Science.gov

Sample records for improved district heating

  1. Geothermal district heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budney, G. S.; Childs, F.

    1982-06-01

    Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

  2. Improving the turbine district heating installations of single-circuit nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondurov, E. P.; Kruglikov, P. A.; Smolkin, Yu. V.

    2015-10-01

    Ways for improving the turbine district heating installations of single-circuit nuclear power plants are considered as a possible approach to improving the nuclear power plant energy efficiency. The results of thermal tests carried out at one of single-circuit NPPs in Russia with a view to reveal the possibilities of improving the existing heat-transfer equipment of the turbine district heating installation without making significant investments in it were taken as a basis for the analysis. The tests have shown that there is certain energy saving potential in some individual units and elements in the turbine district heating installation's process circuit. A significant amount of thermal energy can be obtained only by decreasing the intermediate circuit temperature at the inlet to the heater of the first district-heating extraction. The taking of this measure will also lead to an additional amount of generated electricity because during operation with the partially loaded first heater, the necessary amount of heat has to be obtained from the peaking heater by reducing live steam. An additional amount of thermal energy can also be obtained by eliminating leaks through the bypass control valves. The possibility of achieving smaller consumption of electric energy for power plant auxiliaries by taking measures on reducing the available head in the intermediate circuit installation's pump unit is demonstrated. Partial cutting of pump impellers and dismantling of control valves are regarded to be the most efficient methods. The latter is attributed to qualitative control of the turbine district heating installation's thermal load. Adjustment of the noncondensable gas removal system will make it possible to improve the performance of the turbine district heating installation's heat-transfer equipment owing to bringing the heat-transfer coefficients in the heaters to the design level. The obtained results can be used for estimating the energy saving potential at other

  3. Geothermal District Heating Economics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1995-07-12

    GEOCITY is a large-scale simulation model which combines both engineering and economic submodels to systematically calculate the cost of geothermal district heating systems for space heating, hot-water heating, and process heating based upon hydrothermal geothermal resources. The GEOCITY program simulates the entire production, distribution, and waste disposal process for geothermal district heating systems, but does not include the cost of radiators, convectors, or other in-house heating systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating basedmore » on the climate, population, and heat demand of the district; characteristics of the geothermal resource and distance from the distribution center; well-drilling costs; design of the distribution system; tax rates; and financial conditions.« less

  4. Modelling of the District Heating System's Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigants, Girts; Blumberga, Dagnija; Vīgants, Ģirts; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2011-01-01

    The development of a district heating systems calculation model means improvement in the energy efficiency of a district heating system, which makes it possible to reduce the heat losses, thus positively affecting the tariffs on thermal energy. In this paper, a universal approach is considered, based on which the optimal flow and temperature conditions in a district heating system network could be calculated. The optimality is determined by the least operational costs. The developed calculation model has been tested on the Ludza district heating system based on the technical parameters of this system.

  5. Minneapolis district-heating options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, T. K.; Borkowski, R. J.; Karnitz, M. A.; Strom, S.; Linwick, K.

    1981-10-01

    The feasibility of a large-scale district heating system for the Minneapolis central city area was investigated. The analysis was based on a previous city of St. Paul Hot-water district heating study and other studies done by a Swedish engineering firm. Capital costs such as building and heat source conversion, pipeline construction, and equipment were used in comparing the projected expenses of various district heating scenarios. Options such as coal, refuse-derived fuel burning, and cogeneration at the Riverside Power Station were discussed as energy supplies for a cost-effective district heating system.

  6. Turbine modifications for district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Sawhney, H.S.; Oliker, I.; Silaghy, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the technical and economic feasibilities of retrofitting existing turbine-generators and replacing existing turbine-generators with specially designed district heating units. Topics considered include turbine retrofit options (approach and design criteria, district heating equipment), new district heating turbines (approach and design criteria, turbine selection), and heat generation costs. The conclusions of the analysis include: no technical barrier was discovered for converting the Potomac River Power Plant to a cogeneration facility, additional equipment required for the district heating operation is of conventional design, the existing steam turbines and associated system components can be retrofitted for district heating operation, the modified units retain the flexibility of producing 100% electric power output when the district heating load is disconnected, the district heating system uses indirect heating of water by extraction steam (the purity of which is not degraded), about three and a half times more heat can be extracted from units designed specifically for cogeneration than from modified units, and the described methodology can be used for the assessment of retrofitting existing units to cogeneration operation for power plants located close to heat load centers.

  7. Reliability analysis of the combined district heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapov, V. I.; Orlov, M. E.; Kunin, M. V.

    2015-12-01

    Technologies that improve the reliability and efficiency of the combined district heating systems in urban areas are considered. The calculation method of reliability of the CHP combined district heating systems is proposed. The comparative estimation of the reliability of traditional and combined district heating systems is performed.

  8. Extension and improvement of Central Station District heating budget period 1 and 2, Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    Project aim was to reduce pollution levels in the City of Krakow through the retirement of coal-fired (hand and mechanically-stoked) boiler houses. This was achieved by identifying attractive candidates and connecting them to the Krakow district heating system, thus permitting them to eliminate boiler operations. Because coal is less costly than district hot water, the district heating company Miejskie Przedsiebiorstwo Energetyki Cieplnej S.A., henceforth identified as MPEC, needed to provide potential customers with incentives for purchasing district heat. These incentives consisted of offerings which MPEC made to the prospective client. The offerings presented the economic and environmental benefits to district heating tie-in and also could include conservation studies of the facilities, so that consumption of energy could be reduced and the cost impact on operations mitigated. Because some of the targeted boiler houses were large, the capacity of the district heating network required enhancement at strategic locations. Consequently, project construction work included both enhancement to the district piping network as well as facility tie-ins. The process of securing new customers necessitated the strengthening of MPEC`s competitive position in Krakow`s energy marketplace, which in turn required improvements in marketing, customer service, strategic planning, and project management. Learning how US utilities address these challenges became an integral segment of the project`s scope.

  9. Boise geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  10. Moorhead district heating, phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundberg, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of developing a demonstration cogeneration hot water district heating system was studied. The district heating system would use coal and cogenerated heat from the Moorhead power plant to heat the water that would be distributed through underground pipes to customers or their space and domestic water heating needs, serving a substantial portion of the commercial and institutional loads as well as single and multiple family residences near the distribution lines. The technical feasibility effort considered the distribution network, retrofit of the power plant, and conversion of heating systems in customers' buildings to use hot water from the system. The system would be developed over six years. The economic analysis consisted of a market assessment and development of business plans for construction and operation of the system. Rate design methodology, institutional issues, development risk, and the proposal for implementation are discussed.

  11. Groundwater and geothermal: urban district heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mounts, R.; Frazier, A.; Wood, E.; Pyles, O.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes how several cities use groundwater and geothermal energy in district heating systems. It begins with groundwater, introducing the basic technology and techniques of development, and describing two case studies of cities with groundwater-based district heating systems. The second half of the report consists of three case studies of cities with district heating systems using higher temperature geothermal resources.

  12. Midland, South Dakota geothermal district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-12-01

    This article describes historical aspects and present usage of geothermal district heating systems in the town of Midland, South Dakota. The use of geothermal resources exists due to a joint venture between the school district and the city back in the early 1960`s. A total of approximately 30,000 square feet (2800 square meters) of floor space is heated using geothermal energy in Midland. This provides an estimated annual saving in propane cost of $15,000 to the community.

  13. Dual energy use systems: District heating survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-07-01

    The current status of and problems facing district heating systems operated by electric utilities were identified. The technical and economic factors which can affect the present and future success of district heating systems in the United States were evaluated. A survey of 59 district heating electric utilities was conducted to determine the current status of the industry. Questions developed to obtain data on technical, economic, regulator, and marketing factors were included in the survey. Literature on district heating in the U.S. and abroad was collected from governments, industry and foreign sources and reviewed to aid in evaluating the current and future potential of the industry. Interviews were held with executives of 16 utilities that operate district heating systems in order to determine corporate attitudes. A summary of the literature obtained is provided. Survey results are tabulated and described. The interviews and survey data were used to compile 10 case studies of utilities operating district heating systems under a braod range of circumstances.

  14. District heating strategy model: community manual

    SciTech Connect

    Hrabak, R. A.; Kron, Jr., N. F.; Pferdehirt, W. P.

    1981-10-01

    The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) cosponsor a program aimed at increasing the number of district heating and cooling systems. Twenty-eight communities have received HUD cooperative agreements to aid in a national feasibility assessment of district heating and cooling systems. The HUD/DOE program includes technical assistance provided by Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Part of this assistance is a computer program, called the district heating strategy model, that performs preliminary calculations to analyze potential district heating and cooling systems. The model uses information about a community's physical characteristics, current electricity-supply systems, and local economic conditions to calculate heat demands, heat supplies from existing power plants and a new boiler, system construction costs, basic financial forecasts, and changes in air-pollutant emissions resulting from installation of a district heating and cooling system. This report explains the operation of the district heating strategy model, provides simplified forms for organizing the input data required, and describes and illustrates the model's output data. The report is written for three groups of people: (1) those in the HUD/DOE-sponsored communities who will be collecting input data, and studying output data, to assess the potential for district heating and cooling applications in their communiites; (2) those in any other communities who may wish to use the model for the same purpose; and (3) technical-support people assigned by the national laboratories to explain to community personnel how the model is used.

  15. Geothermal district heating: basics to success

    SciTech Connect

    Lunis, B.C.

    1985-01-01

    A district heating system using geothermal energy is a viable and economic option in many locations. A successful system, however, is dependent upon a variety of factors, and it is the purpose of this presentation to accent those items that are proving to have significant impact upon the successful operation of geothermal district heating systems. (These lessons can also apply to other sources of energy.) The six major basics to success that are discussed in this paper are economic viability, an adequate geothermal resource, simplicity of design, a closed loop system, a local champion, and good public relations.

  16. District heating. Section 2: Products and services

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This is a directory of companies providing products and services in the area of district heating. The subheadings of the directory include developers and owner operators, equipment manufacturers, measuring instruments and controls, consulting services, engineering and construction, operation and maintenance, project management, repair, and financial and legal services.

  17. Potential role of district heating in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, J.R.; Karkheck, J.

    1981-01-01

    The potential market penetration of district heating in the US is discussed. Estimates of optimal service levels, capital investment, and energy conservation potential are discussed. The technological concept of modern district heating and specific assessments of district heating in the US are briefly described. (MCW)

  18. District heating system, City of Caliente, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Karlsson, T.

    1984-06-01

    An updated feasibility study of the district heating system is described. The study was made in two parts, Option 1 and Option 2. Option 1 is a district heating system for the city of Caliente only, whereas Option 2 assumes making 140{sup 0}F water available to the Mark West Development, about five miles to the west of the city. The city district heating system is based on a supply water temperature of 175{sup 0}F and 120{sup 0}F return temperature. The capital cost estimate for Option 1 is $3,140,000. The resultant savings in conventional energy cost over a 20 year project life, assuming 12% bond financing, show a present worth of $4,074,000. This shows that the project should be economically feasible. The capital cost for Option 2 is estimated to be $4,230,000. The additional cost of Option 2 over Option 1, $1,090,000, will have to be recovered by the fee charged to the Mark West Development users for the water made available to them. Since, however, this use is unknown an evaluation of the economic feasibility of Option 2 cannot be made at this time.

  19. Characteristics of Improved School Districts. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This research brief presents an overview of a 2004 study by G.S. Shannon and P. Bylsma entitled "Characteristics of Improved School Districts: Themes from Research" (Olympia, WA: Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction). The authors reviewed more than 80 research articles that investigated the attributes of schools and districts that have…

  20. Innovations in district heating and cooling 1984--1994 and their economic impact

    SciTech Connect

    Mornhed, G.; Casten, T.R.

    1995-08-01

    The period from 1984 to 1994 saw the concept of district heating and cooling revived. Many new district energy systems were established and existing systems expanded. The expansion can be attributed to technical innovations as well as institutional, environmental, and economic changes; no one event can be singled out as a main reason for the improved climate. The district cooling industry in particular, fueled by growing demand and technical innovation, experienced a period of unprecedented expansion. On the surface, the concept of district cooling would appear to be uneconomical. Although economic benefits can be achieved using traditional district cooling technology over individual building systems, the benefits from technical innovations during the last 10 years, such as low-temperature chilled-water storage, trigeneration, variable-speed-drive technology, and automation, have made district cooling more competitive and have contributed to industry growth. On the district heating side, innovations such as low-cost distribution technology and cost-effective cogeneration helped create a renaissance. The improved competitiveness of district heating and cooling has made the combined service attractive for users who now do not need to rely on either in-house heating or cooling plants. Ongoing innovations in the industry set the stage for continued expansion as district heating and cooling--district energy--move into the next century and help improve their urban environment more than ever.

  1. Recovery Act: Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground Source Water Loops

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrell, Mark

    2013-09-30

    Cedarville School District retrofitted the heating and cooling systems in three campus areas (High School, Middle School, and Upper Elementary School) with geothermal heat pumps and ground source water loops, as a demonstration project for the effective implementation of geothermal heat pump systems and other energy efficiency and air quality improvements.

  2. District heating and cogeneration for the City of Croswell, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Spelman, P.; Soumis, D.

    1986-03-01

    The report shows that District Heating is not a viable option for Croswell at this time. After assembling the data on the various markets for thermal energy it was found that their loads both in quality, quantity and duration were not compatible with the sustained loads necessary for the type of district heating system that could be constructed under existing conditions in Croswell.

  3. Improved solar heating systems

    DOEpatents

    Schreyer, J.M.; Dorsey, G.F.

    1980-05-16

    An improved solar heating system is described in which the incident radiation of the sun is absorbed on collector panels, transferred to a storage unit and then distributed as heat for a building and the like. The improvement is obtained by utilizing a storage unit comprising separate compartments containing an array of materials having different melting points ranging from 75 to 180/sup 0/F. The materials in the storage system are melted in accordance with the amount of heat absorbed from the sun and then transferred to the storage system. An efficient low volume storage system is provided by utilizing the latent heat of fusion of the materials as they change states in storing ad releasing heat for distribution.

  4. District Heating Systems Performance Analyses. Heat Energy Tariff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemele, Jelena; Vigants, Girts; Vitolins, Valdis; Blumberga, Dagnija; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2014-12-01

    The paper addresses an important element of the European energy sector: the evaluation of district heating (DH) system operations from the standpoint of increasing energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy resources. This has been done by developing a new methodology for the evaluation of the heat tariff. The paper presents an algorithm of this methodology, which includes not only a data base and calculation equation systems, but also an integrated multi-criteria analysis module using MADM/MCDM (Multi-Attribute Decision Making / Multi-Criteria Decision Making) based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution). The results of the multi-criteria analysis are used to set the tariff benchmarks. The evaluation methodology has been tested for Latvian heat tariffs, and the obtained results show that only half of heating companies reach a benchmark value equal to 0.5 for the efficiency closeness to the ideal solution indicator. This means that the proposed evaluation methodology would not only allow companies to determine how they perform with regard to the proposed benchmark, but also to identify their need to restructure so that they may reach the level of a low-carbon business.

  5. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: District Heat Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) District Heat Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  6. District Support of School Improvement: Highlights from Three Districts. Newsletter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This newsletter addresses various supports that districts are utilizing to help keep students in school and on the path to graduation. Described herein are three districts that have been particularly successful in raising student achievement--even though they differ in their specific strategies, fund allocation, and demographic composition. A…

  7. Advanced heat pump cycle for district heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Radermacher, R.

    1991-07-01

    A bread board heat pump was designed and built to test the performance of a vapor compression heat pump with two stage ammonia-water solution circuits. The design was updated based on the experience gained with the single stage version of this heat pump. A major improvement was obtained by eliminating the rectifier. The new scheme was first investigated by computer simulation and then incorporated in the experimental setup. Water balance in the high and low temperature circuits is now maintained by bleeding up to 2.5% of the weak solution flow from one solution circuit to the other. The advantages of this scheme are reduced first cost, simplified design and control, 20--30% improvement in cooling coefficient of performance and 10--15% increase in cooling capacity as compared to the cycle with a rectifier. Coefficients of performance in the range of 0.84 to 1.03 were obtained experimentally for a temperature lift of 100-K. The pressure ratios encountered were in the range of 7.6 to 9.9, which are 35 to 50% of the pressure ratio expected for a conventional heat pump. Thus the results demonstrate that high temperature lifts can be achieved at pressure ratios which are less than half as large as for conventional systems. The cooling capacities were in the range of 2.79 to 4.21 kW. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Geothermal-district-heating assessment model for decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Reisman, A.

    1981-11-01

    A methodology developed to assess the economic feasibility of district heating for any community in the United States is described. The overall philosophy which has guided its development is the conviction that district heating must be examined on a site-by-site basis. To support this approach, a set of extensive, in-house supporting data bases has been created and useful external data bases with national coverage have been identified. These data bases provide information at a sufficient level of detail to permit a first-cut examination of the district heating potential of a community without requiring outside data collection (allowing a substantial cost and time savings). The results of this blind look at a community permit a rapid, yet adequate estimate of district heating potential, costs, and energy savings. The data utilized in the initial examination can be supplemented or replaced by more detailed information obtained from on-site data collection, if the first results are promising. The fact that the data and methodology are computerized allows many locations within the community, alternate heat sources, ownership options, pipe technologies, etc. to be examined in a short period of time. The structure of the District Heating Model (DHM) (the methodology in computerized form) is described followed by a discussion of the application of the model to Provo, UT.

  9. HPASS: a computer program for evaluation of district heating with heat pumps. Users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sapienza, G.R.; Calm, J.M.

    1981-03-01

    HPASS (Heat Pump district heating ASSessment) is a computer program for assessment of district heating and cooling with heat pumps. The software facilitates comparison of site- and source-energy use, discounted payback, and life-cycle costs of these systems with alternative systems providing similar services. The program also performs parametric studies of these analyses. This report explains the use of HPASS; the input requirements, available outputs, and program options are described.

  10. Application of solar ponds to district heating and cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leboeuf, C. M.

    1981-04-01

    A preliminary investigation is reported of the feasibility of incorporating solar ponds into subdivisions to provide district heating, domestic hot water (DHW), and district cooling. Two locations were chosen for analysis: Fort Worth, Texas and Washington, D.C. Solar ponds were sized to meet space heating, cooling, and DHW loads in each location for differing community sizes. Parameters such as storage layer temperature, pond geometry, and storage depth vs surface area were varied to determine the most effective approach to solar pond utilization. A distribution system for the district heating system was designed, including sizing of heat exchangers, piping, and pumps. Cost estimates for the pond and distribution system were formulated by using data generated in pond sizing, as well as associated system costs (e.g., salt costs and distribution system costs). Finally, solar ponds were found to be competitive with residential flat plate collector systems, with delivered energy costs as low as $16.00/GJ.

  11. The use of heat pumps in district heat supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkens, H. P.

    1985-04-01

    The cost elements of heat pump heat supply stations are examined and the optimum relationship between peak load boiler and heat pump output is shown. The dependence of plant size and temperature on heat generating costs is indicated and the costs of heat distribution and heat transfer are analysed. The possibility of a combined system of chop and heat pumps for the transport of heat over larger distances is shown.

  12. Co-sponsored second quarter progress review conference on district heating

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    A summary of the progress review conference on district heating and cooling systems is presented. The agenda and lists of speakers and attendees are presented. A history of district heating and some present needs and future policies are given and an excerpt from the National District Heating Program Strategy (DOE, March 1980) is included. Following the presentation, District Heating and Cooling Systems Program, by Alan M. Rubin, a fact sheet on DOE's Integrated Community Energy Systems Program and information from an oral presentation, District Heating and Cooling Systems for Communities Through Power Plant Retrofit Distribution Network, are given. The Second Quarterly Oral Report to the US DOE on the District Heating and Cooling Project in Detroit; the executive summary of the Piqua, Ohio District Heating and Cooling Demonstration Project; the Second Quarterly Report of the Moorehead, Minnesota District Heating Project; and the report from the Moorehead, Minnesota mayor on the Hot Water District Heating Project are presented.

  13. District cooling and heating development in Stamford, CT. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This report summarizes the development options for introducing district cooling and heating in downtown Stamford, Connecticut. A district energy system as defined for the Stamford project is the production of chilled and hot water at a central energy plant, and its distribution underground to participating building in the vicinity. The objective of the study was to investigate implementation of a district energy system in conjunction with cogeneration as a means to encourage energy conservation and provide the city with an economic development tool. Analysis of the system configuration focused on selecting an arrangement which offered a realistic opportunity for implementation. Three main alternatives were investigated: (1) construction of an 82 MW cogeneration plant and a district heating and cooling system to serve downtown buildings, (2) construction of a small (4 MW) in-fence cogeneration plant combined with cooling and heating, and (3) construction of a district cooling and heating plant to supply selected buildings. Option (1) was determined to be unfeasible at this time due to low electricity prices. The analysis demonstrated that alternatives (2) and (3) were feasible. A number of recommendations are made for detailed cost estimates and ownership, leasing, and financial issues. 12 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. 1992 National census for district heating, cooling and cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    District energy systems are a major part of the energy use and delivery infrastructure of the United States. With nearly 6,000 operating systems currently in place, district energy represents approximately 800 billion BTU per hour of installed thermal production capacity, and provides over 1.1 quadrillion BTU of energy annually -- about 1.3% of all energy used in the US each year. Delivered through more that 20,000 miles of pipe, this energy is used to heat and cool almost 12 billion square feet of enclosed space in buildings that serve a diverse range of office, education, health care, military, industrial and residential needs. This Census is intended to provide a better understanding of the character and extent of district heating, cooling and cogeneration in the United States. It defines a district energy system as: Any system that provides thermal energy (steam, hot water, or chilled water) for space heating, space cooling, or process uses from a central plant, and that distributes the energy to two or more buildings through a network of pipes. If electricity is produced, the system is a cogenerating facility. The Census was conducted through surveys administered to the memberships of eleven national associations and agencies that collectively represent the great majority of the nation`s district energy system operators. Responses received from these surveys account for about 11% of all district systems in the United States. Data in this report is organized and presented within six user sectors selected to illustrate the significance of district energy in institutional, community and utility settings. Projections estimate the full extent of district energy systems in each sector.

  15. Improved Thin, Flexible Heat Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John H.; Gernert, Nelson J.; Sarraf, David B.; Wollen, Peter J.; Surina, Frank C.; Fale, John E.

    2004-01-01

    Flexible heat pipes of an improved type are fabricated as layers of different materials laminated together into vacuum- tight sheets or tapes. In comparison with prior flexible heat pipes, these flexible heat pipes are less susceptible to leakage. Other advantages of these flexible heat pipes, relative to prior flexible heat pipes, include high reliability and greater ease and lower cost of fabrication. Because these heat pipes are very thin, they are highly flexible. When coated on outside surfaces with adhesives, these flexible heat pipes can be applied, like common adhesive tapes, to the surfaces of heat sinks and objects to be cooled, even if those surfaces are curved.

  16. Philip, South Dakota geothermal district heating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1997-12-01

    The geothermal heating project in Philip, South Dakota which uses the waste water from the Haakon School has now been in operation for 15 years. This project was one of the 23 cost shared by the U.S. DOE starting in 1978, of which 15 became operational. This article describes the geothermal heating system for eight buildings in downtown Philip.

  17. District Dives into Data to Improve Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sheila B.; Dimgba, Marguerite G.

    2014-01-01

    The Greece Professional Learning Center, a New York State Teacher Center in Greece Central School District, works to ensure all district employees have access to high-quality professional learning that supports and facilitates their learning and ultimately advances student achievement. The center is an integral part of the district -- the…

  18. Analysis of the Impact of Decreasing District Heating Supply Temperature on Combined Heat and Power Plant Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolonina, Alona; Bolonins, Genadijs; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2014-12-01

    District heating systems are widely used to supply heat to different groups of heat consumers. The district heating system offers great opportunities for combined heat and power production. In this paper decreasing district heating supply temperature is analysed in the context of combined heat and power plant operation. A mathematical model of a CHP plant is developed using both empirical and theoretical equations. The model is used for analysis of modified CHP plant operation modes with reduced district heating supply temperature. Conclusions on the benefits of new operation modes are introduced.

  19. Steamtown District Heating and Cooling Project, Scranton, Pennsylvania. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1990-04-01

    This report summarizes the activities of a study intended to examine the feasibility of a district heating and cooling alternative for the Steamtown National Historic Site in Scranton, PA. The objective of the study was to investigate the import of steam from the existing district heating system in Scranton which is operated by the Community Central Energy Corporation and through the use of modern technology provide hot and chilled water to Steamtown for its internal heating and cooling requirements. Such a project would benefit Steamtown by introducing a clean technology, eliminating on-site fuel use, avoiding first costs for central heating and cooling plants and reducing operation and maintenance expenditures. For operators of the existing district heating system, this project represents an opportunity to expand their customer base and demonstrate new technologies. The study was conducted by Joseph Technology Corporation, Inc. and performed for the Community Central Energy Corporation through a grant by the US Department of Energy. Steamtown was represented by the National Park Service, the developers of the site.

  20. Modular cogeneration in district heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J.W.; Aalto, P.; Gleason, T.C.J.; Skalafuris, A.J.

    1987-12-01

    The use of prepackaged cogeneration systems of modular size (100 kWe - 10 MWe) in conjunction with district heating and cooling is proposed as a way to enhance the energy conservation potential of both cogeneration and district energy systems. This report examines the technical and institutional aspects of this marriage of technologies, and develops a research agenda whose goal is to define this potential use of cogeneration more accurately and to develop the generic technology base needed to bring it to actuality. 11 refs.

  1. Lessons in Innovative Funding for District Improvements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Gwenn

    2010-01-01

    Near the shores of Lake Superior, Michigan's Houghton-Portage Township School District is known for academic leadership and strives to provide an exceptional and secure learning environment for its students. However, like many districts around the country, Houghton-Portage is not immune to the economic restrictions. In a recent effort to address…

  2. Saint Paul Energy Park: the potential for district heating

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.; Kron, R.; Davis, H.

    1980-03-01

    The results of ANL's study of the energy and economic aspects of using district heating in the St. Paul Energy Park are summarized. The Energy Park is a 6 million ft/sup 2/ residential, commercial office, and light industrial complex to be built in the midway area of St. Paul, Minnesota. Space heating and cooling design loads for the park were calculated assuming that the ASHRAE's 90-75 energy-conserving construction standards would be used in constructing the park's buildings. Based in part on this assumption, ANL estimated the costs and energy use characteristics of six possible energy system options for supplying Energy Park's space heating, space cooling, and domestic hot water heating needs. The results indicate that in today's economy, a central heating and cooling plant with natural gas boilers and electrically driven centrifugal chillers with thermal storage has good potential for energy and economic savings and clearly merits further consideration.

  3. Geothermal district heating system feasibility analysis, Thermopolis, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Goering, S.W.; Garing, K.L.; Coury, G.; Mickley, M.C.

    1982-04-26

    The purpose of this study is to determine the technical and economic feasibility of constructing and operating a district heating system to serve the residential, commercial, and public sectors in Thermopolis. The project geothermal resource assessment, based on reviews of existing information and data, indicated that substantial hot water resources likely exist in the Rose Dome region 10 miles northeast of Thermopolis, and with quantities capable of supporting the proposed geothermal uses. Preliminary engineering designs were developed to serve the space heating and hot water heating demands for buildings in the Thermopolis-East Thermopolis town service area. The heating district design is based on indirect geothermal heat supply and includes production wells, transmission lines, heat exchanger units, and the closed loop distribution and collection system necessary to serve the individual customers. Three options are presented for disposal of the cooled waters-reinjection, river disposal, and agricultural reuse. The preliminary engineering effort indicates the proposed system is technically feasible. The design is sized to serve 1545 residences, 190 businesses, and 24 public buildings. The peak design meets a demand of 128.2 million Btu at production rates of 6400 gpm.

  4. Life cycle assessment of base-load heat sources for district heating system options

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, Saeed; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Melin, Staffan

    2011-03-01

    Purpose There has been an increased interest in utilizing renewable energy sources in district heating systems. District heating systems are centralized systems that provide heat for residential and commercial buildings in a community. While various renewable and conventional energy sources can be used in such systems, many stakeholders are interested in choosing the feasible option with the least environmental impacts. This paper evaluates and compares environmental burdens of alternative energy source options for the base load of a district heating center in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) using the life cycle assessment method. The considered energy sources include natural gas, wood pellet, sewer heat, and ground heat. Methods The life cycle stages considered in the LCA model cover all stages from fuel production, fuel transmission/transportation, construction, operation, and finally demolition of the district heating system. The impact categories were analyzed based on the IMPACT 2002+ method. Results and discussion On a life-cycle basis, the global warming effect of renewable energy options were at least 200 kgeqCO2 less than that of the natural gas option per MWh of heat produced by the base load system. It was concluded that less than 25% of the upstream global warming impact associated with the wood pellet energy source option was due to transportation activities and about 50% of that was resulted from wood pellet production processes. In comparison with other energy options, the wood pellets option has higher impacts on respiratory of inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification, and nutrification categories. Among renewable options, the global warming impact of heat pump options in the studied case in Vancouver, BC, were lower than the wood pellet option due to BC's low carbon electricity generation profile. Ozone layer depletion and mineral extraction were the highest for the heat pump options due to extensive construction required for these

  5. A multicriteria approach to evaluate district heating system options

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, Saeed; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Melin, Staffan

    2009-07-01

    District energy systems, in which renewable energy sources may be utilized, are centralized systems to provide energy to residential and commercial buildings. The aim of this paper is to evaluate and rank energy sources available for a case of district heating system in Vancouver, Canada, based on multiple criteria and the view points of different stakeholders, and to show how communication would affect the ranking of alternatives. The available energy sources are natural gas, biomass (wood pellets), sewer heat, and geothermal heat. The evaluation criteria include GHG emissions, particulate matter emissions, maturity of technology, traffic load, and local source. In order to rank the energy options the PROMETHEE method is used. In this paper, two different scenarios were developed to indicate how the communication between the stakeholders would affect their preferences about criteria weights and would change the ranking of alternatives. The result of this study shows that without communication the best energy source for the considered district energy system is different for different stakeholders. While, addressing concerns through efficient communication would result in a general consensus. In this case, wood pellet is the best energy alternative for all the stakeholders.

  6. How to Improve Performance Results in Your District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genck, Fredric H.

    1987-01-01

    School performance measures developed by a public management institute have improved learning, confidence, cost effectiveness, teamwork, and accountability among students and teachers in Illinois districts. A model measures learning, parent and teacher satisfaction, and cost. Zion, Lake Forest, and North Chicago districts made substantial gains…

  7. Characteristics of Improved School Districts: Themes from Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, G. Sue; Bylsma, Pete

    2004-01-01

    To provide a better understanding of improved school districts and their characteristics and actions, the Research and Evaluation Office at the Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction collected and analyzed more than 80 research reports and articles. The studies shed light on the relationship between school district policy, programs, and…

  8. District-Wide Involvement: The Key to Successful School Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundell, Scott; Babich, George

    1989-01-01

    Describes the self-study process used by the Marana Unified School District to meet accreditation requirements with minimal expense, to emphasize curriculum development, and to improve the school. Considers the key feature of the cyclical review model to be the personal involvement of nearly every faculty member in the 10-school district. (DMM)

  9. Preliminary business plan: Plzen district heating system upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The district heating system of the City of Plzen, Czech Republic, needs to have physical upgrades to replace aging equipment and to comply with upcoming environmental regulations. Also, its ownership and management are being changed as a result of privatization. As majority owner, the City has the primary goal of ensuring that the heating needs of its customers are met as reliably and cost-effectively as possible. This preliminary business plan is part of the detailed analysis (5 reports in all) done to assist the City in deciding the issues. Preparation included investigation of ownership, management, and technology alternatives; estimation of market value of assets and investment requirements; and forecasting of future cash flow. The district heating system consists of the Central Plzen cogeneration plant, two interconnected heating plants [one supplying both hot water and steam], three satellite heating plants, and cooperative agreements with three industrial facilities generating steam and hot water. Most of the plants are coal-fired, with some peaking units fired by fuel oil.

  10. Possibility of using adsorption refrigeration unit in district heating network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzebielec, Andrzej; Rusowicz, Artur; Jaworski, Maciej; Laskowski, Rafał

    2015-09-01

    Adsorption refrigeration systems are able to work with heat sources of temperature starting with 50 °C. The aim of the article is to determine whether in terms of technical and economic issues adsorption refrigeration equipment can work as elements that produce cold using hot water from the district heating network. For this purpose, examined was the work of the adsorption air conditioning equipment cooperating with drycooler, and the opportunities offered by the district heating network in Warsaw during the summer. It turns out that the efficiency of the adsorption device from the economic perspective is not sufficient for production of cold even during the transitional period. The main problem is not the low temperature of the water supply, but the large difference between the coefficients of performance, COPs, of adsorption device and a traditional compressor air conditioning unit. When outside air temperature is 25 °C, the COP of the compressor type reaches a value of 4.49, whereas that of the adsorption device in the same conditions is 0.14. The ratio of the COPs is 32. At the same time ratio between the price of 1 kWh of electric power and 1 kWh of heat is only 2.85. Adsorption refrigeration equipment to be able to compete with compressor devices, should feature COPads efficiency to be greater than 1.52. At such a low driving temperature and even changing the drycooler into the evaporative cooler it is not currently possible to achieve.

  11. Improved Heat-Stress Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teets, Edward H., Jr.; Fehn, Steven

    2007-01-01

    NASA Dryden presents an improved and automated site-specific algorithm for heat-stress approximation using standard atmospheric measurements routinely obtained from the Edwards Air Force Base weather detachment. Heat stress, which is the net heat load a worker may be exposed to, is officially measured using a thermal-environment monitoring system to calculate the wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT). This instrument uses three independent thermometers to measure wet-bulb, dry-bulb, and the black-globe temperatures. By using these improvements, a more realistic WBGT estimation value can now be produced. This is extremely useful for researchers and other employees who are working on outdoor projects that are distant from the areas that the Web system monitors. Most importantly, the improved WBGT estimations will make outdoor work sites safer by reducing the likelihood of heat stress.

  12. The analysis of thermal network of district heating system from investor point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takács, Ján; Rácz, Lukáš

    2016-06-01

    The hydraulics of a thermal network of a district heating system is a very important issue, to which not enough attention is often paid. In this paper the authors want to point out some of the important aspects of the design and operation of thermal networks in district heating systems. The design boundary conditions of a heat distribution network and the requirements on active pressure - circulation pump - influencing the operation costs of the centralized district heating system as a whole, are analyzed in detail. The heat generators and the heat exchange stations are designed according to the design heat loads after thermal insulation, and modern boiler units are installed in the heating plant.

  13. School Based Improvement: A Manual for District Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Barbara J.; Marburger, Carl L.

    This manual is intended to be a how-to guide for school district leaders who want to begin using a school-based approach to improve the quality of education in their districts. The manual provides a brief review of the school-based improvement process--what it is and the rationale for using it. One section deals with implementing school-based…

  14. Environmental Assessment for the Bison School District Heating Plant Project, Institutional Conservation Program (ICP)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This environmental assessment analyzes the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District`s elementary school and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers and supporting control system and piping

  15. Maryvale Terrace: Geothermal residential district space heating and cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. H.; Goldstone, L. A.

    1982-08-01

    A preliminary study of the technical and economic feasibility of installing a geothermal district heating and cooling system is analyzed for the Maryvale Terrace residential subdevelopment in Phoenix, Arizona, consisting of 557 residential houses. The design heating load was estimated to be 16.77 million Btu/h and the design cooling load was estimated to be 14.65 million Btu/h. Average annual energy use for the development was estimated to be 5870 million Btu/y and 14,650 million Btu/y for heating and cooling, respectively. Competing fuels are natural gas for heating and electricity for cooling. A geothermal resource is assumed to exist beneath the site at a depth of 6000 feet. Five production wells producing 1000 qpm each of 2200 F geothermal fluid are required. Total estimated cost for installing the system is $5,079,300. First year system operations cost (including debt service) is $974,361. The average annual geothermal heating and cooling cost per home is estimated to be $1750 as compared to a conventional system annual cost of $1145.

  16. Development of advanced low-temperature heat transfer fluids for district heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The feasibility of adding phase change materials (PCMs) and surfactants to the heat transfer fluids in district cooling systems was investigated. It increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. The thermal behavior of two potential PCMs, hexadecane and tetradecane paraffin wax, was experimentally evaluated. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. While test results for laboratory grade materials showed good agreement with data in the literature, both melting point and heat of fusion for commercial grade hexadecane were found to be considerably lower than literaturevalues. PCM/water mixtures were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to determine heat transfer and flow resistance properties. When using PCMs in district cooling systems, clogging of frozen PCM particles isone of the major problems to be overcome. In the present project it is proposed to minimize or prevent clogging by the addition of an emulsifier. Effects of the emulsifier on the mixture of water and hexadecane(a PCM) were studied. As the amount of the emulsifier was increased, the size of the solid PCM particles became smaller. When the size of the particles was small enough, they did not stick together or stick to the cold surface of a heat exchanger. The amount of emulsifier to produce this condition was determined.

  17. Continuous Improvement in Schools and Districts: Policy Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Jane; Dunlap, Allison

    2014-01-01

    Discussions about improving public education often focus on outcomes without considering how schools and districts can accomplish those outcomes. Research shows that using a continuous improvement process has proven successful in healthcare, manufacturing, and technology, and may hold potential for use in education as well. This brief defines and…

  18. The Three Essentials: Improving Schools Requires District Vision, District and State Support, and Principal Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene; Schmidt-Davis, Jon

    2010-01-01

    This research is part of a comprehensive effort to pinpoint the key leadership factors that improve student achievement and increase the number of high school graduates who are ready for college and careers. In this study, SREB (Southern Regional Education Board) examined the role of the district office in providing principals with the working…

  19. How Public School Districts Can Improve Their Bond Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casillas, Robert A.; Hamill, Grant M.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the bond-rating process; suggests several management practices school districts can adopt to improve their bond ratings: Adopt a fund balance, initiate debt-affordability and debt-amortization policies, institute pay-as-you-go funding to reduce dependency on debt, develop a multiyear plan, and communicate periodically with credit-rating…

  20. Development of advanced low-temperature heat transfer fluids for district heating and cooling, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.I.; Lorsch, H.G.

    1991-03-31

    The feasibility of adding phase change materials (PCMS) and surfactants to the heat transfer fluids in district cooling systems was investigated. It increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. The thermal behavior of two potential PCMS, hexadecane and tetradecane paraffin wax, was experimentally evaluated. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. While test results for laboratory grade materials showed good agreement with data in the literature, both melting point and heat of fusion for commercial grade hexadecane were found to be considerably lower than literature values. PCM/water mixtures were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to determine heat transfer and flow resistance properties. For 10% and 25% PCM/water slurries, the heat transfer enhancement was found to be approximately 18 and 30 percent above the value for water, respectively. Within the turbulent region, there is only a minor pumping penalty from the addition of up to 25% PCM to the water. Research is continuing on these fluids in order to determine their behavior in large-size loops and to arrive at optimum formulations.

  1. Union County - La Grande, Oregon geothermal district heating: feasibility assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, H. II; Giddings, M.; Hanson, P.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents an assessment of geothermal district heating in the City of La Grande, Oregon. Eight study area districts were analyzed to determine their economic feasibility. Results from the analyses conclude that certain districts within the City of La Grande are economically feasible if certain assumptions are correct. Development of geothermal district heating for these areas would provide direct energy and dollar savings to the building owners and would also provide direct and indirect benefits to low and moderate income households within the City.

  2. Desiccant-based, heat-actuated cooling assessment for DHC (District Heating and Cooling) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Patch, K.D.; DiBella, F.A.; Becker, F.E.

    1990-07-01

    An assessment has been completed of the use of desiccant-based, heat-actuated cooling for District Heating and Cooling (DHC) systems, showing that such desiccant-based cooling (DBC) systems are generally applicable to District Heating (DH) systems. Since the DH system only has to supply hot water (or steam) to its customers, systems that were designed as conventional two-pipe DH systems can now be operated as DHC systems without major additional capital expense. Desiccant-based DHC systems can be operated with low-grade DH-supplied heat, at temperatures below 180{degree}F, without significant loss in operating capacity, relative to absorption chillers. During this assessment, a systems analysis was performed, an experimental investigation was conducted, developmental requirements for commercializing DBC systems were examined, and two case studies were conducted. As a result of the case studies, it was found that the operating cost of a DBC system was competitive with or lower than the cost of purchasing DHC-supplied chilled water. However, because of the limited production volume and the current high capital costs of desiccant systems, the payback period is relatively long. In this regard, through the substitution of low-cost components specifically engineered for low-temperature DHC systems, the capital costs should be significantly reduced and overall economics made attractive to future users. 17 figs.

  3. Techno-economic analysis of renewable energy source options for a district heating project

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, S.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Melin, Staffan

    2009-09-01

    With the increased interest in exploiting renewable energy sources for district heating applications, the economic comparison of viable options has been considered as an important step in making a sound decision. In this paper, the economic performance of several energy options for a district heating system in Vancouver, British Columbia, is studied. The considered district heating system includes a 10 MW peaking/ backup natural gas boiler to provide about 40% of the annual energy requirement and a 2.5 MW base-load system. The energy options for the base-load system include: wood pellet, sewer heat, and geothermal heat. Present values of initial and operating costs of each system were calculated over 25-year service life of the systems, considering depreciation and salvage as a negative cost item. It was shown that the wood pellet heat producing technologies provided less expensive energy followed by the sewer heat recovery, geothermal and natural gas systems. Among wood pellet technologies, the grate burner was a less expensive option than powder and gasifier technologies. It was found that using natural gas as a fuel source for the peaking/backup system accounted for more than 40% of the heat production cost for the considered district heating center. This is mainly due to the high natural gas prices which cause high operating costs over the service life of the district heating system. Variations in several economic inputs did not change the ranking of the technology options in the sensitivity analysis. However, it was found that the results were more sensitive to changes in operating costs of the system than changes in initial investment. It is economical to utilize wood pellet boilers to provide the base-load energy requirement of district heating systems Moreover, the current business approach to use natural gas systems for peaking and backup in district heating systems could increase the cost of heat production significantly.

  4. Advanced thermoplastic materials for district heating piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Raske, D.T.; Karvelas, D.E.

    1988-04-01

    The work described in this report represents research conducted in the first year of a three-year program to assess, characterize, and design thermoplastic piping for use in elevated-temperature district heating (DH) systems. The present report describes the results of a program to assess the potential usefulness of advanced thermoplastics as piping materials for use in DH systems. This includes the review of design rules for thermoplastic materials used as pipes, a survey of candidate materials and available mechanical properties data, and mechanical properties testing to obtain baseline data on a candidate thermoplastic material extruded as pipe. The candidate material studied in this phase of the research was a polyetherimide resin, Ultem 1000, which has a UL continuous service temperature rating of 338/degree/F (170/degree/C). The results of experiments to determine the mechanical properties between 68 and 350/degree/F (20 and 177/degree/C) were used to establish preliminary design values for this material. Because these prototypic pipes were extruded under less than optimal conditions, the mechanical properties obtained are inferior to those expected from typical production pipes. Nevertheless, the present material in the form of 2-in. SDR 11 pipe (2.375-in. O. D. by 0.216-in. wall) would have a saturated water design pressure rating of /approximately/34 psig at 280/degree/F. 16 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Operation and performance of a 350 kW (100 RT) single-effect/double-lift absorption chiller in a district heating network

    SciTech Connect

    Schweigler, C.J.; Preissner, M.; Demmel, S.; Hellmann, H.M.; Ziegler, F.F.

    1998-10-01

    The efficiency of combined heat, power, and cold production in total energy systems could be improved significantly if absorption chillers were available that could be driven with limited mass flows of low-temperature hot water. In the case of district heat-driven air conditioning, for example, currently available standard absorption chillers are often not applied because they cannot provide the low hot water return temperature and the specific cooling capacity per unit hot water mass flow that are required by many district heating networks. Above all, a drastic increase in the size of the machine (total heat exchanger area) due to low driving temperature differences if of concern in low-temperature applications. A new type of multistage lithium bromide/water absorption chiller has been developed for the summertime operating conditions of district heating networks. It provides large cooling of the district heating water (some 30 K) and large cooling capacity per unit hot water mass flow. Two pilot plants of this novel absorption chiller were designed within the framework of a joint project sponsored by the German Federal Ministry of Education, Science, Research and Technology (BMBF), a consortium of 15 district heating utilities, and two manufacturers. The plants have been operated since summer 1996 in the district heating networks of Berlin and Duesseldorf. This paper describes the concept, installation, and control strategy of the two pilot plants, and it surveys the performance and operating experience of the plants under varying practical conditions.

  6. Improved ceramic heat exchange material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccollister, H. L.

    1977-01-01

    Improved corrosion resistant ceramic materials that are suitable for use as regenerative heat exchangers for vehicular gas turbines is reported. Two glass-ceramic materials, C-144 and C-145, have superior durability towards sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate compared to lithium aluminosilicate (LAS) Corning heat exchange material 9455. Material C-144 is a leached LAS material whose major crystalline phase is silica keatite plus mullite, and C-145 is a LAS keatite solid solution (S.S.) material. In comparison to material 9455, material C-144 is two orders of magnitude better in dimensional stability to sulfuric acid at 300 C, and one order of magnitude better in stability to sodium sulfate at 1000 C. Material C-145 is initially two times better in stability to sulfuric acid, and about one order of magnitude better in stability to sodium sulfate. Both C-144 and C-145 have less than 300 ppm delta L/L thermal expansion from ambient to 1000 C, and good dimensional stability of less than approximately 100 ppm delta L/L after exposure to 1000 C for 100 hours. The glass-ceramic fabrication process produced a hexagonal honeycomb matrix having an 85% open frontal area, 50 micrometer wall thickness, and less than 5% porosity.

  7. Characterization of selected application of biomass energy technologies and a solar district heating and cooling system

    SciTech Connect

    D'Alessio, Dr., Gregory J.; Blaunstein, Robert P.

    1980-09-01

    The following systems are discussed: energy self-sufficient farms, wood gasification, energy from high-yield silviculture farms, and solar district heating and cooling. System descriptions and environmental data are included for each one. (MHR)

  8. Evaluation of thermal energy storage for the proposed Twin Cities District Heating system. [using cogeneration heat production and aquifiers for heat storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of incorporating thermal energy storage components into the proposed Twin Cities District heating project was evaluated. The technical status of the project is reviewed and conceptual designs of district heating systems with and without thermal energy storage were compared in terms of estimated capital requirements, fuel consumption, delivered energy cost, and environmental aspects. The thermal energy storage system is based on cogeneration and the storage of heat in aquifers.

  9. Collaborative School Improvement: Eight Practices for District-School Partnerships to Transform Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Trent E.; Grimm, Emily Dolci; Miller, Allison E.

    2012-01-01

    How can districts bring instructional improvement to scale within and across schools? The authors of "Collaborative School Improvement" argue that districts can play a powerful part in helping schools build the capacity to engage in inquiry-based reform--but that this effort requires a shift in districts' traditional role as a professional…

  10. Characteristics of Midwest Region School Districts Identified for Improvement. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 121

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Ploeg, Arie; Wan, Yinmei; Garcia, Alicia N.; Wraight, Sara; Burke, Matthew; Norbury, Heather; Gerdeman, R. Dean

    2012-01-01

    This report presents statistical profiles for the Midwest Region states of school districts designated as "in improvement" for school year 2009/10 under accountability provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and compares the prevalence and characteristics of these districts and those of districts not in improvement. It also reports the…

  11. District heating from electric-generating plants and municipal incinerators: local planner's assessment guide

    SciTech Connect

    Pferdehirt, W.; Kron, N. Jr.

    1980-11-01

    This guide is designed to aid local government planners in the preliminary evaluation of the feasibility of district heating using heat recovered from electric generating plants and municipal incinerators. System feasibility is indicated by: (1) the existence of an adequate supply of nearby waste heat, (2) the presence of a sufficiently dense and large thermal load, and (3) a favorable cost comparison with conventional heating methods. 34 references.

  12. Improving the efficiency of district hospitals: is contracting an option?

    PubMed

    Mills, A; Hongoro, C; Broomberg, J

    1997-02-01

    A world-wide revolution in thinking about public sector management has occurred in recent years, termed the 'new public management'. It aims to improve the efficiency of service provision primarily through the introduction of market mechanisms into the public sector. The earliest form of marketization in developed countries has tended to be the introduction of competitive tendering and contracts for the provision of public services. In less wealthy countries, the language of contracting is heard with increasing frequency in discussions of health sector reform despite the lack of evidence of the virtues (or vices) of contracting in specific country settings. This paper examines the economic arguments for contracting district hospital care in two rather different settings in Southern Africa: in South Africa using private-for-profit providers, and in Zimbabwe using NGO (mission) providers. The South African study compared the performance of three 'contractor' hospitals with three government-run hospitals, analysing data on costs and quality. There were no significant differences in quality between the two sets of hospitals, but contractor hospitals provided care at significantly lower unit costs. However, the cost to the government of contracting was close to that of direct provision, indicating that the efficiency gains were captured almost entirely by the contractor. A crucial lesson from the study is the importance of developing government capacity to design and negotiate contracts that ensure the government is able to derive significant efficiency gains from contractual arrangements. In other parts of Africa, contracts for hospital care are more likely to be agreed with not-for-profit providers. The Zimbabwean study compared the performance of two government district hospitals with two district 'designated' mission hospitals. It found that the two mission hospitals delivered similar services to those of the two government hospitals but at substantially lower unit

  13. IRP applied to district heating in Eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, M.; Secrest, T.; Zeman, J.; Popelka, A.

    1994-08-01

    The cities of Plzen, Czech Republic, and Handlova, Republic of Slovakia, are examining options for meeting the thermal energy requirements of their citizens with consideration of both economics and the environment. Major energy related issues faced by the cities are: the frequent need to replace and/or implement a major rehabilitation of the central heating plants and the transmission and distribution systems that supply the consumers; and the need to reduce emissions in order to comply with more stringent environmental regulations and improve air quality; and the need to minimize consumer energy bills, particularly to accommodate the upcoming decontrol of energy prices and to minimize non-payment problems. The intent of the integrated resource planning (IRP) projects is to present analyses of options to support the cities` decision-making processes, not to provide specific recommendations or guidance for the cities to follow.

  14. District heating and cooling systems of the future: Strategies for global change

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    The future of district heating and cooling, also known as district energy, will be a function of economic and regulatory forces in the US. Typically a district energy system provides thermal energy in the form of steam, hot water, or chilled water from a central plant, and distributes the energy through pipes to two or more buildings. At the present time, district energy is under-utilized and serves only 1.3 percent of US energy needs, providing a total of 1.1 quadrillion Btu of energy annually. A brief review of the historical development of district energy, the status of the technology in the US, and a few basics on world energy consumption lead in to the economic and environmental advantages of district energy. District energy systems have been retrofitted to comply wit h the regulations of the Clean Air Act (CAA); presently emissions of greenhouse gases, such as CO{sub 2}, are not regulated by the CAA. If the results of ongoing investigation on global climate change determine that regulation is warranted, several strategies exist for district energy systems to offer significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Projections of district energy`s reaction to the ongoing forces are possible with the use of energy consumption forecasts through the year 2015, and a discussion of trend setting concepts being applied involving: gas turbines, cogeneration, fuel cells, chillers, advanced transmission fluids, renewable energies, and CO{sub 2} capture. District energy has potential to be an important part of the evolving strategies for global climate change. For this reason, combined with technology advancements and a supportive economic climate, a new era in district energy has begun. Growth and development of district energy into the foreseeable future is expected to be strong.

