.7°C). After hatch, chicks were distributed according to a 3x2+1 factorial arrangement (three temperatures and two threonine levels and one sham-inoculated control). At two days of age, all chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, except for the sham-inoculated control group. There was no interaction between the factors on any analyses. High temperature during incubation was able to reduce colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis in the first days, reducing both Salmonella counts and the number of positive birds. It also increased mucin expression and decreased Hsp70 expression compared with other inoculated groups. High temperature during incubation and high threonine level act independently to reduce the negative effects associated to Salmonella Enteritidis infection on intestinal morphology and performance, with results similar to sham-inoculated birds. The findings open new perspectives for practical strategies towards the pre-harvest Salmonella control in the poultry industry. PMID:26131553

  14. High Incubation Temperature and Threonine Dietary Level Improve Ileum Response Against Post-Hatch Salmonella Enteritidis Inoculation in Broiler Chicks.

    PubMed

    de Barros Moreira Filho, Alexandre Lemos; de Oliveira, Celso José Bruno; de Oliveira, Heraldo Bezerra; Campos, Danila Barreiro; Guerra, Ricardo Romão; Costa, Fernando Guilherme Perazzo; Givisiez, Patricia Emília Naves

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of both embryonic thermal manipulation and dietary threonine level on the response of broilers inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, considering bacterial counts in the cecal contents, intestinal morphology, mucin and heat shock protein 70 gene expression, body weight and weight gain. Thermal manipulation was used from 11 days of incubation until hatch, defining three treatments: standard (37.7°C), continuous high temperature (38.7°C) and continuous low temperature (36.7°C). After hatch, chicks were distributed according to a 3x2+1 factorial arrangement (three temperatures and two threonine levels and one sham-inoculated control). At two days of age, all chicks were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis, except for the sham-inoculated control group. There was no interaction between the factors on any analyses. High temperature during incubation was able to reduce colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis in the first days, reducing both Salmonella counts and the number of positive birds. It also increased mucin expression and decreased Hsp70 expression compared with other inoculated groups. High temperature during incubation and high threonine level act independently to reduce the negative effects associated to Salmonella Enteritidis infection on intestinal morphology and performance, with results similar to sham-inoculated birds. The findings open new perspectives for practical strategies towards the pre-harvest Salmonella control in the poultry industry. PMID:26131553

  15. Revised dietary guidelines for Koreans.

    PubMed

    Jang, Young Ai; Lee, Haeng Shin; Kim, Bok Hee; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Hae Jeung; Moon, Jae Jin; Kim, Cho-il

    2008-01-01

    With rapidly changing dietary environment, dietary guidelines for Koreans were revised and relevant action guides were developed. First, the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee was established with experts and government officials from the fields of nutrition, preventive medicine, health promotion, agriculture, education and environment. The Committee set dietary goals for Koreans aiming for a better nutrition state of all after a thorough review and analysis of recent information related to nutritional status and/or problems of Korean population, changes in food production/supply, disease pattern, health policy and agricultural policy. Then, the revised dietary guidelines were proposed to accomplish these goals in addition to 6 different sets of dietary action guides to accommodate specific nutrition and health problems of respective age groups. Subsequently, these guidelines and guides were subjected to the focus group review, consumer perception surveys, and a public hearing for general and professional comments. Lastly, the language was clarified in terms of public understanding and phraseology. The revised Dietary guidelines for Koreans are as follows: eat a variety of grains, vegetables, fruits, fish, meat, poultry and dairy products; choose salt-preserved foods less, and use less salt when you prepare foods; increase physical activity for a healthy weight, and balance what you eat with your activity; enjoy every meal, and do not skip breakfast; if you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation; prepare foods properly, and order sensible amounts; enjoy our rice-based diet. PMID:18296301

  16. Nutritional quality evaluation of eighteen date pit varieties.

    PubMed

    Habib, Hosam M; Ibrahim, Wissam H

    2009-01-01

    The pits from date palm fruits (Phoenix dactylifera L.) are nutrient dense but the nutrient composition across varieties has not been extensively studied. In the present study, 18 leading varieties of date pits from date fruits cultivated in the United Arab Emirates (Khalas, Barhe, Lulu, Shikat alkahlas, Sokkery, Bomaan, Sagay, Shishi, Maghool, Sultana, Fard, Maktoomi, Naptit Saif, Jabri, Kodary, Dabbas, Raziz and Shabebe) were analyzed and compared for their chemical and physical properties. Dietary fiber, proximate analysis, micronutrients, and physical properties (weight, length, and density) were determined. Significant differences (P<0.05) in the measured parameters were observed among the different varieties. The results show that date pits, depending on the variety, contain significant but quite variable amounts of macronutrients and micronutrients, but all varieties are excellent sources of dietary fiber and may therefore serve as important constituents of functional foods. PMID:18925479

  17. Trichomicosis pubis: black variety.

    PubMed Central

    Neri, I; Frassetto, A; Pasquinelli, G; Patrizi, A

    1994-01-01

    A case of a 25 year old man with the black variety of trichomicosis pubis is presented on account of its extreme rareity. Scanning electron microscopy confirms that trichomicosis pubis is caused by bacterial colonisation of the pubic hair and shows that bacteria are able to penetrate cuticular horny cells directly through their free plasma membrane. Images PMID:8001950

  18. Improving the sensory and oxidative stability of cooked and chill-stored lamb using dietary rosemary diterpenes.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Rafael; Ortuño, Jordi; Bañón, Sancho

    2014-09-01

    Two dietary rosemary extracts (DREs) containing diterpenes (carnosic acid and carnosol at 1:1 and 2:1 w:w) were tested in fattening lambs to stabilize the sensory quality of cooked and chill-stored patties. A total of 63 lambs were fed freely for 80 ± 5 d with a basal diet supplemented or not with DRE. Minced leg meat from each lamb was used to make patty batches. The patties were cooked at 72 ºC for 2 min, aerobically packed, kept at 2 ºC for up to 4 d and then reheated. Sensory traits (color, odor, flavor, and texture), CIELab color, and lipid oxidation (assessed as TBARS) were determined. In a first experiment, the lamb diet was supplemented with 600 mg of 1:1-DRE or 2:1-DRE kg(-1) feed. The 1:1-DRE diet delayed discoloration, flavor deterioration, and rancidity, while the 2:1-DRE diet was ineffective in this respect. In a second experiment, 4 supplementation levels of 1:1-DRE (0, 200, 400, and 600 mg kg(-1) feed) were compared. Flavor deterioration was delayed when the lamb diet was supplemented with at least 400 mg 1:1-DRE kg(-1) feed. The effects of the diet on the odor, flavor, and color were corroborated by differences in TBARS and CIELab. The results obtained suggest that rosemary diterpenes and/or their active secondary compounds deposited in muscle can act as endogenous antioxidants in cooked lamb. The carnosol intake seems crucial in the antioxidant actions achieved through DRE. The use of rosemary antioxidants in animal feeding would allow meat-based dishes to be preserved longer without adding preservatives. PMID:25142077

  19. Improvement of bone strength and dermal thickness due to dietary edible bird's nest extract in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Matsukawa, Noriko; Matsumoto, Megumi; Bukawa, Wakoto; Chiji, Hideyuki; Nakayama, Keizo; Hara, Hiroshi; Tsukahara, Takamitsu

    2011-01-01

    Oral administration of edible bird's nest extract (EBNE) improved bone strength and calcium concentration in the femur of ovariectomized rats. Dermal thickness was also increased by EBNE supplementation, whereas EBNE administration did not affect the serum estradiol concentration. These results suggest that EBNE is effective for the improvement of bone loss and skin aging in postmenopause all women. PMID:21389609

  20. Dietary β-glucan improved growth performance, Vibrio counts, haematological parameters and stress resistance of pompano fish, Trachinotus ovatus Linnaeus, 1758.

