Perfectly matched multiscale simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xiaohu
In this dissertation, the Perfectly Matched Multiscale Simulations (PMMS), a method of discrete-to-continuum multiscale scale computation is studied, revised and extended. In particular, the role of the Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) in PMMS is carefully studied. We show that instead of following the PML theory of continuum, the PML equations of motion in PMMS can be derived by stretching the inter-atomic equilibrium distance. As a result, the displacement solution in the PML region has the desired spatial damping property. It is also shown that the dispersion relationship in the PML region is different from the one in the original lattice. And a reflection coefficient is computed. We also incorporate the local Quasicontinuum (QC) theory with the cohesive Finite Element (FE) method to form a cohesive QC scheme which can deal with arbitrary discontinuities. This idea is built into the PMMS method to simulate a moving screw dislocation. The second part of the dissertation is to extend PMMS to finite temperature. A multiscale thermodynamics is proposed based on the idea of distributed coarse scale thermostats. Each coarse scale node is viewed as a thermostat and has part of atoms associated with it. The atomic motion at the fine scale level is governed by the Nose-Hoover dynamics. At the coarse scale, the expression of a coarse-grained Helmholtz free energy is derived and coupled thermo-mechanical equations are formulated based on it. With the proposed framework, the finite-temperature PMMS method is capable of simulating problems with drastic temperature change. Several numerical examples are computed to validate the method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerr, Robert
2008-09-01
As a child I always used to wonder how someone could be described as a "perfect stranger". Not only did I not know any strangers (by definition), I also didn't really see how anyone could be called perfect - that seemed a bridge too far. Nowadays, however, in my early dotage/mid-life crisis/eternally youthful existence (depending on whether you are talking to my friends, family or me) I begin to see that perhaps at last I have achieved a level of perfection not anticipated in my youth. You see, I have almost completely transmogrified myself from a real physics teacher into a pretend sociologist. I am now, and intend to continue to be for some time, a perfect fraud.
Perfectly matched layer based multilayer absorbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stefaniuk, Tomasz; Stolarek, Marcin; Pastuszczak, Anna; Wróbel, Piotr; Wieciech, Bartosz; Antosiewicz, Tomasz J.; Kotyński, Rafał
2015-05-01
Broadband layered absorbers are analysed theoretically and experimentally. A genetic algorithm is used to opti- mize broadband and wide-angle of incidence metal-dielectric layered absorbers. An approximate representation of the perfectly matched layer with a spatially varied absorption strength is discussed. The PML is realised as a stack of uniform and isotropic metamaterial layers with permittivieties and permeabilities given from the effective medium theory. This approximate representation of PML is based on the effective medium theory and we call it an effective medium PML (EM-PML).1 We compare the re ection properties of the layered absorbers to that of a PML material and demonstrate that after neglecting gain and magnetic properties, the absorber remains functional.
Asymmetric perfectly matched layer for the absorption of waves
Vay, Jean-Luc
2002-02-10
The Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) has become a standard for comparison in the techniques that have been developed to close the system of Maxwell equations (more generally wave equations) when simulating an open system. The original Berenger PML formulation relies on a split version of Maxwell equations with numerical electric and magnetic conductivities. They present here an extension of this formulation which introduces counterparts of the electric and magnetic conductivities affecting the term which is spatially differentiated in the equations. they phase velocity along each direction is also multiplied by an additional coefficient. They show that, under certain constraints on the additional numerical coefficients, this ''medium'' does not generate any reflection at any angle and any frequency and is then a Perfectly Matched Layer. Technically it is a super-set of Berenger's PML to which it reduces for a specific set of parameters and like it, it is anisotropic. However, unlike the PML, it introduces some asymmetry in the absorption rate and is therefore labeled an APML for Asymmetric Perfectly Matched Layer. They present here the numerical considerations that have led them to introduce such a medium as well as its theory. Several finite-different numerical implementations are derived (in one, two and three dimensions) and the performance of the APML is contrasted with that of the PML in one and two dimensions. Using plane wave analysis, they show that the APML implementations lead to higher absorption rates than the considered PML implementations. Although they have considered in this paper the finite-different discretization of Maxwell-like equations only, the APML system of equations may be used with other discretization schemes, such as finite-elements, and may be applied to other equations, for applications beyond electromagnetics.
A PERFECT MATCH CONDITION FOR POINT-SET MATCHING PROBLEMS USING THE OPTIMAL MASS TRANSPORT APPROACH
CHEN, PENGWEN; LIN, CHING-LONG; CHERN, I-LIANG
2013-01-01
We study the performance of optimal mass transport-based methods applied to point-set matching problems. The present study, which is based on the L2 mass transport cost, states that perfect matches always occur when the product of the point-set cardinality and the norm of the curl of the non-rigid deformation field does not exceed some constant. This analytic result is justified by a numerical study of matching two sets of pulmonary vascular tree branch points whose displacement is caused by the lung volume changes in the same human subject. The nearly perfect match performance verifies the effectiveness of this mass transport-based approach. PMID:23687536
Improved and perfect actions in discrete gravity
Bahr, Benjamin; Dittrich, Bianca
2009-12-15
We consider the notion of improved and perfect actions within Regge calculus. These actions are constructed in such a way that they - although being defined on a triangulation - reproduce the continuum dynamics exactly, and therefore capture the gauge symmetries of general relativity. We construct the perfect action in three dimensions with a cosmological constant, and in four dimensions for one simplex. We conclude with a discussion about Regge calculus with curved simplices, which arises naturally in this context.