  15. Preliminary business plan: District Heating Company for the city of Handlova, Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    The city of Handlova, Slovakia, needs to replace its district heating system, which is old, unreliable, and expensive to maintain. The current plant is owned by a state-run utility, the Slovensky Energeticky Podnik (SEP). The plan is to privatize the heating plant, acquire capital to rehabilitate the central plant (converting it to a cogeneration facility), install a new hot-water distribution system, and implement an extensive energy efficiency effort in the residential buildings on the system. System capacity is 100 MWt, with annual heat sales estimated to be 450,000 gigajoules per year (GJ/yr). The capital necessary for system improvements is estimated to be 465 million Slovakian Krowns (SK) (in 1997 price levels). The total market value of existing fixed assets that will survive the rehabilitation effort as part of the new systems is estimated at 342 million SK. There has been substantial analysis and preparation for this activity, which is documented in demand-side and supply-side technical and economic analyses, an integrated demand/supply report, and this preliminary business plan. The preparation includes investigation of ownership, management, and technology alternatives; estimation of the market value of existing assets and investment requirements; and forecasting of future cash flows. These preliminary projections indicate that the cost of heating from the new system will be reasonable from both a cost per unit of energy basis (SK/GJ) and, form the perspective of an apartment dweller in Handlova, on a total cost per year basis. Delivering heat at the projected cost will, however, require a substantial change in the way that the heating plant is run, with proportionally very large reductions in labor, operations and maintenance, and overhead charges. In addition, there will need to be significant revenues from the sale of electricity to the national grid.

  16. Improved heat-resistant garments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. S.

    1970-01-01

    Fabrication method for protective clothing eliminates the common heat-short by avoiding the stitch which is common to all layers, and preventing external exposure of any stitch to the outer environment. A unique overlap arrangement is described and additional protective methods are discussed.

  17. Cerritos Community College: Improvements Needed in Aspects of Operating the District and Its Auxiliary Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Auditor General, Sacramento.

    This audit report discusses the operation of the Enterprise Fund by Cerritos Community College District in California. In addition, the Cerritos College Foundation's conflict of interest policies, its relationship with the district, and its award of contracts for services was reviewed. It was found that the district needed improvement in its…

  18. Improved Ceramic for Heat Exchangers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbell, T. P.; Rauch, H. W.; Mccreeght, L. R.

    1982-01-01

    Most promising composition developed in investigation consisted of mixed oxides described generically as ZrMAS. Has been commercially designated as GE-7808. Material was obtained from low-cost clay/talc mixture. Overall assessment of ZrMAS indicates it is a viable candidate for heat-exchanger application in automotive gas-turbine engines and possibly other areas that require dielectric materials of moderate refractoriness, good corrosion resistance, and excellent thermal-shock resistance.

  19. District Finds the Right Equation to Improve Math Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmstrom, Annette

    2010-01-01

    The math problem is common to most U.S. school districts, and education leaders are well aware that U.S. math achievement lags far behind many other countries in the world. University Place (Washington) School District Superintendent Patti Banks found the conspicuous income gap for math scores even more disturbing. In her school district, only 23%…

  20. Annual emissions and air-quality impacts of an urban area district-heating system: Boston case study

    SciTech Connect

    Bernow, S.S.; McAnulty, D.R.; Buchsbaum, S.; Levine, E.

    1980-02-01

    A district-heating system, based on thermal energy from power plants retrofitted to operate in the cogeneration mode, is expected to improve local air quality. This possibility has been examined by comparing the emissions of five major atmospheric pollutants, i.e., particulates, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, from the existing heating and electric system in the City of Boston with those from a proposed district heating system. Detailed, spatial distribution of existing heating load and fuel mix is developed to specify emissions associated with existing heating systems. Actual electric-power-plant parameters and generation for the base year are specified. Additional plant fuel consumption and emissions resulting from cogeneration operation have been estimated. Six alternative fuel-emissions-control scenarios are considered. The average annual ground-level concentrations of sulfur oxides are calculated using a modified form of the EPA's Climatological Dispersion Model. This report describes the methodology, the results and their implications, and the areas for extended investigation. The initial results confirm expectations. Average sulfur oxides concentrations at various points within and near the city drop by up to 85% in the existing fuels scenarios and by 95% in scenarios in which different fuels and more-stringent emissions controls at the plants are used. These reductions are relative to concentrations caused by fuel combustion for heating and large commercial and industrial process uses within the city and Boston Edison Co. electric generation.

  1. Feasibility study for retrofitting biogas cogeneration systems to district heating in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Mo; Park, Hwa-Choon

    2015-08-01

    A feasibility study was performed to assess the technical and economic merits of retrofitting biogas-based cogeneration systems to district heating networks. Three district heating plants were selected as candidates for accommodating heat recovery from nearby waste treatment stations, where a massive amount of biogas can be produced on a regular basis. The scenario involves constructing cogeneration systems in each waste treatment station and producing electricity and heat. The amounts of biogas production for each station are estimated based on the monthly treatment capacities surveyed over the most recent years. Heat produced by the cogeneration system is first consumed on site by the waste treatment system to keep the operating temperature at a proper level. If surplus heat is available, it will be transported to the nearest district heating plant. The year-round operation of the cogeneration system was simulated to estimate the electricity and heat production. We considered cost associated with the installation of the cogeneration system and piping as initial investments. Profits from selling electricity and recovering heat are counted as income, while costs associated with buying biogas are expenses. Simple payback periods of 2-10 years were projected under the current economic conditions of South Korea. We found that most of the proposed scenarios can contribute to both energy savings and environmental protection. PMID:26159562

  2. Optimal Operation System of the Integrated District Heating System with Multiple Regional Branches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ui Sik; Park, Tae Chang; Kim, Lae-Hyun; Yeo, Yeong Koo

    This paper presents an optimal production and distribution management for structural and operational optimization of the integrated district heating system (DHS) with multiple regional branches. A DHS consists of energy suppliers and consumers, district heating pipelines network and heat storage facilities in the covered region. In the optimal management system, production of heat and electric power, regional heat demand, electric power bidding and sales, transport and storage of heat at each regional DHS are taken into account. The optimal management system is formulated as a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) where the objectives is to minimize the overall cost of the integrated DHS while satisfying the operation constraints of heat units and networks as well as fulfilling heating demands from consumers. Piecewise linear formulation of the production cost function and stairwise formulation of the start-up cost function are used to compute nonlinear cost function approximately. Evaluation of the total overall cost is based on weekly operations at each district heat branches. Numerical simulations show the increase of energy efficiency due to the introduction of the present optimal management system.

  3. The Role of the Latvian District Heating System in the Development of Sustainable Energy Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazbauers, Gatis; Cimdina, Ginta

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine whether and to what extent it is possible to use excess electricity produced by wind power plants during low demand periods for district heat production by heat pumps. Energy system analysis on an hourly basis is conducted at various capacities of wind power plants. The results show that it is possible to increase the share of renewable energy sources, decrease the use of primary energy sources and CO2 emissions per unit of the produced energy, i.e. heat and electricity, by using the surplus electricity produced by wind power in the heat pumps combined with the heat storage.

  4. Geothermal district-heating potential for casinos/hotels in Reno, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-30

    Results from the pre-feasibility study of a geothermal district heating system for greater Reno and the pre-feasibility study of providing geothermal heat to casinos/hotels located in downtown Reno by connection to the proposed district heating system (DHS) are combined. Geothermal sources were selected from published data. Potential users were selected from aerial and city planning maps, and published building and demographic information. Energy consumption data from the electric and gas utility was matched with consumption information from surveys of representative buildings by category and climatic data. As an example, a written survey was mailed to the casino/hotels and two on-site visits were made. Retrofit methodology and cost were examined for the casino/hotels and representative buildings. Based on the pre-feasibility studies, a geothermal district heating system for Reno appears technically and economically feasible. Furthermore, additional economic savings are achieved when the Reno casinos/hotels are connected to the DHS. Steamboat Hot Springs and a geothermal area east of downtown are the most promising geothermal sources for the DHS. The City of Reno has a large yearly heat load with an average heating degree days per year of 6022/sup 0/F days and a heating season greater than eight months.

  5. Improved ceramic heat exchanger materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauch, H. W.

    1980-01-01

    The development and evaluation of materials for potential application as heat exchanger structures in automotive gas turbine engines is discussed. Test specimens in the form of small monolithic bars were evaluated for thermal expansion and dimensional stability before and after exposure to sea salt and sulfuric acid, followed by short and long term cycling at temperatures up to 1200 C. The material finally selected, GE-7808, consists of the oxides, ZrO2-MgO-Al2O3-S1O2, and is described generically as ZrMAS. The original version was based on a commercially available cordierite (MAS) frit. However, a clay/talc mixture was demonstrated to be a satisfactory very low cost source of the cordierite (MAS) phase. Several full size honeycomb regenerator cores, about 10.2 cm thick and 55 cm diameter were fabricated from both the frit and mineral versions of GE-7808. The honeycomb cells in these cores had rectangular dimensions of about 0.5 mm x 2.5 mm and a wall thickness of approximately 0.2 mm. The test data show that GE-7808 is significantly more stable at 1100 C in the presence of sodium than the aluminosilicate reference materials. In addition, thermal exposure up to 1100 C, with and without sodium present, results in essentially no change in thermal expansion of GE-7808.

  6. Blueprint for financing geothermal district heating in California

    SciTech Connect

    Grattan, J.P.; Hansen, D.P.

    1981-03-01

    The current legal and investment climate surrounding geothermal development is depicted. Changes that would make the climate more favorable to direct heat geothermal development are recommended. The Boise, Susanville, and Brady Hot Springs projects are analyzed. (MHR)

  7. Treatability/feasibility study for district water quality improvement

    SciTech Connect

    1986-04-01

    The South Adams County Water and Sanitation District`s most productive shallow alluvial wells are contaminated with a number of volatile organic chemicals. In addition, previous and ongoing studies by various agencies have detected several nonvolatile organic contaminants clearly associated with Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) operations in the northern portion of the existing District area and throughout the western half of the area north and west of RMA. This area is ultimately planned as an addition to the District`s present service area. The District retained the services of James M. Montgomery, Consulting Engineers, Inc. (JMM) to evaluate treatment alternatives for removal of organics contaminants and softening. The objectives of the study are outlined in the District`s request for proposals dated October 11, 1985. In general, the objectives are: to establish, through an analysis of cost and availability, potential sources of supply for the current and projected District water demands; based on requirements of the Colorado Department of Health and the Environmental Protection Agency, develop treated water quality goals; and select the most feasible treatment for organic contaminant removal with consideration of cost, constructability and reliability in meeting treated water quality goals.

  8. Reduction in air emissions attainable through implementation of district heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R.G.

    1996-12-31

    District heating and cooling (DHC) can provide multiple opportunities to reduce air emissions associated with space conditioning and electricity generation, which contribute 30% to 50% of all such emissions. When DHC is combined with cogeneration (CHP), maximum reductions in sulfur oxides (SO{sub x}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), particulates, and ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants can most effectively be achieved. Although significant improvements in air quality have been documented in Europe and Scandinavia due to DHC and CHP implementation, accurately predicting such improvements has been difficult. Without acceptable quantification methods, regulatory bodies are reluctant to grant air emissions credits, and local community leaders are unwilling to invest in DHC and CHP as preferred methods of providing energy or strategies for air quality improvement. The recent development and release of a number of computer models designed specifically to provide quantification of air emissions that can result from DHC and CHP implementation should help provide local, state, and national policymakers with information vital to increasing support and investment in DHC development.

  9. Geothermal district heating and cooling system for the city of Calistoga, California

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, J.

    1982-01-01

    Calistoga has long been known for having moderate (270/sup 0/F maximum) hydrothermal deposits. The economic feasibility of a geothermal heating and cooling district for a portion of the downtown commercial area and city-owned building was studied. Descriptions of existing and proposed systems for each building in the block are presented. Heating and cooling loads for each building, retrofit costs, detailed cost estimates, system schematics, and energy consumption data for each building are included. (MHR)

  10. Particulate matter emissions from combustion of wood in district heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ghafghazi, S.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Melin, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of wood biomass to generate district heat and power in communities that have access to this energy source is increasing. In this paper the effect of wood fuel properties, combustion condition, and flue gas cleaning system on variation in the amount and formation of particles in the flue gas of typical district heating wood boilers are discussed based on the literature survey. Direct measurements of particulate matter (PM) emissions from wood boilers with district heating applications are reviewed and presented. Finally, recommendations are given regarding the selection of wood fuel, combustion system condition, and flue gas cleaning system in district heating systems in order to meet stringent air quality standards. It is concluded that utilization of high quality wood fuel, such as wood pellets produced from natural, uncontaminated stem wood, would generate the least PM emissions compared to other wood fuel types. Particulate matter emissions from grate burners equipped with electrostatic precipitators when using wood pellets can be well below stringent regulatory emission limit such as particulate emission limit of Metro Vancouver, Canada.

  11. Environmental Assessment and FONSI for the Bison School District Heating Plant Project (Institutional Conservation Program [ICP]).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This paper examines the environmental impacts of replacing the Bison, South Dakota School District's elementary and high school heating system consisting of oil-fired boilers, and supporting electrical components with a new coal-fired boiler and supporting control system piping. Various alternative systems are also examined, including purchasing a…

  12. Feasibility Study for the Ivano-Frankivsk District Heating Repowering: Analysis of Options

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, L.; Popelka, A.; Laskarevsky, V.

    2002-03-20

    Part of the U.S. Initiative on Joint Implementation with the Ukraine Inter-Ministerial Commission on Climate Change, financed by the US Department of Energy. The project was implemented by a team consisting of the US company SenTech, Inc. and the Ukrainian company Esco-West. The main objective of the effort was to assess available alternatives of Ivano-Frankivsk (I-F) District Heating repowering and provide information for I-F's investment decision process. This study provides information on positive and negative technical and economic aspects of available options. Three options were analyzed for technical merit and economic performance: 1. Installation of cogeneration system based on Gas Turbine (GT) and Heat Recovery Heat Exchanger with thermal capacity of 30 MW and electrical capacity of 13.5 MW. This Option assumes utilization of five existing boilers with total capacity of 221 MW. Existing boilers will be equipped with modern controls. Equipment in this Option was sized for longest operating hours, about 8000 based on the available summer baseload. 2. Installation of Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (GTCC) and Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) with thermal capacity 45 MW and electrical capacity of 58.7 MW. This Option assumes utilization of five existing boilers with total capacity of 221 MW. Existing boilers will be equipped with modern controls. The equipment was sized for medium, shoulder season thermal load, and some cooling was assumed during the summer operation for extension of operating hours for electricity production. 3. Retrofit of six existing boilers (NGB) with total thermal capacity of 255.9 MW by installation of modern control system and minor upgrades. This option assumes only heat production with minimum investment. The best economic performance and the largest investment cost would result from alternative GTCC. This alternative has positive Net Present Value (NPV) with discount rate lower than about 12%, and has IRR slightly above 12%. The

  13. Improved heat switch for gas sorption compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, C. K.

    1985-01-01

    Thermal conductivities of the charcoal bed and the copper matrix for the gas adsorption compressor were measured by the concentric-cylinder method. The presence of the copper matrix in the charcoal bed enhanced the bed conductance by at least an order of magnitude. Thermal capacities of the adsorbent cell and the heat leaks to two compressor designs were measured by the transient method. The new gas adsorption compressor had a heat switch that could transfer eight times more heat than the previous one. The cycle time for the new prototype compressor is also improved by a factor of eight to within the minute range.

  14. Federal Programs Information on School and School District Universe Files. Improving Universe Data on Schools and School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triplett, Suzanne E.

    Specific issues to be resolved, prior to including federal programs information on school and school district universe files, are identified and discussed as part of the Education Data Improvement Project of the Council of Chief State School Officers. Goals of this Project are to describe state collection of data elements currently in the common…

  15. District heating system, College Industrial Park, Klamath Falls, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    The College Industrial Park (CIP) is located to the northwest of the Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) campus. Waste water from the OIT campus geothermal heating system flows through an open ditch to the south of the Park. Being aware of this, city personnel have requested the Geo-Heat Center design a distribution network for the Park to eventually utilize an estimated 600 GPM of the 130/sup 0/F waste water. Geothermal water from each campus building is discharged into storm drains which also collect surface run off from parking lots, roofs and grounds. Waste water temperatures are generally between 120/sup 0/F and 130/sup 0/F, however, it may drop as low as 90/sup 0/F when mixing occurs with large amounts of surface run off. Peak heating load requirements for the OIT campus are estimated to be 17.8 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hour for 567,000 square feet of space. Peak flow rate of geothermal fluid to satisfy this load is then 593 GPM based on a net 60/sup 0/F temperature differential. Three wells are available to supply the necessary flow. A Lithium-Bromide Absorption Chiller (185 ton) was installed in 1980 to provide space cooling. The chiller requires a constant flow rate of 550 GPM and discharges 170/sup 0/F water to the storm drains during summer months.

  16. Effects of heat recovery for district heating on waste incineration health impact: a simulation study in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Cordioli, Michele; Vincenzi, Simone; De Leo, Giulio A

    2013-02-01

    The construction of waste incinerators in populated areas always causes substantial public concern. Since the heat from waste combustion can be recovered to power district heating networks and allows for the switch-off of domestic boilers in urbanized areas, predictive models for health assessment should also take into account the potential benefits of abating an important source of diffuse emission. In this work, we simulated the dispersion of atmospheric pollutants from a waste incinerator under construction in Parma (Italy) into different environmental compartments and estimated the potential health effect of both criteria- (PM(10)) and micro-pollutants (PCDD/F, PAH, Cd, Hg). We analyzed two emission scenarios, one considering only the new incinerator, and the other accounting for the potential decrease in pollutant concentrations due to the activation of a district heating network. We estimated the effect of uncertainty in parameter estimation on health risk through Monte Carlo simulations. In addition, we analyzed the robustness of health risk to alternative assumptions on: a) the geographical origins of the potentially contaminated food, and b) the dietary habits of the exposed population. Our analysis showed that under the specific set of assumptions and emission scenarios explored in the present work: (i) the proposed waste incinerator plant appears to cause negligible harm to the resident population; (ii) despite the net increase in PM(10) mass balance, ground-level concentration of fine particulate matter may be curbed by the activation of an extensive district heating system powered through waste combustion heat recovery and the concurrent switch-off of domestic/industrial heating boilers. In addition, our study showed that the health risk caused by waste incineration emissions is sensitive to assumptions about the typical diet of the resident population, and the geographical origins of food production. PMID:23280295

  17. A novel concept for heat transfer fluids used in district cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.I.; Choi, E.; Lorsch, H.G.

    1991-01-04

    Low-temperature phase-change materials (PCMS) were mixed with water to enhance the performance of heat transfer fluid. Several PCMs were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to check their suitability to district cooling applications. The phase-change temperatures and latent heats of fusion of tetradecane, pentadecane, and hexadecane paraffin waxes were measured using a differential scanning calorimeter. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. For 10% and 25% PCM-water slurries, the heat transfer enhancement was found to be approximately 18 and 30 percent over the value of water, respectively. It was also found that, in the turbulent region, there is only a minor pumping penalty from the addition of up to 25% PCM to the water. It was demonstrated that pentadecane does not clog in a glass-tube chiller, and continuous pumping below its freezing, point (9.9[degrees]C):was successfully carried out in a bench-scale flow loop. Adding PCM to water increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped in a district cooling system. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. Research is continuing on these fluids in order to determine their behavior in large-size loops and to arrive at optimum formulations.

  18. Short Duration Base Heating Test Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Robert L.; Dagostino, Mark G.; Engel, Bradley A.; Engel, Carl D.

    1999-01-01

    Significant improvements have been made to a short duration space launch vehicle base heating test technique. This technique was first developed during the 1960's to investigate launch vehicle plume induced convective environments. Recent improvements include the use of coiled nitrogen buffer gas lines upstream of the hydrogen / oxygen propellant charge tubes, fast acting solenoid valves, stand alone gas delivery and data acquisition systems, and an integrated model design code. Technique improvements were successfully demonstrated during a 2.25% scale X-33 base heating test conducted in the NASA/MSFC Nozzle Test Facility in early 1999. Cost savings of approximately an order of magnitude over previous tests were realized due in large part to these improvements.

  19. School District Climate Improvement: A Challenge to the School Superintendent. An Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaheen, Thomas A.; Pedrick, W. Roberts

    School district climate improvement is a challenging responsibility, and the options for the task spread across a wide range. This paper describes some options and tells how to begin exercising them. A first step is gaining a new understanding of school district climate and its components. Part I describes climate in practical terms and offers a…

  20. Selecting and Implementing Whole School Improvement Models: A District and School Administrator Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graczewski, Cheryl; Ruffin, Monya; Shambaugh, Larisa; Therriault, Susan Bowles

    2007-01-01

    As a growing number of schools and districts are found to be underperforming under the requirements of NCLB, school and district administrators are increasingly searching for research-based whole school improvement programs, including comprehensive school reform (CSR) models and education service providers (ESPs), in order to create dramatic…

  1. A Qualitative Study of One District's Efforts to Improve Mathematics Instruction to Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Brian George

    2011-01-01

    Mathematics learning is critical for student success, and frequently acts as a gatekeeper, preventing students from graduating from high school and pursuing higher education. While many districts have attempted to improve mathematics instruction by implementing some sort of reform, few districts have attempted to execute a multifaceted systems…

  2. Leaders of Learning: How District, School, and Classroom Leaders Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuFour, Richard; Marzano, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    In their first coauthored book, Dr. DuFour and Dr. Marzano have combined their passions to articulate how effective leaders foster continuous improvement at the district, school, and classroom levels. The book focuses on district leadership, principal leadership, and team leadership and addresses how individual teachers can be most effective in…

  3. Improving the Small Rural or Remote School: The Role of the District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Simon; Wildy, Helen

    2011-01-01

    There is a robust body of work highlighting distinctive challenges encountered by leaders of small schools in pursuit of school improvement but this work has focused on the school as the unit of change and neglects the role of the district. As the district potentially influences what principals know and how they use their knowledge, this article…

  4. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    This is the second annual technical report entitled, Improved Silicon Carbide for Advanced Heat Engines, and includes work performed during the period February 16, 1986 to February 15, 1987. The program is conducted for NASA under contract NAS3-24384. The objective is the development of high strength, high reliability silicon carbide parts with complex shapes suitable for use in advanced heat engines. The fabrication methods used are to be adaptable for mass production of such parts on an economically sound basis. Injection molding is the forming method selected. This objective is to be accomplished in a two-phase program: (1) to achieve a 20 percent improvement in strength and a 100 percent increase in Weibull modulus of the baseline material; and (2) to produce a complex shaped part, a gas turbine rotor, for example, with the improved mechanical properties attained in the first phase. Eight tasks are included in the first phase covering the characterization of the properties of a baseline material, the improvement of those properties and the fabrication of complex shaped parts. Activities during the first contract year concentrated on two of these areas: fabrication and characterization of the baseline material (Task 1) and improvement of material and processes (Task 7). Activities during the second contract year included an MOR bar matrix study to improve mechanical properties (Task 2), materials and process improvements (Task 7), and a Ford-funded task to mold a turbocharger rotor with an improved material (Task 8).

  5. Recent improvements in ocean heat content estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Increase of ocean heat content is an outcome of a persistent and ongoing energy imbalance to the Earth's climate system. This imbalance, largely caused by human emissions of greenhouse gases, has engendered a multi-decade increase in stored thermal energy within the Earth system, manifest principally as an increase in ocean heat content. Consequently, in order to quantify the rate of global warming, it is necessary to measure the rate of increase of ocean heat content. The historical record of ocean heat content is extracted from a history of various devices and spatial/temporal coverage across the globe. One of the most important historical devices is the eXpendable BathyThermograph (XBT) which has been used for decades to measure ocean temperatures to depths of 700m and deeper. Here, recent progress in improving the XBT record of upper ocean heat content is described including corrections to systematic biases, filling in spatial gaps where data does not exist, and the selection of a proper climatology. In addition, comparisons of the revised historical record and CMIP5 climate models are made. It is seen that there is very good agreement between the models and measurements, with the models slightly under-predicting the increase of ocean heat content in the upper water layers over the past 45 years.

  6. Selected cost considerations for geothermal district heating in existing single-family residential areas

    SciTech Connect

    Rafferty, K.

    1996-06-01

    In the past, district heating (geothermal or conventionally fueled) has not been widely applied to the single-family residential sector. Low-heat load density is the commonly cited reason for this. Although it`s true that load density in these areas is much lower than for downtown business districts, other frequently overlooked factors may compensate for load density. In particular, costs for distribution system installation can be substantially lower in some residential areas due to a variety of factors. This reduced development cost may partially compensate for the reduced revenue resulting from low-load density. This report examines cost associated with the overall design of the system (direct or indirect system design), distribution piping installation, and customer branch lines. It concludes with a comparison of the costs for system development and the revenue from an example residential area.

  7. Improved Heat Treatment Of Steel Alloy 4340

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Lawrence B.

    1993-01-01

    New process takes significantly less time than prior heat-treatment processes. Involves placing steel plate directly in furnace and heat-treating. Plate then quenched in slowly moving oil to reduce stresses. Any deflection then pressed out. Possible uses of 4340 steel include new and improved bulletproof vests for military and police personnel and armor for bulletproof automobiles for military, police, diplomatic, and private users. Also used in other military land vehicles as tanks and in both military and civilian aircraft. Lighter armorplate enables land vehicles and aircraft to attain greater speed and maneuverability, consume less fuel, and afford better protection from snipers or terrorists.

  8. Application of service oriented architecture for sensors and actuators in district heating substations.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Jonas; Kyusakov, Rumen; Mäkitaavola, Henrik; Delsing, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    Hardwired sensor installations using proprietary protocols found in today's district heating substations limit the potential usability of the sensors in and around the substations. If sensor resources can be shared and re-used in a variety of applications, the cost of sensors and installation can be reduced, and their functionality and operability can be increased. In this paper, we present a new concept of district heating substation control and monitoring, where a service oriented architecture (SOA) is deployed in a wireless sensor network (WSN), which is integrated with the substation. IP-networking is exclusively used from sensor to server; hence, no middleware is needed for Internet integration. Further, by enabling thousands of sensors with SOA capabilities, a System of Systems approach can be applied. The results of this paper show that it is possible to utilize SOA solutions with heavily resource-constrained embedded devices in contexts where the real-time constrains are limited, such as in a district heating substation. PMID:25196165

  9. Application of Service Oriented Architecture for Sensors and Actuators in District Heating Substations

    PubMed Central

    Gustafsson, Jonas; Kyusakov, Rumen; Mäkitaavola, Henrik; Delsing, Jerker

    2014-01-01

    Hardwired sensor installations using proprietary protocols found in today's district heating substations limit the potential usability of the sensors in and around the substations. If sensor resources can be shared and re-used in a variety of applications, the cost of sensors and installation can be reduced, and their functionality and operability can be increased. In this paper, we present a new concept of district heating substation control and monitoring, where a service oriented architecture (SOA) is deployed in a wireless sensor network (WSN), which is integrated with the substation. IP-networking is exclusively used from sensor to server; hence, no middleware is needed for Internet integration. Further, by enabling thousands of sensors with SOA capabilities, a System of Systems approach can be applied. The results of this paper show that it is possible to utilize SOA solutions with heavily resource-constrained embedded devices in contexts where the real-time constrains are limited, such as in a district heating substation. PMID:25196165

  10. Economic Assessment of Rural District Heating by Bio-Steam Supplied by a Paper Mill in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinova, Mariya; Beaudry, Catherine; Taoussi, Abdelaziz; Trepanier, Martin; Paris, Jean

    2008-01-01

    The article investigates the feasibility of district heating in a small town adjacent to a Kraft pulp mill in eastern Canada. A detailed heat demand analysis is performed for all buildings using a geographical information system and archived data provided by the municipality. The study shows that the entire space heating requirement of the town…

  11. Bully Proofing: What One District Learned about Improving School Climate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkey, Leonard G.; Keyes, Barbara J.; Longhurst, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Collaborating with school officials, a group of concerned parents implemented a bully-proofing program throughout their school district. After two years, the results are encouraging; it was received with enthusiasm at the elementary level. Further study will be needed to determine how these principles might be applied at the secondary level. (MKA)

  12. School Site Strategic Planning To Improve District Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytle, James H.

    This paper describes the evolution of a school-based planning model that accommodates independent approaches to School District of Philadelphia goals. The description centers on key strategic planning decisions made during a 6-year period and three components of the planning model: the organizational monitoring and feedback system; organizational…

  13. Minnesota Project: district heating and cooling through power plant retrofit and distribution network. Final report. Phase 1. [Minnesota Project

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Appendices are presented for the Minnesota Project: District Heating and Cooling Through Power Plant Retrofit and Distribution Network. These are: SYNTHA results (SYNTHA II is a proprietary program of the SYNTHA Corporation); Market Survey Questionnaire: Environmental Review Procedures; Public Service Commission Regulation of District Heating; Energy Use Normalization Procedures; Power Plant Description; Letters of Commitment; Bond Opinion and Issuance; and Marvin Koeplin Letter, Chairman of Public Service Commission, Moorehead, Minnesota.

  14. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Thomas J.

    1988-01-01

    This is the third annual technical report for the program entitled, Improved Silicon Carbide for Advanced Heat Engines, for the period February 16, 1987 to February 15, 1988. The objective of the original program was the development of high strength, high reliability silicon carbide parts with complex shapes suitable for use in advanced heat engines. Injection molding is the forming method selected for the program because it is capable of forming complex parts adaptable for mass production on an economically sound basis. The goals of the revised program are to reach a Weibull characteristic strength of 550 MPa (80 ksi) and a Weibull modulus of 16 for bars tested in 4-point loading. Two tasks are discussed: Task 1 which involves materials and process improvements, and Task 2 which is a MOR bar matrix to improve strength and reliability. Many statistically designed experiments were completed under task 1 which improved the composition of the batches, the mixing of the powders, the sinter and anneal cycles. The best results were obtained by an attritor mixing process which yielded strengths in excess of 550 MPa (80 ksi) and an individual Weibull modulus of 16.8 for a 9-sample group. Strengths measured at 1200 and 1400 C were equal to the room temperature strength. Annealing of machined test bars significantly improved the strength. Molding yields were measured and flaw distributions were observed to follow a Poisson process. The second iteration of the Task 2 matrix experiment is described.

  15. Characteristics of California School Districts in Program Improvement: 2008 Update. REL Technical Brief. REL 2008-No. 012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crane, Eric W.; Huang, Chun-Wei; Huang, Min; Derby, Kenwyn

    2008-01-01

    This descriptive analysis updates an earlier study of California's Title I school districts in program improvement (July 2008 "Characteristics of California School Districts in Program Improvement. Issues & Answers"), which was based on performance data for 2005/06, with another year of data. By 2006/07 more school districts were in program…

  16. RF plasma heating improvement with EBG surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guadamuz, Saul; Milanesio, Daniele; Maggiora, Riccardo

    2008-11-01

    High impedance surfaces or electromagnetic band gap (EBG) surfaces have proved themselves to be useful in wireless communications applications due to their unique characteristics such as no propagating surface wave support, no conduction of RF current for a given bandwidth, in-phase electromagnetic reflection and non-inverted image of the electric charge in front of them [1]. These characteristics make possible to design compact antennas achieving better performance in terms of radiation and input impedance. ICRF plasma heating antennas in fusion experiments can take advantage of using EBG surfaces. One of the main issues in ICRF plasma heating is the low power coupling of the plasma facing antenna. The adoption of EBG surfaces in the antenna structure and the advantages offered by a predictive designing tool as TOPICA [2] offer the possibility to improve significantly the coupled power to plasma. [1] IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 47, pp. 2059--2074, Nov. 1999. [2] Nucl. Fusion, 46 (2006) S476.

  17. Towards Improved Estimates of Ocean Heat Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentamy, Abderrahim; Hollman, Rainer; Kent, Elisabeth; Haines, Keith

    2014-05-01

    Recommendations and priorities for ocean heat flux research are for instance outlined in recent CLIVAR and WCRP reports, eg. Yu et al (2013). Among these is the need for improving the accuracy, the consistency, and the spatial and temporal resolution of air-sea fluxes over global as well as at region scales. To meet the main air-sea flux requirements, this study is aimed at obtaining and analyzing all the heat flux components (latent, sensible and radiative) at the ocean surface over global oceans using multiple satellite sensor observations in combination with in-situ measurements and numerical model analyses. The fluxes will be generated daily and monthly for the 20-year (1992-2011) period, between 80N and 80S and at 0.25deg resolution. Simultaneous estimates of all surface heat flux terms have not yet been calculated at such large scale and long time period. Such an effort requires a wide range of expertise and data sources that only recently are becoming available. Needed are methods for integrating many data sources to calculate energy fluxes (short-wave, long wave, sensible and latent heat) across the air-sea interface. We have access to all the relevant, recently available satellite data to perform such computations. Yu, L., K. Haines, M. Bourassa, M. Cronin, S. Gulev, S. Josey, S. Kato, A. Kumar, T. Lee, D. Roemmich: Towards achieving global closure of ocean heat and freshwater budgets: Recommendations for advancing research in air-sea fluxes through collaborative activities. INTERNATIONAL CLIVAR PROJECT OFFICE, 2013: International CLIVAR Publication Series No 189. http://www.clivar.org/sites/default/files/ICPO189_WHOI_fluxes_workshop.pdf

  18. Heat pump having improved defrost system

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Fang C.; Mei, Viung C.; Murphy, Richard W.

    1998-01-01

    A heat pump system includes, in an operable relationship for transferring heat between an exterior atmosphere and an interior atmosphere via a fluid refrigerant: a compressor; an interior heat exchanger; an exterior heat exchanger; an accumulator; and means for heating the accumulator in order to defrost the exterior heat exchanger.

  19. Heat pipe with improved wick structures

    DOEpatents

    Benson, David A.; Robino, Charles V.; Palmer, David W.; Kravitz, Stanley H.

    2000-01-01

    An improved planar heat pipe wick structure having projections formed by micromachining processes. The projections form arrays of interlocking, semi-closed structures with multiple flow paths on the substrate. The projections also include overhanging caps at their tops to increase the capillary pumping action of the wick structure. The capped projections can be formed in stacked layers. Another layer of smaller, more closely spaced projections without caps can also be formed on the substrate in between the capped projections. Inexpensive materials such as Kovar can be used as substrates, and the projections can be formed by electrodepositing nickel through photoresist masks.

  20. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    DOEpatents

    Potter, Thomas F.; Benson, David K.; Burch, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber therebetween. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food.

  1. Cooking utensil with improved heat retention

    DOEpatents

    Potter, T.F.; Benson, D.K.; Burch, S.D.

    1997-07-01

    A cooking utensil with improved heat retention includes an inner pot received within an outer pot and separated in a closely spaced-apart relationship to form a volume or chamber there between. The chamber is evacuated and sealed with foil leaves at the upper edges of the inner and outer pot. The vacuum created between the inner and outer pot, along with the minimum of thermal contact between the inner and outer pot, and the reduced radiative heat transfer due to low emissivity coatings on the inner and outer pot, provide for a highly insulated cooking utensil. Any combination of a plurality of mechanisms for selectively disabling and re-enabling the insulating properties of the pot are provided within the chamber. These mechanisms may include: a hydrogen gas producing and reabsorbing device such as a metal hydride, a plurality of metal contacts which can be adjusted to bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot, and a plurality of bimetallic switches which can selectively bridge the gap between the inner and outer pot. In addition, phase change materials with superior heat retention characteristics may be provided within the cooking utensil. Further, automatic and programmable control of the cooking utensil can be provided through a microprocessor and associated hardware for controlling the vacuum disable/enable mechanisms to automatically cook and save food. 26 figs.

  2. Improved silicon nitride for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, H. C.; Wimmer, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Silicon nitride is a high temperature material currently under consideration for heat engine and other applications. The objective is to improve the net shape fabrication technology of Si3N4 by injection molding. This is to be accomplished by optimizing the process through a series of statistically designed matrix experiments. To provide input to the matrix experiments, a wide range of alternate materials and processing parameters was investigated throughout the whole program. The improvement in the processing is to be demonstrated by a 20 percent increase in strength and a 100 percent increase in the Weibull modulus over that of the baseline material. A full characterization of the baseline process was completed. Material properties were found to be highly dependent on each step of the process. Several important parameters identified thus far are the starting raw materials, sinter/hot isostatic pressing cycle, powder bed, mixing methods, and sintering aid levels.

  3. Institutional and financial guide to geothermal district heating, serial no. 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-03-01

    General planning considerations which affect nearly every community are reviewed, and alternative operating structures which are available to communities are reviewed, including local governments, nonprofit cooperatives, private enterprises, and joint ventures. The financing options available to publicly-owned and privately-owned district heating systems are then summarized. The geothermal production and distribution activities most appropriate to each type of operating structure are reviewed, along with typical equity and debt funding sources. The tax advantages for private developers are described, as are the issues of customer contracts and service prices, and customer retrofit financing. The treatment is limited to an introductory overview.

  4. Warren Estates-Manzanita Estates Reno, Nevada residential geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, F.; McKay, G.; McKay, S.; Flynn, T.

    1995-12-31

    Warren Estates-Manzanita Estates is the largest privately-owned and operated residential geothermal district heating system in the State of Nevada. The system has operated for ten years and presently services 95 homes. Geothermal energy is used to heat homes, domestic water, spas, swimming pools, and greenhouses. Four homes have installed driveway deicing systems using geothermal energy. This paper briefly describes the geothermal resource, wells, system engineering, operation, applications, and economics. The accompanying posters illustrate the geothermal area, system design, and various applications. The resource is part of the Moana geothermal field, located in southwest Reno. Excluding the Warren-Manzanita Estates, the well-known Moana field supports nearly 300 geothermal wells that supply fluids to individual residences, several motels, a garden nursery, a few churches, and a municipal swimming pool. The Warren-Manzanita Estates is ideally suited for residential district space heating because the resource is shallow, moderate-temperature, and chemically benign. The primary reservoir rock is the Kate Peak andesite, a Tertiary volcanic lahar that has excellent permeability within the narrow fault zones that bisect the property. The Kate Peak formation is overlain by impermeable Tertiary lake sediments and alluvium. Two production wells, each about 240 m deep, are completed near the center of the residential development at the intersection of two fault zones. Geothermal fluids are pumped at a rate of 15 to 25 l/s (260-400 gpm) from one of two wells at a temperature of 95{degrees}C (202{degrees}F) to two flat-plate heat exchangers. The heat exchangers transfer energy from the geothermal fluids to a second fluid, much like a binary geothermal power plant.

  5. Investing in Teacher Learning: Staff Development and Instructional Improvement in Community School District #2, New York City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmore, Richard F.; Burney, Deanna

    This paper describes how one New York City school district uses staff development to change instruction system-wide, discussing the role local school districts play in systemic school improvement and the role of professional development in connecting reform policy to classroom practice. The paper emphasizes the district's sustained attention to…

  6. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    The development of high strength, high reliability silicon carbide parts with complex shapes suitable for use in advanced heat engines is studied. Injection molding was the forming method selected for the program because it is capable of forming complex parts adaptable for mass production on an economically sound basis. The goals were to reach a Weibull characteristic strength of 550 MPa (80 ksi) and a Weibull modulus of 16 for bars tested in four-point loading. Statistically designed experiments were performed throughout the program and a fluid mixing process employing an attritor mixer was developed. Compositional improvements in the amounts and sources of boron and carbon used and a pressureless sintering cycle were developed which provided samples of about 99 percent of theoretical density. Strengths were found to improve significantly by annealing in air. Strengths in excess of 550 MPa (80 ksi) with Weibull modulus of about 9 were obtained. Further improvements in Weibull modulus to about 16 were realized by proof testing. This is an increase of 86 percent in strength and 100 percent in Weibull modulus over the baseline data generated at the beginning of the program. Molding yields were improved and flaw distributions were observed to follow a Poisson process. Magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were found to be useful in characterizing the SiC powder and the sintered samples. Turbocharger rotors were molded and examined as an indication of the moldability of the mixes which were developed in this program.

  7. Influence of biomass cofiring on the optimal coefficient of the cogeneration share in a district heating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Gładysz, Paweł

    2014-03-01

    The paper presents a modified algorithm for choosing the optimal coefficient of the share of cogeneration in district heating systems taking into account additional benefits concerning the promotion of highefficiency cogeneration and biomass cofiring. The optimal coefficient of the share of cogeneration depends first of all on the share of the heat required for preparing the hot tap water. The final result of investigations is an empirical equation describing the influence of the ratio of the heat flux for the production of hot tap water to the maximum flux for space heating and ventilation, as well as the share of chemical energy of biomass in the fuel mixture on the optimal value of the share of cogeneration in district heating systems. The approach presented in the paper may be applied both in back-pressure combined heat and power (CHP) plants and in extraction-condensing CHP plants.

  8. Demonstration of EPRI heat-rate improvement guidelines at North Omaha Unit 5

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Omaha Public Power District used EPRI's Heat-Rate Improvement Guidelines for Existing Fossil Plants to evaluate thermal performance, determine magnitude and causes of heat-rate degradation, and recommend corrective actions at its North Omaha unit 5. The project showed that cost-effective heat-rate improvements ranging between 250 Btu/kWh at full load and 1000 Btu/kWh at part load are possible. Utilities can use the methods in this report to adapt EPRI guidelines to their own needs. The project team developed a plan for using the guidelines, including schedules, communication channels, and responsibilities of key individuals. The team determined the best achievable heat rate for the unit by evaluating design information, acceptance test.data, and plant changes. By comparing these data with current unit performance, investigators were able to determine the potential for heat-rate improvement. They also modified a set of heat-rate logic trees, originally presented in EPRI report CS-4554. These modifications helped them diagnose causes of heat-rate losses at North Omaha unit 5. They then determined the potential performance improvement of the corrective measures identified in the root-cause evaluation. Using economic studies, researchers identified and ranked cost-effective methods for improving heat rate. Plant improvements with recovery periods of five years or less may yield large heat-rate gains. Investigators identified the following plant improvements, resulting in heat-rate gains of 250 Btu/kWh: High-pressure turbine seal replacement; Air heater seal replacement; Improved feedwater heater level monitoring.

  9. Demonstration of EPRI heat-rate improvement guidelines at North Omaha Unit 5. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Omaha Public Power District used EPRI`s Heat-Rate Improvement Guidelines for Existing Fossil Plants to evaluate thermal performance, determine magnitude and causes of heat-rate degradation, and recommend corrective actions at its North Omaha unit 5. The project showed that cost-effective heat-rate improvements ranging between 250 Btu/kWh at full load and 1000 Btu/kWh at part load are possible. Utilities can use the methods in this report to adapt EPRI guidelines to their own needs. The project team developed a plan for using the guidelines, including schedules, communication channels, and responsibilities of key individuals. The team determined the best achievable heat rate for the unit by evaluating design information, acceptance test.data, and plant changes. By comparing these data with current unit performance, investigators were able to determine the potential for heat-rate improvement. They also modified a set of heat-rate logic trees, originally presented in EPRI report CS-4554. These modifications helped them diagnose causes of heat-rate losses at North Omaha unit 5. They then determined the potential performance improvement of the corrective measures identified in the root-cause evaluation. Using economic studies, researchers identified and ranked cost-effective methods for improving heat rate. Plant improvements with recovery periods of five years or less may yield large heat-rate gains. Investigators identified the following plant improvements, resulting in heat-rate gains of 250 Btu/kWh: High-pressure turbine seal replacement; Air heater seal replacement; Improved feedwater heater level monitoring.

  10. Base heating methodology improvements, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Robert L.; Reardon, John E.; Somers, Richard E.; Fulton, Michael S.; Smith, Sheldon D.; Pergament, Harold

    1992-01-01

    This document is the final report for NASA MSFC Contract NAS8-38141. The contracted effort had the broad objective of improving the launch vehicles ascent base heating methodology to improve and simplify the determination of that environment for Advanced Launch System (ALS) concepts. It was pursued as an Advanced Development Plan (ADP) for the Joint DoD/NASA ALS program office with project management assigned to NASA/MSFC. The original study was to be completed in 26 months beginning Sep. 1989. Because of several program changes and emphasis on evolving launch vehicle concepts, the period of performance was extended to the current completion date of Nov. 1992. A computer code incorporating the methodology improvements into a quick prediction tool was developed and is operational for basic configuration and propulsion concepts. The code and its users guide are also provided as part of the contract documentation. Background information describing the specific objectives, limitations, and goals of the contract is summarized. A brief chronology of the ALS/NLS program history is also presented to provide the reader with an overview of the many variables influencing the development of the code over the past three years.

  11. Life cycle assessment of an energy-system with a superheated steam dryer integrated in a local district heat and power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bjoerk, H.; Rasmuson, A.

    1999-07-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a method for analyzing and assessing the environmental impact of a material, product or service throughout the entire life cycle. In this study 100 GWh heat is to be demanded by a local heat district. A mixture of coal and wet biofuel is frequently used as fuel for steam generation (Case 1). A conversion of the mixed fuel to dried biofuel is proposed. In the district it is also estimated that it is possible for 4000 private houses to convert from oil to wood pellets. It is proposed that sustainable solution to the actual problem is to combine heat and power production together with an improvement in the quality of wood residues and manufacture of pellets. It is also proposed that a steam dryer is integrated to the system (Case 2). Most of the heat from the drying process is used by the municipal heating networks. In this study the environmental impact of the two cases is examined with LCA. Different valuation methods shows the Case 2 is an improvement over Case 1, but there is diversity in the magnitudes of environmental impact in the comparison of the cases. The differences depend particularly on how the emissions of CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and hydrocarbons are estimated. The impact of the organic compounds from the exhaust gas during the drying is estimated as low in all of the three used methods.

  12. WCPSS District Improvement Implementation 2010-11. Implementation Insights. D&A Report No. 11.19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulgakov-Cooke, Dina; Baenen, Nancy R.

    2011-01-01

    Instructional strategies aimed at improving achievement of low performing student subgroups in need of support were selected by the District Improvement Advisory Committee, so that WCPSS could exit District Improvement status. Impact of each initiative, which often included teacher training and coaching is examined in this implementation report.…

  13. City of New York preparing of a district heating and cooling systems Project (Phase II)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-27

    The project with the greatest, and most immediate potential, is the Brooklyn Navy Yard Complex, which included the Brooklyn Navy Yard Industrial Complex, nearby public housing apartments, Brooklyn Hospital, Cumberland Hospital, the Red Hook Sewage Treatment Plant and Pratt Institute. Initial engineering investigation indicates that five, and probably six, of the 160,000 lb/hr, 500 psi boilers in the generating plant at the Navy Yard can be economically refurbished, and could produce up to 900,000 lbs/hr of steam. Further, at least two of the on site turbines appear to be refurbishable, making possible cogeneration of electricity with district heating and/or cooling. The NYCEO research has shown that an innovative system, using pressurized hot water and heat exchangers (to generate low pressure steam for individual apartment houses) is an effective means to satisfy the heating requirements of New York City's apartment buildings, many of which are already steam heated, while reducing their energy costs and oil consumption. This approach takes advantage of a modern hot water system, while avoiding the disadvantage of expensive building retrofit. Preliminary studies have shown that thermal energy costs to Yard tenants, among the highest anywhere in the USA, will be reduced. These savings will increase long term tenant occupancy as well as ability to create and hold jobs in the area.

  14. Compact laser through improved heat conductance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.

    1975-01-01

    A 16-joule-pulse laser has been developed in which a boron nitride heat-conductor enclosure is used to remove heat from the elements. Enclosure is smaller and lighter than systems in which cooling fluids are used.

  15. Feasibility and Supply Analysis of U.S. Geothermal District Heating and Cooling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaoning

    Geothermal energy is a globally distributed sustainable energy with the advantages of a stable base load energy production with a high capacity factor and zero SOx, CO, and particulates emissions. It can provide a potential solution to the depletion of fossil fuels and air pollution problems. The geothermal district heating and cooling system is one of the most common applications of geothermal energy, and consists of geothermal wells to provide hot water from a fractured geothermal reservoir, a surface energy distribution system for hot water transmission, and heating/cooling facilities to provide water and space heating as well as air conditioning for residential and commercial buildings. To gain wider recognition for the geothermal district heating and cooling (GDHC) system, the potential to develop such a system was evaluated in the western United States, and in the state of West Virginia. The geothermal resources were categorized into identified hydrothermal resources, undiscovered hydrothermal resources, near hydrothermal enhanced geothermal system (EGS), and deep EGS. Reservoir characteristics of the first three categories were estimated individually, and their thermal potential calculated. A cost model for such a system was developed for technical performance and economic analysis at each geothermally active location. A supply curve for the system was then developed, establishing the quantity and the cost of potential geothermal energy which can be used for the GDHC system. A West Virginia University (WVU) case study was performed to compare the competiveness of a geothermal energy system to the current steam based system. An Aspen Plus model was created to simulate the year-round campus heating and cooling scenario. Five cases of varying water flow rates and temperatures were simulated to find the lowest levelized cost of heat (LCOH) for the WVU case study. The model was then used to derive a levelized cost of heat as a function of the population density

  16. Improving Student Learning: Action Principles for Families, Schools, Districts and States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walberg, Herbert J.

    2010-01-01

    Improving Schools to Promote Learning is a concise and common-sense examination of all the moving parts that drive student learning. The book ties together the research, policies, and practices relative to the state, district, school, classroom, and family, and explains their effects on student learning. The author covers an array of topics,…

  17. Student-Led, Teacher-Supported Conferences: Improving Communication across an Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Amy

    2008-01-01

    This article describes how parent communication across an urban school district was improved through student-led, teacher-supported conferences. According to "This We Believe," student-led, teacher-supported conferences empower young adolescents to accept responsibility for their own learning. Such conferences invite parents into the learning…

  18. Education and the Economy: Boosting the District of Columbia's Economy by Improving High School Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Building on its previous work examining education and the economy, the Alliance for Excellent Education (the Alliance), with generous support from State Farm[R], analyzed the economies of all fifty states and the District of Columbia to determine the economic benefits that states could see by improving high school graduation rates. Using a…

  19. Improving Interagency Collaboration: Effective Strategies Used by High-Performing Local Districts and Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noonan, Patricia M.; Morningstar, Mary E.; Erickson, Amy Gaumer

    2008-01-01

    Young adults with disabilities often depend on linkages and supports from adult agencies to achieve high-quality adult outcomes. However, interagency collaboration has emerged as a major area of difficulty and a critical area in need of improvement for school districts throughout the United States. Based on the input of research participants from…

  20. Improving Students' Readiness for College: Homewood-Flossmoor High School, Illinois District 233. Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACT, Inc., 2004

    2004-01-01

    This paper illustrates how Homewood-Flossmoor High School, Illinois District 233 addressed the decline in its student achievement results and improved college readiness among its students. This sharp decline caused school officials to stop and reevaluate what they were doing. A review of the facts led to a clear conclusion: "Rigorous coursework is…

  1. RESTful M2M Gateway for Remote Wireless Monitoring for District Central Heating Networks

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented. PMID:25436650

  2. RESTful M2M gateway for remote wireless monitoring for district central heating networks.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bo; Wei, Zesan

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST) Machine-to-Machine (M2M) gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi) technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS) guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API) set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented. PMID:25436650

  3. Definitional study for district heating and cogeneration prospects in Turkey. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The United States Trade and Development Program (US TDP) sponsored a definitional study to Turkey to assess the potential market for U.S. cogeneration and district heating (DH) technologies. The overall goal of the study was to carry out an assessment of the market for self-generation, DH, and cogeneration in Turkey and to develop initial perceptions about the role of the Turkish Government and industry, vis-a-vis the involvement of US and Turkish companies in the implementation of the above technologies. The opportunities for US firms to market cogeneration and DH technologies in Turkey are developing against a background of Government policies pertaining to foreign investments, energy demand and the role of the private sector. It is also developing within a private sector framework, which is dynamic, welcomes foreign technology and can secure Government support and participation in key projects.

