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Sample records for improved nitrogen difference

  1. Biochemical Approaches to Improved Nitrogen Fixation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving symbiotic nitrogen fixation by legumes has emerged again as an important topic on the world scene due to the energy crisis and lack of access to nitrogen fertilizer in developing countries. We have taken a biochemical genomics approach to improving symbiotic nitrogen fixation in legumes. L...

  2. Simulation of the dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus loads in different land uses in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region--based on the improved export coefficient model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinliang; Shao, Jing'an; Wang, Dan; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2015-11-01

    much smaller than those of the paddy field. The dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus loads in the woodland and meadow decreased after modification. The dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus loads in the building lot were the lowest but showed an increase with the progression of time. These results demonstrate that the modified export coefficient model significantly improves the accuracy of dissolved pollutant load simulation for different land uses in the TGRR, especially the accuracy of dissolved nitrogen load simulation. PMID:26477516

  3. Foliage nitrogen turnover: differences among nitrogen absorbed at different times by Quercus serrata saplings

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Miki U.; Mizumachi, Eri; Tokuchi, Naoko

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Nitrogen turnover within plants has been intensively studied to better understand nitrogen use strategies. However, differences among the nitrogen absorbed at different times are not completely understood and the fate of nitrogen absorbed during winter is largely uncharacterized. In the present study, nitrogen absorbed at different times of the year (growing season, winter and previous growing season) was traced, and the within-leaf nitrogen turnover of a temperate deciduous oak Quercus serrata was investigated. Methods The contributions of nitrogen absorbed at the three different times to leaf construction, translocation during the growing season, and the leaf-level resorption efficiency during leaf senescence were compared using 15N. Key Results Winter- and previous growing season-absorbed nitrogen significantly contributed to leaf construction, although the contribution was smaller than that of growing season-absorbed nitrogen. On the other hand, the leaf-level resorption efficiency of winter- and previous growing season-absorbed nitrogen was higher than that of growing season-absorbed nitrogen, suggesting that older nitrogen is better retained in leaves than recently absorbed nitrogen. Conclusions The results demonstrate that nitrogen turnover in leaves varies with nitrogen absorption times. These findings are important for understanding plant nitrogen use strategies and nitrogen cycles in forest ecosystems. PMID:21515608

  4. [Nitrogen Fraction Distributions and Impacts on Soil Nitrogen Mineralization in Different Vegetation Restorations of Karst Rocky Desertification].

    PubMed

    Hu, Ning; Ma, Zhi-min; Lan, Jia-cheng; Wu, Yu-chun; Chen, Gao-qi; Fu, Wa-li; Wen, Zhi-lin; Wang, Wen-jing

    2015-09-01

    In order to illuminate the impact on soil nitrogen accumulation and supply in karst rocky desertification area, the distribution characteristics of soil nitrogen pool for each class of soil aggregates and the relationship between aggregates nitrogen pool and soil nitrogen mineralization were analyzed in this study. The results showed that the content of total nitrogen, light fraction nitrogen, available nitrogen and mineral nitrogen in soil aggregates had an increasing tendency along with the descending of aggregate-size, and the highest content was occurred in < 0. 25 mm. The content of nitrogen fractions for all aggregate-classes followed in the order of abandoned land < grass land < brush land < brush-arbor land < arbor land in different sample plots. Artificial forest lands had more effects on the improvement of the soil nitrogen than honeysuckle land. In this study it also showed the nitrogen stockpiling quantity of each aggregate-size class was differed in all aggregate-size classes, in which the content of nitrogen fraction in 5-10 mm and 2-5 mm classes of soil aggregate-size were the highest. And it meant that soil nutrient mainly was stored in large size aggregates. Large size aggregates were significant to the storage of soil nutrient. For each class of soil aggregate-size, the contribution of the nitrogen stockpiling quantity of 0. 25-1 mm class to soil net nitrogen mineralization quantity was the biggest, and following >5mm and 2-5 mm classes, and the others were the smallest. With the positive vegetation succession, the weight percentage of > 5 mm aggregate-size classes was improved and the nitrogen storage of macro-aggregates also was increased. Accordingly, the capacity of soil supply mineral nitrogen and storage organic nitrogen were intensified. PMID:26717705

  5. Response of potatoes to nitrogen concentrations differ with nitrogen forms.

    PubMed

    Cao, W; Tibbitts, T W

    1998-01-01

    Two separate experiments were conducted to investigate plant growth and mineral composition of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) at varied solution concentrations of nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+). Each experiment evaluated five nitrogen (N) concentrations of 0.5, 2, 4, 8, and 12 mM, which were maintained with a non-recirculating nutrient film system in controlled environment. Plants were harvested on day 42 with NO3-; and day 35 with NH4+ after transplanting of tissue culture plantlets, and growth measurements were taken as leaf area, tuber number, and dry weights of different parts. With NO3-, plant growth was greatest and similar at 2, 4, and 8 mM of N whereas with NH4+, plant growth was best only at 2 and 4 mM of N. At 12 mM of N, plants exhibited interveinal ammonium toxicity with NH4+ nutrition, but healthy growth appearance with NO3- nutrition. With either N form, total N concentrations in tissues tended to increase with increased N concentrations, and tissue phosphorus (P) concentrations were reduced at 0.5 and 2 mM of N. Tissue concentrations of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S) changed only slightly at particular N concentrations, yet changed substantially with different N forms. The data indicate that the optimal ranges of N concentrations in both solution and tissues are wider and higher with NO3- than with NH4+ nutrition, and thus a careful control of NH4+ concentrations is necessary to minimize possible ammonium toxicity to potato plants. PMID:11541134

  6. Response of potatoes to nitrogen concentrations differ with nitrogen forms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, W.; Tibbitts, T. W.

    1998-01-01

    Two separate experiments were conducted to investigate plant growth and mineral composition of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) at varied solution concentrations of nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+). Each experiment evaluated five nitrogen (N) concentrations of 0.5, 2, 4, 8, and 12 mM, which were maintained with a non-recirculating nutrient film system in controlled environment. Plants were harvested on day 42 with NO3-; and day 35 with NH4+ after transplanting of tissue culture plantlets, and growth measurements were taken as leaf area, tuber number, and dry weights of different parts. With NO3-, plant growth was greatest and similar at 2, 4, and 8 mM of N whereas with NH4+, plant growth was best only at 2 and 4 mM of N. At 12 mM of N, plants exhibited interveinal ammonium toxicity with NH4+ nutrition, but healthy growth appearance with NO3- nutrition. With either N form, total N concentrations in tissues tended to increase with increased N concentrations, and tissue phosphorus (P) concentrations were reduced at 0.5 and 2 mM of N. Tissue concentrations of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and sulfur (S) changed only slightly at particular N concentrations, yet changed substantially with different N forms. The data indicate that the optimal ranges of N concentrations in both solution and tissues are wider and higher with NO3- than with NH4+ nutrition, and thus a careful control of NH4+ concentrations is necessary to minimize possible ammonium toxicity to potato plants.

  7. Bioretention Design to Improve Nitrogen Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioretention has been shown to effectively remove a variety of stormwater stressors, including oil/grease, heavy metals, phosphorus, and ammonium. However, reported nitrate and total nitrogen removal performance is highly variable. The media typically used in bioretention install...

  8. Comparative proteomic analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under different nitrogen sources.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shaohui; Zhao, Xinrui; Zou, Huijun; Fu, Jianwei; Du, Guocheng; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian

    2014-04-14

    In cultures containing multiple sources of nitrogen, Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits a sequential use of nitrogen sources through a mechanism known as nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR). To identify proteins differentially expressed due to NCR, proteomic analysis of S. cerevisiae S288C under different nitrogen source conditions was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), revealing 169 candidate protein spots. Among these 169 protein spots, 121 were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF). The identified proteins were closely associated with four main biological processes through Gene Ontology (GO) categorical analysis. The identification of the potential proteins and cellular processes related to NCR offer a global overview of changes elicited by different nitrogen sources, providing clues into how yeast adapt to different nutritional conditions. Moreover, by comparing our proteomic data with corresponding mRNA data, proteins regulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level could be distinguished. Biological significance In S. cerevisiae, different nitrogen sources provide different growth characteristics and generate different metabolites. The nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) process plays an important role for S. cerevisiae in the ordinal utilization of different nitrogen sources. NCR process can result in significant shift of global metabolic networks. Previous works on NCR primarily focused on transcriptomic level. The results obtained in this study provided a global atlas of the proteome changes triggered by different nitrogen sources and would facilitate the understanding of mechanisms for how yeast could adapt to different nutritional conditions. PMID:24530623

  9. Structural, mechanical and optical properties of nitrogen-implanted titanium at different pulse frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raaif, Mohamed; Mohamed, Sodky H.; Abd El-Rahman, Ahmed M.; Kolitsch, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Plasma-immersion ion implantation (PIII) is a potent method to obtain hard and wear-resistant surface on Ti by nitrogen implantation. This presentation is one part of a sequence of experiments to optimize the microstructure and physical properties of TiN through adapting the plasma-processing parameters. In this work, nitrogen ions were implanted into samples of pure Ti at different nitrogen pulse frequency without using any external source of heating. The nitrogen-implanted surfaces were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), optical microscope, nano-indentation technique, ball-on-disk type tribometer, surface profilemeter, Tafel polarization technique for corrosion performance and ellipsometry. The outcomes show that, nitrogen PIII is an effectual method for nitriding titanium and nitrogen pulse frequency affected the microstructure and physical properties of the treated Ti. X-ray diffraction depicted the formation of α-Ti (N) and the cubic TiN after implanting titanium by nitrogen and the thickness of the nitrided layer increased as the nitrogen pulse frequency increased. The wear and corrosion resistance of the nitrogen-implanted titanium are improved and the friction coefficient decreased from nearly 0.8 for the un-implanted titanium to 0.3 for the implanted titanium, this ascribed to the formation of the titanium nitrided phases. Ellipsometric measurements were carried out on the PIII titanium samples at different nitrogen pulse frequency. The ellipsometric measurements show that, the thickness of the nitrided layer and surface roughness increased while the refractive index decreased with increasing nitrogen pulse frequency.

  10. Legumes are different: Leaf nitrogen, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Adams, Mark Andrew; Turnbull, Tarryn L; Sprent, Janet I; Buchmann, Nina

    2016-04-12

    Using robust, pairwise comparisons and a global dataset, we show that nitrogen concentration per unit leaf mass for nitrogen-fixing plants (N2FP; mainly legumes plus some actinorhizal species) in nonagricultural ecosystems is universally greater (43-100%) than that for other plants (OP). This difference is maintained across Koppen climate zones and growth forms and strongest in the wet tropics and within deciduous angiosperms. N2FP mostly show a similar advantage over OP in nitrogen per leaf area (Narea), even in arid climates, despite diazotrophy being sensitive to drought. We also show that, for most N2FP, carbon fixation by photosynthesis (Asat) and stomatal conductance (gs) are not related to Narea-in distinct challenge to current theories that place the leaf nitrogen-Asat relationship at the center of explanations of plant fitness and competitive ability. Among N2FP, only forbs displayed an Narea-gs relationship similar to that for OP, whereas intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi; Asat/gs) was positively related to Narea for woody N2FP. Enhanced foliar nitrogen (relative to OP) contributes strongly to other evolutionarily advantageous attributes of legumes, such as seed nitrogen and herbivore defense. These alternate explanations of clear differences in leaf N between N2FP and OP have significant implications (e.g., for global models of carbon fluxes based on relationships between leaf N and Asat). Combined, greater WUE and leaf nitrogen-in a variety of forms-enhance fitness and survival of genomes of N2FP, particularly in arid and semiarid climates. PMID:27035971

  11. Analysing nitrogen responses of cereals to prioritize routes to the improvement of nitrogen use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Sylvester-Bradley, Roger; Kindred, Daniel R

    2009-01-01

    The efficient use of fertilizer nitrogen (N) is crucial to sustainable human nutrition. All crops receive significant amounts of additional N in temperate environments, through fixation or fertilizer use. This paper reviews progress towards the efficient use of fertilizer N by winter wheat (Triticum aesitivum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in the UK, acknowledging that on-farm this is governed by economics. Recent multi-site N response experiments on old and modern varieties show that yield improvements since the 1980s have been accompanied by increases in economic optimum N amounts for wheat but not for spring barley. On-farm N use efficiency (NUE) has increased for barley because increased yields with optimum N were associated with compensatory decreases in grain N concentration, whereas on-farm NUE has not increased for wheat because grain N concentration has not changed and improvements in N capture were insufficient to make up for the increased yield. Genetic effects on NUE are shown to differ markedly depending on whether they are determined at a single N rate, as in variety trials, or with optimum N amounts. It is suggested that, in order to elicit faster improvement in NUE on farms, breeding and variety testing should be conducted at some sites with more than one level of applied N, and that grain N%, N harvest index, and perhaps canopy N ratio (kg N ha(-1) green area) should be measured more widely. It is also suggested that, instead of using empirical functions, N responses might be analysed more effectively using functions based on explanations of yield determination for which the parameters have some physiological meaning. PMID:19395389

  12. Integrating soil information into canopy sensor algorithms for improved corn nitrogen rate recommendation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop canopy sensors have proven effective at determining site-specific nitrogen (N) needs, but several Midwest states use different algorithms to predict site-specific N need. The objective of this research was to determine if soil information can be used to improve the Missouri canopy sensor algori...

  13. Physiological limitations and the genetic improvement of symbiotic nitrogen fixation

    SciTech Connect

    Gara, F.O.; Manian, S. ); Drevon, J.J. )

    1988-01-01

    The rhizobium legume symbiosis continues to be of strategic importance particularly in the context of food production. As the world population grows, it is necessary that new developments take place in crop improvement. The development and application of new technologies in biological sciences over past years has made the entire area of plant-microbial interaction an exciting and challenging research area to be involved in. In view of the importance of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, it is not surprising that it still represents one of the priority areas for commercial development in agricultural biotechnology. Since this symbiosis involves an association between procaryotic and eucaryhotic partners, it requires of necessity a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach. This book focuses on physiological limitations affecting symbiotic nitrogen fixation and the potential for overcoming such limitations by using genetic technologies.

  14. Legumes are different: Leaf nitrogen, photosynthesis, and water use efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Mark Andrew; Turnbull, Tarryn L.; Sprent, Janet I.; Buchmann, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Using robust, pairwise comparisons and a global dataset, we show that nitrogen concentration per unit leaf mass for nitrogen-fixing plants (N2FP; mainly legumes plus some actinorhizal species) in nonagricultural ecosystems is universally greater (43–100%) than that for other plants (OP). This difference is maintained across Koppen climate zones and growth forms and strongest in the wet tropics and within deciduous angiosperms. N2FP mostly show a similar advantage over OP in nitrogen per leaf area (Narea), even in arid climates, despite diazotrophy being sensitive to drought. We also show that, for most N2FP, carbon fixation by photosynthesis (Asat) and stomatal conductance (gs) are not related to Narea—in distinct challenge to current theories that place the leaf nitrogen–Asat relationship at the center of explanations of plant fitness and competitive ability. Among N2FP, only forbs displayed an Narea–gs relationship similar to that for OP, whereas intrinsic water use efficiency (WUEi; Asat/gs) was positively related to Narea for woody N2FP. Enhanced foliar nitrogen (relative to OP) contributes strongly to other evolutionarily advantageous attributes of legumes, such as seed nitrogen and herbivore defense. These alternate explanations of clear differences in leaf N between N2FP and OP have significant implications (e.g., for global models of carbon fluxes based on relationships between leaf N and Asat). Combined, greater WUE and leaf nitrogen—in a variety of forms—enhance fitness and survival of genomes of N2FP, particularly in arid and semiarid climates. PMID:27035971

  15. Improvements to the Characterization of Organic Nitrogen Chemistry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess atmospheric nitrogen deposition can cause significant harmful effects to ecosystems. Organic nitrogen deposition can be an important contributor to the total nitrogen budget, contributing 10-30%, however there are large uncertainties in the chemistry and deposition of thes...

  16. Do nitrogen fertilizer rate and application timing make a difference in corn production?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high prices of nitrogen fertilizer have forced corn producers to consider strategies to increase nitrogen use efficiency. Improving nitrogen management in corn could involve the implementation of several management strategies. Side dressing, adjustment of nitrogen levels according to the site’s...

  17. Nitrogen deposition along differently exposed slopes in the Bavarian Alps.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Manfred; Fegg, Wolfgang; Römmelt, Horst; Leuchner, Michael; Ries, Ludwig; Zimmermann, Ralf; Michalke, Bernd; Wallasch, Markus; Maguhn, Jürgen; Faus-Kessler, Theresa; Jakobi, Gert

    2014-02-01

    The Alps are affected by high nitrogen deposition, particularly in the fringe of the Northern and Southern Alps. In the framework of a two-year monitoring study performed in 2010 and 2011, we investigated the ammonia and nitrogen dioxide air concentration and ammonium and nitrate deposition at different altitudes between 700 and 1,600 ma.s.l. in the Garmisch-Partenkirchen district in the Upper Bavaria region (Germany). Four-weekly measurements of deposition collected with bulk open field samplers and under-crown were performed in a profile perpendicular to the axis of the Loisach valley; measurements were conducted at eight sites. Whereas open field deposition ranged from 5 to 11 kg ha(-1)a(-1), nitrogen throughfall has reached up to 21 kg ha(-1)a(-1). Data from the valley and the slopes were compared with measurements performed on the platform of the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (Zugspitze) at an altitude of 2,650 ma.s.l. For the rough estimation of the total yearly deposition rate of nitrogen, the canopy uptake model was applied. By regarding nitrogen uptake by the trees, total deposition can exceed the throughfall in all sites by up to 50%. Additionally, we estimated the total deposition from the sum of wet and dry deposition. On the one side, the wet deposition could be extrapolated from the open field deposition. On the other side, we used the inferential method to calculate the dry deposition on the basis of NH3 and NO2 air concentrations and their literature based deposition velocities. Since fixed deposition velocities are inappropriate particularly in complex orography, we tried to find correction factors based upon terrain characteristics and meteorological considerations. Temperature monitoring at the eight sites and wind measurements at two sites provided some evidence for the semi-empirical parameterization. Due to numerous imponderabilities, the results of the two methods were not consistent for all sites. PMID:24211349

  18. [Effects of different fertilizer species on carbon and nitrogen leaching in a reddish paddy soil].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xi-Yu; Zou, Jing-Dong; Xu, Li-Li; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Yang, Feng-Ting; Dai, Xiao-Qin; Wang, Zhong-Qiang; Sun, Xiao-Min

    2014-08-01

    Enhanced fertilization could decrease nitrogen utilization rate and increase carbon and nitrogen leaching, leading to water pollution in agricultural ecosystem. A long-term field experiment had been established on a reddish paddy soil of Qianyanzhou Ecological Experimental Station (114 degrees 53'E, 26 degrees 48'N) in Jiangxi Province in 1998. Soil solution samples were collected by clay tube and vacuum pump. Four fertilizer species treatments were selected: control with no fertilizer (CK), straw return (ST), nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium mineral fertilizers (NPK) and pig manure (OM), aiming to evaluate the effects of different species of fertilizer on carbon and nitrogen leaching in a double rice cropping system. The results showed that: (1) ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+) -N) was the major type of N in soil leachate in reddish paddy soil. The application of NPK could significantly increase the ammonium nitrogen concentration (1.2 mg x L(-1) +/- 0.1 mg x L(-1)) compared with the CK, ST and OM treatments, and the application of OM could significantly increase the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration (27.3 mg x L(-1) +/- 1.6 mg x L(-1)) in soil leachate. The carbon and nitrogen leaching were more notable in the vegetative growth stage than the reproductive growth stage of rice (P < 0.05); (2) the long-term application of NPK and OM increased the NH4(+) -N, DOC, soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) contents. The NPK was best beneficial to improve TN contents and OM to improve SOC contents. (3) The DOC contents in soil leachate and SOC in paddy soil had a positive correlation (P < 0.01), while NH4(+) -N contents in soil leachate and TN contents in paddy soil had a positive correlation (P < 0.01). PMID:25338383

  19. Nitrogen cycling in different types of sediments from Danish waters

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, T.H.; Henridsen, K.

    1983-05-01

    Variations in sediment N:C ratios were correlated with water depth and season. /sup 14/NH/sub 4//sup +/ was used to measure the rates of NH/sub 4//sup +/ production (d) and incorporation into bacterial cells (i) in sediments from different stations, at different seasons. The validity of the rates d and i was indicated by the predicted correlation of d:i ratios with N:C ratios of the sediment, and the predicted N:C ratio at which net NH/sub 4//sup +/; pore water NH/sub 4//sup +/, flux of NH/sub 4//sup +/ from sediment, and flux of NH/sub 4//sup +/ into exchangeable pool. The NO/sub 3//sup -/ flux from sediment was correlated with nitrification rate and with season. Benthic infauna increased the flux of NH/sub 4//sup +/ from the sediment by 50%. The rates of transfer of nitrogen (NO/sub 3//sup -/, NH/sub 4//sup +/, N/sub 2/) from sediment to water were 44-66% of the net rates of organic nitrogen mineralization (d-i). Flux of NO/sub 3//sup -/ + NH/sub 4//sup +/ from the sediment could supply 30-82% of the nitrogen requirement of the planktonic primary producers.

  20. The role of water nitrogen retention in integrated nutrient management: assessment in a large basin using different modelling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grizzetti, Bruna; Passy, Paul; Billen, Gilles; Bouraoui, Fayçal; Garnier, Josette; Lassaletta, Luis

    2015-06-01

    Assessing the removal of nitrogen (temporary and permanent) in large river basins is complex due to the dependency on climate, hydrological and physical characteristics, and ecosystems functioning. Measurements are generally limited in number and do not account for the full integration of all processes contributing to nitrogen retention in the river basin. However, the estimation of nitrogen retention by the ecosystems is crucial to understanding the nitrate water pollution and the N2O emissions to the atmosphere, as well as the lag time between the implementation of agri-environmental measures to reduce nitrogen pollution and the improvement of water quality. Models have often been used to understand the dynamics of the river basin system. The objective of this study was to assess nitrogen retention in a large river basin, the Seine basin (∼65 000 km2, in France), through the application of three models with different levels of complexity developed for different specific purposes: the GREEN, SWAT and RiverStrahler models. The study analyses the different modelling approaches and compares their estimates of water nitrogen retention over an 11-year period. Then reflexions on the role played by nitrogen retention by aquatic ecosystems in integrated nutrient management are presented. The results of this study are relevant for the understanding of nitrogen retention processes at the large river basin scale and for the analysis of mitigation measure scenarios designed to reduce nitrogen impacts on aquatic ecosystems and climate.

  1. Improving dynamic phytoplankton reserve-utilization models with an indirect proxy for internal nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Malerba, Martino E; Heimann, Kirsten; Connolly, Sean R

    2016-09-01

    Ecologists have often used indirect proxies to represent variables that are difficult or impossible to measure directly. In phytoplankton, the internal concentration of the most limiting nutrient in a cell determines its growth rate. However, directly measuring the concentration of nutrients within cells is inaccurate, expensive, destructive, and time-consuming, substantially impairing our ability to model growth rates in nutrient-limited phytoplankton populations. The red chlorophyll autofluorescence (hereafter "red fluorescence") signal emitted by a cell is highly correlated with nitrogen quota in nitrogen-limited phytoplankton species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of including flow cytometric red fluorescence as a proxy for internal nitrogen status to model phytoplankton growth rates. To this end, we used the classic Quota model and designed three approaches to calibrate its model parameters to data: where empirical observations on cell internal nitrogen quota were used to fit the model ("Nitrogen-Quota approach"), where quota dynamics were inferred only from changes in medium nutrient depletion and population density ("Virtual-Quota approach"), or where red fluorescence emission of a cell was used as an indirect proxy for its internal nitrogen quota ("Fluorescence-Quota approach"). Two separate analyses were carried out. In the first analysis, stochastic model simulations were parameterized from published empirical relationships and used to generate dynamics of phytoplankton communities reared under nitrogen-limited conditions. Quota models were fitted to the dynamics of each simulated species with the three different approaches and the performance of each model was compared. In the second analysis, we fit Quota models to laboratory time-series and we calculate the ability of each calibration approach to describe the observed trajectories of internal nitrogen quota in the culture. Results from both analyses concluded that the

  2. Nitrogen transformations and balance in constructed wetlands for slightly polluted river water treatment using different macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiming; Zhang, Jian; Wei, Rong; Liang, Shuang; Li, Cong; Xie, Huijun

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen removal processing in different constructed wetlands treating different kinds of wastewater often varies, and the contribution to nitrogen removal by various pathways remains unclear. In this study, the seasonal nitrogen removal and transformations as well as nitrogen balance in wetland microcosms treating slightly polluted river water was investigated. The results showed that the average total nitrogen removal rates varied in different seasons. According to the mass balance approach, plant uptake removed 8.4-34.3 % of the total nitrogen input, while sediment storage and N(2)O emission contributed 20.5-34.4 % and 0.6-1.9 % of nitrogen removal, respectively. However, the percentage of other nitrogen loss such as N(2) emission due to nitrification and denitrification was estimated to be 2.0-23.5 %. The results indicated that plant uptake and sediment storage were the key factors limiting nitrogen removal besides microbial processes in surface constructed wetland for treating slightly polluted river water. PMID:22707115

  3. Mapping quantitative trait loci for nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency in rice (Oryza sativa L.) at different nitrogen fertilizer levels.

    PubMed

    Dai, G J; Cheng, S H; Hua, Z T; Zhang, M L; Jiang, H B; Feng, Y; Shen, X H; Su, Y A; He, N; Ma, Z B; Ma, X Q; Hou, S G; Wang, Y R

    2015-01-01

    Genetic improvement is the fundamental basis for improving nitrogen-use efficiency. A better understanding of genetic factors controlling nitrogen uptake and utilization is required for crop genetic improvement. In this study, we identified the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with traits of nitrogen uptake and utilization by using the single-sequence repeat marker method and a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a super hybrid Xieyou9308. All the traits investigated were inherited quantitatively by continuous variation and showed normal distribution in phenotype with transgressive segregation in the RIL population. Most of the traits were significantly correlated with each other except for nitrogen absorption ability (NAA) with nitrogen harvest index (NHI) and NHI with agricultural nitrogen-absorption efficiency (ANAE). At logarithmic odds value of 2.3, total 13 candidate QTLs, including 4 for NAA, 2 for NHI, 2 for physiological nitrogen-use efficiency, 1 for agricultural nitrogen-use efficiency (ANUE), and 4 for ANAE, were detected and mapped on chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, and 12. Significant pleiotropic effect or neighboring expression of QTLs was observed among traits. At position 64.8 cM on chromosome 4 near the marker RM5757, there was a QTL cluster of NAA, ANUE, and ANAE, and at chromosome 5 near the marker RM5968, there was a QTL cluster of NAA and ANUE. The QTL clusters might provide partial explanation and genetic mechanism for the observed correlations between nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency traits and might form a basis for future breeding programs. PMID:26400271

  4. Nitrogen balance as a tool to assess nitrogen mineralized from winery wastes under different irrigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Requejo, Maria Isabel; Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Villena, Raquel; Ribas, Francisco; Jesús Cabello, Maria; Arce, Augusto; Cartagena, Maria Carmen

    2013-04-01

    Grape marc is a by-product coming from the winery industry, composed of skins, seeds and stalks generated during the crushing process. In Spain, large quantities of wine are produced every year (3,610,000 tonnes in 2010 (FAO, 2010)) with the consequent waste generation. With an adequate composting treatment, this waste can be applied to soils as a source of nutrients and organic matter. Compost N forms added to soil are mostly organic N forms, so organic N can be mineralized during the crop period and thus be taken up by the plants, immobilised, or leached. Compost N mineralization depends on factors such as compost C/N ratio but also on climate conditions. Estimation of N mineralization is necessary to optimise crop yield and minimize the risk of N losses to the environment, especially in zones vulnerable to nitrate pollution. The aim of this work was to assess mineralized N during the crop season when applying grape marc compost as fertilizer in a melon crop cultivated under different drip irrigation rates. A nitrogen balance in field conditions was carried out with three different doses of compost: 0 (D0), 6.7 (D1), 13.3 (D2) and 20 T/ha (D3); and two irrigation rates (100% ETc and 120% ETc). The field experiment was carried out in Ciudad Real, designated "vulnerable zone" by the "Nitrates Directive" 91/676/CEE. The soil was a shallow sandy-loam (Petrocalcic Palexeralfs), with 0.6 depth and a discontinuous petrocalcic horizon between 0.6 and 0.7 m. Nitrogen plant uptake and nitrate losses were measured weekly; mineral N in soil was determined before compost addition and at the end of the crop cycle. An estimation of soil mineralized N during the crop season using nitrogen balance is presented. Results are compared with data obtained in laboratory conditions. Acknowledgements: This project has been supported by INIA-RTA2010-00110-C03-01.

  5. Improvement of fluorescence intensity of nitrogen vacancy centers in self-formed diamond microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Furuyama, S.; Yaita, J.; Kondo, M.; Tahara, K.; Iwasaki, T.; Shimizu, M.; Kodera, T.; Hatano, M.

    2015-10-19

    We present umbrella-shaped diamond microstructures with metal mirrors at the bottom in order to improve the amount of collected photons from nitrogen vacancy centers. The metal mirrors at the bottom are self-aligned to the umbrella-shaped diamond microstructures which are selectively grown through holes created on a metal mask. By the finite-difference time-domain simulations, we found that the umbrella-shaped microstructures, which have an effect similar to solid immersion lens, could collect photons more efficiently than bulk or pillar-shaped microstructures. Improvement of the fluorescence intensity by factors of from 3 to 5 is shown experimentally.

  6. An Improved Retrieval of Tropospheric Nitrogen Dioxide from GOME

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Randall V.; Chance, Kelly; Jacob, Daniel J.; Kurosu, Thomas P.; Spurr, Robert J. D.; Bucsela, Eric; Gleason, James F.; Palmer, Paul I.; Bey, Isabelle; Fiore, Arlene M.

    2002-01-01

    We present a retrieval of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) satellite instrument that improves in several ways over previous retrievals, especially in the accounting of Rayleigh and cloud scattering. Slant columns, which are directly fitted without low-pass filtering or spectral smoothing, are corrected for an artificial offset likely induced by spectral structure on the diffuser plate of the GOME instrument. The stratospheric column is determined from NO2 columns over the remote Pacific Ocean to minimize contamination from tropospheric NO2. The air mass factor (AMF) used to convert slant columns to vertical columns is calculated from the integral of the relative vertical NO2 distribution from a global 3-D model of tropospheric chemistry driven by assimilated meteorological data (Global Earth Observing System (GEOS)-CHEM), weighted by altitude dependent scattering weights computed with a radiative transfer model (Linearized Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer), using local surface albedos determined from GOME observations at NO2 wavelengths. The AMF calculation accounts for cloud scattering using cloud fraction, cloud top pressure, and cloud optical thickness from a cloud retrieval algorithm (GOME Cloud Retrieval Algorithm). Over continental regions with high surface emissions, clouds decrease the AMT by 20- 30% relative to clear sky. GOME is almost twice as sensitive to tropospheric NO2 columns over ocean than over land. Comparison of the retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns for July 1996 with GEOS-CHEM values tests both the retrieval and the nitrogen oxide radical (NOx) emissions inventories used in GEOS-CHEM. Retrieved tropospheric NO2 columns over the United States, where NOx emissions are particularly well known, are within 18% of GEOS-CHEM columns and are strongly spatially correlated (r = 0.78, n = 288, p less than 0.005). Retrieved columns show more NO2 than GEOS-CHEM columns over the Transvaal

  7. Phenotyping two tomato genotypes with different nitrogen use efficiency.

    PubMed

    Abenavoli, Maria Rosa; Longo, Caterina; Lupini, Antonio; Miller, Anthony J; Araniti, Fabrizio; Mercati, Francesco; Princi, Maria P; Sunseri, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    Nitrogen (N) supply usually limits crop production and optimizing N-use efficiency (NUE) to minimize fertilizer loss is important. NUE is a complex trait that can be dissected into crop N uptake from the soil (NUpE) and N utilization (NUtE). We compared NUE in 14 genotypes of three week old tomatoes grown in sand or hydroponic culture supplied with nitrate (NO3(-)). Culture method influenced measured NUE for some cultivars, but Regina Ostuni (RO) and UC82 were consistently identified as high and low NUE genotypes. To identify why these genotypes had contrasting NUE some traits were compared growing under 0.1 and 5 mM NO3(-) supply. UC82 showed greater root (15)NO3(-) influx at low and high supply, and stronger SlNRT2.1/NAR2.1 transporter expression under low supply when compared with RO. Conversely, RO showed a higher total root length and thickness compared to UC82. Compared with UC82, RO showed higher shoot SlNRT2.3 expression and NO3(-) storage at high supply, but similar NO3(-) reductase activity. After N-starvation, root cell electrical potentials of RO were significantly more negative than UC82, but nitrate elicited similar responses in both root types. Overall for UC82 and RO, NUtE may play a greater role than NUpE for improved NUE. PMID:27235648

  8. [Allelopathy and resources competition of rice under different nitrogen supplies].

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jun; Lin, Wenxiong; Zhou, Junjian; Wu, Minhong; Chen, Xiangxu; He, Huaqin; Guo, Yuchun; Liang, Yiyuan

    2005-05-01

    In order to explore the bio-interference of allelopathic rice with barnyardgrass under different nitrogen supplies, a new bioassay method, i.e., allelopathy-competition separation based (ACS) approach was recommended in this study. The results indicated that ACS could be successfully used to distinguish the rice allelopathy from its resources competition in rice-weed co-culture system, and to evaluate its response characteristics under different N supplies. The test rice accession PI312777 had a higher ability in interfering target weed barnyardgrass (BYD), represented by its stable and higher ability in resources competition, as well as its increasing allelopathic potential in suppressing companion weed BYD when the N supply decreased in the co-cultured system. The reverse was true in the case of rice accession Lemont, which had a lower allelopathic potential under all N supply levels, and a lower ability in resources competition under normal or rich N supply. But, Lemont had an obviously increased ability in resources competition under lower N supply, which was considered as the result of econiche competition in rice-weed system. PMID:16110664

  9. Nitrogen metabolism in pepper plants applied with different bioregulators.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, J M; Castilla, N; Romero, L

    2000-07-01

    Certain bioregulators were studied in relation to nitrogen metabolism of pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Lamuyo). Plants were grown under controlled conditions and submitted to regular fertilization with macro- and micronutrients. Treatments were as follows: nontreated control (T0); fosfonutren [essential amino acids and micronutrients (46.9 mg L(-)(1))] (T1); biozyme [GA(3) (32.2 mg L(-)(1)) plus IAA (32.2 mg L(-)(1)) plus zeatin (83.2 mg L(-)(1)) plus chelated micronutrients] (T2); and GA(3) [16 mg L(-)(1)] (T3). The concentrations of NO(3)(-), organic N, amino acids, and proteins, the activities of nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrite reductase (NiR), and finally the foliar dry weight and yield were analyzed. The results indicated that the application of certain bioregulators, such as fosfonutren (T1), which contain amino acids can cause a negative effect on the efficiency and utilization of NO(3)(-), resulting in a drastic loss in growth and yield, even under the control treatment, in which no bioregulator was applied. On the contrary, the application of certain bioregulators based principally on the combination of different hormones, as in the case of biozyme (T2), increased NO(3)(-) assimilation under our experimental conditions, due possibly to a greater availability of these bioregulators in the leaves and increased NR and NiR activities. This appears to explain why the T2 treatment gave the greatest foliar dry weight and fruit yield per plant in the experiment. PMID:10898646

  10. Nitrogen pools and flows during lab-scale degradation of old landfilled waste under different oxygen and water regimes.