AN FDTD ALGORITHM WITH PERFECTLY MATCHED LAYERS FOR CONDUCTIVE MEDIA. (R825225)
We extend Berenger's perfectly matched layers (PML) to conductive media. A finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) algorithm with PML as an absorbing boundary condition is developed for solutions of Maxwell's equations in inhomogeneous, conductive media. For a perfectly matched laye...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garai, Anirban; Diosady, Laslo T.; Murman, Scott M.; Madavan, Nateri K.
2016-01-01
The perfectly matched layer (PML) technique is developed in the context of a high- order spectral-element Discontinuous-Galerkin (DG) method. The technique is applied to a range of test cases and is shown to be superior compared to other approaches, such as those based on using characteristic boundary conditions and sponge layers, for treating the inflow and outflow boundaries of computational domains. In general, the PML technique improves the quality of the numerical results for simulations of practical flow configurations, but it also exhibits some instabilities for large perturbations. A preliminary analysis that attempts to understand the source of these instabilities is discussed.
The perfect match: Do criminal stereotypes bias forensic evidence analysis?
Smalarz, Laura; Madon, Stephanie; Yang, Yueran; Guyll, Max; Buck, Sarah
2016-08-01
This research provided the first empirical test of the hypothesis that stereotypes bias evaluations of forensic evidence. A pilot study (N = 107) assessed the content and consensus of 20 criminal stereotypes by identifying perpetrator characteristics (e.g., sex, race, age, religion) that are stereotypically associated with specific crimes. In the main experiment (N = 225), participants read a mock police incident report involving either a stereotyped crime (child molestation) or a nonstereotyped crime (identity theft) and judged whether a suspect's fingerprint matched a fingerprint recovered at the crime scene. Accompanying the suspect's fingerprint was personal information about the suspect of the type that is routinely available to fingerprint analysts (e.g., race, sex) and which could activate a stereotype. Participants most often perceived the fingerprints to match when the suspect fit the criminal stereotype, even though the prints did not actually match. Moreover, participants appeared to be unaware of the extent to which a criminal stereotype had biased their evaluations. These findings demonstrate that criminal stereotypes are a potential source of bias in forensic evidence analysis and suggest that suspects who fit criminal stereotypes may be disadvantaged over the course of the criminal justice process. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27149288
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodrich, John W.
2009-01-01
In this paper we show by means of numerical experiments that the error introduced in a numerical domain because of a Perfectly Matched Layer or Damping Layer boundary treatment can be controlled. These experimental demonstrations are for acoustic propagation with the Linearized Euler Equations with both uniform and steady jet flows. The propagating signal is driven by a time harmonic pressure source. Combinations of Perfectly Matched and Damping Layers are used with different damping profiles. These layer and profile combinations allow the relative error introduced by a layer to be kept as small as desired, in principle. Tradeoffs between error and cost are explored.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Roland; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Bruthiaux, Emilien; Gedney, Stephen D.
2010-05-01
We present and discuss here two different unsplit formulations of the frequency shift PML based on convolution or non convolution integrations of auxiliary memory variables. Indeed, the Perfectly Matched Layer absorbing boundary condition has proven to be very efficient from a numerical point of view for the elastic wave equation to absorb both body waves with non-grazing incidence and surface waves. However, at grazing incidence the classical discrete Perfectly Matched Layer method suffers from large spurious reflections that make it less efficient for instance in the case of very thin mesh slices, in the case of sources located very close to the edge of the mesh, and/or in the case of receivers located at very large offset. In [1] we improve the Perfectly Matched Layer at grazing incidence for the seismic wave equation based on an unsplit convolution technique. This improved PML has a cost that is similar in terms of memory storage to that of the classical PML. We illustrate the efficiency of this improved Convolutional Perfectly Matched Layer based on numerical benchmarks using a staggered finite-difference method on a very thin mesh slice for an isotropic material and show that results are significantly improved compared with the classical Perfectly Matched Layer technique. We also show that, as the classical model, the technique is intrinsically unstable in the case of some anisotropic materials. In this case, retaining an idea of [2], this has been stabilized by adding correction terms adequately along any coordinate axis [3]. More specifically this has been applied to the spectral-element method based on a hybrid first/second order time integration scheme in which the Newmark time marching scheme allows us to match perfectly at the base of the absorbing layer a velocity-stress formulation in the PML and a second order displacement formulation in the inner computational domain.Our CPML unsplit formulation has the advantage to reduce the memory storage of CPML
Najafi-Yazdi, A; Mongeau, L
2012-09-15
The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is a well established computational tool for fluid flow simulations. This method has been recently utilized for low Mach number computational aeroacoustics. Robust and nonreflective boundary conditions, similar to those used in Navier-Stokes solvers, are needed for LBM-based aeroacoustics simulations. The goal of the present study was to develop an absorbing boundary condition based on the perfectly matched layer (PML) concept for LBM. The derivation of formulations for both two and three dimensional problems are presented. The macroscopic behavior of the new formulation is discussed. The new formulation was tested using benchmark acoustic problems. The perfectly matched layer concept appears to be very well suited for LBM, and yielded very low acoustic reflection factor. PMID:23526050
Najafi-Yazdi, A.; Mongeau, L.
2012-01-01
The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is a well established computational tool for fluid flow simulations. This method has been recently utilized for low Mach number computational aeroacoustics. Robust and nonreflective boundary conditions, similar to those used in Navier-Stokes solvers, are needed for LBM-based aeroacoustics simulations. The goal of the present study was to develop an absorbing boundary condition based on the perfectly matched layer (PML) concept for LBM. The derivation of formulations for both two and three dimensional problems are presented. The macroscopic behavior of the new formulation is discussed. The new formulation was tested using benchmark acoustic problems. The perfectly matched layer concept appears to be very well suited for LBM, and yielded very low acoustic reflection factor. PMID:23526050
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bermúdez, A.; Hervella-Nieto, L.; Prieto, A.; Rodríguez, R.