  4. A life cycle evaluation of wood pellet gasification for district heating in British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Pa, Ann; Bi, Xiaotao T; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2011-05-01

    The replacement of natural gas combustion for district heating by wood waste and wood pellets gasification systems with or without emission control has been investigated by a streamlined LCA. While stack emissions from controlled gasification systems are lower than the applicable regulations, compared to the current base case, 12% and 133% increases are expected in the overall human health impacts for wood pellets and wood waste, respectively. With controlled gasification, external costs and GHG emission can be reduced by 35% and 82% on average, respectively. Between wood pellets and wood waste, wood pellets appear to be the better choice as it requires less primary energy and has a much lower impact on the local air quality. PMID:21377867

  5. Improving the quality of weekend handover at Yeovil District Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Sneller, Sarah; Lada, Karolina; Turner, Charlotte; Millwood, Sinead; Jervis, Bethan; Barr, Julia; Farrell, Louise

    2014-01-01

    “Handover of care is one of the most perilous procedures in medicine” (British Medical Association, Safe Handover, Safe Patients). The system in place for weekend handover at YDH was deemed disorganised, unstructured and frequently missing key pieces of information, leaving the on-call Foundation Year 1 (FY1) doctor with only vague jobs and management plans. Baseline surveys demonstrated that junior doctors felt the system was inadequate, potentially compromised patient safety and increased their stress levels. In order to improve this problem a structured weekend handover proforma was created, comparable with the “Out of hours handover record keeping standards: template” from the Royal College of Physicians. This was made readily accessible on the local intranet. Education sessions were organised for the FY1 and FY2 doctors. The impact of the newly introduced proforma was measured using feedback surveys each week from the FY1 on ward cover for six months. A further change implemented was the introduction of a Friday Ward Round proforma. The aim was to reduce the time required to review notes by the on-call doctor, to minimise avoidable weekend jobs and to improve compliance with the management plans. The results demonstrated 100% compliance with the new proformas. There were notable improvements in the presence of a plan (37.5% to 91.7%, max. 100%), a minimum of two patient identifiers (68.8% to 100%) and relevant background information (62.5% to 100%). Qualitative data showed a much higher level of satisfaction with the new system. Future plans include rolling out electronic handover to improve problems such as illegible handwriting and missing data (enable ‘compulsory’ fields), and also for this system to be implemented Trust-wide. PMID:26733188

  6. Electrically heated choke having improved control

    SciTech Connect

    De Petris, P.

    1987-10-13

    A device is described for heating the bimetallic coil spring of an automatic choke comprising an insulating housing, a heat sink adapted to be affixed at one end to the bimetallic spring, a positive temperature coefficient thermistor in engagement with the heat sink and in circuit therewith, a second heat sink in contact with another side of the positive temperature coefficient thermistor, a negative temperature coefficient thermistor carried by the cover and means for delivering electrical power to the negative temperature coefficient thermistor. The last name means being in circuit with an adjustable contact positioned in proximity to the second heat sink. A bimetallic snap disk is engaged at its outer periphery with the second heat sink and adapted to contact the adjustable contact for shunting the negative temperature coefficient thermistor.

  7. Beyond the Policy Memo: Designing to Strengthen the Practice of District Central Office Leadership for Instructional Improvement at Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Meredith I.

    2013-01-01

    In school districts across the country, central office staff members are working to improve how they lead district-wide instructional improvement, but are finding few guides or supports for that work, what design researchers might call limited "designs" for their leadership. Superintendents frequently elevate school-based staff to…

  8. Improved Heat-of-Fusion Energy Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, K. H.; Manvi, R.

    1982-01-01

    Alkali metal/alkali-halide mixtures proposed for preventing solid buildup during energy recovery. When mixture melts (by absorption of heat of fusion), it forms two immiscible liquids. Salt-rich phase is heavier and has higher melting/recrysallization temperature; so during energy recovery salt crystallizes in this phase first. Since heat exchanger for energy recovery is in lighter metal-rich phase, solids do not form and there is no reduction of heat-recovery efficiency.

  9. Macroeconomic effects under the proposed District Heating and Cooling Tax Incentives Act of 1982. Technology-related policy evaluation using a market penetration model and a macromodel

    SciTech Connect

    Teotia, A.P.S.; Poyer, D.A.

    1983-08-01

    In its energy conservation programs, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has supported research into and development of district heating and cooling systems to meet energy demands in the residential and commercial sectors. Toward this goal, DOE requested Argonne National Laboratory to estimate the macroeconomic effects of the Senate bill known as the ''District Heating and Cooling Tax Incentives Act of 1982.'' The first step was to estimate market penetration of district heating and cooling cogeneration energy systems under the provisions of the proposed act, using Argonne's district heating and cooling market penetration model. This model provided annual estimates of district heating and cooling investment and energy savings. In the second step, macroeconomic effects of district heating and cooling under the Act's provisions were estimated using the annual model of the US economy developed by Data Resources, Inc. The conclusion is that district heating and cooling penetration under the Act could have significant favorable effects on gross national product, US employment, fuel import costs, and similar factors. The analysis assumes that district heating and cooling can overcome the institutional and environmental barriers that have impeded it in the past. 16 references, 17 figures, 13 tables.

  10. Will more inputs improve the delivery of health services? Analysis of district vaccination coverage in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Loevinsohn, Benjamin; Hong, Rathavuth; Gauri, Varun

    2006-01-01

    In order to determine whether physical resources or technical inputs can make a difference to the delivery of health services, we carried out a study that examined the large variation in district level vaccination coverage in Pakistan. Vaccination coverage was assessed by district-wise cluster surveys and the predictor variables were collected from census data and from a survey of 99 district health offices. Information was collected on basic supplies, physical infrastructure, management, training, socio-economic variables, and a variety of other indicators. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. A model including female literacy rate, TV ownership, and provincial dummies explained 48% of the variation in DTP3 coverage. Very few of the other variables examined were significantly correlated to coverage. Possible explanatory variables like adequacy of syringe and vaccine supply, the number of vaccinators per capita, recent training of managers, frequency of supervision, availability of micro-plans, and turnover of managers were not correlated with coverage. While the Government of Pakistan has ensured that many physical resources and technical inputs have been provided to the district health offices, this does not appear able to explain the relatively low overall coverage or the variation between districts. Bolder initiatives and innovations are likely needed to improve delivery of basic health services. PMID:16604848

  11. School Improvement Change Grant Community Survey, Final Report. A Report to Toluca Community Unit School District #2, El Paso Community Unit School District #375, Lowpoint-Washburn Community Unit School District #21, Minonk-Dana-Rutland Community Unit School District #108, and Roanoke-Benson Community Unit School District #60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Patricia A.; And Others

    This report presents the results of a collaborative study undertaken by five rural, unit school districts in Illinois to provide data to be used in planning for school improvement. Information was gathered from on-site visits by teams of constituents from other districts and through a survey of perceptions of local community persons regarding…

  12. Quality improvement in emergency obstetric referrals: qualitative study of provider perspectives in Assin North district, Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Afari, Henrietta; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Michaelis, Annie; Barker, Pierre; Sodzi-Tettey, Sodzi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe healthcare worker (HCW)-identified system-based bottlenecks and the value of local engagement in designing strategies to improve referral processes related to emergency obstetric care in rural Ghana. Design Qualitative study using semistructured interviews of participants to obtain provider narratives. Setting Referral systems in obstetrics in Assin North Municipal Assembly, a rural district in Ghana. This included one district hospital, six health centres and four local health posts. This work was embedded in an ongoing quality improvement project in the district addressing barriers to existing referral protocols to lessen delays. Participants 18 HCWs (8 midwives, 4 community health officers, 3 medical assistants, 2 emergency room nurses, 1 doctor) at different facility levels within the district. Results We identified important gaps in referral processes in Assin North, with the most commonly noted including recognising danger signs, alerting receiving units, accompanying critically ill patients, documenting referral cases and giving and obtaining feedback on referred cases. Main root causes identified by providers were in four domains: (1) transportation, (2) communication, (3) clinical skills and management and (4) standards of care and monitoring, and suggested interventions that target these barriers. Mapping these challenges allowed for better understanding of next steps for developing comprehensive, evidence-based solutions to identified referral gaps within the district. Conclusions Providers are an important source of information on local referral delays and in the development of approaches to improvement responsive to these gaps. Better engagement of HCWs can help to identify and evaluate high-impact holistic interventions to address faulty referral systems which result in poor maternal outcomes in resource-poor settings. These perspectives need to be integrated with patient and community perspectives. PMID:24833695

  13. Pinch technology improves olefin heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, J.

    1989-02-01

    Pyrolysis of naphthas or gas oils to provide ethylene and propylene for polymers is gaining in popularity in many countries. Pyrolysis takes place at the comparatively high temperatures of 800 to 850/sup 0/C. The very common solution of pyrolysis gas heat recovery in an ethylene unit is shown. Pinch technology allows finding the temperature point (the pinch) that divides the temperature scale in a process into two parts. If there is a pinch in a process (not every process has a pinch), heat from external sources must be supplied to the process at temperatures above the pinch, and must be taken from the system by cooling media at temperatures below the pinch only. If minimum consumption of energy for heating and cooling from external sources is desired, matching process streams across the pinch and adding heat to the system from external sources below the pinch temperature is not allowed.

  14. Compact pulsed laser having improved heat conductance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A highly efficient, compact pulsed laser having high energy to weight and volume ratios is provided. The laser utilizes a cavity reflector that operates as a heat sink and is essentially characterized by having a high heat conductivity, by being a good electrical insulator and by being substantially immune to the deleterious effects of ultra-violet radiation. Manual portability is accomplished by eliminating entirely any need for a conventional circulating fluid cooling system.

  15. Development of advanced low-temperature heat transfer fluids for district heating and cooling. Final report, September 25, 1990--September 24, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    The feasibility of adding phase change materials (PCMs) and surfactants to the heat transfer fluids in district cooling systems was investigated. It increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. The thermal behavior of two potential PCMs, hexadecane and tetradecane paraffin wax, was experimentally evaluated. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. While test results for laboratory grade materials showed good agreement with data in the literature, both melting point and heat of fusion for commercial grade hexadecane were found to be considerably lower than literaturevalues. PCM/water mixtures were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to determine heat transfer and flow resistance properties. When using PCMs in district cooling systems, clogging of frozen PCM particles isone of the major problems to be overcome. In the present project it is proposed to minimize or prevent clogging by the addition of an emulsifier. Effects of the emulsifier on the mixture of water and hexadecane(a PCM) were studied. As the amount of the emulsifier was increased, the size of the solid PCM particles became smaller. When the size of the particles was small enough, they did not stick together or stick to the cold surface of a heat exchanger. The amount of emulsifier to produce this condition was determined.

  16. Efficiency and supply resource options for the upgrade of the Plzen district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    We examined options for meeting the district heating system steam and hot water heating loads associated with the Plzefi Central Heating Plant, two interconnected boilers serving the Kosutka and Bory regions, and the distributed systems in the Letna/Doubravka and Svetovar regions. The assessment applied integrated resource planning to combine the separate supply and demand-side assessments conducted for the system. Four system load scenarios were examined-high and low growth with and without programmatic efficiency. Hot water loads ranged from the current level of 277 megawatts thermal (MW{sub t}) to 320 MW{sub t} in a high growth scenario without efficiency to 253 MW{sub t} in a low growth scenario with programmatic efficiency. The high growth scenario includes an addition of approximately 50 MW{sub t} load from the connection of distributed boilers. An additional 250 MW{sub t} load served by distributed boilers may provide additional potential for system expansion. Steam loads are projected to increase from 93 MW{sub t} to 100 MW{sub t} in the high growth scenario and. decrease to 89 MW{sub t}, in the low growth scenario. Two system expansion cases were considered. The moderate system expansion provided for the Heat Line East I connection to serve the Letna/Doubravka region and the fall system expansion case further provided for the Heat Line East II connection to serve the Svetovar region. In the moderate case, the life of the Svetovar plant is extended to continue as a stand-alone system. Four central plant supply configurations providing for additional cogeneration capacity were applied to the load scenarios: 1. Life extension to existing facilities with a new coal-fired cogeneration unit in 2003, 2. Retirement of some existing units and a new coal-fired cogeneration unit in 1997, 3. Retirement of some existing units and a new gas- fired cogeneration unit in 1997, 4. Gas: Retirement of some exiting units a new gas-fired cogeneration unit in 1997.

  17. Can a District-Level Teacher Salary Incentive Policy Improve Teacher Recruitment and Retention? Policy Brief 13-4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hough, Heather J.; Loeb, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    In this policy brief, Heather Hough and Susanna Loeb examine the effect of the Quality Teacher and Education Act of 2008 (QTEA) on teacher recruitment, retention, and overall teacher quality in the San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD). They provide evidence that a salary increase can improve a school district's attractiveness within their…

  18. Implementing Efficiencies in SEA Systems to Provide Differentiated Services to Support District and School Improvement. Benchmark. No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redding, S.

    2013-01-01

    Differentiating state services to support district and school improvement makes sense for two reasons: (1) support is most effective when targeted to the specific needs of the district or school, based on both performance data and diagnostic data about prevailing operational and professional practice; and (2) state resources of time and money are…

  19. A Village Route to Early Childhood Education: An Iowa District Partners with Its Community to Improve Kindergarten Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almanza, Julio; Reynolds, Ethel; Schulte, Kathy; Long, Betty

    2009-01-01

    This article features Davenport Community Schools, Iowa's third largest school district that has partnered with its community to improve kindergarten readiness. The district created the Children's Village model to provide preschool classes taught by certified early childhood instructors and serve children from six weeks to five years of age in…

  20. A novel concept for heat transfer fluids used in district cooling systems. Progress report, September 25, 1990--December 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.I.; Choi, E.; Lorsch, H.G.

    1991-01-04

    Low-temperature phase-change materials (PCMS) were mixed with water to enhance the performance of heat transfer fluid. Several PCMs were tested in a laboratory-scale test loop to check their suitability to district cooling applications. The phase-change temperatures and latent heats of fusion of tetradecane, pentadecane, and hexadecane paraffin waxes were measured using a differential scanning calorimeter. The heat of fusion of these materials is approximately 60% of that of ice. They exhibit no supercooling and are stable under repeated thermal cycling. For 10% and 25% PCM-water slurries, the heat transfer enhancement was found to be approximately 18 and 30 percent over the value of water, respectively. It was also found that, in the turbulent region, there is only a minor pumping penalty from the addition of up to 25% PCM to the water. It was demonstrated that pentadecane does not clog in a glass-tube chiller, and continuous pumping below its freezing, point (9.9{degrees}C):was successfully carried out in a bench-scale flow loop. Adding PCM to water increases the thermal capacity of the heat transfer fluid and therefore decreases the volume that needs to be pumped in a district cooling system. It also increases the heat transfer rate, resulting in smaller heat exchangers. Research is continuing on these fluids in order to determine their behavior in large-size loops and to arrive at optimum formulations.

  1. Failure analysis helps improve heat exchanger designs

    SciTech Connect

    Neel, L.

    1993-08-01

    Industry's usual approach to evaluating the design of heat transfer equipment is to look for failures that have occurred in existing equipment of the same design, try to determine their causes, and then develop design modifications to prevent them from recurring. This is referred to as failure analysis. There is a tendency in industry to overlook successful designs of existing equipment that have operated for many years without major failures. A manufacturer of this type of equipment that also repairs and retubes heat exchangers is in a unique position to analyze and evaluate the deposition to analyze and evaluate the designs used. Data on the condition of individual components and materials used, and operating conditions, types of fluids and specific design features can all be compiled to develop a complete evaluation. In addition, calculations can be made to verify the validity of currently established design parameters from various sources. Utility heat exchangers cover a wide range of equipment, including feedwater heaters, evaporators, condensate coolers, lube oil coolers, turbine oil coolers, air preheaters, generator coolers, service water exchangers and air ejector condensers. The piece of equipment selected to be analyzed is a horizontal three-zone feedwater heater. Four major areas will be covered: tubeside, desuperheating, condensing, and subcooling zones of heat exchangers. The analysis will look at successful designs and the most common failures associated with each area.

  2. Heat Exchange System Improvement Saves Energy and Improves Production at a Winery

    SciTech Connect

    2001-08-01

    In 2000, Fetzer Vineyards implemented a project to improve its process heating cycle at its Hopland Winery in Hopland, California. In an effort to reduce expenditures on natural gas, Fetzer reviewed their wine process heating cycle and discovered that they could reduce their natural gas purchases and improve efficiency by installing a heat exchanger.

  3. Detection and location of leaks in district heating steam systems: Survey and review of current technology and practices

    SciTech Connect

    Kupperman, D.S.; Raptis, A.C.; Lanham, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    This report presents the results of a survey undertaken to identify and characterize current practices for detecting and locating leaks in district heating systems, particular steam systems. Currently used technology and practices are reviewed. In addition, the survey was used to gather information that may be important for the application of acoustic leak detection. A few examples of attempts to locate leaks in steam and hot water pipes by correlation of acoustic signals generated by the leaks are also discussed.

  4. Improving paediatric and neonatal care in rural district hospitals in the highlands of Papua New Guinea: a quality improvement approach

    PubMed Central

    Sa’avu, Martin; Duke, Trevor; Matai, Sens

    2014-01-01

    Background In developing countries such as Papua New Guinea (PNG), district hospitals play a vital role in clinical care, training health-care workers, implementing immunization and other public health programmes and providing necessary data on disease burdens and outcomes. Pneumonia and neonatal conditions are a major cause of child admission and death in hospitals throughout PNG. Oxygen therapy is an essential component of the management of pneumonia and neonatal conditions, but facilities for oxygen and care of the sick newborn are often inadequate, especially in district hospitals. Improving this area may be a vehicle for improving overall quality of care. Method A qualitative study of five rural district hospitals in the highlands provinces of Papua New Guinea was undertaken. A structured survey instrument was used by a paediatrician and a biomedical technician to assess the quality of paediatric care, the case-mix and outcomes, resources for delivery of good-quality care for children with pneumonia and neonatal illnesses, existing oxygen systems and equipment, drugs and consumables, infection-control facilities and the reliability of the electricity supply to each hospital. A floor plan was drawn up for the installation of the oxygen concentrators and a plan for improving care of sick neonates, and a process of addressing other priorities was begun. Results In remote parts of PNG, many district hospitals are run by under-resourced non-government organizations. Most hospitals had general wards in which both adults and children were managed together. Paediatric case-loads ranged between 232 and 840 patients per year with overall case-fatality rates (CFR) of 3–6% and up to 15% among sick neonates. Pneumonia accounts for 28–37% of admissions with a CFR of up to 8%. There were no supervisory visits by paediatricians, and little or no continuing professional development of staff. Essential drugs were mostly available, but basic equipment for the care of sick

  5. Two Heat-Transfer Improvements for Gas Liquefiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Jerry L.

    2005-01-01

    Two improvements in heat-transfer design have been investigated with a view toward increasing the efficiency of refrigerators used to liquefy gases. The improvements could contribute to the development of relatively inexpensive, portable oxygen liquefiers for medical use. A description of the heat-transfer problem in a pulse-tube refrigerator is prerequisite to a meaningful description of the first improvement. In a pulse-tube refrigerator in particular, one of in-line configuration heat must be rejected from two locations: an aftercooler (where most of the heat is rejected) and a warm heat exchanger (where a small fraction of the total input power must be rejected as heat). Rejection of heat from the warm heat exchanger can be problematic because this heat exchanger is usually inside a vacuum vessel. When an acoustic-inertance tube is used to provide a phase shift needed in the pulse-tube cooling cycle, another problem arises: Inasmuch as the acoustic power in the acoustic-inertance tube is dissipated over the entire length of the tube, the gas in the tube must be warmer than the warm heat exchanger in order to reject heat at the warm heat exchanger. This is disadvantageous because the increase in viscosity with temperature causes an undesired increase in dissipation of acoustic energy and an undesired decrease in the achievable phase shift. Consequently, the overall performance of the pulse-tube refrigerator decreases with increasing temperature in the acoustic-inertance tube. In the first improvement, the acoustic-inertance tube is made to serve as the warm heat exchanger and to operate in an approximately isothermal condition at a lower temperature, thereby increasing the achievable phase shift and the overall performance of the refrigerator. This is accomplished by placing the acoustic-inertance tube inside another tube and pumping a cooling fluid (e.g., water) in the annular space between the tubes. Another benefit of this improvement is added flexibility of

  6. Improved silicon nitride for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Harry C.; Fang, Ho T.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a four year program to improve the strength and reliability of injection-molded silicon nitride are summarized. Statistically designed processing experiments were performed to identify and optimize critical processing parameters and compositions. Process improvements were monitored by strength testing at room and elevated temperatures, and microstructural characterization by optical, scanning electron microscopes, and scanning transmission electron microscope. Processing modifications resulted in a 20 percent strength and 72 percent Weibull slope improvement of the baseline material. Additional sintering aids screening and optimization experiments succeeded in developing a new composition (GN-10) capable of 581.2 MPa at 1399 C. A SiC whisker toughened composite using this material as a matrix achieved a room temperature toughness of 6.9 MPa m(exp .5) by the Chevron notched bar technique. Exploratory experiments were conducted on injection molding of turbocharger rotors.

  7. Indium foil with beryllia washer improves transistor heat dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilliard, J.; John, J. E. A.

    1964-01-01

    Indium foil, used as an interface material in transistor mountings, greatly reduces the thermal resistance of beryllia washers. This method improves the heat dissipation of power transistors in a vacuum environment.

  8. Development of an improved high performance artery heat pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraehling, H.

    1981-05-01

    An existing space-qualified arterial high performance heat pipe was improved. Attempts to cut grooves with a self made single point threading tool were not successful. The grooves were not deep enough, so that a sufficient liquid supply over the entire circumference in the heating zone could not be obtained. Employment of commercially available thread taps showed an improvement in the groove depth but the groove profile itself was still poor. A further improvement of the profile shape was attained with a special set of threading tools consisting of an entering tap and a plug tap. Performance measurements with respective artery heat pipes confirmed that the heat pipe performance became better with the improvement of the circumferential groove profile. However, all investigated circumferential groove designs revealed a definitely poorer performance than the standard design with a screenwick as a secondary capillary structure.

  9. A Crustal Scale Heat and Fluid Flow Model for the Giant Rio Tinto VMS District, Iberian Pyrite Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrie, C.; Cathles, L. M.; Erendi, A.

    2004-05-01

    Paleo - seafloor and sub-seafloor deposits of the Rio Tinto District constitute the largest accumulation of volcanic-associated massive sulfide (VMS) on Earth. The deposits are are the type examples of giant bimodal-siliciclastic VMS deposits. This study presents relatively simple, 2D finite element heat and fluid flow models that explain how such a massive hydrothermal system may have formed. Giant VMS deposits require: 1) crustal scale hydrothermal circulation; 2) deep intrusion heat sources to drive hydrothermal convection; and 3) an optimal crustal permeability that supports large scale convection cells. We consider convection to depths of 10 and 15 km in the crust, a felsic intrusion heat source, and bulk crustal permeabilities of 10-14 to 10-16 m2 (0.1-10 millidarcies). The cases have: 1) a felsic magma heat source that is kept at 900oC for 10,000 years and then allowed to cool; 2) a more permeable, crustal-scale fracture/fault and stockwork zone beneath a 2 km2 Rio Tinto District; and 3) a thermal cracking subroutine with increased permeability from 275-475oC, in keeping with fracture development due to thermal contraction where cool, downwelling seawater interacts with conductively heated rock. Results show that at the higher crustal permeabilities, multiple hydrothermal plumes develop in the subsurface, and hydrothermal venting occurs over broad areas of the paleo - seafloor. At lower crustal permeabilities of 10-16 m2, venting is confined to the Rio Tinto District. An appropriate volume of hydrothermal fluid is vented when the crustal-scale fracture is highly permeable at 10-12 m2; at lower permeabilities, the fracture does not allow enough fluids to rise. The depth to the top of the felsic sill affects venting temperatures in the Rio Tinto District, with higher temperature venting for a shallower sill. In the preferred case, the sill is at 8-10 km depth, and fluids vent at 100-220oC for a period of ~200,000 years. In the absence of tectonic or magmatic

  10. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Thomas J.; Mangels, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of silicon carbide materials of high strength was initiated and components of complex shape and high reliability were formed. The approach was to adapt a beta-SiC powder and binder system to the injection molding process and to develop procedures and process parameters capable of providing a sintered silicon carbide material with improved properties. The initial effort was to characterize the baseline precursor materials, develop mixing and injection molding procedures for fabricating test bars, and characterize the properties of the sintered materials. Parallel studies of various mixing, dewaxing, and sintering procedures were performed in order to distinguish process routes for improving material properties. A total of 276 modulus-of-rupture (MOR) bars of the baseline material was molded, and 122 bars were fully processed to a sinter density of approximately 95 percent. Fluid mixing techniques were developed which significantly reduced flaw size and improved the strength of the material. Initial MOR tests indicated that strength of the fluid-mixed material exceeds the baseline property by more than 33 percent. the baseline property by more than 33 percent.

  11. Improved silicon nitride for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Hun C.; Fang, Ho T.

    1987-01-01

    The technology base required to fabricate silicon nitride components with the strength, reliability, and reproducibility necessary for actual heat engine applications is presented. Task 2 was set up to develop test bars with high Weibull slope and greater high temperature strength, and to conduct an initial net shape component fabrication evaluation. Screening experiments were performed in Task 7 on advanced materials and processing for input to Task 2. The technical efforts performed in the second year of a 5-yr program are covered. The first iteration of Task 2 was completed as planned. Two half-replicated, fractional factorial (2 sup 5), statistically designed matrix experiments were conducted. These experiments have identified Denka 9FW Si3N4 as an alternate raw material to GTE SN502 Si3N4 for subsequent process evaluation. A detailed statistical analysis was conducted to correlate processing conditions with as-processed test bar properties. One processing condition produced a material with a 97 ksi average room temperature MOR (100 percent of goal) with 13.2 Weibull slope (83 percent of goal); another condition produced 86 ksi (6 percent over baseline) room temperature strength with a Weibull slope of 20 (125 percent of goal).

  12. Base fluid in improving heat transfer for EV car battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin-Abdun, Nazih A.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman, A. B.; Wan, Khairunizam; Hazry, D.; Ahmed, S. Faiz; Adnan, Nazrul H.; Heng, R.; Kamarudin, H.; Zunaidi, I.

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the effects of base fluid (as coolants) channeling inside the heat exchanger in the process of the increase in thermal conductivity between EV car battery and the heat exchanger. The analysis showed that secondary cooling system by means of water has advantages in improving the heat transfer process and reducing the electric power loss on the form of thermal energy from batteries. This leads to the increase in the efficiency of the EV car battery, hence also positively reflecting the performance of the EV car. The present work, analysis is performed to assess the design and use of heat exchanger in increasing the performance efficiency of the EV car battery. This provides a preface to the use this design for nano-fluids which increase and improve from heat transfer.

  13. District heating comes to town: The social shaping of an energy system

    SciTech Connect

    Summerton, J.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis concerns the process by which a sociotechnical system is shaped in its social and cultural context. The empirical focus is the introduction of a district heating system in an ordinary Swedish town in the 1980s. Drawing from recent theories from the history and sociology of science and technology (actor-network theory, systems approach), the study examines interactions among actors in introducing the technology, viewed as a multiorganizational grid-based system. Grid-based systems have a number of specific properties (long lead times, high investment costs, tight coupling, etc) that often prove problematic for system builders. As a multiorganization, the system is also characterized by inherent interoganizational tensions and a lack of sovereign control by any one actor. The story centers around critical issues or interorganizational conflicts of building the system in the town. These are: deciding to build (decision-making process), shaping the organization and acquiring competence, obtaining subscribers (marketing strategies)-and keeping them, dealing with regulation (conflicts over siting), and meeting competition. It is argued that these issues reflect the core challenges of system-building in multiorganizational grid-based systems, namely: (1) enrolling others in the shared purpose, (2) staking out, expanding and defending the market, (3) handling conflict, (4) dealing with limits to control, (5) coordinating and timing system expansion. The thesis concludes with an analysis of why the Swedish town succeeded in the task, what its experience suggests about how grid-based systems are shaped, and what criteria can be used to define a [open quotes]good[close quotes] system.

  14. User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal energy storage coupled with district heating or cooling systems. Volume I. Main text

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

    1982-04-01

    A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. The AQUASTOR model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two principal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains the main text, including introduction, program description, input data instruction, a description of the output, and Appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

  15. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, T. J.; Winterbottom, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    Work performed to develop silicon carbide materials of high strength and to form components of complex shape and high reliability is described. A beta-SiC powder and binder system was adapted to the injection molding process and procedures and process parameters developed capable of providing a sintered silicon carbide material with improved properties. The initial effort has been to characterize the baseline precursor materials (beta silicon carbide powder and boron and carbon sintering aids), develop mixing and injection molding procedures for fabricating test bars, and characterize the properties of the sintered materials. Parallel studies of various mixing, dewaxing, and sintering procedures have been carried out in order to distinguish process routes for improving material properties. A total of 276 MOR bars of the baseline material have been molded, and 122 bars have been fully processed to a sinter density of approximately 95 percent. The material has a mean MOR room temperature strength of 43.31 ksi (299 MPa), a Weibull characteristic strength of 45.8 ksi (315 MPa), and a Weibull modulus of 8.0. Mean values of the MOR strengths at 1000, 1200, and 14000 C are 41.4, 43.2, and 47.2 ksi, respectively. Strength controlling flaws in this material were found to consist of regions of high porosity and were attributed to agglomerates originating in the initial mixing procedures. The mean stress rupture lift at 1400 C of five samples tested at 172 MPa (25 ksi) stress was 62 hours and at 207 MPa (30 ksi) stress was 14 hours. New fluid mixing techniques have been developed which significantly reduce flaw size and improve the strength of the material. Initial MOR tests indicate the strength of the fluid-mixed material exceeds the baseline property by more than 33 percent.

  16. Efficiency improvements by geothermal heat integration in a lignocellulosic biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Sohel, M Imroz; Jack, Michael

    2010-12-01

    In an integrated geothermal biorefinery, low-grade geothermal heat is used as process heat to allow the co-products of biofuel production to become available for higher-value uses. In this paper we consider integrating geothermal heat into a biochemical lignocellulosic biorefinery so that the lignin-enriched residue can be used either as a feedstock for chemicals and materials or for on-site electricity generation. Depending on the relative economic value of these two uses, we can maximize revenue of a biorefinery by judicious distribution of the lignin-enriched residue between these two options. We quantify the performance improvement from integrating geothermal energy for an optimized system. We then use a thermodynamic argument to show that integrating geothermal heat into a biorefinery represents an improvement in overall resource utilization efficiency in all cases considered. Finally, possible future technologies for electricity generation are considered which could improve this efficiency further. PMID:20659793

  17. Summary of hydrologic conditions in the Reedy Creek Improvement District, central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    German, Edward R.

    1986-01-01

    The Reedy Creek Improvement is an area of about 43 square miles in southwestern Orange and northwestern Osceola Counties, Florida. A systematic program of hydrologic data collection in the Reedy Creek Improvement District and vicinity provided data for assessing the impact of development, mostly the Walt Disney World Theme Park and related development on the hydrology. Data collected include stream discharge, water quality, groundwater levels, lakes levels, and climatological. Rainfall has been less than the long-term average in the Reedy Creek Improvement District since development began in 1968. The deficient rainfall has reduced stream discharge, lowered groundwater and lake levels, and possibly affected water quality in the area. Groundwater levels and lake levels have declined since 1970. However, the coincidence of below-average rainfall with the period of development makes it impossible to assess the effect of pumping on declines. Occurrence of toxic metals does not relate to development, but distribution of insecticides and herbicides does appear to relate to development. Specific conductance, phosphorous, and nitrate concentrations have increased in Reedy Creek since 1970, probably due to disposal of treated wastes. (USGS)

  18. Evidence from district level inputs to improve quality of care for maternal and newborn health: interventions and findings.

    PubMed

    Salam, Rehana A; Lassi, Zohra S; Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2014-09-01

    District level healthcare serves as a nexus between community and district level facilities. Inputs at the district level can be broadly divided into governance and accountability mechanisms; leadership and supervision; financial platforms; and information systems. This paper aims to evaluate the effectivness of district level inputs for imporving maternal and newborn health. We considered all available systematic reviews published before May 2013 on the pre-defined district level interventions and included 47 systematic reviews. Evidence suggests that supervision positively influenced provider's practice, knowledge and client/provider satisfaction. Involving local opinion leaders to promote evidence-based practice improved compliance to the desired practice. Audit and feedback mechanisms and tele-medicine were found to be associated with improved immunization rates and mammogram uptake. User-directed financial schemes including maternal vouchers, user fee exemption and community based health insurance showed significant impact on maternal health service utilization with voucher schemes showing the most significant positive impact across all range of outcomes including antenatal care, skilled birth attendant, institutional delivery, complicated delivery and postnatal care. We found insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of electronic health record systems and telemedicine technology to improve maternal and newborn health specific outcomes. There is dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of district level inputs to improve maternal newborn health outcomes. Future studies should evaluate the impact of supervision and monitoring; electronic health record and tele-communication interventions in low-middle-income countries. PMID:25208460

  19. Evidence from district level inputs to improve quality of care for maternal and newborn health: interventions and findings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    District level healthcare serves as a nexus between community and district level facilities. Inputs at the district level can be broadly divided into governance and accountability mechanisms; leadership and supervision; financial platforms; and information systems. This paper aims to evaluate the effectivness of district level inputs for imporving maternal and newborn health. We considered all available systematic reviews published before May 2013 on the pre-defined district level interventions and included 47 systematic reviews. Evidence suggests that supervision positively influenced provider’s practice, knowledge and client/provider satisfaction. Involving local opinion leaders to promote evidence-based practice improved compliance to the desired practice. Audit and feedback mechanisms and tele-medicine were found to be associated with improved immunization rates and mammogram uptake. User-directed financial schemes including maternal vouchers, user fee exemption and community based health insurance showed significant impact on maternal health service utilization with voucher schemes showing the most significant positive impact across all range of outcomes including antenatal care, skilled birth attendant, institutional delivery, complicated delivery and postnatal care. We found insufficient evidence to support or refute the use of electronic health record systems and telemedicine technology to improve maternal and newborn health specific outcomes. There is dearth of evidence on the effectiveness of district level inputs to improve maternal newborn health outcomes. Future studies should evaluate the impact of supervision and monitoring; electronic health record and tele-communication interventions in low-middle-income countries. PMID:25208460

  20. Phase 1 feasibility study: district heating and cooling using wastewater effluent and sea water in Olympia, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of district heating and cooling (DHC) using low-temperature hydrothermal sources in conjunction with heat pumps has been assessed on a preliminary basis for downtown Olympia and the Capitol Campus. The conclusion is that DHC can provide thermal energy at approximately 75 to 85% of the lowest competing fuel cost in the community. Three potential hydrothermal sources for DHC were evaluated: treated wastewater effluent from the LOTT plant; surface water from Capitol Lake or Budd Inlet; and waste process water from the Olympia Brewery. LOTT effluent and Budd Inlet sea water were both found to be favorable sources, possessing heat pump output potentials far in excess of the service area's heating or cooling demands. Capitol Lake was found to be an unfavorable source because its maximum potential as a heat pump source falls below the service area's thermal demands. The Olympia Brewery was also eliminated because its waste heat was likewise insufficient to meet winter demands, and it requires a costly transmission pipeline to the service area. However, it should be noted that at some point in the future the Brewery could become a DHC customer if its large demand for conventionally-fueled process heat becomes too costly.

  1. Empowering districts to target priorities for improving child health service in Uganda using change management and rapid assessment methods

    PubMed Central

    Odaga, John; Henriksson, Dorcus K.; Nkolo, Charles; Tibeihaho, Hector; Musabe, Richard; Katusiime, Margaret; Sinabulya, Zaccheus; Mucunguzi, Stephen; Mbonye, Anthony K.; Valadez, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Local health system managers in low- and middle-income countries have the responsibility to set health priorities and allocate resources accordingly. Although tools exist to aid this process, they are not widely applied for various reasons including non-availability, poor knowledge of the tools, and poor adaptability into the local context. In Uganda, delivery of basic services is devolved to the District Local Governments through the District Health Teams (DHTs). The Community and District Empowerment for Scale-up (CODES) project aims to provide a set of management tools that aid contextualised priority setting, fund allocation, and problem-solving in a systematic way to improve effective coverage and quality of child survival interventions. Design Although the various tools have previously been used at the national level, the project aims to combine them in an integral way for implementation at the district level. These tools include Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) surveys to generate local evidence, Bottleneck analysis and Causal analysis as analytical tools, Continuous Quality Improvement, and Community Dialogues based on Citizen Report Cards and U reports. The tools enable identification of gaps, prioritisation of possible solutions, and allocation of resources accordingly. This paper presents some of the tools used by the project in five districts in Uganda during the proof-of-concept phase of the project. Results All five districts were trained and participated in LQAS surveys and readily adopted the tools for priority setting and resource allocation. All districts developed health operational work plans, which were based on the evidence and each of the districts implemented more than three of the priority activities which were included in their work plans. Conclusions In the five districts, the CODES project demonstrated that DHTs can adopt and integrate these tools in the planning process by systematically identifying gaps and setting

  2. Assessment and implementation of a district heating system upgrade for the city of Plzen, Czech Republic: Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Secrest, T.J.; Marousek, J. Popelka, A.

    1994-06-01

    The City of Plzen, Czech Republic, is considering options to upgrade its district heating system for compliance with emissions regulations and replacement of some existing heat generation units. This assessment examined two coal-fired and two-gas fired heat generation configurations coupled with buildings sector energy efficiency for meeting load growth from the current level of 370MWt to 420 and 367MWt for high and low growth scenarios, respectively. The supply and efficiency options were integrated and characterized by capital requirement, levelized energy cost, typical residential energy bill, and emissions. Life extension to the existing facilities required the least capital investment and provided the lowest levelized energy cost; efficiency increased the per unit price of energy and reduced the typical energy bill; connection of a satellite system provided for a lower weighted average energy cost of energy over life extension to the satellite boiler serving the system; and the gas-fired configurations provided for the greatest reduction in emissions.

  3. Magnesium-silicate scaling in mixture of geothermal water and deaerated fresh water in a district heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnlaugsson, E. ); Einarsson, A. )

    1989-01-01

    The low-temperature geothermal fields in Reykjavik utilized by the Reykjavik Municipal District Heating Service are now fully exploited. Additional hot water will be obtained by heating and deaerating fresh water using high temperature geothermal fluid. The heated fresh water will mix with low-temperature geothermal water in the distribution system in Reykjavik. A pilot plant has been set up to investigate magnesium silicate scale formation when mixing of these waters occurs. Tests show that the scale formation is dependent on the severity of deaeration of the fresh water the proportion of geothermal water in the mixture. Increased deaeration and thermal water proportion increase the pH of the mixture, and this promotes scaling. The scale formed is poorly crystalline, near amorphous trioctahedral smectite close to saponite in composition. By using minimum deaeration and traces of geothermal steam to remove the last remaining dissolved oxygen, scaling in the distribution system can be avoided.

  4. Equity improvements in maternal and newborn care indicators: results from the Bardiya district of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Nonyane, Bareng As; Kc, Ashish; Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A; Guenther, Tanya; Sitrin, Debora; Syed, Uzma; Pradhan, Yasho V; Khadka, Neena; Shah, Rashed; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2016-05-01

    Community-based maternal and newborn care interventions have been shown to improve neonatal survival and other key health indicators. It is important to evaluate whether the improvement in health indicators is accompanied by a parallel increase in the equitable distribution of the intervention activities, and the uptake of healthy newborn care practices. We present an analysis of equity improvements after the implementation of a Community Based Newborn Care Package (CB-NCP) in the Bardiya district of Nepal. The package was implemented alongside other programs that were already in place within the district. We present changes in concentration indices (CIndices) as measures of changes in equity, as well as percentage changes in coverage, between baseline and endline. The CIndices were derived from wealth scores that were based on household assets, and they were compared usingt-tests. We observed statistically significant improvements in equity for facility delivery [CIndex: -0.15 (-0.24, -0.06)], knowledge of at least three newborn danger signs [-0.026(-0.06, -0.003)], breastfeeding within 1 h [-0.05(-0.11, -0.0001)], at least one antenatal visit with a skilled provider [-0.25(-0.04, -0.01)], at least four antenatal visits from any provider [-0.15(-0.19, -0.10)] and birth preparedness [-0.09(-0.12, -0.06)]. The largest increases in practices were observed for facility delivery (50%), immediate drying (34%) and delayed bathing (29%). These results and those of similar studies are evidence that community-based interventions delivered by female community health volunteers can be instrumental in improving equity in levels of facility delivery and other newborn care behaviours. We recommend that equity be evaluated in other similar settings within Nepal in order to determine if similar results are observed. PMID:26303057

  5. Equity improvements in maternal and newborn care indicators: results from the Bardiya district of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Nonyane, Bareng AS; KC, Ashish; Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A.; Guenther, Tanya; Sitrin, Debora; Syed, Uzma; Pradhan, Yasho V; Khadka, Neena; Shah, Rashed; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2016-01-01

    Community-based maternal and newborn care interventions have been shown to improve neonatal survival and other key health indicators. It is important to evaluate whether the improvement in health indicators is accompanied by a parallel increase in the equitable distribution of the intervention activities, and the uptake of healthy newborn care practices. We present an analysis of equity improvements after the implementation of a Community Based Newborn Care Package (CB-NCP) in the Bardiya district of Nepal. The package was implemented alongside other programs that were already in place within the district. We present changes in concentration indices (CIndices) as measures of changes in equity, as well as percentage changes in coverage, between baseline and endline. The CIndices were derived from wealth scores that were based on household assets, and they were compared using t-tests. We observed statistically significant improvements in equity for facility delivery [CIndex: −0.15 (−0.24, −0.06)], knowledge of at least three newborn danger signs [−0.026(−0.06, −0.003)], breastfeeding within 1 h [−0.05(−0.11, −0.0001)], at least one antenatal visit with a skilled provider [−0.25(−0.04, −0.01)], at least four antenatal visits from any provider [−0.15(−0.19, −0.10)] and birth preparedness [−0.09(−0.12, −0.06)]. The largest increases in practices were observed for facility delivery (50%), immediate drying (34%) and delayed bathing (29%). These results and those of similar studies are evidence that community-based interventions delivered by female community health volunteers can be instrumental in improving equity in levels of facility delivery and other newborn care behaviours. We recommend that equity be evaluated in other similar settings within Nepal in order to determine if similar results are observed. PMID:26303057

  6. Recent Improvements in Fast Wave Heating in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    G. Taylor, R.E. Bell, R.W. Harvey, J.C. Hosea, E.F. Jaeger, B.P. LeBlanc, C.K. Phillips, P.M. Ryan, E.J. Valeo, J.B. Wilgen, J.R. Wilson, and the NSTX Team

    2009-06-26

    Recent improvements in high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) core heating in NSTX are attributed to using lithium conditioning, and other wall conditioning techniques, to move the onset density for perpendicular fast wave propagation further from the antenna. This has resulted in the first observation of HHFW core electron heating in deuterium plasma at a launched toroidal wavenumber, kφ = -3 m-1, NSTX record core electron temperatures of 5 keV in helium and deuterium discharges and, for the first time, significant HHFW core electron heating of deuterium neutral-beam-fuelled H-mode plasmas. Also, kφ = -8 m-1 heating of the plasma startup and plasma current ramp-up has resulted in significant core electron heating, even at central electron densities as low as ~ 4x1018 m-3.

  7. Recent Improvements in Fast Wave Heating in NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.; Bell, R. E.; Hosea, J. C.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Phillips, C. K.; Valeo, E. J.; Wilson, J. R.; Harvey, R. W.; Jaeger, E. F.; Ryan, P. M.; Wilgen, J. B.

    2009-11-26

    Recent improvements in high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) core heating in NSTX are attributed to using lithium conditioning, and other wall conditioning techniques, to move the onset density for perpendicular fast wave propagation further from the antenna. This has resulted in the first observation of HHFW core electron heating in deuterium plasma at a launched toroidal wavenumber, k{phi} = -3 m{sup -1}, NSTX record core electron temperatures of 5 keV in helium and deuterium discharges and, for the first time, significant HHFW core electron heating of deuterium neutral-beam-fuelled H-mode plasmas. Also, k{phi} = -8 m{sup -1} heating of the plasma startup and plasma current ramp-up has resulted in significant core electron heating, even at central electron densities as low as {approx}4x10{sup 18} m-3.

  8. Title III Accountability and District Improvement Efforts: A Closer Look. ESEA Evaluation Brief: The English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanenbaum, Courtney; Anderson, Lindsay

    2010-01-01

    "Title III Accountability and District Improvement Efforts: A Closer Look" (2010) summarizes findings from interviews with six Title III Directors and nine Title III district-level directors in the spring of 2009. States and districts were selected in order to collect information from some entities with a long history of serving English Learners…

  9. Accountability Manual, 1996: The 1996-2000 Accountability Rating System for Texas Public Schools and School Districts. Part 2: Comparable Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Office of Policy Planning and Research.

    This manual is designed as a technical resource to explain the accountability system used by the Texas Education Agency (TEA) to evaluate the performance of public school districts and campuses. The system integrates district accreditation status; campus ratings; district and campus recognition for high performance and performance improvement; and…

  10. No One Way: Differentiating School District Leadership and Support for School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Stephen E.; Mascall, Blair; Stiegelbauer, Suzanne; Park, Jaddon

    2012-01-01

    This article examines findings from a qualitative investigation of how school district administrators in four mid to large sized urban school districts (10,000-50,000) identify and address differences in school performance. The analysis explores the interaction between district policies and actions that centralize and standardize expectations for…

  11. Comparing District Achievement to Improve Decision Making in Clark County, Nevada. Vignette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In response to changing demographics, a tightening budget, and drastic achievement gaps (white students outperform Latino students on standardized tests) the Clark County School District in Nevada (the fifth largest district in the country) commissioned, in 2011, an educational and operational efficiency review. The district commissioned the…

  12. West Contra Costa Unified School District Assessment and Improvement Plan: Facilities Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This report analyzes the conditions of school facilities in Contra Costa Unified School District, California. The district had been prohibited from participating in the state's school facilities funding program because of a very heavy debt burden and near-bankruptcy of the district. The report begins by summarizing findings in the areas of…

  13. An assessment of district heating and cooling potential in Joliet, Illinois: Phase I technical and economic feasibility study, final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    A preliminary assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of a district heating and cooling (DHC) system serving a portion of Joliet, Illinois, has been completed. The basic system, which was designed to provide thermal and electrical energy services to the assessment area, was found to be economically feasible while providing energy services at prices that are less than or equal to current costs. The DHC assessment area included the following: the Downtown Business District; the newly-designated Heritage Business Park; and the Joliet Correctional Center. The Heritage Business Park is the site of a former steel wire and rod mill. Approximately one-third of the site is currently occupied by a rod mill operated by American Steel and Wire while the rest of the Park is essentially undeveloped. In late 1985, plans were formulated to redevelop the site into an industrial park for light industry, offices and research and development facilities. The installation of a DHC system over the next five to ten years would not only complement the redevelopment of the Downtown Business District that was recently begun, but would help to encourage the eventual development of the Heritage Business Park as well.

  14. Federal Efforts to Improve the Lowest-Performing Schools: District Views on School Improvement Grant Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kober, Nancy; Rentner, Diane Stark

    2011-01-01

    As Congress considers legislation to reauthorize the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965, one topic of debate is the program of school improvement grants (SIGs) authorized by section 1003(g) of Title I. SIGs are intended to help to turn around low-performing schools and are part of the larger ESEA Title I program to improve…

  15. User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal-energy storage oupled with district-heating or cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

    1982-04-01

    A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. the AQUASTOR Model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two prinicpal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains all the appendices, including supply and distribution system cost equations and models, descriptions of predefined residential districts, key equations for the cooling degree-hour methodology, a listing of the sample case output, and appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

  16. Factors affecting the utilisation of improved ventilated latrines among communities in Mtwara Rural District, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kema, Koronel; Semali, Innocent; Mkuwa, Serafina; Kagonji, Ignatio; Temu, Florence; Ilako, Festus; Mkuye, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The Tanzania government, working in partnership with other stakeholders implemented a community-based project aimed at increasing access to clean and safe water basic sanitation and promotion of personal hygiene in Mtwara Rural District. Mid-term evaluation revealed that progress had been made towards improved ventilated latrines; however, there was no adequate information on utilisation of these latrines and associated factors. This study was therefore conducted to establish the factors influencing the utilisation of these latrines. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 375 randomly selected households using a pre-tested questionnaire to determine whether the households owned improved ventilated latrines and how they utilised them. Resuls About half (50.5%) of the households had an improved ventilated latrine and households with earnings of more than 50,000 Tanzanian Shillings were two times more likely to own an improved latrine than those that earned less (AOR 2.1, 95% CI=1.1-4.0, p= 0.034). The likelihood of owning an improved latrine was reduced by more than 60 percent for female-headed households (AOR=0.38; 95% CI=0.20-0.71; p=0.002). Furthermore, it was established that all members of a household were more likely to use a latrine if it was an improved ventilated latrine (AOR=2.4; 95% CI=1.1-5.1; p= 0.024). Conclusion Findings suggest adoption of strategies to improve the wellbeing of households and deploying those who had acquired improved ventilated latrines as resource persons to help train others. Furthermore, efforts are needed to increase access to soft loans for disadvantaged members and increasing community participation. PMID:23467697

  17. Improved Method for Determining the Heat Capacity of Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Roger; Moran, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    An improved procedure for laboratory determination of the heat capacities of metals is described. The temperature of cold water is continuously recorded with a computer-interfaced temperature probe and the room temperature metal is added. The method is more accurate and faster than previous methods. It allows students to get accurate measurements…

  18. Improving the management of sepsis in a district general hospital by implementing the 'Sepsis Six' recommendations.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Prashant; Jordan, Mark; Caesar, Jenny; Miller, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a common condition with a major global impact on healthcare resources and expenditure. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign has been vigorous in promoting internationally recognised pathways to improve the management of septic patients and decrease mortality. However, translating recommendations into practice is a challenging and complex task that requires a multi-faceted approach with sustained engagement from local stakeholders. Whilst working at a district general hospital in New Zealand, we were concerned by the seemingly inconsistent management of septic patients, often leading to long delays in the initiation of life-saving measures such as antibiotic, fluid, and oxygen administration. In our hospital there were no clear systems, protocols or guidelines in place for identifying and managing septic patients. We therefore launched the Sepsis Six resuscitation bundle of care in our hospital in an attempt to raise awareness amongst staff and improve the management of septic patients. We introduced a number of simple low-cost interventions that included educational sessions for junior doctors and nursing staff, as well as posters and modifications to phlebotomy trolleys that acted as visual reminders to implement the Sepsis Six bundle. Overall, we found there to a be a steady improvement in the delivery of the Sepsis Six bundle in septic patients with 63% of patients receiving appropriate care within one hour, compared to 29% prior to our interventions. However this did not translate to an improvement in patient mortality. This project forms part of an on going process to instigate a fundamental culture change among local healthcare professionals regarding the management of sepsis. Whilst we have demonstrated improved implementation of the Sepsis Six bundle, the key challenge remains to ensure that momentum of this project continues and forms a platform for sustainable clinical improvement in the long term. PMID:26734403

  19. Quantum afterburner: improving the efficiency of an ideal heat engine.

    PubMed

    Scully, Marlan O

    2002-02-01

    By using a laser and maser in tandem, it is possible to obtain laser action in the hot exhaust gases of a heat engine. Such a "quantum afterburner" involves the internal quantum states of the working molecules as well as the techniques of cavity quantum electrodynamics and is therefore in the domain of quantum thermodynamics. It is shown that Otto cycle engine performance can be improved beyond that of the "ideal" Otto heat engine. Furthermore, the present work demonstrates a new kind of lasing without initial inversion. PMID:11863710

  20. Quantum Afterburner: Improving the Efficiency of an Ideal Heat Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scully, Marlan O.

    2002-02-01

    By using a laser and maser in tandem, it is possible to obtain laser action in the hot exhaust gases of a heat engine. Such a ``quantum afterburner'' involves the internal quantum states of the working molecules as well as the techniques of cavity quantum electrodynamics and is therefore in the domain of quantum thermodynamics. It is shown that Otto cycle engine performance can be improved beyond that of the ``ideal'' Otto heat engine. Furthermore, the present work demonstrates a new kind of lasing without initial inversion.