    PubMed

    Brandstätter, Christian; Laner, David; Fellner, Johann

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills occur primarily via leachate, where they pose a long-term pollution problem in the form of ammonium. In-situ aeration was proposed as a remediation measure to mitigate nitrogenous landfill emissions, turning the anaerobic environment to anoxic and subsequently aerobic. As in-depth studies of the nitrogen cycle during landfill aeration had been largely missing, it was the aim of this work to establish a detailed nitrogen balance for aerobic and anaerobic degradation of landfilled MSW based on lab-scale experiments, and also investigating the effect of different water regimes on nitrogen transformation during aeration. Six landfill simulation reactors were operated in duplicate under different conditions: aerated wet (with water addition and recirculation), aerated dry (without water addition) and anaerobic (wet). The results showed that more than 78 % of the initial total nitrogen (TNinit) remained in the solids in all set ups, with the highest nitrogen losses achieved with water addition during aeration. In this case, gaseous nitrogen losses (as N2 due to denitrification) amounted up to 16.6 % of TNinit and around 4 % of TNinit was discharged via leachate. The aerated dry set-up showed lower denitrification rates (2.6-8.8 % of TNinit was released as N2), but was associated with the highest N2O emissions (3.8-3.9 % of TNinit). For the anaerobic treatment the main pathway of nitrogen discharge was the leachate, where NH4 accounted for around 8 % of TNinit. These findings provide the basis for improved management strategies to enhance nitrogen removal during in-situ aeration of old landfills. PMID:26216372

  11. Overexpression of Arabidopsis NLP7 improves plant growth under both nitrogen-limiting and -sufficient conditions by enhancing nitrogen and carbon assimilation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lin-Hui; Wu, Jie; Tang, Hui; Yuan, Yang; Wang, Shi-Mei; Wang, Yu-Ping; Zhu, Qi-Sheng; Li, Shi-Gui; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is essential for plant survival and growth. Excessive application of nitrogenous fertilizer has generated serious environment pollution and increased production cost in agriculture. To deal with this problem, tremendous efforts have been invested worldwide to increase the nitrogen use ability of crops. However, only limited success has been achieved to date. Here we report that NLP7 (NIN-LIKE PROTEIN 7) is a potential candidate to improve plant nitrogen use ability. When overexpressed in Arabidopsis, NLP7 increases plant biomass under both nitrogen-poor and -rich conditions with better-developed root system and reduced shoot/root ratio. NLP7-overexpressing plants show a significant increase in key nitrogen metabolites, nitrogen uptake, total nitrogen content, and expression levels of genes involved in nitrogen assimilation and signalling. More importantly, overexpression of NLP7 also enhances photosynthesis rate and carbon assimilation, whereas knockout of NLP7 impaired both nitrogen and carbon assimilation. In addition, NLP7 improves plant growth and nitrogen use in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Our results demonstrate that NLP7 significantly improves plant growth under both nitrogen-poor and -rich conditions by coordinately enhancing nitrogen and carbon assimilation and sheds light on crop improvement. PMID:27293103

  12. Overexpression of Arabidopsis NLP7 improves plant growth under both nitrogen-limiting and -sufficient conditions by enhancing nitrogen and carbon assimilation

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lin-Hui; Wu, Jie; Tang, Hui; Yuan, Yang; Wang, Shi-Mei; Wang, Yu-Ping; Zhu, Qi-Sheng; Li, Shi-Gui; Xiang, Cheng-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is essential for plant survival and growth. Excessive application of nitrogenous fertilizer has generated serious environment pollution and increased production cost in agriculture. To deal with this problem, tremendous efforts have been invested worldwide to increase the nitrogen use ability of crops. However, only limited success has been achieved to date. Here we report that NLP7 (NIN-LIKE PROTEIN 7) is a potential candidate to improve plant nitrogen use ability. When overexpressed in Arabidopsis, NLP7 increases plant biomass under both nitrogen-poor and -rich conditions with better-developed root system and reduced shoot/root ratio. NLP7–overexpressing plants show a significant increase in key nitrogen metabolites, nitrogen uptake, total nitrogen content, and expression levels of genes involved in nitrogen assimilation and signalling. More importantly, overexpression of NLP7 also enhances photosynthesis rate and carbon assimilation, whereas knockout of NLP7 impaired both nitrogen and carbon assimilation. In addition, NLP7 improves plant growth and nitrogen use in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Our results demonstrate that NLP7 significantly improves plant growth under both nitrogen-poor and -rich conditions by coordinately enhancing nitrogen and carbon assimilation and sheds light on crop improvement. PMID:27293103

  13. Spectral measurements at different spatial scales in potato: relating leaf, plant and canopy nitrogen status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jongschaap, Raymond E. E.; Booij, Remmie

    2004-09-01

    Chlorophyll contents in vegetation depend on soil nitrogen availability and on crop nitrogen uptake, which are important management factors in arable farming. Crop nitrogen uptake is important, as nitrogen is needed for chlorophyll formation, which is important for photosynthesis, i.e. the conversion of absorbed radiance into plant biomass. The objective of this study was to estimate leaf and canopy nitrogen contents by near and remote sensing observations and to link observations at leaf, plant and canopy level. A theoretical base is presented for scaling-up leaf optical properties to whole plants and crops, by linking different optical recording techniques at leaf, plant and canopy levels through the integration of vertical nitrogen distribution. Field data come from potato experiments in The Netherlands in 1997 and 1998, comprising two potato varieties: Eersteling and Bintje, receiving similar nitrogen treatments (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg N ha -1) in varying application schemes to create differences in canopy nitrogen status during the growing season. Ten standard destructive field samplings were performed to follow leaf area index and crop dry weight evolution. Samples were analysed for inorganic nitrogen and total nitrogen contents. At sampling dates, spectral measurements were taken both at leaf level and at canopy level. At leaf level, an exponential relation between SPAD-502 readings and leaf organic nitrogen contents with a high correlation factor of 0.91 was found. At canopy level, an exponential relation between canopy organic nitrogen contents and red edge position ( λrep, nm) derived from reflectance measurements was found with a good correlation of 0.82. Spectral measurements (SPAD-502) at leaf level of a few square mm were related to canopy reflectance measurements (CropScan™) of approximately 0.44 m 2. Statistical regression techniques were used to optimise theoretical vertical nitrogen profiles that allowed scaling-up leaf chlorophyll measurements

  14. Nitrogen fertilizer improves boron phytoextraction by Brassica juncea grown in contaminated sediments and alleviates plant stress.

    PubMed

    Giansoldati, Virginia; Tassi, Eliana; Morelli, Elisabetta; Gabellieri, Edi; Pedron, Francesca; Barbafieri, Meri

    2012-06-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of different fertilizer treatments on Brassica plants grown on boron-contaminated sediments. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and on the lysimeter scale. At laboratory scale (microcosm), five different fertilizers were tested for a 35-d period. On the lysimeter scale, nitrogen fertilization was tested at three different doses and plants were allowed to grow until the end of the vegetative phase (70 d). Results showed that nitrogen application had effectively increased plant biomass production, while B uptake was not affected. Total B phytoextracted increased three-fold when the highest nitrogen dose was applied. Phytotoxicity on Brassica was evaluated by biochemical parameters. In plants grown in unfertilized B-contaminated sediments, the activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and pyrogallol peroxidase (PPX) increased, whereas catalase (CAT) decreased with respect to control plants. Addition of N progressively mitigated the alteration of enzymatic activity, thus suggesting that N can aid in alleviating B-induced oxidative stress. SOD activity was restored to control levels just at the lowest N treatment, whereas the CAT inhibition was partially restored only at the highest one. N application also lowered the B-induced increase in APX and PPX activities. Increased glutathione reductase activity indicated the need to restore the oxidative balance of glutathione. Data also suggest a role of glutathione and phytochelatins in B defense mechanisms. Results suggest that the nitrogen fertilizer was effective in improving B phytoextraction by increasing Brassica biomass and by alleviating B-induced oxidative stress. PMID:22382070

  15. Improved predictability of fertilizer nitrogen need for corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accounting for alfalfa nitrogen (N) credits to first-year corn reduces fertilizer N costs, over-application of N, and the risk of nitrate loss to ground water. It is equally important, however, to avoid inadequate N supply for corn. We analyzed nearly all previous research on fertilizer N response i...

  16. Root aeration improves growth and nitrogen accumulation in rice seedlings under low nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jingwen; Liang, Jing; Xu, Zhihui; Fan, Xiaorong; Zhou, Quansuo; Shen, Qirong; Xu, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    In wetland soils, changes in oxygen (O2) level in the rhizosphere are believed to influence the behaviour of nutrients and their usage by plants. However, the effect of aeration on nitrogen (N) acquisition under different N supply conditions remains largely unknown. In this study, the rice cultivars Yangdao 6 (YD6, with higher root aerenchyma abundance) and Nongken 57 (NK57, with lower root aerenchyma abundance) were used to evaluate the effects of aeration on rice growth and N accumulation. Our results showed that the number of adventitious roots and the root surface area increased significantly, and ethylene production and aerenchyma formation decreased in both cultivars after external aeration (EA). Five N treatments, including no N (-N), 0.125 mM NH4NO3 (LN), 1.25 mM Ca(NO3)2 (NO3-N), 1.25 mM (NH4)2SO4 (NH4-N) and 1.25 mM NH4NO3 (N/N), were applied to YD6 and NK57 for 2 days under internal aeration or EA conditions. External aeration increased the root biomass in both cultivars and the shoot biomass in NK57 by 18-50 %. The total N concentrations in roots of YD6 grown under -N and LN and of NK57 grown under NO3-N were increased by EA. Expression of OsPAD4, one of four putative genes regulating aerenchyma formation, showed a similar pattern alongside changes in the ethylene level in the EA-treated rice irrespective of the N treatments. Furthermore, expression of the high-affinity nitrate transporter gene OsNRT2.1 was increased by EA under -N, LN and NO3-N conditions. Our data provide evidence of an interaction between O2 and the supply of N in ethylene production, aerenchyma formation and N nutrition through modification of the expression of OsPAD4 and OsNRT2.1. PMID:26578743

  17. Root aeration improves growth and nitrogen accumulation in rice seedlings under low nitrogen

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jingwen; Liang, Jing; Xu, Zhihui; Fan, Xiaorong; Zhou, Quansuo; Shen, Qirong; Xu, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    In wetland soils, changes in oxygen (O2) level in the rhizosphere are believed to influence the behaviour of nutrients and their usage by plants. However, the effect of aeration on nitrogen (N) acquisition under different N supply conditions remains largely unknown. In this study, the rice cultivars Yangdao 6 (YD6, with higher root aerenchyma abundance) and Nongken 57 (NK57, with lower root aerenchyma abundance) were used to evaluate the effects of aeration on rice growth and N accumulation. Our results showed that the number of adventitious roots and the root surface area increased significantly, and ethylene production and aerenchyma formation decreased in both cultivars after external aeration (EA). Five N treatments, including no N (−N), 0.125 mM NH4NO3 (LN), 1.25 mM Ca(NO3)2 (NO3-N), 1.25 mM (NH4)2SO4 (NH4-N) and 1.25 mM NH4NO3 (N/N), were applied to YD6 and NK57 for 2 days under internal aeration or EA conditions. External aeration increased the root biomass in both cultivars and the shoot biomass in NK57 by 18–50 %. The total N concentrations in roots of YD6 grown under −N and LN and of NK57 grown under NO3-N were increased by EA. Expression of OsPAD4, one of four putative genes regulating aerenchyma formation, showed a similar pattern alongside changes in the ethylene level in the EA-treated rice irrespective of the N treatments. Furthermore, expression of the high-affinity nitrate transporter gene OsNRT2.1 was increased by EA under −N, LN and NO3-N conditions. Our data provide evidence of an interaction between O2 and the supply of N in ethylene production, aerenchyma formation and N nutrition through modification of the expression of OsPAD4 and OsNRT2.1. PMID:26578743

  18. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, ammonia was produced by 15 companies at 26 plants in 16 states in the United States. Of the total ammonia production capacity, 55% was centered in Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas because of their large reserves of natural gas. US producers operated at 66% of their rated capacity. In descending order, Koch Nitrogen, Terra Industries, CF Industries, Agrium and PCS Nitrogen accounted for 81% of the US ammonia production capacity.

  19. Detecting leaf nitrogen content in wheat with canopy hyperspectrum under different soil backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, X.; Ren, H.; Cao, Z.; Tian, Y.; Cao, W.; Zhu, Y.; Cheng, T.

    2014-10-01

    Hyperspectral sensing techniques can be effective for rapid, non-destructive detecting of the nitrogen (N) status in crop plants; however, their accuracy is often affected by the soil background. Under different fractions of soil background, the canopy spectra and leaf nitrogen content (LNC) in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were obtained from field experiments with different N rates and planting densities over 3 growing seasons. Five types of vegetation index (VIs: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), ratio vegetation index (RVI), soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), optimize soil adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI), and perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) were constructed based on three types of spectral information: (1) the original and the first derivative (FD) spectrum, (2) the spectrum adjusted with the vegetation coverage (FVcover), and (3) the pure spectrum extracted by a linear mixed model. Comprehensive relationships of above five types of VI with LNC were quantified for LNC detecting under different soil backgrounds. The results indicated that all five types of VI were significantly affected by the soil background, with R2 values of around 0.55 for LNC detecting, with the OSAVI (R514, R469)L=0.04 producing the best performance of all five indices. However, based on the FVcover, the coverage adjusted spectral index (CASI = NDVI(R513, R481)/(1 + FVcover) produced the higher R2 value of 0.62 and the lower RRMSE of 13%, and was less sensitive to the leaf area index (LAI), leaf dry weight (LDW), FVcover, and leaf nitrogen accumulation (LNA). The results demonstrate that the newly developed CASI could improve the performance of LNC estimation under different soil backgrounds.

  20. Validation of nitrogen dioxide measurements from the Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reburn, W. J.; Remedios, J. J.; Morris, P. E.; Rodgers, C. D.; Taylor, F. W.; Kerridge, B. J.; Knight, R. J.; Ballard, J.; Kumer, J. B.; Massie, S. T.

    1996-04-01

    Measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the Improved Stratospheric and Mesospheric Sounder (ISAMS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) are assessed. Channel 5 of the instrument was dedicated to observations of nitrogen dioxide and employed pressure-modulation and wideband radiometry to make measurements at 6.2 μm. This dual technique allows simultaneous determination of nitrogen dioxide mixing ratio and the aerosol extinction coefficient at this wavelength and therefore provides nitrogen dioxide data even in the presence of heavy aerosol loading. Approximately 180 days of data, in the period from September 1991 to July 1992, were obtained with, typically, over 2600 profiles per day for each retrieved species, covering an altitude range of 100-0.01 mbar. In this paper the version 10 data are assessed and a full error analysis is described. Comparisons with the Cryogenic Limb Array Etalon Spectrometer (CLAES) on UARS and the Limb Infrared Monitor of the Stratosphere (LIMS) on Nimbus 7 are also presented. It is concluded that the morphology of the retrieved ISAMS fields is robust and consistent with concurrent as well as previous infrared satellite measurements. Random errors are estimated to be of the order of 10% for nighttime and 15% for daytime NO2 near the maxima of the distributions, and systematic errors are estimated to be of a similar size. However, there remains an unresolved systematic difference of about a factor of 2 between ISAMS and CLAES. Both random and systematic errors are likely to be reduced in future versions of the processing.

  1. Reliable Reference Genes for Normalization of Gene Expression in Cucumber Grown under Different Nitrogen Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Warzybok, Anna; Migocka, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    In plants, nitrogen is the most important nutritional factor limiting the yield of cultivated crops. Since nitrogen is essential for synthesis of nucleotides, amino acids and proteins, studies on gene expression in plants cultivated under different nitrogen availability require particularly careful selection of suitable reference genes which are not affected by nitrogen limitation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to select the most reliable reference genes for qPCR analysis of target cucumber genes under varying nitrogen source and availability. Among twelve candidate cucumber genes used in this study, five are highly homologous to the commonly used internal controls, whereas seven novel candidates were previously identified through the query of the cucumber genome. The expression of putative reference genes and the target CsNRT1.1 gene was analyzed in roots, stems and leaves of cucumbers grown under nitrogen deprivation, varying nitrate availability or different sources of nitrogen (glutamate, glutamine or NH3). The stability of candidate genes expression significantly varied depending on the tissue type and nitrogen supply. However, in most of the outputs genes encoding CACS, TIP41, F-box protein and EFα proved to be the most suitable for normalization of CsNRT1.1 expression. In addition, our results suggest the inclusion of 3 or 4 references to obtain highly reliable results of target genes expression in all cucumber organs under nitrogen-related stress. PMID:24058446

  2. Global scale analysis and evaluation of an improved mechanistic representation of plant nitrogen and carbon dynamics in the Community Land Model (CLM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, B.; Riley, W. J.; Koven, C. D.; Randerson, J. T.; Mu, M.; Kattge, J.; Rogers, A.; Reich, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    In many ecosystems, nitrogen is the most limiting nutrient for plant growth and productivity. However mechanistic representation of nitrogen uptake linked to root traits, and functional nitrogen allocation among different leaf enzymes involved in respiration and photosynthesis is currently lacking in Earth System models. The linkage between nitrogen availability and plant productivity is simplistically represented by potential photosynthesis rates, and is subsequently downregulated depending on nitrogen supply and other nitrogen consumers in the model (e.g., nitrification). This type of potential photosynthesis rate calculation is problematic for several reasons. Firstly, plants do not photosynthesize at potential rates and then downregulate. Secondly, there is considerable subjectivity on the meaning of potential photosynthesis rates. Thirdly, there exists lack of understanding on modeling these potential photosynthesis rates in a changing climate. In addition to model structural issues in representing photosynthesis rates, the role of plant roots in nutrient acquisition have been largely ignored in Earth System models. For example, in CLM4.5, nitrogen uptake is linked to leaf level processes (e.g., primarily productivity) rather than root scale process involved in nitrogen uptake. We present a new plant model for CLM with an improved mechanistic presentation of plant nitrogen uptake based on root scale Michaelis Menten kinetics, and stronger linkages between leaf nitrogen and plant productivity by inferring relationships observed in global databases of plant traits (including the TRY database and several individual studies). We also incorporate improved representation of plant nitrogen leaf allocation, especially in tropical regions where significant over-prediction of plant growth and productivity in CLM4.5 simulations exist. We evaluate our improved global model simulations using the International Land Model Benchmarking (ILAMB) framework. We conclude that

  3. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Ammonia is the principal source of fixed nitrogen. It was produced by 17 companies at 34 plants in the United States during 2003. Fifty-three percent of U.S. ammonia production capacity was centered in Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas because of their large reserves of natural gas, the dominant domestic feedstock.

  4. Increasing in-stream nitrogen concentrations under different bioenergy crop management practices in central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomaa, Seifeddine; Thraen, Daniela; Rode, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Understanding how nitrogen fluxes respond to changes in land use and agriculture practices is crucial for improving instream water quality prediction. In central Germany, expansion of bioenergy crops such as maize and rape for ethanol production during the last decade led to increasing of fertilizer application rates. To examine the effect of these changes, surface water quality of a drinking water reservoir catchment was investigated for more than 30 years. The Weida catchment (99.5 km2) is part of the Elbe river basin and has a share of 67% agricultural land use with significant changes in agricultural practices within the investigation period. For the period 2004-2012, the share of maize and rape has been increased by 52% and 20%, respectively, for enhancing bioenergy production. To achieve our gaols, the semi-distributed hydrological water quality HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment) model was calibrated for discharge and inorganic nitrogen concentrations (IN) during the period 1997-2000.The model was validated successfully (with lowest performance of NSE = 0.78 and PBIAS = 3.74% for discharge) for three different periods 1983-1987, 1989-1996 and 2000-2003, which are charaterized by different fertilizer application rates. Results showed that the HYPE model reproduced reasonably well discharge and IN daily loads (with lowest NSE = 0.64 for IN-load). In addition, the HYPE model was evaluated successfully to predict the discharge and IN concentrations for the period 2004-2012, where detailed input data in terms of crops management (field-specific survey) have been considered. Land use and crop rotations scenarios, with high hypothetical percentage of acceptance by the farmers, revealed that continuous conversion of agricultural land into bioenergy crops, will most likely, lead to an enrichment of in-stream nitrogen, especially after spring storms.

  5. Nitrogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Ammonia was produced by 15 companies at 25 plants in 16 states in the United States during 2006. Fifty-seven percent of U.S. ammonia production capacity was centered in Louisiana, Oklahoma and Texas because of their large reserves of natural gas, the dominant domestic feedstock. In 2006, U.S. producers operated at about 72 percent of their rated capacity (excluding plants that were idle for the entire year). Five companies, Koch Nitrogen, Terra Industries, CF Industries, PCS Nitro-gen, and Agrium, in descending order, accounted for 79 percent U.S. ammonia production capacity. The United States was the world's fourth-ranked ammonia producer and consumer following China, India and Russia. Urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium phosphates, nitric acid and ammonium sulfate were the major derivatives of ammonia in the United States, in descending order of importance.

  6. [Effects of different fertilization modes on vegetable growth, fertilizer nitrogen utilization, and nitrogen loss from vegetable field].

    PubMed

    Huang, Dong-feng; Wang, Guo; Li, Wei-hua; Qiu, Xiao-xuan

    2009-03-01

    A field experiment with Chinese cabbage, water spinach, and three-colored amaranth cropped three times in one year was conducted to study the effects of seven fertilization modes, i.e., none fertilization, basal application of chemical fertilizers, 1/2 basal application and 1/2 top-dressing of chemical fertilizers, basal application of chemical fertilizers and dicyandiamide, 1/2 basal application and 1/2 top-dressing of chemical fertilizers and dicyandiamide, 1/2 basal application and 1/2 top-dressing of chemical fertilizers and organic manure, and basal application of organic manure, on the plant height, yield, nitrogen accumulation, and fertilizer nitrogen utilization of the vegetables, and the loss of NO3- -N and NH4+ -N from vegetable field under natural rainfall condition. The results showed that comparing with none fertilization, the fertilization modes '1/2 basal application and 1/2 top-dressing of chemical fertilizers and organic manure' and 'basal application of chemical fertilizers and dicyandiamide' improved the agronomic properties of test vegetables, increased their yields by 103%-219% and 93%-226%, and nitrogen accumulation by 153% -216% and 231%-320%, respectively, and enhanced fertilizer nitrogen utilization rate. They also decreased the surface runoff loss of NO3- -N and NH4+ -N by 48.1% and 46.5%, respectively, compared with the mode 'basal application of chemical fertilizers', and hence, reduced the risk of agricultural non-point pollution. Therefore, these two fertilization modes could be popularized in vegetable production. PMID:19637603

  7. Improved Productivity of Neutral Lipids in Chlorella sp. A2 by Minimal Nitrogen Supply

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Junying; Chen, Weixian; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Xin; He, Chenliu; Rong, Junfeng; Wang, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen starvation is an efficient environmental pressure for increasing lipid accumulation in microalgae, but it could also significantly lower the biomass productivity, resulting in lower lipid productivity. In this study, green alga Chlorella sp. A2 was cultivated by using a minimal nitrogen supply strategy under both laboratory and outdoor cultivation conditions to evaluate biomass accumulation and lipid production. Results showed that minimal nitrogen supply could promote neutral lipid accumulation of Chlorella sp. A2 without a significant negative effect on cell growth. In laboratory cultivation mode, alga cells cultured with 18 mg L−1 d−1 urea addition could generate 74 and 416% (w/w) more neutral lipid productivity than cells cultured with regular BG11 and nitrogen starvation media, respectively. In outdoor cultivation mode, lipid productivity of cells cultured with 18 mg L−1 d−1 urea addition is approximately 10 and 88% higher than the one with regular BG11 and nitrogen starvation media, respectively. Notably, the results of photosynthetic analysis clarified that minimal nitrogen supply reduced the loss of photosynthetic capacity to keep CO2 fixation during photosynthesis for biomass production. The minimal nitrogen supply strategy for microalgae cultivation could promote neutral lipid accumulation without a significant negative effect on cell growth, resulting in a significant improvement in the lipid productivity. PMID:27148237

  8. [Effect of different nitrogen forms and ratio on growth and active ingredient content of Platycodon grandiflorum].

    PubMed

    Duan, Yun-jing; Wang, Kang-cai; Niu, Ling-hui; Li, Ke; Su, Yun-yun

    2015-10-01

    To providing evidence about nitrogen adequate application of Platycodon grandiflorum, the pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of nitrogen on the growth, physiological metabolism and the quality of P. grandiflorum. The activity of NR, GS and SOD, POD and CAT were determined. And the nitrate and ammonium nitrogen content, photosynthetic characteristics, active components of P. grandiflorum were determined. The results showed that the nitrate nitrogen content and P. biomass reached its maximum value, when NH4(+)-N/NO3(-) -N was 0: 100, the activity of NR. The activity of GS was the highest at the NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio of 25:75 and ammonium nitrogen content was the highest at 75:25. The activity of SOD decreased and then increased with the increasing of NO3(-) -N. At the NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio of 25: 75, the activity of CAT had its maximum value and the content of MDA had the minimum value. At the same time, the content of platycodon D was the highest at this treatment. The studies had shown that different nitrogen forms and ratio had a significant effect on the characteristics of photosynthetic physiology, nitrogen metabolism and resistance adjustment, growth and the quality of P. grandiflorum. The NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio of 25: 75 was a suitable ratio of nitrogen forms for the growth of P. Grandiflorum and accumulating the content of platycodon D. PMID:26975097

  9. Improvement of wine terroir management according to biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najat, Nassr; Aude, Langenfeld; Mohammed, Benbrahim; Lionel, Ley; Laurent, Deliere; Jean-Pascal, Goutouly; David, Lafond; Marie, Thiollet-Scholtus

    2015-04-01

    Good wine terroir production implies a well-balanced Biogeochemical Cycle of Nitrogen (BCN) at field level i.e. in soil and in plant. Nitrogen is very important for grape quality and soil sustainability. The mineralization of organic nitrogen is the main source of mineral nitrogen for the vine. This mineralization depends mainly on the soil microbial activity. This study is focused on the functional microbial populations implicated in the BCN, in particular nitrifying bacteria. An experimental network with 6 vine sites located in Atlantic coast (Loire valley and Bordeaux) and in North-East (Alsace) of France has been set up since 2012. These vine sites represent a diversity of environmental factors (i.e. soil and climate). The adopted approach is based on the measure of several indicators to assess nitrogen dynamic in soil, i.e. nitrogen mineralization, regarding microbial biomass and activity. Statistical analyses are performed to determine the relationship between biological indicator and nitrogen mineralisation regarding farmer's practices. The variability of the BCN indicators seems to be correlated to the physical and chemical parameters in the soil of the field. For all the sites, the bacterial biomass is correlated to the rate and kinetic of nitrogen in soil, however this bioindicator depend also on others parameters. Moreover, the functional bacterial diversity depends on the soil organic matter content. Differences in the bacterial biomass and kinetic of nitrogen mineralization are observed between the sites with clayey (Loire valley site) and sandy soils (Bordeaux site). In some tested vine systems, effects on bacterial activity and nitrogen dynamic are also observed depending on the farmer's practices: soil tillage, reduction of inputs, i.e. pesticides and fertilizers, and soil cover management between rows. The BCN indicators seem to be strong to assess the dynamics of the nitrogen in various sites underline the functional diversity of the soils. These

  10. A Novel Remote Sensing Approach for Prediction of Maize Yield Under Different Conditions of Nitrogen Fertilization.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Díaz, Omar; Zaman-Allah, Mainassara A; Masuka, Benhildah; Hornero, Alberto; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo; Prasanna, Boddupalli M; Cairns, Jill E; Araus, José L

    2016-01-01

    Maize crop production is constrained worldwide by nitrogen (N) availability and particularly in poor tropical and subtropical soils. The development of affordable high-throughput crop monitoring and phenotyping techniques is key to improving maize cultivation under low-N fertilization. In this study several vegetation indices (VIs) derived from Red-Green-Blue (RGB) digital images at the leaf and canopy levels are proposed as low-cost tools for plant breeding and fertilization management. They were compared with the performance of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) measured at ground level and from an aerial platform, as well as with leaf chlorophyll content (LCC) and other leaf composition and structural parameters at flowering stage. A set of 10 hybrids grown under five different nitrogen regimes and adequate water conditions were tested at the CIMMYT station of Harare (Zimbabwe). Grain yield and leaf N concentration across N fertilization levels were strongly predicted by most of these RGB indices (with R (2)~ 0.7), outperforming the prediction power of the NDVI and LCC. RGB indices also outperformed the NDVI when assessing genotypic differences in grain yield and leaf N concentration within a given level of N fertilization. The best predictor of leaf N concentration across the five N regimes was LCC but its performance within N treatments was inefficient. The leaf traits evaluated also seemed inefficient as phenotyping parameters. It is concluded that the adoption of RGB-based phenotyping techniques may significantly contribute to the progress of plant breeding and the appropriate management of fertilization. PMID:27242867

  11. A Novel Remote Sensing Approach for Prediction of Maize Yield Under Different Conditions of Nitrogen Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Vergara-Díaz, Omar; Zaman-Allah, Mainassara A.; Masuka, Benhildah; Hornero, Alberto; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo; Prasanna, Boddupalli M.; Cairns, Jill E.; Araus, José L.

    2016-01-01

    Maize crop production is constrained worldwide by nitrogen (N) availability and particularly in poor tropical and subtropical soils. The development of affordable high-throughput crop monitoring and phenotyping techniques is key to improving maize cultivation under low-N fertilization. In this study several vegetation indices (VIs) derived from Red-Green-Blue (RGB) digital images at the leaf and canopy levels are proposed as low-cost tools for plant breeding and fertilization management. They were compared with the performance of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) measured at ground level and from an aerial platform, as well as with leaf chlorophyll content (LCC) and other leaf composition and structural parameters at flowering stage. A set of 10 hybrids grown under five different nitrogen regimes and adequate water conditions were tested at the CIMMYT station of Harare (Zimbabwe). Grain yield and leaf N concentration across N fertilization levels were strongly predicted by most of these RGB indices (with R2~ 0.7), outperforming the prediction power of the NDVI and LCC. RGB indices also outperformed the NDVI when assessing genotypic differences in grain yield and leaf N concentration within a given level of N fertilization. The best predictor of leaf N concentration across the five N regimes was LCC but its performance within N treatments was inefficient. The leaf traits evaluated also seemed inefficient as phenotyping parameters. It is concluded that the adoption of RGB-based phenotyping techniques may significantly contribute to the progress of plant breeding and the appropriate management of fertilization. PMID:27242867

  12. The nitrogen budget for different forest types in the central Congo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauters, Marijn; Verbeeck, Hans; Cizungu, Landry; Boeckx, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    Characterization of fundamental processes in different forest types is vital to understand the interaction of forests with their changing environment. Recent data analyses, as well as modeling activities have shown that the CO2 uptake by terrestrial ecosystems strongly depends on site fertility, i.e. nutrient availability. Accurate projections of future net forest growth and terrestrial CO2 uptake thus necessitate an improved understanding on nutrient cycles and how these are coupled to the carbon (C) cycle in forests. This holds especially for tropical forests, since they represent about 40-50% of the total carbon that is stored in terrestrial vegetation, with the Amazon basin and the Congo basin being the largest two contiguous blocks. However, due to political instability and reduced accessibility in the central Africa region, there is a strong bias in scientific research towards the Amazon basin. Consequently, central African forests are poorly characterized and their role in global change interactions shows distinct knowledge gaps, which is important bottleneck for all efforts to further optimize Earth system models explicitly including this region. Research in the Congo Basin region should combine assessments of both carbon stocks and the underlying nutrient cycles which directly impact the forest productivity. We set up a monitoring network for carbon stocks and nitrogen fluxes in four different forest types in the Congo Basin, which is now operative. With the preliminary data, we can get a glimpse of the differences in nitrogen budget and biogeochemistry of African mixed lowland rainforest, monodominant lowland forest, mixed montane forest and eucalypt plantations.

  13. Land Cover Differences in Soil Carbon and Nitrogen at Fort Benning, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr., C.T.

    2004-02-09

    Land cover characterization might help land managers assess the impacts of management practices and land cover change on attributes linked to the maintenance and/or recovery of soil quality. However, connections between land cover and measures of soil quality are not well established. The objective of this limited investigation was to examine differences in soil carbon and nitrogen among various land cover types at Fort Benning, Georgia. Forty-one sampling sites were classified into five major land cover types: deciduous forest, mixed forest, evergreen forest or plantation, transitional herbaceous vegetation, and barren land. Key measures of soil quality (including mineral soil density, nitrogen availability, soil carbon and nitrogen stocks, as well as properties and chemistry of the O-horizon) were significantly different among the five land covers. In general, barren land had the poorest soil quality. Barren land, created through disturbance by tracked vehicles and/or erosion, had significantly greater soil density and a substantial loss of carbon and nitrogen relative to soils at less disturbed sites. We estimate that recovery of soil carbon under barren land at Fort Benning to current day levels under transitional vegetation or forests would require about 60 years following reestablishment of vegetation. Maps of soil carbon and nitrogen were produced for Fort Benning based on a 1999 land cover map and field measurements of soil carbon and nitrogen stocks under different land cover categories.

  14. Improvement of crop yield in dry environments: benchmarks, levels of organisation and the role of nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Sadras, V O; Richards, R A

    2014-05-01

    Crop yield in dry environments can be improved with complementary approaches including selecting for yield in the target environments, selecting for yield potential, and using indirect, trait- or genomic-based methods. This paper (i) outlines the achievements of direct selection for yield in improving drought adaptation, (ii) discusses the limitations of indirect approaches in the context of levels of organization, and (iii) emphasizes trade-offs and synergies between nitrogen nutrition and drought adaptation. Selection for yield in the water- and nitrogen-scarce environments of Australia improved wheat yield per unit transpiration at a rate of 0.12kg ha(-1) mm(-1) yr(-1); for indirect methods to be justified, they must return superior rates of improvement, achieve the same rate at lower cost or provide other cost-effective benefits, such as expanding the genetic basis for selection. Slow improvement of crop adaptation to water stress using indirect methods is partially related to issues of scale. Traits are thus classified into three broad groups: those that generally scale up from low levels of organization to the crop level (e.g. herbicide resistance), those that do not (e.g. grain yield), and traits that might scale up provided they are considered in a integrated manner with scientifically sound scaling assumptions, appropriate growing conditions, and screening techniques (e.g. stay green). Predicting the scalability of traits may help to set priorities in the investment of research efforts. Primary productivity in arid and semi-arid environments is simultaneously limited by water and nitrogen, but few attempts are made to target adaptation to water and nitrogen stress simultaneously. Case studies in wheat and soybean highlight biological links between improved nitrogen nutrition and drought adaptation. PMID:24638898

  15. Nitrogen Management for Irrigated Potato Production under Different Tillage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four years of potato (Solanum tuberosum) field study was conducted under center pivot irrigation using large size plots and standard industry cultural practices to evaluate the affects of reduced or conventional tillage and different N management practices; i.e. pre-plant N rates of either 56, 112, ...

  16. Use of GIS-based site-specific nitrogen management for improving energy efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) is a significant energy component of in support of crop production but it can be highly variable within fields. To our knowledge, no efforts have been made to employ GIS-based site-specific N management (SSNM) to assess and improve energy costs and efficiency. We examine recent SSNM ca...

  17. Improved Exciton Dissociation at Semiconducting Polymer:ZnO Donor:Acceptor Interfaces via Nitrogen Doping of ZnO

    PubMed Central

    Musselman, Kevin P; Albert-Seifried, Sebastian; Hoye, Robert L Z; Sadhanala, Aditya; Muñoz-Rojas, David; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L; Friend, Richard H

    2014-01-01

    Exciton dissociation at the zinc oxide/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (ZnO/P3HT) interface as a function of nitrogen doping of the zinc oxide, which decreases the electron concentration from approximately 1019 cm−3 to 1017 cm−3, is reported. Exciton dissociation and device photocurrent are strongly improved with nitrogen doping. This improved dissociation of excitons in the conjugated polymer is found to result from enhanced light-induced de-trapping of electrons from the surface of the nitrogen-doped ZnO. The ability to improve the surface properties of ZnO by introducing a simple nitrogen dopant has general applicability. PMID:25520604

  18. Performance and recent improvement in microbial fuel cells for simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal: A review.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haishu; Xu, Shengjun; Zhuang, Guoqiang; Zhuang, Xuliang

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have become a promising technology for wastewater treatment accompanying electricity generation. Carbon and nitrogen removal can be achieved by utilizing the electron transfer between the anode and cathode in an MFC. However, large-scale power production and high removal efficiency must be achieved at a low cost to make MFCs practical and economically competitive in the future. This article reviews the principles, feasibility and bottlenecks of MFCs for simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal, the recent advances and prospective strategies for performance improvement, as well as the involved microbes and electron transfer mechanisms. PMID:26899662

  19. Farm nitrogen balances in six European landscapes as an indicator for nitrogen losses and basis for improved management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalgaard, T.; Bienkowski, J. F.; Bleeker, A.; Dragosits, U.; Drouet, J. L.; Durand, P.; Frumau, A.; Hutchings, N. J.; Kedziora, A.; Magliulo, V.; Olesen, J. E.; Theobald, M. R.; Maury, O.; Akkal, N.; Cellier, P.

    2012-12-01

    Improved management of nitrogen (N) in agriculture is necessary to achieve a sustainable balance between the production of food and other biomass, and the unwanted effects of N on water pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, biodiversity deterioration and human health. To analyse farm N-losses and the complex interactions within farming systems, efficient methods for identifying emissions hotspots and evaluating mitigation measures are therefore needed. The present paper aims to fill this gap at the farm and landscape scales. Six agricultural landscapes in Poland (PL), the Netherlands (NL), France (FR), Italy (IT), Scotland (UK) and Denmark (DK) were studied, and a common method was developed for undertaking farm inventories and the derivation of farm N balances, N surpluses and for evaluating uncertainty for the 222 farms and 11 440 ha of farmland included in the study. In all landscapes, a large variation in the farm N surplus was found, and thereby a large potential for reductions. The highest average N surpluses were found in the most livestock-intensive landscapes of IT, FR, and NL; on average 202 ± 28, 179 ± 63 and 178 ± 20 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively. All landscapes showed hotspots, especially from livestock farms, including a special UK case with large-scale landless poultry farming. Overall, the average N surplus from the land-based UK farms dominated by extensive sheep and cattle grazing was only 31 ± 10 kg N ha-1 yr-1, but was similar to the N surplus of PL and DK (122 ± 20 and 146 ± 55 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively) when landless poultry farming was included. We found farm N balances to be a useful indicator for N losses and the potential for improving N management. Significant correlations to N surplus were found, both with ammonia air concentrations and nitrate concentrations in soils and groundwater, measured during the period of N management data collection in the landscapes from 2007-2009. This indicates that farm N surpluses may be used as an

  20. Fuel nitrogen release during black liquor pyrolysis; Part 1: Laboratory measurements at different conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, K.; Vakkilainen, E. ); Hupa, M. . Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1994-05-01

    Fuel nitrogen release during black liquor pyrolysis is high. There is only minor release during the drying stage. Ammonia is the main fixed nitrogen species formed. The rate of fixed nitrogen release increases with increasing temperature. The level of fixed nitrogen released by birch liquor is almost twice the level for pine liquor. Assuming complete conversion to NO, fixed nitrogen yields gave NO concentrations near typically measured values for flue gases in full scale recovery boilers. The purpose of this work was to gain more detailed information about the behavior of the fuel nitrogen in black liquor combustion. The work focused on the pyrolysis or devolatilization of the combustion process. Devolatilization is the stage at which the majority (typically 50--80%) of the liquor organics release from a fuel particle or droplet as gaseous species due to the rapid destruction of the organic macromolecules in the liquor. In this paper, the authors use the terms devolatilization and pyrolysis interchangeably with no difference in their meaning.