2007-05-01
We introduce an optimal bounded perfectly matched layer (PML) technique by choosing a particular absorbing function with unbounded integral. With this choice, spurious reflections are avoided, even though the thickness of the layer is finite. We show that such choice is easy to implement in a finite element method and overcomes the dependency of parameters for the discrete problem. Finally, its efficiency and accuracy are illustrated with some numerical tests.
Improving Our Teaching: Practice Makes Perfect.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Druger, Marvin
2001-01-01
Discusses effective ways to improve teaching and focuses on self awareness, peer videotaping, and student feedback. Explains the practice cycle with five elements: set goal, practice, feedback, reflection, and adjustment. (YDS)
The Analysis and Construction of Perfectly Matched Layers for the Linearized Euler Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hesthaven, J. S.
1997-01-01
We present a detailed analysis of a recently proposed perfectly matched layer (PML) method for the absorption of acoustic waves. The split set of equations is shown to be only weakly well-posed, and ill-posed under small low order perturbations. This analysis provides the explanation for the stability problems associated with the split field formulation and illustrates why applying a filter has a stabilizing effect. Utilizing recent results obtained within the context of electromagnetics, we develop strongly well-posed absorbing layers for the linearized Euler equations. The schemes are shown to be perfectly absorbing independent of frequency and angle of incidence of the wave in the case of a non-convecting mean flow. In the general case of a convecting mean flow, a number of techniques is combined to obtain a absorbing layers exhibiting PML-like behavior. The efficacy of the proposed absorbing layers is illustrated though computation of benchmark problems in aero-acoustics.
Sensitive Radio-Frequency Measurements of a Quantum Dot by Tuning to Perfect Impedance Matching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ares, N.; Schupp, F. J.; Mavalankar, A.; Rogers, G.; Griffiths, J.; Jones, G. A. C.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Smith, C. G.; Cottet, A.; Briggs, G. A. D.; Laird, E. A.
2016-03-01
Electrical readout of spin qubits requires fast and sensitive measurements, which are hindered by poor impedance matching to the device. We demonstrate perfect impedance matching in a radio-frequency readout circuit, using voltage-tunable varactors to cancel out parasitic capacitances. An optimized capacitance sensitivity of 1.6 aF /√{Hz } is achieved at a maximum source-drain bias of 170 -μ V root-mean-square and with a bandwidth of 18 MHz. Coulomb blockade in a quantum-dot is measured in both conductance and capacitance, and the two contributions are found to be proportional as expected from a quasistatic tunneling model. We benchmark our results against the requirements for single-shot qubit readout using quantum capacitance, a goal that has so far been elusive.
Loop calculus and bootstrap-belief propagation for perfect matchings on arbitrary graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chertkov, M.; Gelfand, A.; Shin, J.
2013-12-01
This manuscript discusses computation of the Partition Function (PF) and the Minimum Weight Perfect Matching (MWPM) on arbitrary, non-bipartite graphs. We present two novel problem formulations - one for computing the PF of a Perfect Matching (PM) and one for finding MWPMs - that build upon the inter-related Bethe Free Energy (BFE), Belief Propagation (BP), Loop Calculus (LC), Integer Linear Programming and Linear Programming frameworks. First, we describe an extension of the LC framework to the PM problem. The resulting formulas, coined (fractional) Bootstrap-BP, express the PF of the original model via the BFE of an alternative PM problem. We then study the zero-temperature version of this Bootstrap-BP formula for approximately solving the MWPM problem. We do so by leveraging the Bootstrap-BP formula to construct a sequence of MWPM problems, where each new problem in the sequence is formed by contracting odd-sized cycles (or blossoms) from the previous problem. This Bootstrap-and-Contract procedure converges reliably and generates an empirically tight upper bound for the MWPM. We conclude by discussing the relationship between our iterative procedure and the famous Blossom Algorithm of Edmonds '65 and demonstrate the performance of the Bootstrap-and-Contract approach on a variety of weighted PM problems.
On absorbing boundary conditions for linearized Euler equations by a perfectly matched layer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hu, Fang Q.
1995-01-01
Recently, Berenger introduced a Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) technique for absorbing electromagnetic waves. In the present paper, a perfectly matched layer is proposed for absorbing out-going two-dimensional waves in a uniform mean flow, generated by linearized Euler equations. It is well known that the linearized Euler equations support acoustic waves, which travel with the speed of sound relative to the mean flow, and vorticity and entropy waves, which travel with the mean flow. The PML equations to be used at a region adjacent to the artificial boundary for absorbing these linear waves are defined. Plane waves solutions to the PML equations are developed and wave propagation and absorption properties are given. It is shown that the theoretical reflection coefficients at an interface between the Euler and PML domains are zero, independent of the angle of incidence and frequency of the waves. As such, the present study points out a possible alternative approach for absorbing out-going waves of the Euler equations with little or no reflection in computation. Numerical examples that demonstrate the validity of the proposed PML equations are also presented.