  1. Local problems, local solutions: improving tuberculosis control at the district level in Malawi.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, P. M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the causes of a low cure rate at the district level of a tuberculosis (TB) control programme and to formulate, implement, and evaluate an intervention to improve the situation. METHODS: The study setting was Mzuzu (population 60,000), where the annual smear-positive pulmonary TB incidence was 160 per 100,000 and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence was 67% among TB patients. There is one TB treatment unit, but several other organizations are involved with TB control. An examination of case-holding activities was carried out, potential areas for improvement were identified, and interventions performed. FINDINGS: In 1990-91, the cure rate was 24% among smear-positive cases (29% among survivors to end of treatment). Problems identified included a fragmented TB control programme; inadequate training and supervision; suboptimal recording of patients' addresses; and nonadherence to national TB control programme protocols. These problems were addressed, and in 1992-93 the cure rate rose to 68% (relative risk (RR) = 2.85 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.63, 4.96)) and to 92% among survivors to the end of treatment (RR = 3.12 (95% CI = 1.84, 5.29)). High cure rates are therefore achievable despite high HIV prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Simple, inexpensive, local programmatic interventions can dramatically improve TB case holding. This study demonstrates the need for evaluation, training, and supervision at all levels of the programme. PMID:11242817

  2. Would You Like To Swing on a Star? Opportunities To Improve Education in Kentucky's Fifth Congressional District. A Report to the Shakertown Roundtable Conference on Economic Development and Education in Kentucky's Fifth Congressional District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamm, Carol; And Others

    Interviews conducted in Kentucky's Fifth Congressional District sought answers for improving educational quality in the district, which has the highest dropout rate, the lowest holding power, and the lowest standardized test scores in Kentucky. Members of the Mountain Association for Community Economic Development interviewed 155 people from 15 of…

  3. Nuclear reactor fuel element having improved heat transfer

    DOEpatents

    Garnier, J.E.; Begej, S.; Williford, R.E.; Christensen, J.A.

    1982-03-03

    A nuclear reactor fuel element having improved heat transfer between fuel material and cladding is described. The element consists of an outer cladding tube divided into an upper fuel section containing a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material, slightly smaller in diameter than the inner surface of the cladding tube and a small lower accumulator section, the cladding tube being which is filled with a low molecular weight gas to transfer heat from fuel material to cladding during irradiation. A plurality of essentially vertical grooves in the fuel section extend downward and communicate with the accumulator section. The radial depth of the grooves is sufficient to provide a thermal gradient between the hot fuel surface and the relatively cooler cladding surface to allow thermal segregation to take place between the low molecular weight heat transfer gas and high molecular weight fission product gases produced by the fuel material during irradiation.

  4. The geothermal potential of the Campania volcanic district and new heat exchanger technologies for exploitation of highly urbanised areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlino, S.; Somma, R.; Troiano, A.; Di Giuseppe, M. G.; Troise, C.; De Natale, G.

    2012-04-01

    The geothermal research in Campania region (Italy), started since the 1930, and continued until the '80 by the SAFEN, ENEL and AGIP companies. Such exploration activity highlighted that most of the volcanic districts of the Campania Region have a very high geothermal gradient and heat flow. In particular, inside the Campi Flegrei caldera and at Ischia island the geothermal gradient measured inside the deep wells reaches temperatures above 100° C between few tens and few hundreds of metres of depth, while the heat flow varies between 120-160 mWm-2 at Agnano and Mofete (Campi Flegrei main drill sites) to more than 500 mWm-2 at Ischia island (south-western sector). A general review of the available literature data (temperature at depth, stratigraphic sections, logs etc.) of the deep wells (down to 3 km b.s.l.) allowed us to quantify the geothermal potential (thermal and electric) of such district. The geothermal potential is about 6 GWy for the Campi Flegrei (Mofete and S. Vito sectors) and 11 GWy for the Ischia island (south-western sector) showing a geothermal reservoir with water and vapour dominant respectively. This results in strong potential interest for economic exploitation of the geothermal resource, both in the range of low-medium enthalpy at few hundreds of meters depth and of high enthalpy at depths of 1-2 km. In this study we try to model the effectiveness of new technologies of boreholes heat exchangers, which would allow to avoid fluid withdrawal, then strongly decreasing the environmental impact. The proposed technology consists of a double-pipe placed in a borehole heat exchange that can work coupled with an ORC. The two pipes, one inside the other, are located in the well in order to transfer the thermal energy to the working fluid during the descent in the external pipe and then go back through the internal pipe properly isolated. We propose a complete design of the borehole heat exchangers. The design activity is performed on a theoretical basis

  5. Pieces of the Puzzle: Factors in the Improvement of Urban School Districts on the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Abstract

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Michael; Price-Baugh, Ricki; Corcoran, Amanda; Lewis, Sharon; Uzzell, Renata; Simon, Candace; Heppen, Jessica; Leinwand, Steve; Salinger, Terry; de Mello, Victor Bandeira; Dogan, Enis; Novotny, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This is an abridged, summary report of selected findings from "Pieces of the Puzzle: Factors in the Improvement of Urban School Districts on the National Assessment of Educational Progress"--a comprehensive study prepared by the Council of the Great City Schools in collaboration with the American Institutes for Research (AIR) and with funding from…

  6. Principals at the Center: The Pittsburgh School District Believes Cultivating Effective Instructional Leaders is the Key to School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2008-01-01

    For schools to improve in the Pittsburgh school district, it is not just the children who have to learn. Embracing the idea that strong principals are essential to academic success, top administrators have launched several initiatives based on the philosophy that school leaders need to be cultivated as carefully as students. A committee of…

  7. Using Systems Thinking to Leverage Technology for School Improvement: Lessons Learned from Award-Winning Secondary Schools/Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Barbara B.; Schrum, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers lessons learned about what it takes to successfully leverage technology for school improvement based on a cross-case analysis of eight award-winning secondary schools/districts around the United States. The researchers analyzed data from 150 interviews, 30 focus groups, and more than 300 hours of observation in 150 classrooms,…

  8. Study of the causes and identification of the dominant mechanisms of failure of bellows expansion joints used in district heating system pipelines at MOEK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomarov, G. V.; Nikolaev, A. E.; Semenov, V. N.; Shipkov, A. A.; Shepelev, S. V.

    2015-06-01

    The results of laboratory studies of material properties and of numerical and analytical investigations to assess the stress-strain state of the metal of the bellows expansion joints used in the district heating system pipelines at MOEK subjected to corrosion failure are presented. The main causes and the dominant mechanisms of failure of the expansion joints have been identified. The influence of the initial crevice defects and the operating conditions on the features and intensity of destruction processes in expansion joints used in the district heating system pipelines at MOEK has been established.

  9. Photoreversible micellar solution as a smart drag-reducing fluid for use in district heating/cooling systems.

    PubMed

    Shi, Haifeng; Ge, Wu; Oh, Hyuntaek; Pattison, Sean M; Huggins, Jacob T; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Hart, David J; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Zakin, Jacques L

    2013-01-01

    A photoresponsive micellar solution is developed as a promising working fluid for district heating/cooling systems (DHCs). It can be reversibly switched between a drag reduction (DR) mode and an efficient heat transfer (EHT) mode by light irradiation. The DR mode is advantageous during fluid transport, and the EHT mode is favored when the fluid passes through heat exchangers. This smart fluid is an aqueous solution of cationic surfactant oleyl bis(2-hydroxyethyl)methyl ammonium chloride (OHAC, 3.4 mM) and the sodium salt of 4-phenylazo benzoic acid (ACA, 2 mM). Initially, ACA is in a trans configuration and the OHAC/ACA solution is viscoelastic and exhibits DR (of up to 80% relative to pure water). At the same time, this solution is not effective for heat transfer. Upon UV irradiation, trans-ACA is converted to cis-ACA, and in turn, the solution is converted to its EHT mode (i.e., it loses its viscoelasticity and DR) but it now has a heat-transfer capability comparable to that of water. Subsequent irradiation with visible light reverts the fluid to its viscoelastic DR mode. The above property changes are connected to photoinduced changes in the nanostructure of the fluid. In the DR mode, the OHAC/trans-ACA molecules assemble into long threadlike micelles that impart viscoelasticity and DR capability to the fluid. Conversely, in the EHT mode the mixture of OHAC and cis-ACA forms much shorter cylindrical micelles that contribute to negligible viscoelasticity and effective heat transfer. These nanostructural changes are confirmed by cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), and the photoisomerization of trans-ACA and cis-ACA is verified by (1)H NMR. PMID:23210742

  10. Heat-Assisted Machining for Material Removal Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Hadzley, A. B.; Hafiz, S. Muhammad; Azahar, W.; Izamshah, R.; Mohd Shahir, K.; Abu, A.

    2015-09-01

    Heat assisted machining (HAM) is a process where an intense heat source is used to locally soften the workpiece material before machined by high speed cutting tool. In this paper, an HAM machine is developed by modification of small CNC machine with the addition of special jig to hold the heat sources in front of the machine spindle. Preliminary experiment to evaluate the capability of HAM machine to produce groove formation for slotting process was conducted. A block AISI D2 tool steel with100mm (width) × 100mm (length) × 20mm (height) size has been cut by plasma heating with different setting of arc current, feed rate and air pressure. Their effect has been analyzed based on distance of cut (DOC).Experimental results demonstrated the most significant factor that contributed to the DOC is arc current, followed by the feed rate and air pressure. HAM improves the slotting process of AISI D2 by increasing distance of cut due to initial cutting groove that formed during thermal melting and pressurized air from the heat source.

  11. Combined heat and mass transfer device for improving separation process

    DOEpatents

    Tran, Thanh Nhon

    1999-01-01

    A two-phase small channel heat exchange matrix simultaneously provides for heat transfer and mass transfer between the liquid and vapor phases of a multi-component mixture at a single, predetermined location within a separation column, significantly improving the thermodynamic efficiency of the separation process. The small channel heat exchange matrix is composed of a series of channels having a hydraulic diameter no greater than 5.0 millimeters for conducting a two-phase coolant. In operation, the matrix provides the liquid-vapor contacting surfaces within the separation column, such that heat and mass are transferred simultaneously between the liquid and vapor phases. The two-phase coolant allows for a uniform heat transfer coefficient to be maintained along the length of the channels and across the surface of the matrix. Preferably, a perforated, concave sheet connects each channel to an adjacent channel to facilitate the flow of the liquid and vapor phases within the column and to increase the liquid-vapor contacting surface area.

  12. Combined heat and mass transfer device for improving separation process

    DOEpatents

    Tran, T.N.

    1999-08-24

    A two-phase small channel heat exchange matrix simultaneously provides for heat transfer and mass transfer between the liquid and vapor phases of a multi-component mixture at a single, predetermined location within a separation column, significantly improving the thermodynamic efficiency of the separation process. The small channel heat exchange matrix is composed of a series of channels having a hydraulic diameter no greater than 5.0 millimeters for conducting a two-phase coolant. In operation, the matrix provides the liquid-vapor contacting surfaces within the separation column, such that heat and mass are transferred simultaneously between the liquid and vapor phases. The two-phase coolant allows for a uniform heat transfer coefficient to be maintained along the length of the channels and across the surface of the matrix. Preferably, a perforated, concave sheet connects each channel to an adjacent channel to facilitate the flow of the liquid and vapor phases within the column and to increase the liquid-vapor contacting surface area. 12 figs.

  13. Santa Ana Pueblo assessment of district heating and cooling. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-07-01

    The evaluation covered six major tasks of technical, financial, environmental and cultural considerations of several heat sources including: traditional Indian bread ovens; community solid waste disposal; cogeneration and electric power plant; active solar collectors with fresh water pond storage; salt gradient ponds, both gel and free standing; heat pumps; geothermal - both hot dry rock and hydrothermal sources; and biomass resources for methane production.

  14. Heating boilers in Krakow, Poland: Options for improving efficiency and reducing emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Cyklis, P.; Wlodkowski, A.; Butcher, T.; Kowalski, J.; Zaczkowski, A.; Kroll, J.; Boron, J.

    1995-08-01

    In Krakow, Poland, coal-fired boilers are used to heat single apartment buildings and local heating districts. Tile population includes 2,930 small, hand-fired boilers and 227 larger traveling grate stoker-fired boilers. These boilers are important contributors to air quality problems in Krakow, and an assessment of their efficiency and emissions characteristics was recently undertaken. For the larger, stoker-fired boilers, efficiency was measured using a stack-loss method In addition to the normal baseline fuel, the effects of coal cleaning and grading were evaluated Testing was done at two selected sites. Boiler efficiencies were found to be low-50% to 67%. These boilers operate without combustion controls or instrumentation for flue gas analysis. As a result, excess air levels are very high (up to 400%) leading to poor performance. Emissions were found to be typical for boilers of this type. Using the improved fuels yields reductions in emissions and improvement in efficiency when combined with proper adjustments. In the case of the hand-fired boilers, one set of cast-iron boilers and one set of steel boilers were tested. Efficiency in this case was measured using an input-output method for sets of three boilers taken together as a system. Emissions from these boilers are lowest when low volatile fuels, such as coke or smokeless briquettes, are used.

  15. Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) District Improvement: 2009-10 Implementation Status [Revised September 17, 2010]. E&R Report No. 10.16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulgakov-Cooke, Dina

    2010-01-01

    In 2009-10 Wake County Public Schools System (WCPSS) exited District Improvement in reading and remained in level one for mathematics. All District Improvement efforts gained momentum. The Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP®) continued as the primary focus to meet the needs of limited English proficient (LEP) students in elementary…

  16. The Student Voice Collaborative: An Effort to Systematize Student Participation in School and District Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Ari

    2015-01-01

    This chapter recounts the first 3 years of the Student Voice Collaborative (SVC) in New York City, a district supported student leadership initiative that engages high school aged youth in school reform work at school and district levels. Based on his experiences developing and running the SVC, the author identifies nine design and implementation…

  17. The New Jersey Takeover Legislation: Help or Hindrance to Improvement in Troubled School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tewel, Kenneth J.

    1991-01-01

    Traces the three-year period (beginning in 1988) leading to the takeover of the Jersey City (New Jersey) public schools by the State Department of Education. Questions the wisdom of New Jersey's approach regarding failing school districts. The confrontation in New Jersey ended poorly for both the state and district. (SLD)

  18. Urban District Central Office Transformation for Teaching and Learning Improvement: Beyond a Zero-Sum Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Meredith I.; Lorton, Juli Swinnerton; Copland, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, a growing number of mid-sized to large school district central offices have engaged in radical reforms to strengthen teaching and learning for all students districtwide. Such efforts mark a significant change in urban educational governance. The authors call these efforts "district central office transformation for teaching…

  19. Primed for Reform: A District's Use of Existing Assets to Drive Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Region IX Equity Assistance Center at WestEd, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This brief reports on the early stages and initial successes of turnaround efforts in a California school district. With administrators and educators in the midst of implementing a robust reform agenda, there are clear signs that the district is on the rise. The reform initiatives have stopped a downward slide in student attendance, behavior, and…

  20. School Districts' Perspectives on the Economic Stimulus Package: School Improvement Grants Present Uncertainty and Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Caitlin

    2010-01-01

    The information in this report is drawn from the responses of a nationally representative sample of school districts to a broader Center on Education Policy (CEP) survey on American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) administered in the spring of 2010. Survey responses were weighted to draw conclusions for all districts in the 50 states…

  1. Heat shock response improves heterologous protein secretion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jin; Osterlund, Tobias; Liu, Zihe; Petranovic, Dina; Nielsen, Jens

    2013-04-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a widely used platform for the production of heterologous proteins of medical or industrial interest. However, heterologous protein productivity is often low due to limitations of the host strain. Heat shock response (HSR) is an inducible, global, cellular stress response, which facilitates the cell recovery from many forms of stress, e.g., heat stress. In S. cerevisiae, HSR is regulated mainly by the transcription factor heat shock factor (Hsf1p) and many of its targets are genes coding for molecular chaperones that promote protein folding and prevent the accumulation of mis-folded or aggregated proteins. In this work, we over-expressed a mutant HSF1 gene HSF1-R206S which can constitutively activate HSR, so the heat shock response was induced at different levels, and we studied the impact of HSR on heterologous protein secretion. We found that moderate and high level over-expression of HSF1-R206S increased heterologous α-amylase yield 25 and 70 % when glucose was fully consumed, and 37 and 62 % at the end of the ethanol phase, respectively. Moderate and high level over-expression also improved endogenous invertase yield 118 and 94 %, respectively. However, human insulin precursor was only improved slightly and this only by high level over-expression of HSF1-R206S, supporting our previous findings that the production of this protein in S. cerevisiae is not limited by secretion. Our results provide an effective strategy to improve protein secretion and demonstrated an approach that can induce ER and cytosolic chaperones simultaneously. PMID:23208612

  2. User manual for GEOCITY: a computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.D.; Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this model is to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factory or commercial building. Volume II contains all the appendices, including cost equations and models for the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system, descriptions of predefined residential district types for the distribution system, key equations for the cooling degree hour methodology, and a listing of the sample case output. Both volumes include the complete table of contents and lists of figures and tables. In addition, both volumes include the indices for the input parameters and subroutines defined in the user manual.

  3. User manual for GEOCITY: A computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, H. D.; Fassbender, L. L.; Bloomster, C. H.

    1982-09-01

    A model to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir is discussed. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factor or commercial building. All the appendices, including cost equations and models for the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system, descriptions of predefined residential district types for the distribution system, key equations for the cooling degree hour methodology, and a listing of the sample case output are included. The indices for the input parameters and subroutines defined in the user manual are given.

  4. The effect of business improvement districts on the incidence of violent crimes

    PubMed Central

    Golinelli, Daniela; Stokes, Robert J; Bluthenthal, Ricky

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine whether business improvement districts (BID) contributed to greater than expected declines in the incidence of violent crimes in affected neighbourhoods. Method A Bayesian hierarchical model was used to assess the changes in the incidence of violent crimes between 1994 and 2005 and the implementation of 30 BID in Los Angeles neighbourhoods. Results The implementation of BID was associated with a 12% reduction in the incidence of robbery (95% posterior probability interval −2 to 24) and an 8% reduction in the total incidence of violent crimes (95% posterior probability interval −5 to 21). The strength of the effect of BID on robbery crimes varied by location. Conclusion These findings indicate that the implementation of BID can reduce the incidence of violent crimes likely to result in injury to individuals. The findings also indicate that the establishment of a BID by itself is not a panacea, and highlight the importance of targeting BID efforts to crime prevention interventions that reduce violence exposure associated with criminal behaviours. PMID:20587814

  5. Exploration and drilling for geothermal heat in the Capital District, New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    The Capital District area of New York was explored to determine the nature of a hydrothermal geothermal system. The chemistry of subsurface water and gas, the variation in gravity, magnetism, seismicity, and temperature gradients were determined. Water and gas analyses and temperature gradient measurements indicate the existence of a geothermal system located under an area from Ballston Spa, southward to Altamont, and eastware toward Albany. Gravimetric and magnetic surveys provided little useful data but microseismic activity in the Altamont area may be significant. Eight wells about 400 feet deep, one 600 feet and one 2232 feet were drilled and tested for geothermal potential. The highest temperature gradients, most unusual water chemistries, and greatest carbon dioxide exhalations were observed in the vicinity of the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, New York, suggesting some fault control over the geothermal system. Depths to the warm fluids within the system range from 500 meters (Ballston Spa) to 2 kilometers (Albany).

  6. Exploration and drilling for geothermal heat in the Capital District, New York. Volume 4. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    The Capital District area of New York was explored to determine the nature of a hydrothermal geothermal system. The chemistry of subsurface water and gas, the variation in gravity, magnetism, seismicity, and temperature gradients were determined. Water and gas analyses and temperature gradient measurements indicate the existence of a geothermal system located under an area from Ballston Spa, southward to Altamont, and eastward toward Albany. Gravimetric and magnetic surveys provided little useful data but microseismic activity in the Altamont area may be significant. Eight wells about 400 feet deep, one 600 feet and one 2232 feet were drilled and tested for geothermal potential. The highest temperature gradients, most unusual water chemistries, and greatest carbon dioxide exhalations were observed in the vicinity of the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, New York, suggesting some fault control over the geothermal system. Depths to the warm fluids within the system range from 500 meters (Ballston Spa) to 2 kilometers (Albany).

  7. Feasibility of cogenerated district heating and cooling for North Loop project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, R. W.

    1982-03-01

    A thermal-economic analysis was performed in order to determine feasibility of cogeneration with central heating and cooling for Chicago's North Loop Development Project. Heating, cooling and electrical loads were predicted by using energy data according to use and floor area, representative of downtown Chicago. The central facility proposed would supply cogenerated heating for a part of the development's demand and about one half of the cooling demand by means of combined conventional and cogeneration equipment together on the 4-pipe distribution system. Electricity would also be distributed and used to substantially displace purchases. Additional options are also discussed and, if economical, could make implementation more attractive. Four alternatives involving gas turbines and diesels were selected for study and are reported. Energy savings extend over the assumed 25 years of the project and are indexed to inflation and fuel-cost escalation. It would appear that cogeneration could assist economic development of the North Loop Project.

  8. Improving the Material Response for Slow Heat of Energetic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, A L

    2010-03-08

    The goal of modern high explosive slow heat cookoff modeling is to understand the level of mechanical violence. This requires understanding the coupled thermal-mechanical-chemical system that such an environment creates. Recent advances have improved our ability to predict the time to event, and we have been making progress on predicting the mechanical response. By adding surface tension to the product gas pores in the high explosive, we have been able to reduce the current model's tendency to overpressurize confinement vessels. We describe the model and demonstrate how it affects a LX-10 STEX experiment. Issues associated with current product gas equations of state are described and examined.

  9. Integrated assessment of supply and efficiency resources for the district heating system, City of Handlova, Republic of Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    This city needs to replace its old district heating system which is unreliable and expensive to maintain. Current plant is owned by a state-run utility; the plant is scheduled for privatization, and the city is examining options for its upgrade. Analysis and preparation for this activity is documented in demand-side and supply-side technical and economic analyses and in this integrated demand/supply report. Preliminary projections indicate the cost of heating from a cost per unit of energy basis and from the perspective of an apartment dweller in Handlova on a total cost per year basis. The centralized coal cogeneration option is the least expensive on a levelized energy cost both with and without energy efficiency. Centralized coal/gas dual-fuel cogeneration is a close second, and the decentralized gas natural gas boilers is significantly more expensive. When the effect of building efficiency measures is evaluated, efficiency always increases the cost on a levelized energy cost basis, but on a levelized cost per flat basis, both centralized systems with buildings efficiency are less expensive than without.

  10. Can district nurses and care home staff improve bowel care for older people using a clinical benchmarking tool?

    PubMed

    Goodman, Claire; L Davies, Sue; Norton, Christine; Fader, Mandy; Morris, Jackie; Wells, Mandy; Gage, Heather

    2013-12-01

    A quasi-experimental study tested a clinical benchmarking tool (Essence of Care) to improve bowel-related care for older people living in six care homes. In the intervention care homes, district nurses and care home staff used the clinical benchmarking tool to discuss and plan how to improve bowel care for residents. In the control care homes, staff were provided with detailed information about the residents and continence services contact details. The intervention was acceptable to care home and district nursing staff, and possible to incorporate into existing working patterns. The study did not demonstrate a significant reduction in bowel-related problems, although there was evidence in one care home of reduction in episodes of avoidable faecal incontinence. At an individual level of care, there were observable benefits, and examples of person-centred care were prompted through participating in the intervention and improved staff awareness. Clinical benchmarking tools can be used to structure discussion between district nurses and care home staff to review and plan care for residents. However, it takes time to achieve change and embedding this kind of approach requires either robust pre-existing working relationships or the involvement of a facilitator. PMID:24335790

  11. An implementation evaluation of a policy aiming to improve financial access to maternal health care in Djibo district, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To bring down its high maternal mortality ratio, Burkina Faso adopted a national health policy in 2007 that designed to boost the assisted delivery rate and improving quality of emergency obstetrical and neonatal care. The cost of transportation from health centres to district hospitals is paid by the policy. The worst-off are exempted from all fees. Methods The objectives of this paper are to analyze perceptions of this policy by health workers, assess how this health policy was implemented at the district level, identify difficulties faced during implementation, and highlight interactional factors that have an influence on the implementation process. A multiple site case study was conducted at 6 health centres in the district of Djibo in Burkina Faso. The following sources of data were used: 1) district documents (n = 23); 2) key interviews with district health managers (n = 10), health workers (n = 16), traditional birth attendants (n = 7), and community management committees (n = 11); 3) non-participant observations in health centres; 4) focus groups in communities (n = 62); 5) a feedback session on the findings with 20 health staff members. Results All the activities were implemented as planned except for completely subsidizing the worst-off, and some activities such as surveys for patients and the quality assurance service team aiming to improve quality of care. District health managers and health workers perceived difficulties in implementing this policy because of the lack of clarity on some topics in the guidelines. Entering the data into an electronic database and the long delay in reimbursing transportation costs were the principal challenges perceived by implementers. Interactional factors such as relations between providers and patients and between health workers and communities were raised. These factors have an influence on the implementation process. Strained relations between the groups involved may reduce the

  12. District cooling in Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, B.

    1996-11-01

    This paper will present the status of the development of district cooling systems in Scandinavia over the last 5 years. It will describe the technologies used in the systems that have been constructed as well as the options considered in different locations. It will identify the drivers for the development of the cooling business to-date, and what future drivers for a continuing development of district cooling in Sweden. To-date, approximately 25 different cities of varying sizes have completed feasibility studies to determine if district cooling is an attractive option. In a survey, that was conducted by the Swedish District Heating Association, some 25 cities expected to have district cooling systems in place by the year 2000. In Sweden, district heating systems with hot water is very common. In many cases, it is simply an addition to the current service for the district heating company to also supply district cooling to the building owners. A parallel from this can be drawn to North America where district cooling systems now are developing rapidly. I am convinced that in these cities a district heating service will be added as a natural expansion of the district cooling company`s service.

  13. Improved Differential Evolution for Combined Heat and Power Economic Dispatch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jena, C.; Basu, M.; Panigrahi, C. K.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an improved differential evolution to solve non-smooth non-convex combined heat and power economic dispatch (CHPED) problem. Valve-point loading and prohibited operating zones of conventional thermal generators are taken into account. Differential evolution (DE) exploits the differences of randomly sampled pairs of objective vectors for its mutation process. Consequently the variation between vectors will outfit the objective function toward the optimization process and therefore provides efficient global optimization capability. However, although DE is shown to be precise, fast as well as robust, its search efficiency will be impaired during solution process with fast descending diversity of population. This paper proposes Gaussian random variable instead of scaling factor which improves search efficiency. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been verified on four test systems. The results of the proposed approach are compared with those obtained by other evolutionary methods. It is found that the proposed improved differential evolution based approach is able to provide better solution.

  14. Advanced control strategy for plant heat rate improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, P.; Frerichs, D.K.; Kyr, D.

    1995-12-31

    Florida Power & Light Company (FPL) supplies electricity to about half of the population of Florida, roughly 6.5 million people. The load base is largely residential/business with the obvious seasonal extremes due to the climate. FPL`s generating capacity is 16,320 MW composed of 70% traditional fossil cycle, 18% nuclear, and 12% gas turbine. The system load profile coupled with bulk power purchases is such that the 400 MW class units (9 Foster Wheeler drum type units comprising 24% of total capacity) are now forced to cycle daily all year, and to come off line on weekends during the winter months. The current economic realities of power generation force utility companies to seek methods to improve plant heat rate, and FPL is no exception. FPL believed it possible to achieve the goal of lower heat rate and follow the required load demand with the 400 MW class units through the use of an advanced control strategy implemented totally within the unit`s Distributed Control System (DCS). As of the writing of this paper, the project is still ongoing. This paper will present the theory and methodology of the advanced control strategy along with the current design and implementation status and results obtained to date.

  15. Cool Mist Irrigation Improves Heat Dissipation during Surgical Bone Drilling.

    PubMed

    Siljander, Breana R; Wang, Anthony C; Zhang, Lihui; Shih, Albert J; Sullivan, Stephen E; Tai, Bruce L

    2014-08-01

    Objective High-speed drilling generates heat in small cavities and may pose a risk for neurovascular tissues. We hypothesize that a continuous pressurized cold mist could be an alternative approach for better cooling during drilling of bone to access cranial lesions. This study aims to examine this idea experimentally. Design Ex-vivo drilling tests with controlled speed, feed, and depth were performed on cortical bone samples. Thermocouples were embedded underneath the drilling path to compare the temperature rises under mist cooling (at 3°C, < 300 mL/h) and flood irrigation (at 22°C, > 800 mL/h). Results A significant difference exists between these two systems (p value < 0.05). The measured temperature was ∼ 4°C lower for mist cooling than for flood irrigation, even with less than a third of the flow rate. Conclusion Experimental data indicate the capability of mist cooling to reduce heat generation while simultaneously enabling flow reduction and targeted cooling. An improved field of view in an extremely narrow access corridor may be achieved with this technology. PMID:25093147

  16. Cool Mist Irrigation Improves Heat Dissipation during Surgical Bone Drilling

    PubMed Central

    Siljander, Breana R.; Wang, Anthony C.; Zhang, Lihui; Shih, Albert J.; Sullivan, Stephen E.; Tai, Bruce L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective High-speed drilling generates heat in small cavities and may pose a risk for neurovascular tissues. We hypothesize that a continuous pressurized cold mist could be an alternative approach for better cooling during drilling of bone to access cranial lesions. This study aims to examine this idea experimentally. Design Ex-vivo drilling tests with controlled speed, feed, and depth were performed on cortical bone samples. Thermocouples were embedded underneath the drilling path to compare the temperature rises under mist cooling (at 3°C, < 300 mL/h) and flood irrigation (at 22°C, > 800 mL/h). Results A significant difference exists between these two systems (p value < 0.05). The measured temperature was ∼ 4°C lower for mist cooling than for flood irrigation, even with less than a third of the flow rate. Conclusion Experimental data indicate the capability of mist cooling to reduce heat generation while simultaneously enabling flow reduction and targeted cooling. An improved field of view in an extremely narrow access corridor may be achieved with this technology. PMID:25093147

  17. Improving Immunization Coverage in a Rural School District in Pierce County, Washington

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Robin M.; Cook, Carolyn; Yerxa, Mary E.; Marshall, James H.; Pulos, Elizabeth; Rollosson, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Washington State has some of the highest percentages of school immunization exemptions in the country. We compared school immunization records in a rural school district in Pierce County, Washington, to immunization records in the state immunization information system (IIS) and parent-held records. Correcting school immunization records resulted…

  18. Maze of Mistrust: How District Politics and Cross Talk Are Stalling Efforts to Improve Public Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, Steve; Duffett, Ann

    2014-01-01

    In 1993, the Kettering Foundation and Public Agenda released a report titled "Divided Within, Besieged Without: The Politics of Education in Four American School Districts." The study's attention to communities was distinct from the conventional focus on the technical issues of school administration and funding, and it reported on what…

  19. Promoting Interdistrict Relations: The Preferred Policy Option for Improving Education in Rural Small School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, E. Robert

    1988-01-01

    Establishes a rationale for increasing use of interorganizational arrangements among small, rural school districts. Compares two basic forms of interorganizational relations: cooperation and coordination. Identifies several core propositions to guide policy planners and decision-makers when designing cooperative agreements. Includes 34 references.…

  20. Improving Information Dissemination Impact on Districts and Schools. Knowledge Brief Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Stephen R.

    The California Department of Education commissioned a study to help guide ongoing information dissemination practices to the educational community. A pilot study, department of education staff interviews, and field interviews preceded document tracking. Phone interviews were conducted with district administrators, principals, and teachers…

  1. The Role of External Diagnosis in School Improvement in an Ontario School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, John A.; Sibbald, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    External diagnosis is recommended when schools lack the capacity to assess their needs. This qualitative study of one Ontario district compared 33 elementary schools that conducted external diagnosis with 47 schools that used internal diagnosis. External diagnosis created pressure for change, helped schools develop a plan that included previously…

  2. The Local-Federal Interface in Rural School Improvement: River District, Wyoming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messerschmidt, Donald A.

    When the Experimental Schools (ES) program began in 1972, schools in conservative and traditional River District, Wyoming, had just undergone a controversial consolidation. The ES program was perceived by new administrators as a source of necessary unity, useful outside help, and financial incentives. School trustees were "favorable but guarded"…

  3. One School District's Strategy to Improve Fitness Levels: A Fitness Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ray; Tass, Brian; Peterson, James R.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a district-wide fitness challenge that was implemented by the elementary physical education program in the Waterford (Michigan) public schools. Its purpose was to (1) encourage students to be active outside of the classroom, (2) provide parents and families with information about the importance of fitness and physical…

  4. Skeptics to Partners: University Teams with District to Improve ELL Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Debra; Ringler, Marjorie C.; Lys, Diana B.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how an effort to help two schools achieve high levels of teacher implementation of the Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol (SIOP) resulted in a deeper understanding of the true learning value of a sustained and committed partnership among university faculty, district personnel, and school-based educators. The…

  5. Improving Attainment across a Whole District: School Reform through Peer Tutoring in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tymms, Peter; Merrell, Christine; Thurston, Allen; Andor, John; Topping, Keith; Miller, David

    2011-01-01

    Districts are an important unit for administrative purposes, but they vary little in their impact on students' attainment, at least in the UK. Further, government attempts to raise attainment are often disappointing. The project described in this article aimed to engage schools in reform to change students' attainment and attitudes in schools…

  6. Born to Fail? Some Lessons from a National Programme to Improve Education in Poor Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrantes, Pedro; Roldao, Cristina; Amaral, Patricia; Mauritti, Rosario

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the main benefits of a Portuguese programme, launched in 1996, which was designed to support schools in segregated districts (TEIPs). The first part of the article presents a theoretical framework, before moving on to the main features of the TEIP programme in contemporary Portuguese society and education. An explanation of…

  7. Direct use of geothermal energy, Elko, Nevada district heating. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lattin, M.W.; Hoppe, R.D.

    1983-06-01

    In early 1978 the US Department of Energy, under its Project Opportunity Notice program, granted financial assistance for a project to demonstrate the direct use application of geothermal energy in Elko, Nevada. The project is to provide geothermal energy to three different types of users: a commercial office building, a commercial laundry and a hotel/casino complex, all located in downtown Elko. The project included assessment of the geothermal resource potential, resource exploration drilling, production well drilling, installation of an energy distribution system, spent fluid disposal facility, and connection of the end users buildings. The project was completed in November 1982 and the three end users were brought online in December 1982. Elko Heat Company has been providing continuous service since this time.

  8. Dysart Unified School District: How One School District Used Collaborative Planning to Improve Outcomes for All Students. From the Field. Digital Learning Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaven, Chip; Hall, Sara; Schwartzbeck, Terri Duggan; Jones, Rachel; Wolf, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    The Dysart Unified School District (Dysart) in Arizona covers 140 square miles and serves numerous communities, including the cities of Surprise and El Mirage and some unincorporated areas of Maricopa County. At one time the fastest-growing school system in Arizona, Dysart has tripled in size since 2000. The district continues to grow, and in…

  9. Retrofitting the Strogino district heat supply station with construction of a 260-MW combined-cycle power plant (Consisting of two PGU-130 combined-cycle power units)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, V. F.

    2010-02-01

    The retrofitting carried out at the Strogino district heat supply station and the specific features of works accomplished in the course of constructing the thermal power station based on a combined-cycle power plant at the station site are described; the layout solutions for the main building and turbine building are presented, and a comparison of the retrofitted station with the Kolomenskoe and Vnukovo gas turbine-based power stations is given.

  10. Improving district facility readiness: a 12-month evaluation of a data-driven health systems strengthening intervention in rural Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Hari S.; Kamanzi, Emmanuel; Mugunga, Jean Claude; Finnegan, Karen; Uwingabiye, Alice; Shyaka, Edward; Niyonzima, Saleh; Hirschhorn, Lisa R.; Drobac, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Background While health systems strengthening (HSS) interventions are recommended by global health policy experts to improve population health in resource-limited settings, few examples exist of evaluations of HSS interventions conducted at the district level. In 2009, a partnership between Partners In Health (PIH), a non-governmental organization, and the Rwandan Ministry of Health (RMOH) was provided funds to implement and evaluate a district-level HSS intervention in two rural districts of Rwanda. Design The partnership provided limited funds to 14 health centers for targeted systems support in 2010; six others received support prior to the intervention (reference). RMOH health systems norms were mapped across the WHO HSS framework, scored from 0 to 10 and incorporated into a rapid survey assessing 11 domains of facility readiness. Stakeholder meetings allowed partnership leaders to review results, set priorities, and allocate resources. Investments included salary support, infrastructure improvements, medical equipment, and social support for patients. We compared facility domain scores from the start of the intervention to 12 months and tested for correlation between change in score and change in funding allocation to assess equity in our approach. Results We found significant improvements among intervention facilities from baseline to 12 months across several domains [infrastructure (+4, p=0.0001), clinical services (+1.2, p=0.03), infection and sanitation control (+0.6, p=0.03), medical equipment (+1.0, p=0.02), information use (+2, p=0.002)]. Composite score across domains improved from 6.2 at baseline to 7.4 at 12 months (p=0.002). Across facilities, 50% had composite scores greater than the average score among reference facilities (7.4) at 12 months compared to none at baseline. Conclusions Rapid facility surveys, stakeholder engagement, and information feedback can be used for gap analysis and resource allocation. This approach can achieve effective use

  11. Neck-cooling improves repeated sprint performance in the heat

    PubMed Central

    Sunderland, Caroline; Stevens, Ryan; Everson, Bethan; Tyler, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of neck-cooling during exercise on repeated sprint ability in a hot environment. Seven team-sport playing males completed two experimental trials involving repeated sprint exercise (5 × 6 s) before and after two 45 min bouts of a football specific intermittent treadmill protocol in the heat (33.0 ± 0.2°C; 53 ± 2% relative humidity). Participants wore a neck-cooling collar in one of the trials (CC). Mean power output and peak power output declined over time in both trials but were higher in CC (540 ± 99 v 507 ± 122 W, d = 0.32; 719 ± 158 v 680 ± 182 W, d = 0.24 respectively). The improved power output was particularly pronounced (d = 0.51–0.88) after the 2nd 45 min bout but the CC had no effect on % fatigue. The collar lowered neck temperature and the thermal sensation of the neck (P < 0.001) but had no effect on heart rate, fluid loss, fluid consumption, lactate, glucose, plasma volume change, cortisol, or thermal sensation (P > 0.05). There were no trial differences but interaction effects were demonstrated for prolactin concentration and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Prolactin concentration was initially higher in the collar cold trial and then was lower from 45 min onwards (interaction trial × time P = 0.04). RPE was lower during the football intermittent treadmill protocol in the collar cold trial (interaction trial × time P = 0.01). Neck-cooling during exercise improves repeated sprint performance in a hot environment without altering physiological or neuroendocrinological responses. RPE is reduced and may partially explain the performance improvement. PMID:26594177

  12. Neck-cooling improves repeated sprint performance in the heat.

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Caroline; Stevens, Ryan; Everson, Bethan; Tyler, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of neck-cooling during exercise on repeated sprint ability in a hot environment. Seven team-sport playing males completed two experimental trials involving repeated sprint exercise (5 × 6 s) before and after two 45 min bouts of a football specific intermittent treadmill protocol in the heat (33.0 ± 0.2°C; 53 ± 2% relative humidity). Participants wore a neck-cooling collar in one of the trials (CC). Mean power output and peak power output declined over time in both trials but were higher in CC (540 ± 99 v 507 ± 122 W, d = 0.32; 719 ± 158 v 680 ± 182 W, d = 0.24 respectively). The improved power output was particularly pronounced (d = 0.51-0.88) after the 2nd 45 min bout but the CC had no effect on % fatigue. The collar lowered neck temperature and the thermal sensation of the neck (P < 0.001) but had no effect on heart rate, fluid loss, fluid consumption, lactate, glucose, plasma volume change, cortisol, or thermal sensation (P > 0.05). There were no trial differences but interaction effects were demonstrated for prolactin concentration and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Prolactin concentration was initially higher in the collar cold trial and then was lower from 45 min onwards (interaction trial × time P = 0.04). RPE was lower during the football intermittent treadmill protocol in the collar cold trial (interaction trial × time P = 0.01). Neck-cooling during exercise improves repeated sprint performance in a hot environment without altering physiological or neuroendocrinological responses. RPE is reduced and may partially explain the performance improvement. PMID:26594177

  13. Developing a strategy for improving efficiency in the heating sector in central and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    Heating is a vital energy service in Central and Eastern Europe, but the current delivery mechanisms are riddled with problems. District heating (DH) in its present technical form and with the present management structures is an inefficient system which produces expensive heat. Customers cannot control it and react to overheating by opening windows, even in winter. DH facilities together with other forms of individual heating are responsible for air pollution, causing severe impacts on the health of urban residents. The issues relating to DH are discussed, the first World Bank activities and experiences with projects in Poland are analyzed, and the cornerstones of a strategy to support future World Bank financing and the development of sound heating policies in CEE are presented.

  14. Mounting improves heat-sink contact with beryllia washer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    To conduct heat away from electrical components that must be electrically insulated from a metal heat sink, a metal washer and a coil spring are placed between one end of the electrical component and the beryllia washer mounted on the heat sink. The thermal paths are formed by the component lead and base, the metal and beryllia washers, and the compressed spring.

  15. Leather Coated with Mixtures of Humectant and Antioxidants to Improve UV and Heat Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ultraviolet (UV) and heat resistance are very important qualities for leather products. We recently developed an environmentally friendly finishing process for improving the UV- and heat resistance of automobile upholstery leather. We previously reported and demonstrated some promising results fro...

  16. Vendor-to-vendor education to improve malaria treatment by private drug outlets in Bungoma District, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Tavrow, Paula; Shabahang, Jennifer; Makama, Sammy

    2003-01-01

    Background Private outlets are the main suppliers of uncomplicated malaria treatment in Africa. However, they are so numerous that they are difficult for governments to influence and regulate. This study's objective was to evaluate a low-cost outreach education (vendor-to-vendor) programme to improve the private sector's compliance with malaria guidelines in Bungoma district, Kenya. The cornerstone of the programme was the district's training of 73 wholesalers who were equipped with customized job aids for distribution to small retailers. Methods Six months after training the wholesalers, the programme was evaluated using mystery shoppers. The shoppers posed as caretakers of sick children needing medication at 252 drug outlets. Afterwards, supervisors assessed the outlets' knowledge, drug stocks, and prices. Results The intervention seems to have had a significant impact on stocking patterns, malaria knowledge and prescribing practices of shops/kiosks, but not consistently on other types of outlets. About 32% of shops receiving job aids prescribed to mystery shoppers the approved first-line drug, sulfadoxine-pyremethamine, as compared to only 3% of the control shops. In the first six months, it is estimated that 500 outlets were reached, at a cost of about $8000. Conclusions Changing private sector knowledge and practices is widely acknowledged to be slow and difficult. The vendor-to-vendor programme seems a feasible district-level strategy for achieving significant improvements in knowledge and practices of shops/kiosks. However, alternate strategies will be needed to influence pharmacies and clinics. Overall, the impact will be only moderate unless national policies and programmes are also introduced. PMID:12812525

  17. Can targeting glutamate receptors with long-term heat acclimation improve outcomes following hypoxic injury?

    PubMed Central

    Ely, Brett R; Brunt, Vienna E; Minson, Christopher T

    2015-01-01

    Long-term heat acclimation appears to improve tolerance to hypoxic insults in various tissues, including brain, providing a promising avenue to improve functional outcomes following cerebrovascular events. Glutamate discharge is implicated in dysfunction following hypoxic stress and thus, targeting glutamate receptors with heat acclimation could improve cognitive outcomes following hypoxic injury. PMID:27227003

  18. User manual for GEOCITY: a computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume I. Main text

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, H.D.; Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this model is to calculate the costs of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir. The model can calculate geothermal heating and cooling costs for residential developments, a multi-district city, or a point demand such as an industrial factory or commercial building. GEOCITY simulates the complete geothermal heating and cooling system, which consists of two principal parts: the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system. The reservoir and fluid transmission submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the reservoir and fluid transmission system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. Geothermal space heating is assumed to be provided by circulating hot water through radiators, convectors, fan-coil units, or other in-house heating systems. Geothermal process heating is provided by directly using the hot water or by circulating it through a process heat exchanger. Geothermal space or process cooling is simulated by circulating hot water through lithium bromide/water absorption chillers located at each building. Retrofit costs for both heating and cooling applications can be input by the user. The life-cycle cost of thermal energy from the reservoir and fluid transmission system to the distribution system and the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) to the end-users are calculated using discounted cash flow analysis.

  19. An examination of heat rate improvements due to waste heat integration in an oxycombustion pulverized coal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Joshua M.

    Oxyfuel, or oxycombustion, technology has been proposed as one carbon capture technology for coal-fired power plants. An oxycombustion plant would fire coal in an oxidizer consisting primarily of CO2, oxygen, and water vapor. Flue gas with high CO2 concentrations is produced and can be compressed for sequestration. Since this compression generates large amounts of heat, it was theorized that this heat could be utilized elsewhere in the plant. Process models of the oxycombustion boiler, steam cycle, and compressors were created in ASPEN Plus and Excel to test this hypothesis. Using these models, heat from compression stages was integrated to the flue gas recirculation heater, feedwater heaters, and to a fluidized bed coal dryer. All possible combinations of these heat sinks were examined, with improvements in coal flow rate, Qcoal, net power, and unit heat rate being noted. These improvements would help offset the large efficiency impacts inherent to oxycombustion technology.

  20. Improving Heat Transfer Performance of Printed Circuit Boards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatzel, Donald V.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will explore the ability of printed circuit boards laminated with a Carbon Core Laminate to transfer heat vs. standard printed circuit boards that use only thick layers of copper. The paper will compare the differences in heat transfer performance of printed circuit boards with and without CCL.

  1. Optimization of Transient Heat Exchanger Performance for Improved Energy Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bran Anleu, Gabriela; Kavehpour, Pirouz; Lavine, Adrienne; Wirz, Richard

    2014-11-01

    Heat exchangers are used in a multitude of applications within systems for energy generation, energy conversion, or energy storage. Many of these systems (e.g. solar power plants) function under transient conditions, but the design of the heat exchangers is typically optimized assuming steady state conditions. There is a potential for significant energy savings if the transient behavior of the heat exchanger is taken into account in designing the heat exchanger by optimizing its operating conditions in relation to the transient behavior of the overall system. The physics of the transient behavior of a heat exchanger needs to be understood to provide design parameters for transient heat exchangers to deliver energy savings. A numerical model was used to determine the optimized mass flow rates thermal properties for a thermal energy storage system. The transient behavior is strongly linked to the dimensionless parameters relating fluid properties, the mass flow rates, and the temperature of the fluids at the inlet of each stream. Smart metals, or advanced heat exchanger surface geometries and methods of construction will be used to meet the three goals mentioned before: 1) energy and cost reduction, 2) size reduction, and 3) optimal performance for all modes of operation.

  2. Improved Program For Calculation Of Heat-Load Multiplier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Valentine, Mark

    1995-01-01

    PRM1940 computer program computes heat-load multiplier for use in Power Balance Model (PBM) computer program which calculates hundreds of operating parameters of main engine of space shuttle from relatively few measurement data. PRM1940 is stand-alone program which incorporates only those PBM calculations necessary to compute heat-load multiplier. Developed to accelerate and partly automate calculation of heat-load multiplier. Although programs specific to space shuttle application, also of interest to engineers concerned with monitoring of conditions in turbines, chemical-processing plants, and other high-temperature flow machinery.

  3. Various methods to improve heat transfer in exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavel, Zitek; Vaclav, Valenta

    2015-05-01

    The University of West Bohemia in Pilsen (Department of Power System Engineering) is working on the selection of effective heat exchangers. Conventional shell and tube heat exchangers use simple segmental baffles. It can be replaced by helical baffles, which increase the heat transfer efficiency and reduce pressure losses. Their usage is demonstrated in the primary circuit of IV. generation MSR (Molten Salt Reactors). For high-temperature reactors we consider the use of compact desk heat exchangers, which are small, which allows the integral configuration of reactor. We design them from graphite composites, which allow up to 1000°C and are usable as exchangers: salt-salt or salt-acid (e.g. for the hydrogen production). In the paper there are shown thermo-physical properties of salts, material properties and principles of calculations.

  4. Identification of existing waste heat recovery and process improvement technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, R.L.; Dodge, R.E.; Smith, S.A.; Ames, K.R.

    1984-03-01

    General information is provided on waste heat recovery opportunities. The currently available equipment for high- and low-temperature applications are described. Other equipment related to wasteheat recovery equipment such as components, instruments and controls, and cleaning equipment is discussed briefly. A description of the microcomputer data base is included. Suppliers of waste heat equipment are mentioned throughout the report, with specific contacts, addresses, and telephone numbers provided in an Appendix.

  5. Assembly of opto-electronic module with improved heat sink

    DOEpatents

    Chan, Benson; Fortier, Paul Francis; Freitag, Ladd William; Galli, Gary T.; Guindon, Francois; Johnson, Glen Walden; Letourneau, Martial; Sherman, John H.; Tetreault, Real

    2004-11-23

    A heat sink for a transceiver optoelectronic module including dual direct heat paths and a structure which encloses a number of chips having a central web which electrically isolates transmitter and receiver chips from each other. A retainer for an optical coupler having a port into which epoxy is poured. An overmolded base for an optoelectronic module having epoxy flow controller members built thereon. Assembly methods for an optoelectronic module including gap setting and variation of a TAB bonding process.

  6. Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Winkler, J.

    2012-03-01

    A new approach to modeling residential air conditioners and heat pumps allows users to model systems by specifying only the more readily-available SEER/EER/HSPF-type metrics. Manufacturer data was used to generate full sets of model inputs for over 450 heat pumps and air conditioners. A sensitivity analysis identified which inputs can be safely defaulted 'behind-the-scenes' without negatively impacting the reliability of energy simulations.

  7. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brendemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  8. Real-Time Learning, Real-World Teaching: University Teams with School District to Improve Curriculum and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Steven; Borg, Terry

    2011-01-01

    An Illinois district brings a local university into the district to craft advanced learning embedded in the needs of specific schools. Community High School District 155 in Crystal Lake, Ill., and Northern Illinois University (NIU) College of Education engaged in a partnership that has provided significant benefits, posed limited challenges, and…

  9. Decentralisation to Improve Teacher Quality? District Institutes of Education and Training in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Caroline

    2005-01-01

    Decentralisation is often expected to improve democratic participation and empowerment, and improve government responsiveness to local needs. International experience demonstrates that striking the right balance between centralisation and decentralisation remains highly challenging, and that developing appropriate institutional capacity to…

  10. Improving district level health planning and priority setting in Tanzania through implementing accountability for reasonableness framework: Perceptions of stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In 2006, researchers and decision-makers launched a five-year project - Response to Accountable Priority Setting for Trust in Health Systems (REACT) - to improve planning and priority-setting through implementing the Accountability for Reasonableness framework in Mbarali District, Tanzania. The objective of this paper is to explore the acceptability of Accountability for Reasonableness from the perspectives of the Council Health Management Team, local government officials, health workforce and members of user boards and committees. Methods Individual interviews were carried out with different categories of actors and stakeholders in the district. The interview guide consisted of a series of questions, asking respondents to describe their perceptions regarding each condition of the Accountability for Reasonableness framework in terms of priority setting. Interviews were analysed using thematic framework analysis. Documentary data were used to support, verify and highlight the key issues that emerged. Results Almost all stakeholders viewed Accountability for Reasonableness as an important and feasible approach for improving priority-setting and health service delivery in their context. However, a few aspects of Accountability for Reasonableness were seen as too difficult to implement given the socio-political conditions and traditions in Tanzania. Respondents mentioned: budget ceilings and guidelines, low level of public awareness, unreliable and untimely funding, as well as the limited capacity of the district to generate local resources as the major contextual factors that hampered the full implementation of the framework in their context. Conclusion This study was one of the first assessments of the applicability of Accountability for Reasonableness in health care priority-setting in Tanzania. The analysis, overall, suggests that the Accountability for Reasonableness framework could be an important tool for improving priority-setting processes in the

  11. District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network, Phase 2. Final report, March 1, 1980-January 31, 1984. Volume 5, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-31

    This volume contains the backup data for the portion of the load and service assessment in Section 2, Volume II of this report. This includes: locations of industrial and commercial establishments, locations of high rise buildings, data from the Newark (Essex County) Directory of Business, data from the Hudson County Industrial Directory, data from the N. J. Department of Energy Inventory of Public Buildings, data on commercial and industrial establishments and new developments in the Hackensack Meadowlands, data on urban redevelopment and Operation Breakthrough, and list of streets in the potential district heating areas of Newark/Harrison and Jersey City/Hoboken.

  12. Vapor-modulated heat pipe for improved temperature control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, D. K.; Eninger, J. E.; Ludeke, E. E.

    1978-01-01

    Dryout induced by vapor throttling makes control of equipment temperature less dependent on variations in sink environment. Mechanism controls flow of vapor in heat pipe by using valve in return path to build difference in pressure and also difference in saturation temperature of the vapor. In steady state, valve closes just enough to produce partial dryout that achieves required temperature drop.