  1. Microbial Nitrogen-Cycle Gene Abundance in Soil of Cropland Abandoned for Different Periods

    PubMed Central

    Huhe; Borjigin, Shinchilelt; Buhebaoyin; Wu, Yanpei; Li, Minquan; Cheng, Yunxiang

    2016-01-01

    In Inner Mongolia, steppe grasslands face desertification or degradation because of human overuse and abandonment after inappropriate agricultural management. The soils in these abandoned croplands exist in heterogeneous environments characterized by widely fluctuating microbial growth. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of microbial genes encoding proteins involved in the nitrogen cycle was used to study Azotobacter species, nitrifiers, and denitrifiers in the soils from steppe grasslands and croplands abandoned for 2, 6, and 26 years. Except for nitrifying archaea and nitrous oxide-reducing bacteria, the relative genotypic abundance of microbial communities involved in nitrogen metabolism differed by approximately 2- to 10-fold between abandoned cropland and steppe grassland soils. Although nitrogen-cycle gene abundances varied with abandonment time, the abundance patterns of nitrogen-cycle genes separated distinctly into abandoned cropland versus light-grazing steppe grassland, despite the lack of any cultivation for over a quarter-century. Plant biomass and plant diversity exerted a significant effect on the abundance of microbial communities that mediate the nitrogen cycle (P < 0.002 and P < 0.03, respectively). The present study elucidates the ecology of bacteria that mediate the nitrogen cycle in recently abandoned croplands. PMID:27140199

  2. Nitrogen Metabolism in Lactating Goats Fed with Diets Containing Different Protein Sources

    PubMed Central

    Santos, A. B.; Pereira, M. L. A.; Silva, H. G. O.; Pedreira, M. S.; Carvalho, G. G. P.; Ribeiro, L. S. O.; Almeida, P. J. P.; Pereira, T. C. J.; Moreira, J. V.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate urea excretion, nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis in lactating goats fed with diets containing different protein sources in the concentrate (soybean meal, cottonseed meal, aerial part of cassava hay and leucaena hay). Four Alpine goats whose mean body weight was 42.6±6.1 kg at the beginning of the experiment, a mean lactation period of 94.0±9.0 days and a production of 1.7±0.4 kg of milk were distributed in a 4×4 Latin square with four periods of 15 days. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 103.0 g/kg of CP, 400 g/kg of Tifton 85 hay and 600 g/kg of concentrate. Diet containing cottonseed meal provided (p<0.05) increased excretion of urea and urea nitrogen in the urine (g/d and mg/kg of BW) when compared with leucaena hay. The diets affected the concentrations of urea nitrogen in plasma (p<0.05) and excretion of urea nitrogen in milk, being that soybean meal and cottonseed meal showed (p<0.05) higher than the average aerial part of the cassava hay. The use of diets with cottonseed meal as protein source in the concentrate in feeding of lactating goats provides greater nitrogen excretion in urine and negative nitrogen balance, while the concentrate with leucaena hay as a source of protein, provides greater ruminal microbial protein synthesis. PMID:25050000

  3. Improved spectral fitting of nitrogen dioxide from OMI in the 405-465 nm window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Geffen, J. H. G. M.; Boersma, K. F.; Van Roozendael, M.; Hendrick, F.; Mahieu, E.; De Smedt, I.; Sneep, M.; Veefkind, J. P.

    2014-10-01

    An improved nitrogen dioxide (NO2) slant column density retrieval for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in the 405-465 nm spectral region is presented. Since the launch of OMI on board NASA's EOS-Aura satellite in 2004, DOAS retrievals of NO2 slant column densities have been the starting point for the KNMI DOMINO (v2.0) and NASA SP (v2.1) retrievals. However, recent intercomparisons between NO2 retrievals from OMI and other UV/Vis and limb spectrometers, as well as ground-based measurements, clearly suggested that OMI stratospheric NO2 is biased high. This study revises the OMI NO2 retrieval in detail. The representation of the OMI slit function to convolve high-resolution reference spectra onto the relevant spectral grid is improved. The window used for the wavelength calibration is optimised, leading to much-reduced fitting errors. Ozone and water vapour spectra used in the fit are updated, reflecting the recently improved knowledge on their absorption cross section as documented in the literature. The improved spectral fit also accounts for absorption by the O2-O2 collision complex and by liquid water over clear-water areas. The main changes in the improved spectral fitting result from the updates related to the wavelength calibration: the RMS error of the fit is reduced by 23% and the NO2 slant column by 0.85 × 1015 molec cm-2, independent of latitude, solar zenith angle and NO2 value. Including O2-O2 and liquid water absorption and updating the O3 and water vapour cross-section spectra further reduces NO2 slant columns on average by 0.35 × 1015 molec cm-2, accompanied with a further 9% reduction in the RMS error of the fit. The improved OMI NO2 slant columns are consistent with independent NO2 retrievals to within a range that can be explained by photo-chemically driven diurnal increases in stratospheric NO2 and by small differences in fitting window and fitting approach. The revisions indicate that current OMI NO2 slant columns suffered mostly from an

  4. Improved spectral fitting of nitrogen dioxide from OMI in the 405-465 nm window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Geffen, J. H. G. M.; Boersma, K. F.; Van Roozendael, M.; Hendrick, F.; Mahieu, E.; De Smedt, I.; Sneep, M.; Veefkind, J. P.

    2015-04-01

    An improved nitrogen dioxide (NO2) slant column density retrieval for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in the 405-465 nm spectral region is presented. Since the launch of OMI on board NASA's EOS-Aura satellite in 2004, differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) retrievals of NO2 slant column densities have been the starting point for the KNMI DOMINO and NASA SP NO2 vertical column data as well as the OMI NO2 data of some other institutes. However, recent intercomparisons between NO2 retrievals from OMI and other UV/Vis and limb spectrometers, as well as ground-based measurements, suggest that OMI stratospheric NO2 is biased high. This study revises and, for the first time, fully documents the OMI NO2 retrieval in detail. The representation of the OMI slit function to convolve high-resolution reference spectra onto the relevant spectral grid is improved. The window used for the wavelength calibration is optimised, leading to much-reduced fitting errors. Ozone and water vapour spectra used in the fit are updated, reflecting the recently improved knowledge of their absorption cross section in the literature. The improved spectral fit also accounts for absorption by the O2-O2 collision complex and by liquid water over clear-water areas. The main changes in the improved spectral fitting result from the updates related to the wavelength calibration: the RMS error of the fit is reduced by 23% and the NO2 slant column by 0.85 × 1015 molec cm-2, independent of latitude, solar zenith angle and NO2 value. Including O2-O2 and liquid water absorption and updating the O3 and water vapour cross-section spectra further reduces NO2 slant columns on average by 0.35 × 1015 molec cm-2, accompanied by a further 9% reduction in the RMS error of the fit. The improved OMI NO2 slant columns are consistent with independent NO2 retrievals from other instruments to within a range that can be explained by photochemically driven diurnal increases in stratospheric NO2 and by

  5. Herbivore trampling as an alternative pathway for explaining differences in nitrogen mineralization in moist grasslands.

    PubMed

    Schrama, Maarten; Heijning, Pieter; Bakker, Jan P; van Wijnen, Harm J; Berg, Matty P; Olff, Han

    2013-05-01

    Studies addressing the role of large herbivores on nitrogen cycling in grasslands have suggested that the direction of effects depends on soil fertility. Via selection for high quality plant species and input of dung and urine, large herbivores have been shown to speed up nitrogen cycling in fertile grassland soils while slowing down nitrogen cycling in unfertile soils. However, recent studies show that large herbivores can reduce nitrogen mineralization in some temperate fertile soils, but not in others. To explain this, we hypothesize that large herbivores can reduce nitrogen mineralization in loamy or clay soils through soil compaction, but not in sandy soils. Especially under wet conditions, strong compaction in clay soils can lead to periods of soil anoxia, which reduces decomposition of soil organic matter and, hence, N mineralization. In this study, we use a long-term (37-year) field experiment on a salt marsh to investigate the hypothesis that the effect of large herbivores on nitrogen mineralization depends on soil texture. Our results confirm that the presence of large herbivores decreased nitrogen mineralization rate in a clay soil, but not in a sandy soil. By comparing a hand-mown treatment with a herbivore-grazed treatment, we show that these differences can be attributed to herbivore-induced changes in soil physical properties rather than to above-ground biomass removal. On clay soil, we find that large herbivores increase the soil water-filled porosity, induce more negative soil redox potentials, reduce soil macrofauna abundance, and reduce decomposition activity. On sandy soil, we observe no changes in these variables in response to grazing. We conclude that effects of large herbivores on nitrogen mineralization cannot be understood without taking soil texture, soil moisture, and feedbacks through soil macrofauna into account. PMID:23271034

  6. Microcystin-tolerant Rhizobium protects plants and improves nitrogen assimilation in Vicia faba irrigated with microcystin-containing waters.

    PubMed

    Lahrouni, Majida; Oufdou, Khalid; El Khalloufi, Fatima; Benidire, Loubna; Albert, Susann; Göttfert, Michael; Caviedes, Miguel A; Rodriguez-Llorente, Ignacio D; Oudra, Brahim; Pajuelo, Eloísa

    2016-05-01

    Irrigation of crops with microcystins (MCs)-containing waters-due to cyanobacterial blooms-affects plant productivity and could be a way for these potent toxins entering the food chain. This study was performed to establish whether MC-tolerant rhizobia could benefit growth, nodulation, and nitrogen metabolism of faba bean plants irrigated with MC-containing waters. For that, three different rhizobial strains-with different sensitivity toward MCs-were used: RhOF96 (most MC-sensitive strain), RhOF125 (most MC-tolerant strain), or Vicz1.1 (reference strain). As a control, plants grown without rhizobia and fertilized by NH4NO3 were included in the study. MC exposure decreased roots (30-37 %) and shoots (up to 15 %) dry weights in un-inoculated plants, whereas inoculation with rhizobia protects plants toward the toxic effects of MCs. Nodulation and nitrogen content were significantly impaired by MCs, with the exception of plants inoculated with the most tolerant strain RhOF125. In order to deep into the effect of inoculation on nitrogen metabolism, the nitrogen assimilatory enzymes (glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT)) were investigated: Fertilized plants showed decreased levels (15-30 %) of these enzymes, both in shoots and roots. By contrast, inoculated plants retained the levels of these enzymes in shoots and roots, as well as the levels of NADH-GOGAT activity in nodules. We conclude that the microcystin-tolerant Rhizobium protects faba bean plants and improves nitrogen assimilation when grown in the presence of MCs. PMID:26865488

  7. Fluorescently tuned nitrogen-doped carbon dots from carbon source with different content of carboxyl groups

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Yun; Dai, Xiao; Zou, Guifu E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Ke-Qin E-mail: zouguifu@suda.edu.cn; Du, Dezhuang; Guo, Jun

    2015-08-01

    In this study, fluorescent nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs) were tuned via varying the sources with different number of carboxyl groups. Owing to the interaction between amino and carboxyl, more amino groups conjugate the surface of the NCDs by the source with more carboxyl groups. Fluorescent NCDs were tuned via varying the sources with different content of carboxyl groups. Correspondingly, the nitrogen content, fluorescence quantum yields and lifetime of NCDs increases with the content of carboxyl groups from the source. Furthermore, cytotoxicity assay and cell imaging test indicate that the resultant NCDs possess low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility.

  8. Mapping genetic variants underlying differences in the central nitrogen metabolism in fermenter yeasts.

    PubMed

    Jara, Matías; Cubillos, Francisco A; García, Verónica; Salinas, Francisco; Aguilera, Omayra; Liti, Gianni; Martínez, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Different populations within a species represent a rich reservoir of allelic variants, corresponding to an evolutionary signature of withstood environmental constraints. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are widely utilised in the fermentation of different kinds of alcoholic beverages, such as, wine and sake, each of them derived from must with distinct nutrient composition. Importantly, adequate nitrogen levels in the medium are essential for the fermentation process, however, a comprehensive understanding of the genetic variants determining variation in nitrogen consumption is lacking. Here, we assessed the genetic factors underlying variation in nitrogen consumption in a segregating population derived from a cross between two main fermenter yeasts, a Wine/European and a Sake isolate. By linkage analysis we identified 18 main effect QTLs for ammonium and amino acids sources. Interestingly, majority of QTLs were involved in more than a single trait, grouped based on amino acid structure and indicating high levels of pleiotropy across nitrogen sources, in agreement with the observed patterns of phenotypic co-variation. Accordingly, we performed reciprocal hemizygosity analysis validating an effect for three genes, GLT1, ASI1 and AGP1. Furthermore, we detected a widespread pleiotropic effect on these genes, with AGP1 affecting seven amino acids and nine in the case of GLT1 and ASI1. Based on sequence and comparative analysis, candidate causative mutations within these genes were also predicted. Altogether, the identification of these variants demonstrate how Sake and Wine/European genetic backgrounds differentially consume nitrogen sources, in part explaining independently evolved preferences for nitrogen assimilation and representing a niche of genetic diversity for the implementation of practical approaches towards more efficient strains for nitrogen metabolism. PMID:24466135

  9. Improving Model Representation of Reduced Nitrogen in the Greater Yellowstone Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Human activity, including fossil fuel combustion and agriculture has greatly increased the amount of reactive nitrogen (RN) in the atmosphere and its subsequent deposition to land. Increases in deposition of RN compounds can adversely affect sensitive ecosystems and is a growing problem in many natural areas. The National Park Service in conjunction with Colorado State University researchers and assistance from the Forest Service conducted the Grand Teton Reactive Nitrogen Deposition Study (GrandTReNDS) involving spatially and temporally detailed measurements of RN during spring/summer 2011. In this work it was found that during summer months at the high elevation site Grand Targhee, 62% of the nitrogen deposition was due to reduced nitrogen, about equally split between dry and wet deposition, oxidized nitrogen accounted for 27% of the total, and the remaining was wet deposited organic nitrogen. An important next step to GrandTReNDS is the use of chemical transport models (CTMs) to estimate source contributions to RN in the park. Given the large contribution of reduced nitrogen species to total nitrogen deposition in the park, understanding and properly characterizing ammonia in CTMs is critical to estimating the total nitrogen deposition. A model performance evaluation of the CAMx uni-directional model and CMAQ bi-direction and uni-directional 2011 model simulations versus GrandTReNDS and other datasets was conducted. Preliminary results suggest that, in some areas, model performance of ambient ammonia concentration is more sensitive to the spatial resolution of the model and the accuracy of the spatial representation of emissions than to the incorporation of bi-directional flux. Additional model sensitivity runs, including sensitivity to resolution (with and without bi-directional flux capabilities), changes to model estimated ammonia dry deposition velocities, and improved representation of the spatial distribution of ammonia emissions, are used to identify the

  10. [XPS and Raman spectral analysis of nitrogenated tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C : N) films with different nitrogen content].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wang-Shou; Zhu, Jia-Qi; Han, Jie-Cai; Tian, Gui; Tan, Man-Lin

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogenated tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C : N) films were prepared on the polished C--Si substrates by introducing highly pure nitrogen gas into the cathode region and the depositing chamber synchronously using filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) technology. The nitrogen content in the films was controlled by changing the flow rate of nitrogen gas. The configuration of ta-C : N films was investigated by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and visible Raman spectroscopy. It was shown that the nitrogen content in the films increased from 0.84 at% to 5.37 at% monotonously when the nitrogen flow rate was varied from 2 seem to 20 sccm. The peak position of C (1s) core level moved towards higher binding energy with the increase in nitrogen content. The shift of C (1s) peak position could be ascribed to the chemical bonding between carbon and nitrogen atoms even though more three-fold coordinated sp2 configuration as in graphite was formed when the films were doped with more nitrogen atoms. Additionally, the half width of C(1s) peak gradually was also broadened with increasing nitrogen content. In order to discover clearly the changing regularities of the microstructure of the films, the XPS C(1s) spectra and Raman spectra were deconvoluted using a Gaussian-Lorentzian mixed lineshape. It was shown that the tetrahedral hybridization component was still dominant even though the ratio of sp2/sp3 obtained from C(1s) spectra rose with the increase in nitrogen content. The Raman measurements demonstrated that the G peak position shifted towards higher frequency from 1,561 to 1,578 cm(-1) and the ratio of ID/IG also rose with the increase in nitrogen content. Both results indicated that the graphitizing tendency could occur with the increase in nitrogen content in the films. PMID:19385255

  11. Field observations of soil water content and nitrogen distribution on two hillslopes of different shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Huang, Manli; Hua, Jianlan; Zhang, Zhentin; Ni, Lixiao; Li, Ping; Chen, Yong; Zhu, Liang

    2015-06-01

    nitrogen concentrations compared to its mid and lower positions. Nitrogen storage in the low segment soil profile of the CCS was higher than its up segment, but they were similar on the CVS. The nitrogen redistributions on the hillslopes were dominantly from water regimes, in particular, from the lateral subsurface flow. Due to the diversity of water regimes in different shaped hillslopes, the interception of lateral subsurface flow and its nitrogen pollution should receive more attention in a humid region.

  12. Combined Spectral Index to Improve Ground-Based Estimates of Nitrogen Status in Dryland Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent studies have demonstrated the usefulness of the single ratio Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and ground-based remote sensing for estimating crop yield potential and basing in-season nitrogen (N) fertilizer application. The NDVI is positively related to crop N status and leaf ar...

  13. Assessing the Mechanisms Responsible for Differences between Nitrogen Requirements of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Wine Yeasts in Alcoholic Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Brice, Claire; Sanchez, Isabelle; Tesnière, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts during alcoholic fermentation, and its abundance determines the fermentation rate and duration. The capacity to ferment under conditions of nitrogen deficiency differs between yeasts. A characterization of the nitrogen requirements of a set of 23 strains revealed large differences in their fermentative performances under nitrogen deficiency, and these differences reflect the nitrogen requirements of the strains. We selected and compared two groups of strains, one with low nitrogen requirements (LNRs) and the other with high nitrogen requirements (HNRs). A comparison of various physiological traits indicated that the differences are not related to the ability to store nitrogen or the protein content. No differences in protein synthesis activity were detected between strains with different nitrogen requirements. Transcriptomic analysis revealed expression patterns specific to each of the two groups of strains, with an overexpression of stress genes in HNR strains and a stronger expression of biosynthetic genes in LNR strains. Our data suggest that differences in glycolytic flux may originate from variations in nitrogen sensing and signaling under conditions of starvation. PMID:24334661

  14. Landscape level differences in soil carbon and nitrogen: implications for soil carbon sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T; Ashwood, Tom L

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this research was to understand how land cover and topography act, independently or together, as determinants of soil carbon and nitrogen storage over a complex terrain. Such information could help to direct land management for the purpose of carbon sequestration. Soils were sampled under different land covers and at different topographic positions on the mostly forested 14,000 ha Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee, USA. Most of the soil carbon stock, to a 40-cm soil depth, was found to reside in the surface 20 cm of mineral soil. Surface soil carbon and nitrogen stocks were partitioned into particulate ({ge}53 {micro}m) and mineral-associated organic matter (<53 {micro}m). Generally, soils under pasture had greater nitrogen availability, greater carbon and nitrogen stocks, and lower C:N ratios than soils under transitional vegetation and forests. The effects of topography were usually secondary to those of land cover. Because of greater soil carbon stocks, and greater allocation of soil carbon to mineral-associated organic matter (a long-term pool), we conclude that soil carbon sequestration, but not necessarily total ecosystem carbon storage, is greater under pastures than under forests. The implications of landscape-level variation in soil carbon and nitrogen for carbon sequestration are discussed at several different levels: (1) nitrogen limitations to soil carbon storage; (2) controls on soil carbon turnover as a result of litter chemistry and soil carbon partitioning; (3) residual effects of past land use history; and (4) statistical limitations to the quantification of soil carbon stocks.

  15. Tuning the work function of graphene by nitrogen plasma treatment with different radio-frequency powers

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Jian-Jhou; Lin, Yow-Jon

    2014-06-09

    Graphene prepared by the chemical vapor deposition method was treated with nitrogen plasma under different radio-frequency (rf) power conditions in order to experimentally study the change in the work function. Control of the rf power could change the work function of graphene from 4.91 eV to 4.37 eV. It is shown that the increased rf power may lead to the increased number of graphitic nitrogen, increasing the electron concentration, and shifting the Fermi level to higher energy. The ability to controllably tune the work function of graphene is essential for optimizing the efficiency of optoelectronic and electronic devices.

  16. Nitrogen nutrient status induces sexual differences in responses to cadmium in Populus yunnanensis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lianghua; Han, Ying; Jiang, Hao; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang

    2011-01-01

    Populus yunnanensis was employed as a model species to detect sexual differences in growth, physiological, biochemical, and ultrastructural responses to cadmium (Cd) stress, nitrogen (N) deposition, and their combination. Compared with the control conditions, Cd decreased plant biomass, damaged the photosynthetic apparatus, visible as a decreased maximum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII; Fv/Fm) and effective quantum yield of PSII (Yield), depressed gas exchange capacity, and induced oxidative stress, visible as the disruption of antioxidative enzymes and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), in both sexes. On the other hand, Cd toxicity was mitigated by the recovery of gas exchange capacity, a decrease in ROS, and improvement of the redox imbalance in both sexes when N deposition was applied. However, males showed a higher gas exchange capacity, lower enzyme inhibition and ROS accumulation, stronger abilities to maintain cellular redox homeostasis, and a better maintenance of chloroplast ultrastructure than did females when exposed to Cd stress alone. Although males exhibited a higher Cd content in leaves than did females, males also accumulated higher levels of non-protein thiols (NP-SHs) and free amino acids (FAAs) for detoxification than did females. Sexual differences induced by Cd, visible, for example, in Fv/Fm, Yield, net photosynthesis rate (A), and stomatal conductance (gs), decreased under N deposition, as no significant differences between the sexes existed in these parameters under the combined treatment. The results indicated that females are more sensitive to Cd stress and suffer more injuries than do males. Moreover, N deposition can mitigate Cd toxicity and decrease sexual differences in Cd sensitivity. PMID:21778178

  17. Total lipid production of the green alga Nannochloropsis sp. QII under different nitrogen regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Suen, Yu.; Hubbard, J.S.; Holzer, G.; Tornabene, T.G.

    1987-06-01

    The green alga Nannochloropsis sp. QII was cultivated in media with sufficient and growth-limiting levels of nitrogen (nitrate). Nitrogen deficiency promoted lipid synthesis yielding cells with lipids comprising 55% of the biomass. The major lipids were triacylglycerols (79%), polar lipids (9%) and hydrocarbons (2.5%). The polar lipids consisted of a broad range of phospholipids, glycolipids and sulfolipids. Other lipids identified were pigments, free fatty acids, saponifiable and unsaponifiable sterol derivatives, various glycerides, a family of alkyl-1, 4-dioxane derivatives and a series of alkyl- and hydroxy-alkyl-dimethyl-acetals. Experiments in which /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was provided at different times in the growth cycle demonstrated that enhanced lipid biosynthesis at low nitrogen levels resulted principally from de novo CO/sub 2/ fixation.

  18. Engineering Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 for Nitrogen Fixation and its Application to Improve Plant Growth under Nitrogen-Deficient Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Setten, Lorena; Soto, Gabriela; Mozzicafreddo, Matteo; Fox, Ana Romina; Lisi, Christian; Cuccioloni, Massimiliano; Angeletti, Mauro; Pagano, Elba; Díaz-Paleo, Antonio; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen is the second most critical factor for crop production after water. In this study, the beneficial rhizobacterium Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5 was genetically modified to fix nitrogen using the genes encoding the nitrogenase of Pseudomonas stutzeri A1501 via the X940 cosmid. Pf-5 X940 was able to grow in L medium without nitrogen, displayed high nitrogenase activity and released significant quantities of ammonium to the medium. Pf-5 X940 also showed constitutive expression and enzymatic activity of nitrogenase in ammonium medium or in nitrogen-free medium, suggesting a constitutive nitrogen fixation. Similar to Pseudomonas protegens Pf-5, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas veronii and Pseudomonas taetrolens but not Pseudomonas balearica and Pseudomonas stutzeri transformed with cosmid X940 showed constitutive nitrogenase activity and high ammonium production, suggesting that this phenotype depends on the genome context and that this technology to obtain nitrogen-fixing bacteria is not restricted to Pf-5. Interestingly, inoculation of Arabidopsis, alfalfa, tall fescue and maize with Pf-5 X940 increased the ammonium concentration in soil and plant productivity under nitrogen-deficient conditions. In conclusion, these results open the way to the production of effective recombinant inoculants for nitrogen fixation on a wide range of crops. PMID:23675499

  19. Persistence of biological nitrogen fixation in high latitude grass-clover grasslands under different management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzanakakis, Vasileios; Sturite, Ievina; Dörsch, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) can substantially contribute to N supply in permanent grasslands, improving N yield and forage quality, while reducing inorganic N inputs. Among the factors critical to the performance of BNF in grass-legume mixtures are selected grass and legume species, proportion of legumes, the soil-climatic conditions, in particular winter conditions, and management practices (e.g. fertilization and compaction). In high latitude grasslands, low temperatures can reduce the performance of BNF by hampering the legumés growth and by suppressing N2 fixation. Estimation of BNF in field experiments is not straightforward. Different methods have been developed providing different results. In the present study, we evaluated the performance of BNF, in a newly established field experiment in North Norway over four years. The grassland consisted of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) sawn in three proportions (0, 15 and 30% in total) together with timothy (Pheum pretense L.) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis L.). Three levels of compaction were applied each year (no tractor, light tractor, heavy tractor) together with two different N rates (110 kg N/ha as cattle slurry or 170 kg N/ha as cattle slurry and inorganic N fertilizer). We applied two different methods, the 15N natural abundance and the difference method, to estimate BNF in the first harvest of each year. Overall, the difference method overestimated BNF relative to the 15N natural abundance method. BNF in the first harvest was compared to winter survival of red and white clover plants, which decreased with increasing age of the grassland. However, winter conditions did not seem to affect the grassland's ability to fix N in spring. The fraction of N derived from the atmosphere (NdfA) in white and red clover was close to 100% in each spring, indicating no suppression of BNF. BNF increased the total N yield of the grasslands by up to 75%, mainly due to high

  20. Increased Needle Nitrogen Contents Did Not Improve Shoot Photosynthetic Performance of Mature Nitrogen-Poor Scots Pine Trees

    PubMed Central

    Tarvainen, Lasse; Lutz, Martina; Räntfors, Mats; Näsholm, Torgny; Wallin, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that temperate and boreal forests are limited by nitrogen (N) availability. However, few studies have provided a detailed account of how carbon (C) acquisition of such forests reacts to increasing N supply. We combined measurements of needle-scale biochemical photosynthetic capacities and continuous observations of shoot-scale photosynthetic performance from several canopy positions with simple mechanistic modeling to evaluate the photosynthetic responses of mature N-poor boreal Pinus sylvestris to N fertilization. The measurements were carried out in August 2013 on 90-year-old pine trees growing at Rosinedalsheden research site in northern Sweden. In spite of a nearly doubling of needle N content in response to the fertilization, no effect on the long-term shoot-scale C uptake was recorded. This lack of N-effect was due to strong light limitation of photosynthesis in all investigated canopy positions. The effect of greater N availability on needle photosynthetic capacities was also constrained by development of foliar phosphorus (P) deficiency following N addition. Thus, P deficiency and accumulation of N in arginine appeared to contribute toward lower shoot-scale nitrogen-use efficiency in the fertilized trees, thereby additionally constraining tree-scale responses to increasing N availability. On the whole our study suggests that the C uptake response of the studied N-poor boreal P. sylvestris stand to enhanced N availability is constrained by the efficiency with which the additional N is utilized. This efficiency, in turn, depends on the ability of the trees to use the greater N availability for additional light capture. For stands that have not reached canopy closure, increase in leaf area following N fertilization would be the most effective way for improving light capture and C uptake while for mature stands an increased leaf area may have a rather limited effect on light capture owing to increased self-shading. This raises the

  1. Increased Needle Nitrogen Contents Did Not Improve Shoot Photosynthetic Performance of Mature Nitrogen-Poor Scots Pine Trees.

    PubMed

    Tarvainen, Lasse; Lutz, Martina; Räntfors, Mats; Näsholm, Torgny; Wallin, Göran

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that temperate and boreal forests are limited by nitrogen (N) availability. However, few studies have provided a detailed account of how carbon (C) acquisition of such forests reacts to increasing N supply. We combined measurements of needle-scale biochemical photosynthetic capacities and continuous observations of shoot-scale photosynthetic performance from several canopy positions with simple mechanistic modeling to evaluate the photosynthetic responses of mature N-poor boreal Pinus sylvestris to N fertilization. The measurements were carried out in August 2013 on 90-year-old pine trees growing at Rosinedalsheden research site in northern Sweden. In spite of a nearly doubling of needle N content in response to the fertilization, no effect on the long-term shoot-scale C uptake was recorded. This lack of N-effect was due to strong light limitation of photosynthesis in all investigated canopy positions. The effect of greater N availability on needle photosynthetic capacities was also constrained by development of foliar phosphorus (P) deficiency following N addition. Thus, P deficiency and accumulation of N in arginine appeared to contribute toward lower shoot-scale nitrogen-use efficiency in the fertilized trees, thereby additionally constraining tree-scale responses to increasing N availability. On the whole our study suggests that the C uptake response of the studied N-poor boreal P. sylvestris stand to enhanced N availability is constrained by the efficiency with which the additional N is utilized. This efficiency, in turn, depends on the ability of the trees to use the greater N availability for additional light capture. For stands that have not reached canopy closure, increase in leaf area following N fertilization would be the most effective way for improving light capture and C uptake while for mature stands an increased leaf area may have a rather limited effect on light capture owing to increased self-shading. This raises the

  2. PCS Nitrogen: Combustion Fan System Optimization Improves Performance and Saves Energy at a Chemical Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2005-01-01

    This U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program case study describes how, in 2003, PCS Nitrogen, Inc., improved the efficiency of the combustion fan on a boiler at the company's chemical fertilizer plant in Augusta, Georgia. The project saved $420,000 and 76,400 million British thermal units (MBtu) per year. In addition, maintenance needs declined, because there is now less stress on the fan motor and bearings and less boiler feed water usage. This project was so successful that the company has implemented more efficiency improvements that should result in energy cost savings of nearly $1 million per year.

  3. Environmental analysis of sunflower production with different forms of mineral nitrogen fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, D; Bardi, L; Fierro, A; Jez, S; Basosi, R

    2013-11-15

    Environmental profiles of mineral nitrogen fertilizers were used to evaluate the environmental disturbances related to their use in cultivation systems in Europe. Since the production of mineral fertilizers requires a large amount of energy, the present study of bioenergy systems is relevant in order to achieve crop yields less dependent on fossil fuels and to reduce the environmental impact due to fertilization. In this study, the suitability of the LCA methodology to analyze the environmental impact of sunflower cultivation systems with different forms of mineral nitrogen fertilizers urea and ammonium nitrate was investigated. Effects on climate change were estimated by the use of Ecoinvent 2.2 database default value for soil N2O emission factor (1%) and local emission data (0.8%) of mineral nitrogen applied to soils. LCA analysis showed a higher impact on environmental categories (human health and ecosystem quality) for the system in which urea was used as a nitrogen source. Use of urea fertilizer showed a higher impact on resource consumption due to fossil fuel consumption. Use of mineral nitrogen fertilizers showed a higher environmental burden than other inputs required for sunflower cultivation systems under study. Urea and ammonium nitrate showed, respectively, a 7.8% and 4.9% reduced impact of N2O as greenhouse gas by using direct field data of soil N2O emission factor compared to the default soil emission factor of 2006 IPCC Guidelines. Use of ammonium nitrate as mineral nitrogen fertilizer in sunflower cultivation would have a lower impact on environmental categories considered. Further environmental analysis of available technologies for fertilizer production might be also evaluated in order to reduce the environmental impacts of each fertilizer. PMID:23974447

  4. [Effects of poplar-amaranth intercropping system on the soil nitrogen loss under different nitrogen applying levels].

    PubMed

    Chu, Jun; Xue, Jian-Hui; Wu, Dian-Ming; Jin, Mei-Juan; Wu, Yong-Bo

    2014-09-01

    Characteristics of soil nitrogen loss were investigated based on field experiments in two types of poplar-amaranth intercropping systems (spacing: L1 2 m x 5 m, L2 2 m x 15 m) with four N application rates, i. e., 0 (N1), 91 (N2), 137 (N3) and 183 (N4) kg · hm(-2). The regulation effects on the soil surface runoff, leaching loss and soil erosion were different among the different types of intercropping systems: L1 > L2 > L3 (amaranth monocropping). Compared with the amaranth monocropping, the soil surface runoff rates of L1 and L2 decreased by 65.1% and 55.9%, the soil leaching rates of L1 and L2 with a distance of 0.5 m from the poplar tree row de- creased by 30.0% and 28.9%, the rates with a distance of 1. 5 m decreased by 25. 6% and 21.9%, and the soil erosion rates decreased by 65.0% and 55.1%, respectively. The control effects of two intercropping systems on TN, NO(3-)-N and NH(4+)-N in soil runoff and leaching loss were in the order of L1 > L2 > L3. Compared with the amaranth monocropping, TN, NO(3-)-N and NH(4+)-N loss rates in soil runoff of L1 decreased by 62.9%, 45.1% and 69.2%, while the loss rates of L2 decreased by 23.4%, 6.9% and 46.2% under N1 (91 kg · hm(-2)), respectively. High- er tree-planting density and closer positions to the polar tree row were more effective on controlling the loss rates of NO(3-)-N and NH(4+)-N caused by soil leaching. The loss proportion of NO(3-)-N in soil runoff decreased with the increasing nitrogen rate under the same tree-planting density, while that of NH(4+)-N increased. Leaching loss of NO(3-)-N had a similar trend with that of NH(4+)-N, i. e. , N3 > N2 > N1 > N0. PMID:25757310

  5. Genetic engineering of improved nitrogen use efficiency in rice by the tissue-specific expression of alanine aminotransferase.

    PubMed

    Shrawat, Ashok K; Carroll, Rebecka T; DePauw, Mary; Taylor, Gregory J; Good, Allen G

    2008-09-01

    Summary Nitrogen is quantitatively the most essential nutrient for plants and a major factor limiting crop productivity. One of the critical steps limiting the efficient use of nitrogen is the ability of plants to acquire it from applied fertilizer. Therefore, the development of crop plants that absorb and use nitrogen more efficiently has been a long-term goal of agricultural research. In an attempt to develop nitrogen-efficient plants, rice (Oryza sativa L.) was genetically engineered by introducing a barley AlaAT (alanine aminotransferase) cDNA driven by a rice tissue-specific promoter (OsAnt1). This modification increased the biomass and grain yield significantly in comparison with control plants when plants were well supplied with nitrogen. Compared with controls, transgenic rice plants also demonstrated significant changes in key metabolites and total nitrogen content, indicating increased nitrogen uptake efficiency. The development of crop plants that take up and assimilate nitrogen more efficiently would not only improve the use of nitrogen fertilizers, resulting in lower production costs, but would also have significant environmental benefits. These results are discussed in terms of their relevance to the development of strategies to engineer enhanced nitrogen use efficiency in crop plants. PMID:18510577

  6. Altering blood flow does not reveal differences between nitrogen and helium kinetics in brain or in skeletal miracle in sheep.

    PubMed

    Doolette, David J; Upton, Richard N; Grant, Cliff

    2015-03-01

    In underwater diving, decompression schedules are based on compartmental models of nitrogen and helium tissue kinetics. However, these models are not based on direct measurements of nitrogen and helium kinetics. In isoflurane-anesthetized sheep, nitrogen and helium kinetics in the hind limb (n = 5) and brain (n = 5) were determined during helium-oxygen breathing and after return to nitrogen-oxygen breathing. Nitrogen and helium concentrations in arterial, femoral vein, and sagittal sinus blood samples were determined using headspace gas chromatography, and venous blood flows were monitored continuously using ultrasonic Doppler. The experiment was repeated at different states of hind limb blood flow and cerebral blood flow. Using arterial blood gas concentrations and blood flows as input, parameters and model selection criteria of various compartmental models of hind limb and brain were estimated by fitting to the observed venous gas concentrations. In both the hind limb and brain, nitrogen and helium kinetics were best fit by models with multiexponential kinetics. In the brain, there were no differences in nitrogen and helium kinetics. Hind limb models fit separately to the two gases indicated that nitrogen kinetics were slightly faster than helium, but models with the same kinetics for both gases fit the data well. In the hind limb and brain, the blood:tissue exchange of nitrogen is similar to that of helium. On the basis of these results, it is inappropriate to assign substantially different time constants for nitrogen and helium in all compartments in decompression algorithms. PMID:25525213

  7. Plant chlorophyll fluorescence: active and passive measurements at canopy and leaf scales with different nitrogen treatments.

    PubMed

    Cendrero-Mateo, M Pilar; Moran, M Susan; Papuga, Shirley A; Thorp, K R; Alonso, L; Moreno, J; Ponce-Campos, G; Rascher, U; Wang, G

    2016-01-01

    Most studies assessing chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) have examined leaf responses to environmental stress conditions using active techniques. Alternatively, passive techniques are able to measure ChlF at both leaf and canopy scales. However, the measurement principles of both techniques are different, and only a few datasets concerning the relationships between them are reported in the literature. In this study, we investigated the potential for interchanging ChlF measurements using active techniques with passive measurements at different temporal and spatial scales. The ultimate objective was to determine the limits within which active and passive techniques are comparable. The results presented in this study showed that active and passive measurements were highly correlated over the growing season across nitrogen treatments at both canopy and leaf-average scale. At the single-leaf scale, the seasonal relation between techniques was weaker, but still significant. The variability within single-leaf measurements was largely related to leaf heterogeneity associated with variations in CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, and less so to variations in leaf chlorophyll content, leaf size or measurement inputs (e.g. light reflected and emitted by the leaf and illumination conditions and leaf spectrum). This uncertainty was exacerbated when single-leaf analysis was limited to a particular day rather than the entire season. We concluded that daily measurements of active and passive ChlF at the single-leaf scale are not comparable. However, canopy and leaf-average active measurements can be used to better understand the daily and seasonal behaviour of passive ChlF measurements. In turn, this can be used to better estimate plant photosynthetic capacity and therefore to provide improved information for crop management. PMID:26482242

  8. Plant chlorophyll fluorescence: active and passive measurements at canopy and leaf scales with different nitrogen treatments

    PubMed Central

    Cendrero-Mateo, M. Pilar; Moran, M. Susan; Papuga, Shirley A.; Thorp, K.R.; Alonso, L.; Moreno, J.; Ponce-Campos, G.; Rascher, U.; Wang, G.