    PubMed

    Do Huu, Hoang; Sang, Huynh Minh; Thanh Thuy, Nguyen Thi

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated effects of graded levels of dietary β-glucan (0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 g kg(-1)) on growth performance, haematological parameters, intestinal Vibrio counts, dose requirement and salinity stress resistance in pompano fish Trachinotus ovatus (6.45 g ± 0.06 (SEM)). After 8-weeks of diet feeding, growth was significantly higher in fish fed diets with 0.10% β-glucan compared to fish fed control diet (no β-glucan). Survival increased significantly in fish fed 0.05 and 0.10% β-glucan compared to control diet. There were significant increases in red blood cells (in 0.20% β-glucan diet), in total leukocytes (in 0.05-0.20% β-glucan diet), in both lymphocyte and monocyte count in fish fed 0.10%-0.40% β-glucan diet. However, dietary β-glucan did not affect neutrophil, eosinophil and basophil counts. Intestinal Vibrio counts were reduced in fish fed any level of β-glucan compared to control. In addition, dietary β-glucan levels highly correlated with growth, survival, intestinal Vibrio counts and haematological index. Optimal β-glucan levels for maximal growth of fish were predicted to be 0.122% at day 21 (R(2) = 98.53%), 0.120% at day 28 (R(2) = 78.55%), 0.115% at day 42 (R(2) = 62.21%) and 0.090% at day 56 (R(2) = 75.18%), showing a decreasing β-glucan requirement with increasing fish size. Furthermore, optimal β-glucan levels for maximal haematological parameters based on lymphocyte count, was estimated to be 0.120% (R(2) = 98.53%) at day 56. Also, fish fed 0.05%-0.20% β-glucan showed better resistance against salinity stress. In conclusion, β-glucan supplementation is effective for improving growth, intestinal Vibrio counts and boosted stress resistance of the pompano fish, T. ovatus. PMID:27036404

  1. Intakes of dietary docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester and egg phosphatidylcholine improve maze-learning ability in young and old mice.

    PubMed

    Lim, S Y; Suzuki, H

    2000-06-01

    The effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) [22:6 (n-3)] ethyl ester (EE) and egg-phosphatidylcholine (PC) on maze-learning ability in young and old mice was studied. Male Crj:CD-1 mice aged either 3 wk or 14 mo were fed a diet containing 2 g DHA-EE/100 g diet plus 3 g palm oil/100 g diet (DHA-EE Group), 5 g egg-PC/100 g diet (egg-PC Group), 1 g DHA-EE/100 g diet plus 2.5 g egg-PC/100 g diet plus 1.5 g palm oil/100 g diet (DHA-EE + egg-PC Group) or 5 g palm oil/100 g diet (Control Group) for 5 mo. Maze-learning ability was assessed 4 mo after the start of the experiment. The time required to reach the maze exit and the number of times that a mouse strayed into blind alleys in the maze were measured in three trials every 4 d. In trial 2 of young mice, performed on d 4 after the first trial, the DHA-EE group required less (P < 0.05) time to reach the maze exit and DHA-EE and egg-PC groups strayed (P < 0.05) into blind alleys fewer times than the control group. In trial 2 of old mice, the DHA-EE, egg-PC and DHA-EE + egg-PC groups needed less (P < 0.05) time to find the exit and spent a fewer (P < 0.05) number of times in blind alleys than did the control group. The DHA-EE, DHA-EE + egg-PC and egg-PC groups strayed into blind alleys fewer times than the control group in trial 3 of old mice (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the intake of DHA-EE and the egg-PC diet effectively enhances maze-learning ability and brain functions in old mice. PMID:10827221

  2. VARIETIES OF VIOLENT BEHAVOR*

    PubMed Central

    WIDOM, CATHY SPATZ

    2014-01-01

    There is an implicit assumption of homogeneity across violent behaviors and offenders in the criminology literature. Arguing against this assumption, I draw on three distinct literatures [child abuse and neglect (CAN) and violence, violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and CAN and PTSD] to provide a rationale for an examination of varieties of violent behaviors. I use data from my prospective cohort design study of the long-term consequences of CAN to define three varieties of violent offenders using age of documented cases of CAN, onset of PTSD, and first violent arrest in a temporally correct manner [CAN → to violence, CAN → PTSD → violence (PTSD first), and CAN → violence → PTSD (violence first)], and a fourth variety, violence only. The results illustrate meaningful heterogeneity in violent behavior and different developmental patterns and characteristics. There are three major implications: First, programs and policies that target violence need to recognize the heterogeneity and move away from a “one-size-fits-all” approach. Second, violence prevention policies and programs that target abused and neglected children are warranted, given the prominent role of CAN in the backgrounds of these violent offenders. Third, criminologists and others interested in violence need to attend to the role of PTSD, which is present in about one fifth (21 percent) of these violent offenders, and not relegate the study of these offenders to the psychiatric and psychological literatures. PMID:25505799

  3. Daily consumption of red grape cell powder in a dietary dose improves cardiovascular parameters: a double blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Vaisman, Nachum; Niv, Eva

    2015-05-01

    Consumption of polyphenol-rich food and food ingredient such as grape and grape products improved various cardiovascular parameters. In this study, we investigate the effect of dietary daily consumption of red grape cell powder (RGC) on blood pressure (BP) and flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) as well as on oxidative stress in 50 subjects with prehypertension and mild hypertension. The subjects were randomized into groups that consumed 200, 400 mg RGC or placebo daily for 12 weeks. RGC consumption was associated with an improvement of FMD (p = 0.013). There was a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation (p = 0.013) after 12 weeks in a combined RGC-treated group. The diastolic BP decreased significantly in the 200 mg RGC group compared to the placebo group (p = 0.032). Our results indicate that a daily supplementation, of red grape cell powder, for 12 weeks affects endothelial function, diastolic BP and oxidative stress without any adverse effects. PMID:25666417

  4. Mediators and Moderators of the Effectiveness of a Community Health Worker Intervention That Improved Dietary Outcomes in Pregnant Latino Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Megha K.; Kieffer, Edith C.; Choi, Hwajung; Schumann, Christina; Heisler, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Background. Pregnancy is an opportune time to initiate diabetes prevention strategies for minority and underserved women, using culturally tailored interventions delivered by community health workers. A community-partnered randomized controlled trial (RCT) with pregnant Latino women resulted in significantly improved vegetable, fiber, added sugar,…

  5. Dietary Nucleotides Supplementation Improves the Intestinal Development and Immune Function of Neonates with Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction in a Pig Model.

    PubMed

    Che, Lianqiang; Hu, Liang; Liu, Yan; Yan, Chuan; Peng, Xie; Xu, Qin; Wang, Ru; Cheng, Yuanfang; Chen, Hong; Fang, Zhengfeng; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Feng, Bin; Chen, Daiwen; Wu, De

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to determine whether dietary nucleotides supplementation could improve growth performance, intestinal development and immune function of intra-uterine growth restricted (IUGR) neonate using pig as animal model. A total of 14 pairs of normal birth weight (NBW) and IUGR piglets (7 days old) were randomly assigned to receive a milk-based control diet (CON diet) or diet supplemented with nucleotides (NT diet) for a period of 21 days. Blood samples, intestinal tissues and digesta were collected at necropsy and analyzed for morphology, digestive enzyme activities, microbial populations, peripheral immune cells, expression of intestinal innate immunity and barrier-related genes and proteins. Compared with NBW piglets, IUGR piglets had significantly lower average daily dry matter intake and body weight gain (P<0.05). Moreover, IUGR markedly decreased the villous height and villi: crypt ratio in duodenum (P<0.05), as well as the maltase activity in jejunum (P<0.05). In addition, IUGR significantly decreased the serum concentrations of IgA, IL-1βand IL-10 (P<0.05), as well as the percentage of peripheral lymphocytes (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the down-regulation of innate immunity-related genes such as TOLLIP (P<0.05), TLR-9 (P = 0.08) and TLR-2 (P = 0.07) was observed in the ileum of IUGR relative to NBW piglets. Regardless of birth weight, however, feeding NT diet markedly decreased (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio, increased the villous height in duodenum (P<0.05), activities of lactase and maltase in jejunum (P<0.05), count of peripheral leukocytes (P<0.05), serum concentrations of IgA and IL-1β as well as gene expressions of TLR-9, TLR-4 and TOLLIP in ileum (P<0.05). In addition, expressions of tight junction proteins (Claudin-1 and ZO-1) in ileum were markedly increased by feeding NT diet relative to CON diet (P<0.05). These results indicated that IUGR impaired growth performance, intestinal and immune function, but dietary nucleotides supplementation

  6. Dietary Nucleotides Supplementation Improves the Intestinal Development and Immune Function of Neonates with Intra-Uterine Growth Restriction in a Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Che, Lianqiang; Hu, Liang; Liu, Yan; Yan, Chuan; Peng, Xie; Xu, Qin; Wang, Ru; Cheng, Yuanfang; Chen, Hong; Fang, Zhengfeng; Lin, Yan; Xu, Shengyu; Feng, Bin; Chen, Daiwen; Wu, De