Feng, Xue; Ben Tahar, Mabrouk; Baccouche, Ryan
2016-01-01
This paper presents a solution for aero-acoustic problems using the Galbrun equation in the time domain with a non-uniform steady mean flow in a two-dimensional coordinate system and the perfectly matched layer technique as the boundary conditions corresponding to an unbounded domain. This approach is based on an Eulerian-Lagrangian description corresponding to a wave equation written only in terms of the Lagrangian perturbation of the displacement. It is an alternative to the Linearized Euler Equations for solving aero-acoustic problems. The Galbrun equation is solved using a mixed pressure-displacement Finite Element Method. A complex Laplace transform scheme is used to study the time dependent variables. Several numerical examples are presented to validate and illustrate the efficiency of the proposed approach. PMID:26827028
The Effectiveness of the Perfectly Matched Layer in Fluid-Structure Interaction Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lucy; Yang, Jubiao
2015-11-01
It is well recognized that spurious reflections on computational domain boundaries can have contamination of the flow field when solving fluid and/or wave equations. The effects are even more pronounced in fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems, since the solid responses may be distorted due to the contaminated flow field. In this work, we implemented the perfectly matched layer (PML) technique and applied it in our fully-coupled immersed finite element method (IFEM), where Navier-Stokes equations are solved in the fluid domain with finite element method. With PML included as an absorbing layer it successfully absorbs outgoing waves from the interior of the computational domain and therefore keeps them from reflecting back from the computational boundary. Validation cases are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the PML in pure computational fluid dynamics cases, and then followed by FSI problems.
A study of perfectly matched layers for joint multicomponent reverse-time migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Qi-Zhen; Sun, Rui-Yan; Qin, Tong; Zhu, Yi-Tong; Bi, Li-Fei
2010-06-01
Reverse-time migration in finite space requires effective boundary processing technology to eliminate the artificial truncation boundary effect in the migration result. On the basis of the elastic velocity-stress equations in vertical transversely isotropic media and the idea of the conventional split perfectly matched layer (PML), the PML wave equations in reverse-time migration are derived in this paper and then the high order staggered grid discrete schemes are subsequently given. Aiming at the “reflections” from the boundary to the computational domain, as well as the effect of seismic event’s abrupt changes at the two ends of the seismic array, the PML arrangement in reverse-time migration is given. The synthetic and real elastic, prestack, multi-component, reverse-time depth migration results demonstrate that this method has much better absorbing effects than other methods and the joint migration produces good imaging results.
Gao, Yingjie; Zhang, Jinhai; Yao, Zhenxing
2015-12-01
The complex frequency shifted perfectly matched layer (CFS-PML) can improve the absorbing performance of PML for nearly grazing incident waves. However, traditional PML and CFS-PML are based on first-order wave equations; thus, they are not suitable for second-order wave equation. In this paper, an implementation of CFS-PML for second-order wave equation is presented using auxiliary differential equations. This method is free of both convolution calculations and third-order temporal derivatives. As an unsplit CFS-PML, it can reduce the nearly grazing incidence. Numerical experiments show that it has better absorption than typical PML implementations based on second-order wave equation. PMID:26723366
Capacitive-loaded interstitial antennas for perfect matching and desirable SAR distributions.
Ahn, Hee-Ran; Lee, Kwyro
2006-02-01
New interstitial antennas are proposed. They basically consist of coaxial cable and two types of capacitive loads. One is tipped at the end of antennas, which helps almost perfect matching possible. The others are located in the middle and needed for better specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution. To distinguish them, one at the end is called the end-capacitive load (ECL) and the others in the middle the middle-capacitive loads (MCLs). Depending on the number of the MCLs, ZMIA (zero MCL interstitial antenna), OMIA (one MCL interstitial antenna) and two MCL interstitial antenna (TMIA) are named and a matching technique based on transmission line theory is suggested. To verify the technique, the three antennas immersed in muscle phantom are designed, fabricated, measured and compared. The measured reflection coefficients of ZMIA, OMIA, and TMIA are -28.4, -21.9, and -22.8 dB, respectively, one of which, -28.4 dB may be considered as the best among those reported. The compared results show that the measured ones are in good agreement with the calculated (predicted) ones. The three antennas are also measured for the SAR distributions. The measured results indicate that the TMIA has the best performance as expected and the region more than 43 degrees C is a rugby ball (major axis 6 cm and minor axis 2.9 cm) with only one TMIA, which confirms that they may be used for the treatment for big-sized and deep-seated tumor or cancer. PMID:16485757
A novel unsplit perfectly matched layer for the second-order acoustic wave equation.
Ma, Youneng; Yu, Jinhua; Wang, Yuanyuan
2014-08-01
When solving acoustic field equations by using numerical approximation technique, absorbing boundary conditions (ABCs) are widely used to truncate the simulation to a finite space. The perfectly matched layer (PML) technique has exhibited excellent absorbing efficiency as an ABC for the acoustic wave equation formulated as a first-order system. However, as the PML was originally designed for the first-order equation system, it cannot be applied to the second-order equation system directly. In this article, we aim to extend the unsplit PML to the second-order equation system. We developed an efficient unsplit implementation of PML for the second-order acoustic wave equation based on an auxiliary-differential-equation (ADE) scheme. The proposed method can benefit to the use of PML in simulations based on second-order equations. Compared with the existing PMLs, it has simpler implementation and requires less extra storage. Numerical results from finite-difference time-domain models are provided to illustrate the validity of the approach. PMID:24794509
Perfectly matched layers in a divergence preserving ADI scheme for electromagnetics
Kraus, C.; Adelmann, A.