    2016-01-01

    Most studies assessing chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) have examined leaf responses to environmental stress conditions using active techniques. Alternatively, passive techniques are able to measure ChlF at both leaf and canopy scales. However, the measurement principles of both techniques are different, and only a few datasets concerning the relationships between them are reported in the literature. In this study, we investigated the potential for interchanging ChlF measurements using active techniques with passive measurements at different temporal and spatial scales. The ultimate objective was to determine the limits within which active and passive techniques are comparable. The results presented in this study showed that active and passive measurements were highly correlated over the growing season across nitrogen treatments at both canopy and leaf-average scale. At the single-leaf scale, the seasonal relation between techniques was weaker, but still significant. The variability within single-leaf measurements was largely related to leaf heterogeneity associated with variations in CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance, and less so to variations in leaf chlorophyll content, leaf size or measurement inputs (e.g. light reflected and emitted by the leaf and illumination conditions and leaf spectrum). This uncertainty was exacerbated when single-leaf analysis was limited to a particular day rather than the entire season. We concluded that daily measurements of active and passive ChlF at the single-leaf scale are not comparable. However, canopy and leaf-average active measurements can be used to better understand the daily and seasonal behaviour of passive ChlF measurements. In turn, this can be used to better estimate plant photosynthetic capacity and therefore to provide improved information for crop management. PMID:26482242

  9. Synthesis of nitrogen-doping carbon dots with different photoluminescence properties by controlling the surface states.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yun Huan; Liu, Ze Xi; Li, Rong Sheng; Zou, Hong Yan; Lin, Min; Liu, Hui; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-03-28

    Surface states of carbon dots (CDs) are critical to the photoemission properties of CDs. By carefully adjusting the reaction conditions in a hydrothermal synthesis route, we have prepared a series of CDs with excitation-dependent emission (EDE) and excitation-independent emission (EIE) properties by controlling the content of nitrogen elements, confirming that the characteristic optical properties of CDs originate from their energy levels. It has been found that surface-passivation of the as-prepared CDs by nitrogen doping can improve the emission efficiency and be beneficial to EIE features due to the single electron transition resulting from the single functional groups. And the as-prepared CDs can specifically bind with Hg(2+) with the emission quenched because of the electron transfer from the LUMO levels of CDs to Hg(2+). PMID:26955862

  10. Synthesis of nitrogen-doping carbon dots with different photoluminescence properties by controlling the surface states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yun Huan; Liu, Ze Xi; Li, Rong Sheng; Zou, Hong Yan; Lin, Min; Liu, Hui; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-03-01

    Surface states of carbon dots (CDs) are critical to the photoemission properties of CDs. By carefully adjusting the reaction conditions in a hydrothermal synthesis route, we have prepared a series of CDs with excitation-dependent emission (EDE) and excitation-independent emission (EIE) properties by controlling the content of nitrogen elements, confirming that the characteristic optical properties of CDs originate from their energy levels. It has been found that surface-passivation of the as-prepared CDs by nitrogen doping can improve the emission efficiency and be beneficial to EIE features due to the single electron transition resulting from the single functional groups. And the as-prepared CDs can specifically bind with Hg2+ with the emission quenched because of the electron transfer from the LUMO levels of CDs to Hg2+.Surface states of carbon dots (CDs) are critical to the photoemission properties of CDs. By carefully adjusting the reaction conditions in a hydrothermal synthesis route, we have prepared a series of CDs with excitation-dependent emission (EDE) and excitation-independent emission (EIE) properties by controlling the content of nitrogen elements, confirming that the characteristic optical properties of CDs originate from their energy levels. It has been found that surface-passivation of the as-prepared CDs by nitrogen doping can improve the emission efficiency and be beneficial to EIE features due to the single electron transition resulting from the single functional groups. And the as-prepared CDs can specifically bind with Hg2+ with the emission quenched because of the electron transfer from the LUMO levels of CDs to Hg2+. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00402d

  11. Improvements to the characterization of organic nitrogen chemistry and deposition in CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess atmospheric nitrogen deposition can cause significant harmful effects to ecosystems. Organic nitrogen deposition can be an important contributor to the total nitrogen budget, contributing 10-30%, however there are large uncertainties in the chemistry and deposition of thes...

  12. Improvements to the treatment of organic nitrogen chemistry & deposition in CMAQ

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess atmospheric nitrogen deposition can cause significant harmful effects to ecosystems. Organic nitrogen deposition can be an important contributor to the total nitrogen budget, contributing 10-30%, however there are large uncertainties in the chemistry and deposition of thes...

  13. Improvements to the characterization of organic nitrogen chemistry and deposition in CMAQ (CMAS Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess atmospheric nitrogen deposition can cause significant harmful effects to ecosystems. Organic nitrogen deposition can be an important contributor to the total nitrogen budget, contributing 10-30%, however there are large uncertainties in the chemistry and deposition of thes...

  14. Improving nitrogen management via a regional management plan for Chinese rice production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Liang; Chen, Xinping; Cui, Zhenling; Wang, Guiliang; Zhang, Weifeng

    2015-09-01

    A lack of basic information on optimal nitrogen (N) management often results in over- or under-application of N fertilizer in small-scale intensive rice farming. Here, we present a new database of N input from a survey of 6611 small-scale rice farmers and rice yield in response to added N in 1177 experimental on-farm tests across eight agroecological subregions of China. This database enables us to evaluate N management by farmers and develop an optimal approach to regional N management. We also investigated grain yield, N application rate, and estimated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in comparison to N application and farming practices. Across all farmers, the average N application rate, weighted by the area of rice production in each subregion, was 210 kg ha-1 and ranged from 30 to 744 kg ha-1 across fields and from 131 to 316 kg ha-1 across regions. The regionally optimal N rate (RONR) determined from the experiments averaged 167 kg ha-1 and varied from 114 to 224 kg N ha-1 for the different regions. If these RONR were widely adopted in China, approximately 56% of farms would reduce their use of N fertilizer, and approximately 33% would increase their use of N fertilizer. As a result, grain yield would increase by 7.4% from 7.14 to 7.67 Mg ha-1, and the estimated GHG emissions would be reduced by 11.1% from 1390 to 1236 kg carbon dioxide (CO2) eq Mg-1 grain. These results suggest that to achieve the goals of improvement in regional yield and sustainable environmental development, regional N use should be optimized among N-poor and N-rich farms and regions in China.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR THE SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITROGEN OXIDES WITH HYDROCARBONS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Ates Akyurlu; Dr. Jale F. Akyurtlu

    2003-01-28

    Significant work has been done by the investigators on the cerium oxide-copper oxide based sorbent/catalysts for the combined removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides from the flue gases of stationary sources. A relatively wide temperature window was established for the use of alumina-supported cerium oxide-copper oxide mixtures as regenerable sorbents for SO{sub 2} removal. Evaluation of these sorbents as catalysts for the selective reduction of NO{sub x} gave promising results with methane. Since the replacement of ammonia by methane is commercially very attractive, in this project, it was planned to investigate the effect of promoters on the activity and selectivity of copper oxide/cerium oxide-based catalysts and to obtain data on the reaction mechanism for the SCR with methane. The investigation of the reaction mechanism will help in the selection of promoters to improve the catalytic activity and selectivity of the sorbents in the SCR with methane. This will result in new catalyst formulations. The last component of the project involves our industrial partner TDA Research, and the objective is to evaluate long- term stability and durability of the prepared sorbent/catalysts. In the second year of the project, the catalysts were investigated for their SCR activity with methane in a microreactor setup and also, by the temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) technique. The results from the SCR experiments indicated that manganese is a more effective promoter than rhodium on the supported copper oxide-ceria catalysts under study; the effectiveness of the promoter increases with the increase in Ce/Cu ratio. The TPD profiles of the unpromoted catalyst (Cu/Ce=3) is different than those promoted with 0.1% rhodium. In the current reporting period, the screening of the promoted catalysts were completed, sufficient amount of the selected catalysts were prepared and delivered to TDA for long term deactivation testing.

  16. Effect of cooling rate on the survival of cryopreserved rooster sperm: Comparison of different distances in the vapor above the surface of the liquid nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Madeddu, M; Mosca, F; Abdel Sayed, A; Zaniboni, L; Mangiagalli, M G; Colombo, E; Cerolini, S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present trial was to study the effect of different freezing rates on the survival of cryopreserved rooster semen packaged in straws. Slow and fast freezing rates were obtained keeping straws at different distances in the vapor above the surface of the nitrogen during freezing. Adult Lohmann roosters (n=27) were used. Two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, semen was packaged in straws and frozen comparing the distances of 1, 3 and 5cm in nitrogen vapor above the surface of the liquid nitrogen. In Experiment 2, the distances of 3, 7 and 10cm above the surfaces of the liquid nitrogen were compared. Sperm viability, motility and progressive motility and the kinetic variables were assessed in fresh and cryopreserved semen samples. The recovery rates after freezing/thawing were also calculated. In Experiment 1, there were no significant differences among treatments for all semen quality variables. In Experiment 2, the percentage of viable (46%) and motile (22%) sperm in cryopreserved semen was greater when semen was placed 3cm compared with 7 and 10cm in the vapor above the surface of the liquid nitrogen. The recovery rate of progressive motile sperm after thawing was also greater when semen was stored 3cm in the vapor above the surface of the liquid nitrogen. More rapid freezing rates are required to improve the survival of rooster sperm after cryopreservation and a range of distances from 1 to 5cm in nitrogen vapor above the surface of the liquid nitrogen is recommended for optimal sperm viability. PMID:27349144

  17. Improving Student Writing Through Different Writing Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, Sean; Haley, Jennifer

    This report describes a program for improving writing skills through choices of structured and unstructured writing process. The purpose of this program is to increase their ability to produce quality writing as measured by the district's fourth grade writing rubric. The targeted population consisted of an average fourth grade class, located in a…

  18. Improvement of tribological behavior of a Ti Al Zr alloy by nitrogen ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. Z.; Zu, X. T.; He, X.; Qiu, S. Y.; Cao, J.; Huang, X. Q.

    2006-07-01

    Surface modification of a Ti-Al-Zr alloy with nitrogen implantation is considered as a method to improve its tribological properties especially wear and hardness. The implantation was carried out at fluences range from 1 × 10 16 to 1 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 and energy 65 keV. The tribological tests for the friction coefficients and wear were made on a pin-on-disk tribotester with the load 60 mN. Glancing angle X-ray diffraction (GAXRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses were performed to obtain surface characterization of the implanted sample. The unimplanted and implanted samples were also annealed at 500 °C in order to understand the influence of annealing on the tribological properties of Ti-Al-Zr. The hardness showed significant improvement at the higher fluence. After annealing at 500 °C, the friction coefficient exhibited a relative decrease for the nitrogen-implanted samples. In addition, the wear rates of the implanted samples exhibited a great decrease after annealing at 500 °C. Nature of the surface and reason for the variation and improvement in wear resistance were discussed in detail.

  19. Corrosion behaviors of Mo coating on stainless steel 316 substrates implanted by different nitrogen ion fluences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojtahedzadeh Larijani, Madjid; Bafandeh, Nastaran

    2014-03-01

    The molybdenum nitride coating was produced by nitrogen ion implantation of the molybdenum layer deposited on the stainless steel 316 (SS) substrates. At first, molybdenum layers were deposited on the substrates by ion beam sputtering method, then nitrogen ions with an energy of 30 keV and a fluence between 1×1017 and 12×1017 N+ cm-2 were implanted in Mo/SS system. Crystal structure and topography of the surface are investigated by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) image respectively. XRD patterns showed the formation of molybdenum nitride phases in all implanted samples. Corrosion tests showed that the corrosion resistance of the samples strongly depends on the nitrogen applied fluences. A considerable improvement of corrosion performance by increasing ions fluences was observed. The lowest corrosion current density with amount of 0.1 μA/cm2 was obtained at 12×1017 ions/cm2 fluence in our case.

  20. Generation and reduction of nitrogen oxides in firing different kinds of fuel in a circulating fluidized bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munts, V. A.; Munts, Yu. G.; Baskakov, A. P.; Proshin, A. S.

    2013-11-01

    The processes through which nitrogen oxides are generated and reduced in the course of firing different kinds of fuel in a circulating fluidized bed are addressed. All experimental studies were carried by the authors on their own laboratory installations. To construct a model simulating the generation of nitrogen oxides, the fuel combustion process in a fluidized bed was subdivided into two stages: combustion of volatiles and combustion of coke residue. The processes through which nitrogen oxides are generated and reduced under the conditions of firing fuel with shortage of oxygen (which is one of efficient methods for reducing nitrogen oxide emissions in firing fuel in a fluidized bed) are considered.

  1. Improving the accuracy of central difference schemes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkel, Eli

    1988-01-01

    General difference approximations to the fluid dynamic equations require an artificial viscosity in order to converge to a steady state. This artificial viscosity serves two purposes. One is to suppress high frequency noise which is not damped by the central differences. The second purpose is to introduce an entropy-like condition so that shocks can be captured. These viscosities need a coefficient to measure the amount of viscosity to be added. In the standard scheme, a scalar coefficient is used based on the spectral radius of the Jacobian of the convective flux. However, this can add too much viscosity to the slower waves. Hence, it is suggested that a matrix viscosity be used. This gives an appropriate viscosity for each wave component. With this matrix valued coefficient, the central difference scheme becomes closer to upwind biased methods.

  2. Improved Alkane Production in Nitrogen-Fixing and Halotolerant Cyanobacteria via Abiotic Stresses and Genetic Manipulation of Alkane Synthetic Genes.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Hakuto; Waditee-Sirisattha, Rungaroon; Sirisattha, Sophon; Tanaka, Yoshito; Mahakhant, Aparat; Takabe, Teruhiro

    2015-07-01

    Cyanobacteria possess the unique capacity to produce alkane. In this study, effects of nitrogen deficiency and salt stress on biosynthesis of alkanes were investigated in three kinds of cyanobacteria. Intracellular alkane accumulation was increased in nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC7120, but decreased in non-diazotrophic cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942 and constant in a halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica under nitrogen-deficient condition. We also found that salt stress increased alkane accumulation in Anabaena sp. PCC7120 and A. halophytica. The expression levels of two alkane synthetic genes were not upregulated significantly under nitrogen deficiency or salt stress in Anabaena sp. PCC7120. The transformant Anabaena sp. PCC7120 cells with additional alkane synthetic gene set from A. halophytica increased intracellular alkane accumulation level compared to control cells. These results provide a prospect to improve bioproduction of alkanes in nitrogen-fixing halotolerant cyanobacteria via abiotic stresses and genetic engineering. PMID:25971893

  3. Improved analysis of dissolved organic nitrogen in water via electrodialysis pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Anbang; Chen, Baiyang; Zhang, Liang; Westerhoff, Paul

    2015-02-17

    This study evaluated electrodialysis (ED) for direct, accurate, and precise dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) analysis in water. Unlike conventional methods that calculate DON as the difference between total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), we designed a compact ED reactor as a pretreatment tool that completely separates DIN from DON in water and then measures DON by equating DON to TDN. The experiments confirmed that the ED pretreatment process can achieve 99% removal of all three major DIN species (i.e., ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate) and an average recovery rate of 88% for an array of model DON compounds of varying characteristics (e.g., urea, amino acids, tripeptide, protein, and humic substances). Variations in nitrogen removal and recovery might be explained by a combined effect of molecular weight, acid dissociation ability (pK(a)), aromaticity, and ED reactor configurations. For model solutions with DIN/DON ratios varying from 1 to 10 mg-N/mg-N, the relative standard deviations in DON concentrations were considerably lower with ED pretreatment (<10%) than without pretreatment (47%). A survey of seven field samples, including lake water, tap water, and treated wastewater, also demonstrated the benefits of using ED pretreatment as compared with a conventional DON analysis method. Overall, this study provides evidence and mechanistic insight for a new DON detection method that uses ED pretreatment. The ED unit is robust for separating DIN and DON, and thus it may facilitate more frequent detection of DON and ultimately enhances understanding of DON issues in the environmental studies. PMID:25621718

  4. Improved retrieval of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) column densities by means of MKIV Brewer spectrophotometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diémoz, H.; Siani, A. M.; Redondas, A.; Savastiouk, V.; McElroy, C. T.; Navarro-Comas, M.; Hase, F.

    2014-11-01

    A new algorithm to retrieve nitrogen dioxide (NO2) column densities using MKIV ("Mark IV") Brewer spectrophotometers is described. The method includes several improvements, such as a more recent spectroscopic data set, the reduction of measurement noise, interference by other atmospheric species and instrumental settings, and a better determination of the zenith sky air mass factor. The technique was tested during an ad hoc calibration campaign at the high-altitude site of Izaña (Tenerife, Spain) and the results of the direct sun and zenith sky geometries were compared to those obtained by two reference instruments from the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC): a Fourier Transform Infrared Radiometer (FTIR) and an advanced visible spectrograph (RASAS-II) based on the differential optical absorption spectrometry (DOAS) technique. To determine the extraterrestrial constant, an easily implementable extension of the standard Langley technique for very clean sites without tropospheric NO2 was developed which takes into account the daytime linear drift of stratospheric nitrogen dioxide due to photochemistry. The measurement uncertainty was thoroughly determined by using a Monte Carlo technique. Poisson noise and wavelength misalignments were found to be the most influential contributors to the overall uncertainty, and possible solutions are proposed for future improvements. The new algorithm is backward-compatible, thus allowing for the reprocessing of historical data sets.

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR THE SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITROGEN OXIDES WITH HYDROCARBONS

    SciTech Connect

    Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu

    2003-11-30

    temperature programmed desorption studies a strong interaction between manganese and cerium. Presence of manganese not only enhanced the reduction rate of NO by methane, but also significantly improved the N{sub 2} selectivity. To increase the activity of the Mn-promoted catalyst, the manganese content of the catalyst need to be optimized and different methods of catalyst preparation and different reactor types need to be investigated to lower the transport limitations in the reactor.

  6. Nitrogen and phosphorus in runoff from cattle manure compost windrows of different maturities.

    PubMed

    Larney, Francis J; Olson, Andrew F; Miller, Jim J; Tovell, Bonnie C

    2014-03-01

    Manure composting has become commonplace in the beef cattle ( L.) feedlot industry in Alberta. However, the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) characteristics of runoff from windrows subjected to heavy rainfall at different compost maturities are unknown. On Days 18, 26, 40, 54, 81, 109, and 224 of composting, a rainfall simulator generated runoff, which was collected in timed 5-L increments, creating the variable "time during runoff event" (TDRE). The volumetric runoff coefficient of windrows increased from 24% of incident rainfall on Day 0 to 69% by Day 90. Ammonium-nitrogen showed a significant maturity × TDRE interaction on Day 18, increasing from 46 mg L for the 0- to 5-L increment to 172 mg L for the 25- to 30-L increment, as did total dissolved phosphorus (TDP), increasing from 36 to 61 mg L. Nitrate-nitrogen had a runoff export coefficient of 19.5 mg m min on Day 224, which was significantly higher than 1.8 to 6.3 mg m min on Days 18 to 54. Across the 224-d composting period, compost NO-N concentration explained 87% of runoff NO-N, whereas compost water-soluble P explained 68% of runoff TDP. The occurrence and duration of rainfall events relative to the compost maturity spectrum has implications for the magnitude of N and P mobility and overall nutrient losses. PMID:25602668

  7. [Evaluation of nitrogen loss way in summer maize system under different fertilizer N managements].

    PubMed

    Lin, Li; Hu, Ke-Lin; Li, Guang-De; Wang, Huan-Yuan

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate nitrogen (N) loss from soil-crop systems under different fertilizer N managements, and to provide some suggestions on optimizing fertilizer management practices. The experiment was carried in high yield production area of Huantai county in Shandong province in 2009. Four kinds of fertilizer N application practices were designed, including CK, farmer practice (FP), optimizing fertilizer application (OPT) and controlled release fertilizer (CRT) for studying the fate of N during the maize growth season in 2009. The water and nitrogen management model (WNMM) was used to simulate the dynamics of soil water and N fate. The results indicated that the ratio of nitrate leaching and NH3 volatilization accounting of fertilizer N ranged from 6% to 18% and 5% to 34%, and their means were 12.7% and 20.7%, respectively. The amount of N leaching under OPT was 14.5 kg x hm(-2), was the lowest in all treatments. The amount of NH3 volatilization under CRT was 7.6 kg x hm(-2), respectively, was the lowest in all treatments. The order of total N loss under four treatments followed as: FP > OPT > CRF approximately CK. Both OPT and CRT treatments are the best management practices considering their high grain yield, water and nitrogen use efficiencies, and environmental protection. PMID:22165230

  8. Experimental analysis of a nitrogen removal process simulation of wastewater land treatment under three different wheat planting densities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Qi; Chen, Jia-Jun; Tian, Kai-Ming; Lu, Yan

    2002-07-01

    Nitrogen contaminant transport, transformation and uptake simulation experiments were conducted in green house under three different planting density of winter wheat. They were Group A, planting density of 0.0208 plants/cm2, Group B, 0.1042 plants/cm2, and Group C, 0.1415 plants/cm2. The capacity and ratio of nitrogen removal were different on three kinds of conditions of wastewater land treatment. From analysis of wastewater treatment capacity, wastewater concentration and irrigation intensity for Group C were suitable and nitrogen quantity added was 2 times of that for Group B, 2.6 times for Group A while nitrogen residue was only 7.06%. Hence, wastewater irrigation and treatment design with purpose of waste water treatment should select the design with maximum capacity, optimal removal ratio and least residue in soil, which was closely related to crop planting density, crop growth status and also background nitrogen quantity in soil. PMID:12211980

  9. Nitrogen transformations under different conditions in open ponds by means of microalgae-bacteria consortium treating pig slurry.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Cristina; Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; García-González, Maria Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Four open ponds inoculated with microalgae-bacteria consortium treating different swine slurries (fresh and anaerobically digested) were evaluated in terms of nitrogen transformation under optimal and real conditions of temperature and illumination. Ammonium complete depletion was not achieved. Ponds operated under real conditions presented lower ammonium removal. Elimination capacities were around 26 mg N/Ld and were subsequently increased with increasing inlet ammonium loading rate. Different nitrogen transformation was observed depending on substrate source. When anaerobically digested slurry was fed to the ponds, nitrification followed by biomass uptake and denitrification were the main nitrogen transformation taking place depending on inlet ammonium loading rate and operational conditions. Ponds fed with fresh slurry exhibited denitrification as the main nitrogen removal mechanism for the pond operated under real conditions while under optimal conditions stripping, denitrification and biomass uptake contributed similarly. Therefore, this study confirmed that the so-claimed nitrogen recovery by microalgae biomass is frequently overestimated. PMID:20943377

  10. Sexually different physiological responses of Populus cathayana to nitrogen and phosphorus deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng; Jiang, Hao; Zhao, Hongxia; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that there are significant sexual differences in the morphological and physiological responses of Populus cathayana Rehder under stressful conditions. However, little is known about sex-specific differences in responses to nutrient deficiencies. In this study, the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deficiencies on the morphological, physiological and chloroplast ultrastructural traits of P. cathayana males and females were investigated. The results showed that N and P deficiencies significantly decreased plant growth, foliar N and P contents, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, and instantaneous photosynthetic N- and P-use efficiencies (PNUE and PPUE) in both sexes. Males had higher photosynthesis, higher PNUE and PPUE rates, and a lower accumulation of plastoglobules in chloroplasts than did females when exposed to N- and P-deficiency conditions. Nitrogen-deficient males had higher glutamate dehydrogenase and peroxidase activities, and a more intact chloroplast ultrastructure, but less starch accumulation than did N-deficient females. Phosphorus-deficient males had higher nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase and acid phosphatase activities, but a lower foliar N : P ratio and less PSII damage than did P-deficient females. These results suggest that N and P deficiencies cause greater negative effects on females than on males, and that the different sexes of P. cathayana may employ different strategies to cope with N and P deficiencies. PMID:24739232

  11. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure in Two Bornean Nepenthes Species with Differences in Nitrogen Acquisition Strategies.

    PubMed

    Sickel, Wiebke; Grafe, T Ulmar; Meuche, Ivonne; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf; Keller, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Carnivorous plants of the genus Nepenthes have been studied for over a century, but surprisingly little is known about associations with microorganisms. The two species Nepenthes rafflesiana and Nepenthes hemsleyana differ in their pitcher-mediated nutrient sources, sequestering nitrogen from arthropod prey and arthropods as well as bat faeces, respectively. We expected bacterial communities living in the pitchers to resemble this diet difference. Samples were taken from different parts of the pitchers (leaf, peristome, inside, outside, digestive fluid) of both species. Bacterial communities were determined using culture-independent high-throughput amplicon sequencing. Bacterial richness and community structure were similar in leaves, peristomes, inside and outside walls of both plant species. Regarding digestive fluids, bacterial richness was higher in N. hemsleyana than in N. rafflesiana. Additionally, digestive fluid communities were highly variable in structure, with strain-specific differences in community composition between replicates. Acidophilic taxa were mostly of low abundance, except the genus Acidocella, which strikingly reached extremely high levels in two N. rafflesiana fluids. In N. hemsleyana fluid, some taxa classified as vertebrate gut symbionts as well as saprophytes were enriched compared to N. rafflesiana, with saprophytes constituting potential competitors for nutrients. The high variation in community structure might be caused by a number of biotic and abiotic factors. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria were present in both study species, which might provide essential nutrients to the plant at times of low prey capture and/or rare encounters with bats. PMID:26790863

  12. Determination of carbon and nitrogen in microbial biomass of southern-Taiga soils by different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, M. I.; Malysheva, T. I.; Maslov, M. N.; Kuznetsova, E. Yu.; Menyailo, O. V.

    2016-06-01

    The results of methods for determining microbial biomass carbon vary in reproducibility among soils. The fumigation-extraction and substrate-induced respiration methods give similar results for Albic Luvisol and Gleyic Fluvisol, while the results of the rehydration method are reliably higher. In Histic Fluvisol, relatively similar results are obtained using the fumigation-extraction and rehydration methods, and the substrate-induced respiration method gives almost halved results. The seasonal dynamics of microbial biomass carbon also varies depending on the method used. The highest difference is typical for the warm period, when the concentrations found by the extraction and substrate-induced methods poorly agree between two out of three soils studied. The concentration of microbial biomass nitrogen is less sensitive to the analytical method: the differences between the results of the fumigation-extraction and rehydration methods are statistically insignificant in the all soils. To reveal stable relationships between the results of determining microbial carbon and the soil properties and analytical method, a large diversity of soils should be studied. This will allow for proposing of conversion factors for the recalculation of the obtained values to the concentrations of carbon and nitrogen in microbial biomass for different soils (or soil groups) and, hence, the more correct comparison of the results obtained by different methods.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR THE SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITROGEN OXIDES WITH HYDROCARBONS

    SciTech Connect

    Ates Akyurtlu; Jale F. Akyurtlu

    2001-09-01

    Significant work has been done by the investigators on the cerium oxide-copper oxide based sorbent/catalysts for the combined removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides from the flue gases of stationary sources. A relatively wide temperature window was established for the use of alumina-supported cerium oxide-copper oxide mixtures as regenerable sorbents for SO{sub 2} removal. Preliminary evaluation of these sorbents as catalysts for the selective reduction of NO{sub x} gave promising results with ammonia, but indicated low selectivity when methane was used as the reductant. Since the replacement of ammonia by another reductant is commercially very attractive, in this project, four research components will be undertaken. The investigation of the reaction mechanism, the first component, will help in the selection of promoters to improve the catalytic activity and selectivity of the sorbents in the SCR with methane. This will result in new catalyst formulations (second component). If this research is successful, the combined SO{sub 2}-NO{sub x} removal process based on alumina-supported copper oxide-ceria sorbent/catalysts will become very attractive for commercial applications. The objective of the third component of the project is to develop an alternative SCR process using another inexpensive fuel, residual fuel oil, instead of natural gas. This innovative proposal is based on very scant evidence concerning the good performance of coked catalysts in the selective reduction of NO and if proven to work the process will certainly be commercially viable. The fourth component of the project involves our industrial partner TDA Research, and the objective is to evaluate long- term stability and durability of the prepared sorbent/catalysts. In the second year of the project, the catalysts were investigated for their SCR activity with methane in a microreactor setup and also, by the temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) technique. The results from the SCR experiments

  14. Effects of cryptogamic covers on the global carbon and nitrogen balance as investigated by different approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Bettina; Porada, Philipp; Elbert, Wolfgang; Burrows, Susannah; Caesar, Jennifer; Steinkamp, Jörg; Tamm, Alexandra; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Büdel, Burkhard; Kleidon, Axel; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    needed by the organisms to build up biomass. The predicted requirement for nitrogen ranges from 3.5 to 34 Tg a-1, again being in a reasonable range compared to the data analysis approach. In experimental field studies (3rd approach), we analyzed the net primary production of biological soil crusts, i.e. one major group of cryptogamic covers. The microclimatic conditions (water status, temperature, light intensity) of different types of biological soil crusts were monitored at 5-minute intervals over a whole year. Conducting a factorial analysis of CO2 gas exchange of the crusts in the lab, we obtained the net photosynthesis or respiration rate for all microclimatic conditions encountered in the field. The latter results were combined with the microclimate data, assigning CO2 gas exchange values to each microclimate measurement tuple. Integration over the year resulted in an annual carbon fixation of ~5 g m-2 a-1, being nearly identical to the numbers obtained during the data analysis approach. In summary, our three different approaches clearly revealed that cryptogamic covers have a considerable effect on the global terrestrial C and N cycle, which must not be neglected in global carbon and nitrogen balances.

  15. Differences in phosphorus and nitrogen delivery to the Gulf of Mexico from the Mississippi River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alexander, R.B.; Smith, R.A.; Schwarz, G.E.; Boyer, E.W.; Nolan, J.V.; Brakebill, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    Seasonal hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico has been linked to increased nitrogen fluxes from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River Basins, though recent evidence shows that phosphorus also influences productivity in the Gulf. We developed a spatially explicit and structurally detailed SPARROW water-quality model that reveals important differences in the sources and transport processes that control nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) delivery to the Gulf. Our model simulations indicate that agricultural sources in the watersheds contribute more than 70% of the delivered N and P. However, corn and soybean cultivation is the largest contributor of N (52%), followed by atmospheric deposition sources (16%); whereas P originates primarily from animal manure on pasture and rangelands (37%), followed by corn and soybeans (25%), other crops (18%), and urban sources (12%). The fraction of in-stream P and N load delivered to the Gulf increases with stream size, but reservoir trapping of P causes large local- and regional-scale differences in delivery. Our results indicate the diversity of management approaches required to achieve efficient control of nutrient loads to the Gulf. These include recognition of important differences in the agricultural sources of N and P, the role of atmospheric N, attention to P sources downstream from reservoirs, and better control of both N and P in close proximity to large rivers. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  16. Nitrogen mineralization and nitrate leaching of a sandy soil amended with different organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Burgos, Pilar; Madejón, Engracia; Cabrera, Francisco

    2006-04-01

    Organic wastes can be recycled as a source of plant nutrients, enhancing crop production by improving soil quality. However, the study of the dynamic of soil nutrient, especially the N dynamic, after soil application of any organic material is vital for assessing a correct and effective use of the material, minimizing the losses of nitrate in leachates and avoiding the negative environmental effects that it may cause in groundwater. To estimate the effect of three organic materials, a municipal solid waste compost (MWC), a non-composted paper mill sludge (PS), and an agroforest compost (AC) on the N dynamic of a sandy soil two experiments were carried out: an incubation experiment and a column experiment. The incubation experiment was conducted to estimate the N mineralization rate of the different soil-amendment mixtures. The soil was mixed with the organic amendments at a rate equivalent to 50,000 kg ha(-1) and incubated during 40 weeks at constant moisture content (70% of its water-holding capacity) and temperature (28 degrees C) under aerobic conditions. Organic amendment-soil samples showed an immobilization of N during the first weeks, which was more noticeable and longer in the case of PS-treated soil compared to the other two amendments due to its high C/N ratio. After this immobilization stage, a positive mineralization was observed for all treatment, especially in MWC treated soil. Contemporaneously a 1-year column (19 cm diameter and 60 cm height) experiment was carried out to estimate the nitrate losses from the soil amended with the same organic materials. Amendments were mixed with the top soil (0-15 cm) at a rate equivalent to 50,000 kg ha(-1). The columns were periodically irrigated simulating rainfall in the area of study, receiving in total 415 mm of water, and the water draining was collected during the experimental period and analysed for NO3-N. At the end of the experimental period NO3-N content in soil columns at three depths (0-20, 20-35 and

  17. Fuel nitrogen release during black liquor pyrolysis; Part 2: Comparisons between different liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, K.; Nikkanen, S. ); Hupa, M. . Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1994-08-01

    This continuation of earlier work reports fuel nitrogen release for black liquors at two temperatures during pyrolysis of single droplets in an oxygen-free environment. Approximately half of the 20--60% fuel nitrogen released was ammonia and half was molecular nitrogen. The total amount of fixed nitrogen released during pyrolysis was almost linearly proportional to the liquor nitrogen content. The yield of fixed nitrogen for birch liquors was significantly higher than for pine liquors, and the yield for bagasse liquor was extremely high.

  18. Split Nitrogen Application Improves Wheat Baking Quality by Influencing Protein Composition Rather Than Concentration.

    PubMed

    Xue, Cheng; Auf'm Erley, Gunda Schulte; Rossmann, Anne; Schuster, Ramona; Koehler, Peter; Mühling, Karl-Hermann

    2016-01-01

    The use of late nitrogen (N) fertilization (N application at late growth stages of wheat, e.g., booting, heading or anthesis) to improve baking quality of wheat has been questioned. Although it increases protein concentration, the beneficial effect on baking quality (bread loaf volume) needs to be clearly understood. Two pot experiments were conducted aiming to evaluate whether late N is effective under controlled conditions and if these effects result from increased N rate or N splitting. Late N fertilizers were applied either as additional N or split from the basal N at late boot stage or heading in the form of nitrate-N or urea. Results showed that late N fertilization improved loaf volume of wheat flour by increasing grain protein concentration and altering its composition. Increasing N rate mainly enhanced grain protein quantitatively. However, N splitting changed grain protein composition by enhancing the percentages of gliadins and glutenins as well as certain high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), which led to an improved baking quality of wheat flour. The late N effects were greater when applied as nitrate-N than urea. The proportions of glutenin and x-type HMW-GS were more important than the overall protein concentration in determining baking quality. N splitting is more effective in improving wheat quality than the increase in the N rate by late N, which offers the potential to cut down N fertilization rates in wheat production systems. PMID:27313585

  19. Split Nitrogen Application Improves Wheat Baking Quality by Influencing Protein Composition Rather Than Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Cheng; auf’m Erley, Gunda Schulte; Rossmann, Anne; Schuster, Ramona; Koehler, Peter; Mühling, Karl-Hermann

    2016-01-01

    The use of late nitrogen (N) fertilization (N application at late growth stages of wheat, e.g., booting, heading or anthesis) to improve baking quality of wheat has been questioned. Although it increases protein concentration, the beneficial effect on baking quality (bread loaf volume) needs to be clearly understood. Two pot experiments were conducted aiming to evaluate whether late N is effective under controlled conditions and if these effects result from increased N rate or N splitting. Late N fertilizers were applied either as additional N or split from the basal N at late boot stage or heading in the form of nitrate-N or urea. Results showed that late N fertilization improved loaf volume of wheat flour by increasing grain protein concentration and altering its composition. Increasing N rate mainly enhanced grain protein quantitatively. However, N splitting changed grain protein composition by enhancing the percentages of gliadins and glutenins as well as certain high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), which led to an improved baking quality of wheat flour. The late N effects were greater when applied as nitrate-N than urea. The proportions of glutenin and x-type HMW-GS were more important than the overall protein concentration in determining baking quality. N splitting is more effective in improving wheat quality than the increase in the N rate by late N, which offers the potential to cut down N fertilization rates in wheat production systems. PMID:27313585

  20. Improved nitrogen management utilizing ground-penetrating-radar: A nine-year investigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water availability and efficient use of nitrogen are critical components of a sustainable and profitable agricultural system. Since nitrogen is typically excessively applied, considerable nitrogen may leach to and move through the subsurface. Our hypothesis is that knowledge of the subsurface hydr...

  1. IR spectroscopy of ethanol in nitrogen cryomatrices with different concentration ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldiyarov, A.; Aryutkina, M.; Drobyshev, A.; Kurnosov, V.

    2011-06-01

    Thin films of cryovacuum condensates of ethanol-nitrogen mixtures formed by co-condensation of gas mixtures with different concentrations on a cooled metal substrate are studied by IR spectrometry. The condensation temperature was Tc = 16 K and the pressure of the gaseous phase during cryodeposition was P = 10-5 Torr. The ethanol concentration in nitrogen was varied from 0.5 to 10% and the film thickness, from 1 to 30 μm. Measurements were made in the range from 400 to 4200 cm-1. An analysis of the IR spectra and a comparison with published data shows that ethanol monomers and dimers are present in the nitrogen matrix. This is indicated by an absorption band at a frequency of 3658 cm-1 owing to vibrations of O-H bonds of ethanol monomers and dimers. The local minima of this band at 3645 and 3658 cm-1 are related to the existence of two conformational states of the ethanol molecule: anti (3658 cm-1) and gauche (3645 cm-1). In addition, the presence of ethanol dimers and monomers in the matrix leads to the appearance of absorption bands at 1259 and 1276 cm-1 attributable to deformation vibrations δ(COH) of the anti- and gauche-isomers, respectively, as well as bands corresponding to a combination of ν(CCO) valence vibrations and rotational oscillations of the methyl group r(CH3) attributable to anti-dimers (ν = 1090 cm-1) and anti-monomers (ν = 1095 cm-1). Local minima within 3000-3600 cm-1 also indicate the presence of cyclical dimers, trimers, and tetramers, as well as hexamers in the matrix. A broad band over 3250-3330 cm-1 indicates that large polyaggregates, with ethanol molecules in a hydrogen-bond state (multimer), exist in the matrix.