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to determine whether dietary nucleotides supplementation could improve growth performance, intestinal development and immune function of intra-uterine growth restricted (IUGR) neonate using pig as animal model. A total of 14 pairs of normal birth weight (NBW) and IUGR piglets (7 days old) were randomly assigned to receive a milk-based control diet (CON diet) or diet supplemented with nucleotides (NT diet) for a period of 21 days. Blood samples, intestinal tissues and digesta were collected at necropsy and analyzed for morphology, digestive enzyme activities, microbial populations, peripheral immune cells, expression of intestinal innate immunity and barrier-related genes and proteins. Compared with NBW piglets, IUGR piglets had significantly lower average daily dry matter intake and body weight gain (P<0.05). Moreover, IUGR markedly decreased the villous height and villi: crypt ratio in duodenum (P<0.05), as well as the maltase activity in jejunum (P<0.05). In addition, IUGR significantly decreased the serum concentrations of IgA, IL-1βand IL-10 (P<0.05), as well as the percentage of peripheral lymphocytes (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the down-regulation of innate immunity-related genes such as TOLLIP (P<0.05), TLR-9 (P = 0.08) and TLR-2 (P = 0.07) was observed in the ileum of IUGR relative to NBW piglets. Regardless of birth weight, however, feeding NT diet markedly decreased (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio, increased the villous height in duodenum (P<0.05), activities of lactase and maltase in jejunum (P<0.05), count of peripheral leukocytes (P<0.05), serum concentrations of IgA and IL-1β as well as gene expressions of TLR-9, TLR-4 and TOLLIP in ileum (P<0.05). In addition, expressions of tight junction proteins (Claudin-1 and ZO-1) in ileum were markedly increased by feeding NT diet relative to CON diet (P<0.05). These results indicated that IUGR impaired growth performance, intestinal and immune function, but dietary nucleotides supplementation

  7. Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs) to Enhance the Dietary and Iron-Folate Intake during Pregnancy- A Quasi Experimental Study among Rural Pregnant Women of Varanasi, India

    PubMed Central

    Shivalli, Siddharudha; Srivastava, Ratan Kumar; Singh, Gyan Prakash

    2015-01-01

    Background Behavior Change Communications (BCC) play a decisive role in modifying socio-cultural norms affecting the perception and nutritional practices during pregnancy. Objective To examine the effectiveness of ‘Trials of Improved Practices’ (TIPs) on dietary and iron-folate intake during pregnancy. Design Community based quasi experimental study with a control group Setting Four villages of Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi, India from May 2010 and recruited from August 2010. End line assessment, after 12 weeks of intervention, was completed in April 2011. Participants Pregnant women in 13–28 weeks of gestation Intervention TIPs was implemented in addition to ongoing essential obstetric care services in two villages through 3 home (assessment, negotiation and evaluation) visits and only assessment and evaluation visits in the other two control villages. Interpersonal communication, endorsing the active participation of family members and home based reminder materials were the TIPs based strategies. The effect of TIPs was assessed by comparing key outcome variables at baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention. Outcome Measures Hemoglobin%, anemia prevalence, weight gain, compliance for iron-folate supplementation and dietary intake of calorie, protein, calcium and iron. Results A total of 86 participants completed the study. At the end, mean hemoglobin levels were 11.5±1.24 g/dl and 10.37±1.38 g/dl in the TIPs and control groups, respectively. The prevalence of anemia reduced by half in TIPs group and increased by 2.4% in the control group. Weight gain (grams/week) was significantly (p<0.01) higher in TIPs group (326.9±91.8 vs. 244.6±97.4). More than 85% of the PW in TIPs group were compliant for Iron-folate and only 38% were compliant among controls. The mean intake of protein increased by 1.78gm in intervention group and decreased by 1.81 gm in controls (p<0.05). More than two thirds of PW in TIPs group were taking one extra meal

  8. In-house pureed food production in long-term care: perspectives of dietary staff and implications for improvement.

    PubMed

    Ilhamto, Nila; Anciado, Katrina; Keller, Heather H; Duizer, Lisa M

    2014-01-01

    Texture modification of foods to a pureed consistency is a common management approach for older adults with dysphagia. Long-term care (LTC) facilities commonly produce some pureed food in-house. This study investigated challenges and preferred practices associated with the production of pureed food in LTC facilities. Nutrition Managers (n = 27) and cooks (n = 26) from 25 Ontario LTC facilities were recruited for one-on-one, semistructured interviews. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Four themes arose from the data to exemplify challenges in production, including (a) difficulty in using standardized recipes, (b) varied interpretation of governmental guidelines, (c) lack of consistency in terminology and texture, and (d) wanting to improve the visual appeal. These challenges were reported to reduce the quality of in-house produced pureed food. Preferred practices to overcome these challenges were also provided by participants, such as involving cooks in pureed recipe improvements and tailoring to the specific needs of residents. Incorporation of these practices into pureed food production may help to shape and improve future practice and pureed food products. PMID:25105716

  9. Possible improvement in quality of human progeny by maternal dietary intervention: implications for programs of family planning and food production.

    PubMed

    Hsu, S C

    1973-05-01

    A report is made on the family planning program in Taiwan which emphasizes the integrated problems of population growth, nutrition and health, and food supplies. Nutrition and food supply have greatly improved in Taiwan since 1950, particularly in increases in food energy and protein availability. There has been a corresponding, though not necessarily resultant, decline in maternal and infant mortalities and deaths from gastrointestinal diseases. An official family planning program was instituted in Taiwan in 1964 with the goal of reducing the rate of natural increase from 3.0% to 1.5%. In 1971 the rate was 2.1%. Legalizing sterilization and abortion has been an important part of this program. A major goal is improvement in the quality of people. Reducing the size of the population results in more and better food and educational opportunities. A government study in Sui-Lin Township of Taiwan is investigating the effect of improved maternal health and nutrition on the quality of the offspring. The study is seeking to determine the minimum maternal food intake for proper health and which phase of the maternal diet (pre-pregnancy, pregnancy, lactation) or of the infant' diet is the most important to offspring quality. Also being studied is the possible existence of a maximum level of maternal nourishment beyond which detrimental effects might occur. The answers to these questions may provide important information for national nutrition policies, which are important factors in the family planning program. PMID:12276465

  10. Seasoning ingredient variety, but not quality, is associated with greater intake of beans and rice among urban Costa Rican adults.

    PubMed

    Vadiveloo, Maya K; Campos, Hannia; Mattei, Josiemer

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to a variety of flavors may promote food enjoyment, but few studies have examined the relationship between food seasoning and food intake. We hypothesized that using a higher variety (number) of 11 seasonings to prepare 2 staple foods (beans, white rice) would be associated with intake of those foods in a population-based case-control study of Costa Rican adults in urban vs rural areas (n=1025), where cooking and dietary practices differ. Participants were surveyed about the variety of seasoning ingredients added when preparing beans or rice. Ingredients were also categorized by their dietary quality (healthfulness), and scores for seasoning variety and quality were created. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the association between variety and quality scores (continuously and in tertiles (T)) and intake of each staple food. Seasoning variety was positively associated with daily servings of beans (β=.02, P=.01; 1.31 and 1.23 servings/day in T2 and T3 versus 1.02 servings/day in T1, P<.05) and rice (β=.04, P=.005) in the urban areas only. No differences in ingredient quality across increasing intakes of beans or rice were noted, and the joint associations between variety and quality were not significant. In conclusion, a greater variety, but not quality, of seasoning ingredients was positively associated with intakes of beans and rice in urban Costa Rican adults. Our results suggest that increasing the variety of seasonings added to beans may be a culturally-appropriate strategy to improve intake of this healthy staple food among urban Costa Rican adults. PMID:27440532

  11. Limiting variety in non-nutrient-dense, energy-dense foods during a lifestyle intervention: a randomized controlled trial123

    PubMed Central

    Steeves, Elizabeth A; Hecht, Jacki; Fava, Joseph L; Wing, Rena R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dietary variety is a factor that influences consumption but has received little attention in obesity treatment. Objective: This study examined the effect of limiting the variety of different non-nutrient-dense, energy-dense foods (NND-EDFs) (ie, chips, ice cream, cookies) on dietary intake and weight loss during an 18-mo lifestyle intervention. Design: Two hundred two adults aged 51.3 ± 9.5 y with a BMI (in kg/m2) of 34.9 ± 4.3 (57.8% women, 92.2% white) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 interventions: Lifestyle (1200–1500 kcal/d, ≤30% of energy as fat; n = 101) or Lifestyle + limited variety (LV) (limit variety of NND-EDFs, ie, 2 choices; n = 101). Both interventions involved 48 group sessions. Dietary intake, NND-EDF hedonics, NND-EDF variety in the home, and weight were assessed at 0, 6, 12, and 18 mo. Results: Intent-to-treat analyses showed that the Lifestyle+LV group consumed less variety (P < 0.01) and energy daily (P < 0.05) from NND-EDFs than did the Lifestyle group at 6, 12, and 18 mo. The Lifestyle+LV group consumed less total energy daily (P < 0.05) at 6 mo than did the Lifestyle group. The Lifestyle+LV group reported less (P < 0.05) NND-EDF variety in the home at 6 and 18 mo than did the Lifestyle group. The hedonics of one chosen NND-EDF decreased more (P < 0.05) in the Lifestyle+LV group. Despite these effects, no difference in percentage weight loss occurred at 18 mo (Lifestyle+LV: −9.9 ± 7.6%; Lifestyle: −9.6 ± 9.2%). Conclusions: Limitations in dietary variety decreased intakes in the targeted area but did not affect weight loss. Limiting variety in more areas may be needed to improve weight loss and weight-loss maintenance. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01096719. PMID:22552025

  12. Case Study: The Role of Milk in a Dietary Strategy to Increase Muscle Mass and Improve Recovery in an Elite Sprint Kayaker.