  13. Pre-weld heat treatment improves welds in Rene 41

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prager, M.

    1968-01-01

    Cooling of Rene 41 prior to welding reduces the incidence of cracking during post-weld heat treatment. The microstructure formed during the slow cooling rate favors elevated temperature ductility. Some vestiges of this microstructure are apparently retained during welding and thus enhance strain-age crack resistance in air.

  14. Improvements in heat tolerance induced by interval running training in the heat and in sweat clothing in cool conditions.

    PubMed

    Dawson, B; Pyke, F S; Morton, A R

    1989-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of training in heat and in sweat clothing in cool conditions on improving heat tolerance, two groups of active subjects (n = 6 in each) performed an interval running heat-tolerance test before and after a 7-day experimental treatment. On each treatment day the subjects attempted to complete 4 x 15 min interval treadmill running periods (a 7.5 s effort every 30 s, on 15 km h-1, 15% grade; the same exercise format as the heat-tolerance test), which were interspersed with 5-min recovery periods (total time each day = 80 min). Group 1 (heat) ran in shorts, socks and shoes in hot humid conditions, and Group 2 (sweat clothing) ran in cool conditions dressed in shorts, socks and T-shirt covered by a polyester-cotton tracksuit, over which was worn 100% nylon spray-proof pants and jacket (cotton lined) with an acrylic cloth bobble hat (beanie) on the head. Both groups displayed changes typical of heat acclimatization over the 7-day period, with significant decreases in final rectal temperature (Tr) and heart rate (HR) being evident, but no change in sweat loss. Mean skin temperature (Tsk) was similar in both groups during the training sessions (heat group: 34.8-35.7 degrees C; sweat clothing group 34.9-35.5 degrees C). After the heat-tolerance test, both groups had significantly lower Tr, Tsk and HR values than before, and sweating sensitivity (g m-2 h-1 degrees C rise in Tr) was significantly increased. There was only one significant difference between the two groups (Tsk, 20th min value). It was concluded that training in sweat clothing in cool conditions can provide the same improvements in heat tolerance as training in hot humid conditions where a fixed exercise intensity and duration are used. PMID:2621757

  15. Improving Middle Schools in Boston: A Report on Boston Compact and School District Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrar, Eleanor; Connolly, Colleen

    This report discusses the improvement initiatives in Boston (Massachusetts) middle schools triggered by the work of the Boston Compact to promote education-business collaborations to improve the public schools and provide better job and college-going opportunities for Boston students. Section 1 describes a study that was initiated to learn whether…

  16. A Coherent Approach to High School Improvement: A School and District Needs Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National High School Center, 2010

    2010-01-01

    High school improvement initiatives often focus on specific intervention strategies, programs, or priority topics (e.g., dropout intervention). However, research shows that systemic and sustainable improvement can only be achieved when initiatives are implemented with consideration for the broader education contexts in which they operate. The…

  17. A Coherent Approach to High School Improvement: A District and School Self-Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryer, Lindsay; Johnson, Amy

    2012-01-01

    High school improvement initiatives often focus on specific intervention strategies, programs, or priority topics (e.g., dropout intervention, dual enrollment, freshman academies). However, research shows that systemic and sustainable improvement can be achieved only when initiatives are implemented with consideration for the broader education…

  18. Improvement of finite element meshes - Heat transfer in an infinite cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittur, Madan G.; Huston, Ronald L.; Oswald, Fred B.

    1989-01-01

    An extension of a structural finite element mesh improvement technique to heat conduction analysis is presented. The mesh improvement concept was originally presented by Prager in studying tapered, axially loaded bars. It was further shown that an improved mesh can be obtained by minimizing the trace of the stiffnes matrix. These procedures are extended and applied to the analysis of heat conduction in an infinitely long hollow circular cylinder.

  19. Improvement in finite element meshes: Heat transfer in an infinite cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittur, Madan G.; Huston, Ronald L.; Oswald, Fred B.

    1988-01-01

    An extension of a structural finite element mesh improvement technique to heat conduction analysis is presented. The mesh improvement concept was originally presented by Prager in studying tapered, axially loaded bars. It was further shown that an improved mesh can be obtained by minimizing the trace of the stiffness matrix. These procedures are extended and applied to the analysis of heat conduction in an infinitely long hollow circular cylinder.

  20. Improving the management of sepsis in a district general hospital by implementing the ‘Sepsis Six’ recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prashant; Jordan, Mark; Caesar, Jenny; Miller, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a common condition with a major global impact on healthcare resources and expenditure. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign has been vigorous in promoting internationally recognised pathways to improve the management of septic patients and decrease mortality. However, translating recommendations into practice is a challenging and complex task that requires a multi-faceted approach with sustained engagement from local stakeholders. Whilst working at a district general hospital in New Zealand, we were concerned by the seemingly inconsistent management of septic patients, often leading to long delays in the initiation of life-saving measures such as antibiotic, fluid, and oxygen administration. In our hospital there were no clear systems, protocols or guidelines in place for identifying and managing septic patients. We therefore launched the Sepsis Six resuscitation bundle of care in our hospital in an attempt to raise awareness amongst staff and improve the management of septic patients. We introduced a number of simple low-cost interventions that included educational sessions for junior doctors and nursing staff, as well as posters and modifications to phlebotomy trolleys that acted as visual reminders to implement the Sepsis Six bundle. Overall, we found there to a be a steady improvement in the delivery of the Sepsis Six bundle in septic patients with 63% of patients receiving appropriate care within one hour, compared to 29% prior to our interventions. However this did not translate to an improvement in patient mortality. This project forms part of an on going process to instigate a fundamental culture change among local healthcare professionals regarding the management of sepsis. Whilst we have demonstrated improved implementation of the Sepsis Six bundle, the key challenge remains to ensure that momentum of this project continues and forms a platform for sustainable clinical improvement in the long term. PMID:26734403

  1. Glycol coolants improve heat transfer and corrosion control

    SciTech Connect

    Holfield, R.

    1995-03-01

    Various liquids from plain water to exotic fluids have been used as coolants in large stationary diesel engines that drive compressors on natural gas pipeline distribution systems. Although water is an efficient heat transfer medium, its drawbacks of freezing at {minus}32 F and boiling at 212 F seriously limit its usefulness. Special glycol-based heat transfer fluids are available and refined specifically for long-term needs of gas compressor engines. Appropriate corrosion inhibitors have been formulated for metallurgy and operating conditions encountered with these engines. Propylene glycol was developed as an alternative for use in environmentally sensitive areas. Glycol-based fluids must be specifically inhibited for industrial applications because uninhibited or improperly inhibited coolants can seriously damage reciprocating engines.

  2. Hydrology and water quality of Reedy Creek in the Reedy Creek Improvement District, central Florida, 1986-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampson, P.S.

    1993-01-01

    The Reedy Creek Improvement District encompasses an area of about 43 sq mi in southwestern Orange and northwestern Osceola Counties in central Florida. The District operates a wastewater-treatment plant that discharges through two forested wetland areas and a percolation-pond system into Reedy Creek. Discharges from these wetland systems provide a relatively steady base flow which maintains streamflow in Reedy Creek during periods of low rainfall. Streamflows during the study were characterized by relatively long periods of below-average discharge interspersed with periods of high discharges. The highest mean discharges were recorded in 1988 and the lowest mean discharges were recorded in 1989. Water-quality data collection included the operation of four continuous water-quality monitors recording hourly water temperature, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen concentration, and the collection of water-quality samples. Dissolved oxygen concentrations were similar for all stations on Reedy Creek and frequently were less than the minimum Florida standard of 5.0 mg/L. These low dissolved oxygen concentrations probably are the result of natural conditions. Nutrient analyses of water-quality samples were used to compute loadings into and out of a wetland conservation area in the southern part of the District and in the reach of Reedy Creek downstream from the wastewater discharges. Overall retention percentages for 1986-89, not including atmospheric and precipitation inputs, were 59.1 percent for total ammonia nitrogen: 3.4 percent for total organic nitrogen, which was the predominant nitrogen species: 33.2 percent for total nitrate nitrogen; 27.0 percent for total phosphorus; and 26.0 percent for total organic carbon. Highest loading inputs to the wetland conservation area were from the reach of Reedy Creek receiving wastewater discharge. Discharges from the wetlands receiving wastewater and entering the wetland conservation area during 1988 carried 16.3 percent

  3. Development of Technologies on Innovative Simplified Nuclear Power Plant Using High-Efficiency Steam Injectors (10) Application to a Small District-Heating Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tadashi Narabayashi; Yoichiro Shimadu; Toshiiro Murase; Masatoshi Nagai; Michitsugu Mori; Shuichi Ohmori

    2006-07-01

    A steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact and passive pump and also acts as a high-performance direct-contact compact heater. This provides SI with capability to use as a passive ECCS pump and also as a direct-contact feedwater heater that heats up feedwater by using extracted steam from the turbine. In order to develop a high reliability passive ECCS pump and a compact feedwater heater, it is necessary to quantify the characteristics between physical properties of the flow field. We carried out experiments to observe the internal behavior of the water jet as well as measure the velocity of steam jet using a laser Doppler velocimetry. Its performance depends on the phenomena of steam condensation onto the water jet surface and heat transfer in the water jet due to turbulence on to the phase-interface. The analysis was also conducted by using a CFD code with the separate two-phase flow models. With regard to the simplified feed-water system, size of four-stage SI system is almost the same as the model SI that had done the steam and water test that pressures were same as that of current ABWR. The authors also conducted the hot water supply system test in the snow for a district heating. With regard to the SI core cooling system, the performance tests results showed that the low-pressure SI core cooling system will decrease the PCT to almost the same as the saturation temperature of the steam pressure in a pressure vessel. As it is compact equipment, SI is expected to bring about great simplification and materials-saving effects, while its simple structure ensures high reliability of its operation, thereby greatly contributing to the simplification of the power plant for not only an ABWR power plant but also a small PWR/ BWR for district heating system. (authors)

  4. Public sector scale–up of zinc and ORS improves coverage in selected districts in Bihar, India

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Christa L. Fischer; Taneja, Sunita; Lamberti, Laura M.; Black, Robert E.; Mazumder, Sarmila

    2015-01-01

    Background In Bihar, India, a new initiative to enhance diarrhea treatment with zinc and ORS in the public sector was rolled out in selected districts. We conducted an external evaluation to measure changes in diarrhea careseeking and treatment in intervention districts. Methods We conducted baseline and endline household surveys among caregivers of children 2–59 months of age. We calculated summary statistics for household characteristics, knowledge, careseeking and treatments given to children with a diarrhea episode in the last 14 days and built logistic regression models to compare baseline and endline values. Results Caregivers named a public health center as an appropriate source of care for childhood diarrhea more often at endline (71.3%) compared to baseline (38.4%) but did not report increased careseeking to public sector providers for the current diarrhea episode. In logistic regression analyses, the odds of receiving zinc, with or without oral rehydration salts (ORS), increased at endline by more than 2.7 as compared to baseline. Children who were taken to the public sector for care were more likely to receive zinc (odds ratio, OR = 3.93) and zinc in addition to ORS (OR = 6.10) compared to children who were not taken to the public sector. Conclusion Coverage of zinc and ORS can improve with public sector programs targeted at training and increasing product availability, but demand creation may be needed to increase public sector careseeking in areas where the private sector has historically provided much of the care. PMID:26322230

  5. Heating experiments for flowability improvement of near-freezing aviation fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.; Stockemer, F. J.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental jet fuel with a -33 C freezing point was chilled in a wing tank simulator with superimposed fuel heating to improve low temperature flowability. Heating consisted of circulating a portion of the fuel to an external heat exchanger and returning the heated fuel to the tank. Flowability was determined by the mass percent of unpumpable fuel (holdup) left in the simulator upon withdrawal of fuel at the conclusion of testing. The study demonstrated that fuel heating is feasible and improves flowability as compared to that of baseline, unheated tests. Delayed heating with initiation when the fuel reaches a prescribed low temperature limit, showed promise of being more efficient than continuous heating. Regardless of the mode or rate of heating, complete flowability (zero holdup) could not be restored by fuel heating. The severe, extreme-day environment imposed by the test caused a very small amount of subfreezing fuel to be retained near the tank surfaces even at high rates of heating. Correlations of flowability established for unheated fuel tests also could be applied to the heated test results if based on boundary-layer temperature or a solid index (subfreezing point) characteristic of the fuel. Previously announced in STAR as N82-26483

  6. Performance improvement of a solar heating system utilizing off-peak electric auxiliary

    SciTech Connect

    Eltimsahy, A.H.

    1980-06-01

    The design and construction of a heat pump system suitable for incorporating in a space solar heating system utilizing off-peak storage from the electric utility are described. The performance of the system is evaluated. The refrigerating capacity, heating capacity and compressor horsepower for a heat pump system using a piston type compressor are first determined. The heat pump design is also matched with the existing University of Toledo solar house heating system. The refrigerant is Freon-12 working between a condensing temperature of up to 172/sup 0/F and evaporator temperature between 0/sup 0/F and 75/sup 0/F. The heat pump is then installed. Performance indices for the heat pump and the heating system in general are defined and generated by the on-line computer monitoring system for the 1979/80 heating season operation. Monthly and seasonal indices such as heat pump coefficient of performance, collector efficiency, percent of heating load supplied by solar energy and individual components efficiencies in general are recorded. The data collected is then analyzed and compared with previously collected data. The improvement in the performance resulting from the addition of a piston type compressor with an external motor belt drive is then evaluated. Data collected points to the potentially improved operating performance of a solar heating system utilizing off-peak storage from the electric utility. Data shows that the seasonal percent of space heating load supplied by solar is 60% and the seasonal percent cost of space heating load supplied by solar is 82% with a solar collection coefficient of performance of 4.6. Data also indicates that such a system would pay for itself in 14 years when used in Northwest Ohio.

  7. Using a Response to Intervention Framework to Improve Student Learning: A Pocket Guide for State and District Leaders. Implementing ESEA Flexibility Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInerney, Maurice; Elledge, Amy

    2013-01-01

    The 2002 reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) contained provisions that expanded state and district accountability for improving all schools and increasing the learning and achievement of all students, including those who struggle to master basic skills in reading and mathematics. In 2011, the U.S. Department of…

  8. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTIVE MEDIA. U.S. EPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT SOUTH TRUCKEE MEADOWS GENERAL IMPROVEMENT DISTRICT (STMIG), NV. INTERIM EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the first 32 weeks of operation of an arsenic and antimony removal technology currently being demonstrated at the South Truckee Meadows General Improvement District (STMGID) in Washoe County, NV. ...

  9. School Accounting, Budgeting and Finance Challenges. Programs to Help Your School District Improve Its Accounting Procedures, Budgeting Methods and Financial Reporting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolberg, Charles G., Ed.

    To help improve school district financial management, the Association of School Business Officials at its 1980 annual meeting held a special session consisting of 20 "mini-workshops" about successful, field-proven practices in school budgeting, accounting, auditing, and other financial tasks. This document provides summaries of the session based…

  10. What States and Districts Can Do--Together--to Improve School Leadership. Knowledge in Brief: Findings You Can Use from New Wallace Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace Foundation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Buttressed by strong evidence that quality leadership is a virtual necessity for turning around troubled schools, states and districts around the country have been paying more attention in recent years to the need for better school leadership. Many have adopted a range of new policies and practices aimed at dramatically improving the preparation…

  11. When New Relationships Meet Old Narratives: The Journey towards Improving Parent-School Relations in a District-Community Organizing Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ishimaru, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Context: Faced with rapidly changing demographics, districts are increasingly looking to partner with parents to support and improve student learning. Community organizing holds promise for pursuing educational equity through the development of low-income parent participation and leadership, but previous research has focused primarily…

  12. Methods and guidelines for assessing customer district energy needs. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, I.; Taranov, D.

    1998-12-01

    District heating systems have been in service in cities, universities, and industrial facilities for more than 100 years. In recent years there has also been a rapid increase in the number of district cooling systems constructed as well as being studied for possible implementation. Ever increasing building construction and electricity costs (particularly demand charges), continued emphasis on energy conservation, new and improved equipment and piping technologies, and revived technologies such as thermal storage, have all contributed to the need and benefits of larger more efficient district energy (heating and cooling) plans and distribution systems. District energy (DE) may be generated in an existing conventional power plant (converted to cogeneration), a new gas-fired combined cycle plant or by electrical and gas fired chillers and boilers. The district energy system permits substantial energy savings over individual building cooling and heating systems. Further, such systems provide conditions for added economic development and environment improvement in the cities. District energy systems (particularly cooling systems) become more important in the US with the introduction of retail wheeling of electricity. Connecting a customer to a district cooling system (as opposed to individual electric chillers) implies a long-term customer for this service. Therefore the major motivation for district cooling development is to retain electric customers who otherwise may switch to alternative generators. The purpose of this project is to develop a methodology for evaluation of customer`s peak hourly, and annual load profiles in terms of useful energy to be supplied by a district system.

  13. Which Way to Improvement? A Resource Guide for District and School Coordinating Councils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Michele A.

    Programs and practices that may be useful to those planning school improvements in the areas of discipline, student achievement, attendance, and drugs and alcohol are collected in this sampling of the broad array of programs available. The programs on discipline are aimed at classroom management, alternatives for the disruptive, conflict…

  14. Improving Inner-City Schools: Current Directions in Urban District Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Jeannie

    Increasing concern about the overall quality of America's schools has altered federal and state education policy priorities. This shift has resulted in a reduction of federal support, an increase in state-level initiatives, and development of new policies aimed more toward improving the education system generally than toward solving the problems…

  15. Leading with Focus: Elevating the Essentials for School and District Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmoker, Mike

    2016-01-01

    In his 2011 ASCD best-seller "Focus: Elevating the Essentials to Radically Improve Student Learning," author Mike Schmoker described a fresh approach to K-12 teaching built on three core elements: a focused and coherent curriculum; clear, structured lessons; and purposeful reading and writing, or authentic literacy. Now, in "Leading…

  16. Scaling Turnaround: A District-Improvement Approach. Education Outlook No. 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavadsky, Heather

    2013-01-01

    For years, US education reform has focused on simple, isolated reform elements such as promoting reading programs or redesigning individual schools. These efforts have only provided sporadic improvements in student achievement. School-level and single-focus reforms ultimately fail because they do not acknowledge the larger school system's role in…

  17. School and Student Classifications for Universe Data Files. Improving Universe Data on Schools and School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittebols, James H.

    Recommendations designed to assist states in the creation of meaningful definitions of types of schools and students for use in the Council of Chief State School Officers' Education Data Improvement Project are presented. The Project's goals are to promote and facilitate the reform and refinement of the National Center for Education Statistics'…

  18. Nuts & Bolts of a District Improvement Effort in Maryland Centers on the Staff Development Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Sharon; Duffield, Judy

    2007-01-01

    The staff development teacher facilitates the evolution of a school-based professional learning community focused on improving teaching and learning by being a catalyst for teacher change and reflection. These teacher leaders needed the knowledge and skills to transform individual school staffs into professional learning communities focused on…

  19. A United Commitment to Change: Districts and Unions Collaborate to Implement School Improvement Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Ellen; Maiers, Staci

    2012-01-01

    Following the Department of Education's announcement of the $3.5 billion in Title I funding, 831 of the nation's "persistently lowest-achieving schools" received federal funding during the 2010-11 school year to embark on significant change in the form of a School Improvement Grant (U.S. Department of Education, 2010). The Department of Education…

  20. Evaluation of the District of Columbia Energy Office Residential Conservation Assistance Program for Natural Gas-Heated Single-Family Homes

    SciTech Connect

    McCold, Lance Neil; Schmoyer, Richard L

    2007-03-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), with assistance from the District of Columbia Energy Office (DCEO) performed an evaluation of part of the DCEO Residential Conservation Assistance Program (RCAP). The primary objective of the evaluation was to evaluate the effectiveness of the DCEO weatherization program. Because Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) funds are used primarily for weatherization of single-family homes and because evaluating the performance of multi-family residences would be more complex than the project budget would support, ORNL and DCEO focused the study on gas-heated single-family homes. DCEO provided treatment information and arranged for the gas utility to provide billing data for 100 treatment houses and 434 control houses. The Princeton Scorkeeping Method (PRISM) software package was used to normalize energy use for standard weather conditions. The houses of the initial treatment group of 100 houses received over 450 measures costing a little over $180,000, including labor and materials. The average cost per house was $1,811 and the median cost per house was $1,674. Window replacement was the most common measure and accounted for about 35% of total expenditures. Ceiling and floor insulation was installed in 61 houses and accounts for almost 22% of the expenditures. Twenty-seven houses received replacement doors at an average cost of $620 per house. Eight houses received furnace or boiler replacements at an average cost of about $3,000 per house. The control-adjusted average measured savings are about 20 therms/year. The 95% confidence interval is approximately +20 to +60 therms/year. The average pre-weatherization energy consumption of the houses was about 1,100 therm/year. Consequently, the adjusted average savings is approximately 2% ({+-}4%)-not significantly different than zero. Most RCAP expenditures appear to go to repairs. While some repairs may have energy benefits, measures

  1. Coupled heat and fluid flow modeling of the Carboniferous Kuna Basin, Alaska: Implications for the genesis of the Red Dog Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba ore district

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garven, G.; Raffensperger, J.P.; Dumoulin, J.A.; Bradley, D.A.; Young, L.E.; Kelley, K.D.; Leach, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The Red Dog deposit is a giant 175 Mton (16% Zn, 5% Pb), shale-hosted Pb-Zn-Ag-Ba ore district situated in the Carboniferous Kuna Basin, Western Brooks Range, Alaska. These SEDEX-type ores are thought to have formed in calcareous turbidites and black mudstone at elevated sub-seafloor temperatures (120-150??C) within a hydrogeologic framework of submarine convection that was structurally organized by large normal faults. The theory for modeling brine migration and heat transport in the Kuna Basin is discussed with application to evaluating flow patterns and heat transport in faulted rift basins and the effects of buoyancy-driven free convection on reactive flow and ore genesis. Finite element simulations show that hydrothermal fluid was discharged into the Red Dog subbasin during a period of basin-wide crustal heat flow of 150-160 mW/m2. Basinal brines circulated to depths as great as 1-3 km along multiple normal faults flowed laterally through thick clastic aquifers acquiring metals and heat, and then rapidly ascended a single discharge fault zone at rates ??? 5 m/year to mix with seafloor sulfur and precipitate massive sulfide ores. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Polymeric Coatings Containing Antioxidants to Improve UV- and Heat Resistance of Chrome-Free Leather

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For automotive upholstery leather, UV and heat resistance are very important qualities, particularly for non-chrome-tanned (chrome-free) leather. One of our research endeavors has focused on an environmentally friendly finishing process that will improve the UV and heat resistance of automobile uph...

  3. New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Ming; Abdelaziz, Omar; Yin, Hongxi

    2014-11-01

    Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150 200 C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50 60 C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural gas boilers for applications with process fluid return temperatures higher than or close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas.

  4. The Effectiveness of Using the Mississippi Student Progress Monitoring System to Improve a District's State Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Timothy Eugene

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there were differences in MCT2 scores between students who attended a school district that used MSPMS and students who attended a school district that did not use MSPMS. The data for this study were archived and consisted of math and language arts MCT2 scores for two groups of students. The independent…

  5. IMPROVING DESIGN AND OPERATION OF HEAT TREATMENT/LOW PRESSURE OXIDATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the investigation is to document possible improvements to design, operation, and maintenance of heat treatment and low pressure oxidation systems for conditioning sludge prior to dewatering in municipal wastewater treatment plants. The information in the report is ...

  6. Heat stress abatement for dry cows: Does cooling improve transition into lactation?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental factors, especially temperature and photoperiod, influence health and productivity of dairy cows during lactation, possibly via similar physiological effects. For example, heat stress is a critical component of lowered milk yield during summer. Long days improve yield during lactation...

  7. Heat-Rate Improvement Obtained by Retubing Power-Plant Condenser Enhanced Tubes

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-01-21

    A utility will only retube a condenser with enhanced tubes if the incremental cost of the enhanced tubes can be offset with reduced fuel costs. The reduced fuel cost is obtained for some units because of the higher heat-transfer coefficient of enhanced tubes. They lead to improved condenser performance measured by a lower condenser pressure and therefore a more efficient power plant. However, the higher haet-transfer coefficients do not always guarantee that enhanced tubes willmore » be more cost effective. Other issues must be considered such as the cooling-water flow reduction due to the increased pressure drop, the low-pressure turbine heat-rate variation with backpressure, and the cooling-water pump and system characteristics. These and other parameters must be considered to calculate the efficiency improvement of the power plant as commonly measured by the quantity known as the heat rate. Knowing the heat-rate improvement, the fuel cost, and the incremental increase of the enhanced tubes from the supplier, the payback time can be determined. This program calculates the heat-rate improvement that can be obtained by retubing a power plant condenser with enhanced tubes of a particular type called Korodense LPD made by Wolverine Tube, Inc. The fuel savings are easily established knowing the heat-rate improvement. All electrical utilities are potential users because a condenser is used as the heat sink for every power plant.« less

  8. Heat-Rate Improvement Obtained by Retubing Power-Plant Condenser Enhanced Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-21

    A utility will only retube a condenser with enhanced tubes if the incremental cost of the enhanced tubes can be offset with reduced fuel costs. The reduced fuel cost is obtained for some units because of the higher heat-transfer coefficient of enhanced tubes. They lead to improved condenser performance measured by a lower condenser pressure and therefore a more efficient power plant. However, the higher haet-transfer coefficients do not always guarantee that enhanced tubes will be more cost effective. Other issues must be considered such as the cooling-water flow reduction due to the increased pressure drop, the low-pressure turbine heat-rate variation with backpressure, and the cooling-water pump and system characteristics. These and other parameters must be considered to calculate the efficiency improvement of the power plant as commonly measured by the quantity known as the heat rate. Knowing the heat-rate improvement, the fuel cost, and the incremental increase of the enhanced tubes from the supplier, the payback time can be determined. This program calculates the heat-rate improvement that can be obtained by retubing a power plant condenser with enhanced tubes of a particular type called Korodense LPD made by Wolverine Tube, Inc. The fuel savings are easily established knowing the heat-rate improvement. All electrical utilities are potential users because a condenser is used as the heat sink for every power plant.

  9. HTRATE; Heat-Rate Improvement Obtained by Retubing Power-Plant Condenser Enhanced Tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Rabas, T.J.

    1990-06-01

    A utility will only retube a condenser with enhanced tubes if the incremental cost of the enhanced tubes can be offset with reduced fuel costs. The reduced fuel cost is obtained for some units because of the higher heat-transfer coefficient of enhanced tubes. They lead to improved condenser performance measured by a lower condenser pressure and therefore a more efficient power plant. However, the higher haet-transfer coefficients do not always guarantee that enhanced tubes will be more cost effective. Other issues must be considered such as the cooling-water flow reduction due to the increased pressure drop, the low-pressure turbine heat-rate variation with backpressure, and the cooling-water pump and system characteristics. These and other parameters must be considered to calculate the efficiency improvement of the power plant as commonly measured by the quantity known as the heat rate. Knowing the heat-rate improvement, the fuel cost, and the incremental increase of the enhanced tubes from the supplier, the payback time can be determined. This program calculates the heat-rate improvement that can be obtained by retubing a power plant condenser with enhanced tubes of a particular type called Korodense LPD made by Wolverine Tube, Inc. The fuel savings are easily established knowing the heat-rate improvement. All electrical utilities are potential users because a condenser is used as the heat sink for every power plant.

  10. IMPROVING THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL DRUM TYPEPACKAGES BY USING HEAT PIPES

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N

    2007-03-06

    This paper presents a feasibility study to improve thermal loading of existing radioactive material packages by using heat pipes. The concept could be used to channel heat in certain directions and dissipate to the environment. The concept is applied to a drum type package because the drum type packages are stored and transported in an upright position. This orientation is suitable for heat pipe operation that could facilitate the heat pipe implementation in the existing well proven package designs or in new designs where thermal loading is high. In this position, heat pipes utilize gravity very effectively to enhance heat flow in the upward direction Heat pipes have extremely high effective thermal conductivity that is several magnitudes higher than the most heat conducting metals. In addition, heat pipes are highly unidirectional so that the effective conductivity for heat transfer in the reverse direction is greatly reduced. The concept is applied to the 9977 package that is currently going through the DOE certification review. The paper presents computer simulations using typical off-the-shelf heat pipe available configurations and performance data for the 9977 package. A path forward is outlined for implementing the concepts for further study and prototype testing.

  11. Hypokalaemia: Improving the investigation, management and therapeutic monitoring of hypokalaemic medical inpatients at a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Mark; Caesar, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Hypokalaemia is prevalent in 20% of hospitalised patients. Furthermore, inadequate management of hypokalemia was identified in 24% of these patients. Associated with significant patient morbidity and mortality, the identification, investigation, and treatment of hypokalaemia was identified as an area for improvement in the management of medical inpatients. The project aims to measure the assessment, management, and therapeutic monitoring of medical inpatients with hypokalaemia in a district general hospital. All medical inpatients over a one week period who met the criteria for hypokalaemia (serum potassium <3.5 mmol/L on standard biochemical sample) were included in the audit. Patient's notes were located and evaluated to identify if they had mild, moderate, or severe hypokalaemia. Further data on ECG requests, repeat U&Es, serum magnesium analysis, treatment prescribed, and medication review dates was collated. A re-audit was completed after the introduction of a set of interventions which included a hypokalaemia treatment algorithm. Pre-intervention analysis of all medical inpatients, who met our inclusion criteria for hypokalaemia, identified 32 patients. 25 of these patients met the criteria for mild hypokalaemia (3.1-3.4 mmol/L) and 7 met the criteria for moderate hypokalaemia (2.5-3.0 mmol/L). Only 7/32 (22 %) patients were receiving adequate treatment based on trust guidelines. Post intervention results showed marked improvement in the management of patients with hypokalaemia. A total of 30 patients were identified in this post-intervention group. There were 16/30 patients who qualified as mild hypokalaemia (3.1-3.4 mmol/L) and 14/30 with moderate hypokalaemia (2.5-3.0 mmol/L). 19/30 (63%) patients in the post-intervention group were correctly prescribed appropriate medication doses consistent with the treatment algorithm. Following the initial success of the project, analysis at 3 months showed a positive trend for sustained improvement when compared to

  12. Improved boundary layer heat transfer calculations near a stagnation point

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, Kyung Hwan

    1990-01-01

    A thermal design of a solar receiver has been developed for the solutions of problems involving phase-change thermal energy storage and natural convection loss. Two dimensional axisymmetrical solidification and melting of materials contained between two concentric cylinders of finite length has been studied for thermal energy storage analysis. For calculation of free convection loss inside receiver cavity, two dimensional axisymmetrical, laminar, transient free convection including radiation effects has been studied using integral/finite difference method. Finite difference equations are derived for the above analysis subject to constant or variable material properties, initial conditions, and boundary conditions. The validity of the analyses has been substantiated by comparing results of the present general method with available analytic solutions or numerical results reported in the literature. Both explicit and implicit schemes are tested in phase change analysis with different number of nodes ranging from 4 to 18. The above numerical methods have been applied to the existing solar receiver analyzing computer code as additional subroutines. The results were computed for one of the proposed Brayton cycle solar receiver models running under the actual environmental conditions. Effect of thermal energy storage on the thermal behavior of the receiver has been estimated. Due to the thermal energy storage, about 65% reduction on working gas outlet temperature fluctuation has been obtained; however, maximum temperature of thermal energy storage containment has been increased about 18%. Also, effect of natural convection inside a receiver cavity on the receiver heat transfer has been analyzed. The finding indicated that thermal stratification occurs during the sun time resulting in higher receiver temperatures at the outlet section of the gas tube, and lower temperatures at the inlet section of the gas tube when compared with the results with no natural convection. Due

  13. Improving neonatal care in district and community health facilities in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Woods, David Lawrance

    2015-08-01

    A high standard of newborn care, especially at a primary level, is needed to address the neonatal mortality rate in South Africa. The current approach to continuing training of health-care workers uses traditional methods of centralised teaching by formal tutors away from the place of work. This is no longer affordable, achievable or desirable, particularly in rural areas. An innovative system of self-directed learning by groups of nurses caring for mothers and their newborn infants uses specially prepared course books without the need for trainers. Using self-study supported by peer discussion groups, nurses can take responsibility for their own professional growth. This builds competence, confidence and a sense of pride. Since 1993, the Perinatal Education Programme has provided continuing learning opportunities for thousands of nurses in Southern Africa. A number of prospective trials have demonstrated that study groups can significantly improve knowledge and understanding, attitudes, clinical skills and quality of care provided to mothers and infants. A recent review of 10,000 successful participants across a wide range of provinces, ages and home languages documented the success of the project. Using a question-and-answer format to promote problem-solving, case studies, simple skills workshops and multiple choice tests, each module addresses common conditions with appropriate care practices such as thorough drying at birth, delayed cord-clamping, skin-to-skin care, breast feeding, basic resuscitation, correct use of oxygen therapy, hand-washing, blood glucose monitoring and promotion of parental bonding. The training material is now also available free of charge on an on-line website as well as being presented as e-books which can be downloaded onto personal computers, tablet readers and smart phones. This is supplemented by regular SMS text messages providing nurses with relevant 'knowledge bites'. All nurses caring for newborn infants now have easy

  14. Improving the diagnostic quality and adequacy of shoulder radiographs in a District General Hospital.

    PubMed

    Richards, Bethany; Riley, James; Saithna, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    A high rate of suboptimal shoulder radiographs was identified during a service evaluation exercise in our orthopaedic outpatient clinics. Inadequate radiographs require a return to the radiology department for further imaging, a resultant increased workload, delays in the clinic, increased radiation for patients, and inconvenience and decreased patient satisfaction. Furthermore, if a sub-optimal radiograph is accepted there is concern that diagnoses may be missed. The aim of this project was to decrease the rate of suboptimal radiographs by delivering a teaching package directed towards quality improvement. Evaluation criteria were set for standard orthopaedic shoulder radiographs (Anterior-posterior, axillary, and Velpeau views). Baseline data collection was performed over three, two-week periods and included all patients attending the shoulder clinic. The percentage of x-rays which were deemed adequate was only 19.4% for anterior-posterior views and 57.9% for axillary views. A comprehensive educational package was delivered to radiographers. This included a formal PowerPoint based teaching session, hands on training with practice using a skeleton, posters with step-by step instructions on how to obtain an adequate image, and PDF aide memoires suitable for viewing on a smartphone. Two subsequent two-week periods of data collection were performed to evaluate the benefit of this intervention. Delivery of focussed training and provision of easily accessible aide memoires to facilitate improved quality of radiographs resulted in a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the rate of inadequate images. There was also a significant decreases in the rate of return to the radiology department for repeat imaging. PMID:27559473

  15. Improving the diagnostic quality and adequacy of shoulder radiographs in a District General Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Bethany; Riley, James; Saithna, Adnan

    2016-01-01

    A high rate of suboptimal shoulder radiographs was identified during a service evaluation exercise in our orthopaedic outpatient clinics. Inadequate radiographs require a return to the radiology department for further imaging, a resultant increased workload, delays in the clinic, increased radiation for patients, and inconvenience and decreased patient satisfaction. Furthermore, if a sub-optimal radiograph is accepted there is concern that diagnoses may be missed. The aim of this project was to decrease the rate of suboptimal radiographs by delivering a teaching package directed towards quality improvement. Evaluation criteria were set for standard orthopaedic shoulder radiographs (Anterior-posterior, axillary, and Velpeau views). Baseline data collection was performed over three, two-week periods and included all patients attending the shoulder clinic. The percentage of x-rays which were deemed adequate was only 19.4% for anterior-posterior views and 57.9% for axillary views. A comprehensive educational package was delivered to radiographers. This included a formal PowerPoint based teaching session, hands on training with practice using a skeleton, posters with step-by step instructions on how to obtain an adequate image, and PDF aide memoires suitable for viewing on a smartphone. Two subsequent two-week periods of data collection were performed to evaluate the benefit of this intervention. Delivery of focussed training and provision of easily accessible aide memoires to facilitate improved quality of radiographs resulted in a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the rate of inadequate images. There was also a significant decreases in the rate of return to the radiology department for repeat imaging. PMID:27559473

  16. Improving the efficiency of plasma heat treatment of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabdrakhmanov, Az T.; Israphilov, I. H.; Galiakbarov, A. T.; Samigullin, A. D.; Gabdrakhmanov, Al T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an effective way of the plasma hardening the surface layer at the expense combined influence of the plasma jet and a cold air flow. After that influence occurs a distinctive by plasma treatment microstructure with increased microhardness (an increase of 35%) and depth. There is proposed an improved design of the vortex tube for receiving the air flow with a temperature of 20 C to - 120C.

  17. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Southeast of Saline, Unified School District 306, Mentor, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar system, installed in a new building, was designed to provide 52 percent of the estimated annual space heating load and 84 percent of the estimated annual potable hot water requirement. The liquid flat plate collectors are ground-mounted and cover a total area of 5125 square feet. The system will provide supplemental heat for the school's closed-loop water-to-air heat pump system and domestic hot water. The storage medium is water inside steel tanks with a capacity of 11,828 gallons for space heating and 1,600 gallons for domestic hot water. The solar heating facility is described and drawings are presented of the completed system which was declared operational in September 1978, and has functioned successfully since.

  18. Stirling engine or heat pump having an improved seal

    DOEpatents

    White, Maurice A.; Riggle, Peter; Emigh, Stuart G.

    1985-01-01

    A Stirling Engine or Heat Pump having two relatively movable machine elements for power transmission purposes includes a hermetic seal bellows interposed between the elements for separating a working gas from a pressure compensating liquid that balances pressure across the bellows to reduce bellows stress and to assure long bellows life. The volume of pressure compensating liquid displaced due to relative movement between the machine elements is minimized by enclosing the compensating liquid within a region exposed to portions of both machine elements at one axial end of a slidable interface presented between them by a clearance seal having an effective diameter of the seal bellows. Pressure equalization across the bellows is achieved by a separate hermetically sealed compensator including a movable enclosed bellows. The interior of the compensator bellows is in communication with one side of the seal bellows, and its exterior is in communication with the remaining side of the seal bellows. A buffer gas or additional liquid region can be provided at the remaining axial end of the clearnace seal, along with valved arrangements for makeup of liquid leakage through the clearance seal.

  19. Umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells improve heat tolerance and hypothalamic damage in heat stressed mice.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ling-Shu; Chen, Sheng-Hsien; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Lin, Ying-Chu

    2014-01-01

    Heatstroke is characterized by excessive hyperthermia associated with systemic inflammatory responses, which leads to multiple organ failure, in which brain disorders predominate. This definition can be almost fulfilled by a mouse model of heatstroke used in the present study. Unanesthetized mice were exposed to whole body heating (41.2°C for 1 hour) and then returned to room temperature (26°C) for recovery. Immediately after termination of whole body heating, heated mice displayed excessive hyperthermia (body core temperature ~42.5°C). Four hours after termination of heat stress, heated mice displayed (i) systemic inflammation; (ii) ischemic, hypoxic, and oxidative damage to the hypothalamus; (iii) hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis impairment (reflected by plasma levels of both adrenocorticotrophic-hormone and corticosterone); (iv) decreased fractional survival; and (v) thermoregulatory deficits (e.g., they became hypothermia when they were exposed to room temperature). These heatstroke reactions can be significantly attenuated by human umbilical cord blood-derived CD34(+) cells therapy. Our data suggest that human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells therapy may improve outcomes of heatstroke in mice by reducing systemic inflammation as well as hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis impairment. PMID:24804231

  20. Reduced heat input keyhole welding through improved joint design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, John M. (Inventor); Harwig, Dennis D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An improved high energy density welding method for reducing input keyhole welding prepares the weld joint (8) between two edges (10, 14) of at least one member by separating the edges (10, 14) of the member (12, 16) with a controllable gap (22) by a projecting portion (24) selectively positioned on one edge (10, 14) of the member (12, 16). The projecting portion (24) closely abuts the other edge of the member for maintaining the controlled distance (d) of the controllable gap (22) to enhance the welding method.

  1. District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network, Phase 2. Final report, 1 March 1980-31 January 1984. Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-31

    This volume begins with an Introduction summarizing the history, methodology and scope of the study, the project team members and the private and public groups consulted in the course of the study. The Load and Service Area Assessment follows, including: a compilation and analysis of existing statistical thermal load data from census data, industrial directories, PSE and G records and other sources; an analysis of responses to a detailed, 4-page thermal load questionnaire; data on public buildings and fuel and energy use provided by the New Jersey Dept. of Energy; and results of other customer surveys conducted by PSE and G. A discussion of institutional questions follows. The general topic of rates is then discussed, including a draft hypothetical Tariff for Thermal Services. Financial considerations are discussed including a report identifying alternative ownership/financing options for district heating systems and the tax implications of these options. Four of these options were then selected by PSE and G and a financial (cash-flow) analysis done (by the PSE and G System Planning Dept.) in comparison with a conventional heating alternative. Year-by-year cost of heat ($/10/sup 6/ Btu) was calculated and tabulated, and the various options compared.

  2. Urban thermal environment measurements and numerical simulation for an actual complex urban area covering a large district heating and cooling system in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hong; Ooka, Ryozo; Kato, Shinsuke

    Urban thermal situation is thought to have a great influence on the air quality in urban areas. In recent years, the urban thermal environment has become worse, such as the days on which the temperature goes above 30 °C, the sultry nights and heat stroke increase due to changes in terrestrial cover and increased anthropogenic heat emission accompanied by urbanization. Therefore, the urban thermal environment should be carefully investigated and accurately analyzed for a better study of the air quality. Here, in order to study the urban thermal environment in summer, (1) the actual status of an urban thermal environment in a complex urban area covering a large district heating and cooling (DHC) system in Tokyo is investigated using field measurements, and (2) a numerical simulation program which can be adapted to complex urban areas coupled with convection, radiation and conduction is developed and used to predict the urban thermal environment. Wind velocity, temperature and humidity are obtained from the simulation, which shows good agreement with results of the field measurement. The spatial distribution of the standard effective temperature (SET *), the comprehensive index of human thermal comfort, is also calculated using the above results, to estimate the thermal comfort at the pedestrian level. This urban thermal numerical simulation can be coupled with air pollution dispersion and chemical processes to provide a more precise air quality prediction in complex urban areas.

  3. Conceptual design study of geothermal district heating of a thirty-house subdivision in Elko, Nevada, using existing water-distribution systems, Phase III. Final technical report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Pitts, D.R.

    1980-09-30

    A conceptual design study for district heating of a 30-home subdivision located near the southeast extremity of the city of Elko, Nevada is presented. While a specific residential community was used in the study, the overall approach and methodologies are believed to be generally applicable for a large number of communities where low temperature geothermal fluid is available. The proposed district heating system utilizes moderate temperature, clean domestic water and existing community culinary water supply lines. The culinary water supply is heated by a moderate temperature geothermal source using a single heat exchanger at entry to the subdivision. The heated culinary water is then pumped to the houses in the community where energy is extracted by means of a water supplied heat pump. The use of heat pumps at the individual houses allows economic heating to result from supply of relatively cool water to the community, and this precludes the necessity of supplying objectionably hot water for normal household consumption use. Each heat pump unit is isolated from the consumptive water flow such that contamination of the water supply is avoided. The community water delivery system is modified to allow recirculation within the community, and very little rework of existing water lines is required. The entire system coefficient of performance (COP) for a typical year of heating is 3.36, exclusive of well pumping energy.

  4. Improved Modeling of Residential Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps for Energy Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Winkler, J.; Kruis, N.; Christensen, C.; Brandemuehl, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents improved air conditioner and heat pump modeling methods in the context of whole-building simulation tools, with the goal of enabling more accurate evaluation of cost-effective equipment upgrade opportunities and efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  5. A Cross-Sectional Study of Heat Wave-Related Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among the Public in the Licheng District of Jinan City, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Xu, Xin; Ding, Guoyong; Zhao, Yun; Zhao, Ruixia; Xue, Fuzhong; Li, Jing; Gao, Jinghong; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Baofa; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) are three key components for reducing the adverse health impacts of heat waves. However, research in eastern China regarding this is scarce. The present study aimed to evaluate the heat wave-related KAP of a population in Licheng in northeast China. This cross-sectional study included 2241 participants. Data regarding demographic characteristics, KAP, and heat illnesses were collected using a structured questionnaire. Univariate analysis and unconditional logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Most residents had high KAP scores, with a mean score of 12.23 (standard deviation = 2.23) on a 17-point scale. Urban women and participants aged 35–44 years had relatively high total scores, and those with high education levels had the highest total score. There was an increased risk of heat-related illness among those with knowledge scores of 3–5 on an 8-point scale with mean score of 5.40 (standard deviation = 1.45). Having a positive attitude toward sunstroke prevention and engaging in more preventive practices to avoid heat exposure had a protective interaction effect on reducing the prevalence of heat-related illnesses. Although the KAP scores were relatively high, knowledge and practice were lacking to some extent. Therefore, governments should further develop risk-awareness strategies that increase awareness and knowledge regarding the adverse health impact of heat and help in planning response strategies to improve the ability of individuals to cope with heat waves. PMID:27367715

  6. A Cross-Sectional Study of Heat Wave-Related Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice among the Public in the Licheng District of Jinan City, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Xu, Xin; Ding, Guoyong; Zhao, Yun; Zhao, Ruixia; Xue, Fuzhong; Li, Jing; Gao, Jinghong; Yang, Jun; Jiang, Baofa; Liu, Qiyong

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) are three key components for reducing the adverse health impacts of heat waves. However, research in eastern China regarding this is scarce. The present study aimed to evaluate the heat wave-related KAP of a population in Licheng in northeast China. This cross-sectional study included 2241 participants. Data regarding demographic characteristics, KAP, and heat illnesses were collected using a structured questionnaire. Univariate analysis and unconditional logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Most residents had high KAP scores, with a mean score of 12.23 (standard deviation = 2.23) on a 17-point scale. Urban women and participants aged 35-44 years had relatively high total scores, and those with high education levels had the highest total score. There was an increased risk of heat-related illness among those with knowledge scores of 3-5 on an 8-point scale with mean score of 5.40 (standard deviation = 1.45). Having a positive attitude toward sunstroke prevention and engaging in more preventive practices to avoid heat exposure had a protective interaction effect on reducing the prevalence of heat-related illnesses. Although the KAP scores were relatively high, knowledge and practice were lacking to some extent. Therefore, governments should further develop risk-awareness strategies that increase awareness and knowledge regarding the adverse health impact of heat and help in planning response strategies to improve the ability of individuals to cope with heat waves. PMID:27367715

  7. Heat stress management program improving worker health and operational effectiveness: a case study.

    PubMed

    Huss, Rosalyn G; Skelton, Scott B; Alvis, Kimberly L; Shane, Leigh A

    2013-03-01

    Heat stress monitoring is a vital component of an effective health and safety program when employees work in exceptionally warm environments. Workers at hazardous waste sites often wear personal protective equipment (PPE), which increases the body heat stress load. No specific Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations address heat stress; however, OSHA does provide several guidance documents to assist employers in addressing this serious workplace health hazard. This article describes a heat stress and surveillance plan implemented at a hazardous waste site as part of the overall health and safety program. The PPE requirement for work at this site, coupled with extreme environmental temperatures, made heat stress a significant concern. Occupational health nurses and industrial hygienists developed a monitoring program for heat stress designed to prevent the occurrence of significant heat-related illness in site workers. The program included worker education on the signs of heat-related illness and continuous physiologic monitoring to detect early signs of heat-related health problems. Biological monitoring data were collected before workers entered the exclusion zone and on exiting the zone following decontamination. Sixty-six site workers were monitored throughout site remediation. More than 1,700 biological monitoring data points were recorded. Outcomes included improved worker health and safety, and increased operational effectiveness. PMID:23429639

  8. Operations research to add postpartum family planning to maternal and neonatal health to improve birth spacing in Sylhet District, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Salahuddin; Norton, Maureen; Williams, Emma; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Shah, Rasheduzzaman; Begum, Nazma; Mungia, Jaime; Lefevre, Amnesty; Al-Kabir, Ahmed; Winch, Peter J; McKaig, Catharine; Baqui, Abdullah H

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Short birth intervals are associated with increased risk of adverse maternal and neonatal health (MNH) outcomes. Improving postpartum contraceptive use is an important programmatic strategy to improve the health and well-being of women, newborns, and children. This article documents the intervention package and evaluation design of a study conducted in a rural district of Bangladesh to evaluate the effects of an integrated, community-based MNH and postpartum family planning program on contraceptive use and birth-interval lengths. Intervention: The study integrated family planning counseling within 5 community health worker (CHW)-household visits to pregnant and postpartum women, while a community mobilizer (CM) led community meetings on the importance of postpartum family planning and pregnancy spacing for maternal and child health. The CM and the CHWs emphasized 3 messages: (1) Use of the Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM) during the first 6 months postpartum and transition to another modern contraceptive method; (2) Exclusive, rather than fully or nearly fully, breastfeeding to support LAM effectiveness and good infant breastfeeding practices; (3) Use of a modern contraceptive method after a live birth for at least 24 months before attempting another pregnancy (a birth-to-birth interval of about 3 years) to support improved infant health and nutrition. CHWs provided only family planning counseling in the original study design, but we later added community-based distribution of methods, and referrals for clinical methods, to meet women's demand. Methods: Using a quasi-experimental design, and relying primarily on pre/post-household surveys, we selected pregnant women from 4 unions to receive the intervention (n = 2,280) and pregnant women from 4 other unions (n = 2,290) to serve as the comparison group. Enrollment occurred between 2007 and 2009, and data collection ended in January 2013. Preliminary Results: Formative research showed

  9. Materials-research recommendations to improve the performance and durability of solar heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Herzenberg, S.; Silberglitt, R.

    1981-09-11

    The type of materials research most likely to improve the durability and efficiency of future active and passive solar heating and cooling systems is analyzed. Research needs are compared with ongoing solar materials research, and the extent to which present research efforts are addressing the critical flat plate collector needs is assessed. Areas most in need of additional attention are identified. Research recommendations are made for glazing materials, selective absorbers, and heat transfer fluids. (LEW)

  10. Method of Heat Treating Aluminum-Lithium Alloy to Improve Formability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Po-Shou (Inventor); Russell, Carolyn Kurgan (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method is provided for heat treating aluminum-lithium alloys to improve their formability. The alloy is heated to a first temperature, maintained at the first temperature for a first time period, heated at the conclusion of the first time period to a second temperature, maintained at the second temperature for a second time period, actively cooled at the conclusion of the second time period to a third temperature, maintained at the third temperature for a third time period, and then passively cooled at the conclusion of the third time period to room temperature.