  2. Rapidly growing tropical trees mobilize remarkable amounts of nitrogen, in ways that differ surprisingly among species

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Ann E.; Raich, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Fast-growing forests such as tropical secondary forests can accumulate large amounts of carbon (C), and thereby play an important role in the atmospheric CO2 balance. Because nitrogen (N) cycling is inextricably linked with C cycling, the question becomes: Where does the N come from to match high rates of C accumulation? In unique experimental 16-y-old plantations established in abandoned pasture in lowland Costa Rica, we used a mass-balance approach to quantify N accumulation in vegetation, identify sources of N, and evaluate differences among tree species in N cycling. The replicated design contained four broad-leaved evergreen tree species growing under similar environmental conditions. Nitrogen uptake was rapid, reaching 409 (±30) kg⋅ha−1⋅y−1, double the rate reported from a Puerto Rican forest and greater than four times that observed at Hubbard Brook Forest (New Hampshire, USA). Nitrogen amassed in vegetation was 874 (±176) kg⋅ha−1, whereas net losses of soil N (0–100 cm) varied from 217 (±146) to 3,354 (±915) kg⋅ha−1 (P = 0.018) over 16 y. Soil C:N, δ13C values, and N budgets indicated that soil was the main source of biomass N. In Vochysia guatemalensis, however, N fixation contributed >60 kg⋅ha−1⋅y−1. All species apparently promoted soil N turnover, such that the soil N mean residence time was 32–54 y, an order of magnitude lower than the global mean. High rates of N uptake were associated with substantial N losses in three of the species, in which an average of 1.6 g N was lost for every gram of N accumulated in biomass. PMID:22689942

  3. RNA-SEQ Reveals Transcriptional Level Changes of Poplar Roots in Different Forms of Nitrogen Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Chun-Pu; Xu, Zhi-Ru; Hu, Yan-Bo; Lu, Yao; Yang, Cheng-Jun; Sun, Guang-Yu; Liu, Guan-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Poplar has emerged as a model plant for better understanding cellular and molecular changes accompanying tree growth, development, and response to environment. Long-term application of different forms of nitrogen (such as NO3--N and NH4+-N) may cause morphological changes of poplar roots; however, the molecular level changes are still not well-known. In this study, we analyzed the expression profiling of poplar roots treated by three forms of nitrogen: S1 (NH4+), S2 (NH4NO3), and S3 (NO3-) by using RNA-SEQ technique. We found 463 genes significantly differentially expressed in roots by different N treatments, of which a total of 112 genes were found to differentially express between S1 and S2, 171 genes between S2 and S3, and 319 genes between S1 and S3. A cluster analysis shows significant difference in many transcription factor families and functional genes family under different N forms. Through an analysis of Mapman metabolic pathway, we found that the significantly differentially expressed genes are associated with fermentation, glycolysis, and tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), secondary metabolism, hormone metabolism, and transport processing. Interestingly, we did not find significantly differentially expressed genes in N metabolism pathway, mitochondrial electron transport/ATP synthesis and mineral nutrition. We also found abundant candidate genes (20 transcription factors and 30 functional genes) regulating morphology changes of poplar roots under the three N forms. The results obtained are beneficial to a better understanding of the potential molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating root morphology changes under different N treatments. PMID:26870068

  4. Using multi-model averaging to improve the reliability of catchment scale nitrogen predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exbrayat, J.-F.; Viney, N. R.; Frede, H.-G.; Breuer, L.

    2013-01-01

    Hydro-biogeochemical models are used to foresee the impact of mitigation measures on water quality. Usually, scenario-based studies rely on single model applications. This is done in spite of the widely acknowledged advantage of ensemble approaches to cope with structural model uncertainty issues. As an attempt to demonstrate the reliability of such multi-model efforts in the hydro-biogeochemical context, this methodological contribution proposes an adaptation of the reliability ensemble averaging (REA) philosophy to nitrogen losses predictions. A total of 4 models are used to predict the total nitrogen (TN) losses from the well-monitored Ellen Brook catchment in Western Australia. Simulations include re-predictions of current conditions and a set of straightforward management changes targeting fertilisation scenarios. Results show that, in spite of good calibration metrics, one of the models provides a very different response to management changes. This behaviour leads the simple average of the ensemble members to also predict reductions in TN export that are not in agreement with the other models. However, considering the convergence of model predictions in the more sophisticated REA approach assigns more weight to previously less well-calibrated models that are more in agreement with each other. This method also avoids having to disqualify any of the ensemble members.

  5. Studies on the storage life of irradiated potatoes of different maturities as influenced by different levels of nitrogen during growth and different harvest dates

    SciTech Connect

    Badshah, N.L.

    1989-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effects of irradiation levels on potato tubers of different maturities grown with 0.0, 182 and 364 kg/ha nitrogen in 16-16-16 NPK fertilizer, harvested on different dates and stored at 10 and 15.5{degree}C. Tubers from the 1986 crop were harvested on September 15, 1986. Tubers from the 1987 crop were harvested when 0-5%, 50%, and 100% of the vines had died. Gamma irradiation was applied to the tubers of the 1986 crop at dosage 0, 5, 10 and 20 krad; and 0 and 7.5 krad for the tubers of 1987 crop. The 1986 study indicated that increasing fertilizer and irradiation levels significantly decreased sprouting, percent weight loss and specific gravity of tubers. The loss of ascorbic acid, histidine, leucine, isoleucine, and the amount of reducing, and non-reducing sugars were significantly decreased by increasing nitrogen levels. The content of leucine, reducing sugars and ascorbic acid levels were decreased by irradiation. Higher storage temperatures caused greater loss of arginine, isoleucine, valine and ascorbic acid. No significant changes were found in protein, lysine and aromatic amino acids. Tubers stored at 15.5{degree}C showed greater metabolic changes as indicated by sprouting, weight loss; changes in permeability, protein, amino acids, sugars and ascorbic acid contents. The 5 krad irradiation treatment resulted in complete sprout inhibition of tubers from 364 kg/ha nitrogen levels at 10{degree}C storage. Twenty krad dosage while inhibiting sprouting at 15.5{degree}C, caused greater loss of ascorbic acid. The results of 1987 studies showed that tubers from higher nitrogen levels irradiated with 7.5 krad significantly decreased weight loss.

  6. Variations in dissolved organic nitrogen concentration in biofilters with different media during drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huining; Zhang, Kefeng; Jin, Huixia; Gu, Li; Yu, Xin

    2015-11-01

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is potential precursor of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), especially nitrogenous DBPs. In this study, we investigated the impact of biofilters on DON concentration changes in a drinking water plant. A small pilot plant was constructed next to a sedimentation tank in a drinking water plant and included activated carbon, quartz sand, anthracite, and ceramsite biofilters. As the biofilter layer depth increased, the DON concentration first decreased and then increased, and the variation in DON concentration differed among the biofilters. In the activated carbon biofilter, the DON concentration was reduced by the largest amount in the first part of the column and increased by the largest amount in the second part of the column. The biomass in the activated carbon filter was less than that in the quartz sand filter in the upper column. The heterotrophic bacterial proportion among bacterial flora in the activated carbon biofilter was the largest, which might be due to the significant reduction in DON in the first part of the column. Overall, the results indicate that the DON concentration in biofiltered water can be controlled via the selection of appropriate biofilter media. We propose that a two-layer biofilter with activated carbon in the upper layer and another media type in the lower layer could best reduce the DON concentration. PMID:25576130

  7. Oxidative stress response and nitrogen utilization are strongly variable in Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains with different fermentation performances.

    PubMed

    Treu, Laura; Campanaro, Stefano; Nadai, Chiara; Toniolo, Chiara; Nardi, Tiziana; Giacomini, Alessio; Valle, Giorgio; Blondin, Bruno; Corich, Viviana

    2014-05-01

    We used RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to analyze the expression profile of four vineyard strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae having different fermentation performances. The expression profiles obtained in two steps of the fermentation process were compared with those obtained for the industrial wine strain EC1118 and for the laboratory strain S288c. The two strains with low fermentation efficiency, namely, S288c and the vineyard strain R103, exhibited markedly different expression profiles when compared to the other four strains. We also found that the vineyard strains P283 and P301 are characterized by a high expression of the transcription factor Met32p in the first step of the fermentation. Met32p, in coordination with the Hap4p transcription factor, determined the over-expression of the genes involved in the respiration processes, in the response to oxidative stress and in the sulfur amino acids biosynthesis. These combined actions are likely to increase the level of antioxidants whose protective effect could contribute to improve the fermentation process. Gene expression and phenotypic data revealed that the vineyard strain P301 has low nitrogen utilization in comparison to the other wine strains, combined with high fermentation efficiency. Analysis of the genes involved in fermentation stress response revealed a lower expression in strains characterized by low fermentation efficiency, particularly in the first fermentation phase. These findings evidenced the high variability of transcriptional profiles among different wine yeast strains and clarify their connection with complex phenotypic traits, such as the fermentation efficiency and the nitrogen sources utilization. PMID:24695828

  8. Flux measurements of reactive nitrogen compounds using a chemiluminescence analyser with different converter types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammann, Christof; Wolff, Veronika

    2015-04-01

    The availability of reactive nitrogen (Nr) is a key limiting factors for the productivity and the competition success of individual species. On the other hand, certain nitrogenous compounds can also be emitted from natural or managed ecosystems. Thus the quantification of the Nr exchange can be essential for the interpretation of ecosystem behavior. For the observation of Nr dry deposition and emission the eddy covariance (EC) method is preferable since it does not modify the environmental conditions of the ecosystem, is less prone to wall effects than chamber methods, and is less affected by gas phase chemical reactions than gradient methods. Since the various Nr compounds can undergo fast chemical reactions and have differing chemical and physical characteristics, a variety of detection techniques is usually necessary that often cannot meet the fast response requirements of the EC technique. Here we show applications of a fast response 2-channel NO analyzer suitable for EC measurements. In combination with different inlet converters (photolytic converter, gold catalyst converter, and high-temperature steel converter), the system could alternatively be used for flux measurements of NO2, NOy, and total Nr. The quantification of By combining the 2-channel analyzer with the NOy and total Nr converter simultaneously, the NH3 flux could be determined from the difference between the two channels. Concentration and flux measurements of the system were verified by inter-comparison with other methods. Potential problems include the damping of high-frequency fluctuations in the inlet system. It is therefore important to place the converter close to the sampling inlet and to quantify and correct the damping effects. Moreover, like most other flux measurement techniques, the system is susceptible to non-stationary trace gas concentrations that often occur near pollution sources.

  9. Crystallinity-dependent substitutional nitrogen doping in ZnO and its improved visible light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zongbao; Yin, Li-Chang; Xie, Yingpeng; Liu, Gang; Ma, Xiuliang; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2013-06-15

    Increasing visible light absorption of wide-bandgap photocatalysts (for example, ZnO and TiO2) plays a pivotal role in improving their photocatalytic activity. In this work, we show that substitutional nitrogen doping can be realized in semi-crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles but fails for highly crystalline ZnO by heating the ZnO at a temperature of 400°C in gaseous ammonia atmosphere. The results suggest that substitutional nitrogen for lattice oxygen is strongly dependent on the crystallinity of ZnO. The nitrogen doped ZnO obtained shows an improved visible light photocatalytic activity in the degradation of organic dyes due to its increased visible light absorption. The origin of the increased visible light absorption is theoretically attributed to the formed N 2p localized states in the bandgap. PMID:23561822

  10. Attempts to improve nitrogen utilization efficiency of aquaponics through nitrifies addition and filler gradation.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yina; Hu, Zhen; Zhang, Jian; Xie, Huijun; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Jinhe; Yan, Runxin

    2016-04-01

    Aquaponics has attracted worldwide attention in recent years and is considered as an alternative technology for conventional aquaculture. In this study, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and pakchoi (Brassica chinensis) were cultured in lab-scale aquaponics, and attempts were conducted to enhance its nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) through two optimization methods, i.e., nitrifies addition (NA) and filler gradation (FG). Results showed that NA and FG could improve the NUE of aquaponics by 8.8 and 16.0%, respectively, compared with control. The total ammonia (TAN) and nitrite (NO2(-)) concentrations in NA and FG systems were maintained at relatively low level (TAN < 0.5 mg/L, NO2(-) < 0.1 mg/L), which demonstrated that both the NA and FG could provide non-toxic water environment for fish culture. Nitrous oxide conversion ratio of the control, NA, and FG were 0.8, 1.2, and 1.7%, respectively, indicating that media-based aquaponics also contributed to global warming. Although the two proposed attempts in this study caused more N2O emission, they made new breakthrough in improving the NUE of aquaponics. PMID:26645232

  11. Improved RDX detoxification with starch addition using a novel nitrogen-fixing aerobic microbial consortium from soil contaminated with explosives.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Yang, Jihoon; Yoo, Byungun; Park, Joonhong

    2015-04-28

    In this work, we developed and characterized a novel nitrogen-fixing aerobic microbial consortium for the complete detoxification of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). Aerobic RDX biodegradation coupled with microbial growth and nitrogen fixation activity were effectively stimulated by the co-addition of starch and RDX under nitrogen limiting conditions. In the starch-stimulated nitrogen-fixing RDX degradative consortium, the RDX degradation activity was correlated with the xplA and nifH gene copy numbers, suggesting the involvement of nitrogen fixing populations in RDX biodegradation. Formate, nitrite, nitrate, and ammonia were detected as aerobic RDX degradation intermediates without the accumulation of any nitroso-derivatives or NDAB (4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal), indicating nearly complete mineralization. Pyrosequencing targeting the bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed that the Rhizobium, Rhizobacter and Terrimonas population increased as the RDX degradation activity increased, suggesting their involvement in the degradation process. These findings imply that the nitrogen-fixing aerobic RDX degrading consortium is a valuable microbial resource for improving the detoxification of RDX-contaminated soil or groundwater, especially when combined with rhizoremediation. PMID:25661171

  12. Effects of Nitrogen and Shading on Root Morphologies, Nutrient Accumulation, and Photosynthetic Parameters in Different Rice Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Pan, Shenggang; Liu, Haidong; Mo, Zhaowen; Patterson, Bob; Duan, Meiyang; Tian, Hua; Hu, Shuijing; Tang, Xiangru

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen availability and illumination intensity are two key factors which affect rice growth. However, their influences on total nitrogen accumulation, photosynthetic rate, root morphologies, and yields are not fully understood. We conducted two field experiments to (1) evaluate the effects of shading under different N treatments on photosynthetic parameters, root morphologies, total nutrient accumulation, and grain yields of rice; and (2) elucidate the relationship between total nutrient accumulation and root morphologies under different shading conditions and nitrogen treatments. Three nitrogen rates, three shading treatments, and three different rice cultivars were used in two field experiments. Double shading during the grain-filling stage decreased total nutrient accumulation, altered root morphological characteristics, and decreased yields in rice. There were also significant interaction effects between nitrogen and shading on photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and total root length, root superficial area, and root volume. Significant interactions were found among cultivars and shading for photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate. Correlation analysis revealed that total nitrogen accumulation (TNA) and potassium accumulation (TKA) were significantly positively correlated with total root length, root superficial area, and root volume. N application could alleviate the detrimental effects of shading on total nutrient accumulation and grain yield in rice. PMID:27557779

  13. Effects of Nitrogen and Shading on Root Morphologies, Nutrient Accumulation, and Photosynthetic Parameters in Different Rice Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shenggang; Liu, Haidong; Mo, Zhaowen; Patterson, Bob; Duan, Meiyang; Tian, Hua; Hu, Shuijing; Tang, Xiangru

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen availability and illumination intensity are two key factors which affect rice growth. However, their influences on total nitrogen accumulation, photosynthetic rate, root morphologies, and yields are not fully understood. We conducted two field experiments to (1) evaluate the effects of shading under different N treatments on photosynthetic parameters, root morphologies, total nutrient accumulation, and grain yields of rice; and (2) elucidate the relationship between total nutrient accumulation and root morphologies under different shading conditions and nitrogen treatments. Three nitrogen rates, three shading treatments, and three different rice cultivars were used in two field experiments. Double shading during the grain-filling stage decreased total nutrient accumulation, altered root morphological characteristics, and decreased yields in rice. There were also significant interaction effects between nitrogen and shading on photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and total root length, root superficial area, and root volume. Significant interactions were found among cultivars and shading for photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate. Correlation analysis revealed that total nitrogen accumulation (TNA) and potassium accumulation (TKA) were significantly positively correlated with total root length, root superficial area, and root volume. N application could alleviate the detrimental effects of shading on total nutrient accumulation and grain yield in rice. PMID:27557779

  14. Use of quaternary ammonium salts of nitrogen containing polymers for improved carburetor detergency

    SciTech Connect

    Biasotti, J.B.; Vartanian, P.F.

    1980-01-15

    A quaternary ammonium salt is described of a copolymer, said copolymer being the olefin polymerization product of: (A) a nitrogen amine free ester of a C/sub 1/-C/sub 6/ olefinically unsaturated aliphatic mono-, di-, or polycarboxylic acid having a tertiary nitrogen atom; and (B) an olefinically unsaturated co-monomer containing a basic nitrogen atom in a side chain; a fuel component, especially gasoline, containing such quaternary ammonium salt of such copolymer as a detergent.

  15. [Physiological Effect of Vallisneria natans Under Different Concentrations of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Chloramphenicol].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhen-zhen; Cui, Yi-bin; Li, Mei; Yu, Jing

    2015-09-01

    The effects of peroxidase(POD), superoxide dismutase(SOD) activities and malondialdehyde(MDA), soluble proteins and chlorophyll in the leaves of Vallisneria natans exposed to different concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus in the eutrophication water body and chloramphenicol after 7 days were investigated in the study. The soluble protein content increased significantly in group eutrophic water and 0.2 µg.L-1 chloramphenicol, and the concentration of protein was 2.38 times of that in group 0 µg.L-1 chloramphenicol. In group of eutrophic water and 0. 2 µg.L-1 chloramphenicol, POD activities decreased significantly to 33. 84% of that in group 0 µg.L-1 chloramphenicol. With the increasing of the joint concentration, SOD activities decreased. SOD activities in group of mesotrophic and 0. 2 µg.L-1 chloramphenicol was 28. 59% of that in group of 0 µg.L-1 chloramphenicol. PMID:26717684

  16. Phytoplankton of the Swan-Canning Estuary: a comparison of nitrogen uptake by different bloom assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner Rosser, S. M. J.; Thompson, Peter A.

    2001-09-01

    Spring chlorophyte-, summer dinophyte- and autumn cryptophyte-dominated phytoplankton blooms occurring in the upper reaches of the Swan-Canning Estuary have been studied to compare species composition and diurnal distribution and to determine preferential uptake rates for different nitrogen sources. Species distribution patterns over diurnal cycles showed dinophyte and cryptophyte species exhibiting diurnal vertical migration patterns which changed over a three-week bloom period. The dinophyte and cryptophyte behaviour appeared to be related to measured changes in ambient nitrogen profiles over the course of the bloom. Chlorophyte species were not shown to be strongly migratory over diurnal periods. Absolute uptake rates (, approximating Pmax) for nitrogen, in the form of 15NO3-, 15NH4+ or 15N-urea, were compared between seasonal bloom assemblages and ranged between 0·02 and 12 µg N l-1 h-1 (NO3 0·02-7; NH4 0·4-9; urea 0·1-12 µg N l-1nitrogen sources were implicated in supporting these blooms. Results indicated no physiological preference at any depth for NOnitrogen dynamics supporting phytoplankton growth.

  17. Oxidation of diclofenac with chlorine dioxide in aquatic environments: influences of different nitrogenous species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingling; Liu, Haijin; Liu, Guoguang; Xie, Youhai; Ni, Tianjun

    2015-06-01

    The oxidation of diclofenac (DCF), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and emerging water pollutant, with chlorine dioxide was investigated under simulated water disinfection conditions. The reaction kinetics as functions of the initial concentrations of DCF, different nitrogenous species, and different pE values were experimentally determined. The results demonstrated that DCF reacted rapidly with ClO2, where more than 75 % of DCF (≤3.00 μM) was removed by 18.94 μM ClO2 within 60 s. All of the reactions followed pseudo first-order kinetics with respect to DCF, and the rate constant, k obs, exhibited a significant decrease from 4.21 × 10(-2) to 8.09 × 10(-3) s(-1), as the initial DCF concentration was increased from 1.00 to 5.00 μM. Furthermore, the degradation kinetics of DCF was clearly dependent on nitrogen-containing ion concentrations in the reaction solution. Ammonium and nitrite ions inhibited the DCF degradation by ClO2, whereas nitrate ion clearly initiated its promotion. In contrast, the inhibitory effect of NO2 (-) was more robust than that of NH4 (+). When the values of pE were gradually increased, the transformation of NH4 (+) to NO2 (-), and subsequently to NO3 (-), would occur, the rate constants were initially decreased, and then increased. When NH4 (+) and NO2 (-) coexisted, the inhibitory effect on the DCF degradation was less than the sum of the partial inhibitory effect. However, when NO2 (-) and NO3 (-) coexisted, the actual inhibition rate was greater than the theoretical estimate. These results indicated that the interaction of NH4 (+) and NO2 (-) was antagonistic, while the coexistence of NO2 (-) and NO3 (-) was observed to have a synergistic effect in aqueous environments. PMID:25604564

  18. Metatranscriptomics reveal differences in in situ energy and nitrogen metabolism among hydrothermal vent snail symbionts

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, J G; Beinart, R A; Stewart, F J; Delong, E F; Girguis, P R

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of chemoautotrophic symbioses at hydrothermal vents, our understanding of the influence of environmental chemistry on symbiont metabolism is limited. Transcriptomic analyses are useful for linking physiological poise to environmental conditions, but recovering samples from the deep sea is challenging, as the long recovery times can change expression profiles before preservation. Here, we present a novel, in situ RNA sampling and preservation device, which we used to compare the symbiont metatranscriptomes associated with Alviniconcha, a genus of vent snail, in which specific host–symbiont combinations are predictably distributed across a regional geochemical gradient. Metatranscriptomes of these symbionts reveal key differences in energy and nitrogen metabolism relating to both environmental chemistry (that is, the relative expression of genes) and symbiont phylogeny (that is, the specific pathways employed). Unexpectedly, dramatic differences in expression of transposases and flagellar genes suggest that different symbiont types may also have distinct life histories. These data further our understanding of these symbionts' metabolic capabilities and their expression in situ, and suggest an important role for symbionts in mediating their hosts' interaction with regional-scale differences in geochemistry. PMID:23619306

  19. Nitrogen fixation in different biogeochemical niches along a 120 000-year chronosequence in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Menge, Duncan N L; Hedin, Lars O

    2009-08-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is the major nitrogen (N) input in many terrestrial ecosystems, yet we know little about the mechanisms and feedbacks that control this process in natural ecosystems. We here examine BNF in four taxonomically and ecologically different groups over the course of forest ecosystem development. At nine sites along the Franz Josef soil chronosequence (South Westland, New Zealand) that range in age from 7 to 120000 yr old, we quantified BNF from the symbiotic plant Coriaria arborea, cyanolichens (primarily Pseudocyphellaria spp.), bryophytes (many species), and heterotrophic bacteria in leaf litter. We specifically examined whether these groups could act as "nitrostats" at the ecosystem level, turning BNF on when N is scarce (early in primary succession) and off when N is plentiful (later in succession and retrogression). Coriaria was abundant and actively fixing (approximately 11 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) in the youngest and most N-poor site (7 yr old), consistent with nitrostat dynamics. Coriaria maintained high BNF rates independent of soil N availability, however, until it was excluded from the community after a single generation. We infer that Coriaria is an obligate N fixer and that the nitrostat feedback is mechanistically governed by species replacement at the community level, rather than down-regulation of BNF at the physiological scale. Biological nitrogen fixation inputs from lichens (means of 0-2 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1)), bryophytes (0.7-10 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1)), and litter (1-2 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) were driven primarily by changes in density, which peaked at intermediate-aged sites (and increased with soil N availability) for both lichens and bryophytes, and grew monotonically with soil age (but did not change with soil N) for litter. This non-nitrostatic link between soil N availability and lichen/bryophyte BNF likely stems from increased tree biomass in more fertile sites, which increases epiphytic moisture conditions

  20. Biogas production from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nitrogen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Jayaweera, Mahesh W; Dilhani, Jayakodi A T; Kularatne, Ranil K A; Wijeyekoon, Suren L J

    2007-06-01

    This paper reports the biogas production from water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms) grown under different nitrogen concentrations of 1-fold [28 mg/L of total nitrogen (TN)], 2-fold, 1/2-fold, 1/4-fold and 1/8-fold and plants harvested from a polluted water body. This study was carried out for a period of 4 months at ambient mesophilic temperatures of 30.3-31.3 degrees C using six 3-barreled batch-fed reactors with the innermost barrel (45 L) being used as the digester. There was no marked variation in the C/N ratios of the plants cultured under different nitrogen concentrations. The addition of fresh cow dung having a low C/N of 8 resulted in a significant reduction in the C/N ratios of the water hyacinth substrates. However, gas production commenced 3 days after charging the reactors and gas production rates peaked in 4-7 days. The volatile solids (VS) degradation and gas production patterns manifested that in conventional single-stage batch digesters acidogenesis and methanogenesis of water hyacinth requires a retention time of around 27-30 days and 27-51 days, respectively. Substrates in the f-1 digester (i.e., the digester containing plants grown under 28 TN mg/L) having the lowest VS content of 45.3 g/L with a highest C/N ratio of 16 showed fairly higher gas production rates consistently (10-27 days) with higher gas yields containing around 50-65% of CH4 (27-51 days). Moreover the highest overall VS (81.7%) removal efficiencies were reported from the f-1 digester. Fairly higher gas production rates and gas yields with fairly higher CH4 contents were also noticed from the f-2 digester containing substrates having a C/N of 14 and f-out digester (containing the plants harvested from the polluted water body) having the lowest C/N ratio of 9.7 with a fairly high VS content of 56 g/L. CH4 production was comparatively low in the f-1/8, f-1/4 and f-1/2 digesters having VS rich substrates with varying C/N ratios. We conclude that water hyacinth could be

  1. Improving nitrogen management for corn in southern Idaho and southwest Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Funding is being sought from multiple sources to update nitrogen fertilizer recommendations for irrigated corn in southern Idaho and southwest Oregon. This paper summarizes the justifications and main objectives of this proposed research. Nitrogen needs to be correctly managed in corn production sys...

  2. EVALUATION OF TWO APPROACHES FOR IMPROVED NITROGEN OXIDES MONITORING IN URBAN ATMOSPHERES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, instrumentation used to monitor nitrogen oxides in urban monitoring networks measure NO and "NOx", where NOx includes NO and NO2. hese NO2 measurements are subject to a positive bias from other oxidized nitrogen species (NOy) and it is believed that NOy measurements ar...

  3. Diversity pattern of nitrogen fixing microbes in nodules of Trifolium arvense (L.) at different initial stages of ecosystem development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, S.; Engel, M.; Fischer, D.; Buegger, F.; Elmer, M.; Welzl, G.; Schloter, M.

    2013-02-01

    Legumes can be considered as pioneer plants during ecosystem development, as they form a symbiosis with different nitrogen fixing rhizobia species, which enable the plants to grow on soils with low available nitrogen content. In this study we compared the abundance and diversity of nitrogen fixing microbes based on the functional marker gene nifH, which codes for a subunit of the Fe-protein of the dinitrogenase reductase, in nodules of different size classes of Trifolium arvense (L.). Additionally, carbon and nitrogen contents of the bulk soil and plant material were measured. Plants were harvested from different sites, reflecting 2 (2a) and 5 (5a) yr of ecosystem development, of an opencast lignite mining area in the south of Cottbus, Lower Lusatia (Germany) where the artificial catchment "Chicken Creek" was constructed to study the development of terrestrial ecosystems. Plants from the 5a site revealed higher amounts of carbon and nitrogen, although nifH gene abundances in the nodules and carbon and nitrogen contents between the two soils did not differ significantly. Analysis of the nifH clone libraries showed a significant effect of the nodule size on the community composition of nitrogen fixing microbes. Medium sized nodules (2-5 mm) contained a uniform community composed of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, whereas the small nodules (<2 mm) consisted of a diverse community including clones with non-Rhizobium nifH gene sequences. Regarding the impact of the soil age on the community composition a clear distinction between the small and the medium nodules can be made. While clone libraries from the medium nodules were pretty similar at both soil ages, soil age had a significant effect on the community compositions of the small nodules, where the proportion of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii increased with soil age.

  4. Diversity pattern of nitrogen fixing microbes in nodules of Trifolium arvense (L.) at different initial stages of ecosystem development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, S.; Engel, M.; Fischer, D.; Buegger, F.; Elmer, M.; Welzl, G.; Schloter, M.

    2012-09-01

    Legumes can be considered as pioneer plants during ecosystem development, as they form a symbiosis with different nitrogen fixing rhizobia species, which enable the plants to grow on soils with low available nitrogen content. In this study we compared the abundance and diversity of nitrogen fixing microbes based on the functional marker gene nifH, which codes for a subunit of the Fe-protein of the dinitrogenase reductase, in nodules of different size classes of Trifolium arvense (L.). Additionally, carbon and nitrogen contents of the bulk soil and plant material were measured. Plants were harvested from different sites, reflecting 2 (2a) and 5 (5a) yr of ecosystem development, of an opencast lignite mining area in the south of Cottbus, Lower Lusatia (Germany) where the artificial catchment "Chicken Creek" was constructed to study the development of terrestrial ecosystems. Plants from the 5a site revealed higher amounts of carbon and nitrogen, although nifH gene abundances in the nodules and carbon and nitrogen contents between the two soils did not differ significantly. Analysis of the nifH clone libraries showed a significant effect of the nodule size on the community composition of nitrogen fixing microbes. Medium sized nodules (2-5 mm) contained a uniform community composed of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, whereas the small nodules (< 2 mm) consisted of a diverse community including clones with non-Rhizobium nifH gene sequences. Regarding the impact of the soil age on the community composition a clear distinction between the small and the medium nodules can be made. While clone libraries from the medium nodules were pretty similar at both soil ages, soil age had a significant effect on the community compositions of the small nodules, where the proportion of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii increased with soil age.

  5. Chemical Composition, Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids Profile of Milk from Different Animal Species

    PubMed Central

    Rafiq, Saima; Huma, Nuzhat; Pasha, Imran; Sameen, Aysha; Mukhtar, Omer; Khan, Muhammad Issa

    2016-01-01

    Milk composition is an imperative aspect which influences the quality of dairy products. The objective of study was to compare the chemical composition, nitrogen fractions and amino acids profile of milk from buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. Sheep milk was found to be highest in fat (6.82%±0.04%), solid-not-fat (11.24%±0.02%), total solids (18.05%±0.05%), protein (5.15%±0.06%) and casein (3.87%±0.04%) contents followed by buffalo milk. Maximum whey proteins were observed in camel milk (0.80%±0.03%), buffalo (0.68%±0.02%) and sheep (0.66%±0.02%) milk. The non-protein-nitrogen contents varied from 0.33% to 0.62% among different milk species. The highest r-values were recorded for correlations between crude protein and casein in buffalo (r = 0.82), cow (r = 0.88), sheep (r = 0.86) and goat milk (r = 0.98). The caseins and whey proteins were also positively correlated with true proteins in all milk species. A favorable balance of branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine were found both in casein and whey proteins. Leucine content was highest in cow (108±2.3 mg/g), camel (96±2.2 mg/g) and buffalo (90±2.4 mg/g) milk caseins. Maximum concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and histidine were noticed in goat milk caseins. Glutamic acid and proline were dominant among non-essential amino acids. Conclusively, current exploration is important for milk processors to design nutritious and consistent quality end products. PMID:26954163

  6. Chemical Composition, Nitrogen Fractions and Amino Acids Profile of Milk from Different Animal Species.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Saima; Huma, Nuzhat; Pasha, Imran; Sameen, Aysha; Mukhtar, Omer; Khan, Muhammad Issa

    2016-07-01

    Milk composition is an imperative aspect which influences the quality of dairy products. The objective of study was to compare the chemical composition, nitrogen fractions and amino acids profile of milk from buffalo, cow, sheep, goat, and camel. Sheep milk was found to be highest in fat (6.82%±0.04%), solid-not-fat (11.24%±0.02%), total solids (18.05%±0.05%), protein (5.15%±0.06%) and casein (3.87%±0.04%) contents followed by buffalo milk. Maximum whey proteins were observed in camel milk (0.80%±0.03%), buffalo (0.68%±0.02%) and sheep (0.66%±0.02%) milk. The non-protein-nitrogen contents varied from 0.33% to 0.62% among different milk species. The highest r-values were recorded for correlations between crude protein and casein in buffalo (r = 0.82), cow (r = 0.88), sheep (r = 0.86) and goat milk (r = 0.98). The caseins and whey proteins were also positively correlated with true proteins in all milk species. A favorable balance of branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine were found both in casein and whey proteins. Leucine content was highest in cow (108±2.3 mg/g), camel (96±2.2 mg/g) and buffalo (90±2.4 mg/g) milk caseins. Maximum concentrations of isoleucine, phenylalanine, and histidine were noticed in goat milk caseins. Glutamic acid and proline were dominant among non-essential amino acids. Conclusively, current exploration is important for milk processors to design nutritious and consistent quality end products. PMID:26954163

  7. Combined use of nitrogen and coatings to improve the quality of mechanically harvested Manzanilla olives.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Eva; Sánchez, Antonio H; Romero, Concepción; Brenes, Manuel

    2015-03-15

    The combined effect of an edible coating and a nitrogen atmosphere on the quality of Manzanilla olives mechanically harvested and processed as Spanish-style green olives was assessed. The percentage of olives free of any brown spots ranged between 35-50%, 10-25% and 50-65% for fruit directly processed, storage under nitrogen and coated and storage under nitrogen respectively. Moreover, olives stored in the open air developed brown spots due to the oxidation of oleuropein. By contrast, the anoxic conditions prevented oleuropein from undergoing enzymatic oxidation but not from its enzymatic hydrolysis. Hence, the phenolic derivative HyEDA was formed in olives stored under nitrogen, and this substance was rapidly oxidized in the open air to give rise to brown spots although to a lesser extent in the coated fruit. Therefore, the postharvest storage of coated olives under nitrogen can be a good method to prevent bruise damage in mechanically harvested fruit. PMID:25308641

  8. Improvement of the soil nitrogen content and maize growth by earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soils polluted by oxytetracycline.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jia; Wang, Chong; Ji, Dingge

    2016-11-15

    Interactions between earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Rhizophagus intraradices, AM fungi) have been suggested to improve the maize nitrogen (N) content and biomass and were studied in soils polluted by oxytetracycline (OTC). Maize was planted and amended with AMF and/or earthworms (E) in the soil with low (1mgkg(-1) soil DM) or high (100mgkg(-1) soil DM) amounts of OTC pollution in comparison to soil without OTC. The root colonization, shoot and root biomass, shoot and root N contents, soil nitrogen forms, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) were measured at harvest. The results indicated that OTC decreased maize shoot and root biomass (p<0.05) by mediating the soil urease activity and AOB and AOA abundance, which resulted in a lower N availability for maize roots and shoots. There was a significant interaction between earthworms and AM fungi on the urease activity in soil polluted by OTC (p<0.05). Adding earthworms or AM fungi could increase the maize biomass and N content (p<0.05) in OTC polluted soil by increasing the urease activity and relieving the stress from OTC on the soil N cycle. AM fungi and earthworms interactively increased maize shoot and root biomass (p<0.05) in the OTC polluted soils through their regulation of the urease activity and the abundance of ammonia oxidizers, resulting in different soil NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N contents, which may contribute to the N content of maize shoots and roots. Earthworms and AM fungi could be used as an efficient method to relieve the OTC stress in agro-ecosystems. PMID:27496075

  9. Improving spatial nitrogen dioxide prediction using diffusion tubes: A case study in West Central Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pannullo, Francesca; Lee, Duncan; Waclawski, Eugene; Leyland, Alastair H.

    2015-10-01

    It has been well documented that air pollution adversely affects health, and epidemiological pollution-health studies utilise pollution data from automatic monitors. However, these automatic monitors are small in number and hence spatially sparse, which does not allow an accurate representation of the spatial variation in pollution concentrations required for these epidemiological health studies. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) diffusion tubes are also used to measure concentrations, and due to their lower cost compared to automatic monitors are much more prevalent. However, even combining both data sets still does not provide sufficient spatial coverage of NO2 for epidemiological studies, and modelled concentrations on a regular grid from atmospheric dispersion models are also available. This paper proposes the first modelling approach to using all three sources of NO2 data to make fine scale spatial predictions for use in epidemiological health studies. We propose a geostatistical fusion model that regresses combined NO2 concentrations from both automatic monitors and diffusion tubes against modelled NO2 concentrations from an atmospheric dispersion model in order to predict fine scale NO2 concentrations across our West Central Scotland study region. Our model exhibits a 47% improvement in fine scale spatial prediction of NO2 compared to using the automatic monitors alone, and we use it to predict NO2 concentrations across West Central Scotland in 2006.

  10. Multifunctional Low-Pressure Turbine for Core Noise Reduction, Improved Efficiency, and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher J.; Shyam, Vikram; Rigby, David L.

    2013-01-01

    This work studied the feasibility of using Helmholtz resonator cavities embedded in low-pressure-turbine (LPT) airfoils to (1) reduce core noise by damping acoustic modes; (2) use the synthetic jets produced by the liner hole acoustic oscillations to improve engine efficiency by maintaining turbulent attached flow in the LPT at low-Reynolds-number cruise conditions; and (3) reduce engine nitrogen oxide emissions by lining the internal cavities with materials capable of catalytic conversion. Flat plates with embedded Helmholtz resonators, designed to resonate at either 3000 or at 400 Hz, were simulated using computational fluid dynamics. The simulations were conducted for two inlet Mach numbers, 0.25 and 0.5, corresponding to Reynolds numbers of 90 000 and 164 000 based on the effective chordwise distance to the resonator orifice. The results of this study are (1) the region of acoustic treatment may be large enough to have a benefit; (2) the jets may not possess sufficient strength to reduce flow separation (based on prior work by researchers in the flow control area); and (3) the additional catalytic surface area is not exposed to a high velocity, so it probably does not have any benefit.

  11. Nitrogen Utilization and Environmental Losses from Organic Farming and Biochar's Potential to Improve N Efficiency.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, E. I.; SIX, J. W. U. A.

    2014-12-01

    The response of plant performance and nitrogen (N) dynamics to biochar amendments were studied across various levels of N input for two growing seasons in mesocosms representing an organic lettuce production systems. A silt loam soil was amended with pine chip (PC) and walnut shell (WS) biochar (10 t ha-1) in combination with five organic N fertilization rates 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of 225 kg N ha-1. N output through harvest, leachate, and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions were determined to assess N utilization and environmental losses of biochar-amended soils. Analysis of plant performance indicate that PC and WS biochar did not provide any increases in plant biomass in soils that received less than business-as-usual fertilization rates. At 100% N fertilization rate, biochar amendments (both PC and WS) improved lettuce biomass production, which resulted in significant increases in NUE with no effects on N2O emissions. Furthermore, N losses via leaching were decreased by PC biochar at 100% N fertilization rates. Thus, due to increases in plant biomass and decreases in N losses via leachate, PC biochar significantly decreased the ratio of N lost over N exported in biomass. Findings from this study suggest that biochar can provide some beneficial effects to organic farming systems, however, not in all circumstances, given the effects seem to vary with biochar type and fertilization level.