    PubMed

    Reid, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Flatwater kayaking requires upper-body muscle strength and a lean body composition. This case study describes a nutrition intervention with a 19-year-old male elite sprint kayaker to increase muscle mass and improve recovery posttraining. Before the intervention, average daily energy intake was 13.6 ± 2.5 MJ (M ± SD; protein, 1.8 g/kg; carbohydrate, 3.6 g/kg), and the athlete was unable to eat sufficient food to meet the energy demands of training. During the 18-month intervention period, the athlete’s daily energy intake increased to 22.1 ± 3.8 MJ (protein, 3.2 g/kg; carbohydrate, 7.7 g/kg) by including milk-based drinks pre- and posttraining and before bed and an additional carbohydrate-based snack midmorning. This simple dietary intervention, along with a structured strength and conditioning program, resulted in an increase of 10 kg body mass with minimal change in body fat percentage. Adequate vitamin D status was maintained without the need for supplementation during the intervention period. In addition, the athlete reported the milk-based drinks and carbohydrate snacks were easy to consume, and no adverse side effects were experienced. This was the first time the athlete was able to maintain weight during intensive phases of the training cycle. PMID:26480267

  13. Toward improved phosphorus efficiency in monogastrics-interplay of serum, minerals, bone, and immune system after divergent dietary phosphorus supply in swine.

    PubMed

    Oster, Michael; Just, Franziska; Büsing, Kirsten; Wolf, Petra; Polley, Christian; Vollmar, Brigitte; Muráni, Eduard; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus

    2016-05-15

    Phosphorus (P) is of vital importance for many aspects of metabolism, including bone mineralization, blood buffering, and energy utilization. In order to identify molecular routes affecting intrinsic P utilization, we address processes covering P intake, uptake, metabolism, and excretion. In particular, the interrelation of bone tissue and immune features is of interest to approximate P intake to animal's physiology and health status. German Landrace piglets received different levels of digestible phosphorus: recommended, higher, or lower amounts. At multiple time points, relevant serum parameters were analyzed and radiologic studies on bone characteristics were performed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected to assess differential gene expression. Dietary differences were reflected by serum phosphorus, calcium, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D. Bone reorganization was persistently affected as shown by microstructural parameters, cathepsin K levels, and transcripts associated with bone formation. Moreover, blood expression patterns revealed a link to immune response, highlighting bidirectional loops comprising bone formation and immune features, where the receptor-activator of NF-κB ligand/receptor-activator of NF-κB kinase system may play a prominent role. The modulated P supplementation provoked considerable organismal plasticity. Genes found to be differentially expressed due to variable P supply are involved in pathways relevant to P utilization and are potential candidate genes for improved P efficiency. PMID:26962023

  14. A translational worksite diabetes prevention trial improves psychosocial status, dietary intake, and step counts among employees with prediabetes: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Carla K.; Weinhold, Kellie R.; Marrero, David G.; Nagaraja, Haikady N.; Focht, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Few worksite trials have examined the impact of diabetes prevention interventions on psychological and behavioral outcomes. Thus, the impact of a worksite lifestyle intervention on psychosocial outcomes, food group intake, and step counts for physical activity (PA) was evaluated. Method A randomized pretest/posttest control group design with 3-month follow-up was employed from October 2012 to May 2014 at a U.S. university worksite among employees with prediabetes. The experimental group (n = 35) received a 16-week group-based intervention while the control group received usual care (n = 33). Repeated measures analysis of variance compared the change in outcomes between groups across time. Results A significant difference occurred between groups post-intervention for self-efficacy associated with eating and PA; goal commitment and difficulty; satisfaction with weight loss and physical fitness; peer social support for healthful eating; generation of alternatives for problem solving; and intake of fruits, meat, fish, poultry, nuts, and seeds (all ps < .05). The experimental group significantly increased step counts post-intervention (p = .0279) and were significantly more likely to report completing their work at study end (p = .0231). Conclusion The worksite trial facilitated improvement in modifiable psychosocial outcomes, dietary patterns, and step counts; the long-term impact on diabetes prevention warrants further investigation. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01682954 PMID:25798374

  15. Toward improved phosphorus efficiency in monogastrics—interplay of serum, minerals, bone, and immune system after divergent dietary phosphorus supply in swine

    PubMed Central

    Oster, Michael; Just, Franziska; Büsing, Kirsten; Wolf, Petra; Polley, Christian; Vollmar, Brigitte; Muráni, Eduard; Ponsuksili, Siriluck

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is of vital importance for many aspects of metabolism, including bone mineralization, blood buffering, and energy utilization. In order to identify molecular routes affecting intrinsic P utilization, we address processes covering P intake, uptake, metabolism, and excretion. In particular, the interrelation of bone tissue and immune features is of interest to approximate P intake to animal's physiology and health status. German Landrace piglets received different levels of digestible phosphorus: recommended, higher, or lower amounts. At multiple time points, relevant serum parameters were analyzed and radiologic studies on bone characteristics were performed. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected to assess differential gene expression. Dietary differences were reflected by serum phosphorus, calcium, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D. Bone reorganization was persistently affected as shown by microstructural parameters, cathepsin K levels, and transcripts associated with bone formation. Moreover, blood expression patterns revealed a link to immune response, highlighting bidirectional loops comprising bone formation and immune features, where the receptor-activator of NF-κB ligand/receptor-activator of NF-κB kinase system may play a prominent role. The modulated P supplementation provoked considerable organismal plasticity. Genes found to be differentially expressed due to variable P supply are involved in pathways relevant to P utilization and are potential candidate genes for improved P efficiency. PMID:26962023

  16. Dietary Cocoa Powder Improves Hyperlipidemia and Reduces Atherosclerosis in apoE Deficient Mice through the Inhibition of Hepatic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Hua; Lin, Yan; Bai, Liang; An, Yingfeng; Shang, Jianan; Wang, Zhao; Zhao, Sihai; Fan, Jianglin

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa powder is rich in flavonoids, which have many beneficial effects on human health, including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the intake of cocoa powder has any influence on hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis and examine the underlying molecular mechanisms. We fed apoE knockout mice a Western diet supplemented with either 0.2% (low group) or 2% (high group) cocoa powder for 12 weeks. The groups fed dietary cocoa powder showed a significant reduction in both plasma cholesterol levels and aortic atherosclerosis compared to the control group. Analysis of mRNA profiling of aortic atherosclerotic lesions revealed that the expression of several genes related to apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and inflammation was significantly reduced, while the antiapoptotic gene Bcl2 was significantly increased in the cocoa powder group compared to the control. RT-PCR analysis along with Western blotting revealed that a diet containing cocoa powder inhibited the expression of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress. These data suggest that cocoa powder intake improves hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis, and such beneficial effects are possibly mediated through the suppression of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:26980943

  17. Dietary Cocoa Powder Improves Hyperlipidemia and Reduces Atherosclerosis in apoE Deficient Mice through the Inhibition of Hepatic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Guan, Hua; Lin, Yan; Bai, Liang; An, Yingfeng; Shang, Jianan; Wang, Zhao; Zhao, Sihai; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa powder is rich in flavonoids, which have many beneficial effects on human health, including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the intake of cocoa powder has any influence on hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis and examine the underlying molecular mechanisms. We fed apoE knockout mice a Western diet supplemented with either 0.2% (low group) or 2% (high group) cocoa powder for 12 weeks. The groups fed dietary cocoa powder showed a significant reduction in both plasma cholesterol levels and aortic atherosclerosis compared to the control group. Analysis of mRNA profiling of aortic atherosclerotic lesions revealed that the expression of several genes related to apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and inflammation was significantly reduced, while the antiapoptotic gene Bcl2 was significantly increased in the cocoa powder group compared to the control. RT-PCR analysis along with Western blotting revealed that a diet containing cocoa powder inhibited the expression of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress. These data suggest that cocoa powder intake improves hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis, and such beneficial effects are possibly mediated through the suppression of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:26980943

  18. Exercise training improves cardiopulmonary and endothelial function in women with breast cancer: findings from the Diana-5 dietary intervention study.