  11. Heated apple juice supplemented with onion has greatly improved nutritional quality and browning index.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bonggi; Seo, Jeong Dae; Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Choon Young

    2016-06-15

    Although fruit juices are very popular, enzymatic browning occurs easily. Browning of fruit juice deteriorates nutrition value and product quality due to oxidation of polyphenol compounds. Therefore, development of natural food additives that reduce browning will be beneficial for improving quality of fruit juices. Onion has been reported to be a potent natural anti-browning agent. Here, we compared unheated and heated apple juices pre-supplemented with onion with respect to browning and nutritional quality. The unheated apple juice supplemented with onion showed reduced browning as well as increased total soluble solid, total phenol concentration, radical scavenging activities, and ferric reducing and copper chelating activities without any change in flavonoid concentration. On the other hand, heated juice supplemented with onion not only showed improved values for these parameters but also markedly increased flavonoid concentration. Thus, we conclude that application of heating and onion addition together may greatly improve quality of apple juice. PMID:26868582

  12. Charter Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Anne Turnbaugh

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with superintendents of eight charter-school districts in four states: California, Florida, Georgia, and New Mexico. Describes advantages and disadvantages. Includes a list (with website addresses) of all current charter-school districts. (PKP)

  13. An improved model for provision of rural community-based health rehabilitation services in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Netshandama, Vhonani O.; Francis, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background In 1991, Riakona Community Rehabilitation Programme initiated community-based rehabilitation (CBR) in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province. Subsequently, the South African government adopted the programme. Aim The aim of the study was to suggest an improvement in the model of providing CBR services. Setting The study was conducted in six rehabilitation centres located in hospitals in the Vhembe District in Limpopo Province of South Africa. Method A mixed-mode research design with qualitative and quantitative elements was used to conduct the study. Content analysis, the chi-square test for Goodness of Fit and the Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney non-parametric tests were conducted. Results The key determinants of client satisfaction with the services that the community rehabilitation workers rendered included provision of assistive devices and the adoption of a holistic approach to their work. Overall, satisfaction per domain for each one of the five domains of satisfaction scored less than 90%. More than 80% of clients were satisfied with empathy (83%) and assurance (80%) domains. Tangibles, reliability and responsiveness domains had scores of 78%, 72% and 67%, respectively. These results, together with the reasoning map of conceptual framework description, were used as the building blocks of the CBR model. Conclusion The improved CBR model is useful for putting the programme into practice. This is particularly so for the CBR managers in the districts of the Limpopo Province. PMID:27380835

  14. Improving the installation of renewable heating technology in UK social housing properties through user centred design

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Natalie; Lilley, Debra

    2015-01-01

    Social housing organisations are increasingly installing renewable energy technologies, particularly for the provision of heating and hot water. To meet carbon reduction targets, uptake and installation must allow occupants to use the technology effectively. This paper describes research which investigated the service of installing heat pumps into UK social housing properties, from both landlords’ and tenants’ experiences. Adopting a user centred design approach, the research was in three phases: an exploration study to investigate landlords’ and tenants’ experiences of heat pump installation and use; refinement and development of the requirements for improved service delivery, primarily technology introduction and control; and the development and initial evaluation of an information leaflet as a key touchpoint in the service delivery. Recommendations for improved service delivery, to enable heat pumps to be accepted and used more effectively, are presented, as well as reflection on the process of applying user centred design in this context. In a relatively immature area of industry, installations to date have been heavily focused on technical aspects. This paper provides an insight into the human aspects of the service delivery of heat pumps in social housing, providing designers and social housing landlords with insight about how to improve the service. PMID:26539060

  15. Using Research to Improve College Readiness: A Research Partnership Between the Los Angeles Unified School District and the Los Angeles Education Research Institute

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Meredith; Yamashiro, Kyo; Farrukh, Adina; Lim, Cynthia; Hayes, Katherine; Wagner, Nicole; White, Jeffrey; Chen, Hansheng

    2015-01-01

    The Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) serves a large majority of socioeconomically disadvantaged students who are struggling academically and are underprepared for high school graduation and college. This article describes the partnership between LAUSD and the Los Angeles Education Research Institute, and how this collaboration endeavors to produce accessible and high-quality research to inform pressing problems of practice. The article also presents findings from an ongoing partnership research project analyzing a district policy focused on improving college readiness by aligning high school graduation and college-eligibility requirements. In a cohort that went through high school before the policy became mandatory for all students, less than 1/5 of all students (and 30% of graduates) met the college eligibility criteria. Our findings indicate that academic and behavioral indicators from 8th and 9th grade can help identify for possible intervention students who are not on track to meet these new graduation requirements. PMID:26709340

  16. Gas engine heat pump system and component efficiency and reliability improvement, phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-01-01

    The Gas Research Institute is directing several research projects to develop gas fired heat pumps for residential and light commercial use. The project work discussed in the report identifies and evaluates potential improvements in the cycle and key components of these heat pumps and provides short- and long-term inputs for the heat pump product development efforts. Principal results of Phase I studies under the project are: test procedures for gas fired heat pumps (GFHP), a cycle analysis model for GFHP's, an assessment of appropriate compressor technology for GFHP's, specification of fan operating strategies, a review of emission standards for GFHP's, identification of low-temperature capacity enhancement issues, a guide on the sizing of field tests, current assessments of foreign technology valuable to GFHP's, and an assessment of the health and safety attributes of methylene chloride.

  17. Power density of piezoelectric transformers improved using a contact heat transfer structure.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wei Wei; Chen, Li Juan; Pan, Cheng Liang; Liu, Yong Bin; Feng, Zhi Hua

    2012-01-01

    Based on contact heat transfer, a novel method to increase power density of piezoelectric transformers is proposed. A heat transfer structure is realized by directly attaching a dissipater to the piezoelectric transformer plate. By maintaining the vibration mode of the transformer and limiting additional energy losses from the contact interface, an appropriate design can improve power density of the transformer on a large scale, resulting from effective suppression of its working temperature rise. A prototype device was fabricated from a rectangular piezoelectric transformer, a copper heat transfer sheet, a thermal grease insulation pad, and an aluminum heat radiator. The experimental results show the transformer maintains a maximum power density of 135 W/cm(3) and an efficiency of 90.8% with a temperature rise of less than 10 °C after more than 36 h, without notable changes in performance. PMID:22293737

  18. Impact assessment of biomass-based district heating systems in densely populated communities. Part I: Dynamic intake fraction methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Olga; Bi, Xiaotao; Lau, Anthony

    2015-08-01

    This study contributes to the literature by proposing a novel, state-of-the-art approach to estimate incremental air quality and health impacts of proposed or installed district energy systems (DES), such as the growing biomass-based DES, on the immediately surrounding community where population density varies significantly during day as well as the micrometeorological conditions. Spatial and temporal dynamics of pollutant concentrations at sensitive receptors obtained from modeled actual source emissions, inclusion of site-specific terrain, land use and microclimatic characteristics, population density and breathing rates are examined based on their impacts on the exposure potential expressed by the intake fraction (iF). Overall, results revealed that when those parameters are changing, the increase of iF calculated based on average ambient concentrations at each receptor for the UBC campus for the day and night hours for September 2012, ranges from 6.2% to 43.0%: introducing actual spatial receptor distribution led to 43% increase of iF, combined spatial and population dynamics led to 11.3% increase of iF, while introducing temporal dynamics and varying breathing rates resulted in 6.2% and 21.4% increase in iF respectively, compared to the base case box model where receptors and population were treated as static and uniformly distributed across the modeling domain. It is thus essential to take into consideration temporal and spatial variations of atmospheric conditions and dispersion, population density and varying aspiration rates in accurately assessing the health impacts of DES located at densely populated urban communities.

  19. Study of flow distribution and its improvement on the header of plate-fin heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jian; Li, Yanzhong

    2004-11-01

    In order to enhance the uniformity of flow distribution, an improved header configuration of plate-fin heat exchanger is put forward in this paper. Based on the analysis of the fluid flow maldistribution for the conventional header used in industry, a baffle with small holes of three different kinds of diameters is recommended to install in the header. The flow maldistribution parameter S is obtained under different header configuration. When the baffle is properly installed with an optimum length, with stagger arranged and suitably distributed holes from axial line to baffle boundary, the ratio of the maximum flow velocity to the minimum flow velocity drops from 3.44-3.04 to 1.57-1.68 for various Reynolds numbers. The numerical results indicate that the improved header configuration can effectively improve the performance. The conclusion of this paper is of great significance in the improvement of plate-fin heat exchanger.

  20. Benefits of 25 Years of School District-University Partnerships to Improve Teacher Preparation and Advance School Renewal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holen, Michael C.; Yunk, Dan C.

    2014-01-01

    Generalizing about school district-teacher education program relationships across the long history and broad landscape of teacher preparation in America can prove challenging. However, if partnerships imply stable, long-term, mutually beneficial arrangements characterized by shared decision-making and resources, even a relatively cursory scan…

  1. Improving of Reading in High Schools: Outcomes of Ramp Up to Advanced Literacy in a Large Urban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Marco A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of Ramp Up to Advanced Literacy, an unbundled Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) model, on the reading achievement of ninth grade students in a large urban school district in Kentucky. Using a pre- and posttest impact evaluation design, data from participating and non-participating…

  2. Pieces of the Puzzle: Factors in the Improvement of Urban School Districts on the National Assessment of Educational Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Michael; Price-Baugh, Ricki; Corcoran, Amanda; Lewis, Sharon; Uzzell, Renata; Simon, Candace; Heppen, Jessica; Leinwand, Steve; Salinger, Terry; de Mello, Victor Bandeira; Dogan, Enis; Novotny, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes preliminary and exploratory research conducted by the Council of the Great City Schools and the American Institutes for Research on urban school systems participating in the Trial Urban District Assessment (TUDA) of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The study is one of the first large-scale analyses…

  3. District Disruption & Revival: School Systems Reshape to Compete-and Improve. Quality Counts, 2014. Volume 33, Number 16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Virginia B., Ed.

    2014-01-01

    For all the national and even international debate about the state of American education, public schooling in the U.S. is still a local matter--and the school district remains its hub. As administrators know, there's nothing abstract about the process of getting millions of students into their seats, assuring they receive the instruction they're…

  4. Palmdale School District & Pivot Learning Partners--A Relentless Focus on Improving Student Learning (2006 to 2011). Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, Judith W.

    2011-01-01

    When Palmdale School District and Pivot Learning Partners entered into their first contract in 2006, neither organization foresaw the magnitude and complexity the relationship would take over time. Pivot Learning Partners (formerly known as Springboard Schools) is a non-profit service provider that first entered the Palmdale School District…

  5. Improving Ethnic Balance and Intergroup Relations; An Advisory Report to the Board of Education, New Haven Unified School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Intergroup Relations.

    Using the findings of a field study and an analysis of school data, this report describes the ethnic and racial distribution of students in the New Haven (California) Unified School District and discusses the availability of educational opportunities and proper intergroup relations for minority-group students. Also, the report examines plant…

  6. Do Small Schools Improve Performance in Large, Urban Districts? Causal Evidence from New York City. Working Paper #01-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Stiefel, Leanna; Wiswall, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the effectiveness of small high school reform in the country's largest school district, New York City. Using a rich administrative dataset for multiple cohorts of students and distance between student residence and school to instrument for endogenous school selection, we find substantial heterogeneity in school effects: newly created…

  7. Development and Application of a Numerical Framework for Improving Building Foundation Heat Transfer Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruis, Nathanael J. F.

    Heat transfer from building foundations varies significantly in all three spatial dimensions and has important dynamic effects at all timescales, from one hour to several years. With the additional consideration of moisture transport, ground freezing, evapotranspiration, and other physical phenomena, the estimation of foundation heat transfer becomes increasingly sophisticated and computationally intensive to the point where accuracy must be compromised for reasonable computation time. The tools currently available to calculate foundation heat transfer are often either too limited in their capabilities to draw meaningful conclusions or too sophisticated to use in common practices. This work presents Kiva, a new foundation heat transfer computational framework. Kiva provides a flexible environment for testing different numerical schemes, initialization methods, spatial and temporal discretizations, and geometric approximations. Comparisons within this framework provide insight into the balance of computation speed and accuracy relative to highly detailed reference solutions. The accuracy and computational performance of six finite difference numerical schemes are verified against established IEA BESTEST test cases for slab-on-grade heat conduction. Of the schemes tested, the Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) scheme demonstrates the best balance between accuracy, performance, and numerical stability. Kiva features four approaches of initializing soil temperatures for an annual simulation. A new accelerated initialization approach is shown to significantly reduce the required years of presimulation. Methods of approximating three-dimensional heat transfer within a representative two-dimensional context further improve computational performance. A new approximation called the boundary layer adjustment method is shown to improve accuracy over other established methods with a negligible increase in computation time. This method accounts for the reduced heat transfer

  8. Heat recoverable nickel/titanium alloy with improved stability and machinability

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.D.

    1982-06-29

    Nickel/titanium alloys containing less than a stoichiometric quantity of titanium, which are capable of having the property of heat recoverability imparted thereto at a temperature above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen, may be stabilized by the addition of from 1.5 to 9 atomic percent copper. These stabilized alloys also possess improved workability and machinability.

  9. The Measurement of the Specific Latent Heat of Fusion of Ice: Two Improved Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, S. Y.; Chun, C. K. W.

    2000-01-01

    Suggests two methods for measuring the specific latent heat of ice fusion for high school physics laboratories. The first method is an ice calorimeter which is made from simple materials. The second method improves the thermal contact and allows for a more accurate measurement. Lists instructions for both methods. (Author/YDS)

  10. Btu flow rate meter proof of concept demonstration for district heating and cooling systems: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Mawardi, O.K.

    1988-10-01

    This report describes a research effort devoted to the development and subsequent feasibility demonstration of an instrument for the remote sensing of the Btu flow rate in a steam or hot water heating system. The concept of the Btu meter is based on a differential hot wire anemometer invented by Osman K. Mawardi. The incentive in the development of this device is the increased demand for an inexpensive and accurate (better than 1%) Btu meter. The ability of the meter to be read remotely is essential, since it is an effective way of reducing the manpower costs of the company operating the heating system. Other features of the Btu meter which are included in the design are simplicity of construction, ruggedness, and flexibility of the electronic interfacing system. The latter feature permits the incorporation of the telemetering circuit in a telephone or radio-based communication system. Both of these alternatives are commercially available today and are quite economical. With small modifications of the interfacing circuitry, the meter can be linked to a fiber optics automated meter reading network. 15 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Design of an Improved Heater Array to Measure Microscale Wall Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jungho; Chng, Choon Ping; Kalkur, T. S.

    1996-01-01

    An improved array of microscale heaters is being developed to measure the heat transfer coefficient at many points underneath individual bubbles during boiling as a function of space and time. This heater array enables the local heat transfer from a surface during the bubble growth and departure process to be measured with very high temporal and spatial resolution, and should allow better understanding of the boiling heat transfer mechanisms by pin-pointing when and where in the bubble departure cycle large amounts of wall heat transfer occur. Such information can provide much needed data regarding the important heat transfer mechanisms during the bubble departure cycle, and can serve as benchmarks to validate many of the analytical and numerical models used to simulate boiling. The improvements to the heater array include using a silicon-on-quartz substrate to reduce thermal cross-talk between the heaters, decreased space between the heaters, increased pad sizes on the heaters, and progressive heater sizes. Some results using the present heater array are discussed.

  12. NEXT GENERATION COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMPWATER HEATER USING CARBON DIOXIDE USING DIFFERENT IMPROVEMENT APPROACHES

    SciTech Connect

    Chad Bowers; Michael Petersen; Stefan Elbel; Pega Hrnjak

    2012-04-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82ºC, as required by sanitary codes in the U.S. (Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35 kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20 %.

  13. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENTS IN COMMERCIAL HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS USING CARBON DIOXIDE

    SciTech Connect

    BOWERS C.D.; ELBEL S.; PETERSEN M.; HRNJAK P.S.

    2011-07-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in Japan, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such a product in the U.S. has been slow. This trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but remains in the commercial sector. Barriers to heat pump water heater acceptance in the commercial market have historically been performance, reliability and first/operating costs. The use of carbon dioxide (R744) as the refrigerant in such a system can improve performance for relatively small increase in initial cost and make this technology more appealing. What makes R744 an excellent candidate for use in heat pump water heaters is not only the wide range of ambient temperatures within which it can operate, but also the excellent ability to match water to refrigerant temperatures on the high side, resulting in very high exit water temperatures of up to 82ºC (180ºF), as required by sanitary codes in the U.S.(Food Code, 2005), in a single pass, temperatures that are much more difficult to reach with other refrigerants. This can be especially attractive in applications where this water is used for the purpose of sanitation. While reliability has also been of concern historically, dramatic improvements have been made over the last several years through research done in the automotive industry and commercialization of R744 technology in residential water heating mainly in Japan. This paper presents the performance results from the development of an R744 commercial heat pump water heater of approximately 35kW and a comparison to a baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system which could result in possible energy savings of up to 20%.

  14. Effect of recycling activities on the heating value of solid waste: case study of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (Metro Vancouver).

    PubMed

    Abedini, Ali R; Atwater, James W; Fu, George Yuzhu

    2012-08-01

    Two main goals of the integrated solid waste management system (ISWMS) of Metro Vancouver (MV) include further recycling of waste and energy recovery via incineration of waste. These two very common goals, however, are not always compatible enough to fit in an ISWMS depending on waste characteristics and details of recycling programs. This study showed that recent recycling activities in MV have negatively affected the net heating value (NHV) of municipal solid waste (MSW) in this regional district. Results show that meeting MV's goal for additional recycling of MSW by 2015 will further reduce the NHV of waste, if additional recycling activities are solely focused on more extensive recycling of packaging materials (e.g. paper and plastic). It is concluded that 50% additional recycling of paper and plastic in MV will increase the overall recycling rate to 70% (as targeted by the MV for 2015) and result in more than 8% reduction in NHV of MSW. This reduction translates to up to 2.3 million Canadian dollar (CAD$) less revenue at a potential waste-to-energy (WTE) plant with 500 000 tonnes year(-1) capacity. Properly designed recycling programmes, however, can make this functional element of ISWMS compatible with green goals of energy recovery from waste. Herein an explanation of how communities can increase their recycling activities without affecting the feasibility of potential WTE projects is presented. PMID:22700857

  15. Chemical and physical properties of cyclone fly ash from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues at a small municipal district heating plant (6MW).

    PubMed

    Pöykiö, R; Rönkkömäki, H; Nurmesniemi, H; Perämäki, P; Popov, K; Välimäki, I; Tuomi, T

    2009-03-15

    In Finland, the new limit values for maximal allowable heavy metal concentrations for materials used as an earth construction agent came into force in July 2006. These limit values are applied if ash is utilized, e.g. in roads, cycling paths, pavements, car parks, sport fields, etc. In this study we have determined the most important chemical and physical properties of the cyclone fly ash originating from the grate-fired boiler incinerating forest residues (i.e. wood chips, sawdust and bark) at a small municipal district heating plant (6 MW), Northern Finland. This study clearly shows that elements are enriched in cyclone fly ash, since the total element concentrations in the cyclone fly ash were within 0.2-10 times higher than those in the bottom ash. The total concentrations of Cd (25 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Zn (3630 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Ba (4260 mg kg(-1); d.w.) and Hg (1.7 mg kg(-1); d.w.) exceeded the limit values, and therefore the cyclone fly ash cannot be used as an earth construction agent. According to the leached amounts of Cr (38 mg kg(-1); d.w.), Zn (51 mg kg(-1); d.w.) and sulphate (50,000 mg kg(-1); d.w.), the cyclone fly ash is classified as a hazardous waste, and it has to be deposited in a hazardous waste landfill. PMID:18603362

  16. Georgia Pacific: Crossett Mill Identifies Heat Recovery Projects and Operational Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    2003-10-01

    An assessment team conducted a mill-wide energy survey at Georgia-Pacific's Crossett, Arkansas mill to update a previous pinch analysis. Three heat recovery projects were identified that could reduce annual costs by $4.8 million and reduce natural gas use by 1,845,000 x 106 Btu. The overall payback period for the heat recovery projects would be less than 1 year. Furthermore, by implementing operational improvements, the mill could save $4.8 million more annually and 1,500,000 x 106 Btu in natural gas.

  17. Overview of direct use R&D at the Geo-Heat Center

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.

    1997-12-31

    Geo-Heat Center research, during the past year, on geothermal district heating and greenhouse projects is intended to improve the design and cost effectiveness of these systems. The largest geothermal district heating system in the U.S., proposed at Reno, is describe and is one of 271 collocated sites in western states could benefit from the research. The geothermal district heating research investigated a variety of factors that could reduce development cost for residential areas. Many greenhouse operators prefer the {open_quotes}bare tube{close_quotes} type heating system. As facilities using these types of heating systems expand they could benefit from peaking with fossil fuels. It is possible to design a geothermal heating system for only 60% of the peak heat loss of a greenhouse and still meet over 90% of the annual heat energy needs of the structure. The design and cost effectiveness of this novel approach is summarized.

  18. Experimental study on heat transfer and flow resistance in improved latticework cooling channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hongwu; Wang, Kai; Zhu, Jianqin; Pan, Wenyan

    2013-06-01

    Characteristics of heat transfer and flow resistance of the latticework (vortex) cooling channel with ribs truncated at their two ends were theoretically and experimentally studied compared with regular and smooth channels of the same configuration. The results showed: the heat transfer efficiency of the latticework channel with two slots was better than those of regular and smooth channels of the same configuration, its flow resistance situation in the slotted channel becomes quite complex; The flow resistances of 2 mm- and 4 mm-slotted channels were obviously lower than that of the regular channel, but they are still much higher than that of the smooth channel; Compared with the regular channel, the total heat transfer efficiencies of the slotted channels were pretty improved, among them the 4-mm slotted channel has the biggest enhancement. From the experimental results, it is obvious that the latticework channel with proper slots has a great prospect in the design of the inner cooling channels of turbine blades.

  19. Improved superconducting properties of melt-textured Nd123 by additional heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikumoto, N.; Yoshioka, J.; Murakami, M.

    1997-02-01

    We have investigated the effect of additional heat-treatment on the superconducting transition and the flux pinning properties of NdBaCuO melt-textured in air. After the heat-treatment at high temperatures, >900°C, under low oxygen partial pressure, P(O 2) = 0.001 atm, the superconducting transition became sharper accompanied by an increase of Jc. However, the increase of Jc was very small and the secondary peak effect commonly observed in NdBaCuO melt textured in low P(O 2) could not be observed. Transmission electron microscopic observations and energy dispersive X-ray analyses show that the spatial variation of the Nd/Ba ratio is reduced after high-temperature heat-treatment, which indicates that an improvement in Tc and Jc is attributed to a suppression of Nd substitution on the Ba site.

  20. HEAT: High accuracy extrapolated ab initio thermochemistry. III. Additional improvements and overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, M. E.; Vazquez, J.; Ruscic, B.; Wilson, A. K.; Gauss, J.; Stanton, J. F.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Univ. t Mainz; The Univ. of Texas; Univ. of North Texas

    2008-01-01

    Effects of increased basis-set size as well as a correlated treatment of the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer approximation are studied within the context of the high-accuracy extrapolated ab initio thermochemistry (HEAT) theoretical model chemistry. It is found that the addition of these ostensible improvements does little to increase the overall accuracy of HEAT for the determination of molecular atomization energies. Fortuitous cancellation of high-level effects is shown to give the overall HEAT strategy an accuracy that is, in fact, higher than most of its individual components. In addition, the issue of core-valence electron correlation separation is explored; it is found that approximate additive treatments of the two effects have limitations that are significant in the realm of <1 kJ mol{sup -1} theoretical thermochemistry.

  1. An improved parameterization of electron heating, with application to an X17 flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithtro, C. G.; Solomon, S. C.

    2007-12-01

    Ionospheric models typically rely on parameterizations to account for the effects of secondary ionization and heating by photoelectrons. These parameterizations rely on an assumed form for the input solar irradiance; however, during solar flares the shape of the ionizing spectrum can change dramatically. Solomon and Qian [2005] recently updated the parameterization of secondary ionization to account for spectral changes. In this work, we describe a similar improvement to the parameterization of electron heating. The new algorithm is included in a simple ionospheric model and applied to the X17 flare of 28 Oct 2003. With these changes the modeled electron temperature and neutral gas heating rate are shown to increase significantly over previous results. This has particular relevance to the calculation of flare-induced satellite drag.

  2. Hydraulic characteristics and nutrient transport and transformation beneath a rapid infiltration basin, Reedy Creek Improvement District, Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumner, D.M.; Bradner, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Reedy Creek Improvement District disposes of about 7.5 million gallons per day (1992) of reclaimed water through 85 1-acre rapid infiltration basins within a 1,000-acre area of sandy soils in Orange County, Florida. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted field experiments in 1992 at an individual basin to examine and better understand the hydraulic characteristics and nutrient transport and transformation of reclaimed water beneath a rapid infiltration basin. At the time, concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in reclaimed water were about 3 and 0.25 milligrams per liter, respectively. A two-dimensional, radial, unsaturated/saturated numerical flow model was applied to describe the flow system beneath a rapid infiltration basin under current and hypothetical basin loading scenarios and to estimate the hydraulic properties of the soil and sediment beneath a basin. The thicknesses of the unsaturated and saturated parts of the surficial aquifer system at the basin investigated were about 37 and 52 feet, respectively. The model successfully replicated the field-monitored infiltration rate (about 5.5 feet per day during the daily flooding periods of about 17 hours) and ground-water mounding response during basin operation. Horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity of the saturated part of the surficial aquifer system were estimated to be 150 and 45 feet per day, respectively. The field-saturated vertical hydraulic conductivity of the shallow soil, estimated to be about 5.1 feet per day, was considered to have been less than the full- saturation value because of the effects of air entrapment. Specific yield of the surficial aquifer was estimated to be 0.41. The upper 20 feet of the basin subsurface profile probably served as a system control on infiltration because of the relatively low field-saturated, vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments within this layer. The flow model indicates that, in the vicinity of the basin, flow in the deeper

  3. Two Improvements of an Operational Two-Layer Model for Terrestrial Surface Heat Flux Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Renhua; Tian, Jing; Su, Hongbo; Sun, Xiaomin; Chen, Shaohui; Xia, Jun

    2008-01-01

    In order to make the prediction of land surface heat fluxes more robust, two improvements were made to an operational two-layer model proposed previously by Zhang. These improvements are: 1) a surface energy balance method is used to determine the theoretical boundary lines (namely ‘true wet/cool edge’ and ‘true dry/warm edge’ in the trapezoid) in the scatter plot for the surface temperature versus the fractional vegetation cover in mixed pixels; 2) a new assumption that the slope of the Tm – f curves is mainly controlled by soil water content is introduced. The variables required by the improved method include near surface vapor pressure, air temperature, surface resistance, aerodynamic resistance, fractional vegetation cover, surface temperature and net radiation. The model predictions from the improved model were assessed in this study by in situ measurements, which show that the total latent heat flux from the soil and vegetation are in close agreement with the in situ measurement with an RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) ranging from 30 w/m2∼50 w/m2, which is consistent with the site scale measurement of latent heat flux. Because soil evaporation and vegetation transpiration are not measured separately from the field site, in situ measured CO2 flux is used to examine the modeled λEveg. Similar trends of seasonal variations of vegetation were found for the canopy transpiration retrievals and in situ CO2 flux measurements. The above differences are mainly caused by 1) the scale disparity between the field measurement and the MODIS observation; 2) the non-closure problem of the surface energy balance from the surface fluxes observations themselves. The improved method was successfully used to predict the component surface heat fluxes from the soil and vegetation and it provides a promising approach to study the canopy transpiration and the soil evaporation quantitatively during the rapid growing season of winter wheat in northern China.

  4. Cross Acclimation between Heat and Hypoxia: Heat Acclimation Improves Cellular Tolerance and Exercise Performance in Acute Normobaric Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ben J.; Miller, Amanda; James, Rob S.; Thake, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The potential for cross acclimation between environmental stressors is not well understood. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of fixed-workload heat or hypoxic acclimation on cellular, physiological, and performance responses during post acclimation hypoxic exercise in humans. Method: Twenty-one males (age 22 ± 5 years; stature 1.76 ± 0.07 m; mass 71.8 ± 7.9 kg; V˙O2 peak 51 ± 7 mL.kg−1.min−1) completed a cycling hypoxic stress test (HST) and self-paced 16.1 km time trial (TT) before (HST1, TT1), and after (HST2, TT2) a series of 10 daily 60 min training sessions (50% N V˙O2 peak) in control (CON, n = 7; 18°C, 35% RH), hypoxic (HYP, n = 7; fraction of inspired oxygen = 0.14, 18°C, 35% RH), or hot (HOT, n = 7; 40°C, 25% RH) conditions. Results: TT performance in hypoxia was improved following both acclimation treatments, HYP (−3:16 ± 3:10 min:s; p = 0.0006) and HOT (−2:02 ± 1:02 min:s; p = 0.005), but unchanged after CON (+0:31 ± 1:42 min:s). Resting monocyte heat shock protein 72 (mHSP72) increased prior to HST2 in HOT (62 ± 46%) and HYP (58 ± 52%), but was unchanged after CON (9 ± 46%), leading to an attenuated mHSP72 response to hypoxic exercise in HOT and HYP HST2 compared to HST1 (p < 0.01). Changes in extracellular hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α followed a similar pattern to those of mHSP72. Physiological strain index (PSI) was attenuated in HOT (HST1 = 4.12 ± 0.58, HST2 = 3.60 ± 0.42; p = 0.007) as a result of a reduced HR (HST1 = 140 ± 14 b.min−1; HST2 131 ± 9 b.min−1 p = 0.0006) and Trectal (HST1 = 37.55 ± 0.18°C; HST2 37.45 ± 0.14°C; p = 0.018) during exercise. Whereas PSI did not change in HYP (HST1 = 4.82 ± 0.64, HST2 4.83 ± 0.63). Conclusion: Heat acclimation improved cellular and systemic physiological tolerance to steady state exercise in moderate hypoxia. Additionally we show, for the first time, that heat acclimation improved cycling time trial performance to a magnitude

  5. Additional cooling and heating load improvements in seasonal performance modeling of room and central air conditioners and heat pumps. Topical report, Subtask 3. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-09

    The study focuses on improving the load modeling technique of Seasonal Performance Model (SPM) in order to estimate a more realistic load for seasonal analysis calculations on an hourly basis. A computer simulation program, Seasonal Performance Model Load (SPMLD), was used to calculate the cooling and heating loads for a typical residence in Caribou, Maine; Columbia, Missouri; and Fort Worth, Texas. The derivation of the SPMLD is described and changes made to improve cooling and heating load estimates are identified. (MCW)

  6. Improved kernel gradient free-smoothed particle hydrodynamics and its applications to heat transfer problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan-Mian, Lei; Xue-Ying, Peng

    2016-02-01

    Kernel gradient free-smoothed particle hydrodynamics (KGF-SPH) is a modified smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method which has higher precision than the conventional SPH. However, the Laplacian in KGF-SPH is approximated by the two-pass model which increases computational cost. A new kind of discretization scheme for the Laplacian is proposed in this paper, then a method with higher precision and better stability, called Improved KGF-SPH, is developed by modifying KGF-SPH with this new Laplacian model. One-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) heat conduction problems are used to test the precision and stability of the Improved KGF-SPH. The numerical results demonstrate that the Improved KGF-SPH is more accurate than SPH, and stabler than KGF-SPH. Natural convection in a closed square cavity at different Rayleigh numbers are modeled by the Improved KGF-SPH with shifting particle position, and the Improved KGF-SPH results are presented in comparison with those of SPH and finite volume method (FVM). The numerical results demonstrate that the Improved KGF-SPH is a more accurate method to study and model the heat transfer problems.

  7. Improvement on heating efficiency of fuel in coke oven at CSC

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, M.T.; Chen, C.W.; Shen, J.F.; Hsiao, C.H.; Hsieh, D.L.; Chung, K.A.

    1996-12-31

    A heat input management of coke oven, consisting of two subsystems respectively for setting proper coking time, diagnosing thermal state of coke oven in horizontal and longitudinal direction, was developed. It aimed to control the average oven temperature to the suitable level and to diminish the deviations of temperature between each heating walls. In subsystem 1, the measured flue temperature was corrected by a reversed cooling curve and compared with an ideal transversal profile. A precise thermal state of battery heating was therefore induced. In subsystem 2, with the measurement of gas temperature at ascending pipe, a coking completion table composed of production ratio, coal moisture and flue temperature was established for setting the target flue temperature. Since this coke oven combustion management system was adopted, the remarkable heating improvement has been achieved, for an example at Phase III, the average temperature of coke oven was decreased from 1,262 C to 1,240 C, the fuel was thus saved, the wall temperature was more even and the coke qualities were also improved.

  8. Improved heat dissipation in gallium nitride light-emitting diodes with embedded graphene oxide pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Nam; Viet Cuong, Tran; Han, Min; Deul Ryu, Beo; Chandramohan, S.; Bae Park, Jong; Hye Kang, Ji; Park, Young-Jae; Bok Ko, Kang; Yun Kim, Hee; Kyu Kim, Hyun; Hyoung Ryu, Jae; Katharria, Y. S.; Choi, Chel-Jong; Hong, Chang-Hee

    2013-02-01

    The future of solid-state lighting relies on how the performance parameters will be improved further for developing high-brightness light-emitting diodes. Eventually, heat removal is becoming a crucial issue because the requirement of high brightness necessitates high-operating current densities that would trigger more joule heating. Here we demonstrate that the embedded graphene oxide in a gallium nitride light-emitting diode alleviates the self-heating issues by virtue of its heat-spreading ability and reducing the thermal boundary resistance. The fabrication process involves the generation of scalable graphene oxide microscale patterns on a sapphire substrate, followed by its thermal reduction and epitaxial lateral overgrowth of gallium nitride in a metal-organic chemical vapour deposition system under one-step process. The device with embedded graphene oxide outperforms its conventional counterpart by emitting bright light with relatively low-junction temperature and thermal resistance. This facile strategy may enable integration of large-scale graphene into practical devices for effective heat removal.

  9. Fluid Analysis and Improved Structure of an ATEG Heat Exchanger Based on Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Z. B.; Deng, Y. D.; Su, C. Q.; Yuan, X. H.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, a numerical model has been employed to analyze the internal flow field distribution in a heat exchanger applied for an automotive thermoelectric generator based on computational fluid dynamics. The model simulates the influence of factors relevant to the heat exchanger, including the automotive waste heat mass flow velocity, temperature, internal fins, and back pressure. The result is in good agreement with experimental test data. Sensitivity analysis of the inlet parameters shows that increase of the exhaust velocity, compared with the inlet temperature, makes little contribution (0.1 versus 0.19) to the heat transfer but results in a detrimental back pressure increase (0.69 versus 0.21). A configuration equipped with internal fins is proved to offer better thermal performance compared with that without fins. Finally, based on an attempt to improve the internal flow field, a more rational structure is obtained, offering a more homogeneous temperature distribution, higher average heat transfer coefficient, and lower back pressure.

  10. Note: design and development of improved indirectly heated cathode based strip electron gun.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Namita; Bade, Abhijeet; Tembhare, G U; Patil, D S; Dasgupta, K

    2015-02-01

    An improved design of indirectly heated solid cathode based electron gun (200 kW, 45 kV, 270° bent strip type electron gun) has been presented. The solid cathode is made of thoriated tungsten, which acts as an improved source of electron at lower temperature. So, high power operation is possible without affecting structural integrity of the electron gun. The design issues are addressed based on the uniformity of temperature on the solid cathode and the single long filament based design. The design approach consists of simulation followed by extensive experimentation. In the design, the effort has been put to tailor the non-uniformity of the heat flux from the filament to the solid cathode to obtain better uniformity of temperature on the solid cathode. Trial beam experiments have been carried out and it is seen that the modified design achieves one to one correspondence of the solid cathode length and the electron beam length. PMID:25725898

  11. Note: Design and development of improved indirectly heated cathode based strip electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, Namita; Patil, D. S.; Dasgupta, K.; Bade, Abhijeet; Tembhare, G. U.

    2015-02-15

    An improved design of indirectly heated solid cathode based electron gun (200 kW, 45 kV, 270° bent strip type electron gun) has been presented. The solid cathode is made of thoriated tungsten, which acts as an improved source of electron at lower temperature. So, high power operation is possible without affecting structural integrity of the electron gun. The design issues are addressed based on the uniformity of temperature on the solid cathode and the single long filament based design. The design approach consists of simulation followed by extensive experimentation. In the design, the effort has been put to tailor the non-uniformity of the heat flux from the filament to the solid cathode to obtain better uniformity of temperature on the solid cathode. Trial beam experiments have been carried out and it is seen that the modified design achieves one to one correspondence of the solid cathode length and the electron beam length.

  12. Microseismic monitoring for evidence of geothermal heat in the capital district of New York. Final report, Phases I-III

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The seismic monitoring work of the geothermal project was initiated for the purpose of determining more exactly the relationship between seismicity and the postulated geothermal and related activity in the Albany-Saratoga Springs area in upstate New York. The seismic monitoring aspect of this work consisted of setting up and operating a network of seven seismograph stations within and around the study area capable of detecting and locating small earthquakes. To supplement the evidence from present day seismic activity, a list of all known historical and early instrumental earthquakes was compiled and improved from original sources for a larger region centered on the study area. Additional field work was done to determine seismic velocities of P and S phases by special recording of quarry blasts. The velocity results were used both as an aid to improve earthquake locations based on computer programs and to make inferences about the existence of temperature anomalies, and hence geothermal potential, at depths beneath the study area. Finally, the level in the continuous background earth vibration, microseisms, was measured throughout the study area to test a possibility that a relationship may exist at the surface between the level in microseisms and the geothermal or related activity. The observed seismic activity within the study area, although considerably higher (two to three times) than inferred from the historical and early instrumental data, is still not only low for a potential geothermal area but appears to be related to coherent regional tectonic stresses and not to the proposed more localized geothermal activity reflected in the mineralized, CO/sub 2/ rich spring discharge.

  13. Improving financial access to health care in the Kisantu district in the Democratic Republic of Congo: acting upon complexity

    PubMed Central

    Stasse, Stéphanie; Vita, Dany; Kimfuta, Jacques; da Silveira, Valèria Campos; Bossyns, Paul; Criel, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Background Comzmercialization of health care has contributed to widen inequities between the rich and the poor, especially in settings with suboptimal regulatory frameworks of the health sector. Poorly regulated fee-for-service payment systems generate inequity and initiate a vicious circle in which access to quality health care gradually deteriorates. Although the abolition of user fees is high on the international health policy agenda, the sudden removal of user fees may have disrupting effects on the health system and may not be affordable or sustainable in resource-constrained countries, such as the Democratic Republic of Congo. Methods and Results Between 2008 and 2011, the Belgian development aid agency (BTC) launched a set of reforms in the Kisantu district, in the province of Bas Congo, through an action-research process deemed appropriate for the implementation of change within open complex systems such as the Kisantu local health system. Moreover, the entire process contributed to strengthen the stewardship capacity of the Kisantu district management team. The reforms mainly comprised the rationalization of resources and the regulation of health services financing. Flat fees per episode of disease were introduced as an alternative to fee-for-service payments by patients. A financial subsidy from BTC allowed to reduce the height of the flat fees. The provision of the subsidy was made conditional upon a range of measures to rationalize the use of resources. Conclusions The results in terms of enhancing people access to quality health care were immediate and substantial. The Kisantu experience demonstrates that a systems approach is essential in addressing complex problems. It provides useful lessons for other districts in the country. PMID:25563450

  14. From many deaths to some few cases of drug-resistant tuberculosis: travelling with the systems quality improvement model in Lacs Health District, Togo

    PubMed Central

    Afanvi, Kossivi Agbelenko

    2015-01-01

    The ultimate goal of every tuberculosis (TB) treatment program is a high treatment success rate. Treatment success is extremely important because, when the rate is high, it significantly contributes to declining numbers of new cases by reducing the number and period of infectious cases, TB morbidity and mortality, and prevents the emergence of resistant strains. Our aim was to decrease TB mortality by increasing pulmonary TB patients’ treatment success rate to at least 85 % in Lacs Health District by end of July 2014. A systems and dialogic analysis of the public health system related to TB patients’ treatment revealed that it was not performing well; we found weak coverage and quality of TB services, a poorly-functioning TB health information system, poor-performing health workforce, poor availability of HIV tests and antiretroviral for TB patients, and low degree of patients’ participation in their care. We redesigned the system to correct those weaknesses. The effectiveness of these changes was monitored using plan, do, study, act (PDSA) cycles. We increased TB patient success rate from 80% to 95% between February 2012 and July 2014.The mortality rate dropped from 13% to 3% and the failure to follow-up rate dropped from 3% to 2%. In conclusion, district health systems performance depends on factors such as the closeness of services to population; skilled workforce; the ability to collect and analyze data and use information for action; population empowerment, and good management and improvement capabilities of management team especially the public health director. High TB patients’ success rate depends also on the availability of antiretroviral drugs. It is highly important that every district health management team member develops improvement capabilities. PMID:26734412

  15. Improvement of Electrochemical Response of Cocaine Sensors Based on DNA Aptamer by Heat Treatment.

    PubMed

    Arimoto, Satoshi; Shimono, Ken; Yasukawa, Tomoyuki; Mizutani, Fumio; Yoshioka, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    We report on a biosensor for cocaine based on the conformation change of DNA aptamer by capturing the cocaine molecules. The oxidation current of ferrocene conjugated on the terminal end of aptamer immobilized on an Au electrode increased with increasing cocaine concentration. The sensor response has been improved by a simple heat treatment after immobilization, since the aggregates of DNA aptamer generated during the immobilization step could be dissociated and rearranged on the electrode. PMID:27063722

  16. Uniform Thermal Nanoimprinting at Low Pressure by Improved Heat Transfer Using Hydrofluoroethers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekaru, Harutaka; Hiroshima, Hiroshi

    2013-06-01

    We propose a low-pressure process of thermal nanoimprinting by improved heat transfer. In poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET; Tg=75 °C), poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA; Tg=105 °C), and polycarbonate (PC; Tg=150 °C), in which fine pattern transfer can be performed at 12.9 MPa, if the imprinting pressure is reduced to one-third, poor transfer occurs at the edges of the patterned area, and the uniformity of the entire patterned area degrades. However, it turned out that moldability can be improved significantly by introducing hydrofluoroether (HFE) between the mold and the surface of thermoplastic sheets. A dispensing method using a pipette was chosen to introduce HFE, and three types of HFE liquid, namely, Novec 7100 (bp=61 °C), Novec 7200 (bp=76 °C), and Novec 7300 (bp=98 °C), were tested. It was confirmed that the uniformity was greatly improved by combinations of PET and Novec 7100, PMMA and Novec 7200, and PC and Novec 7300. The heat of the mold spread efficiently onto the surface of thermoplastics via the HFE liquid, and it seems to result in the same effect as a preliminary heating process before the mold comes into contact with the thermoplastic sheet.

  17. Heat acclimation improves cutaneous vascular function and sweating in trained cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, Santiago

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore heat acclimation effects on cutaneous vascular responses and sweating to local ACh infusions and local heating. We also sought to examine whether heat acclimation altered maximal skin blood flow. ACh (1, 10, and 100 mM) was infused in 20 highly trained cyclists via microdialysis before and after a 10-day heat acclimation program [two 45-min exercise bouts at 50% maximal O2 uptake (V̇o2max) in 40°C (n = 12)] or control conditions [two 45-min exercise bouts at 50% V̇o2max in 13°C (n = 8)]. Skin blood flow was monitored via laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF), and cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as LDF ÷ mean arterial pressure. Sweat rate was measured by resistance hygrometry. Maximal brachial artery blood flow (forearm blood flow) was obtained by heating the contralateral forearm in a water spray device and measured by Doppler ultrasound. Heat acclimation increased %CVCmax responses to 1, 10, and 100 mM ACh (43.5 ± 3.4 vs. 52.6 ± 2.6% CVCmax, 67.7 ± 3.4 vs. 78.0 ± 3.0% CVCmax, and 81.0 ± 3.8 vs. 88.5 ± 1.1% CVCmax, respectively, all P < 0.05). Maximal forearm blood flow remained unchanged after heat acclimation (290.9 ± 12.7 vs. 269.9 ± 23.6 ml/min). The experimental group showed significant increases in sweating responses to 10 and 100 mM ACh (0.21 ± 0.03 vs. 0.31 ± 0.03 mg·cm−2·min−1 and 0.45 ± 0.05 vs. 0.67 ± 0.06 mg·cm−2·min−1, respectively, all P < 0.05), but not to 1 mM ACh (0.13 ± 0.02 vs. 0.18 ± 0.02 mg·cm−2·min−1, P = 0.147). No differences in any of the variables were found in the control group. Heat acclimation in highly trained subjects induced local adaptations within the skin microcirculation and sweat gland apparatus. Furthermore, maximal skin blood flow was not altered by heat acclimation, demonstrating that the observed changes were attributable to improvement in cutaneous vascular function and not to structural changes that limit maximal vasodilator capacity

  18. Sampling Line Heating Improves Frequency Response of Enclosed Eddy Covariance Gas Analyzers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burba, G. G.; Fratini, G.; Metzger, S.; Kathilankal, J. C.; Trutna, D.; Luo, H.; Burns, S. P.; Blanken, P.

    2015-12-01

    One of the challenges when measuring eddy-covariance fluxes with closed gas analyzers is high frequency attenuation due to the passage of the sampled air through a gas sampling system (GSS). The problem is particularly relevant for gases that undergo strong sorption processes, such as H2O. Recent "enclosed" analyzer designs (e.g. LI-7200, LI-COR Biosciences Inc.) mitigate the problem by allowing a reduced length of the intake tube (<1 m). Further improvements can come from carefully designed filtering and heating systems that reduce hygroscopic particulates and H2O adsorption on GSS surfaces. Because the sorption processes of H2O increase exponentially with air relative humidity (RH), low-pass filtering effects can be reduced by reducing RH inside the GSS, for example by increasing air temperature via heating. In this work, we evaluate the effects of several heating strategies with the aim of optimizing the LI-7200 performance while limiting the implied increase in power consumption. From field tests we found that 4 W of heating applied uniformly to a rain cap-integrated 2 µm particulate filter (FW-series, Swagelok) and a 700 mm stainless steel tube with 4.8 mm inner diameter reduces the occurrence of problematic RH levels (>60%) in the LI-7200 by ≈50%. As a result, the system half-power frequency increased by ≈1 Hz, and the remaining cospectral correction did not exceed 3%, even at very high ambient RH (95%). While little further improvement was found for increased heating powers, it is possible to optimize the sequence of GSS components and their heating: we found that positioning the particulate filter ≈20 cm downstream of the rain cap and concentrating 2/3 of the heat in this first 20 cm, and 1/3 in the remainder of the tube, provides optimal performances. Using model cospectra and a range of realistic measurement and environmental conditions, we estimated H2O spectral corrections to reduce by ≈50-70%, getting very close to those of CO2 in most

  19. Subcooled Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Mechanisms in Microgravity: Terrier-improved Orion Sounding Rocket Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jungho; Benton, John; Kucner, Robert

    2000-01-01

    A microscale heater array was used to study boiling in earth gravity and microgravity. The heater array consisted of 96 serpentine heaters on a quartz substrate. Each heater was 0.27 square millimeters. Electronic feedback loops kept each heater's temperature at a specified value. The University of Maryland constructed an experiment for the Terrier-Improved Orion sounding rocket that was delivered to NASA Wallops and flown. About 200 s of high quality microgravity and heat transfer data were obtained. The VCR malfunctioned, and no video was acquired. Subsequently, the test package was redesigned to fly on the KC-135 to obtain both data and video. The pressure was held at atmospheric pressure and the bulk temperature was about 20 C. The wall temperature was varied from 85 to 65 C. Results show that gravity has little effect on boiling heat transfer at wall superheats below 25 C, despite vast differences in bubble behavior between gravity levels. In microgravity, a large primary bubble was surrounded by smaller bubbles, which eventually merged with the primary bubble. This bubble was formed by smaller bubbles coalescing, but had a constant size for a given superheat, indicating a balance between evaporation at the base and condensation on the cap. Most of the heaters under the bubble indicated low heat transfer, suggesting dryout at those heaters. High heat transfer occurred at the contact line surrounding the primary bubble. Marangoni convection formed a "jet" of fluid into the bulk fluid that forced the bubble onto the heater.

  20. Improving the heat transfer efficiency of synthetic oil with silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, Elena V; Moravek, Michael R; Singh, Dileep

    2011-12-01

    The heat transfer properties of synthetic oil (Therminol 66) used for high temperature applications was improved by introducing 15 nm silicon dioxide nanoparticles. Stable suspensions of inorganic nanoparticles in the non-polar fluid were prepared using a cationic surfactant (benzalkonium chloride). The effects of nanoparticle and surfactant concentrations on thermo-physical properties (viscosity, thermal conductivity and total heat absorption) of these nanofluids were investigated in a wide temperature range. The surfactant-to-nanoparticle (SN) ratio was optimized for higher thermal conductivity and lower viscosity, which are both critical for the efficiency of heat transfer. The rheological behavior of SiO(2)/TH66 nanofluids was correlated to average agglomerate sizes, which were shown to vary with SN ratio and temperature. The conditions of ultrasonic treatment were studied and the temporary decrease of agglomerate size from an equilibrium size (characteristic to SN ratio) was demonstrated. The heat transfer efficiencies were estimated for the formulated nanofluids for both turbulent and laminar flow regimes and were compared to the performance of the base fluid. PMID:21889163

  1. Improving the efficiency of high-power diode lasers using diamond heat sinks

    SciTech Connect

    Parashchuk, Valentin V; Baranov, V V; Telesh, E V; Mien, Vu Doan; Luc, Vu Van; Truong, Pham Van; Belyaeva, A K

    2010-06-23

    Using multifunctional ion beam and magnetron sputtering systems, we have developed chemical and vacuum techniques for producing metallic coatings firmly adherent to various surfaces, with application to copper and diamond heat sinks for diode lasers. Conditions have been optimised for mounting diode lasers and bars using the proposed metallisation processes, and significant improvements in the output parameters of the devices have been achieved. The power output of cw laser diodes on diamond heat sinks increases by up to a factor of 2, the linear (working) portion of their power-current characteristic becomes markedly broader, and their slope efficiency increases by a factor of 1.5 - 2 relative to that of lasers on copper heat spreaders. The use of diamond heat sinks extends the drive current range of pulsed diode bars by a factor of 2 - 3 and enables them to operate at more than one order of magnitude longer pump pulse durations (up to milliseconds) when the pulse repetition rate is at least 10 Hz. (lasers)

  2. Improvement of Temperature Uniformity for Polymerase Chain Reaction Chip with Heat Spreader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rong-Sheng; Mao, Chao-Yang; Chen, Yung-Shieng

    2007-11-01

    For polymerase chain reaction (PCR) applications, a uniform temperature field in the microreactor is crucial. In this paper, we report on the electrothermal and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations performed with the aim of optimizing the temperature distribution by heat spreaders for PCR application. Firstly, the equivalent resistivity of the microresistor heater is evaluated, and a conformable result is then verified by comparing with the experimental result using a prototype PCR chip. Secondly, the temperature distribution at 94 °C in the PCR chip is investigated. Furthermore, a heat spreader is inserted into the PCR chip to reduce the temperature difference in the DNA sample and thus improve the temperature uniformity effectively. The results demonstrated that the effective volume percentage and the energy consumption in the chamber are positively related to the thickness of the heat spreader, while the temperature difference is inversely related to the thickness of the heat spreader. Finally, the (b)-design is better than the (a)-design in terms of both the increase in effective volume percentage of the DNA sample and the decrease in energy consumption. In other words, the (b)-design is recognized as having better temperature uniformity.

  3. Reduction of heat stress on naval ships through improved insulation installations

    SciTech Connect

    Rogus, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    Efforts to reduce heat stress conditions in shipboard engineering work spaces are assigned high priority within the Navy. Recent questions have been raised concerning the effectiveness of thermal insulation on shipboard installations to reduce the radiant heat imposed on personnel. A major issue of concern is whether or not the new asbestos-free insulations are as efficient as their asbestos-containing predecessors with regard to the transmission of radiant energy. A test program was initiated to investigate the newer, asbestos-free thermal insulations with regard to radiant energy considerations. The work was intended to provide a basis for reducing radiant heat in the work spaces through modification of existing insulation systems. The effort included contacting insulation manufacturers, performing shipboard surveys, and conducting a series of experiments designed to investigate radiant heat considerations. This paper describes the testing phase of the effort, including a discussion of obtained results. In addition, the latest Navy actions to improve habitability conditions in hot shipboard work areas are presented.

  4. Reduction of heat stress on naval ships through improved insulation installations

    SciTech Connect

    Rogus, B.J.

    1981-12-01

    Efforts to reduce heat stress conditions in shipboard engineering work spaces are assigned high priority within the Navy. Recent questions have been raised concerning the effectiveness of thermal insulation on shipboard installations to reduce the radiant heat imposed on personnel. A major issue of concern is whether or not the new asbestos-free insulations are as efficient as their asbestos-containing predecessors with regard to the transmission of radiant energy. A test program was initiated to investigate the newer, asbestos-free thermal insulations with regard to radiant energy considerations. The work was intended to provide a basis for reducing radiant heat in the work spaces through modification of existing insulation systems. The effort included contacting insulation manufacturers, performing shipboard surveys, and conducting a series of experiments designed to investigate radiant heat considerations. This paper describes the testing phase of the effort, including a discussion of obtained results. In addition, the latest Navy actions to improve habitability conditions in hot shipboard work areas are presented.

  5. Fuel Properties Improvement of Jatropha Oil using Exhaust Heat of Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raheman, H.; Pradhan, P.