  12. The response of mesophyll conductance to nitrogen and water availability differs between wheat genotypes.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Margaret M; Kaiser, Brent N

    2016-10-01

    Increased mesophyll conductance (gm) has been suggested as a target for selection for high productivity and high water-use efficiency in crop plants, and genotypic variability in gm has been reported in several important crop species. However, effective selection requires an understanding of how gm varies with growth conditions, to ensure that the ranking of genotypes is consistent across environments. We assessed the genotypic variability in gm and other leaf gas exchange traits, as well as growth and biomass allocation for six wheat genotypes under different water and nitrogen availabilities. The wheat genotypes differed in their response of gm to growth conditions, resulting in genotypic differences in the mesophyll limitation to photosynthesis and a significant increase in the mesophyll limitation to photosynthesis under drought. In this experiment, leaf intrinsic water-use efficiency was more closely related to stomatal conductance than to mesophyll conductance, and stomatal limitation to photosynthesis increased more in some genotypes than in others in response to drought. Screening for gm should be carried out under a range of growth conditions. PMID:27593470

  13. Cellular responses and biodegradation of amoxicillin in Microcystis aeruginosa at different nitrogen levels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Feng; Chen, Xiao; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Baoyu

    2015-01-01

    The influence of nitrogen on the interactions between amoxicillin and Microcystis aeruginosa was investigated using a 7-day exposure test. Growth of M. aeruginosa was not significantly (p>0.05) affected by amoxicillin at the lowest nitrogen level of 0.05 mg L(-1), stimulated by 500 ng L(-1) of amoxicillin at a moderate nitrogen level of 0.5 mg L(-1) and enhanced by 200-500 ng L(-1) of amoxicillin at the highest nitrogen level of 5 mg L(-1). The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the synthesis of glutathione S-transferases (GST) and glutathione (GSH) were more sensitive to amoxicillin and were stimulated at all nitrogen levels. At the lowest nitrogen level of 0.05 mg L(-1), superoxide dismutase and peroxidase were not effective at eliminating amoxicillin-induced ROS, resulting in the highest malondialdehyde content in M. aeruginosa. The biodegradation of 18.5-30.5% of amoxicillin by M. aeruginosa was coupled to increasing GST activity and GSH content. Elevated nitrogen concentrations significantly enhanced (p<0.05) the stimulation effect of amoxicillin on the growth of M. aeruginosa, the antioxidant responses to amoxicillin and the biodegradation of amoxicillin in M. aeruginosa. The nitrogen-dependent hormesis effect of the coexisting amoxicillin contaminant on the M. aeruginosa bloom should be fully considered during the control of M. aeruginosa bloom. PMID:25450926

  14. Irrigation frequency alters nutrient uptake in container-grown Rhododendron plants grown with different rates of nitrogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of irrigation frequency (same amount of water per day given at different times) on nutrient uptake of container-grown evergreen Rhododendron ‘P.J.M. Compact’ (PJM) and ‘English Roseum’ (ER) and deciduous Rhododendron ‘Gibraltar’ (AZ) grown with different rates of nitrogen (N) fertilize...

  15. Product selectivity of visible-light photocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide using titanium dioxide doped by different nitrogen-sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhaoguo; Huang, Zhengfeng; Cheng, Xudong; Wang, Qingli; Chen, Yi; Dong, Peimei; Zhang, Xiwen

    2015-11-01

    The influence of nitrogen-source on the photocatalytic properties of nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide is herein first investigated from the perspective of the chemical bond form of the nitrogen element in the nitrogen-source. The definitive role of groups such as Nsbnd N from the nitrogen-source on the surface of as-prepared samples in the selectivity of the dominant product of photocatalytic reduction is demonstrated. Well-crystallized one-dimensional Nsbnd TiO2 nanorod arrays with a preferred orientation of the rutile (3 1 0) facet are manufactured via a hydrothermal treatment using hydrazine and ammonia variously as the source of nitrogen. Significant selectivity of the dominant reduced products has been exhibited for Nsbnd TiO2 prepared from different nitrogen-sources in carbon dioxide photocatalytic reduction under visible light illumination. CH4 is the main product with N2H4-doped Nsbnd TiO2, while CO is the main product with NH3-doped Nsbnd TiO2, which can be attributed to the existence of the reducing Nsbnd N groups in the N2H4-doped Nsbnd TiO2 surfaces after the hydrothermal treatment. Compared with the approaches previously reported, the facile one-step route utilized here accomplishes the fabrication of Nsbnd TiO2 possessing visible-light activity and attainment of selectivity of dominant photocatalytic reduction product simultaneously by choosing a nitrogen-source with appropriate chemical bond form, which provides a completely new approach to understanding the effects of doping treatment on photocatalytic properties.

  16. Carbon and nitrogen balance of leaf-eating sesarmid crabs ( Neoepisesarma versicolor) offered different food sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thongtham, Nalinee; Kristensen, Erik

    2005-10-01

    Carbon and nitrogen budgets for the leaf-eating crab, Neoepisesarma versicolor, were established for individuals living on pure leaf diets. Crabs were fed fresh (green), senescent (yellow) and partly degraded (brown) leaves of the mangrove tree Rhizophora apiculata. Ingestion, egestion and metabolic loss of carbon and nitrogen were determined from laboratory experiments. In addition, bacterial abundance in various compartments of the crabs' digestive tract was enumerated after dissection of live individuals. Ingestion and egestion rates (in terms of dry weight) were highest, while the assimilation efficiency was poorest for crabs fed on brown leaves. The low assimilation efficiency was more than counteracted by the high ingestion rate providing more carbon for growth than for crabs fed green and yellow leaves. In any case, the results show that all types of leaves can provide adequate carbon while nitrogen was insufficient to support both maintenance (yellow leaves) and growth (green, yellow and brown leaves). Leaf-eating crabs must therefore obtain supplementary nitrogen by other means in order to meet their nitrogen requirement. Three hypotheses were evaluated: (1) crabs supplement their diet with bacteria and benthic microalgae by ingesting own faeces and/or selective grazing at the sediment surface; (2) assimilation of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the crabs' own intestinal system; and (3) nitrogen storage following occasional feeding on animal tissues (e.g. meiofauna and carcasses). It appears that hypothesis 1 is of limited importance for N. versicolor since faeces and sediment can only supply a minor fraction of the missing nitrogen due to physical constraints on the amount of material the crabs can consume. Hypothesis 2 can be ruled out because tests showed no nitrogen fixation activity in the intestinal system of N. versicolor. It is therefore likely that leaf-eating crabs provide most of their nitrogen requirement from intracellular deposits

  17. Effects of nitrogen composition on fermentation performance of brewer's yeast and the absorption of peptides with different molecular weights.

    PubMed

    Mo, Fen; Zhao, Haifeng; Lei, Hongjie; Zhao, Mouming

    2013-11-01

    Four kinds of worts with different nitrogen compositions were used to examine their effects on fermentation performance of brewer's yeast. The absorption pattern of peptides with different molecular weights (Mw) in yeast cells during wort fermentation was also investigated. Results showed that both the nitrogen composition and level had significant impacts on the yeast biomass accumulation, ethanol production, and free amino nitrogen and sugars consumption rates. Worts supplemented with wheat gluten hydrolysates increased 11.5% of the biomass, 5.9% of fermentability, and 0.6% of ethanol content and decreased 25.6% of residual sugar content during wort fermentation. Moreover, yeast cells assimilated peptides with various Mw differently during fermentation. Peptides with Mw below 1 kDa decreased quickly, and the rate of assimilation was more than 50% at the end of fermentation, while those with Mw above 10 kDa almost could not be assimilated by yeast. All these results further indicated that the level and composition of wort nitrogen had significant impacts on the growth and fermentation performances of brewer's yeast, and peptides with Mw below 1 kDa were one of preferred nitrogen sources for brewer's yeast. PMID:23955296

  18. The Fluorescent Properties of Dissolved Organic Matter and Assessment of Total Nitrogen in Overlying Water with Different Dissolved Oxygen Conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang Hua; Kuan, Wang; Song, Jian; Zhang, Yong; Huang, Ming; Huang, Jian; Zhu, Jing; Huang, Shan; Wang, Meng

    2016-03-01

    This paper used excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMs) to probe the fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the overlying water with different dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions, investigating the relationship between protein-like fluorescence intensity and total nitrogen concentration. The resulting fluorescence spectra revealed three protein-like components (high-excitation wavelength tyrosine, low-excitation wavelength tyrosine, low-excitation wavelength tryptophan) and two fulvic-like components (ultraviolet fulvic-like components, visible fulvic-like components) in the overlying water. Moreover, the protein-like components were dominant in the overlying water's DOM. The fluorescence intensity of the protein-like components decreased significantly after aeration. Two of the protein-like components--the low-excitation wavelength tyrosine and the low-excitation wavelength tryptophan--were more susceptible to degradation by microorganisms within the degradable organic matter with respect to the high-excitation wavelength tyrosine. In contrast, the ultraviolet and visible fulvic-like fluorescence intensity increased along with increasing DO concentration, indicating that the fulvic-like components were part of the refractory organics. The fluorescence indices of the DOM in the overlying water were between 1.65-1.80, suggesting that the sources of the DOM were related to terrigenous sediments and microbial metabolic processes, with the primary source being the contribution from microbial metabolism. The fluorescence indices increased along with DO growth, which showed that microbial biomass and microbial activity gradually increased with increasing DO while microbial metabolism also improved, which also increased the biogenic components in the overlying water. The fluorescence intensity of the high-excitation wavelength tyrosine peak A showed a good linear relationship with the total nitrogen concentration at higher DO concentrations of 2

  19. Improved finite-difference vibration analysis of pretwisted, tapered beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.

    1984-01-01

    An improved finite difference procedure based upon second order central differences is developed. Several difficulties encountered in earlier works with fictitious stations that arise in using second order central differences, are eliminated by developing certain recursive relations. The need for forward or backward differences at the beam boundaries or other similar procedures is eliminated in the present theory. By using this improved theory, the vibration characteristics of pretwisted and tapered blades are calculated. Results of the second order theory are compared with published theoretical and experimental results and are found to be in good agreement. The present method generally produces close lower bound solutions and shows fast convergence. Thus, extrapolation procedures that are customary with first order finite-difference methods are unnecessary. Furthermore, the computational time and effort needed for this improved method are almost the same as required for the conventional first order finite-difference approach.

  20. Developmental changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism affect tea quality in different leaf position.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Xin; Yang, Wei-Jun; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Shen, Chen; Yan, Peng; Li, Xin; Han, Wen-Yan

    2016-09-01

    Leaf position represents a specific developmental stage that influences both photosynthesis and respiration. However, the precise relationships between photosynthesis and respiration in different leaf position that affect tea quality are largely unknown. Here, we show that the effective quantum yield of photosystem II [ΦPSⅡ] as well as total chlorophyll concentration (TChl) of tea leaves increased gradually with leaf maturity. Moreover, respiration rate (RR) together with total nitrogen concentration (TN) decreased persistently, but total carbon remained unchanged during leaf maturation. Analyses of major N-based organic compounds revealed that decrease in TN was attributed to a significant decrease in the concentration of caffeine and amino acids (AA) in mature leaves. Furthermore, soluble sugar (SS) decreased, but starch concentration increased with leaf maturity, indicating that source-sink relationship was altered during tea leaf development. Detailed correlation analysis showed that ΦPSⅡ was negatively correlated with RR, SS, starch, tea polyphenol (TP), total catechins and TN, but positively correlated with TChl; while RR was positively correlated with TN, SS, TP and caffeine, but negatively correlated with TChl and starch concentrations. Our results suggest that biosynthesis of chlorophyll, catechins and polyphenols is closely associated with photosynthesis and respiration in different leaf position that greatly influences the relationship between primary and secondary metabolism in tea plants. PMID:27380366

  1. Preference for different inorganic nitrogen forms among plant functional types and species of the Patagonian steppe.

    PubMed

    Gherardi, Laureano A; Sala, Osvaldo E; Yahdjian, Laura

    2013-11-01

    We have explored species-specific preferences for nitrate (NO3(-)) and ammonium (NH4(+)) as an alternative niche separation in ecosystems where nitrogen (N) is present mostly in inorganic forms. The Patagonian steppe is dominated by shrubs and grasses. Shrubs absorb water and nutrients from deep soil layers, which are poor in N, while grasses have the opposite pattern, absorbing most of their water and nutrients from the upper layers of the soil. We hypothesized that the preferences of shrub and grass for inorganic N forms are different and that the rate of potential N uptake is greater in shrubs than in grasses. To test this hypothesis, we grew individuals of six dominant species in solutions of different NH4(+):NO3(-) concentration ratios. Nitrate uptake was found to be higher in shrubs, while ammonium uptake was similar between plant functional types. The NH4(+):NO3(-) uptake ratio was significantly lower for shrubs than grasses. Shrubs, which under field conditions have deeper rooting systems than grasses, showed a higher N absorption capacity than grasses and a preference for the more mobile N form, nitrate. Grasses, which had lower N uptake rates than shrubs, preferred ammonium over nitrate. These complementary patterns between grasses and shrubs suggest a more thorough exploitation of resources by diverse ecosystems than those dominated by just one functional type. The loss of one plant functional group or a significant change in its abundance would therefore represent a reduction in resource use efficiency and ecosystem functioning. PMID:23812108

  2. Thrust Performance Improvement for a Water/Liquid Nitrogen Rocket Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Rikio; Mikami, Ryo

    We propose a water/liquid nitrogen rocket engine as a new non-combustion type rocket engine. Liquid nitrogen is mixed with heated water and specific volume of nitrogen is increased by evaporation. Thrust force is obtained by exhaust of nitrogen gas through a nozzle with water particles. Results of previous experiments indicated a specific impulse is 60 % of the theoretically estimated value. By evaluating the characteristic exhaust velocity and other thrust characteristics, we found that the lower-than-expected specific impulse is due to insufficient propellant mixing and heat transfer between heated water and liquid nitrogen in the mixing chamber. We also performed high-speed imaging experiments to visualize impinging and mixing of propellants. Results indicate that in the original injection setup, heat conveyed by heated water is not adequately transferred to the liquid nitrogen. An alternative injection pattern was tested, which resulted in a 10% increase in the characteristic exhaust velocity. In addition, we tested a new type of injector designed for more efficient mixing and heat transfer that exhibited 30 % increase in characteristic exhaust velocity. Furthermore, we modified the theoretical expression for the characteristic exhaust velocity based on multi-phased flow theory so that it agrees well with the experimental results.

  3. Policies for agricultural nitrogen management—trends, challenges and prospects for improved efficiency in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalgaard, Tommy; Hansen, Birgitte; Hasler, Berit; Hertel, Ole; Hutchings, Nicholas J.; Jacobsen, Brian H.; Stoumann Jensen, Lars; Kronvang, Brian; Olesen, Jørgen E.; Schjørring, Jan K.; Sillebak Kristensen, Ib; Graversgaard, Morten; Termansen, Mette; Vejre, Henrik

    2014-11-01

    With more than 60% of the land farmed, with vulnerable freshwater and marine environments, and with one of the most intensive, export-oriented livestock sectors in the world, the nitrogen (N) pollution pressure from Danish agriculture is severe. Consequently, a series of policy action plans have been implemented since the mid 1980s with significant effects on the surplus, efficiency and environmental loadings of N. This paper reviews the policies and actions taken and their ability to mitigate effects of reactive N (Nr) while maintaining agricultural production. In summary, the average N-surplus has been reduced from approximately 170 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to below 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1 during the past 30 yrs, while the overall N-efficiency for the agricultural sector (crop + livestock farming) has increased from around 20-30% to 40-45%, the N-leaching from the field root zone has been halved, and N losses to the aquatic and atmospheric environment have been significantly reduced. This has been achieved through a combination of approaches and measures (ranging from command and control legislation, over market-based regulation and governmental expenditure to information and voluntary action), with specific measures addressing the whole N cascade, in order to improve the quality of ground- and surface waters, and to reduce the deposition to terrestrial natural ecosystems. However, there is still a major challenge in complying with the EU Water Framework and Habitats Directives, calling for new approaches, measures and technologies to mitigate agricultural N losses and control N flows.

  4. Stoichiometric Characteristics of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus in Leaves of Differently Aged Lucerne (Medicago sativa) Stands

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhennan; Lu, Jiaoyun; Yang, Mei; Yang, Huimin; Zhang, Qingping

    2015-01-01

    Element concentration within a plant which is vital to function maintenance and adaptation to environment, may change with plant growth. However, how carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) vary stoichiometrically with stand growth, i.e., ages or cuts, was still untouched in perennial species. This study tested the hypothesis that lucerne (Medicago sativa) C:N, C:P, and N:P should change with stand age and cut. Leaf C:N, C:P, and N:P changed with stand age, showing various trends in different cuts of lucerne. Generally the greatest stoichiometric ratios were measured in 8 year stand and in the second cut. They were affected significantly and negatively by total N and P concentrations of leaf, but not by organic C concentration. There were significantly positive correlations among leaf C:N, C:P, and N:P. However, leaf C:N, C:P, and N:P were hardly affected by soil features. Conclusively, lucerne C, N, and P stoichiometry are age- and cut-specific, and regulated mainly by leaf N, P concentrations and stoichiometry. There are few correlations with soil fertility. To our knowledge, it is the first try to elucidate the stoichiometry in the viewpoint of age and cut with a perennial herbaceous legume. PMID:26697029

  5. [Application of Hyperspectral Imaging for Visualization of Nitrogen Content in Pepper Leaf with Different Positions].

    PubMed

    Yu, Ke-qiang; Zhao, Yan-ru; Li, Xiao-li; Ding, Xi-bin; Zhuang, Zai-chun; He, Yong

    2015-03-01

    In order to estimate pepper plant growth rapidly and accurately, hyperspectral imaging technology combined with chemometrics methods were employed to realize visualization of nitrogen content (NC) distribution. First, pepper leaves were picked up with the leaf number based on different leaf positions, and hyperspectral data of these leaves were acquired. Then, SPAD and NC value of leaves were measured, respectively. After acquirement of pepper leaves' spectral information, random-frog (RF) algorithm was chosen to extract characteristic wavelengths. Finally, five characteristic wavelengths were selected respectively, and then those characteristic wavelengths and full spectra were used to establish partial least squares regression (PLSR) models, respectively. As a result, SPAD predicted model had an excellent performance of R(C) = 0.970, R(CV) = 0.965, R(P) = 0.934, meanwhile evaluation parameters of NC predicted model were R(C) = 0.857, R(CV) = 0.806, R(P) = 0.839. Lastly, according to the optimal models, SPAD and NC of each pixel in hyperspectral images of pepper leaves were calculated and their distribution was mapped. In fact, SPAD in plant can reflect the NC. In this research, the change trend of both was similar, so the conclusions of this research were proved to be corrected. The results revealed that it was feasible to apply hyperspectral imaging technology for mapping SPAD and NC in pepper leaf, which provided a theoretical foundation for monitoring plant growth and distribution of nutrients. PMID:26117891

  6. Modelling of in-stream nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations using different sampling strategies for calibration data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomaa, Seifeddine; Jiang, Sanyuan; Yang, Xiaoqiang; Rode, Michael

    2016-04-01

    It is known that a good evaluation and prediction of surface water pollution is mainly limited by the monitoring strategy and the capability of the hydrological water quality model to reproduce the internal processes. To this end, a compromise sampling frequency, which can reflect the dynamical behaviour of leached nutrient fluxes responding to changes in land use, agriculture practices and point sources, and appropriate process-based water quality model are required. The objective of this study was to test the identification of hydrological water quality model parameters (nitrogen and phosphorus) under two different monitoring strategies: (1) regular grab-sampling approach and (2) regular grab-sampling with additional monitoring during the hydrological events using automatic samplers. First, the semi-distributed hydrological water quality HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment) model was successfully calibrated (1994-1998) for discharge (NSE = 0.86), nitrate-N (lowest NSE for nitrate-N load = 0.69), particulate phosphorus and soluble phosphorus in the Selke catchment (463 km2, central Germany) for the period 1994-1998 using regular grab-sampling approach (biweekly to monthly for nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations). Second, the model was successfully validated during the period 1999-2010 for discharge, nitrate-N, particulate-phosphorus and soluble-phosphorus (lowest NSE for soluble phosphorus load = 0.54). Results, showed that when additional sampling during the events with random grab-sampling approach was used (period 2011-2013), the hydrological model could reproduce only the nitrate-N and soluble phosphorus concentrations reasonably well. However, when additional sampling during the hydrological events was considered, the HYPE model could not represent the measured particulate phosphorus. This reflects the importance of suspended sediment during the hydrological events increasing the concentrations of particulate phosphorus. The HYPE model could

  7. Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in mesocosms of five different European peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blodau, Christian; Zajac, Katarzyna

    2015-04-01

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition, a key growth limiting nutrient in ombrotrophic peatlands, can cause various shifts in peatland N cycling. Quantification of N transformation rates and fluxes within peatlands that are induced by long-term N deposition is crucial for understanding the mechanisms and robustness of N retention. Using a 15N labeled tracer under steady state conditions at two water table levels, we investigated the fate of N in mesocosms from five European peatlands, which have a history of differing long-term N load. Peat contained the largest N pool, followed by Sphagnum (0 - 5 cm), shrubs, graminoids and the dissolved pool. We found a decline of N recovery from the peat and an increase of N recovery from shrubs and the dissolved pool across the N deposition gradient. Sphagnum mosses not only intercepted large amounts of 15N in the mesocosms (0.2 - 0.35 mg g-1) but they also retained the tracer most effectively relative to their biomass. Polluted sites (Lille Vildmose, Frölichshaier Sattelmoor) contained the largest dissolved nitrogen pools and the highest nitrate concentrations. At the same time the recoveries of their Sphagnum pools were in the range of the recovery recorded for the Sphagnum layer from the 'clean' site (Degerö Stormyr). Our experiment shows that a decline in N retention at levels above ca. 1.5 g m-2 yr-1, as expressed by elevated near-surface peat N content and increased dissolved N concentrations, might not be an evidence for Sphagnum saturation. As long as N is required for the synthesis of biomass Sphagnum species can thrive even at strongly elevated long-term N loads. A change in WT position from -28 to -8 cm influenced CO2 fluxes from mesocosms only to a small degree, which implies that small changes in water table position may be less important in controlling CO2 exchange with the atmosphere than often assumed. Although water table rise was a main driver for increase of methane emissions in all cores, short time lags (3

  8. Growth and nutrient removal properties of the diatoms, Chaetoceros curvisetus and C. simplex under different nitrogen sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthikeyan, Panneerselvam; Manimaran, Kuppusamy; Sampathkumar, Pitchai; Rameshkumar, Lakshmanan

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the suitability of the marine diatoms, Chaetoceros curvisetus and C. simplex for the removal of macronutrients from different wastewater, the growth and nitrate-phosphate removal properties were studied with nitrate, ammonium and urea nitrogen sources. Three separate experiments were conducted using modified F/2 medium with 12.35 mg L-1 total nitrogen and 1.12 mg L-1 total phosphorous (simulating the typical concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus in secondary effluent) as growth medium. The maximum cell densities of C. curvisetus and C. simplex were 7.16 ± 0.34 × 104 cells mL-1 in {{NO}}3^{ - } and 3.88 ± 0.32 × 105 cells mL-1 in urea, respectively. The maximum chlorophyll a per cell was 1.7 and 4.7 pg for C. simplex and C. curvisetus, cultured with urea and nitrate, respectively. The high protein contents of 4.7 pg cell-1 in C. simplex with urea and 19.7 pg cell-1 in C. curvisetus nitrate nitrogen sources were found. The higher cell density and protein content of both species from urea and nitrate nitrogen sources ( p < 0.05) have shown that these were utilized by microalgae and were converted to protein. The C. simplex and C. curvisetus showed maximum removal efficiencies of nitrate by 97.86 and 91.62 % and phosphate by 98.5 and 100 %, respectively when urea used as nitrogen source than ammonia. The results indicated the C. simplex was more efficient than C. curvisetus and suitable for the removal of macronutrients when cultured with urea and nitrate nitrogen sources.

  9. Physiological Effects of GLT1 Modulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Growing on Different Nitrogen Sources.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Marco; Adamo, Giusy Manuela; Frascotti, Gianni; Porro, Danilo; Branduardi, Paola

    2016-02-28

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is one of the most employed cell factories for the production of bioproducts. Although monomeric hexose sugars constitute the preferential carbon source, this yeast can grow on a wide variety of nitrogen sources that are catabolized through central nitrogen metabolism (CNM). To evaluate the effects of internal perturbations on nitrogen utilization, we characterized strains deleted or overexpressed in GLT1, encoding for one of the key enzymes of the CNM node, the glutamate synthase. These strains, together with the parental strain as control, have been cultivated in minimal medium formulated with ammonium sulfate, glutamate, or glutamine as nitrogen source. Growth kinetics, together with the determination of protein content, viability, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation at the single cell level, revealed that GLT1 modulations do not significantly influence the cellular physiology, whereas the nitrogen source does. As important exceptions, GLT1 deletion negatively affected the scavenging activity of glutamate against ROS accumulation, when cells were treated with H2O2, whereas Glt1p overproduction led to lower viability in glutamine medium. Overall, this confirms the robustness of the CNM node against internal perturbations, but, at the same time, highlights its plasticity in respect to the environment. Considering that side-stream protein-rich waste materials are emerging as substrates to be used in an integrated biorefinery, these results underline the importance of preliminarily evaluating the best nitrogen source not only for media formulation, but also for the overall economics of the process. PMID:26528537

  10. Removal of oxygen demand and nitrogen using different particle-sizes of anthracite coated with nine kinds of LDHs for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangling; Guo, Lu; Wang, Yafen; Ruan, Congying

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the application of anthracite particles of different sizes and coated with nine kinds of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) varying in M(II)-M(III) cations, as alternative substrates in the simulated vertical-flow constructed wetland columns. Effects of LDHs-coating and particle size of modified anthracites were examined to evaluate their abilities in removing oxygen demand and nitrogen from sewage wastewater. Results showed that LDHs modification effectively enhanced the removal of nitrogen and organics. The removal efficiencies of total nitrogen (TN) , ammonia and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were best improved by 28.5%, 11.9% and 4.1% for the medium particle size (1-3 mm), followed by 9.2%, 5.5% and 13.6% for the large size (3-5 mm), respectively. Only TN removal was improved up to 16.6% for the small particle size (0.5-1 mm). Nitrate tended to accumulate and fluctuate greatly across all the treatments, probably due to the dominancy of aerobic condition in the vertical-flow columns. Overall, MgFe-LDHs was selected as the best-modified coating for anthracite. The results suggested LDHs modification would be one of the promising strategies to provide new-types of highly efficient and lasting wetland substrates. PMID:26456850

  11. Removal of oxygen demand and nitrogen using different particle-sizes of anthracite coated with nine kinds of LDHs for wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangling; Guo, Lu; Wang, Yafen; Ruan, Congying

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the application of anthracite particles of different sizes and coated with nine kinds of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) varying in MII-MIII cations, as alternative substrates in the simulated vertical-flow constructed wetland columns. Effects of LDHs-coating and particle size of modified anthracites were examined to evaluate their abilities in removing oxygen demand and nitrogen from sewage wastewater. Results showed that LDHs modification effectively enhanced the removal of nitrogen and organics. The removal efficiencies of total nitrogen (TN) , ammonia and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were best improved by 28.5%, 11.9% and 4.1% for the medium particle size (1-3 mm), followed by 9.2%, 5.5% and 13.6% for the large size (3-5 mm), respectively. Only TN removal was improved up to 16.6% for the small particle size (0.5-1 mm). Nitrate tended to accumulate and fluctuate greatly across all the treatments, probably due to the dominancy of aerobic condition in the vertical-flow columns. Overall, MgFe-LDHs was selected as the best-modified coating for anthracite. The results suggested LDHs modification would be one of the promising strategies to provide new-types of highly efficient and lasting wetland substrates.

  12. Use of a nitrogen-argon plasma to improve adherence of sputtered titanium carbide coatings on steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainard, W. A.; Wheeler, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Friction and wear experiments on 440-C steel surfaces that had been RF-sputtered with titanium carbide when a small percentage of nitrogen was added to the plasma were conducted. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to analyze the resultant coatings. Results indicate that a small partial pressure of nitrogen (about 0.5%) markedly improves the adherence, friction, and wear properties when compared with coatings applied on sputter-etched oxidized surfaces or in the presence of a small oxygen partial pressure. The improvements are related to the formation of an interface containing a mixture of the nitrides of titanium and iron, which are harder than their corresponding oxides.

  13. The Impacts of Different Meteorology Data Sets on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the SWAT Watershed Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we investigated how different meteorology data sets impacts nitrogen fate and transport responses in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. We used two meteorology data sets: National Climatic Data Center (observed) and Mesoscale Model 5/Weather Research ...

  14. Short-Term Nitrogen Transformations Associated with Soil Aggregates and Microbial Community Composition in Three Different Tillage Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying soil nitrogen transformation processes associated with soil aggregates is noteworthy as microbial communities central to N cycle reside in the soil aggregates of different sizes. The objective of this investigation was to determine both the rates of ammonium production and consumption pr...

  15. Tomato response to legume cover crop and nitrogen: differing enhancement patterns of fruit yield, photosynthesis and gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomatoes responded to soil and residue from a hairy vetch cover crop differently on many levels than tomato response to inorganic nitrogen. Tomato fruit production, plant biomass parameters, and photosynthesis were higher in plants grown in vetch than bare soil. Tomato growth and photosynthesis metr...

  16. OPPORTUNITIES IN NITROGEN MANAGEMENT RESEARCH; IMPROVING APPLICATIONS FOR PROVEN TECHNOLOGIES AND IDENTIFYING NEW TOOLS FOR MANAGING NITROGEN FLUX AND INPUT IN ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence and distribution of undesirable quantities of bioavailable nitrogenous compounds in the environment are issues of long-standing concern. Importantly for us today, deleterious effects associated with high levels of nitrogen in the ecosystem are becoming everyday news...

  17. Biological nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) removal from municipal wastewater using different variations of the activated sludge process

    SciTech Connect

    Munirathinam, K.

    1986-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to obtain operation and design information necessary for the successful functioning of municipal wastewater treatment plants to accomplish carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal. Investigations were carried out on continuous flow bench-scale pilot systems using municipal wastewater. The continuous flow studies involved a one-stage nitrifying system, a three-stage nitrifying-denitrifying system, and a combined biological nitrogen-phosphorus removal system. The first two systems were operated simultaneously. These systems were operated under different sludge retention times and food-to-microorganism ratios. The hydraulic flow rates were carefully controlled throughout all experiments. These data were then used to evaluate the systems for organics, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal.

  18. Suitable strategy to improve nitrogen utilization and reduce the environmental impact of Nellore bulls supplemented on tropical pasture.

    PubMed

    Jose Neto, A; Zervoudakis, J T; da Silva-Marques, R P; Silva, L C R P; Hatamoto-Zervoudakis, L K; Klopfenstein, T J

    2016-03-01

    Expansion of the biodiesel industry has increased the crude glycerin (CG) supply. Crude glycerin has the potential of replacing corn in ruminant diets because the glycerol can be converted to glucose in the liver of ruminants, providing energy for cellular metabolism. The objective was to evaluate the effects of CG with urea, soybean meal, cottonseed meal, and corn gluten feed, respectively, on intake, digestibility, microbial protein yield, and efficiency of N utilization. Five Nellore bulls (initial BW of 448 kg [SD 14]) grazing tropical pasture were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The supplements were control (no supplementation; only free-choice mineral mixture ad libitum), CG with urea (CG-Urea), CG with soybean meal, CG with cottonseed meal, and CG with corn gluten. Crude glycerin was used in all supplements to replace corn (15% of DM supplement). There were differences between CG-Urea and other supplements with regard to intake of DM (% of BW and total; < 0.01), OM ( < 0.01), CP ( < 0.01), and TDN ( < 0.01). The digestibility of CP was greater ( = 0.04) for animals supplemented with CG-Urea than for those fed other supplements. Animals supplemented with CG-Urea showed greater N intake ( < 0.01) and N ammonia ( = 0.04) than those supplemented with other treatments. Nitrogen retained (g/d) was not affected by protein source but was greater for cattle fed a protein supplement compared with cattle fed the control supplement ( < 0.01). Supplementing the animals with protein sources increased ( = 0.02) the daily production of rumen microbial nitrogen (g/d) compared with the control group. Microbial protein (g/d) was lesser for the control than for protein sources ( = 0.02). However, when expressed relative to TDN ( = 0.35) and CP ( = 0.82), there were no differences across treatments. Crude protein intake per digestible OM intake (g CP/kg digestible OM intake) was greater for animals fed protein sources compared with animals fed control supplements ( < 0

  19. Nitrogen Index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to improve the management of nitrogen inputs to agricultural systems because they increase the potential for losses of reactive nitrogen to the environment, resulting in negative impacts to water and air resources. There is a need to reduce nitrate leaching, emissions of N2O from agr...

  20. Improvement in nitrogen fixation capacity could be part of the domestication process in soybean.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, N; Qi, X; Li, M-W; Xie, M; Gao, Y; Cheung, M-Y; Wong, F-L; Lam, H-M

    2016-08-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) in soybeans is a complex process involving the interplay between the plant host and the symbiotic rhizobia. As nitrogen supply has a crucial role in growth and development, higher nitrogen fixation capacity would be important to achieve bigger plants and larger seeds, which were important selection criteria during plant domestication by humans. To test this hypothesis, we monitored the nitrogen fixation-related performance in 31 cultivated and 17 wild soybeans after inoculation with the slow-growing Bradyrhizobium diazoefficiens sp. nov. USDA110 and the fast-growing Sinorhizobium (Ensifer) fredii CCBAU45436. Our results showed that, in general, cultivated soybeans gave better performance in BNF. Electron microscopic studies indicated that there was an exceptionally high accumulation of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate bodies in bacteroids in the nodules of all wild soybeans tested, suggesting that the C/N balance in wild soybeans may not be optimized for nitrogen fixation. Furthermore, we identified new quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for total ureides and total nodule fresh weight by employing a recombinant inbred population composed of descendants from a cross between a cultivated and a wild parent. Using nucleotide diversity (θπ), divergence index (Fst) and distribution of fixed single-nucleotide polymorphisms as parameters, we found that some regions in the total ureides QTL on chromosome 17 and the total nodule fresh weight QTL on chromosome 12 exhibited very low diversity among cultivated soybeans, suggesting that these were traits specially selected during the domestication and breeding process. PMID:27118154

  1. Carbon cost of plant nitrogen acquisition: global carbon cycle impact from an improved plant nitrogen cycle in the Community Land Model.

    PubMed

    Shi, Mingjie; Fisher, Joshua B; Brzostek, Edward R; Phillips, Richard P

    2016-03-01

    Plants typically expend a significant portion of their available carbon (C) on nutrient acquisition - C that could otherwise support growth. However, given that most global terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) do not include the C cost of nutrient acquisition, these models fail to represent current and future constraints to the land C sink. Here, we integrated a plant productivity-optimized nutrient acquisition model - the Fixation and Uptake of Nitrogen Model - into one of the most widely used TBMs, the Community Land Model. Global plant nitrogen (N) uptake is dynamically simulated in the coupled model based on the C costs of N acquisition from mycorrhizal roots, nonmycorrhizal roots, N-fixing microbes, and retranslocation (from senescing leaves). We find that at the global scale, plants spend 2.4 Pg C yr(-1) to acquire 1.0 Pg N yr(-1) , and that the C cost of N acquisition leads to a downregulation of global net primary production (NPP) by 13%. Mycorrhizal uptake represented the dominant pathway by which N is acquired, accounting for ~66% of the N uptake by plants. Notably, roots associating with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi - generally considered for their role in phosphorus (P) acquisition - are estimated to be the primary source of global plant N uptake owing to the dominance of AM-associated plants in mid- and low-latitude biomes. Overall, our coupled model improves the representations of NPP downregulation globally and generates spatially explicit patterns of belowground C allocation, soil N uptake, and N retranslocation at the global scale. Such model improvements are critical for predicting how plant responses to altered N availability (owing to N deposition, rising atmospheric CO2 , and warming temperatures) may impact the land C sink. PMID:26473512

  2. Removal of nitrogen in different wetland filter materials: use of stable nitrogen isotopes to determine factors controlling denitrification and DNRA.