    PubMed

    Giallauria, Francesco; Vitelli, Alessandra; Maresca, Luigi; Santucci De Magistris, Maria; Chiodini, Paolo; Mattiello, Amalia; Gentile, Marco; Mancini, Maria; Grieco, Alessandra; Russo, Angelo; Lucci, Rosa; Torella, Giorgio; Berrino, Franco; Panico, Salvatore; Vigorito, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    To investigate whether exercise training (ET) improves cardiopulmonary and endothelial function in women with breast cancer (BC). Fifty-one female patients (aged between 39 and 72 years) with a history of primary invasive BC within the previous 5 years and enrolled in the Mediterranean diet-based DIANA (diet and androgens)-5 Trial were subdivided into 2 groups: an ET group (n = 25) followed a formal ET program of moderate intensity (3 session/week on a bicycle at 60-70 % VO2peak for 3 months, followed by one session/week until 1-year follow-up), while a control group (n = 26) did not perform any formal ET. At baseline and at 1-year follow-up, all patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise stress test (CPET) and measurements of vascular endothelial function by peripheral artery tonometry (Reactive Hyperemia Index, RHI). There were no significant differences between the groups in baseline anthropometrical, BC characteristics, and metabolic profile. No differences in baseline CPET and RHI parameters were found. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) significantly increased in ET group (from 12.4 ± 2.9 to 14.3 ± 3.3 mL/kg/min, p < 0.001) compared to the control group (from 12.8 ± 2.5 to 12.6 ± 2.8 mL/kg/min, p = 0.55; p < 0.001 between groups). Compared to the control group (from 2.0 ± 0.4 to 1.9 ± 0.4, p = 0.62), the ET group showed a significant improvement of RHI after 1 year (from 2.1 ± 0.7 to 2.5 ± 0.8, p < 0.001). Changes in VO2peak were correlated with changes in RHI (ΔVO2peak vs. ΔRHI: r = 0.47, p = 0.017). In BC survivors, ET program improves cardiopulmonary functional capacity and vascular endothelial function after 12 months. Whether these changes may favorably modulate some of the pathophysiological mechanisms implied in cancer evolution should be investigated. PMID:26016834

  19. Dietary sodium propionate improved performance, mucosal and humoral immune responses in Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) fry.

    PubMed

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Zoheiri, Fazel; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe

    2016-08-01

    The present study investigates the efficiency of graded levels (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2%) of sodium propionate (SP) on Caspian white fish (Rutilus frisii kutum) fry growth performance, skin mucus immune response as well as humoral immune parameters. Fish were divided into 5 groups repeated in triplicates and each group were fed on experimental diets for 7 weeks. Growth performance parameters, skin mucus total immunoglobulin (Ig) level, lysozyme, protease and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity as well as the non-specific humoral immune response (total Ig, lysozyme, alternative haemolytic complement activity (ACH50) were determined at the end of feeding trial. The results showed that supplementation of diet with 0.25% SP significantly improved growth performance compared control group (P < 0.05). Evaluation of skin mucus immune parameters revealed significant elevation in fish fed SP supplemented diet (P < 0.05). Variation in the levels of responses was evident among different SP level and more pronounced in 0.25% and 0.5% treatments. Regarding non-specific humoral response, remarkably increased lysozyme and ACH50 activities were observed in 0.25% and 0.5% groups compared other treatments (P < 0.05); highest level in 0.25% SP fed fish. No significant change was noticed for serum total Ig compared control group (P > 0.05), except 0.25% SP treatment which was significantly higher than those in other groups (P < 0.05). These results revealed that inclusion of administration of 0.25% and 0.5% SP in early stage of the Caspian white fish culture could improve mucosal and non-specific immune responses as well as performance. PMID:27343374

  20. Dietary supplementation with glutamine and γ-aminobutyric acid improves growth performance and serum parameters in 22- to 35-day-old broilers exposed to hot environment.

    PubMed

    Hu, H; Bai, X; Shah, A A; Wen, A Y; Hua, J L; Che, C Y; He, S J; Jiang, J P; Cai, Z H; Dai, S F

    2016-04-01

    This study was designed using 360 21-day-old chicks to determine the influences of diet supplementation with glutamine (5 g/kg), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, 100 mg/kg) or their combinations on performance and serum parameters exposed to cycling high temperatures. From 22 to 35 days, the experimental groups (2 × 2) were subjected to circular heat stress by exposing them to 30-34 °C cycling, while the positive control group was exposed to 23 °C constant. The blood of broilers was collected to detect serum parameters on days 28 and 35. Compared with the positive control group, the cycling high temperature decreased (p < 0.05) the feed consumption, weight gain and serum total protein (TP), glucose, thyroxine (T4), insulin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamine, GABA and glutamate levels, while increased (p < 0.05) the serum triglyceride (TG), corticosterone (CS), glucagon (GN), creatine kinase (CK), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels during 22-35 days. However, dietary glutamine (5 g/kg) increased (p < 0.05) the feed consumption, weight gain and serum levels of glutamine, TP, insulin and ALP, but decreased (p < 0.05) the serum TG, CK, GOT, NOS and GPT levels. Diet supplemented with GABA also increased (p < 0.05) weight gain and the serum levels of TP, T4, ALP, GABA and glutamine. In addition, the significant interactions (p < 0.05) between glutamine and GABA were found in the feed consumption, weight gain and the serum ALP, CK, LDH, GABA, T3 and T4 levels of heat-stressed chickens. This research indicated that dietary glutamine and GABA improved the antistress ability in performance and serum parameters of broilers under hot environment. PMID:25980810

  1. Chemoprevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by dietary natural compounds.

    PubMed

    Pan, Min-Hsiung; Lai, Ching-Shu; Tsai, Mei-Ling; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to a wide spectrum of liver disease that is not from excess alcohol consumption, but is often associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. NAFLD pathogenesis is complicated and involves oxidative stress, lipotoxicity, mitochondrial damage, insulin resistance, inflammation, and excessive dietary fat intake, which increase hepatic lipid influx and de novo lipogenesis and impair insulin signaling, thus promoting hepatic triglyceride accumulation and ultimately NAFLD. Overproduction of proinflammatory adipokines from adipose tissue also affects hepatic metabolic function. Current NAFLD therapies are limited; thus, much attention has been focused on identification of potential dietary substances from fruits, vegetables, and edible plants to provide a new strategy for NAFLD treatment. Dietary natural compounds, such as carotenoids, omega-3-PUFAs, flavonoids, isothiocyanates, terpenoids, curcumin, and resveratrol, act through a variety of mechanisms to prevent and improve NAFLD. Here, we summarize and briefly discuss the currently known targets and signaling pathways as well as the role of dietary natural compounds that interfere with NAFLD pathogenesis. PMID:24302567

  2. Increased dietary protein and combined high intensity aerobic and resistance exercise improves body fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Gentile, Christopher L; Martin-Pressman, Roger; Ormsbee, Michael J; Everett, Meghan; Zwicky, Lauren; Steele, Christine A

    2006-08-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of two lifestyle modification programs of exercise training and nutritional intake (ad libitum) on improving body composition and disease risk in overweight/obese men and women. Sixty-three subjects were weight matched and assigned to one of three groups for a 12 wk intervention: (1) high-intensity resistance and cardiovascular training and a balanced diet (RC+BD, 40% CHO: 40% PRO; n=27, 16 female/11 male, age = 42 +/- 9 y); (2) moderate-intensity cardiovascular training and a traditional food guide pyramid diet (C+TD, CHO 50 to 55%; PRO 15 to 20%; FAT < 30%; n=19, 10 female/9 male, age = 43 +/- 10 y); and (3) an inactive control group (C, n=17, 5 female/12 male, age 43 +/- 11 y). RC+BD resulted in more favorable changes (P < 0.01) in percent body fat (-15.8% vs. -6.9%) and abdominal fat (-15.6% vs. -7.5%) compared to C+TD and C. Total cholesterol (-13.8%), LDL-cholesterol (-20.8%), and systolic blood pressure (-5.7%) declined (P > 0.05) in RC+BD, whereas C+TD and C remained unchanged. Our results suggest that RC+BD may be more effective than C+TD and C in enhancing body composition and lowering cardiovascular risk in obese individuals. PMID:17136940

  3. Dietary α-linolenic acid from flaxseed oil improved folliculogenesis and IVF performance in dairy cows, similar to eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids from fish oil.