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present work is to design a helical coil heat exchanger to extract waste heat from exhaust gas of a diesel engine to improve the fuel properties of high viscous crude Jatropha oil (CJO). A detailed designed procedure of helical coil heat exchanger was reported in this paper. The results showed that the fuel properties like density and viscosity reduced by 2.13 and 48.76 % respectively by gaining temperature from exhaust gas. Finally preheated Jatropha oil (PJO) fueled to the 5.5 kW diesel engine and it operated smoothly with a maximum brake thermal efficiency of 29.15 % as compared to 29.88 and 28.33 % for HSD and CJO, respectively. The brake specific energy consumption of CJO and PJO was found to be only 2.84 and 5.47 % higher than that of HSD, respectively. Efficiency of the heat exchanger was found to be varying between 19 and 26 % with engine load.

  6. Improved Ionospheric Electrodynamic Models and Application to Calculating Joule Heating Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weimer, D. R.

    2004-01-01

    Improved techniques have been developed for empirical modeling of the high-latitude electric potentials and magnetic field aligned currents (FAC) as a function of the solar wind parameters. The FAC model is constructed using scalar magnetic Euler potentials, and functions as a twin to the electric potential model. The improved models have more accurate field values as well as more accurate boundary locations. Non-linear saturation effects in the solar wind-magnetosphere coupling are also better reproduced. The models are constructed using a hybrid technique, which has spherical harmonic functions only within a small area at the pole. At lower latitudes the potentials are constructed from multiple Fourier series functions of longitude, at discrete latitudinal steps. It is shown that the two models can be used together in order to calculate the total Poynting flux and Joule heating in the ionosphere. An additional model of the ionospheric conductivity is not required in order to obtain the ionospheric currents and Joule heating, as the conductivity variations as a function of the solar inclination are implicitly contained within the FAC model's data. The models outputs are shown for various input conditions, as well as compared with satellite measurements. The calculations of the total Joule heating are compared with results obtained by the inversion of ground-based magnetometer measurements. Like their predecessors, these empirical models should continue to be a useful research and forecast tools.

  7. Heat transfer enhancement in a lithium-ion cell through improved material-level thermal transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwakarma, Vivek; Waghela, Chirag; Wei, Zi; Prasher, Ravi; Nagpure, Shrikant C.; Li, Jianlin; Liu, Fuqiang; Daniel, Claus; Jain, Ankur

    2015-12-01

    While Li-ion cells offer excellent electrochemical performance for several applications including electric vehicles, they also exhibit poor thermal transport characteristics, resulting in reduced performance, overheating and thermal runaway. Inadequate heat removal from Li-ion cells originates from poor thermal conductivity within the cell. This paper identifies the rate-limiting material-level process that dominates overall thermal conduction in a Li-ion cell. Results indicate that thermal characteristics of a Li-ion cell are largely dominated by heat transfer across the cathode-separator interface rather than heat transfer through the materials themselves. This interfacial thermal resistance contributes around 88% of total thermal resistance in the cell. Measured value of interfacial resistance is close to that obtained from theoretical models that account for weak adhesion and large acoustic mismatch between cathode and separator. Further, to address this problem, an amine-based chemical bridging of the interface is carried out. This is shown to result in in four-times lower interfacial thermal resistance without deterioration in electrochemical performance, thereby increasing effective thermal conductivity by three-fold. This improvement is expected to reduce peak temperature rise during operation by 60%. By identifying and addressing the material-level root cause of poor thermal transport in Li-ion cells, this work may contributes towards improved thermal performance of Li-ion cells.

  8. USING LIGA BASED MICROFABRICATION TO IMPROVE OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER EFFICIENCY OF PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR: I. Effects of Different Micro Pattern on Overall Heat Transfer.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, M.; Ibekwe, S.; Li, G.; Pang, S.S.; and Lian, K.

    2006-07-01

    The Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs in Figure 1) were originally developed for naval propulsion purposes, and then adapted to land-based applications. It has three parts: the reactor coolant system, the steam generator and the condenser. The Steam generator (a yellow area in Figure 1) is a shell and tube heat exchanger with high-pressure primary water passing through the tube side and lower pressure secondary feed water as well as steam passing through the shell side. Therefore, a key issue in increasing the efficiency of heat exchanger is to improve the design of steam generator, which is directly translated into economic benefits. The past research works show that the presence of a pin-fin array in a channel enhances the heat transfer significantly. Hence, using microfabrication techniques, such as LIGA, micro-molding or electroplating, some special microstructures can be fabricated around the tubes in the heat exchanger to increase the heat-exchanging efficiency and reduce the overall size of the heat-exchanger for the given heat transfer rates. In this paper, micro-pin fins of different densities made of SU-8 photoresist are fabricated and studied to evaluate overall heat transfer efficiency. The results show that there is an optimized micro pin-fin configuration that has the best overall heat transfer effects.

  9. Improving the bioactivity of NiTi shape memory alloy by heat and alkali treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Wei; Zhen-duo, Cui; Xian-jin, Yang; Jie, Shi

    2008-11-01

    TiO 2 films were formed on an NiTi alloy surface by heat treatment in air at 600 °C. Heat treated NiTi shape memory alloys were subsequently alkali treated with 1 M, 3 M and 5 M NaOH solutions respectively, to improve their bioactivity. Then treated NiTi samples were soaked in 1.5SBF to evaluate their in vitro performance. The results showed that the 3 M NaOH treatment is the most appropriate method. A large amount of apatite formed within 1 day's soaking in 1.5SBF, after 7 day's soaking TiO 2/HA composite layer formed on the NiTi surface. SEM, XRD, FT-IR and TEM results showed that the morphology and microstructure are similar to the human bone apatite.

  10. Acclimation Training Improves Endurance Cycling Performance in the Heat without Inducing Endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Joshua H.; Pyne, David B.; Deakin, Glen B.; Miller, Catherine M.; Edwards, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: While the intention of endurance athletes undertaking short term heat training protocols is to rapidly gain meaningful physical adaption prior to competition in the heat, it is currently unclear whether or not this process also presents an overt, acute challenge to the immune system. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the effects of heat training on both endurance performance and biomarkers associated with inflammatory and immune system responses. Methods: Moderately-actively males (n = 24) were allocated randomly to either HOT (n = 8, 35°C, and 70% RH; NEUTRAL (n = 8, 20°C, and 45% RH); or a non-exercising control group, (CON, n = 8). Over the 18 day study HOT and NEUTRAL performed seven training sessions (40 min cycling at 55 of VO2 max) and all participants completed three heat stress tests (HST) at 35°C and 70% RH. The HST protocol comprised three × sub-maximal intervals followed by a 5 km time trial on a cycle ergometer. Serum samples were collected before and after each HST and analyzed for interleukin-6, immunoglobulin M and lipopolysaccharide. Results: Both HOT and NEUTRAL groups experienced substantial improvement to 5 km time trial performance (HOT −33 ± 20 s, p = 0.02, NEUTRAL −39 ± 18 s, p = 0.01) but only HOT were faster (−45 ± 25 s, and −12 s ± 7 s, p = 0.01) in HST3 compared to baseline and HST2. Interleukin-6 was elevated after exercise for all groups however there were no significant changes for immunoglobulin M or lipopolysaccharide. Conclusions: Short-term heat training enhances 5 km cycling time trial performance in moderately-fit subjects by ~6%, similar in magnitude to exercise training in neutral conditions.Three top-up training sessions yielded a further 3% improvement in performance for the HOT group. Furthermore, the heat training did not pose a substantial challenge to the immune system. PMID:27524970

  11. Innovation to improve health care provision and health systems in sub-Saharan Africa - promoting agency in mid-level workers and district managers.

    PubMed

    Fonn, Sharon; Ray, Sunanda; Blaauw, Duane

    2011-01-01

    Initiatives to address the human resource crisis in African health systems have included expanded training of mid-level workers (MLWs). Currently, MLWs are the backbone of many health systems in Africa but they are often de-motivated and they often operate in circumstances in which providing high quality care is challenging. Therefore, assuming that introducing additional people will materially change health system performance is unrealistic. We briefly critique such unifocal interventions and review the literature to understand the factors that affect the motivation and performance of MLWs. Three themes emerge: the low status and inadequate recognition of MLWs, quality of care issues and working in poorly managed systems. In response we propose three interrelated interventions: a regional association of MLWs to enhance their status and recognition, a job enrichment and mentoring system to address quality and a district managers' association to improve health systems management. The professionalisation of MLWs and district managers to address confidence, self-esteem and value is considered. The paper describes the thinking behind these interventions, which are currently being tested in Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda for their acceptability and appropriateness. We offer the policy community a complementary repertoire to existing human resource strategies in order to effect real change in African health systems. PMID:20582782

  12. Internal Auditing for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzzetto, Charles

    This book provides guidelines for conducting internal audits of school districts. The first five chapters provide an overview of internal auditing and describe techniques that can be used to improve or implement internal audits in school districts. They offer information on the definition and benefits of internal auditing, the role of internal…

  13. Ingestion of sodium plus water improves cardiovascular function and performance during dehydrating cycling in the heat.

    PubMed

    Hamouti, N; Fernández-Elías, V E; Ortega, J F; Mora-Rodriguez, R

    2014-06-01

    We studied if salt and water ingestion alleviates the physiological strain caused by dehydrating exercise in the heat. Ten trained male cyclists (VO2max : 60 ± 7 mL/kg/min) completed three randomized trials in a hot-dry environment (33 °C, 30% rh, 2.5 m/s airflow). Ninety minutes before the exercise, participants ingested 10 mL of water/kg body mass either alone (CON trial) or with salt to result in concentrations of 82 or 164 mM Na(+) (ModNa(+) or HighNa(+) trial, respectively). Then, participants cycled at 63% of VO2 m ⁢ a x for 120 min immediately followed by a time-trial. After 120 min of exercise, the reduction in plasma volume was lessened with ModNa(+) and HighNa(+) trials (-11.9 ± 2.1 and -9.8 ± 4.2%) in comparison with CON (-16.4 ± 3.2%; P < 0.05). However, heat accumulation or dissipation (forearm skin blood flow and sweat rate) were not improved by salt ingestion. In contrast, both salt trials maintained cardiac output (∼ 1.3 ± 1.4 L/min; P < 0.05) and stroke volume (∼ 10 ± 11 mL/beat; P < 0.05) above CON after 120 min of exercise. Furthermore, the salt trials equally improved time-trial performance by 7.4% above CON (∼ 289 ± 42 vs 269 ± 50 W, respectively; P < 0.05). Our data suggest that pre-exercise ingestion of salt plus water maintains higher plasma volume during dehydrating exercise in the heat without thermoregulatory effects. However, it maintains cardiovascular function and improves cycling performance. PMID:23253191

  14. An investigation of thermal performance improvement of a cylindrical heat pipe using Al2O3 nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbarpour, M.; Khodabandeh, R.; Vafai, K.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, effect of Al2O3 nanofluid on thermal performance of cylindrical heat pipe is investigated. An analytical model is employed to study the thermal performance of the heat pipe utilizing nanofluid and the predicted results are compared with the experimental results. A substantial change in the heat pipe thermal resistance, effective thermal conductivity and entropy generation of the heat pipe is observed when using Al2O3 nanofluid as a working fluid. It is found that entropy generation in the heat pipe system decreases when using a nanofluid due to the lower thermal resistance of the heat pipe which results in an improved thermal performance. It is shown that the proposed model is in reasonably good agreement with the experimental results and can be used as a fast technique to explore various features of thermal characteristics of the nanofluid based heat pipe.

  15. Improving the Material Response for Slow Heat of Energetic Materials (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, A L

    2010-12-15

    The goal of modern high explosive slow heat cookoff modeling is to understand the level of mechanical violence. This requires understanding the coupled thermal-mechanical-chemical system that such an environment creates. Recent advances have improved our ability to predict the time to event, and we have been making progress on predicting the mechanical response. By adding surface tension to the product gas pores in the high explosive, we have been able to reduce the current model's tendency to over-pressurize confinement vessels. We describe the model and demonstrate how it affects a LX-10 STEX experiment. Issues associated with current product gas equations of state are described and examined.

  16. Single-dose oral quercetin improves redox status but does not affect heat shock response in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yifan; Islam, Aminul; Abraham, Preetha; Deuster, Patricia

    2014-07-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are considered as likely contributors to heat injury. However, their roles in regulating the heat shock response in vivo remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that acute quercetin treatment would improve redox status and reduce heat shock responses in mice. Mice underwent two heat tests before and after single oral administration of either quercetin (15 mg/kg) or vehicle. We measured physiologic and biochemical responses in mice during and 18 to 22 hours after heat tests, respectively. There were no significant differences in core temperature, heart rate, or blood pressure between quercetin and vehicle groups during heat exposure. Mice with relatively severe hyperthermia during the pretreatment heat test showed a significant trend toward a lower peak core temperature during the heat test after quercetin treatment. Compared with mice not exposed to heat, quercetin-treated mice had significantly lower interleukin 6 (P < .01) and higher superoxide dismutase levels (P < .01), whereas vehicle-treated mice had significantly lower total glutathione and higher 8-isoprostane levels in the circulation after heat exposure. Heat exposure significantly elevated heat shock proteins (HSPs) 72 and 90 and heat shock factor 1 levels in mouse liver, heart, and skeletal muscles, but no significant differences in tissue HSPs and heat shock factor 1 were found between quercetin- and vehicle-treated mice. These results suggest that a single moderate dose of quercetin is sufficient to alter redox status but not heat stress response in mice. Acute adaptations of peripheral tissues to heat stress may not be mediated by systemic inflammatory and redox state in vivo. PMID:25150121

  17. Comparing the effectiveness of heat rate improvements in different coal-fired power plants utilizing carbon dioxide capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Martin Jeremy

    New Congressional legislation may soon require coal-fired power generators to pay for their CO2 emissions and capture a minimum level of their CO2 output. Aminebased CO2 capture systems offer plants the most technically proven and commercially feasible option for CO2 capture at this time. However, these systems require a large amount of heat and power to operate. As a result, amine-based CO2 capture systems significantly reduce the net power of any units in which they are installed. The Energy Research Center has compiled a list of heat rate improvements that plant operators may implement before installing a CO2 capture system. The goal of these improvements is to upgrade the performance of existing units and partially offset the negative effects of adding a CO2 capture system. Analyses were performed in Aspen Plus to determine the effectiveness of these heat rate improvements in preserving the net power and net unit heat rate (NUHR) of four different power generator units. For the units firing high-moisture sub-bituminous coal, the heat rate improvements reduced NUHR by an average of 13.69% across a CO 2 capture level range of 50% to 90%. For the units firing bituminous coal across the same CO2 capture range, the heat rate improvements reduced NUHR by an average of 12.30%. Regardless of the units' coal or steam turbine cycle type, the heat rate improvements preserved 9.7% to 11.0% of each unit's net power across the same CO2 capture range. In general, the heat rate improvements were found to be most effective in improving the performance of units firing high-moisture sub-bituminous. The effect of the CO2 capture system on these units and the reasons for the improvements' greater effectiveness in them are described in this thesis.

  18. Improved microstructure in Ag/Bi-2223 composite tapes by systematic variation of heat treatment parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Y. L.; Miller, D. J.; Baurceanu, R. M.; Maroni, V. A.; Parrella, R. D.

    2002-10-01

    Multifilament-type, silver-sheathed (Bi, Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox (Ag/Bi-2223) composite tapes produced by the powder-in-tube (PIT) method were given a first heat treatment that employed either a standard (STD) single oxygen pressure/temperature (pO2/T) set point or a novel variable pO2/T treatment referred to as thermal sliding heat treatment (TSHT). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy were employed to provide a comparative analysis of the Bi-2223 grain colony microstructure and connectivity, nonsuperconducting second phase (NSP) composition and distribution, and grain boundary character in the STD- and TSHT-type post-first-heat-treatment Ag/Bi-2223 tape specimens. The dominant NSPs in STD and TSHT specimens were (Ca, Sr)2CuO3, (Ca, Sr)14Cu24O41, and amorphous phases that were randomly distributed in the filaments. The number and size of the NSPs in the STD specimens were sufficient to cause substantial misalignment of Bi-2223 grain colonies throughout the filament cores. However, the TSHT specimens (when compared to the STD specimens) expressed an improved microstructure with fewer/smaller NSPs that were localized mainly in the interior regions of the filaments. Also, the Bi-2223 grain colonies in TSHT specimens were more robust and better aligned from the silver-sheath/Bi-2223 interface to the mid-core region of each filament.

  19. Simple Heat Treatment of Zirconia Ceramic Pre-Treated with Silane Primer to Improve Resin Bonding.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jung-Yun; Son, Jun Sik; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2015-01-01

    Establishing a strong resin bond to dental zirconia ceramic remains difficult. Previous studies have shown that the conventional application of silane does not work well with zirconia. This paper reports that a silane pre-treatment of dental zirconia ceramic combined with subsequent heat treatment has potential as an adhesive cementation protocol for improving zirconia-resin bonding. Among the various concentrations (0.1 to 16 vol%) of experimental γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (γ-MPTS) primers assessed, the 1% solution was found to be the most effective in terms of the shear bond strength of the resin cement to dental zirconia ceramic. A high shear bond strength (approx. 30 MPa) was obtained when zirconia specimens were pre-treated with this primer and then heat-treated in a furnace for 60 min at 150 degrees C. Heat treatment appeared to remove the hydrophilic constituents from the silane film formed on the zirconia ceramic surface and accelerate the condensation reactions between the silanol groups of the hydrolyzed silane molecules at the zirconia/resin interface, finally making a more desirable surface for bonding with resin. This estimation was supported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the silanes prepared in this study. PMID:26328408

  20. Improved heat exhaust and the characteristics of the high Tc superconducting terahertz emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwagi, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Kitamura, T.; Asanuma, K.; Yasui, T.; Shibano, Y.; Watanabe, C.; Nakade, K.; Saiwai, Y.; Kubo, H.; Sakamoto, K.; Katsuragawa, T.; Tsujimoto, M.; Yoshizaki, R.; Minami, H.; Klemm, R. A.; Kadowaki, K.

    2015-03-01

    In our previous study it is known that THz emitting efficiency improves greatly when the stand-alone type of mesa structure is used for the THz emitting device. The principle reason for that lies in the heat removal from the mesa, in which a gigantic amount of heat is generated while the mesa is in the resistive state. Recently, we developed a new device structure based on the stand-alone type of mesa structure of Bi2212 single crystal in order to make high exhaust of Joule heating. The results show that although the power is comparable and is not significantly increased, very wide the radiation frequencies ranging from 0.3 to 1.6 THz were obtained. We will discuss the details of the radiation characteristics of this one. This study has been supported by CREST-JST. TK is also supported by the Matsuda grant and JST A-STEP. This work is in part performed in collaboration with Dr. Wai Kwok and his group in Argonne National Lab.

  1. Hybrid Ground-Source Heat Pump Installations: Experiences, Improvements, and Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Hackel; Amanda Pertzborn

    2011-06-30

    One innovation to ground-source heat pump (GSHP, or GHP) systems is the hybrid GSHP (HyGSHP) system, which can dramatically decrease the first cost of GSHP systems by using conventional technology (such as a cooling tower or a boiler) to meet a portion of the peak heating or cooling load. This work uses three case studies (two cooling-dominated, one heating-dominated) to demonstrate the performance of the hybrid approach. Three buildings were studied for a year; the measured data was used to validate models of each system. The models were used to analyze further improvements to the hybrid approach, and establish that this approach has positive impacts, both economically and environmentally. Lessons learned by those who design and operate the systems are also documented, including discussions of equipment sizing, pump operation, and cooling tower control. Finally, the measured data sets and models that were created during this work are described; these materials have been made freely available for further study of hybrid systems.

  2. Significant effect of Ca2+ on improving the heat resistance of lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Huang, Song; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2013-07-01

    The heat resistance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been extensively investigated due to its highly practical significance. Reconstituted skim milk (RSM) has been found to be one of the most effective protectant wall materials for microencapsulating microorganisms during convective drying, such as spray drying. In addition to proteins and carbohydrate, RSM is rich in calcium. It is not clear which component is critical in the RSM protection mechanism. This study investigated the independent effect of calcium. Ca(2+) was added to lactose solution to examine its influence on the heat resistance of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ZY, Lactobacillus casei Zhang, Lactobacillus plantarum P8 and Streptococcus thermophilus ND03. The results showed that certain Ca(2+) concentrations enhanced the heat resistance of the LAB strains to different extents, that is produced higher survival and shorter regrowth lag times of the bacterial cells. In some cases, the improvements were dramatic. More scientifically insightful and more intensive instrumental study of the Ca(2+) behavior around and in the cells should be carried out in the near future. In the meantime, this work may lead to the development of more cost-effective wall materials with Ca(2+) added as a prime factor. PMID:23617813

  3. Occurrence of Legionella in hot water systems of single-family residences in suburbs of two German cities with special reference to solar and district heating.

    PubMed

    Mathys, Werner; Stanke, Juliane; Harmuth, Margarita; Junge-Mathys, Elisabeth

    2008-03-01

    A total of 452 samples from hot water systems of randomly selected single family residences in the suburbs of two German cities were analysed for the occurrence of Legionella. Technical data were documented using a standardized questionnaire to evaluate possible factors promoting the growth of the bacterium in these small plumbing systems. All houses were supplied with treated groundwater from public water works. Drinking water quality was within the limits specified in the German regulations for drinking water and the water was not chlorinated. The results showed that plumbing systems in private houses that provided hot water from instantaneous water heaters were free of Legionella compared with a prevalence of 12% in houses with storage tanks and recirculating hot water where maximum counts of Legionella reached 100,000 CFU/100ml. The presence of L. pneumophila accounted for 93.9% of all Legionella positive specimens of which 71.8% belonged to serogroup 1. The volume of the storage tank, interrupting circulation for several hours daily and intermittently raising hot water temperatures to >60 degrees C had no influence on Legionella counts. Plumbing systems with copper pipes were more frequently contaminated than those made of synthetic materials or galvanized steel. An inhibitory effect due to copper was not present. Newly constructed systems (<2 years) were not colonized. The type of hot water preparation had a marked influence. More than 50% of all houses using district heating systems were colonized by Legionella. Their significantly lower hot water temperature is thought to be the key factor leading to intensified growth of Legionella. Although hot water systems using solar energy to supplement conventional hot water supplies operate at temperatures 3 degrees C lower than conventional systems, this technique does not seem to promote proliferation of the bacterium. Our data show convincingly that the temperature of the hot water is probably the most important

  4. Heat acclimation improves intermittent sprinting in the heat but additional pre-cooling offers no further ergogenic effect.

    PubMed

    Castle, Paul; Mackenzie, Richard W; Maxwell, Neil; Webborn, Anthony D J; Watt, Peter W

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 10 days of heat acclimation with and without pre-cooling on intermittent sprint exercise performance in the heat. Eight males completed three intermittent cycling sprint protocols before and after 10 days of heat acclimation. Before acclimation, one sprint protocol was conducted in control conditions (21.8 ± 2.2°C, 42.8 ± 6.7% relative humidity) and two sprint protocols in hot, humid conditions (33.3 ± 0.6°C, 52.2 ± 6.8% relative humidity) in a randomized order. One hot, humid condition was preceded by 20 min of thigh pre-cooling with ice packs (-16.2 ± 4.5°C). After heat acclimation, the two hot, humid sprint protocols were repeated. Before heat acclimation, peak power output declined in the heat (P < 0.05) but pre-cooling prevented this. Ten days of heat acclimation reduced resting rectal temperature from 37.8 ± 0.3°C to 37.4 ± 0.3°C (P < 0.01). When acclimated, peak power output increased by ∼2% (P < 0.05, main effect) and no reductions in individual sprint peak power output were observed. Additional pre-cooling offered no further ergogenic effect. Unacclimated athletes competing in the heat should pre-cool to prevent reductions in peak power output, but heat acclimate for an increased peak power output. PMID:21777052

  5. Value impact assessment: A preliminary assessment of improvement opportunities at the Quantico Central Heating Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, M.R.; Weakley, S.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary assessment of opportunities for improvement at the US Marine Corps (USMC) Quantico, Virginia, Central Heating Plant (CHP). This study is part of a program intended to provide the CHP staff with a computerized Artificial Intelligence (AI) decision support system that will assist in a more efficient, reliable, and safe operation of their plant. As part of the effort to provide the AI decision support system, a team of six scientists and engineers from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) visited the plant to characterize the conditions and environment of the CHP. This assessment resulted in a list of potential performance improvement opportunities at the CHP. In this report, 12 of these opportunities are discussed and qualitatively analyzed. 70 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Method of making heat transfer tube with improved outside surface for nucleate boiling

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, J.L.; Campbell, B.J.

    1988-03-08

    This patent describes a process for making a heat transfer tube with an improved outside surface for nucleate boiling comprising the steps of finning the tube to produce helical fins thereon, forming transverse grooves around the periphery of each fin, and progressively compressing the tips of the grooved fins to cause them to become flattened and of a width in an axial direction which is slightly less than their pitch, thereby defining a narrow opening between fins which is communication with a rather large cavity defined by the sides of adjacent fins in the region under the flattened fin tips. The improvement is described wherein the tips are variably compressed so that the width of the narrow openings adjacent fins is varied so as to produce a range of opening widths which is both larger and smaller than the optimum minimum pore size for nucleate boiling of a particular fluid under a particular set of operating conditions.

  7. Dietary glutamine supplementation improves growth performance, meat quality and colour stability of broilers under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Dai, S F; Wang, L K; Wen, A Y; Wang, L X; Jin, G M

    2009-05-01

    1. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary glutamine (Gln) supplementation on growth performance, carcase characteristics and meat quality in broilers exposed to high ambient temperature. 2. A total of 240 35-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups (three replicates of 20 birds per cage). The broilers were kept in a temperature-controlled room at either 23 degrees C (no-stress groups, NS) or 28 degrees C (heat stress groups, HS). The broilers were fed either on a basal diet (control, NS) or on the basal diet supplemented with 0, 0.5 or 1.0% Gln (HS). 3. Compared with the NS, the HS (0% Gln) group gained less weight and consumed less feed, had lower final body weight, gain-to-feed ratio, and abdominal fat yield. Breast meat in HS (0% Gln) had lower pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), a* value, ether extract (EE) content and crude protein (CP) content, and had higher shear force (SF) and L* value. 4. Linear increase were found in groups supplemented with Gln (0, 0.5% and 1.0%) for final body weight, weight gain, feed consumption, gain-to-feed ratio and abdominal fat yield. Supplementation with Gln improved breast meat pH, WHC, SF, L* value, a* value, EE content and CP content in broilers exposed to heat stress. No significant difference was observed in all the indices determined between the HS (1% Gln) and the NS. 5. Heat stress caused obvious breast meat discoloration in L*, a* and b* values. However, dietary supplementation with Gln gave a better colour stability. 6. The results indicated that dietary supplementation with Gln may alleviate heat stress-caused deterioration in growth performance, carcase characteristics, meat quality and meat colour stability of broilers. PMID:19637033

  8. Intervention to reduce heat stress and improve efficiency among sugarcane workers in El Salvador: Phase 1

    PubMed Central

    Bodin, T; García-Trabanino, R; Weiss, I; Jarquín, E; Glaser, J; Jakobsson, K; Lucas, R A I; Wesseling, C; Hogstedt, C; Wegman, D H

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic heat stress and dehydration from strenuous work in hot environments is considered an essential component of the epidemic of chronic kidney disease in Central America. Objective (1) To assess feasibility of providing an intervention modelled on OSHA's Water.Rest.Shade programme (WRS) during sugarcane cutting and (2) to prevent heat stress and dehydration without decreasing productivity. Methods Midway through the 6-month harvest, the intervention introduced WRS practices. A 60-person cutting group was provided water supplied in individual backpacks, mobile shaded rest areas and scheduled rest periods. Ergonomically improved machetes and efficiency strategies were also implemented. Health data (anthropometric, blood, urine, questionnaires) were collected preharvest, preintervention, mid-intervention and at the end of harvest. A subsample participated in focus group discussions. Daily wet bulb globe temperatures (WBGT) were recorded. The employer provided individual production records. Results Over the harvest WBGT was >26°C from 9:00 onwards reaching average maximum of 29.3±1.7°C, around 13:00. Postintervention self-reported water consumption increased 25%. Symptoms associated with heat stress and with dehydration decreased. Individual daily production increased from 5.1 to a high of 7.3 tons/person/day postintervention. This increase was greater than in other cutting groups at the company. Focus groups reported a positive perception of components of the WRS, and the new machete and cutting programmes. Conclusions A WRS intervention is feasible in sugarcane fields, and appears to markedly reduce the impact of the heat stress conditions for the workforce. With proper attention to work practices, production can be maintained with less impact on worker health. PMID:27073211

  9. How to Use Value-Added Analysis to Improve Student Learning: A Field Guide for School and District Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Kate; Peters, Mary; Thomas, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Value-added analysis is the most robust, statistically significant method available for helping educators quantify student progress over time. This powerful tool also reveals tangible strategies for improving instruction. Built around the work of Battelle for Kids, this book provides a field-tested continuous improvement model for using…

  10. Public Disclosure to Improve Physical Education in an Urban School District: Results from a 2-year Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Hannah R.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Linchey, Jennifer K.; Madsen, Kristine A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many elementary schools have policies requiring a minimum amount of physical education (PE). However, few schools comply with local/state PE policy and little is known about how to improve adherence. We evaluated changes in PE among fifth-grade classes, following participatory action research efforts to improve PE quantity and policy…

  11. A School Based Cluster Randomised Health Education Intervention Trial for Improving Knowledge and Attitudes Related to Taenia solium Cysticercosis and Taeniasis in Mbulu District, Northern Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwidunda, Sylvester A.; Carabin, Hélène; Matuja, William B. M.; Winkler, Andrea S.; Ngowi, Helena A.

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium causes significant economic and public health impacts in endemic countries. This study determined effectiveness of a health education intervention at improving school children’s knowledge and attitudes related to T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in Tanzania. A cluster randomised controlled health education intervention trial was conducted in 60 schools (30 primary, 30 secondary) in Mbulu district. Baseline data were collected using a structured questionnaire in the 60 schools and group discussions in three other schools. The 60 schools stratified by baseline knowledge were randomised to receive the intervention or serve as control. The health education consisted of an address by a trained teacher, a video show and a leaflet given to each pupil. Two post-intervention re-assessments (immediately and 6 months post-intervention) were conducted in all schools and the third (12 months post-intervention) was conducted in 28 secondary schools. Data were analysed using Bayesian hierarchical log-binomial models for individual knowledge and attitude questions and Bayesian hierarchical linear regression models for scores. The overall score (percentage of correct answers) improved by about 10% in all schools after 6 months, but was slightly lower among secondary schools. Monitoring alone was associated with improvement in scores by about 6%. The intervention was linked to improvements in knowledge regarding taeniasis, porcine cysticercosis, human cysticercosis, epilepsy, the attitude of condemning infected meat but it reduced the attitude of contacting a veterinarian if a pig was found to be infected with cysticercosis. Monitoring alone was linked to an improvement in how best to raise pigs. This study demonstrates the potential value of school children as targets for health messages to control T. solium cysticercosis and taeniasis in endemic areas. Studies are needed to assess effectiveness of message transmission from children to parents and the general

  12. Improved time-space method for 3-D heat transfer problems including global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Saitoh, T.S.; Wakashima, Shinichiro

    1999-07-01

    In this paper, the Time-Space Method (TSM) which has been proposed for solving general heat transfer and fluid flow problems was improved in order to cover global and urban warming. The TSM is effective in almost all-transient heat transfer and fluid flow problems, and has been already applied to the 2-D melting problems (or moving boundary problems). The computer running time will be reduced to only 1/100th--1/1000th of the existing schemes for 2-D and 3-D problems. However, in order to apply to much larger-scale problems, for example, global warming, urban warming and general ocean circulation, the SOR method (or other iterative methods) in four dimensions is somewhat tedious and provokingly slow. Motivated by the above situation, the authors improved the speed of iteration of the previous TSM by introducing the following ideas: (1) Timewise chopping: Time domain is chopped into small peaches to save memory requirement; (2) Adaptive iteration: Converged region is eliminated for further iteration; (3) Internal selective iteration: Equation with slow iteration speed in iterative procedure is selectively iterated to accelerate entire convergence; and (4) False transient integration: False transient term is added to the Poisson-type equation and the relevant solution is regarded as a parabolic equation. By adopting the above improvements, the higher-order finite different schemes and the hybrid mesh, the computer running time for the TSM is reduced to some 1/4600th of the conventional explicit method for a typical 3-D natural convection problem in a closed cavity. The proposed TSM will be more efficacious for large-scale environmental problems, such as global warming, urban warming and general ocean circulation, in which a tremendous computing time would be required.

  13. Simulations of sizing and comfort improvements for residential forced-air heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, I.S.; Degenetais, G.; Siegel, J.A.

    2002-05-01

    the use of this tool to perform detailed residential HVAC system simulations. The simulations have been verified by comparison to measured results in several houses over a wide range of weather conditions and HVAC system performance. After the verification was completed, more than 350 cooling and 450 heating simulations were performed. These simulations covered a range of HVAC system performance parameters and California climate conditions (that range from hot dry deserts to cold mountain regions). The results of the simulations were used to show the large increases in HVAC system performance that can be attained by improving the HVAC duct distribution systems and by better sizing of residential HVAC equipment. The simulations demonstrated that improved systems can deliver improved heating or cooling to the conditioned space, maintain equal or better comfort while reducing peak demand and the installed equipment capacity (and therefore capital costs).

  14. Grain-refining heat treatments to improve cryogenic toughness of high-strength steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, H. F.

    1984-01-01

    The development of two high Reynolds number wind tunnels at NASA Langley Research Center which operate at cryogenic temperatures with high dynamic pressures has imposed severe requirements on materials for model construction. Existing commercial high strength steels lack sufficient toughness to permit their safe use at temperatures approaching that of liquid nitrogen (-320 F). Therefore, a program to improve the cryogenic toughness of commercial high strength steels was conducted. Significant improvement in the cryogenic toughness of commercial high strength martensitic and maraging steels was demonstrated through the use of grain refining heat treatments. Charpy impact strength at -320 F was increased by 50 to 180 percent for the various alloys without significant loss in tensile strength. The grain sizes of the 9 percent Ni-Co alloys and 200 grade maraging steels were reduced to 1/10 of the original size or smaller, with the added benefit of improved machinability. This grain refining technique should permit these alloys with ultimate strengths of 220 to 270 ksi to receive consideration for cryogenic service.

  15. Dynamic study for performance improvements of a thermo-mechanically bistable heat engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boughaleb, J.; Arnaud, A.; Monfray, S.; Cottinet, P. J.; Quenard, S.; Pitone, G.; Boeuf, F.; Guyomar, D.; Skotnicki, T.

    2015-12-01

    This paper focuses on a thermal study of a thermal energy harvester based on the coupling of a bimetallic strip heat engine with a piezoelectric membrane for wasted heat scavenging. Such a harvester is dedicated to power autonomous systems such as wireless sensor nodes. For a better understanding of the working principle of the system, it is compulsory to have a good understanding of the thermal specificities and phenomenon taking place inside the harvester. Attention is consequently focused on the thermal modeling of the harvester in static mode using the equivalence between the electrical and thermal quantities. This first modeling step allowed the improvement of the thermal properties inside the system by increasing the thermal gradient across it. However, the bimetal being the active part of the system has not been taken into account in this model and shadow zones persisted regarding the bimetal operation windows as a function of its snapping temperatures and hysteresis. To overcome this, a dynamic model is proposed in this paper taking into account the bimetal as a switched capacitance alternatively in contact with the hot source and the cold surface. This last model completed the static one by predicting the bimetal's operation windows in function of its intrinsic properties and the operation range evolution in function of the snapping temperature first and then in function of the bimetal thermal hysteresis. Moreover, experimental measurements enable to validate the proposed model and to point out the most powerful bimetals for scavenging higher amounts of power.

  16. Gas pre-warming for improving performances of heated humidifiers in neonatal ventilation.

    PubMed

    Schena, E; De Paolis, E; Silvestri, S

    2011-01-01

    Adequate temperature and humidification of gas delivered must be performed during long term neonatal ventilation to avoid potential adverse health effects. Literature shows that performances of heated humidifiers are, at least in some cases, quite poor. In this study, a novel approach to gas conditioning, consisting of gas warming upstream the humidification chamber, is presented. Gas pre-warming, in combination with a control strategy based on a mathematical model taking into account a number of parameters, allows to significantly improve the heated humidifier performances. The theoretical model has been validated and experimental trials have been carried out in the whole volumetric flow-rate (Q) range of neonatal ventilation (lower than 10 L · min(-1)). Experimental results (temperature values ranging from 36 °C to 38 °C and relative humidity values from 90 % to 98 % in the whole range of Q) show values very close to the ideal thermo-hygrometric conditions. The proposed solution allows to avoid vapor condensation at low flow rates and decrease of relative humidity at high flow rates. PMID:22254532

  17. Improved heating efficiency with High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound using a new ultrasound source excitation.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, Timothy A

    2009-01-01

    High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) is quickly becoming one of the best methods to thermally ablate tissue noninvasively. Unlike RF or Laser ablation, the tissue can be destroyed without inserting any probes into the body minimizing the risk of secondary complications such as infections. In this study, the heating efficiency of HIFU sources is improved by altering the excitation of the ultrasound source to take advantage of nonlinear propagation. For ultrasound, the phase velocity of the ultrasound wave depends on the amplitude of the wave resulting in the generation of higher harmonics. These higher harmonics are more efficiently converted into heat in the body due to the frequency dependence of the ultrasound absorption in tissue. In our study, the generation of the higher harmonics by nonlinear propagation is enhanced by transmitting an ultrasound wave with both the fundamental and a higher harmonic component included. Computer simulations demonstrated up to a 300% increase in temperature increase compared to transmitting at only the fundamental for the same acoustic power transmitted by the source. PMID:19963801

  18. Arsenic and Antimony Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at South Truckee Meadows General Improvement District (STMGID), NV, Final Performance Evaluation Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the activities performed during and the results obtained from the operation of an arsenic and antimony removal technology demonstrated at the South Truckee Meadows General Improvement District (STMGID) in Washoe County, NV. The objectives of the project wer...

  19. District of Columbia Public Education: Agencies Have Enhanced Internal Controls over Federal Payments for School Improvement, but More Consistent Monitoring Needed. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-11-16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Cornelia M.

    2010-01-01

    Between fiscal years 2004 and 2009, Congress appropriated nearly $190 million in federal payments for school improvement to the District of Columbia (D.C.). This includes $85 million to the state education office--currently the Office of the State Superintendent of Education (OSSE)--to expand public charter schools and $105 million to D.C. Public…

  20. Testing the improved method for calculating the radiation heat generation at the periphery of the BOR-60 reactor core

    SciTech Connect

    Varivtsev, A. V. Zhemkov, I. Yu.

    2014-12-15

    The application of the improved method for calculating the radiation heat generation in the elements of an experimental device located at the periphery of the BOR-60 reactor core results in a significant reduction in the discrepancies between the calculated and the experimental data. This allows us to conclude that the improved method has an advantage over the one used earlier.

  1. Improved Temperature-Gradient Incubator and the Maximal Growth Temperature and Heat Resistance of Salmonella

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, R. Paul; Heiniger, Patricia K.

    1965-01-01

    An improved all-metal temperature-gradient incubator produces its gradient by means of a bar permanently installed in a near-vertical position with its lower end in a cool constant-temperature water bath and with thermostatically controlled heaters near its top. Bolts hold the incubator in contact with the temperature-gradient bar, and polyurethane foam insulates the entire assemblage during use. Maximal growth temperatures of 34 representative strains of Salmonella were found to be between 43.2 and 46.2 C. In an agar medium with an initial level of 106 cells per milliliter, no strain survived 50 C for 48 hr. S. senftenberg 775W showed no greater heat resistance at or near 48 C than did other species or other S. senftenberg strains. However, it was considerably more resistant than other strains at 55 C. Images Fig. 2 PMID:14264850

  2. How Improving Schools Allocate Resources: A Case Study of Successful Schools in One Southern California Urban School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Helen Emery

    2010-01-01

    The current fiscal climate in California and the country has had a tremendous impact on every facet of society. Education has experienced budget reductions that have impacted every aspect of serving students and their families. Research provides educators with evidence-based strategies that have shown to improve student achievement. This study…

  3. Divided We Fail in LA: Improving Completion and Closing Racial Gaps in the Los Angeles Community College District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Colleen; Shulock, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    A recent report titled "Divided We Fail: Improving Completion and Closing Racial Gaps in California's Community Colleges" shows that student outcomes in the state's community colleges are inadequate to meet the projected demand for college-educated workers in the labor market. The report also documents the serious problem posed by the disparities…

  4. What Principals Do to Improve Teaching and Learning: Comparing the Use of Informal Classroom Observations in Two School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ing, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    Informally observing classrooms is one way that principals can help improve teaching and learning. This study describes the variability of principals' classroom observations across schools and identifies the conditions under which observations relate to the instructional climate in some schools and not others. Data for this study come from…

  5. User manual for GEOCITY: A computer model for cost analysis of geothermal district-heating-and-cooling systems. Volume 1: Main text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, H. D.; Fassbender, L. L.; Bloomster, C. H.

    1982-09-01

    The cost of residential space heating, space cooling, and sanitary water heating or process heating (cooling) using geothermal energy from a hydrothermal reservoir was calculated. The GEOCITY simulates the complete geothermal heating and cooling system, which consists of two principal parts: the reservoir and fluid transmission system and the distribution system. Geothermal space heating is provided by circulating hot water through radiators, convectors, and fan-coil units. Geothermal process heating is provided by directly using the hot water or by circulating it through a process heat exchanger. The life cycle cost of thermal energy from the reservoir and fluid transmission system to the distribution system and the life cycle cost of heat (chill) to the end users are calculated by discounted cash flow analysis.

  6. Improving the quality of discharge summaries: implementing updated Academy of Medical Royal Colleges standards at a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    May-Miller, Hannah; Hayter, Joanne; Loewenthal, Lola; Hall, Louis; Hilbert, Rebecca; Quinn, Michael; Pearson, Nicola; Patel, Alisha; Law, Rebekah

    2015-01-01

    Quality of documentation is harder to quantify and incentivise, but it has a significant impact on patient care. Good discharge summaries facilitate continuity between secondary and primary care. The junior doctors' forum led this project to improve the quality of electronic discharge summaries (eDS). Baseline measurement revealed significant room for improvement. We measured the quality of 10 summaries per month (across all inpatient specialties), against 23 indicators from the revised Academy of Medical Royal Colleges (AoMRC) standards (2013) that were prioritised by GPs as a "minimum dataset". Junior doctors felt that the Trust's dual eDS systems were responsible for great variation in quality. This was confirmed by the results of a comparison audit of the systems in April 2014: one system greatly outperformed the other (57% mean compliance with iSoft clinical management (iCM) based system vs. 77% with InfoPath-based system). We recommended that the Trust move to a single eDS system, decommissioning the iCM-based system, and this proposal was approved by several Trust committees. We worked with information services, junior doctors, general practitioners and hospital physicians to develop and implement a generic template to further improve compliance with AoMRC standards. In August 2014, the iCM-based system was withdrawn, the new template went live, and training was delivered, coinciding with the changeover of junior doctors to minimise disruption. Median compliance increased from 66.7% to 77.8%. Quality of discharge summaries had improved across the specialties. There was a reduction in the number of complaints and positive qualitative feedback from general practitioners and junior doctors. Completion of discharge summaries within 24 hours was not affected by this change. There is still more to be done to improve quality; average compliance with the full AoMRC standards (39 indicators) is 59.5%. With the approval of the Trust executive committee further plan

  7. Heat-stress abatement during the dry period: does cooling improve transition into lactation?

    PubMed

    do Amaral, B C; Connor, E E; Tao, S; Hayen, J; Bubolz, J; Dahl, G E

    2009-12-01

    /d) compared with CL cows. Relative to CL cows, hepatic mRNA expression of SOCS-2 and IGFBP-5 was downregulated in HT cows. Expression of ACADVL was upregulated in CL cows at d +2 but downregulated at d +20 relative to HT cows. Concentrations of C16:0 and cis C18:1 were greater in the milk and liver of CL cows compared with HT cows, which reflects greater lipid mobilization. These results suggest that heat-stress abatement in the dry period improves subsequent lactation, possibly via suppression of plasma prolactin surge around calving, SOCS-2 expression, and regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. PMID:19923602

  8. Charter School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul T.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the difference between charter schools and charter districts (all schools in the district are chartered), why charter school districts are spreading, and how local school districts can become charter districts. Current laws in Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, New Mexico, Oregon, and Texas allow charter districts. (PKP)

  9. District of Columbia: Financial and Program Management Improvements Needed for Tuition Assistance Grant Program. Report to Congressional Committees. GAO-06-14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Government Accountability Office, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Congress created the District of Columbia Tuition Assistance Grant (DCTAG) program in 1999 to provide D.C. college-bound residents with greater choices among institutions of higher education by affording them the benefits of in-state tuition at state colleges and universities outside the District of Columbia. Congress appropriated $17 million…

  10. Using School Reform Models to Improve Reading Achievement: A Longitudinal Study of Direct Instruction and Success for All in an Urban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; Nunnery, John A.; Goldfeder, Elizabeth; McDonald, Aaron; Rachor, Robert; Hornbeck, Matthew; Fleischman, Steve

    2004-01-01

    This research examined the effectiveness in an urban school district of 2 of the most widely used Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) programs-Direct Instruction (DI), implemented in 9 district elementary schools, and Success for All (SFA), implemented in 2 elementary schools. In examining impacts on student achievement and school change outcomes…

  11. Use of Rasch Rating Scale Modeling to Develop and Validate a Measure of District-Level Characteristics and Practices Identified to Improve Instruction and Increase Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soska, Paul J., III

    2012-01-01

    Increasing qualitative evidence in the literature supports specific characteristics and practices, presented from a distributed leadership perspective, to be prevalent in school districts that demonstrate significant increases in student achievement. Quantitative evidence linking these identified district-level characteristics and practices to…

  12. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of the Remediation Plus Program on Improving Reading Achievement of Students in the Marinette (WI) School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Roisin P.; Ross, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    The study was implemented in the Title I Marinette School District using a randomized experimental design and parallel quasi experimental design spanning three grades 1-3 in 3 district elementary schools. The Remediation Plus Intervention is a multi-sensory, systematic synthetic phonics curriculum for all ages of students who struggle with…

  13. Strategic Communication During Whole-System Change: Advice and Guidance for School District Leaders and PR Specialists. Leading Systemic School Improvement #9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Francis M.; Chance, Patti L.

    2006-01-01

    Times of great change in school districts require strategic communication with internal and external stakeholders including the use of school public relations tools and techniques. This book provides theoretical and practical advice and guidance to district-based change leaders and school public relations specialists on how they can support their…

  14. Districts, Teacher Leaders, and Distributed Leadership: Changing Instructional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, William A.; Martinez, M. Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    Using case studies of four schools in three districts, this article explores how leadership is distributed in districts and asks about the role of teacher leaders. It proposes that teacher leaders and districts can share three leadership tasks: procuring and distributing materials, monitoring improvement, and developing people. The district and…

  15. Perspectives on improvement of reproduction in cattle during heat stress in a future Japan.

    PubMed

    Kadokawa, Hiroya; Sakatani, Miki; Hansen, Peter J

    2012-06-01

    Heat stress (HS) causes hyperthermia, and at its most severe form, can lead to death. More commonly, HS reduces feed intake, milk yield, growth rate and reproductive function in many mammals and birds, including the important cattle breeds in Japan. Rectal temperatures greater than 39.0°C and respiration rates greater than 60/min indicate cows are undergoing HS sufficient to affect milk yield and fertility. HS compromises oocyte quality and embryonic development, reduces expression of estrus and changes secretion of several reproductive hormones. One of the most effective ways to reduce the magnitude of HS is embryo transfer, which bypasses the inhibitory effects of HS on the oocyte and early embryo. It may also be possible to select for genetic resistance to HS. Cooling can also improve reproductive performance in cows and heifers, and probably, the most effective cooling systems currently in use are those that couple evaporative cooling with tunnel ventilation or cross ventilation. Its effect on improving reproductive performance in Japan remains to be evaluated. PMID:22694326

  16. Simple interventions can greatly improve clinical documentation: a quality improvement project of record keeping on the surgical wards at a district general hospital

    PubMed Central

    Glen, Peter; Earl, Naomi; Gooding, Felix; Lucas, Emily; Sangha, Nicole; Ramcharitar, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Clinical documentation is an integral part of the healthcare professional's job. Good record keeping is essential for patient care, accurate recording of consultations and for effective communication within the multidisciplinary team. Within the surgical department at the Great Western Hospital, Swindon, the case notes were deemed to be bulky and cumbersome, inhibiting effective record keeping, potentially putting patients' at risk. The aim of this quality improvement project was therefore to improve the standard of documentation, the labelling of notes and the overall filing. A baseline audit was firstly undertaken assessing the notes within the busiest surgical ward. A number of variables were assessed, but notably, only 12% (4/33) of the case notes were found to be without loose pages. Furthermore, less than half of the pages with entries written within the last 72 hours contained adequate patient identifiers on them. When assessing these entries further, the designation of the writer was only recorded in one third (11/33) of the cases, whilst the printed name of the writer was only recorded in 65% (21/33) of the entries. This project ran over a 10 month period, using a plan, do study, act methodology. Initial focus was on simple education. Afterwards, single admission folders were introduced, to contain only information required for that admission, in an attempt to streamline the notes and ease the filing. This saw a global improvement across all data subsets, with a sustained improvement of over 80% compliance seen. An educational poster was also created and displayed in clinical areas, to remind users to label their notes with patient identifying stickers. This saw a 4-fold increase (16%-68%) in the labelling of notes. In conclusion, simple, cost effective measures in streamlining medical notes, improves the quality of documentation, facilitates the filing and ultimately improves patient care. PMID:26734440

  17. Towards a Healthy District: Organizing and Managing District Health Systems Based on Primary Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarimo, E.

    This book is concerned with orienting health care workers in district health systems in developing countries to ways and means of overcoming problems, and describes briefly how district health systems can be improved. The book is organized around nine issues in nine chapters, each of which is an integral part of a district planning cycle. The…

  18. Reforming Districts: How Districts Support School Reform. A Research Report. Document R-03-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Milbrey; Talbert, Joan

    2003-01-01

    School districts have participated in multiple rounds of education reform activity in the past few decades, yet few have made headway on system-wide school improvement. This paper addresses the questions of whether districts matter for school reform progress and what successful "reforming" districts do to achieve system change and to navigate the…

  19. System for improving heat insulating characteristics of a building wall structure

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, S.

    1982-07-20

    A new and improved system for improving the heat insulating characteristics of an existing wall structure includes apparatus for providing an additional panel in spaced relation with a first or existing panel of an existing wall structure having a surround for supporting the edges of the panel. A sash including the additional panel is mounted in spaced apart relation with the first panel and includes peripheral elongated frame elements, each having a body with a transverse cross-section that is proportioned to extend generally normal to a face of the sash panel and providing a greatest resistance to longitudinal bending forces applied to the element acting in a direction generally normal to the face. Means is provided for structurally interconnecting the sash panel with the elongated elements of the sash frame and the sash is pivotally mounted in the surround outwardly of the first glazing panel. A new and improved method includes measuring the distance between opposite faces of the surround of the existing wall structure in transverse directions and cutting pairs of elongated sash frame elements to a desired length calculated from the measured distance. The elongated sash frame elements are then interconnected at opposite ends to form a generally rectangular sash frame which is mounted in the surround to pivot about an axis extending between one pair of upstanding faces of the surround. An additional insulating panel is then secured in the sash frame around the edges and the sash is pivotally mounted in the surround between a closed position wherein the panels are in substantially parallel, spaced apart, alignment and an outwardly open position pivoted outwardly away from the existing wall panel so that washing of both panels can be readily accomplished when desired.