    PubMed

    Mørkved, P T; Søvik, A K; Kløve, B; Bakken, L R

    2005-01-01

    Laboratory incubations with varying O2 and NO3 concentrations were performed with a range of filter materials used in constructed wetlands (CWs). The study included material sampled from functioning CWs as well as raw materials subjected to laboratory pre-incubation. 15N-tracer techniques were used to assess the rates of denitrification versus dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), and the relative role of nitrification versus denitrification in producing N2O. The N2O/(N2 + N2O) product ratio was assessed for the different materials. Sand, shell sand, and peat sustained high rates of denitrification. Raw light-weight aggregates (LWA) had a very low rate, while in LWA sampled from a functioning CW, the rate was similar to the one found in the other materials. The N2O/(N2 + N2O) ratio was very low for sand, shell sand and LWA from functioning CWs, but very high for raw LWA. The ratio was intermediate but variable for peat. The N2O produced by nitrification accounted for a significant percentage of the N2O accumulated during the incubation, but was dependent on the initial oxygen concentration. DNRA was significant only for shell sand taken from a functioning CW, suggesting that the establishment of active DNRA is a slower process than the establishment of a denitrifying flora. PMID:16042244

  3. VARYING STABLE NITROGEN ISOTOPIC RATIOS OF DIFFERENT COASTAL MARSH PLANTS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIPS WITH WASTEWATER NITROGEN AND LAND USE IN NEW ENGLAND, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stable nitrogen isotopic ratios of coastal biota have been used as indicators of sources of anthropogenic nitrogen. In this study the relationships of the stable nitrogen isotopic ratios of salt marsh plants, Iva frutescens (L.), Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin ex Steud, Spar...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED CATALYSTS FOR THE SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION OF NITROGEN OXIDES WITH HYDROCARBONS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Ates Akyurtlu; Dr. Jale F. Akyurtlu

    2001-05-31

    Significant work has been done by the investigators on the cerium oxide-copper oxide based sorbent/catalysts for the combined removal of sulfur and nitrogen oxides from the flue gases of stationary sources. A relatively wide temperature window was established for the use of alumina-supported cerium oxide-copper oxide mixtures as regenerable sorbents for SO{sub 2} removal. Preliminary evaluation of these sorbents as catalysts for the selective reduction of NO{sub x} gave promising results with ammonia, but indicated low selectivity when methane was used as the reductant. Since the replacement of ammonia by another reductant is commercially very attractive, in this project, four research components will be undertaken. The investigation of the reaction mechanism, the first component, will help in the selection of promoters to improve the catalytic activity and selectivity of the sorbents in the SCR with methane. This will result in new catalyst formulations (second component). If this research is successful, the combined SO{sub 2}-NO{sub x} removal process based on alumina-supported copper oxide-ceria sorbent/catalysts will become very attractive for commercial applications. The objective of the third component of the project is to develop an alternative SCR process using another inexpensive fuel, residual fuel oil, instead of natural gas. This innovative proposal is based on very scant evidence concerning the good performance of coked catalysts in the selective reduction of NO and if proven to work the process will certainly be commercially viable. The fourth component of the project involves our industrial partner TDA Research, and the objective is to evaluate long-term stability and durability of the prepared sorbent/catalysts. In the first year of the project, the catalysts were investigated by the temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) technique. The results from TPR indicated that the interaction with support appears to promote reduction at lower temperatures

  5. Can Crops with Greater Rooting Systems Improve Nitrogen Retention and Mitigate Emissions of Nitrous Oxide?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decock, Charlotte; Lee, Juhwan; Barthel, Matti; Mikita, Chris; Wilde, Benjamin; Verhoeven, Elizabeth; Hund, Andreas; Abiven, Samuel; Friedli, Cordula; Conen, Franz; Mohn, Joachim; Wolf, Benjamin; Six, Johan

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that crops with deeper root systems could improve agricultural sustainability, because scavenging of nitrogen (N) in the subsoil would increase overall N retention and use efficiency in the system. However, the effect of plant root depth and root architecture on N-leaching and emissions of the potent greenhouse N2O remains largely unknown. We aimed to assess the effect of plant rooting depth on N-cycling and N2O production and reduction within the plant-soil system and throughout the soil profile. We hypothesized that greater root depth and root biomass will (1) increase N use efficiency and decrease N losses in the form of N leaching and N2O emissions; (2) increase N retention by shifting the fate of NH4+ from more nitrification toward more plant uptake and microbial immobilization; and (3) increase the depth of maximum N2O production and decrease the ratio of N2O:(N2O+N2) in denitrification end-products. To test these hypotheses, 4 winter wheat cultivars were grown in lysimeters (1.5 m tall, 0.5 m diameter, 3 replications per cultivar) under greenhouse conditions. Each lysimeter was equipped with an automated flux chamber for the determination of N2O surface fluxes. At 7.5, 30, 60, 90 and 120 cm depth, sampling ports were installed for the determination of soil moisture contents, as well as the collection of soil pore air and soil pore water samples. We selected two older and two newer varieties from the Swiss winter wheat breeding program, spanning a 100-year breeding history. The selection was based on previous experiments indicating that the older varieties have deeper rooting systems than the newer varieties under well watered conditions. N2O fluxes were determined twice per day on a quantum cascade laser absorption spectrometer interfaced with the automated flux chambers. Once per week, we determined concentrations of mineral N in pore water and of CO2 and N2O in the pore air. For mineral N and N2O, also natural abundance isotope deltas

  6. Changes in soil nitrogen and phosphorus under different broiler production systems.

    PubMed

    Kratz, Sylvia; Rogasik, Jutta; Schnug, Ewald

    2004-01-01

    In a field study, soils of four conventional free-range and organic broiler runs were analyzed for N and P concentrations in the years 2000 and 2001. Zones of different use intensity by broilers were identified on the free runs and mean zonal nutrient contents were compared with each other. Intensity of use by birds and spatial distribution of soil nutrient concentrations were found to be related to each other. Fecal N input by broilers resulted in accumulation of soil mineral nitrogen (N(min)) contents down to a 90-cm sampling depth. In highly frequented "hot spots," plant requirement as defined by the German "N-Basis-Sollwert" (110 kg/ha N(min)) for grassland was exceeded in all four cases. This implies an increased environmental risk of ammonia volatilization and nitrate leaching. Fecal P input by broilers resulted in accumulation of plant-available and thus mobile soil P (phosphorus extracted with calcium-acetate-lactate [P(CAL)] and phosphorus extracted with water [P(w)]) in the most intensely used zones. In these areas, soil P contents exceeded 90 mg/kg P(CAL) (upper limit of soil test P defined in Germany for optimum plant yield) by as much as 217 mg/kg, which indicates an enhanced risk of P loss from the soil via runoff or leaching. The conclusion might be drawn that, with regard to nutrient loss from free-run soils, intensive indoor production in a closed system may be more environmentally neutral than conventional free-range or organic production. However, to put this into perspective, the scope of the environmental risk connected with spatially limited point accumulation of nutrients should be considered. Furthermore, an environmental evaluation must also account for the fate and environmental effects of the broiler litter produced inside the broiler house. PMID:15356226

  7. Multiple leaf measurements improve effectiveness of the cholorophyll meter in drum wheat nitrogen management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simple and rapid methods are needed to measure durum wheat (Triticum durum L.) nitrogen (N) status and make on-site N application decisions for increased crop yield and grain quality. Although chlorophyll meters (SPAD meters) have been widely tested for cereal crop N management, significant variatio...

  8. Public-private partnering for improving performance of corn nitrogen fertilization tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen fertilization for corn production is complicated by soil and weather variability, yet such has far-reaching economic and environmental implications. To address this challenge, alternative N management strategies have been explored extensively in recent years for determining the most consist...

  9. Improved Canopy Sensor-based Corn Nitrogen Recommendations Using Auxiliary Information

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nitrogen (N) supplying capacity of the soil available to support corn (Zea mays L.) production can be highly variable both among and within fields. Thus, the amount of N fertilizer applied should be site-specific and also climate-sensitive. In recent years, canopy reflectance sensing has been in...

  10. Improving Yield and Nutrient Uptake Potentials of japonica and indica Rice Varieties with Nitrogen Fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most important problem in achieving high yields in rice is how to increase the nitrogen (N) absorption at each growth stage without reducing the percentage of ripened grains. Proper amount and timing of application could reduce N losses and increase fertilizer use efficiency while cost of produc...

  11. Integrating soil and weather information into canopy sensor algorithms for improved corn nitrogen rate recommendation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn production can be often limited by the loss of nitrogen (N) due to leaching, volatilization and denitrification. The use of canopy sensors for making in-season N fertilizer applications has been proven effective in matching plant N requirements with periods of rapid N uptake (V7-V11), reducing ...

  12. Use of GIS-based Site-specific Nitrogen Management for Improving Energy Efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To our knowledge, geographical information system (GIS)-based site-specific nitrogen management (SSNM) techniques have not been used to assess agricultural energy costs and efficiency. This chapter uses SSNM case studies for corn (Zea mays L.) grown in Missouri and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) gro...

  13. Future riverine nitrogen export to US coastal regions: Prospects for improving water quality considering population growth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess nitrogen (N) in the environment degrades ecosystems and adversely affects human health. Here we examine predictions of contemporary (2000) and future (2030) coastal N loading in the continental US by the Nutrient Export from WaterSheds (NEWS) model. Future output is from s...

  14. Future riverine nitrogen export to US coastal regions: Prospects for improving water quality amid population growth.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess nitrogen (N) in the environment degrades ecosystems and adversely affects human health. Here we examine predictions of contemporary (2000) and future (2030) coastal N loading in the continental US by the Nutrient Export from WaterSheds (NEWS) model. Future scenarios were b...

  15. Application of plant genomics for improved symbiotic nitrogen fixation in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because genome sequencing, transcript profiling, proteome analysis, metabolite profiling, mutant analysis, and comparative genomics have progressed at a logarithmic pace, we know more about the plant genes involved in symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) than could have been imagined a decade ago. Howe...

  16. Different Land Use Intensities in Grassland Ecosystems Drive Ecology of Microbial Communities Involved in Nitrogen Turnover in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Annabel; Focks, Andreas; Radl, Viviane; Keil, Daniel; Welzl, Gerhard; Schöning, Ingo; Boch, Steffen; Marhan, Sven; Kandeler, Ellen; Schloter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Understanding factors driving the ecology of N cycling microbial communities is of central importance for sustainable land use. In this study we report changes of abundance of denitrifiers, nitrifiers and nitrogen-fixing microorganisms (based on qPCR data for selected functional genes) in response to different land use intensity levels and the consequences for potential turnover rates. We investigated selected grassland sites being comparable with respect to soil type and climatic conditions, which have been continuously treated for many years as intensely used meadows (IM), intensely used mown pastures (IP) and extensively used pastures (EP), respectively. The obtained data were linked to above ground biodiversity pattern as well as water extractable fractions of nitrogen and carbon in soil. Shifts in land use intensity changed plant community composition from systems dominated by s-strategists in extensive managed grasslands to c-strategist dominated communities in intensive managed grasslands. Along the different types of land use intensity, the availability of inorganic nitrogen regulated the abundance of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers. In contrast, the amount of dissolved organic nitrogen determined the abundance of denitrifiers (nirS and nirK). The high abundance of nifH carrying bacteria at intensive managed sites gave evidence that the amounts of substrates as energy source outcompete the high availability of inorganic nitrogen in these sites. Overall, we revealed that abundance and function of microorganisms involved in key processes of inorganic N cycling (nitrification, denitrification and N fixation) might be independently regulated by different abiotic and biotic factors in response to land use intensity. PMID:24039974

  17. School Improvement in Practice: Schools Make a Difference Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Kate, Ed.

    When the Inner London Education Authority (ILEA) was disbanded in 1990, 13 separate education authorities were created in its place. Two years after its creation, in partnership with all of its secondary schools, one of the new LEAs initiated a school-improvement project to raise standards called Schools Make A Difference (SMAD). This book…

  18. Improving high temperature creep resistance of reduced activation steels by addition of nitrogen and intermediate heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. B.; Zhang, C.; Xia, Z. X.; Yang, Z. G.

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we report an enhanced high-temperature creep resistance in reduced activation ferrite/martensite (RAFM) steels, by introducing nitrogen (0.035 wt%, M3 steel) and employing a novel intermediate heat treatment I-Q-T (intermediate treatment, quenching and tempering). In comparison with all the control groups, the uniaxial tests of the I-Q-T treated M3 steel showed significant increase in rupture time and decrease in elongation. The microstructures of the samples were further characterized to elucidate the origin of the enhanced creep resistance. It is found that, by introducing nitrogen, the primary TaC particles were refined; by employing the I-Q-T heat treatment, the dispersed fine secondary MX precipitates, as well as the lath subgrains containing high-density dislocations, were increased: all are responsible for the improved creep resistance.

  19. Nitrogen Release in Different Soils Amended with Controlled-Release Fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) release from two controlled-release N fertilizers (CRNFs) (Arborite® and ESN®) and two traditional N fertilizers (urea [(NH2)2CO)] and ammonium urea nitrate (UAN) [(NH2)2CO, NH4NO3]) in three soil types of North Carolina was measured throughout a 12 week laboratory incubation. Treatment...

  20. Response of two wheat cultivars to supplemental nitrogen under different salinity stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of supplemental nitrogen (N), as either farmyard manure (FYM) or urea, on response of two wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars (a salt sensitive ‘Sakha 69’ and a salt tolerant ‘Sakha 93’) were investigated in a green house experiment under various salinity levels (control, 6, 9, or 12 dS m-1)...

  1. Response of 'Ranger Russet' Potato Cultivar to Different Soil Water Regimes and Nitrogen Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adequate availability of water and nitrogen (N) is important for production of high potato yields of high processing quality tubers. In this study, “Ranger Russet” potato cultivar was grown in a Quincy fine sand (mixed, mesic, Xeric Torripsamments) with Center Pivot irrigation in Columbia Basin pro...

  2. Nitrous oxide emissions from a golf course fairway and rough following application of different nitrogen fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas that destroys stratospheric ozone. There is limited research of golf course N2O emission and the effects of frequent fertilization and irrigation. Three enhanced efficiency nitrogen fertilizers (EENFs) were applied to a Colorado golf course fairway and ...

  3. Application of microbial inoculants as tools for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from different nitrogen fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) are increasing due to several factors, including increased use of nitrogen fertilizers. New management tools are needed to reduce N2O emissions from production agriculture. One potential such tool is the use of microbial inoculants, which are increasingly being used ...

  4. Differences in Growth, and Nitrogen Uptake and Storage between Two Container-Grown Cultivars of Rhododendron

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One year-old liners of rhododendron (Rhododendron ‘H-1 P.J.M’) and azalea (Rhododendron ‘Cannon’s Double’) were used to determine nitrogen (N) uptake, remobilization, and storage in relation to plant growth from May to September. Plants were grown with liquid fertilizer with or without N in a substr...

  5. Influence of nitrogen sources on growth and fermentation performance of different wine yeast species during alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kemsawasd, Varongsiri; Viana, Tiago; Ardö, Ylva; Arneborg, Nils

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the influence of twenty different single (i.e. 19 amino acids and ammonium sulphate) and two multiple nitrogen sources (N-sources) on growth and fermentation (i.e. glucose consumption and ethanol production) performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and of four wine-related non-Saccharomyces yeast species (Lachancea thermotolerans, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Torulaspora delbrueckii) was investigated during alcoholic fermentation. Briefly, the N-sources with beneficial effects on all performance parameters (or for the majority of them) for each yeast species were alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, isoleucine, ammonium sulphate, serine, valine and mixtures of 19 amino acids and of 19 amino acids plus ammonium sulphate (for S. cerevisiae), serine (for L. thermotolerans), alanine (for H. uvarum), alanine and asparagine (for M. pulcherrima), arginine, asparagine, glutamine, isoleucine and mixture of 19 amino acids (for T. delbrueckii). Furthermore, our results showed a clear positive effect of complex mixtures of N-sources on S. cerevisiae and on T. delbrueckii (although to a lesser extent) as to all performance parameters studied, whereas for L. thermotolerans, H. uvarum and M. pulcherrima, single amino acids affected growth and fermentation performance to the same extent as the mixtures. Moreover, we found groups of N-sources with similar effects on the growth and/or fermentation performance of two or more yeast species. Finally, the influences of N-sources observed for T. delbrueckii and H. uvarum resembled those of S. cerevisiae the most and the least, respectively. Overall, this work contributes to an improved understanding of how different N-sources affect growth, glucose consumption and ethanol production of wine-related yeast species under oxygen-limited conditions, which, in turn, may be used to, e.g. optimize growth and fermentation performance of the given yeast upon N-source supplementation during

  6. Simulation studies of the separation of Kr-85 radionuclide gas from nitrogen and oxygen across nanoporous graphene membranes in different pore configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatemi, S. Mahmood; Sepehrian, Hamid; Arabieh, Masoud

    2016-05-01

    Separating molecular species is an important precursor for various applications. In this work, we have utilized molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to examine how pore radius and structure affect the separation process. We show from MD simulations that 2-D graphene sheets with designed sub-nanometer pores can efficiently separate the Kr-85 radionuclide gas from an N2/O2 mixture. Three species of gases (Kr-85, N2 and O2 were considered in the simulation box in which different sizes and geometries of pores were modeled on the graphene sheet. The ( 30× 30× 80 Å^3 simulation box contains a nanoporous graphene membrane in the middle of the box and two fixed walls with equal distances on both sides of the nanoporous graphene. The results revealed that Kr-85 separation was improved by using an optimized pore structure. It was also found that the Kr-85 gas radionuclides could be completely separated from nitrogen and oxygen molecules in the pore-7 configuration. Restriction of the molecular orientation largely prohibited the permeation of nitrogen molecules. It was also found that nitrogen was more strongly adsorbed onto the membrane than oxygen, while krypton was not adsorbed.

  7. Evaluation of toxic effects of aeration and trichloroethylene oxidation on methanotrophic bacteria grown with different nitrogen sources

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, K.H.; Alvarez-Cohen, L.

    1999-02-01

    In this study the authors evaluated specific and nonspecific toxic effects of aeration and trichloroethylene (TCE) oxidation on methanotrophic bacteria grown with different nitrogen sources (nitrate, ammonia, and molecular nitrogen). The specific toxic effects, exerted directly on soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO), were evaluated by comparing changes in methane uptake rates and naphthalene oxidation rates following aeration and/or TCE oxidation. Nonspecific toxic effects, defined as general cellular damage, were examined by using a combination of epifluorescent cellular stains to measure viable cell numbers based on respiratory activity and measuring formate oxidation activities following aeration and TCE transformation. Their results suggest that aeration damages predominantly sMMO rather than other general cellular components, whereas TCE oxidation exerts a broad range of toxic effects that damage both specific and nonspecific cellular functions. TCE oxidation caused sMMO-catalyzed activity and respiratory activity to decrease linearly with the amount of substrate degraded. Severe TCE oxidation toxicity resulted in total cessation of the methane, naphthalene, and formate oxidation activities and a 95% decrease in the respiratory activity of methanotrophs. The failure of cells to recover even after 7 days of incubation with methane suggests that generation of greater amounts of sMMO per cell due to nitrogen fixation may be responsible for enhanced TCE oxidation activities of nitrogen-fixing methanotrophs rather than enzymatic protection mechanisms associated with the nitrogenase enzymes.

  8. Controls on Nitrogen Fluxes from Agricultural Fields: Differing Conclusions Based on Choice of Sensitivity Analysis Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrens, T.; Matson, P.; Lobell, D.

    2006-12-01

    Sensitivity analyses (SA) of biogeochemical and agricultural models are often used to identify the importance of input variables for variance in model outputs, such as crop yield or nitrate leaching. Identification of these factors can aid in prioritizing efforts in research or decision support. Many types of sensitivity analyses are available, ranging from simple One-At-A-Time (OAT) screening exercises to more complex local and global variance-based methods (see Saltelli et al 2004). The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of the type of SA on factor prioritization in the Yaqui Valley, Mexico using the Water and Nitrogen Management Model (WNMM; Chen et al 2005). WNMM, a coupled plant-growth - biogeochemistry simulation model, was calibrated to reproduce crop growth, soil moisture, and gaseous N emission dynamics in experimental plots of irrigated wheat in the Yaqui Valley, Mexico from 1994-1997. Three types of SA were carried out using 16 input variables, including parameters related to weather, soil properties and crop management. Methods used for SA were local OAT, Monte Carlo (MC), and a global variance-based method (orthogonal input; OI). Results of the SA were based on typical interpretations used for each test: maximum absolute ratio of variation (MAROV) for OAT analyses; first- and second-order regressions for MC analyses; and a total effects index for OI. The three most important factors identified by MC and OI methods were generally in agreement, although the order of importance was not always consistent and there was little agreement for variables of less importance. OAT over-estimated the importance of two factors (planting date and pH) for many outputs. The biggest differences between the OAT results and those from MC and OI were likely due to the inability of OAT methods to account for non-linearity (eg. pH and ammonia volatilization), interactions among variables (eg. pH and timing of fertilization) and an over-reliance on baseline

  9. A novel genetic map of wheat: utility for mapping QTL for yield under different nitrogen treatments

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important food crops worldwide. Wheat varieties that maintain yield (YD) under moderate or even intense nitrogen (N) deficiency can adapt to low input management systems. A detailed genetic map is necessary for both wheat molecular breeding and genomics research. In this study, an F6:7 recombinant inbred line population comprising 188 lines was used to construct a novel genetic map and subsequently to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for YD and response to N stress. Results A genetic map consisting of 591 loci distributed across 21 wheat chromosomes was constructed. The map spanned 3930.7 cM, with one marker per 6.7 cM on average. Genomic simple sequence repeat (g-SSR), expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellite (e-SSR), diversity arrays technology (DArT), sequence-tagged sites (STS), sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers were included in the map. The linear relationships between loci found in the present map and in previously compiled physical maps were presented, which were generally in accordance. Information on the genetic and physical positions and allele sizes (when possible) of 17 DArT, 50 e-SSR, 44 SRAP, five ISSR, and two morphological markers is reported here for the first time. Seven segregation distortion regions (SDR) were identified on chromosomes 1B, 3BL, 4AL, 6AS, 6AL, 6BL, and 7B. A total of 22 and 12 QTLs for YD and yield difference between the value (YDDV) under HN and the value under LN were identified, respectively. Of these, QYd-4B-2 and QYddv-4B, two major stable QTL, shared support interval with alleles from KN9204 increasing YD in LN and decreasing YDDV. We probe into the use of these QTLs in wheat breeding programs. Moreover, factors affecting the SDR and total map length are discussed in depth. Conclusions This novel map may facilitate the use of novel markers in wheat molecular breeding programs

  10. Changes in dissolved organic carbon and total dissolved nitrogen fluxes across subtropical forest ecosystems at different successional stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Junhua; Li, Kun; Wang, Wantong; Zhang, Deqiang; Zhou, Guoyi

    2015-05-01

    Lateral transports of carbon and nitrogen are important processes linking terrestrial ecosystems and aquatic systems. Most previous studies made in temperate forests found that fluxes of carbon and nitrogen by runoff water varied in different forests, but few studies have been made in subtropical forests. This study was to investigate dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) fluxes at the catchment scale along a subtropical forest succession gradient from pine forest (pioneer) to coniferous and broadleaved mixed forest (transitional) to broadleaved forest (mature). Our results showed that DOC concentration significantly decreased (p<0.001) while TDN concentration significantly increased (p<0.001) in runoff water from pioneer to mature forests, which in turn resulted in a decrease in DOC flux and an increase in TDN flux, as mean annual runoff did not vary significantly among three succession forest catchments. The mean (±standard deviation) annual DOC flux was 118.1±43.6, 88.3±16.7 and 77.2±11.7 kg ha-1 yr-1for pioneer, transitional and mature forest catchments, respectively; and the mean annual TDN flux was 9.9 ±2.7, 18.2±3.0 and 21.2 ±4.5 kg ha-1 yr-1for pioneer, transitional and mature forest catchments, respectively. The mature forest reduced DOC flux by increased soil chemical adsorption and physical protection. An increase in TDN flux from pioneer to mature forests was consistent with the previous finding that mature forest was nitrogen saturated while pioneer forest was nitrogen limited. Therefore large-scale conversion of pioneer forests to transitional or mature forests in subtropical China will reduce DOC concentration and increase TDN concentration in the down-stream water, which may have significant impact on its water quality and aquatic biological activities.

  11. Improved Flaw Detection and Characterization with Difference Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winfree, William P.; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Howell, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    Flaw detection and characterization with thermographic techniques in graphite polymer composites is often limited by localized variations in the thermographic response. Variations in properties such as acceptable porosity, variations in fiber volume content and surface polymer thickness result in variations in the thermal response that in general cause significant variations in the initial thermal response. These variations result in a noise floor that increases the difficulty of detecting and characterizing deeper flaws. The paper investigates comparing thermographic responses taken before and after a change in state in a composite to improve the detection of subsurface flaws. A method is presented for registration of the responses before finding the difference. A significant improvement in the detectability is achieved by comparing the differences in response. Examples of changes in state due to application of a load and impact are presented.

  12. Improved TNT detoxification by starch addition in a nitrogen-fixing Methylophilus-dominant aerobic microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Jaejin; Yoo, Keunje; Kim, Seonghoon; Park, Joonhong

    2015-12-30

    In this study, a novel aerobic microbial consortium for the complete detoxification of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was developed using starch as a slow-releasing carbon source under nitrogen-fixing conditions. Aerobic TNT biodegradation coupled with microbial growth was effectively stimulated by the co-addition of starch and TNT under nitrogen-fixing conditions. The addition of starch with TNT led to TNT mineralization via ring cleavage without accumulation of any toxic by-products, indicating improved TNT detoxification by the co-addition of starch and TNT. Pyrosequencing targeting the bacterial 16S rRNA gene suggested that Methylophilus and Pseudoxanthomonas population were significantly stimulated by the co-addition of starch and TNT and that the Methylophilus population became predominant in the consortium. Together with our previous study regarding starch-stimulated RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) degradation (Khan et al., J. Hazard. Mater. 287 (2015) 243-251), this work suggests that the co-addition of starch with a target explosive is an effective way to stimulate aerobic explosive degradation under nitrogen-fixing conditions for enhancing explosive detoxification. PMID:26342802

  13. Nitrogen removal performance in planted and unplanted horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands treating different influent COD/N ratios.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Ding, Yi; Ullman, Jeffrey L; Ambrose, Richard F; Wang, Yuhui; Song, Xinshan; Zhao, Zhimiao

    2016-05-01

    Microcosm horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSFCWs) were used to examine the impacts of vegetation on nitrogen dynamics treating different influent COD/N ratios (1:1, 4:1, and 8:1). An increase in the COD/N ratio led to increased reductions in NO3 and total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) in planted and unplanted wetlands, but diminished removal of NH4. The HSSFCW planted with Canna indica L. exhibited a significant reduction in NH4 compared to the unplanted system, particularly in the active root zone where NH4 removal performance increased by up to 26 % at the COD/N ratio of 8:1. There was no significant difference in NO3 removal between the planted and unplanted wetlands. TIN removal efficiency in the planted wetland increased with COD/N ratios, which was likely influenced by plant uptake. NH4 reductions were greater in planted wetland at the 20- and 40-cm depths while NO3 reductions were uniformly greater with depth in all cases, but no statistical difference was impacted by depth on TIN removal. These findings show that planting a HSSFCW can provide some benefit in reducing nitrogen loads in effluents, but only when a sufficient carbon source is present. PMID:26822218

  14. [Effects of water levels and the additions of different nitrogen forms on soil net nitrogen transformation rate and N2O emission in subtropical forest soils].

    PubMed

    Ma, Fen; Ma, Hong-liang; Qiu, Hong; Yang, Hong-yu

    2015-02-01

    An incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of the additions of different nitrogen forms on nitrogen transformation in red soils of subtropical forest under soil moisture conditions with 40%, 70% and 110% of water holding capacity (WHC). The results showed that soil net mineralization and ammonification rates were maximum at 70% WHC and minimum at 40% WHC. Compared with the control, the addition of NO(3-)-N decreased the soil net mineralization and ammonification rates by 56.1% and 43.0% under 70% WHC condition, and decreased by 68.2% and 19.0% under 110% WHC, respectively. However, the proportion of ammonification to mineralization increased at 70% and 110% WHC, which suggested that nitrate addition inhibited the nitrification. With addition of NO(3-)-N at 110% WHC, the net nitrification rate was lowest while N20 emission was highest with the concomitant decrease of nitrate content, indicating that N2O emission was largely derived from denitrification. However, at 40% WHC and 70% WHC, the maximum N20 flux was found at the early stage of incubation. Even with addition of NH(4+)-N and NO(3-)-N, N2O flux did not change much at the latter stage of incubation, indicating that autotrophic nitrification was dominant for N20 production at the early stage of incubation. Under 40% WHC condition, soluble organic carbon increased more and it increased largely with NH(4+)-N addition, which meant NH(4+)-N addition could enhance the mineralization of soil organic matter. Under 40% and 110% WHC conditions, the addition of NH(4+)-N increased significantly the soil soluble organic nitrogen (SON) by 73.6% and 176.6% compared with the control, respectively. A significant increase of 78.7% for SON was only found at 40% WHC under addition of NO(3-)-N compared with the control. These results showed that high soil moisture condition and addition of NH(4+)-N were of benefit to SON formation. PMID:26094450

  15. Time-temperature-sensitization diagrams and critical cooling rates of different nitrogen containing austenitic stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvathavarthini, N.; Dayal, R. K.

    2010-04-01

    Nitrogen-alloyed 316L stainless steel is being used as structural material for high temperature fast breeder reactor components with a design life of 40 years. With a view to increase the design life to 60 years and beyond, high nitrogen stainless steels are being considered for certain critical components which may be used at high temperatures. Since carbon and nitrogen have major influence on the sensitization kinetics, investigations were carried out to establish the sensitization behaviour of four heats of 316L SS containing (i) 0.07%N and 0.035%C, (ii) 0.120%N and 0.030%C, (iii) 0.150%N and 0.025%C and (iv) 0.22%N and 0.035%C. These stainless steels were subjected to heat treatments in the temperature range of 823-1023 K for various durations ranging from 1 h to 500 h. Using ASTM standard A262 Practice A and E tests, time-temperature-sensitization diagrams were constructed and from these diagrams, critical cooling rate above which there is no risk of sensitization was calculated. The data established in this work can be used to select optimum heat treatment parameters during heat treatments of fabricated components for fast reactors.

  16. OPPORTUNITIES IN NITROGEN MANAGEMENT RESEARCH: IMPROVING APPLICATIONS FOR PROVEN TECHNOLOGIES AND IDENTIFYING NEW TOOLS FOR MANAGING NITROGEN FLUX AND INPUT IN ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presence and distribution of undesirable quantities of bioavailable nitrogenous compounds in the
    environment are issues of long-standing concern. Importantly for us today, deleterious effects
    associated with high levels of nitrogen in the ecosystem are becoming everyday...

  17. Exogenous sodium sulfide improves morphological and physiological responses of a hybrid Populus species to nitrogen dioxide.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanbo; Bellaloui, Nacer; Sun, Guangyu; Tigabu, Mulualem; Wang, Jinghong

    2014-06-15

    Gaseous nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can disturb normal plant growth and trigger complex physiological responses. NO2-induced responses are influenced by biotic or abiotic factors. In this study, we investigated the effects of exogenous sodium sulfide (Na2S, 5mmolL(-1)) on epidermis and stomata related physico-chemical responses of hybrid poplar cuttings (Pouplus alba×P. berolinensis) to gaseous NO2 (4μl1(-1)) for three time periods (0, 14 and 48h). We also investigated hydrogen sulfide (H2S), nitrate-nitrogen and nitrate reductase activity (NR) in control and Na2S treated plants. Our results showed that NO2 exposure for 48h led to the decline of NR, maximal PSII quantum yield (Fv/Fm), net photosynthetic rate (Pn), and dark respiration rate (Rd). The maximum rate for the post-illumination carbon dioxide burst (PIB) occurred in 48-h exposed leaves 13-15s after darkening. Moreover, NO2 exposure resulted in a significant increase in nitrogen percentage (from 0 to 33%) and a decrease in the macro and micro-elements of leaf surface. Spraying Na2S aqueous solution on the leaf surfaces significantly increased the thicknesses of palisade/spongy tissue and H2S content. Na2S pretreatment alleviated NO2-caused toxic effects as indicated by increased NR and higher values of Pn, Fv/Fm, and actual photochemical efficiency in light (ФPSII) compared with the control. Na2S pretreatment had no significant impacts on PIB-based photorespiration or elements composition of a leaf surface. PMID:24635903

  18. Using C₆₀⁺ Sputtering to Improve Detection Limit of Nitrogen in Zinc Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Zihua; Shutthanandan, V.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy

    2010-05-11

    C₆₀⁺ sputtering was firstly used to determine depth profile of nitrogen in zinc oxide materials by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Compared to traditional Cs+ sputtering depth profiling, the C₆₀⁺ sputtering provides over 200 times of effective signal intensity and the detection limit is about 10 times better. In addition, our X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that sputtering zinc oxide materials by 10 keV C₆₀⁺ leads to very weak carbon deposition at bottom of the sputter crater.

  19. Phosphorus applications improved the soil microbial responses under nitrogen additions in Chinese fir plantations of subtropical China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Li, Dandan; Yang, Yang; Tang, Yuqian; Wang, Huimin; Chen, Fusheng; Sun, Xiaomin

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition and low soil phosphorus (P) content aggravate the P limitation in subtropical forest soils. However, the responses of soil microbial communities, enzyme kinetics, and N cycling genes to P additions in subtropical plantations are still not clear. The hypothesis that P application can alleviate the limitation and improve the soil microbial properties was tested by long term field experiment in the Chinese fir plantations in subtropical China. Thirty 20m×20m plots were established in November 2011 and six different treatments were randomly distributed with five replicates. The treatments are control (CK, no N and P application), low N addition (N1: 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1), high N addition (N2: 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1), P addition (P: 50 kg P ha-1 yr-1), low N and P addition (N1P: 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and 50 kg P ha-1 yr-1) and high N and P addition (N2P: 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and 50 kg P ha-1 yr-1). A suite of responses of soil microorganism across four years (2012-2015) during three seasons (spring, summer and autumn) were measured. Following 4 years of N amendments, fertilized soils were more acidic and had lower soil microbial biomass carbon contents than CK. However, P alleviated the soil acidification and increased the soil microbial biomass carbon contents. Increases in microbial PLFA biomarkers and exoenzyme kinetics in N fertilized plots were observed in the initial year (2013) but reduced since then (2014 and 2015). Whereas P amendments increased the soil PLFA biomarkers and exoenzyme kinetics through the four years except that the acid phosphatase activities declined after 3 years applications. P applications enhanced the soil N cycling by increases the abundances of nitrifiers (ammonia-oxidizing archea) and denitrifiers (nos Z, norG, and nirK). The bacterial and fungal residue carbons (calculated by amino sugar indicators) were higher under NP fertilizations than the other treatments. Our results suggest that P application could improve the soil

  20. Nitrogen and phosphorus additions alter nutrient dynamics but not resorption efficiencies of Chinese fir leaves and twigs differing in age.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fu-Sheng; Niklas, Karl Joseph; Liu, Yu; Fang, Xiang-Min; Wan, Song-Ze; Wang, Huimin

    2015-10-01

    It is unclear how or even if phosphorus (P) input alters the influence of nitrogen (N) deposition in a forest. In theory, nutrients in leaves and twigs differing in age may show different responses to elevated nutrient input. To test this possibility, we selected Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) for a series of N and P addition experiments using treatments of +N1 - P (50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)), +N2 - P (100 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)), -N + P (50 kg P ha(-1) year(-1)), +N1 + P, +N2 + P and -N - P (without N and P addition). Soil samples were analyzed for mineral N and available P concentrations. Leaves and twigs in summer and their litters in winter were classified as and sorted into young and old components to measure N and P concentrations. Soil mineral N and available P increased with N and P additions, respectively. Nitrogen addition increased leaf and twig N concentrations in the second year, but not in the first year; P addition increased leaf and twig P concentrations in both years and enhanced young but not old leaf and twig N accumulations. Nitrogen and P resorption proficiencies in litters increased in response to N and P additions, but N and P resorption efficiencies were not significantly altered. Nitrogen resorption efficiency was generally higher in leaves than in twigs and in young vs old leaves and twigs. Phosphorus resorption efficiency showed a minimal variation from 26.6 to 47.0%. Therefore, P input intensified leaf and twig N enrichment with N addition, leaf and twig nutrients were both gradually resorbed with aging, and organ and age effects depended on the extent of nutrient limitation. PMID:26358049

  1. Influence of Residue and Nitrogen Fertilizer Additions on Carbon Mineralization in Soils with Different Texture and Cropping Histories

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xianni; Wang, Xudong; Liebman, Matt; Cavigelli, Michel; Wander, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    To improve our ability to predict SOC mineralization response to residue and N additions in soils with different inherent and dynamic organic matter properties, a 330-day incubation was conducted using samples from two long-term experiments (clay loam Mollisols in Iowa [IAsoil] and silt loam Ultisols in Maryland [MDsoil]) comparing conventional grain systems (Conv) amended with inorganic fertilizers with 3 yr (Med) and longer (Long), more diverse cropping systems amended with manure. A double exponential model was used to estimate the size (Ca, Cs) and decay rates (ka, ks) of active and slow C pools which we compared with total particulate organic matter (POM) and occluded-POM (OPOM). The high-SOC IAsoil containing highly active smectite clays maintained smaller labile pools and higher decay rates than the low-SOC MDsoil containing semi-active kaolinitic clays. Net SOC loss was greater (2.6 g kg−1; 8.6%) from the IAsoil than the MDsoil (0.9 g kg−1, 6.3%); fractions and coefficients suggest losses were principally from IAsoil’s resistant pool. Cropping history did not alter SOC pool size or decay rates in IAsoil where rotation-based differences in OPOM-C were small. In MDsoil, use of diversified rotations and manure increased ka by 32% and ks by 46% compared to Conv; differences mirrored in POM- and OPOM-C contents. Residue addition prompted greater increases in Ca (340% vs 230%) and Cs (38% vs 21%) and decreases in ka (58% vs 9%) in IAsoil than MDsoil. Reduced losses of SOC from residue-amended MDsoil were associated with increased OPOM-C. Nitrogen addition dampened CO2-C release. Clay type and C saturation dominated the IAsoil’s response to external inputs and made labile and stable fractions more vulnerable to decay. Trends in OPOM suggest aggregate protection influences C turnover in the low active MDsoil. Clay charge and OPOM-C contents were better predictors of soil C dynamics than clay or POM-C contents. PMID:25078458

  2. Influence of residue and nitrogen fertilizer additions on carbon mineralization in soils with different texture and cropping histories.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xianni; Wang, Xudong; Liebman, Matt; Cavigelli, Michel; Wander, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    To improve our ability to predict SOC mineralization response to residue and N additions in soils with different inherent and dynamic organic matter properties, a 330-day incubation was conducted using samples from two long-term experiments (clay loam Mollisols in Iowa [IAsoil] and silt loam Ultisols in Maryland [MDsoil]) comparing conventional grain systems (Conv) amended with inorganic fertilizers with 3 yr (Med) and longer (Long), more diverse cropping systems amended with manure. A double exponential model was used to estimate the size (Ca, Cs) and decay rates (ka, ks) of active and slow C pools which we compared with total particulate organic matter (POM) and occluded-POM (OPOM). The high-SOC IAsoil containing highly active smectite clays maintained smaller labile pools and higher decay rates than the low-SOC MDsoil containing semi-active kaolinitic clays. Net SOC loss was greater (2.6 g kg(-1); 8.6%) from the IAsoil than the MDsoil (0.9 g kg(-1), 6.3%); fractions and coefficients suggest losses were principally from IAsoil's resistant pool. Cropping history did not alter SOC pool size or decay rates in IAsoil where rotation-based differences in OPOM-C were small. In MDsoil, use of diversified rotations and manure increased ka by 32% and ks by 46% compared to Conv; differences mirrored in POM- and OPOM-C contents. Residue addition prompted greater increases in Ca (340% vs 230%) and Cs (38% vs 21%) and decreases in ka (58% vs 9%) in IAsoil than MDsoil. Reduced losses of SOC from residue-amended MDsoil were associated with increased OPOM-C. Nitrogen addition dampened CO2-C release. Clay type and C saturation dominated the IAsoil's response to external inputs and made labile and stable fractions more vulnerable to decay. Trends in OPOM suggest aggregate protection influences C turnover in the low active MDsoil. Clay charge and OPOM-C contents were better predictors of soil C dynamics than clay or POM-C contents. PMID:25078458

  3. Improved intrinsic resolution: does it make a difference. concise communication

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffer, P.B.; Neumann, R.; Quartararo, L.; Lange, R.; Hernandez, T.