    PubMed

    Moallem, U; Shafran, A; Zachut, M; Dekel, I; Portnick, Y; Arieli, A

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the differential incorporation of various omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FAs) supplemented to dairy cows into ovarian compartments and assess the effects on IVF. Forty-two 256-day pregnant cows were supplemented with encapsulated fats, in treatments designated as i) SFA - saturated fat at 240 and 560 g/day per cow, prepartum and post partum (PP) respectively; ii) FLX - flaxseed oil at 300 and 700 g/day per cow prepartum and PP respectively; and iii) FO - fish oil at 300 and 700 g/day per cow prepartum and PP respectively. Commencing at 60 days in lactation, ovum pickup (OPU) was performed twice weekly (20 sessions; five cows per group) and in vitro maturation and IVF were conducted. The proportion of α-linolenic acid (ALA) was greater in follicular fluid (FF), granulosa cells, and cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) of FLX cows than in other groups (P<0.001). The proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was 6.7 times as great in FF of FO as in other groups (P<0.001); docosapentaenoic acid n-3 and DHA were detected in COCs of FO but not in others. The follicle number during OPU was higher in FLX and FO than in SFA (P<0.05), and the oocyte cleavage rate was higher in FLX and FO than in SFA (P<0.01). Also, the percentage of oocytes that developed to blastocysts tended to be higher in both n-3 groups than in SFA (P<0.1). In conclusion, both dietary n-3 FAs similarly improved folliculogenesis and IVF performance; therefore, ALA-rich botanical n-3 seems to be a satisfactory approach to improve oocyte quality. PMID:24062566

  4. Garden Variety Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marturano, Arlene

    2000-01-01

    Suggests gardening to help middle school students improve their problem solving and mental abilities. Focuses on the benefits of having a school nutrition garden, and indicates that students can learn about the importance of a healthy diet and share their peers' cultural heritage by growing ethnic foods. Recommends an animal garden to observe…

  5. Health habits and other characteristics of dietary supplement users: a review.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Annette; MacKay, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Dietary supplements are used by half to two-thirds of American adults, and the evidence suggests that this usage is one component of a larger effort to develop a healthier lifestyle. Dietary supplement users tend on average to be better educated and to have somewhat higher incomes than nonusers, and these factors may contribute to their health-consciousness. Dietary supplement use also tends to be more prevalent among women than among men, and the prevalence of use increases with age in both men and women. Numerous surveys document that users of dietary supplements are significantly more likely than nonusers to have somewhat better dietary patterns, exercise regularly, maintain a healthy weight, and avoid tobacco products. While supplement users tend to have better diets than nonusers, the differences are relatively small, their diets have some substantial nutrient shortfalls, and their supplement use has been shown to improve the adequacy of nutrient intakes. Overall, the evidence suggests that users of dietary supplements are seeking wellness and are consciously adopting a variety of lifestyle habits that they consider to contribute to healthy living. PMID:24499096

  6. Diabetes and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Diabetes and Dietary Supplements: In Depth Share: On This ... health product or practice. Are dietary supplements for diabetes safe? Some dietary supplements may have side effects, ...

  7. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances.

    PubMed

    van der Bijl, P; Tutelyan, V A

    2013-01-01

    Dietary supplement use among athletes to enhance performance is proliferating as more individuals strive for obtaining that chemical competitive edge. As a result the concomitant use of dietary supplements containing performance-enhancing substances of those falling in the categories outlined in the current review, can also be expected to rise. This despite ever-increasing sophisticated analytical methodology techniques being used to assay dietary supplement and urine samples in doping laboratories. The reasons for this include that a variety of these chemical entities, many of them on the prohibited drug list of the WADA, are being produced on commercial scales in factories around the world (ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, sibutramine, methylhexaneamine, prohormones, 'classic' anabolic steroids, clenbuterol, peptide hormones etc.), aggressive marketing strategies are being employed by companies and these supplements can be easily ordered via e.g. the internet. It can also be anticipated that there will be an increase in the number of supplements containing 'designer' steroids and other 'newer' molecules. Chromatographic techniques combined with mass spectrometry leading to identification of molecular fragments and productions will assist in determining these substances. To prevent accidental doping, information regarding dietary supplements must be provided to athletes, coaches and sports doctors at all levels of competition. The risks of accidental doping via dietary supplement ingestion can be minimized by using 'safe' products listed on databases, e.g. such as those available in The Netherlands and Germany. PMID:24741950

  8. VIP in construction: systematic development and evaluation of a multifaceted health programme aiming to improve physical activity levels and dietary patterns among construction workers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of both overweight and musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in the construction industry is high. Many interventions in the occupational setting aim at the prevention and reduction of these health problems, but it is still unclear how these programmes should be designed. To determine the effectiveness of interventions on these health outcomes randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are needed. The aim of this study is to systematically develop a tailored intervention for prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD among construction workers and to describe the evaluation study regarding its (cost-)effectiveness. Methods/Design The Intervention Mapping (IM) protocol was applied to develop and implement a tailored programme aimed at the prevention and reduction of overweight and MSD. The (cost-) effectiveness of the intervention programme will be evaluated using an RCT. Furthermore, a process evaluation will be conducted. The research population will consist of blue collar workers of a large construction company in the Netherlands. Intervention The intervention programme will be aimed at improving (vigorous) physical activity levels and healthy dietary behaviour and will consist of tailored information, face-to-face and telephone counselling, training instruction (a fitness "card" to be used for exercises), and materials designed for the intervention (overview of the company health promoting facilities, waist circumference measuring tape, pedometer, BMI card, calorie guide, recipes, and knowledge test). Main study parameters/endpoints The intervention effect on body weight and waist circumference (primary outcome measures), as well as on lifestyle behaviour, MSD, fitness, CVD risk indicators, and work-related outcomes (i.e. productivity, sick leave) (secondary outcome measures) will be assessed. Discussion The development of the VIP in construction intervention led to a health programme tailored to the needs of construction workers. This programme

  9. Dietary Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Improve the Neurolipidome and Restore the DHA Status while Promoting Functional Recovery after Experimental Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Johnny D.; Cordero, Kathia; llán, Miguel S.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) confer multiple health benefits and decrease the risk of neurological disorders. Studies are needed, however, to identify promising cellular targets and to assess their prophylactic value against neurodegeneration. The present study (1) examined the efficacy of a preventive diet enriched with ω-3 PUFAs to reduce dysfunction in a well-established spinal cord injury (SCI) animal model and (2) used a novel metabolomics data analysis to identify potential neurolipidomic targets. Rats were fed with either control chow or chow enriched with ω-3 PUFAs (750 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks before being subjected to a sham or a contusion SCI operation. We report new evidence showing that rats subjected to SCI after being pre-treated with a diet enriched with ω-3 PUFAs exhibit significantly better functional outcomes. Pre-treated animals exhibited lower sensory deficits, autonomic bladder recovery, and early improvements in locomotion that persisted for at least 8 weeks after trauma. We found that SCI triggers a robust alteration in the cord PUFA neurolipidome, which was characterized by a marked docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) deficiency. This DHA deficiency was associated with dysfunction and corrected with the ω-3 PUFA-enriched diet. Multivariate data analyses revealed that the spinal cord of animals consuming the ω-3 PUFA-enriched diet had a fundamentally distinct neurolipidome, particularly increasing the levels of essential and long chain ω-3 fatty acids and lysolipids at the expense of ω-6 fatty acids and its metabolites. Altogether, dietary ω-3 PUFAs prophylaxis confers resiliency to SCI mediated, at least in part, by generating a neuroprotective and restorative neurolipidome. PMID:23294084

  10. Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids improve the neurolipidome and restore the DHA status while promoting functional recovery after experimental spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Johnny D; Cordero, Kathia; Llán, Miguel S; De Leon, Marino

    2013-05-15

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) confer multiple health benefits and decrease the risk of neurological disorders. Studies are needed, however, to identify promising cellular targets and to assess their prophylactic value against neurodegeneration. The present study (1) examined the efficacy of a preventive diet enriched with ω-3 PUFAs to reduce dysfunction in a well-established spinal cord injury (SCI) animal model and (2) used a novel metabolomics data analysis to identify potential neurolipidomic targets. Rats were fed with either control chow or chow enriched with ω-3 PUFAs (750 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks before being subjected to a sham or a contusion SCI operation. We report new evidence showing that rats subjected to SCI after being pre-treated with a diet enriched with ω-3 PUFAs exhibit significantly better functional outcomes. Pre-treated animals exhibited lower sensory deficits, autonomic bladder recovery, and early improvements in locomotion that persisted for at least 8 weeks after trauma. We found that SCI triggers a robust alteration in the cord PUFA neurolipidome, which was characterized by a marked docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) deficiency. This DHA deficiency was associated with dysfunction and corrected with the ω-3 PUFA-enriched diet. Multivariate data analyses revealed that the spinal cord of animals consuming the ω-3 PUFA-enriched diet had a fundamentally distinct neurolipidome, particularly increasing the levels of essential and long chain ω-3 fatty acids and lysolipids at the expense of ω-6 fatty acids and its metabolites. Altogether, dietary ω-3 PUFAs prophylaxis confers resiliency to SCI mediated, at least in part, by generating a neuroprotective and restorative neurolipidome. PMID:23294084