  20. Novel mitochondria-targeted heat-soluble proteins identified in the anhydrobiotic Tardigrade improve osmotic tolerance of human cells.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Sae; Tanaka, Junko; Miwa, Yoshihiro; Horikawa, Daiki D; Katayama, Toshiaki; Arakawa, Kazuharu; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kubo, Takeo; Kunieda, Takekazu

    2015-01-01

    Tardigrades are able to tolerate almost complete dehydration through transition to a metabolically inactive state, called "anhydrobiosis". Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins are heat-soluble proteins involved in the desiccation tolerance of many anhydrobiotic organisms. Tardigrades, Ramazzottius varieornatus, however, express predominantly tardigrade-unique heat-soluble proteins: CAHS (Cytoplasmic Abundant Heat Soluble) and SAHS (Secretory Abundant Heat Soluble) proteins, which are secreted or localized in most intracellular compartments, except the mitochondria. Although mitochondrial integrity is crucial to ensure cellular survival, protective molecules for mitochondria have remained elusive. Here, we identified two novel mitochondrial heat-soluble proteins, RvLEAM and MAHS (Mitochondrial Abundant Heat Soluble), as potent mitochondrial protectants from Ramazzottius varieornatus. RvLEAM is a group3 LEA protein and immunohistochemistry confirmed its mitochondrial localization in tardigrade cells. MAHS-green fluorescent protein fusion protein localized in human mitochondria and was heat-soluble in vitro, though no sequence similarity with other known proteins was found, and one region was conserved among tardigrades. Furthermore, we demonstrated that RvLEAM protein as well as MAHS protein improved the hyperosmotic tolerance of human cells. The findings of the present study revealed that tardigrade mitochondria contain at least two types of heat-soluble proteins that might have protective roles in water-deficient environments. PMID:25675104

  1. Novel Mitochondria-Targeted Heat-Soluble Proteins Identified in the Anhydrobiotic Tardigrade Improve Osmotic Tolerance of Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Sae; Tanaka, Junko; Miwa, Yoshihiro; Horikawa, Daiki D.; Katayama, Toshiaki; Arakawa, Kazuharu; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kubo, Takeo; Kunieda, Takekazu

    2015-01-01

    Tardigrades are able to tolerate almost complete dehydration through transition to a metabolically inactive state, called “anhydrobiosis”. Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins are heat-soluble proteins involved in the desiccation tolerance of many anhydrobiotic organisms. Tardigrades, Ramazzottius varieornatus, however, express predominantly tardigrade-unique heat-soluble proteins: CAHS (Cytoplasmic Abundant Heat Soluble) and SAHS (Secretory Abundant Heat Soluble) proteins, which are secreted or localized in most intracellular compartments, except the mitochondria. Although mitochondrial integrity is crucial to ensure cellular survival, protective molecules for mitochondria have remained elusive. Here, we identified two novel mitochondrial heat-soluble proteins, RvLEAM and MAHS (Mitochondrial Abundant Heat Soluble), as potent mitochondrial protectants from Ramazzottius varieornatus. RvLEAM is a group3 LEA protein and immunohistochemistry confirmed its mitochondrial localization in tardigrade cells. MAHS-green fluorescent protein fusion protein localized in human mitochondria and was heat-soluble in vitro, though no sequence similarity with other known proteins was found, and one region was conserved among tardigrades. Furthermore, we demonstrated that RvLEAM protein as well as MAHS protein improved the hyperosmotic tolerance of human cells. The findings of the present study revealed that tardigrade mitochondria contain at least two types of heat-soluble proteins that might have protective roles in water-deficient environments. PMID:25675104

  2. Isoprene improves photochemical efficiency and enhances heat dissipation in plants at physiological temperatures.

    PubMed

    Pollastri, Susanna; Tsonev, Tsonko; Loreto, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    Isoprene-emitting plants are better protected against thermal and oxidative stresses. Isoprene may strengthen membranes avoiding their denaturation and may quench reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, achieving a similar protective effect. The physiological role of isoprene in unstressed plants, up to now, is not understood. It is shown here, by monitoring the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll fluorescence of leaves with chemically or genetically altered isoprene biosynthesis, that chloroplasts of isoprene-emitting leaves dissipate less energy as heat than chloroplasts of non-emitting leaves, when exposed to physiologically high temperatures (28-37 °C) that do not impair the photosynthetic apparatus. The effect was especially remarkable at foliar temperatures between 30 °C and 35 °C, at which isoprene emission is maximized and NPQ is quenched by about 20%. Isoprene may also allow better stability of photosynthetic membranes and a more efficient electron transfer through PSII at physiological temperatures, explaining most of the NPQ reduction and the slightly higher photochemical quenching that was also observed in isoprene-emitting leaves. The possibility that isoprene emission helps in removing thermal energy at the thylakoid level is also put forward, although such an effect was calculated to be minimal. These experiments expand current evidence that isoprene is an important trait against thermal and oxidative stresses and also explains why plants invest resources in isoprene under unstressed conditions. By improving PSII efficiency and reducing the need for heat dissipation in photosynthetic membranes, isoprene emitters are best fitted to physiologically high temperatures and will have an evolutionary advantage when adapting to a warming climate. PMID:24676032

  3. Realising the maximum health benefits from water quality improvements in the home: a case from Zaka district, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyo, S.; Wright, J.; Ndamba, J.; Gundry, S.

    The provision of good quality household drinking water is often regarded as an important means of improving health. There are however indications that the microbiological quality of water deteriorates between source and point of use in the home. The notion that providing clean water sources could be the solution to the rural water supply problem might therefore not be correct. This paper presents the findings from a survey that sought to investigate the quality of water in the home post-collection and any factors that were contributing to the quality. The 24 households that participated in the study were selected randomly from two villages. Water samples were collected from the households and from the drinking water sources. These were tested for total coliforms and Escherichia coli. Greater contamination was detected in the water drawn from unprotected wells than in that drawn from protected ones. For protected sources, there was an increase in the numbers of pathogens in the stored water relative to the source water. In a few instances there was a decrease in indicator bacteria numbers following water collection. This could have been due to a natural die off of the pathogens. There however did not seem to be a significant correlation between the microbiological quality of water in the home and the length of time the water has been stored. These findings indicate that there is some deterioration in the microbiological quality of water post-collection and it appears the phenomenon may be attributable to water handling and hygiene behaviours in the home. Water was collected frequently and rarely treated after collection. Only one household out of the 24 reported treating their water after collecting it. Home water treatment or safe storage may be an appropriate intervention in this community to reduce diarrhoeal disease.

  4. Evaluation of a multi-pronged intervention to improve access to safe abortion care in two districts in Jharkhand

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the adoption of the Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act in 1972, access to safe abortion services remains limited in India. Awareness of the legality of abortion also remains low, leading many women to seek services outside the health system. Medical abortion (MA) is an option that has the potential to expand access to safe abortion services. A multi-pronged intervention covering a population of 161,000 in 253 villages in the Silli and Khunti blocks of Jharkhand was conducted between 2007 and 2009, seeking to improve medical abortion services and create awareness at the community level by providing information through community intermediaries and creating an enabling environment through a behavior change communication campaign. The study evaluates the changes in knowledge about abortion-related issues, changes in abortion care-seeking, and service utilization as a result of this intervention. Methods A baseline cross-sectional survey was conducted pre-intervention (n = 1,253) followed by an endline survey (n = 1,290) one year after the completion of the intervention phase. In addition, monitoring data from intervention facilities was collected monthly over the study period. Results Nearly 85% of respondents reported being exposed to safe abortion messaging as a result of the intervention. Awareness of the legality of abortion increased significantly from 19.7% to 57.6% for women, as did awareness of the specific conditions for which abortion is allowed. Results were similar for men. There was also a significant increase in the proportion of men and women who knew of a legal and safe provider and place from where abortion services could be obtained. Multivariate analysis showed positive associations between exposure to any component of the intervention and increased knowledge about legality and gestational age limits, however only interpersonal communication was associated with a significant increase in knowledge of where to obtain safe

  5. Implementation experience during an eighteen month intervention to improve paediatric and newborn care in Kenyan district hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Nzinga, Jacinta; Ntoburi, Stephen; Wagai, John; Mbindyo, Patrick; Mbaabu, Lairumbi; Migiro, Santau; Wamae, Annah; Irimu, Grace; English, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Background We have conducted an intervention study aiming to improve hospital care for children and newborns in Kenya. In judging whether an intervention achieves its aims, an understanding of how it is delivered is essential. Here, we describe how the implementation team delivered the intervention over 18 months and provide some insight into how health workers, the primary targets of the intervention, received it. Methods We used two approaches. First, a description of the intervention is based on an analysis of records of training, supervisory and feedback visits to hospitals, and brief logs of key topics discussed during telephone calls with local hospital facilitators. Record keeping was established at the start of the study for this purpose with analyses conducted at the end of the intervention period. Second, we planned a qualitative study nested within the intervention project and used in-depth interviews and small group discussions to explore health worker and facilitators' perceptions of implementation. After thematic analysis of all interview data, findings were presented, discussed, and revised with the help of hospital facilitators. Results Four hospitals received the full intervention including guidelines, training and two to three monthly support supervision and six monthly performance feedback visits. Supervisor visits, as well as providing an opportunity for interaction with administrators, health workers, and facilitators, were often used for impromptu, limited refresher training or orientation of new staff. The personal links that evolved with senior staff seemed to encourage local commitment to the aims of the intervention. Feedback seemed best provided as open meetings and discussions with administrators and staff. Supervision, although sometimes perceived as fault finding, helped local facilitators become the focal point of much activity including key roles in liaison, local monitoring and feedback, problem solving, and orientation of new staff

  6. Processed complementary food does not improve growth or hemoglobin status of rural tanzanian infants from 6-12 months of age in Kilosa district, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mamiro, Peter S; Kolsteren, Patrick W; van Camp, John H; Roberfroid, Dominique A; Tatala, Simon; Opsomer, Anne S

    2004-05-01

    A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted from March 2001 to March 2002 involving 309 infants who received either a processed complementary food (CF) or an unprocessed placebo from 6 to 12 mo of age. The groups were comparable in baseline characteristics. The study took place in Kilosa district, Tanzania. The processed CF contained germinated, autoclaved, and dried finger millet (65.2%), kidney beans (19.1%), roasted-peanuts (8%), and mango purée (7.7%). The same blend, but not processed, served as the placebo. Processing increased iron solubility and energy density without affecting viscosity. Mean length for age, weight for age, hemoglobin, and zinc protoporphyrin at 6 and 12 mo did not differ between the 2 groups. The results show that the processed food did not differ from the unprocessed placebo in improving growth, hemoglobin, and iron status of infants when given under the study conditions. The control group consumed equal amounts of macronutrients, and the higher energy density in this study did not seem to have any benefits. In our study, there was a very intensive follow-up; at every encounter with mothers, giving the required amounts and adding extra lipids was strongly reinforced. Under those conditions, a well-balanced complementary food with additional lipids can meet the energy needs of young children. The reduction in phytates by 34% and improvement in iron solubility to 19% due to processing might not have been enough to compensate for the rather low iron content of the complementary food. PMID:15113950

  7. Improving B3LYP heats of formation with three-dimensional molecular descriptors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuwei; Wu, Jianming; Xu, Xin

    2016-05-15

    In the present work, we propose the X3D method that extends the B3LYP method by correcting its errors on heats of formation of hydrocarbons (HCs) with three-dimensional (3D) molecular descriptors. Inspired by the widely used Wiener index, these 3D descriptors are developed to improve over the original B3LYP method for a better description of atom-atom, atom-bond and bond-bond interactions. On top of a training set of only 45 species, the X3D method is validated against various sets of different chemistry, displaying an overall near chemical accuracy. In particular, X3D improves over B3LYP, reducing its mean absolute errors from 28.4 to 0.3 kcal/mol for (Set 1) 21 n-alkanes up to n-C32 H66 , from 19.3 to 0.6 kcal/mol for (Set 2) n-C7 H16 and its branched isomers, from 29.5 to 1.6 kcal/mol for (Set 3) 36 polycyclic saturated HCs, from 8.6 to 1.1 kcal/mol for (Set 4) 41 C6 H8 isomers of rings, alkenes, alkynes, and cumulenes, from 20.3 to 0.6 kcal/mol for (Set 5) 41 benzene-based compounds, and 8.1 to 1.3 kcal/mol for (Set 6) 66 radicals, etc. Comparisons with the G4 results are also presented. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26887921

  8. Improved Ohmic confinement induced by multipulse turbulent heating in the Hefei Tokamak-6M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuhong; Yu, Chang-Xuan; Luo, J. R.; Mao, J. S.; Liu, B. H.; Li, J. G.; Liang, Y. F.; Jie, Y. X.; Wu, Z. W.

    1998-06-01

    The improved Ohmic confinement phase (H-mode) has been observed during the turbulent heating (TH) pulse on the Hefei Tokamak-6M (HT-6M) [World Survey of Activities in Controlled Fusion Research, Nuclear Fusion Special Supplement (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1991), p. 190]. The electron temperature and density profiles become steeper, and a more negative radial electric field Er well is developed across the normal Ohmic phase (L-mode) to H-mode transition, at the plasma edge. The edge toroidal and poloidal velocities υφ and υθ and the main ion pressure gradient ∇Pi are substantially enhanced after the TH pulse. It is found that across the transition, υθ, υφ and ∇Pi all play significant roles for regulating the Er profile, and the negative well shape of Er in the H-mode is dominantly maintained by the poloidal rotation. The time evolution indicates that prior to the transition υθ plays a key role in inducing the rapid variations of the Er and its shear. The density fluctuation suppression is independent of the sign of the Er shear(Er') and Er curvature (Er″) and consistent with the theoretical models of Shaing et al. and Zhang and Mahajan, while the Er″ sign has an appreciable effect on the suppression of the plasma potential fluctuations. This fact reveals that the dependence of these two fluctuation suppressions on the Er shear are different, suggesting that the existing L→H transition theories which consider only a single fluctuating field should be improved.

  9. Modified heat treatment for lower temperature improvement of the mechanical properties of two ultrahigh strength low alloy steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Yoshiyuki; Okabayashi, Kunio

    1985-01-01

    In the previous papers, a new heat treatment for improving the lower temperature mechanical propertise of the ultrahigh strength low alloy steels was suggested by the authors which produces a mixed structure of 25 vol pct lower bainite and 75 vol pct martensite through isothermal transformation at 593 K for a short time followed by water quenching (after austenitization at 1133 K). In this paper, two commercial Japanese ultrahigh strength steels, 0.40 pct C-Ni-Cr-Mo (AISI 4340 type) and 0.40 pct C-Cr-Mo (AISI 4140 type), have been studied to determine the effect of the modified heat treatment, coupled above new heat treatment with γ ⇆ α' repctitive heat treatment, on the mechanical properties from ambient temperature (287 K) to 123 K. The results obtained for various test temperatures have been compared with those for the new heat treatment reported previously and the conventional 1133 K direct water quenching treatment. The incorporation of intermediate four cyclic γ ⇆ α' repctitive heat treatment steps (after the initial austenitization at 1133 K and oil quenching) into the new heat treatment reported previously, as compared with the conventional 1133 K direct water quenching treatment, significantly improved 0.2 pct proof stress as well as notch toughness of the 0.40 pct C-Ni-Cr-Mo ultrahigh strength steel at similar fracture ductility levels from 287 to 123 K. Also, this heat treatment, as compared with the conventional 1133 K direct water quenching treatment, significantly improved both 0.2 pct proof stress and notch toughness of the 0.40 pct C-Cr-Mo ultrahigh strength steel with increased fracture ductility at 203 K and above. The microstructure consists of mixed areas of ultrafine grained martensite, within which is the refined blocky, highly dislocated structure, and the second phase lower bainite (about 15 vol pct), which appears in acicular form and partitions prior austenite grains. This newly developed heat treatment makes it possible to modify

  10. CrossTalk proposal: Heat acclimatization does improve performance in a cool condition.

    PubMed

    Minson, Christopher T; Cotter, James D

    2016-01-15

    We believe available data support the thesis that HA can improve performance in cool conditions, and perhaps with less expense and fewer side-effects than hypoxia (Dempsey & Morgan, 2015), but its utility is unresolved and may be modest or absent in some settings and individuals. A few key issues are becoming clear, however. First, HA must be of sufficient stimulus and duration, with key evidence indicating longer is better. Second, individual variability in response to HA as an ergogenic aid needs to be considered. Third, key training aspects such as speed and intensity may need to be maintained, and ideally performed in a cooler environment to maximize gains and minimize fatigue (including the effects of matched absolute versus relative work rates on adaptations). Alternatively, passive heating should be considered (e.g. immediately after training). Fourth, there is no evidence that HA impairs cool weather performance, and thus HA is a useful strategy when the competitive environmental conditions are potentially hot or unknown. Fifth, much remains unknown about ideal timing for competition following HA and its decay. Lastly, an ergogenic effect of HA has yet to be studied in truly elite athletes. PMID:26668072

  11. Optimization of the ITER electron cyclotron equatorial launcher for improved heating and current drive functional capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Farina, D.; Figini, L.; Henderson, M.; Saibene, G.

    2014-06-15

    The design of the ITER Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (EC H and CD) system has evolved in the last years both in goals and functionalities by considering an expanded range of applications. A large effort has been devoted to a better integration of the equatorial and the upper launchers, both from the point of view of the performance and of the design impact on the engineering constraints. However, from the analysis of the ECCD performance in two references H-mode scenarios at burn (the inductive H-mode and the advanced non-inductive scenario), it was clear that the EC power deposition was not optimal for steady-state applications in the plasma region around mid radius. An optimization study of the equatorial launcher is presented here aiming at removing this limitation of the EC system capabilities. Changing the steering of the equatorial launcher from toroidal to poloidal ensures EC power deposition out to the normalized toroidal radius ρ ≈ 0.6, and nearly doubles the EC driven current around mid radius, without significant performance degradation in the core plasma region. In addition to the improved performance, the proposed design change is able to relax some engineering design constraints on both launchers.

  12. Learning from Nature to Improve the Heat Generation of Iron-Oxide Nanoparticles for Magnetic Hyperthermia Applications

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Boubeta, Carlos; Simeonidis, Konstantinos; Makridis, Antonios; Angelakeris, Makis; Iglesias, Oscar; Guardia, Pablo; Cabot, Andreu; Yedra, Lluis; Estradé, Sonia; Peiró, Francesca; Saghi, Zineb; Midgley, Paul A.; Conde-Leborán, Iván; Serantes, David; Baldomir, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The performance of magnetic nanoparticles is intimately entwined with their structure, mean size and magnetic anisotropy. Besides, ensembles offer a unique way of engineering the magnetic response by modifying the strength of the dipolar interactions between particles. Here we report on an experimental and theoretical analysis of magnetic hyperthermia, a rapidly developing technique in medical research and oncology. Experimentally, we demonstrate that single-domain cubic iron oxide particles resembling bacterial magnetosomes have superior magnetic heating efficiency compared to spherical particles of similar sizes. Monte Carlo simulations at the atomic level corroborate the larger anisotropy of the cubic particles in comparison with the spherical ones, thus evidencing the beneficial role of surface anisotropy in the improved heating power. Moreover we establish a quantitative link between the particle assembling, the interactions and the heating properties. This knowledge opens new perspectives for improved hyperthermia, an alternative to conventional cancer therapies. PMID:23576006

  13. Learning from Nature to Improve the Heat Generation of Iron-Oxide Nanoparticles for Magnetic Hyperthermia Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Boubeta, Carlos; Simeonidis, Konstantinos; Makridis, Antonios; Angelakeris, Makis; Iglesias, Oscar; Guardia, Pablo; Cabot, Andreu; Yedra, Lluis; Estradé, Sonia; Peiró, Francesca; Saghi, Zineb; Midgley, Paul A.; Conde-Leborán, Iván; Serantes, David; Baldomir, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The performance of magnetic nanoparticles is intimately entwined with their structure, mean size and magnetic anisotropy. Besides, ensembles offer a unique way of engineering the magnetic response by modifying the strength of the dipolar interactions between particles. Here we report on an experimental and theoretical analysis of magnetic hyperthermia, a rapidly developing technique in medical research and oncology. Experimentally, we demonstrate that single-domain cubic iron oxide particles resembling bacterial magnetosomes have superior magnetic heating efficiency compared to spherical particles of similar sizes. Monte Carlo simulations at the atomic level corroborate the larger anisotropy of the cubic particles in comparison with the spherical ones, thus evidencing the beneficial role of surface anisotropy in the improved heating power. Moreover we establish a quantitative link between the particle assembling, the interactions and the heating properties. This knowledge opens new perspectives for improved hyperthermia, an alternative to conventional cancer therapies.

  14. A Study About Improvement of Efficiency of a Sewage Heat Utilization System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayakawa, Tomoaki; Hihara, Eiji; Hanazaki, Hirotaka

    On the basis of the data analysis of operational performance at the DHC plant in Makuhari HB area, it is examined how the properties of the sewage used as a heat source affect the effectiveness of the system. The result of this study suggests that a sewage heat utilization system is able to perform higher efficiency when it is designed as a distributed system that has separate heat sources than a central system.

  15. A Study About Improvement of Efficiency of a Sewage Heat Utilization System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayakawa, Tomoaki; Hihara, Eiji; Hanazaki, Hirotaka

    In order to acquire the basis of technical information that will be required for the design and operation of a sewage heat utilization system, this paper discusses the data analysis of operational performance at the DHC plant in Makuhari HB area. The methodology used in this study is to clarify the characteristics of a sewage heat utilization system from compound characteristics of the DHC plant that consists of various heating systems, and evaluate them.

  16. Decreased impacts of the 2003 heat waves on mortality in the Czech Republic: an improved response?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyselý, Jan; Kříž, Bohumír

    2008-11-01

    The paper examines impacts on mortality of heat waves in 2003, the hottest summer on record in the Czech Republic, and compares them with previous similar events. While most summer heat waves over the period since 1986 were associated with significantly elevated mortality, this was not the case for three out of the four heat waves in 2003. The relatively weak mortality response was particularly noteworthy for the most severe heat wave which occurred in the first 10 days of August 2003 and resulted in enormous excess mortality in some western European countries. A mortality displacement effect and short-term adaptation to heat contributed to the reduced mortality impacts of the heat waves that followed after previous relatively warm periods. However, the decreased mortality response of the 2003 heat waves compared to previous heat waves in the 1990s is also likely to have arisen from positive health-care and other socio-economic changes in the post-communist central European region over the past decade, as well as a better public awareness of heat-related risks due to enhanced media coverage and regular biometeorological forecast and warnings.

  17. Improving water use efficiency and heat tolerance by expressing rice gene OsSIZ1 in transgenic cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drought and heat are the two major environmental factors that limit cotton production in Texas High Plains. To sustain cotton production in the semiarid land of Texas High Plains, it is imperative that drought- and salt-tolerant cotton be developed. In an effort to substantially improve cotton's per...

  18. Performance improvement of wire-bonded mesh screen flat heat pipe using water-based nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping-Yang; Chen, Yan-Jun; Liu, Zhen-Hua

    2016-02-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the thermal performances of a new type of wire-bonded mesh screen flat heat pipe using water and nanofluid as working fluid to find better structure and the working fluid based on the present flat heat pipes. The influences of the kind of working fluid, mass concentration of nanofluid and operating pressure on the thermal performance of the heat pipe were investigated under the three steady operating pressures. It is found from the results that the thermal performance of wire-bonded mesh screen heat pipe are superior to that of wire-bonded flat heat pipe either using water or using nanofluid as working fluid; the thermal resistance of the former reduces distinctly and the maximum power increases obviously. Moreover, using nanofluid can significantly enhance the thermal performance of this heat pipe; enhanced ratios of the both heat transfer coefficient and maximum heat flux gradually increase with increasing the nanoparticle mass concentration in the nanofluid at the same operating pressure, peaking at the 1.0 wt%. Then, they will gradually reduce with further increase of mass concentration of nanofluid.

  19. Cultural and Technical Evaluation of Heating Alternatives to Improve Indoor Air Quality on the Navajo Nation

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the Navajo Nation it is estimated that 62% of households use wood as their primary means of heating1. A 2010 study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Diné College found that in Shiprock, NM, the largest town in the Navajo Nation (pop. = 8,300)2, heating is often w...

  20. Improving surface energy balance closure by reducing errors in soil heat flux measurement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The flux plate method is the most commonly employed method for measuring soil heat flux (G) in surface energy balance studies. Although relatively simple to use, the flux plate method is susceptible to significant errors. Two of the most common errors are heat flow divergence around the plate and fa...

  1. Intelligent Microbial Heat-Regulating Engine (IMHeRE) for Improved Thermo-Robustness and Efficiency of Bioconversion.

    PubMed

    Jia, Haiyang; Sun, Xiangying; Sun, Huan; Li, Chenyi; Wang, Yunqian; Feng, Xudong; Li, Chun

    2016-04-15

    The growth and production of microorganisms in bioconversion are often hampered by heat stress. In this study, an intelligent microbial heat-regulating engine (IMHeRE) was developed and customized to improve the thermo-robustness of Escherichia coli via the integration of a thermotolerant system and a quorum-regulating system. At the cell level, the thermotolerant system composed of different heat shock proteins and RNA thermometers hierarchically expands the optimum temperature by sensing heat changes. At the community level, the quorum-regulating system dynamically programs the altruistic sacrifice of individuals to reduce metabolic heat release by sensing the temperature and cell density. Using this hierarchical, dynamical, and multilevel regulation, the IMHeRE is able to significantly improve cell growth and production. In a real application, the production of lysine was increased 5-fold at 40 °C using the IMHeRE. Our work provides new potential for the development of bioconversion by conserving energy and increasing productivity. PMID:26793993

  2. Is the use of computer navigation in total knee arthroplasty improving implant positioning and function? A comparative study of 198 knees operated at a Norwegian district hospital

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are few Scandinavian studies on the effect of computer assisted orthopedic surgery (CAOS) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA), compared to conventional technique (CON), and there is little information on effects in pain and function scores. This retrospective study has evaluated the effects of CAOS on radiological parameters and pain, function and quality of life after primary TKA. Methods 198 primary TKAs were operated by one surgeon in two district hospitals; 103 CAOS and 95 CON. The groups were evaluated based on 3 months post-operative radiographs and a questionnaire containing the knee osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS), the EQ-5D index score and a visual analogue scale (VAS) two years after surgery. Multiple linear regression method was used to investigate possible impact from exposure (CON or CAOS). Results On hip-knee-ankle radiographs, 20% of measurements were > ±3° of neutral in the CAOS group and 25% in the CON group (p = 0.37). For the femoral component, the number was 5% for CAOS and 18% for CON (p < 0.01). For the tibial component, the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.58). In the sagittal plane, the surgeon tended to apply more femoral flexion and more posterior tibial slope with CAOS. We observed no statistically or clinically significant difference in KOOS score, VAS or ∆EQ-5D (all p values >0.05), but there was a trend towards better scores for CAOS. Operation time was 3 minutes longer for CON (p = 0.37). Conclusions CAOS can improve radiological measurements in primary TKA, and makes it possible to adjust component placement to the patient’s anatomy. Over-all, the two methods are equal in pain, function and quality-of-life scores. PMID:24228727

  3. Neural network based supervisory & closed loop controls for NOx emission reductions and heat rate improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Radl, B.J.; Corfman, D.; Kish, B.

    1995-12-31

    This paper discusses the operational experience gained from installing a neural network based supervisor setpoint control system for selected combustion parameters at Penn Power`s New Castle station. The primary goal of the program is to reduce NOx emissions while maintaining or improving heat rate. The program was jointly funded by Ohio Edison, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Pegasus Technologies Corp. The target power station, Penn Power`s New Castle Unit 5, is a 1950`s vintage Babcock & Wilcox wall fired furnace with gross generation capacity of 150 MW. Before installation of the neural network system (NeuSIGHT), NOx averaged 0.75 to 0.80 lbs/mbtu at full load conditions. Previous testing reduced this from 1.0 lbs/mbtu under normal operating conditions. To meet the new Pennsylvania DER limits, which set an absolute tonnage limit on NOx, and operate for a full year, a further NOx reduction of 20% was required. The control system setup interfaced a Unix workstation to a Bailey Controls N90 DCS. The neural network and data collection/processing system resided on the workstation. New setpoints were determined by the neural network periodically. These setpoints were constrained within existing control system limits. The objective was to model the multi-dimensional and non-linear problem of NOx formation in the furnace with a neural network. Once modeled the neural network performed many {open_quote}what if{close_quote} simulations to optimize setpoints for the current operating conditions. To keep up with changes in operating conditions the neural network was set to continually learn from the most recent set of measurements. Conditioning algorithms for the input data and output setpoints were developed to handle the inherently {open_quote}noisy{close_quote} input data and to provide stable output recommendations. Test results and parameters used for combustion optimization are summarized in this paper.

  4. Solution to problems of bacterial impurity of heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapov, V. I.; Zamaleev, M. M.

    2015-09-01

    The article describes the problems of the operation of open and closed district heating systems related to the bacteriological contamination of heating-system water. It is noted that district heating systems are basically safe in sanitary epidemiological terms. Data on the dangers of sulfide contamination of heating systems are given. It is shown that the main causes of the development of sulfate-reducing and iron bacteria in heating systems are a significant biological contamination of source water to fuel heating systems, which is determined by water oxidizability, and a low velocity of the motion of heating-system water in the heating system elements. A case of sulfide contamination of a part of the outdoor heat-supply system of the city of Ulyanovsk is considered in detail. Measures for cleaning pipelines and heating system equipment from the waste products of sulfate-reducing bacteria and iron bacteria and for improving the quality of heating-system water by organizing the hydraulic and water-chemistry condition that makes it possible to avoid the bacteriological contamination of heating systems are proposed. The positive effect of sodium silicate on the prevention of sulfide contamination of heating systems is shown.

  5. Investigating potential light-duty efficiency improvements through simulation of turbo-compounding and waste-heat recovery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Kevin Dean; Wagner, Robert M; Briggs, Thomas E

    2010-01-01

    Modern diesel engines used in light-duty transportation applications have peak brake thermal efficiencies in the range of 40-42% for high-load operation with substantially lower efficiencies at realistic road-load conditions. Thermodynamic energy and exergy analysis reveals that the largest losses from these engines are due to combustion irreversibility and heat loss to the coolant, through the exhaust, and by direct convection and radiation to the environment. Substantial improvement in overall engine efficiency requires reducing or recovering these losses. Unfortunately, much of the heat transfer either occurs at relatively low temperatures resulting in large entropy generation (such as in the air-charge cooler), is transferred to low-exergy flow streams (such as the oil and engine coolant), or is radiated or convected directly to the environment. While there are significant opportunities for recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler for heavy-duty applications, achieving similar benefits for light-duty applications is complicated by transient, low-load operation at typical driving conditions and competition with the turbocharger and aftertreatment system for the limited thermal resources. We have developed an organic Rankine cycle model using GT-Suite to investigate the potential for efficiency improvement through waste-heat recovery from the exhaust and EGR cooler of a light-duty diesel engine. The model is used to examine the effects of efficiency-improvement strategies such as cylinder deactivation, use of advanced materials and improved insulation to limit ambient heat loss, and turbo-compounding on the steady-state performance of the ORC system and the availability of thermal energy for downstream aftertreatment systems. Results from transient drive-cycle simulations are also presented, and we discuss strategies to address operational difficulties associated with transient drive cycles and balancing the thermal requirements of waste-heat recovery

  6. Heat acclimatization does not improve VO2max or cycling performance in a cool climate in trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, A; Racinais, S; Jensen, M V; Nørgaard, S J; Bonne, T; Nybo, L

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated if well-trained cyclists improve V ˙ O 2 m a x and performance in cool conditions following heat acclimatization through natural outdoor training in hot conditions. Eighteen trained male cyclists were tested for physiological adaptations, V ˙ O 2 m a x , peak aerobic power output, exercise efficiency, and outdoor time trial (TT) performance (43.4 km in cool environment, ∼5-13 °C) before and after 2 weeks of training in a cool (CON, n = 9) or hot (∼35 °C, HA, n = 9) environment. After heat acclimatization, TT performance in the heat was improved by 16%; however, there was no change in the HA group in V ˙ O 2 m a x (4.79 ± 0.21 L/min vs 4.82 ± 0.35 L/min), peak aerobic power output (417 ± 16 W vs 422 ± 17 W), and outdoor TT performance in cool conditions (300 ± 14 W/69 ± 3 min vs 302 ± 9 W/69 ± 4 min). The present study shows that 2 weeks of heat acclimatization was associated with marked improvements in TT performance in the heat. However, for the well-trained endurance athletes, this did not transfer to an improved aerobic exercise capacity or outdoor TT performance in cool conditions. PMID:25943678

  7. Improvement of Nuclear Heating Evaluation Inside the Core of the OSIRIS Material Testing Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Péron, Arthur; Malouch, Fadhel; Diop, Cheikh M.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present a nuclear heating from neutron and photon rays calculation scheme mainly based on the Monte-Carlo neutral particle transport code TRIPOLI-4® which takes into account the axial distributions of fuel element compositions. This calculation scheme is applied to the OSIRIS reactor in order to evaluate the effect of using realistic axially heterogeneous compositions instead of uniform ones. After a description of nuclear heating evaluation, the calculation scheme is described. Numerical simulations and related results are detailed and analysed to determine the impact of axially heterogeneous compositions on fluxes, power and nuclear heating.

  8. Greenhouse soil heating for improved production and energy conservation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Roller, W.L.; Elwell, D.L.

    1981-09-01

    A three-year study of the beneficial use of simulated power plant reject heat for soil heating in greenhouses is described. The effect of 25, 30, 35, and 40/sup 0/C warm water on the temperature of and moisture distribution in three diverse, greenhouse soils was studied, and the growth response of variety HR-5 lettuce in this environment was determined. Detailed information on soil temperature and moisture distribution, heat transfer rates, and lettuce production yield under various operating conditions was obtained.

  9. An improved absorption generator for solar-thermal powered heat pumps. Part 2: Energy and economics

    SciTech Connect

    Fineblum, S.

    1997-12-31

    Solar heated absorption chiller installations have been very expensive for their rating. To enhance collector thermal efficiency the liquid flowing within the collectors must be kept as cool as possible. However, there is also a need to operate the absorption reported earlier. The compromise usually results in poor collector efficiency as well as a relatively poor specific chiller effect. The proposed vortex generator permits a heat pump to operate efficiently with relatively low temperature solar heated fluid (70--80 C). As a result, the collectors are cooler and more efficient. As noted in Part 1, the specific heat pumping capacity is about 27% greater than conventional systems operating at the same reduced generator temperatures. Therefore, a smaller, less expensive chiller is required. The reduced investment in solar arrays and absorption chillers is estimated along with a range of paybacks.

  10. An improved absorption generator for solar-thermal powered heat pumps. Part 1: Feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Fineblum, S.

    1997-12-31

    Solar heated absorption chiller installations have been, typically, very expensive for their rating. The need to keep the liquid flowing within the collectors as cool as possible to enhance collector thermal efficiency, conflicts with the need to operate the absorption chiller at a higher temperature. The compromise usually results in poor collector efficiency as well as a relatively poor specific chiller effect. The proposed vortex generator permits a heat pump to operate efficiently with relatively low temperature solar heated fluid (70--80 C). As a result, the collectors are cooler and much more efficient. In addition, the specific heat pumping capacity is about 27% greater than conventional systems operating at the same reduced generator temperatures and, therefore, a smaller chiller is required. The economic consequences of these benefits will be presented in Part 2.

  11. School District Mergers: What One District Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the planning process for a school district merger in a northwestern Pennsylvania school district, effective communication proved to be a challenge. Formed in 1932, this school district of approximately 1400 students was part of a utopian community; one established by a transportation system's corporation that was a major industrial…

  12. Study on Improving Partial Load by Connecting Geo-thermal Heat Pump System to Fuel Cell Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Shinya; Kudo, Kazuhiko

    Hydrogen piping, the electric power line, and exhaust heat recovery piping of the distributed fuel cells are connected with network, and operational planning is carried out. Reduction of the efficiency in partial load is improved by operation of the geo-thermal heat pump linked to the fuel cell network. The energy demand pattern of the individual houses in Sapporo was introduced. And the analysis method aiming at minimization of the fuel rate by the genetic algorithm was described. The fuel cell network system of an analysis example assumed connecting the fuel cell co-generation of five houses. When geo-thermal heat pump was introduced into fuel cell network system stated in this paper, fuel consumption was reduced 6% rather than the conventional method

  13. Opportunities for Saving Energy and Improving Air Quality in Urban Heat Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Akbari, Hashem

    2007-07-01

    World energy use is the main contributor to atmospheric CO2. In 2002, about 7.0 giga metric tons of carbon (GtC) were emitted internationally by combustion of gas, liquid, and solid fuels (CDIAC, 2006), 2 to 5 times the amount contributed by deforestation (Brown et al., 1988). The share of atmospheric carbon emissions for the United States from fossil fuel combustion was 1.6 GtC. Increasing use of fossil fuel and deforestation together have raised atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration some 25% over the last 150 years. According to global climate models and preliminary measurements, these changes in the composition of the atmosphere have already begun raising the Earth's average temperature. If current energy trends continue, these changes could drastically alter the Earth's temperature, with unknown but potentially catastrophic physical and political consequences. During the last three decades, increased energy awareness has led to conservation efforts and leveling of energy consumption in the industrialized countries. An important byproduct of this reduced energy use is the lowering of CO{sub 2} emissions. Of all electricity generated in the United States, about one-sixth is used to air-condition buildings. The air-conditioning use is about 400 tera-watt-hours (TWh), equivalent to about 80 million metric tons of carbon (MtC) emissions, and translating to about $40 billion (B) per year. Of this $40 B/year, about half is used in cities that have pronounced 'heat islands'. The contribution of the urban heat island to the air-conditioning demand has increased over the last 40 years and it is currently at about 10%. Metropolitan areas in the United States (e.g., Los Angeles, Phoenix, Houston, Atlanta, and New York City) have typically pronounced heat islands that warrant special attention by anyone concerned with broad-scale energy efficiency (HIG, 2006). The ambient air is primarily heated through three processes: direct absorption of solar radiation, convection of heat

  14. Improvements in Sensible Heat-Flux Parametrization in the High-Resolution Regional Model (HRM) Through the Modified Treatment of the Roughness Length for Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anurose, T. J.; Subrahamanyam, D. Bala

    2013-06-01

    We discuss the impact of the differential treatment of the roughness lengths for momentum and heat (z_{0m} and z_{0h}) in the flux parametrization scheme of the high-resolution regional model (HRM) for a heterogeneous terrain centred around Thiruvananthapuram, India (8.5°N, 76.9°E). The magnitudes of sensible heat flux ( H) obtained from HRM simulations using the original parametrization scheme differed drastically from the concurrent in situ observations. With a view to improving the performance of this parametrization scheme, two distinct modifications are incorporated: (1) In the first method, a constant value of 100 is assigned to the z_{0m}/z_{0h} ratio; (2) and in the second approach, this ratio is treated as a function of time. Both these modifications in the HRM model showed significant improvements in the H simulations for Thiruvananthapuram and its adjoining regions. Results obtained from the present study provide a first-ever comparison of H simulations using the modified parametrization scheme in the HRM model with in situ observations for the Indian coastal region, and suggest a differential treatment of z_{0m} and z_{0h} in the flux parametrization scheme.

  15. Transitions to improved confinement regimes induced by changes in heating in zero-dimensional models for tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, H.; Chapman, S. C.; Dendy, R. O.; Itoh, K.

    2014-06-15

    It is shown that rapid substantial changes in heating rate can induce transitions to improved energy confinement regimes in zero-dimensional models for tokamak plasma phenomenology. We examine for the first time the effect of step changes in heating rate in the models of Kim and Diamond [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 185006 (2003)] and Malkov and Diamond [Phys. Plasmas 16, 012504 (2009)], which nonlinearly couple the evolving temperature gradient, micro-turbulence, and a mesoscale flow; and in the extension of Zhu et al. [Phys. Plasmas 20, 042302 (2013)], which couples to a second mesoscale flow component. The temperature gradient rises, as does the confinement time defined by analogy with the fusion context, while micro-turbulence is suppressed. This outcome is robust against variation of heating rise time and against introduction of an additional variable into the model. It is also demonstrated that oscillating changes in heating rate can drive the level of micro-turbulence through a period-doubling path to chaos, where the amplitude of the oscillatory component of the heating rate is the control parameter.

  16. Improving Educational Opportunities for Low-Income Children. Hearing on Examining Proposals to Improve Educational Opportunities for Low-Income Children, Including Provisions of S. 847, to Provide Scholarship Assistance for District of Columbia Elementary and Secondary School Students, Hearing of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    The Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources met to hear two panels of witnesses discuss improving educational opportunities for low-income children, including provisions of Senate 847, to provide scholarship assistance for District of Columbia elementary and secondary school students. Opening remarks by Senators Coats, Lieberman, Reed, and…

  17. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  18. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  19. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  20. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  1. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  2. An improved algorithm for the modeling of vapor flow in heat pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, Leonard K.; Hainley, Donald C.

    1989-01-01

    A heat pipe vapor flow algorithm suitable for use in codes on microcomputers is presented. The incompressible heat pipe vapor flow studies of Busse are extended to incorporate compressibility effects. The Busse velocity profile factor is treated as a function of temperature and pressure. The assumption of a uniform saturated vapor temperature determined by the local pressure at each cross section of the pipe is not made. Instead, a mean vapor temperature, defined by an energy integral, is determined in the course of the solution in addition to the pressure, saturation temperature at the wall, and the Busse velocity profile factor. For alkali metal working fluids, local species equilibrium is assumed. Temperature and pressure profiles are presented for several cases involving sodium heat pipes. An example for a heat pipe with an adiabatic section and two evaporators in sequence illustrates the ability to handle axially varying heat input. A sonic limit plot for a short evaporator falls between curves for the Busse and Levy inviscid sonic limits.

  3. Improvement of radio frequency (RF) heating-assisted alkaline pretreatment on four categories of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofei; Taylor, Steven; Wang, Yifen

    2016-10-01

    Pretreatment plays an important role in making the cellulose accessible for enzyme hydrolysis and subsequent conversion because it destroys more or less resistance and recalcitrance of biomass. Radio frequency (RF)-assisted dielectric heating was utilized in the alkaline pretreatment on agricultural residues (corn stover), herbaceous crops (switchgrass), hardwood (sweetgum) and softwood (loblolly pine). Pretreatment was performed at 90 °C with either RF or traditional water bath (WB) heating for 1 h after overnight soaking in NaOH solution (0.2 g NaOH/g Biomass). Pretreated materials were characterized by chemical compositional analysis, enzyme hydrolysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The glucan yields of RF-heated four categories of hydrolysates were 89.6, 72.6, 21.7, and 9.9 %. Interestingly, RF heating raised glucan yield on switchgrass and sweetgum but not on corn stover or loblolly pine. The SEM images and FTIR spectra agreed with results of composition analysis and hydrolysis. GC-MS detected some compounds only from RF-heated switchgrass. These compounds were found by other researchers only in high-temperature (150-600 °C) and high-pressure pyrolysis processes. PMID:27262715

  4. An Improved Heat Budget Estimation Including Bottom Effects for General Ocean Circulation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, Kendall; Warrior, Hari; Otis, Daniel; Chen, R. F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of the underwater light field on heat-budget calculations of general ocean circulation models for shallow waters. The presence of a bottom significantly alters the estimated heat budget in shallow waters, which affects the corresponding thermal stratification and hence modifies the circulation. Based on the data collected during the COBOP field experiment near the Bahamas, we have used a one-dimensional turbulence closure model to show the influence of the bottom reflection and absorption on the sea surface temperature field. The water depth has an almost one-to-one correlation with the temperature rise. Effects of varying the bottom albedo by replacing the sea grass bed with a coral sand bottom, also has an appreciable effect on the heat budget of the shallow regions. We believe that the differences in the heat budget for the shallow areas will have an influence on the local circulation processes and especially on the evaporative and long-wave heat losses for these areas. The ultimate effects on humidity and cloudiness of the region are expected to be significant as well.

  5. Food for Thought: Ideas for Improving School Food Service Operations. Innovative Solutions To Help Address the Issues and Challenges Facing Most Public School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Comptroller of Public Accounts, Austin.

    This booklet reports on a study of food service functions in Texas schools. The report contains examples taken from previous school reviews and is based on the state Comptroller's instruction that the best practices identified by the Texas School Performance Review team be communicated to all the state's school districts. Some examples present…

  6. Energy Conservation and Management. Tried and Proven Energy Conservation Programs That Are Helping School Districts Improve the Energy Efficiency of Their Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolberg, Charles G.

    A special 90-minute educational session of the Association of School Business Officials' annual meeting presented a series of mini-workshops, each featuring a school district or organization that had developed and/or implemented a successful program to reduce energy usage in schools. The 19 presenters at these mini-workshops included school…

  7. Building District Capacity for System-Wide Instructional Improvement in Stamford Public Schools. Working Paper. GE Foundation "Developing Futures"™ in Education Evaluation Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ryan; Riggan, Matt

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from one component of the Consortium for Policy Research in Education's (CPRE) evaluation of the General Electric Foundation's (GEF) "Developing Futures"™ in Education program in Stamford Public Schools (SPS). The purpose was to closely analyze district capacity to support system-wide…

  8. Building District Capacity for System-Wide Instructional Improvement in Cincinnati Public Schools. Working Paper. GE Foundation "Developing Futures"™ in Education Evaluation Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sam, Cecile; Riggan, Matt

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from one component of the Consortium for Policy Research in Education's (CPRE) evaluation of the General Electric Foundation's (GEF) "Developing Futures"™ in Education program in Cincinnati Public Schools (CPS). The purpose was to closely analyze district capacity to support system-wide…

  9. The Role of School Development in the School Improvement Process of Prince George's County. Lessons Learned from One Local District's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Michael K.

    In September 1985, the Prince George's County Public School System located in the Washington metropolitan area east of the District of Columbia, began implementation of a Milliken relief program to revamp its equity strategy. Initially, 10 of 117 elementary schools in the system were targeted for relief, but by September 1988, the Milliken program…

  10. Using Research to Improve College Readiness: A Research Partnership between the Los Angeles Unified School District and the Los Angeles Education Research Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Meredith; Yamashiro, Kyo; Farrukh, Adina; Lim, Cynthia; Hayes, Katherine; Wagner, Nicole; White, Jeffrey; Chen, Hansheng

    2015-01-01

    The Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) serves a large majority of socioeconomically disadvantaged students who are struggling academically and are underprepared for high school graduation and college. This article describes the partnership between LAUSD and the Los Angeles Education Research Institute, and how this collaboration endeavors…

  11. Method and apparatus for improving heat transfer in a fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Lessor, Delbert L.; Robertus, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus contains a fluidized bed that includes particles of different triboelectrical types, each particle type acquiring an opposite polarity upon contact. The contact may occur between particles of the two types or between particles of etiher type and structure or fluid present in the apparatus. A fluidizing gas flow is passed through the particles to produce the fluidized bed. Immersed within the bed are electrodes. An alternating EMF source connected to the electrodes applies an alternating electric field across the fluidized bed to cause particles of the first type to move relative to particles of the second type and relative to the gas flow. In a heat exchanger incorporating the apparatus, the electrodes are conduits conveying a fluid to be heated. The two particle types alternately contact each conduit to transfer heat from a hot gas flow to the second fluid within the conduit.

  12. Geothermal district piping - A primer

    SciTech Connect

    Rafferty, K.

    1989-11-01

    Transmission and distribution piping constitutes approximately 40 -60% of the capital costs of typical geothermal district heating systems. Selections of economical piping suitable for the fluid chemistry is critical. Presently, most piping (56%) in geothermal systems is of asbestos cement construction. Some fiberglass (19%) and steel (19%) is also in use. Identification of an economical material to replace asbestos cement is important to future project development. By providing information on relative costs, purchase considerations, existing material performance and new products, this report seeks to provide a background of information to the potential pipe purchaser. A brief discussion of the use of uninsulated piping in geothermal district heating systems is also provided. 5 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines. II - Pressureless sintering and mechanical properties of injection molded silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Thomas J.; Baer, J. R.

    1989-01-01

    The influence on density and strength of pressureless sintering in vacuum and argon environments has been evaluated with injection molded SiC materials. Main effects and two factor interactions of sintering (cycle variables temperature, time, heating rate, and atmosphere) were assessed. An improved understanding of the influence of the processing flaws and sintering conditions has been obtained. Strength and density have improved from a baseline level of 299 MPa (43.3 Ksi) and 94 pct of theoretical density to values greater than 483 MPa (70 Ksi) and 97 pct.

  14. Liquid Metal Bond for Improved Heat Transfer in LWR Fuel Rods

    SciTech Connect

    Donald Olander

    2005-08-24

    A liquid metal (LM) consisting of 1/3 weight fraction each of Pb, Sn, and Bi has been proposed as the bonding substance in the pellet-cladding gap in place of He. The LM bond eliminates the large AT over the pre-closure gap which is characteristic of helium-bonded fuel elements. Because the LM does not wet either UO2 or Zircaloy, simply loading fuel pellets into a cladding tube containing LM at atmospheric pressure leaves unfilled regions (voids) in the bond. The HEATING 7.3 heat transfer code indicates that these void spaces lead to local fuel hot spots.

  15. Heat transfer improvement and NOx reduction in an industrial furnace by regenerative combustion system

    SciTech Connect

    Suzukawa, Yutaka; Sugiyama, Syunichi; Mori, Isao

    1996-12-31

    Recent development of the regenerative combustion system, in which ceramic honeycomb is used as a heat storage medium in a regenerator, has raised preheated air temperature up to 1,600 K. By preheating the combustion air, the heating potential of the furnace gas is increased and the fuel consumption is reduced dramatically. However, higher air temperature increases the potential of NOx formation. Therefore, to apply this technology for commercial use, development of low NOx burner is strongly requested. In this paper, newly developed low NOx burner as well as the high performance honeycomb regenerator is explained. Also, theoretical and numerical analysis of fuel saving by the high preheated air combustion is discussed.

  16. Improvement of Mechanical Properties of Spheroidized 1045 Steel by Induction Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minwook; Shin, Jung-Ho; Choi, Young; Lee, Seok-Jae

    2016-04-01

    The effects of induction heat treatment on the formation of carbide particles and mechanical properties of spheroidized 1045 steel were investigated by means of microstructural analysis and tensile testing. The induction spheroidization accelerated the formation of spherical cementite particles and effectively softened the steel. The volume fraction of cementite was found to be a key factor that affected the mechanical properties of spheroidized steels. Further tests showed that sequential spheroidization by induction and furnace heat treatments enhanced elongation within a short spheroidization time, resulting in better mechanical properties. This was due to the higher volume fraction of spherical cementite particles that had less diffusion time for particle coarsening.

  17. Calif. Districts Link to Push Shared Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2013-01-01

    Frustrated by their own state's pace and direction of school improvement, eight California districts have banded together to move ahead on rolling out the Common Core State Standards and designing new teacher evaluations based in part on student performance. Known as CORE--the California Office to Reform Education--the member districts also…

  18. Total Quality Can Help Your District's Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokeley, Sandra

    1996-01-01

    Describes how educators in the Pearl River School District, Pearl River, New York, have implemented Total Quality Management (TQM) principles to evaluate and improve their effectiveness. Includes two charts that depict key indicators of financial and academic performance and a seven-year profile of the district's budget, enrollment, diploma rate,…

  19. A Small District's Quest for Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Claudio

    In Texas, a financially troubled school district must submit a plan of action to the Texas Education Agency (TEA) for improving its financial situation without harming the quality of education delivered. If things get worse, TEA assigns a financial monitor to advise the district on overcoming its financial problems and to determine if further…

  20. Preliminary conceptual design for geothermal space heating conversion of school district 50 joint facilities at Pagosa Springs, Colorado. GTA report no. 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engen, I. A.

    1981-11-01

    This feasibility study and preliminary conceptual design effect assesses the conversion of a high school and gym, and a middle school building to geothermal space heating is assessed. A preliminary cost benefit assessment made on the basis of estimated costs for conversion, system maintenance, debt service, resource development, electricity to power pumps, and savings from from reduced natural gas consumption concluded that an economic conversion depended on development of an adequate geothermal resource (approximately 1500F, 400 gpm). Material selection assumed that the geothermal water to the main supply system was isolated to minimize effects of corrosion and deposition, and that system compatible components are used for the building modifications. Asbestos cement distribution pipe, a stainless steel heat exchanger, and stainless steel lined valves were recommended for the supply, heat transfer, and disposal mechanisms, respectively. A comparison of the calculated average gas consumption cost, escalated at 10% per year, with conversion project cost, both in 1977 dollars, showed that the project could be amortized over less than 20 years at current interest rates.