2012-01-01
For numerical simulations of highly relativistic and transversely accelerated charged particles including radiation fast algorithms are needed. While the radiation in particle accelerators has wavelengths in the order of 100 {mu}m the computational domain has dimensions roughly five orders of magnitude larger resulting in very large mesh sizes. The particles are confined to a small area of this domain only. To resolve the smallest scales close to the particles subgrids are envisioned. For reasons of stability the alternating direction implicit (ADI) scheme by Smithe et al. [D.N. Smithe, J.R. Cary, J.A. Carlsson, Divergence preservation in the ADI algorithms for electromagnetics, J. Comput. Phys. 228 (2009) 7289-7299] for Maxwell equations has been adopted. At the boundary of the domain absorbing boundary conditions have to be employed to prevent reflection of the radiation. In this paper we show how the divergence preserving ADI scheme has to be formulated in perfectly matched layers (PML) and compare the performance in several scenarios.
Mennemann, Jan-Frederik Jüngel, Ansgar
2014-10-15
Discrete transparent boundary conditions (DTBC) and the Perfectly Matched Layers (PML) method for the realization of open boundary conditions in quantum device simulations are compared, based on the stationary and time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The comparison includes scattering state, wave packet, and transient scattering state simulations in one and two space dimensions. The Schrödinger equation is discretized by a second-order Crank–Nicolson method in case of DTBC. For the discretization with PML, symmetric second-, fourth-, and sixth-order spatial approximations as well as Crank–Nicolson and classical Runge–Kutta time-integration methods are employed. In two space dimensions, a ring-shaped quantum waveguide device is simulated in the stationary and transient regime. As an application, a simulation of the Aharonov–Bohm effect in this device is performed, showing the excitation of bound states localized in the ring region. The numerical experiments show that the results obtained from PML are comparable to those obtained using DTBC, while keeping the high numerical efficiency and flexibility as well as the ease of implementation of the former method. -- Highlights: •In-depth comparison between discrete transparent boundary conditions (DTBC) and PML. •First 2-D transient scattering state simulations using DTBC. •First 2-D transient scattering state simulations of the Aharonov–Bohm effect.
Fang, Sinan; Pan, Heping; Du, Ting; Konaté, Ahmed Amara; Deng, Chengxiang; Qin, Zhen; Guo, Bo; Peng, Ling; Ma, Huolin; Li, Gang; Zhou, Feng
2016-01-01
This study applied the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method to forward modeling of the low-frequency crosswell electromagnetic (EM) method. Specifically, we implemented impulse sources and convolutional perfectly matched layer (CPML). In the process to strengthen CPML, we observed that some dispersion was induced by the real stretch κ, together with an angular variation of the phase velocity of the transverse electric plane wave; the conclusion was that this dispersion was positively related to the real stretch and was little affected by grid interval. To suppress the dispersion in the CPML, we first derived the analytical solution for the radiation field of the magneto-dipole impulse source in the time domain. Then, a numerical simulation of CPML absorption with high-frequency pulses qualitatively amplified the dispersion laws through wave field snapshots. A numerical simulation using low-frequency pulses suggested an optimal parameter strategy for CPML from the established criteria. Based on its physical nature, the CPML method of simply warping space-time was predicted to be a promising approach to achieve ideal absorption, although it was still difficult to entirely remove the dispersion. PMID:27585538
Fang, Sinan; Pan, Heping; Du, Ting; Konaté, Ahmed Amara; Deng, Chengxiang; Qin, Zhen; Guo, Bo; Peng, Ling; Ma, Huolin; Li, Gang; Zhou, Feng
2016-01-01
This study applied the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method to forward modeling of the low-frequency crosswell electromagnetic (EM) method. Specifically, we implemented impulse sources and convolutional perfectly matched layer (CPML). In the process to strengthen CPML, we observed that some dispersion was induced by the real stretch κ, together with an angular variation of the phase velocity of the transverse electric plane wave; the conclusion was that this dispersion was positively related to the real stretch and was little affected by grid interval. To suppress the dispersion in the CPML, we first derived the analytical solution for the radiation field of the magneto-dipole impulse source in the time domain. Then, a numerical simulation of CPML absorption with high-frequency pulses qualitatively amplified the dispersion laws through wave field snapshots. A numerical simulation using low-frequency pulses suggested an optimal parameter strategy for CPML from the established criteria. Based on its physical nature, the CPML method of simply warping space-time was predicted to be a promising approach to achieve ideal absorption, although it was still difficult to entirely remove the dispersion. PMID:27585538
Perfectly Matched Layer for Linearized Euler Equations in Open and Ducted Domains
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tam, Christopher K. W.; Auriault, Laurent; Cambuli, Francesco
1998-01-01
Recently, perfectly matched layer (PML) as an absorbing boundary condition has widespread applications. The idea was first introduced by Berenger for electromagnetic waves computations. In this paper, it is shown that the PML equations for the linearized Euler equations support unstable solutions when the mean flow has a component normal to the layer. To suppress such unstable solutions so as to render the PML concept useful for this class of problems, it is proposed that artificial selective damping terms be added to the discretized PML equations. It is demonstrated that with a proper choice of artificial mesh Reynolds number, the PML equations can be made stable. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate that the stabilized PML performs well as an absorbing boundary condition. In a ducted environment, the wave mode are dispersive. It will be shown that the group velocity and phase velocity of these modes can have opposite signs. This results in a confined environment, PML may not be suitable as an absorbing boundary condition.