  11. Dietary administration of a commercial mixed-species probiotic improves growth performance and modulates the intestinal immunity of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Standen, B T; Peggs, D L; Rawling, M D; Foey, A; Davies, S J; Santos, G A; Merrifield, D L

    2016-02-01

    The growth performance, immunological status, intestinal morphology and microbiology of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, were investigated after dietary administration of the commercial probiotic AquaStar(®) Growout. Tilapia (29.02 ± 0.33 g) were split into five treatments; control (CON), 1.5 g kg(-1) probiotic (PRO-1.5), 3 g kg(-1) probiotic (PRO-3), pulsed probiotic feeding (PRO-PULSE) or an initial probiotic feed followed by control feeding (PRO-INI). After six weeks of experimental feeding, fish fed PRO-3 displayed significantly higher final weight, weight gain and SGR compared to the CON or PRO-INI treatments. Supplementation of the probiotic at this dose induced an up-regulation of intestinal caspase-3, PCNA and HSP70 mRNA levels compared to the CON fed fish. Immuno-modulatory pathways were also affected; significantly higher expression of TLR2, pro-inflammatory genes TNFα and IL-1β, and anti-inflammatory genes IL-10 and TGFβ suggest that the probiotic may potentiate a higher state of mucosal tolerance and immuno-readiness. Histological appraisal revealed significantly higher numbers of intraepithelial leucocytes in the intestine of PRO-3 fed fish compared with treatments CON, PRO-PULSE and PRO-INI but not PRO-1.5. Additionally, fish receiving PRO-3 had a significantly higher abundance of goblet cells in their mid-intestine when compared with fish from all other treatments. Together, these data suggest that continuous provision of AquaStar(®) Growout at 3 g kg(-1) can improve tilapia growth and elevate the intestinal immunological status of the host. PMID:26672904

  12. Dietary Polyphenols and Their Biological Significance

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiuzhen; Shen, Tao; Lou, Hongxiang

    2007-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols represent a wide variety of compounds that occur in fruits, vegetables, wine, tea, extra virgin olive oil, chocolate and other cocoa products. They are mostly derivatives and/or isomers of flavones, isoflavones, flavonols, catechins and phenolic acids, and possess diverse biological properties such as antioxidant, antiapoptosis, anti-aging, anticarcinogen, anti-inflammation, anti-atherosclerosis, cardiovascular protection, improvement of the endothelial function, as well as inhibition of angiogenesis and cell proliferation activity. Most of these biological actions have been attributed to their intrinsic reducing capabilities. They may also offer indirect protection by activating endogenous defense systems and by modulating cellular signaling processes such as nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation, activator protein-1(AP-1) DNA binding, glutathione biosynthesis, phosphoinositide 3 (PI3)-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt) pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) proteins [extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and P38 ] activation, and the translocation into the nucleus of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2). This paper covers the most recent literature on the subject, and describes the biological mechanisms of action and protective effects of dietary polyphenols.

  13. Ready-to-eat cereal breakfasts are associated with improved nutrient intake and dietary adequacy but not body mass index in black adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this study was to determine whether nutrient intake, dietary adequacy, and weight status were associated with type of breakfast consumption: skipping breakfast, consuming ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) at breakfast, or consuming other types of foods at breakfast. Data from black adolescents ...

  14. Adequate dietary calcium restores vertebral trabecular bone microarchitecture and strength and improves femur calcium concentration following calcium depletion in young female rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine whether dietary calcium deficiency during adolescence permanently reduces lifetime potential to attain peak bone mass and strength, female Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into groups (n=10) and fed an AIN-93G-based diet containing 20% (1000 mg Ca/kg) of the calcium requirement from w...

  15. Cardiovascular benefits of dietary fiber.

    PubMed

    Satija, Ambika; Hu, Frank B

    2012-12-01

    The relationship between dietary fiber and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been extensively studied. There is considerable epidemiological evidence indicating an inverse association between dietary fiber intake and CVD risk. The association has been found to be stronger for cereal fiber than for fruit or vegetable fiber, and several studies have also found increased whole grain consumption to be associated with CVD risk reduction. In light of this evidence, recent US dietary guidelines have endorsed increased consumption of fiber rich whole grains. Regular consumption of dietary fiber, particularly fiber from cereal sources, may improve CVD health through multiple mechanisms including lipid reduction, body weight regulation, improved glucose metabolism, blood pressure control, and reduction of chronic inflammation. Future research should focus on various food sources of fiber, including different types of whole grains, legumes, fruits, vegetables, and nuts, as well as resistant starch in relation to CVD risk and weight control; explore the biological mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effect of fiber-rich diets; and study different ethnic groups and populations with varying sources of dietary fiber. PMID:22872372

  16. DIETARY EXPOSURE METHODS AND MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research reported in this task description constitutes the MCEARD base dietary exposure research program and is conducted to complement the NERL aggregate and cumulative exposure program. Its purpose is to reduce the level of uncertainty in exposure assessment by improving N...

  17. Flower volatiles, crop varieties and bee responses.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Björn K; Burmeister, Carina; Westphal, Catrin; Tscharntke, Teja; von Fragstein, Maximilian; von Fragstein, Maximillian

    2013-01-01

    Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne) and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding. PMID:23977347

  18. Dietary selenium and selenoprotein function

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Benjamin S.; Hanna, Mirna S.; Cooperstein, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Summary Selenium is a trace mineral and an essential nutrient in the human diet. Selenium is found in soil and water and consequently enters the food chain through the root ways of plants and aquatic organisms. Some areas of the world are low in soil selenium resulting in a selenium deficient population and the appearance of an associated heart disease and bone disorders that can be corrected with dietary selenium. Indeed the requirement for dietary selenium was established by these observations and while selenium deficiency is rare in the West, patients requiring long-term intravenous feedings have also show heart disease associated with a deficiency of selenium in the feeding fluids. Subsequently, it has been established that dietary selenium can improve a wide range of human health conditions even in areas with soil replete in selenium. PMID:22847213

  19. Dietary Factors and Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Smith, P.J.; Blumenthal, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline is an increasingly important public health problem, with more than 100 million adults worldwide projected to develop dementia by 2050. Accordingly, there has been an increased interest in preventive strategies that diminish this risk. It has been recognized that lifestyle factors including dietary patterns, may be important in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia in later life. Several dietary components have been examined, including antioxidants, fatty acids, and B vitamins. In addition, whole dietary eating plans, including the Mediterranean diet (MeDi), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, with and without weight loss, have become areas of increasing interest. Although prospective epidemiological studies have observed that antioxidants, fatty acids, and B vitamins are associated with better cognitive functioning, randomized clinical trials have generally failed to confirm the value of any specific dietary component in improving neurocognition. Several randomized trials have examined the impact of changing ‘whole’ diets on cognitive outcomes. The MeDi and DASH diets offer promising preliminary results, but data are limited and more research in this area is needed. PMID:26900574

  20. Language Varieties and Standard Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quirk, Randolph

    It is argued that viewing learners' errors as evidence for the emergence of new varieties of the English language is dangerously mistaken, particularly where it leads to the abandonment of Standard English as a model for learners. It is shown how this view is mistaken by: (1) citing recent British thinking on the relationship of varieties of…

  1. Underutilized sources of dietary fiber: a review.

    PubMed

    McKee, L H; Latner, T A

    2000-01-01

    Interest in the fiber content of foods has decreased in recent years as concerns about fat intake have increased. Fiber, however, remains an important component of the diet. Soluble dietary fiber, including pectic substances and hydrocolloids, is found naturally in foods such as fruits, vegetables, legumes and oat bran. Insoluble fiber, including cellulose and hemicellulose, is found in foods such as whole grains. Fiber supplementation has been used to enhance the fiber content of a variety of foods ranging from cereal-based products to meats, imitation cheeses and sauces. Products used to enhance fiber content of foods have traditionally come from cereals such as wheat, corn and oats. There are a variety of other products, however, such as fruits, vegetables, legumes and less commonly used cereals such as barley, which are potential sources of dietary fiber supplements. This article reviews research on some of these underutilized sources of dietary fiber. PMID:11086873

  2. Development of dietary pattern evaluation tool for adults and correlation with Dietary Quality Index

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeo Do; Kim, Kyung Won; Choi, Kyung-Suk; Kim, Misung; Cho, Yeo Jin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES As the prevalence of chronic diseases has risen, the need for straightforward diagnostic tools for monitoring nutrition status to improve nutrition counseling and disease prevention has likewise increased. This study developed an easily usable dietary behavior pattern diagnosis checklist and investigated its correlation with dietary quality index. SUBJECTS/METHODS A draft dietary pattern evaluation tool was generated by analyzing previous studies. The draft questionnaire comprised 61 questions for assessing dietary habits. A survey was administered to 320 adults (19 to 64 years old) using the dietary pattern evaluation tool and 24-hour-recall method between March and May of 2014 in Jeonbuk province and the metropolitan area. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was performed to identify dietary behavior patterns. Nutritional analysis was conducted using CAN-Pro 4.0, and the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I) was calculated to assess dietary quality. The correlation between dietary pattern scores and DQI-I scores was also analyzed. RESULTS The factor analysis resulted in a total of 34 questions mapped to four main dietary behavior patterns: "high fat and calorie" pattern (12 questions), "overeating/binge" pattern (nine questions), "dietary impulse" pattern (eight questions), and "unbalanced food intake" pattern (five questions). The four dietary behavior patterns were negatively correlated with DQI-I adequacy and total scores (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS The dietary pattern evaluation tool developed in this study can be used to diagnose a client's dietary behavior problems and is available as a nutrition counseling tool in the field. PMID:27247727

  3. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gynecology Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 23 ... warm What are the different types of dietary fat? The four main types of fat found in ...