    1984-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what effect further improvement in an Anger camera's intrinsic resolution has on lesion detection. We studied 52 patients undergoing bone imaging and 58 undergoing liver imaging. All patients had images performed in rapid sequence on ZLC-75 and ZLC-37 Anger cameras, both by Siemens. The two imaging systems are virtually identical except for the number of photomultiplier tubes and crystal thickness; these resulted in differences in intrinsic resolution and sensitivity. Observer performance, measured by ROC curves, for detection of abnormalities was virtually identical with the two instruments. Subjectively, there was a trend toward preference of the ZLC-75 images, but this was not associated with any significant improvement in lesion detectability even in the subgroup in which a preference for one or the other instrument was noted.

  4. Impact of the addition of different plant residues on carbon-nitrogen content and nitrogen mineralization-immobilization turnover in a soil incubated under laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, M. K.; Tahir, M. M.; Sabir, N.; Khurshid, M.

    2014-10-01

    Application of plant residues as soil amendment may represent a valuable recycling strategy that affects on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, soil properties improvement and plant growth promotion. The amount and rate of nutrient release from plant residues depend on their quality characteristics and biochemical composition. A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted for 120 days under controlled conditions (25 °C and 58% water filled pore space (WFPS)) to quantify initial biochemical composition and N mineralization of leguminous and non-leguminous plant residues i.e. the roots, shoots and leaves of Glycine max, Trifolium repens, Zea mays, Poplus euramericana, Rubinia pseudoacacia and Elagnus umbellate incorporated into the soil at the rate of 200 mg residue N kg-1 soil. The diverse plant residues showed wide variation in total N, carbon, lignin, polyphenols and C/N ratio with higher polyphenol content in the leaves and higher lignin content in the roots. The shoot of G. max and the shoot and root of T. repens displayed continuous mineralization by releasing a maximum of 109.8, 74.8 and 72.5 mg N kg-1 and representing a 55, 37 and 36% of added N being released from these resources. The roots of G. max and Z. mays and the shoot of Z. mays showed continuous negative values throughout the incubation showing net immobilization. After an initial immobilization, leaves of P. euramericana, R. pseudoacacia and E. umbellate exhibited net mineralization by releasing a maximum of 31.8, 63.1 and 65.1 mg N kg-1, respectively and representing a 16, 32 and 33% of added N being released. Nitrogen mineralization from all the treatments was positively correlated with the initial residue N contents (r = 0.89; p ≤ 0.01), and negatively correlated with lignin content (r = -0.84; p ≤ 0.01), C/N ratio (r = -0.69; p ≤ 0.05), lignin/N ratio (r = -0.68; p ≤ 0.05), polyphenol/N ratio (r = -0.73; p ≤ 0.05) and ligin + polyphenol/N ratio (r = -0.70; p ≤ 0.05) indicating

  5. Food contact surfaces coated with nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide: effect on Listeria monocytogenes survival under different light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, D.; Teixeira, P.; Tavares, C. J.; Azeredo, J.

    2013-04-01

    Improvement of food safety is a very important issue, and is on the basis of production and application of new/modified food contact surfaces. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and, more recently, nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (N-TiO2) coatings are among the possible forms to enhance food contact surfaces performance in terms of higher hygiene and easier sanitation. In this context, the present work aimed at evaluating the bactericidal activity of an N-TiO2 coating on glass and stainless steel under two different sources of visible light - fluorescent and incandescent - and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Listeria monocytogenes was chosen as representative of major foodborne pathogens and its survival was tested on N-TiO2 coated coupons. In terms of survival percentage, good results were obtained after exposure of coated surfaces to all light types since, apart from the value obtained after exposing glass to fluorescent light (56.3%), survival rates were always below 50%. However, no effective disinfection was obtained, given that for a disinfectant or sanitizing agent to be claimed as effective it needs to be able to promote at least a 3-log reduction of the microbial load, which was not observed for any of the experimental conditions assessed. Even so, UV irradiation was the most successful on eliminating cells on coated surfaces, since the amount of bacteria was reduced to 1.49 × 106 CFU/ml on glass and 2.37 × 107 on stainless steel. In contrast, both visible light sources had only slightly decreased the amount of viable cells, which remained in the range of 8 log CFU/ml. Hence, although some bactericidal effect was accomplished under visible light, UV was the most effective light source on promoting photocatalytic reactions on N-TiO2 coated coupons and none of the experimental conditions have reached a satisfactory disinfection level. Thus, this surface coating needs further research and improvement in order to become truly effective against foodborne pathogens and

  6. Improved online δ18O measurements of nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing organic materials and a proposed analytical protocol.

    PubMed

    Qi, Haiping; Coplen, Tyler B; Wassenaar, Leonard I

    2011-07-30

    It is well known that N(2) in the ion source of a mass spectrometer interferes with the CO background during the δ(18)O measurement of carbon monoxide. A similar problem arises with the high-temperature conversion (HTC) analysis of nitrogenous O-bearing samples (e.g. nitrates and keratins) to CO for δ(18)O measurement, where the sample introduces a significant N(2) peak before the CO peak, making determination of accurate oxygen isotope ratios difficult. Although using a gas chromatography (GC) column longer than that commonly provided by manufacturers (0.6 m) can improve the efficiency of separation of CO and N(2) and using a valve to divert nitrogen and prevent it from entering the ion source of a mass spectrometer improved measurement results, biased δ(18)O values could still be obtained. A careful evaluation of the performance of the GC separation column was carried out. With optimal GC columns, the δ(18)O reproducibility of human hair keratins and other keratin materials was better than ± 0.15 ‰ (n=5; for the internal analytical reproducibility), and better than ± 0.10 ‰ (n=4; for the external analytical reproducibility). PMID:21698688

  7. Improved online δ18O measurements of nitrogen- and sulfur-bearing organic materials and a proposed analytical protocol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qi, H.; Coplen, T.B.; Wassenaar, L.I.

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that N2 in the ion source of a mass spectrometer interferes with the CO background during the δ18O measurement of carbon monoxide. A similar problem arises with the high-temperature conversion (HTC) analysis of nitrogenous O-bearing samples (e.g. nitrates and keratins) to CO for δ18O measurement, where the sample introduces a significant N2 peak before the CO peak, making determination of accurate oxygen isotope ratios difficult. Although using a gas chromatography (GC) column longer than that commonly provided by manufacturers (0.6 m) can improve the efficiency of separation of CO and N2 and using a valve to divert nitrogen and prevent it from entering the ion source of a mass spectrometer improved measurement results, biased δ18O values could still be obtained. A careful evaluation of the performance of the GC separation column was carried out. With optimal GC columns, the δ18O reproducibility of human hair keratins and other keratin materials was better than ±0.15 ‰ (n = 5; for the internal analytical reproducibility), and better than ±0.10 ‰ (n = 4; for the external analytical reproducibility).

  8. Studies on nitrogen modified TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst prepared in different conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Bubacz, K.; Choina, J.; Dolat, D.; Borowiak-Palen, E.; Moszynski, D.; Morawski, A.W.

    2010-09-15

    Nitrogen modified titania photocatalysts (TiO{sub 2}/N) were characterized using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Raman spectroscopy and BET surface area method. The presence of nitrogen in modified photocatalysts has been studied using FT-IR and XPS analyses. The influence of the calcination temperature in the range of 100-350 {sup o}C on nanocrystallite as well as particle size of the samples and their photocatalytic activity was investigated. The calcination of TiO{sub 2}/N samples caused a growth of the particle size and an increase of their crystallinity. TEM studies present changes of the diameter and shape of TiO{sub 2} particles and nanocrystallites. The XRD and the Raman response of the samples confirmed an increase of the crystallinity of the samples when annealed at higher temperatures. The photocatalytic activity of the modified photocatalysts was determined using the reaction of phenol decomposition. It was shown that phenol decomposition rate was greatly influenced by pH of the solution. The highest phenol degradation using all the modified samples was observed for pH 7.1 which is close to the PZC point established for pristine TiO{sub 2} at pH 6.8.

  9. Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Accumulation and Partitioning, and C:N:P Stoichiometry in Late-Season Rice under Different Water and Nitrogen Managements

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Yushi; Liang, Xinqiang; Chen, Yingxu; Li, Liang; Ji, Yuanjing; Zhu, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    Water and nitrogen availability plays an important role in the biogeochemical cycles of essential elements, such as carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), in agricultural ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the seasonal changes of C, N and P concentrations, accumulation, partitioning, and C:N:P stoichiometric ratios in different plant tissues (root, stem-leaf, and panicle) of late-season rice under two irrigation regimes (continuous flooding, CF; alternate wetting and drying, AWD) and four N managements (control, N0; conventional urea at 240 kg N ha−1, UREA; controlled-release bulk blending fertilizer at 240 kg N ha−1, BBF; polymer-coated urea at 240 kg N ha−1, PCU). We found that water and N treatments had remarkable effects on the measured parameters in different plant tissues after transplanting, but the water and N interactions had insignificant effects. Tissue C:N, N:P and C:P ratios ranged from 14.6 to 52.1, 3.1 to 7.8, and 76.9 to 254.3 over the rice growing seasons, respectively. The root and stem-leaf C:N:P and panicle C:N ratios showed overall uptrends with a peak at harvest whereas the panicle N:P and C:P ratios decreased from filling to harvest. The AWD treatment did not affect the concentrations and accumulation of tissue C and N, but greatly decreased those of P, resulting in enhanced N:P and C:P ratios. N fertilization significantly increased tissue N concentration, slightly enhanced tissue P concentration, but did not affect tissue C concentration, leading to a significant increase in tissue N:P ratio but a decrease in C:N and C:P ratios. Our results suggested that the growth of rice in the Taihu Lake region was co-limited by N and P. These findings broadened our understanding of the responses of plant C:N:P stoichiometry to simultaneous water and N managements in subtropical high-yielding rice systems. PMID:24992006

  10. Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus accumulation and partitioning, and C:N:P stoichiometry in late-season rice under different water and nitrogen managements.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yushi; Liang, Xinqiang; Chen, Yingxu; Li, Liang; Ji, Yuanjing; Zhu, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    Water and nitrogen availability plays an important role in the biogeochemical cycles of essential elements, such as carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), in agricultural ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the seasonal changes of C, N and P concentrations, accumulation, partitioning, and C:N:P stoichiometric ratios in different plant tissues (root, stem-leaf, and panicle) of late-season rice under two irrigation regimes (continuous flooding, CF; alternate wetting and drying, AWD) and four N managements (control, N0; conventional urea at 240 kg N ha(-1), UREA; controlled-release bulk blending fertilizer at 240 kg N ha(-1), BBF; polymer-coated urea at 240 kg N ha(-1), PCU). We found that water and N treatments had remarkable effects on the measured parameters in different plant tissues after transplanting, but the water and N interactions had insignificant effects. Tissue C:N, N:P and C:P ratios ranged from 14.6 to 52.1, 3.1 to 7.8, and 76.9 to 254.3 over the rice growing seasons, respectively. The root and stem-leaf C:N:P and panicle C:N ratios showed overall uptrends with a peak at harvest whereas the panicle N:P and C:P ratios decreased from filling to harvest. The AWD treatment did not affect the concentrations and accumulation of tissue C and N, but greatly decreased those of P, resulting in enhanced N:P and C:P ratios. N fertilization significantly increased tissue N concentration, slightly enhanced tissue P concentration, but did not affect tissue C concentration, leading to a significant increase in tissue N:P ratio but a decrease in C:N and C:P ratios. Our results suggested that the growth of rice in the Taihu Lake region was co-limited by N and P. These findings broadened our understanding of the responses of plant C:N:P stoichiometry to simultaneous water and N managements in subtropical high-yielding rice systems. PMID:24992006

  11. Catalytic two-stage coal liquefaction process having improved nitrogen removal

    DOEpatents

    Comolli, Alfred G.

    1991-01-01

    A process for catalytic multi-stage hydrogenation and liquefaction of coal to produce high yields of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquids containing low concentrations of nitogen compounds. First stage catalytic reaction conditions are 700.degree.-800.degree. F. temperature, 1500-3500 psig hydrogen partial pressure, with the space velocity maintained in a critical range of 10-40 lb coal/hr ft.sup.3 catalyst settled volume. The first stage catalyst has 0.3-1.2 cc/gm total pore volume with at least 25% of the pore volume in pores having diameters of 200-2000 Angstroms. Second stage reaction conditions are 760.degree.-870.degree. F. temperature with space velocity exceeding that in the first stage reactor, so as to achieve increased hydrogenation yield of low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products having at least 75% removal of nitrogen compounds from the coal-derived liquid products.

  12. Highs and lows: The effect of differently sized freshwater inflows on estuarine carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, bacteria and chlorophyll a dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitchcock, James N.; Mitrovic, Simon M.

    2015-04-01

    Freshwater inflows play a key role in the delivery of organic carbon to estuaries. However, our understanding of the dynamics between discharge and carbon globally is limited. In this study we performed a 30-month monitoring study on the Bega and Clyde River estuaries, Australia, to understand the influence that discharge had on carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, bacteria and chlorophyll a dynamics. We hypothesised that 1) discharge would be the most important factor influencing carbon and nutrient concentrations, though during low flows chlorophyll a would also be positively related to carbon, 2) bacteria would be related to dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and chlorophyll a to temperature, nitrogen and phosphorus, and 3) that concentrations of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, bacterial biomass and chlorophyll a would be significantly different between large 'flood flows', smaller 'fresh flows' and base flow conditions. We found that discharge was always the most important factor influencing carbon and nutrient concentrations, and that primary production appeared to have little influence on the variation in DOC concentration even during base flow conditions. We suggest this relationship is likely due to highly episodic discharge that occurred during the study period. Bacteria were related to DOC in the lower estuary sites, but phosphorus in the upper estuary. We suggest this is likely due to the input of bioavailable carbon in the upper estuary leading bacteria to be P limited, which changes downstream to carbon limitation as DOC becomes more refractory. Chlorophyll a was positively related to temperature but not nutrients, which we suggest may be due to competition with bacteria for phosphorus in the upper estuary. Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were different under flood, fresh and base flow conditions, though these differences sometimes varied between estuary locations for different resources. Overall, the results demonstrate that discharge plays an

  13. Effect of different nitrogenous nutrients on the cadmium hyperaccumulation efficiency of Rorippa globosa (Turcz.) Thell.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuhe; Ji, Dandan; Twardowska, Irena; Li, Yunmeng; Zhu, Jiangong

    2015-02-01

    This experiment was used to explore whether the 11 nitrogenous nutrients affect the hyperaccumulation of Rorippa globosa (Turcz.) Thell. to Cd. Pot culture experiments using soil spiked with Cd as CdCl2·2.5H2O and 11 nitrogen-containing chemicals were conducted to determine the efficiency of the accumulation of Cd by R. globosa. Application of all 11 nitrogenous nutrients significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced Cd accumulation by R. globosa (Turcz.) Thell. Two major modes of Cd accumulation were observed: (i) through increase of biomass yield without reduction of Cd uptake and (ii) through increase of Cd uptake efficiency in parallel with increase of biomass yield. Bicarbonate > phosphate > chloride compounds of NH4 enhanced the biomass yield to the greatest extent, while oxalate > nitrate > chloride > and bicarbonate caused a significant increase of Cd uptake by R. globosa. Competition between N and Cd translocation caused either significant reduction of Cd translocation factor or decrease of biomass yield. Of studied nutrients, ammonium bicarbonate NH4HCO3 and ammonium chloride NH4Cl exerted the best joint effect of these two processes on the efficiency of R. globosa as a Cd hyperaccumulator. Application of these chemicals caused increase of Cd concentrations in roots of R. globosa by 35.1 and 41.1 %, and in shoots by 13.9 and 56.4 %, while biomasses of roots increased by 5.8- and 3.8-fold and in shoots by 7.4-fold, and 6.4-fold, respectively, compared to the control. As a result, accumulated load (μg pot(-1)) of Cd in roots increased by 8.2- and 5.8-fold and in shoots by 8.6- and 10.6-fold in both pots. Consequently, chemicals (NH4HCO3 and NH4Cl) that enhanced both Cd enrichment and biomass yield had the greatest effect on the bioaccumulation capacity of R. globosa. PMID:25167813

  14. Nitrogen isotope variations in camphor (Cinnamomum Camphora) leaves of different ages in upper and lower canopies as an indicator of atmospheric nitrogen sources.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hua-Yun; Wu, Liang-Hong; Zhu, Ren-Guo; Wang, Yan-Li; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2011-02-01

    Nitrogen isotopic composition of new, middle-aged and old camphor leaves in upper and lower canopies has been determined in a living area, near a motorway and near an industrial area (Jiangan Chemical Fertilizer Plant). We found that at sites near roads, more positive δ(15)N values were observed in the camphor leaves, especially in old leaves of upper canopies, and ∆δ(15)N=δ(15)N(upper)-δ(15)N(lower)>0, while those near the industrial area had more negative δ(15)N values and ∆δ(15)N<0. These could be explained by two isotopically different atmospheric N sources: greater uptake from isotopically heavy pools of atmospheric NO(x) by old leaves in upper canopies at sites adjacent to roads, and greater uptake of (15)N-depleted NH(y) in atmospheric deposition by leaves at sites near the industrial area. This study presents novel evidence that (15)N natural abundance of camphor leaves can be used as a robust indicator of atmospheric N sources. PMID:21130551

  15. Changes of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium content during storage of vermicomposts prepared from different substrates.

    PubMed

    Das, D; Powell, Michael; Bhattacharyya, P; Banik, P

    2014-12-01

    The study was conducted to determine the optimum storage time for vermicompost without significant loss of nutrients; nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K). Cattle manure, paddy straw, municipal solid wastes, and fly ash were used for vermicompost preparations. The dynamics of N, P, and K in the vermicomposts were studied during 180 days of incubation at 28-32 °C. In general, N concentration increased in the first 90-105 days of incubation and then gradually decreased until the 180th day while P and K concentrations steadily decreased over the length of the study, with the rate of loss leveling off after 150 days. The rate of nutrient loss was directly related to the initial level, decreasing the fastest for the nutrients with the highest initial concentrations. Optimum storage times were substrate and N dependent. PMID:25208521

  16. Comparison of improved operating parameters of five different wavelength LEDs for significantly brighter illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Eduard K.; Lee, Susanne M.; Van de Workeen, Brian C.; Mueller, Otward M.

    2001-05-01

    Although light-emitting diodes exhibit much higher efficiencies and greatly reduced power consumption compared to incandescent light sources, the use of LEDs in lighting applications is limited by their smaller size and subsequently lower light output. However, it has been found that these parameters can be increased significantly by cooling the diodes to cryogenic temperatures. This may make their use feasible for several applications requiring more efficient and brighter illumination for much less cost. In this paper, we compare the temperature-dependent behavior of five commercially available LEDs of different wavelengths down to liquid nitrogen temperatures. It was found that three AlInGaP diodes (red, yellow, and green) demonstrated significant operating improvements. The performance of InGaN-based blue LEDs declined at low temperatures, and because most white LEDs are simply blue LEDs coated with YAG, these exhibited similar behavior. However, the three AlInGaP LEDs demonstrated at least an order of magnitude improvement in illuminance, absolute intensity, and maximum operating current. The green LEDs showed the largest improvement factors, while the yellow LEDs produced the brightest illumination at low temperatures. The emissions of all five LEDs shifted to shorter wavelengths at low temperatures. This is significant in terms of lighting applications since the low-temperature AlInGaP diodes emitted more visible spectra.

  17. Modeling the carbon cost of plant nitrogen acquisition: Mycorrhizal trade-offs and multipath resistance uptake improve predictions of retranslocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzostek, Edward R.; Fisher, Joshua B.; Phillips, Richard P.

    2014-08-01

    Accurate projections of the future land carbon (C) sink by terrestrial biosphere models depend on how nutrient constraints on net primary production are represented. While nutrient limitation is nearly universal, current models do not have a C cost for plant nutrient acquisition. Also missing are symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi, which can consume up to 20% of net primary production and supply up to 50% of a plant's nitrogen (N) uptake. Here we integrate simultaneous uptake and mycorrhizae into a cutting-edge plant N model—Fixation and Uptake of Nitrogen (FUN)—that can be coupled into terrestrial biosphere models. The C cost of N acquisition varies as a function of mycorrhizal type, with plants that support arbuscular mycorrhizae benefiting when N is relatively abundant and plants that support ectomycorrhizae benefiting when N is strongly limiting. Across six temperate forested sites (representing arbuscular mycorrhizal- and ectomycorrhizal-dominated stands and 176 site years), including multipath resistance improved the partitioning of N uptake between aboveground and belowground sources. Integrating mycorrhizae led to further improvements in predictions of N uptake from soil (R2 = 0.69 increased to R2 = 0.96) and from senescing leaves (R2 = 0.29 increased to R2 = 0.73) relative to the original model. On average, 5% and 9% of net primary production in arbuscular mycorrhizal- and ectomycorrhizal-dominated forests, respectively, was needed to support mycorrhizal-mediated acquisition of N. To the extent that resource constraints to net primary production are governed by similar trade-offs across all terrestrial ecosystems, integrating these improvements to FUN into terrestrial biosphere models should enhance predictions of the future land C sink.

  18. Changes of Nitrogen Transformation Rates and Related Functional Genes Abundance under Different Dissolved Oxygen Levels in sediments form an Urban River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In the nitrogen rich urban river sediments, we investigated the nitrogen transformation rates and nitrogen-cycling genes in response to different dissolved oxygen (DO) supply levels (saturation, DO > 8.00 mg L-1; aerobic, 2.50 mg L-1 nitrogen transformation rates (ammonium release, ammonia oxidation, nitrite oxidation, denitrification, and anammox) and their corresponding integrated amounts were solved by the least square analysis. Results showed that the total amount of ammonium oxidation, nitrite oxidation, denitrification, and anammox increased with the elevated dissolved oxygen levels, but the amount of ammonium release decreased inversely. The increasing DO level also raised the total amount of nitrogen loss (from 6.12 mg N to 35.44 mg N) and its proportion to ammonium liberated (from 12.96% to 99.84%), but the contributions of anammox to nitrogen loss in each incubation showed no significant difference (83.36% to 89.19%). The dissolved oxygen facilitated an exponential increasing of the anammox oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB), and raised the denitrifiers (nirK and nirS gene) abundance by an order, but its influence on anammox (hzsB) was insignificant. Four quantitative response relationships between nitrogen transformation rates, nitrogen functional genes abundances, and nitrogen concentrations were established by stepwise linear regression analysis. These relationships confirmed that different nitrogen transformation processes were coupled at the molecular level (functional genes), especially for the coupling of ammonium oxidation and anammox.

  19. Acclimation of the Global Transcriptome of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 7002 to Nutrient Limitations and Different Nitrogen Sources

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Marcus; Bryant, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    The unicellular, euryhaline cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 is a model organism for laboratory-based studies of cyanobacterial metabolism and is a potential platform for biotechnological applications. Two of its most notable properties are its exceptional tolerance of high-light intensity and very rapid growth under optimal conditions. In this study, transcription profiling by RNAseq has been used to perform an integrated study of global changes in transcript levels in cells subjected to limitation for the major nutrients CO2, nitrogen, sulfate, phosphate, and iron. Transcriptional patterns for cells grown on nitrate, ammonia, and urea were also studied. Nutrient limitation caused strong decreases of transcript levels of the genes encoding major metabolic pathways, especially for components of the photosynthetic apparatus, CO2 fixation, and protein biosynthesis. Uptake mechanisms for the respective nutrients were strongly up-regulated. The transcription data further suggest that major changes in the composition of the NADH dehydrogenase complex occur upon nutrient limitation. Transcripts for flavoproteins increased strongly when CO2 was limiting. Genes involved in protection from oxidative stress generally showed high, constitutive transcript levels, which possibly explains the high-light tolerance of this organism. The transcriptomes of cells grown with ammonia or urea as nitrogen source showed increased transcript levels for components of the CO2 fixation machinery compared to cells grown with nitrate, but in general transcription differences in cells grown on different N-sources exhibited surprisingly minor differences. PMID:22514553

  20. Feed ingredients differing in fermentable fibre and indigestible protein content affect fermentation metabolites and faecal nitrogen excretion in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Jha, R; Leterme, P

    2012-04-01

    To study the fermentation characteristics of different non-conventional dietary fibre (DF) sources with varying levels of indigestible CP content and their effects on the production of fermentation metabolites and on faecal nitrogen (N) excretion, an experiment was conducted with 40 growing pigs (initial BW 23 kg) using wheat bran (WB), pea hulls (PH), pea inner fibres (PIF), sugar beet pulp (SBP) or corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). The diets also contained soya protein isolate, pea starch and sucrose, and were supplemented with vitamin-mineral premix. Faecal samples were collected for 3 consecutive days from day 10, fed with added indigestible marker (chromic oxide) for 3 days from day 13 and pigs were slaughtered on day 16 from the beginning of the experiment. Digesta from the ileum and colon were collected and analysed for short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and ammonia (NH3) content. The apparent total tract N digestibility was the lowest (P < 0.001) in diets based on DDGS (74%), medium in diets with WB and SBP (76% each) and highest in those with PIF and PH (79% and 81%, respectively). Expressed per kg fermented non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), faecal N excretion was higher with DDGS and WB diets (130 and 113 g/kg NSP fermented, respectively) and lower with PIF, PH and SBP diets (42, 52 and 55 g/kg NSP fermented, respectively). The PH-based diets had the highest (P < 0.05) SCFA concentrations, both in the ileum and the colon (27 and 122 mMol/kg digesta, respectively). The highest NH3 concentration was also found in the colon of pigs fed with PH (132 mMol/kg digesta). Loading plot of principle component analysis revealed that the CP : NSP ratio was positively related with faecal N excretion and NH3 concentration in colon contents, whereas negatively related with SCFA concentration in colon contents. In conclusion, pea fibres and SBP increased SCFA and reduced NH3 concentration in the pig's intestine and reduced faecal N excretion, which makes pea

  1. Elevated temperature differently affects foliar nitrogen partitioning in seedlings of diverse Douglas fir provenances.

    PubMed

    Du, Baoguo; Jansen, Kirstin; Junker, Laura Verena; Eiblmeier, Monika; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Gessler, Arthur; Ensminger, Ingo; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2014-10-01

    Global climate change causes an increase in ambient air temperature, a major environmental factor influencing plant physiology and growth that already has been perceived at the regional scale and is expected to become even more severe in the future. In the present study, we investigated the effect of elevated ambient air temperature on the nitrogen metabolism of two interior provenances of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) originating from contrasting habitats, namely the provenances Monte Creek (MC) from a drier environment and Pend Oreille (PO) from a more humid environment. Three- to four-year-old seedlings of the two provenances were grown for 3 months in controlled environments under either control temperature (day 20 °C, night 15 °C) or high temperature (HT, 30/25 °C) conditions. Total nitrogen (N), soluble protein, chlorophyll and total amino acid (TAA) contents as well as individual amino acid concentrations were determined in both current-year and previous-year needles. Our results show that the foliar total N contents of the two provenances were unaffected by HT. Arginine, lysine, proline, glutamate and glutamine were the most abundant amino acids, which together contributed ∼88% to the TAA pool of current- and previous-year needles. High temperature decreased the contents of most amino acids of the glutamate family (i.e., arginine, proline, ornithine and glutamine) in current-year needles. However, HT did not affect the concentrations of metabolites related to the photorespiratory pathway, such as [Formula: see text], glycine and serine. In general, current-year needles were considerably more sensitive to HT than previous-year needles. Moreover, provenance PO originating from a mesic environment showed stronger responses to HT than provenance MC. Our results indicate provenance-specific plasticity in the response of Douglas fir to growth temperature. Provenance-specific effects of elevated temperature on N-use efficiency suggest

  2. Propionate supplementation improves nitrogen use by reducing urea flux in sheep.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, U; Hu, Q; Bequette, B J

    2015-10-01

    experiments. In Exp. 1, glucose entry and gluconeogenesis were greater ( < 0.05) and plasma glucose tended ( < 0.1) to be greater with sodium propionate infusion than with sodium acetate infusion, but there was no difference in Cori cycling. In Exp. 2, glucose entry, gluconeogenesis, Cori cycling, and plasma glucose increased ( < 0.05) with dietary propionate. Our studies indicate that propionate inclusion in feed, but not continuous infusion in to the rumen, improves N utilization in growing sheep. The propionate effect is likely mediated by providing additional precursors for gluconeogenesis. PMID:26523581

  3. Sewage treatment by an UAFB-EGSB biosystem with energy recovery and autotrophic nitrogen removal under different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Gao, Da-Wen; Huang, Xiao-Li; Tao, Yu; Cong, Yan; Wang, Xiao-Long

    2015-04-01

    A system combined an upflow anaerobic fixed bed (UAFB) and an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) was designed and verified as a success for treating real sewage with simultaneous energy recovery and autotrophic nitrogen removal. The impact of temperature (stepwise decreased from 30 °C to 20 °C and 10 °C) was a primary focus, aiming to reveal the response of the anaerobic digestion (AD) and anammox efficiency to the temperature variation. As the temperature decreases, the soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) removal rate was 90.6%, 90.0% and 84.7%, respectively; total nitrogen (TN) removal was 69.4%, 48.8%, 38.4%, respectively; NH4(+)-N removal was 91.3%, 74.9%, 65.1%, respectively. Methanogenic activity of UAFB was significantly influenced by low temperatures, while the unavoidable growth of heterotrophic organisms in EGSB also contributed to the sCOD removal, even at 10 °C. Lower working temperature (10/20 °C) limited the growth and activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anaerobic ammonia oxidation bacteria (AnAOB), but improved the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) activity. PMID:25625463

  4. Deposition of ammonium and nitrate in the roots of maize seedlings supplied with different nitrogen salts

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, Arnold J.; Randall, Lesley; Taylor, Alison R.; Silk, Wendy K.

    2012-01-01

    This study measured total osmolarity and concentrations of NH4+, NO3–, K+, soluble carbohydrates, and organic acids in maize seminal roots as a function of distance from the apex, and NH4+ and NO3– in xylem sap for plants receiving NH4+ or NO3– as a sole N-source, NH4+ plus NO3–, or no nitrogen at all. The disparity between net deposition rates and net exogenous influx of NH4+ indicated that growing cells imported NH4+ from more mature tissue, whereas more mature root tissues assimilated or translocated a portion of the NH4+ absorbed. Net root NO3– influx under Ca(NO3)2 nutrition was adequate to account for pools found in the growth zone and provided twice as much as was deposited locally throughout the non-growing tissue. In contrast, net root NO3– influx under NH4NO3 was less than the local deposition rate in the growth zone, indicating that additional NO3– was imported or metabolically produced. The profile of NO3– deposition rate in the growth zone, however, was similar for the plants receiving Ca(NO3)2 or NH4NO3. These results suggest that NO3– may serve a major role as an osmoticant for supporting root elongation in the basal part of the growth zone and maintaining root function in the young mature tissues. PMID:22213811

  5. [Releases of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus from sewage sludge at different microwave energy inputs].

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong; Cheng, Zhen-min; Wang, Ya-wei; Xiao, Ben-yi; Wei, Yuan-song; Liu, Jun-xin

    2009-12-01

    In this study, the releases of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus from sludge treated by microwave irradiation were investigated by batch experiments at two microwave energy inputs (MEIs), 54 kJ and 108 kJ. The final temperatures of the treated samples at these two MEIs were about 56 degrees C and 90 degrees C, respectively. Results showed that the higher MEI was more helpful to release TC, TOC, TN and TP from sludge treated by microwave. The release rates of TC, TN and TP were doubled at the MEI of 108 kJ than that of 54 kJ, and their highest rates were 5.26%, 22.06% and 33.15%, respectively. The MLSS significantly affected releases of TOC, TC, TN, NH4+ -N, TP and ortho-PO4(3-). However, the microwave power (MWP) had no significant effect on these releases except IC. The normalization of these parameters, representing the energy efficiencies of treating sludge, clearly showed that the P (TP) was the highest and the P(IC) was the lowest. However, the average values of P(IC), P(NH4+ -N) and P(ortho-PO4(3-)) decreased at the same MISS concentration, respectively, about 67%, 73% and 56% when the MEI doubled from 54 kJ to 108 kJ. PMID:20187400

  6. Reducing nitrogen runoff from paddy fields with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under different fertilizer regimes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujuan; Wang, Li; Ma, Fang; Zhang, Xue; Fu, Dafang

    2016-08-01

    Nitrogen (N) runoff from paddy fields serves as one of the main sources of water pollution. Our aim was to reduce N runoff from paddy fields by fertilizer management and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). In northeast China, Shuangcheng city in Heilongjiang province, a field experiment was conducted, using rice provided with 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of the local norm of fertilization (including N, phosphorus and potassium), with or without inoculation with Glomus mosseae. The volume, concentrations of total N (TN), dissolved N (DN) and particulate N (PN) of runoff water were measured. We found that the local norm of fertilization led to 18.9kg/ha of N runoff during rice growing season, with DN accounting for 60%-70%. We also found that reduction in fertilization by 20% cut down TN runoff by 8.2% while AMF inoculation decreased N runoff at each fertilizer level and this effect was inhibited by high fertilization. The combination of inoculation with AMF and 80% of the local norm of fertilization was observed to reduce N runoff by 27.2%. Conclusively, we suggested that the contribution of AMF inoculation combined with decreasing fertilization should get more attention to slow down water eutrophication by reducing N runoff from paddy fields. PMID:27521940

  7. Metformin Improves Diabetic Bone Health by Re-Balancing Catabolism and Nitrogen Disposal

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiyan; Guo, Yuqi; Yan, Wenbo; Snyder, Michael P.; Li, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Metformin, a leading drug used to treat diabetic patients, is reported to benefit bone homeostasis under hyperglycemia in animal models. However, both the molecular targets and the biological pathways affected by metformin in bone are not well identified or characterized. The objective of this study is to investigate the bioengergeric pathways affected by metformin in bone marrow cells of mice. Materials and Methods Metabolite levels were examined in bone marrow samples extracted from metformin or PBS -treated healthy (Wild type) and hyperglycemic (diabetic) mice using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based metabolomics. We applied an untargeted high performance LC-MS approach which combined multimode chromatography (ion exchange, reversed phase and hydrophilic interaction (HILIC)) and Orbitrap-based ultra-high accuracy mass spectrometry to achieve a wide coverage. A multivariate clustering was applied to reveal the global trends and major metabolite players. Results A total of 346 unique metabolites were identified, and they are grouped into distinctive clusters that reflected general and diabetes-specific responses to metformin. As evidenced by changes in the TCA and urea cycles, increased catabolism and nitrogen waste that are commonly associated with diabetes were rebalanced upon treatment with metformin. In particular, we found glutamate and succinate whose levels were drastically elevated in diabetic animals were brought back to normal levels by metformin. These two metabolites were further validated as the major targets of metformin in bone marrow stromal cells. Conclusion Overall using limited sample size, our study revealed the metabolic pathways modulated by metformin in bones which have broad implication in our understanding of bone remodeling under hyperglycemia and in finding therapeutic interventions in mammals. PMID:26716870

  8. [Effects of different vegetation restoration patterns on the diversity of soil nitrogen-fixing microbes in Hulunbeier sandy land, Inner Mongolia of North China].

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Wang, Li-Juan; Li, Yu-Jie; Qiao, Jiang; Zhang, Hai-Fang; Song, Xiao-Long; Yang, Dian-Lin

    2013-06-01

    By using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and sequence analysis, this paper studied the nifH gene diversity and community structure of soil nitrogen-fixing microbes in Hulunbeier sandy land of Inner Mongolia under four years management of five vegetation restoration modes, i. e., mixed-planting of Agropyron cristatum, Hedysarum fruticosum, Caragana korshinskii, and Elymus nutans (ACHE) and of Agropyron cristatum and Hedysarum fruticosum (AC), and mono-planting of Caragana korshinskii (UC), Agropyron cristatum (UA), and Hedysarum fruticosum (UH), taking the bare land as the control (CK). There existed significant differences in the community composition of nitrogen-fixing microbes among the five vegetation restoration patterns. The Shannon index of the nifH gene was the highest under ACHE, followed by under AC, UC, UA, and UH, and the lowest in CK. Except that UH and CK had less difference in the Shannon index, the other four vegetation restoration modes had a significantly higher Shannon index than CK (P < 0.05). The phylogenetic analysis showed that the soil nitrogen-fixing microbes under UA, UH, and UC were mainly of cyanobacteria, but the soil nitrogen-fixing microbes under AC and ACHE changed obviously, mainly of proteobacteria, and also of cyanobacteria. The canonical correlation analysis showed that the soil total phosphorus, available phosphorus, total nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen contents under the five vegetation restoration modes had significant effects on the nitrogen-fixing microbial communities, and there existed significant correlations among the soil total phosphorus, available phosphorus, total nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen. It was suggested that the variations of the community composition of soil nitrogen-fixing microbes under the five vegetation restoration modes were resulted from the interactive and combined effects of the soil physical and chemical factors. PMID:24066552

  9. Researching ways to improve nitrogen-use efficiency on dairies through the use of condensed tannin-containing forages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high proportion of protein in forages can be lost at two major points in the dairy farming nitrogen cycle: during the ensiling process and during rumen digestion. The formation of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) during these processes contributes to a reduction in nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), resulti...

  10. Wear and corrosion performance of two different tempers (T6 and T73) of AA7075 aluminium alloy after nitrogen implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, C. M.; Cristóbal, M. J.; Figueroa, R.; Pena, G.

    2015-02-01

    The present work reports the improvements in corrosion resistance and tribological properties achieved after Nitrogen ion implantation into aluminium alloy AA7075 subjected to two different tempers, T6 and T73. Nitrogen implantation at a nominal dose of 2 × 1017 ions/cm2 and at an accelerating voltage of 50 keV produced an increase of the surface hardness of the alloys up to a 130% in T6 samples and to 190% in T73 samples. The increase in hardness has a very positive effect on wear resistance as indicate the significant reduction of specific wear rate on both tempers (about -75% for T6 and -90% for T73 samples). Similarly, an improvement in corrosion properties of both tempers is confirmed by DC techniques, showing a decrease of the registered current density on potentiodynamic curves, and by the increase of impedance shown by AC techniques. This overall improvement in the alloy performance has been mainly attributed to the formation of a stoichiometric aluminium nitride layer (AlN), identified by XPS and GIXRD. The combination of EXCO immersion tests and electrochemical measurements allowed explaining the effect of AlN layer, which behave as a barrier delaying the onset of corrosion and slowing its progress. However, the implantation do not modified the corrosion morphology which seems to be determined mainly by the heat treating conditions. Thereby, in both tempers the localized attack starts at the intermetallic/matrix interface, but in T6 type specimens the progress of corrosion is clearly intergranular, while T73 specimens show the formation of clusters of small geometrical pits, probably related to the biggest MgZn2 strengthening precipitates.