Tittl, Andreas; Harats, Moshe G; Walter, Ramon; Yin, Xinghui; Schäferling, Martin; Liu, Na; Rapaport, Ronen; Giessen, Harald
2014-10-28
Plasmonic devices with absorbance close to unity have emerged as essential building blocks for a multitude of technological applications ranging from trace gas detection to infrared imaging. A crucial requirement for such elements is the angle independence of the absorptive performance. In this work, we develop theoretically and verify experimentally a quantitative model for the angular behavior of plasmonic perfect absorber structures based on an optical impedance matching picture. To achieve this, we utilize a simple and elegant k-space measurement technique to record quantitative angle-resolved reflectance measurements on various perfect absorber structures. Particularly, this method allows quantitative reflectance measurements on samples where only small areas have been nanostructured, for example, by electron-beam lithography. Combining these results with extensive numerical modeling, we find that matching of both the real and imaginary parts of the optical impedance is crucial to obtain perfect absorption over a large angular range. Furthermore, we successfully apply our model to the angular dispersion of perfect absorber geometries with disordered plasmonic elements as a favorable alternative to current array-based designs. PMID:25251075
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garai, Anirban; Murman, Scott M.; Madavan, Nateri K.
2016-01-01
used involves modeling the pressure fluctuations as acoustic waves propagating in the far-field relative to a single noise-source inside the buffer region. This approach treats vorticity-induced pressure fluctuations the same as acoustic waves. Another popular approach, often referred to as the "sponge layer," attempts to dampen the flow perturbations by introducing artificial dissipation in the buffer region. Although the artificial dissipation removes all perturbations inside the sponge layer, incoming waves are still reflected from the interface boundary between the computational domain and the sponge layer. The effect of these refkections can be somewhat mitigated by appropriately selecting the artificial dissipation strength and the extent of the sponge layer. One of the most promising variants on the buffer region approach is the Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) technique. The PML technique mitigates spurious reflections from boundaries and interfaces by dampening the perturbation modes inside the buffer region such that their eigenfunctions remain unchanged. The technique was first developed by Berenger for application to problems involving electromagnetic wave propagation. It was later extended to the linearized Euler, Euler and Navier-Stokes equations by Hu and his coauthors. The PML technique ensures the no-reflection property for all waves, irrespective of incidence angle, wavelength, and propagation direction. Although the technique requires the solution of a set of auxiliary equations, the computational overhead is easily justified since it allows smaller domain sizes and can provide better accuracy, stability, and convergence of the numerical solution. In this paper, the PML technique is developed in the context of a high-order spectral-element Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method. The technique is compared to other approaches to treating the in flow and out flow boundary, such as those based on using characteristic boundary conditions and sponge layers. The
Xie, Zhinan; Matzen, René; Cristini, Paul; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Martin, Roland
2016-07-01
A time-domain Legendre spectral-element method is described for full-wave simulation of ocean acoustics models, i.e., coupled fluid-solid problems in unbounded or semi-infinite domains, taking into account shear wave propagation in the ocean bottom. The technique can accommodate range-dependent and depth-dependent wave speed and density, as well as steep ocean floor topography. For truncation of the infinite domain, to efficiently absorb outgoing waves, a fluid-solid complex-frequency-shifted unsplit perfectly matched layer is introduced based on the complex coordinate stretching technique. The complex stretching is rigorously taken into account in the derivation of the fluid-solid matching condition inside the absorbing layer, which has never been done before in the time domain. Two implementations are designed: a convolutional formulation and an auxiliary differential equation formulation because the latter allows for implementation of high-order time schemes, leading to reduced numerical dispersion and dissipation, a topic of importance, in particular, in long-range ocean acoustics simulations. The method is validated for a two dimensional fluid-solid Pekeris waveguide and for a three dimensional seamount model, which shows that the technique is accurate and numerically long-time stable. Compared with widely used paraxial absorbing boundary conditions, the perfectly matched layer is significantly more efficient at absorbing both body waves and interface waves. PMID:27475142
Kong, Xiang-kun; Liu, Shao-Bin Bian, Bo-rui; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Hai-feng
2014-12-15
A novel, compact, and multichannel nonreciprocal absorber through a wave tunneling mechanism in epsilon-negative and matching metamaterials is theoretically proposed. Nonreciprocal absorption properties are acquired via the coupling together of evanescent and propagating waves in an asymmetric configuration, constituted of nonlinear plasma alternated with matching metamaterial. The absorption channel number can be adjusted by changing the periodic number. Due to the positive feedback between nonlinear permittivity of plasma and the inner electric field, bistable absorption and reflection are achieved. Moreover, compared with some truncated photonic crystal or multilayered designs proposed before, our design is more compact and independent of incident angle or polarization. This kind of multilayer structure offers additional opportunities to design novel omnidirectional electromagnetic wave absorbers.
Improved techniques for lower bounds for odd perfect numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brent, R. P.; Cohen, G. L.; Riele, H. J. J. Te
1991-10-01
If N is an odd perfect number, and {q^k}\\vert\\vert N , q prime, k even, then it is almost immediate that N > {q^{2k}} . We prove here that, subject to certain conditions verifiable in polynomial time, in fact N > {q^{5k/2}} . Using this and related results, we are able to extend the computations in an earlier paper to show that N > {10^{300}} .
Improving the Nephrology Match: the Path Forward.