  4. Children and Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... NCCIH Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...

  5. Familial varieties of primary aldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Stowasser, M; Gunasekera, T G; Gordon, R D

    2001-12-01

    1. Improved approaches to screening and diagnosis have revealed primary aldosteronism (PAL) to be much more common than previously thought, with most patients normokalaemic. The spectrum of this disorder has been further broadened by the study of familial varieties. 2. Familial hyperaldosteronism type I (FH-I) is a glucocorticoid-remediable form of PAL caused by the inheritance of an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)- regulated, hybrid CYP11B1/CYP11B2 gene. Diagnosis has been greatly facilitated by the advent of genetic testing. The severity of hypertension varies widely in FH-I, even among members of the same family, and has demonstrated relationships with gender, degree of biochemical disturbance and hybrid gene crossover point position. Hormone "day curve" studies show that the hybrid gene dominates over wild-type CYP11B2 in terms of aldosterone regulation. This may be due, in part, to a defect in wild-type CYP11B2-induced aldosterone production. Control of hypertension in FH-I requires only partial suppression of ACTH and much smaller glucocorticoid doses than previously recommended. 3. Familial hyperaldosteronism type II (FH-II) is not glucocorticoid remediable and is not associated with the hybrid gene mutation. Familial hyperaldosteronism type II is clinically, biochemically and morphologically indistinguishable from apparently non-familial PAL. Linkage studies in one informative family did not show segregation of FH-II with the CYP11B2, AT1 or MEN1 genes, but a genome-wide search has revealed linkage with a locus in chromosome 7. As has already occurred in FH-I, elucidation of causative mutations is likely to facilitate earlier detection of PAL. PMID:11903322

  6. Policosanol contents and compositions of wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Irmak, Sibel; Dunford, Nurhan Turgut

    2005-07-13

    Policosanol (PC) is the common name for a mixture of high molecular weight (20-36 carbon) aliphatic primary alcohols, which are constituents of plant epicuticular waxes. Wheat germ oil has been reported to improve human physical fitness, and this effect is attributed to its high PC, specifically its high octacosanol (OC) content. Although the PC composition of wheat leaves has been studied extensively, information on PC content and composition of wheat grain fractions is scarce. The objective of this study was to examine the PC contents and compositions of wheat grain fractions of 31 varieties grown in Oklahoma. PC compositions of the samples were identified using a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer. The PC content of wheat bran was higher than that of the germ, shorts, and flour. The Trego and Intrada varieties had the highest PC content among the 31 wheat varieties studied. Tetracosanol (C24), hexacosanol (C26), and OC (C28) were the major PC components in all varieties. This study showed that wheat varieties grown under identical growing conditions and management differ significantly in PC content and composition. PMID:15998118

  7. Development and application of a web-based nutritional management program to improve dietary behaviors for the prevention of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoon; Lee, Min June; Kang, Hee Cheol; Lee, Mee Sook; Yoon, Sun

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Web-based nutritional management program for the prevention of metabolic syndrome and to evaluate how the program affects health-related behaviors and the health status of office workers with metabolic syndrome risk factors. For the pilot test of the Web-based nutritional management program, 29 employees (19 males, 10 females) with more than one metabolic syndrome risk factor participated in the Web-based nutritional management program for 16 weeks. Participants visited the Web site more than two times per week and completed customized assessments of health status, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, dietary habits, food intake, ideal body weight, energy requirements, and exercise. Subjects had a significant decrease in body weight, waist circumference, body mass index (P < .01 in males, P < .05 in females), and body fat (P < .01 in males). The frequency of dietary habits such as eating snacks, eating out, and dining with others decreased, whereas the frequency of intake of foods such as whole grains, seaweed, fruit, and low-fat milk increased after intervention. After 16 weeks, program satisfaction was evaluated using a Web evaluation questionnaire, and most of the participants were highly satisfied with Web site components such as the loading speed, configuration, privacy, design, functionality, and contents. PMID:24651253

  8. Influences on food choice and dietary behavior.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Richard

    2005-01-01

    There are a number of possible reasons for the lack of effectiveness of attempts at changing dietary behaviors. While lack of information and knowledge about foods and nutrient contents might play a part, motivation to change is likely to be much more important. Food choice, like any complex human behavior, is influenced by many interrelating factors, including various physiological, social and cultural factors, and these need to be taken into account when considering dietary interventions. In many cases people lack motivation to change. This can be related to optimistic bias, where people underestimate the risk to themselves relative to others from a variety of hazards. People feel less at risk personally for many dietary risks and this is related both to the control they feel they have over dietary behaviors and also to their considering themselves to have better diets than the average. The 'stages of change' model is a possible means for trying to address these motivational issues. While this model has been applied to various forms of behavior such as smoking, there are a number of problems transferring such a model from smoking to dietary behaviors, including the lack of clear cut specific behaviors and behavior change targets in the dietary field. PMID:15702586

  9. Improving nutrition surveillance and public health research in Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries using the Balkan Food Platform and dietary tools.

    PubMed

    Gurinović, Mirjana; Milešević, Jelena; Novaković, Romana; Kadvan, Agnes; Djekić-Ivanković, Marija; Šatalić, Zvonimir; Korošec, Mojca; Spiroski, Igor; Ranić, Marija; Dupouy, Eleonora; Oshaug, Arne; Finglas, Paul; Glibetić, Maria

    2016-02-15

    The objective of this paper is to share experience and provide updated information on Capacity Development in the Central and Eastern Europe/Balkan Countries (CEE/BC) region relevant to public health nutrition, particularly in creation of food composition databases (FCDBs), applying dietary intake assessment and monitoring tools, and harmonizing methodology for nutrition surveillance. Balkan Food Platform was established by a Memorandum of Understanding among EuroFIR AISBL, Institute for Medical Research, Belgrade, Capacity Development Network in Nutrition in CEE - CAPNUTRA and institutions from nine countries in the region. Inventory on FCDB status identified lack of harmonized and standardized research tools. To strengthen harmonization in CEE/BC in line with European research trends, the Network members collaborated in development of a Regional FCDB, using web-based food composition data base management software following EuroFIR standards. Comprehensive nutrition assessment and planning tool - DIET ASSESS & PLAN could enable synchronization of nutrition surveillance across countries. PMID:26433305

  10. The Faith, Activity, and Nutrition (FAN) Program: Design of a participatory research intervention to increase physical activity and improve dietary habits in African American churches

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Laken, Marilyn; Parrott, Allen W.; Condrasky, Margaret; Saunders, Ruth; Addy, Cheryl L.; Evans, Rebecca; Baruth, Meghan; Samuel, May

    2010-01-01

    Background African Americans are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and cancer morbidity and mortality. Physical activity and healthy dietary practices can reduce this risk. The church is a promising setting to address health disparities, and community-based participatory research is a preferred approach. Objectives Using a community-based participatory approach and the social ecologic model, the FAN trial aims to increase self-reported moderate-intensity physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption and reduce blood pressure in African American church members. Secondary aims are to increase objectively measured moderate-intensity physical activity and fiber/whole grain consumption and reduce fat consumption. Design FAN is a group randomized trial (GRT) with two levels of clustering: participants (N=1,279; n=316 accelerometer subgroup) within church and church within church cluster. In the first wave, seven clusters including 23 churches were randomized to an immediate intervention or delayed intervention. In subsequent waves, 51 churches were randomized to an immediate or delayed intervention. Methods Church committee members, pastors, and cooks participate in full-day trainings to learn how to implement physical activity and dietary changes in the church. Monthly mailings and technical assistance calls are delivered over the 15-month intervention. Members complete measurements at baseline and 15-months. A detailed process evaluation is included. Summary FAN focuses on modifying the social, cultural, and policy environment in a faith-based setting. The use of a community-based participatory research approach, engagement of church leaders, inclusion of a detailed process evaluation, and a formal plan for sustainability and dissemination make FAN unique. PMID:20359549