Hsu, Chi-yuan; Parker, Mark G; Ross, Michael J; Schmidt, Rebecca J; Harris, Raymond C
2015-11-01
The Fellowship Match process was designed to provide applicants and program directors with an opportunity to consider all their options before making decisions about post-residency training. In a Match, applicants can choose the programs that best suit their career goals, and program directors can consider all candidates before preparing a rank order list. The Match is a contract, requiring obligations of both programs and applicants to achieve success, ensure uniformity, and standardize participation. PMID:26341128
Matching X-ray beam and detector properties to protein crystals of different perfection
Nave, Colin
2014-01-01
An analysis is given of the effect of different beam and detector parameters on the sharpness of recorded diffraction features for macromolecular crystals of different quality. The crystal quality parameters include crystal strain, crystal or mosaic block size and mosaic block misorientation. Calculations are given for instrument parameters such as angular resolution of the detector, beam divergence and wavelength bandpass to be matched to the intrinsic diffraction properties from these crystals with the aim of obtaining the best possible data out of each crystal. Examples are given using typical crystal imperfections obtained from the literature for both room-temperature and cryo-cooled crystals. Possible implications for the choice of X-ray source, beamline design, detector specifications, instrument set-up and data processing are discussed, together with the limitations of the approach. PMID:24763643
Yu, Meina; Zhou, Xiaochen; Jiang, Jinghua; Yang, Huai; Yang, Deng-Ke
2016-05-11
Chiral nematic liquid crystals possess a self-assembled helical structure and exhibit unique selective reflection in visible and infrared light regions. Their optical properties can be electrically tuned. The tuning involves the unwinding and restoring of the helical structure. We carried out an experimental study on the mechanism of the restoration of the helical structure. We constructed chiral nematic liquid crystals with variable elastic constants by doping bent-dimers and studied their impact on the restoration. With matched twist and bend elastic constants, the helical structure can be restored dramatically fast from the field-induced homeotropic state. Furthermore, defects can be eliminated to produce a perfect planar state which exhibits high selective reflection. PMID:27116620
Improving The Perfect Storm: Overcoming Barriers To Climate Literacy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tillinger, D.
2015-12-01
Students and scientists are trained to speak different languages. Climate science, and the geosciences more broadly, are strictly classroom topics, not subjects appropriate for casual conversation, social media, or creative projects. When students are aware of climate change through the mainstream media, it is nearly always in a political or technological context rather than a scientific one. However, given the opportunity, students are perfectly capable of not only understanding the science behind climate change, but communicating it to their peers. At the American Museum of Natural History, a group of underprivileged high school students visited Nature's Fury: The Science of Natural Disasters to learn about volcanoes, earthquakes, and climate change impacts. They were then able to write pitches and develop trailers for scientifically accurate, but still compelling, disaster movies. Arts in Parts, a creative outreach group formed as a response to Hurricane Sandy, facilitated a workshop in which younger children made mobiles from beach debris they collected while learning about the the threat of sea level rise locally and globally. Participants in an undergraduate natural disasters class wrote guides to understanding climate change that remained factual while showing great creativity and reflecting the personality of each student. Art, humor, and popular culture are the languages that society chooses to use; scientific literacy might benefit from their inclusion.
Improved robust point matching with label consistency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhagalia, Roshni; Miller, James V.; Roy, Arunabha
2010-03-01
Robust point matching (RPM) jointly estimates correspondences and non-rigid warps between unstructured point-clouds. RPM does not, however, utilize information of the topological structure or group memberships of the data it is matching. In numerous medical imaging applications, each extracted point can be assigned group membership attributes or labels based on segmentation, partitioning, or clustering operations. For example, points on the cortical surface of the brain can be grouped according to the four lobes. Estimated warps should enforce the topological structure of such point-sets, e.g. points belonging to the temporal lobe in the two point-sets should be mapped onto each other. We extend the RPM objective function to incorporate group membership labels by including a Label Entropy (LE) term. LE discourages mappings that transform points within a single group in one point-set onto points from multiple distinct groups in the other point-set. The resulting Labeled Point Matching (LPM) algorithm requires a very simple modification to the standard RPM update rules. We demonstrate the performance of LPM on coronary trees extracted from cardiac CT images. We partitioned the point sets into coronary sections without a priori anatomical context, yielding potentially disparate labelings (e.g. [1,2,3] --> [a,b,c,d]). LPM simultaneously estimated label correspondences, point correspondences, and a non-linear warp. Non-matching branches were treated wholly through the standard RPM outlier process akin to non-matching points. Results show LPM produces warps that are more physically meaningful than RPM alone. In particular, LPM mitigates unrealistic branch crossings and results in more robust non-rigid warp estimates.
Kakodkar, Rohit R.; Feser, Joseph P.
2015-09-07
We present a numerical approach to the solution of elastic phonon-interface and phonon-nanostructure scattering problems based on a frequency-domain decomposition of the atomistic equations of motion and the use of perfectly matched layer (PML) boundaries. Unlike molecular dynamic wavepacket analysis, the current approach provides the ability to simulate scattering from individual phonon modes, including wavevectors in highly dispersive regimes. Like the atomistic Green's function method, the technique reduces scattering problems to a system of linear algebraic equations via a sparse, tightly banded matrix regardless of dimensionality. However, the use of PML boundaries enables rapid absorption of scattered wave energies at the boundaries and provides a simple and inexpensive interpretation of the scattered phonon energy flux calculated from the energy dissipation rate in the PML. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated on connected monoatomic chains, for which an analytic solution is known. The parameters defining the PML are found to affect the performance and guidelines for selecting optimal parameters are given. The method is used to study the energy transmission coefficient for connected diatomic chains over all available wavevectors for both optical and longitudinal phonons; it is found that when there is discontinuity between sublattices, even connected chains of equivalent acoustic impedance have near-zero transmission coefficient for short wavelengths. The phonon scattering cross section of an embedded nanocylinder is calculated in 2D for a wide range of frequencies to demonstrate the extension of the method to high dimensions. The calculations match continuum theory for long-wavelength phonons and large cylinder radii, but otherwise show complex physics associated with discreteness of the lattice. Examples include Mie oscillations which terminate when incident phonon frequencies exceed the maximum available frequency in the embedded nanocylinder, and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, K. L.; Treyssède, F.; Hazard, C.
2015-05-01
Among the numerous techniques of non-destructive evaluation, elastic guided waves are of particular interest to evaluate defects inside industrial and civil elongated structures owing to their ability to propagate over long distances. However for guiding structures buried in large solid media, waves can be strongly attenuated along the guide axis due to the energy radiation into the surrounding medium, usually considered as unbounded. Hence, searching the less attenuated modes becomes necessary in order to maximize the inspection distance. In the numerical modeling of embedded waveguides, the main difficulty is to account for the unbounded section. This paper presents a numerical approach combining a semi-analytical finite element method and a perfectly matched layer (PML) technique to compute the so-called trapped and leaky modes in three-dimensional embedded elastic waveguides of arbitrary cross-section. Two kinds of PML, namely the Cartesian PML and the radial PML, are considered. In order to understand the various spectral objects obtained by the method, the PML parameters effects upon the eigenvalue spectrum are highlighted through analytical studies and numerical experiments. Then, dispersion curves are computed for test cases taken from the literature in order to validate the approach.
Assi, Hisham; Cobbold, Richard S C
2016-04-01
Wave propagation in an infinite medium can be numerically simulated by surrounding a finite region by a perfectly matched layer (PML). When the medium is heterogeneous consisting of both solids and liquids, careful consideration is needed in specifying the properties of the PML especially because parts of it lie at the solid-fluid interface. While such a situation could arise in many important fields including marine seismology, where water is in contact with earth, and in biomedical ultrasound, where soft tissue is in contact with bone, no PML formulation exists to appropriately model such coupled problems. Here, a second-order time-domain PML formulation for fluid-solid heterogeneous media in two dimensions that satisfies the interface coupling boundary condition throughout the computational domain is presented. Numerical results are given to establish the applicability and accuracy of such a PML formulation in discrete settings without causing stability issues, spurious reflections, or any other problems. In particular, the effectiveness of the PML in absorbing all kinds of bulk waves, as well as surface and evanescent waves, is studied. PMID:27106301
Zampolli, Mario; Tesei, Alessandra; Jensen, Finn B; Malm, Nils; Blottman, John B
2007-09-01
A frequency-domain finite-element (FE) technique for computing the radiation and scattering from axially symmetric fluid-loaded structures subject to a nonsymmetric forcing field is presented. The Berenger perfectly matched layer (PML), applied directly at the fluid-structure interface, makes it possible to emulate the Sommerfeld radiation condition using FE meshes of minimal size. For those cases where the acoustic field is computed over a band of frequencies, the meshing process is simplified by the use of a wavelength-dependent rescaling of the PML coordinates. Quantitative geometry discretization guidelines are obtained from a priori estimates of small-scale structural wavelengths, which dominate the acoustic field at low to mid frequencies. One particularly useful feature of the PML is that it can be applied across the interface between different fluids. This makes it possible to use the present tool to solve problems where the radiating or scattering objects are located inside a layered fluid medium. The proposed technique is verified by comparison with analytical solutions and with validated numerical models. The solutions presented show close agreement for a set of test problems ranging from scattering to underwater propagation. PMID:17927408
Improving Student Laboratory Performance: How Much Practice Makes Perfect?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Beasley, Warren
1985-01-01
Analyzes three approaches (physical, mental, combined practice) to improving freshman chemistry psychomotor laboratory skills. Although no significant differences were found between treatments, there were significant differences when each was compared to the control sections. Mental practice appears to offer an efficient methods for reinforcement…
A landmark matching algorithm using the improved generalised Hough transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Binbin; Deng, Xingpu
2015-10-01
The paper addresses the issue on landmark matching of images from Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites. In general, satellite imagery is matched against the base image, which is predefined. When the satellite imagery rotation occurs, the accuracy of many landmark matching algorithms deteriorates. To overcome this problem, generalised Hough transform (GHT) is employed for landmark matching. At first an improved GHT algorithm is proposed to enhance rotational invariance. Secondly a global coastline is processed to generate the test image as the satellite image and the base image. Then the test image is matched against the base image using the proposed algorithm. The matching results show that the proposed algorithm is rotation invariant and works well in landmark matching.
Improved artificial bee colony algorithm based gravity matching navigation method.
Gao, Wei; Zhao, Bo; Zhou, Guang Tao; Wang, Qiu Ying; Yu, Chun Yang
2014-01-01
Gravity matching navigation algorithm is one of the key technologies for gravity aided inertial navigation systems. With the development of intelligent algorithms, the powerful search ability of the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm makes it possible to be applied to the gravity matching navigation field. However, existing search mechanisms of basic ABC algorithms cannot meet the need for high accuracy in gravity aided navigation. Firstly, proper modifications are proposed to improve the performance of the basic ABC algorithm. Secondly, a new search mechanism is presented in this paper which is based on an improved ABC algorithm using external speed information. At last, modified Hausdorff distance is introduced to screen the possible matching results. Both simulations and ocean experiments verify the feasibility of the method, and results show that the matching rate of the method is high enough to obtain a precise matching position. PMID:25046019
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayes, Charles E.; McClellan, James H.; Scott, Waymond R.; Kerr, Andrew J.
2016-05-01
This work introduces two advances in wide-band electromagnetic induction (EMI) processing: a novel adaptive matched filter (AMF) and matched subspace detection methods. Both advances make use of recent work with a subspace SVD approach to separating the signal, soil, and noise subspaces of the frequency measurements The proposed AMF provides a direct approach to removing the EMI self-response while improving the signal to noise ratio of the data. Unlike previous EMI adaptive downtrack filters, this new filter will not erroneously optimize the EMI soil response instead of the EMI target response because these two responses are projected into separate frequency subspaces. The EMI detection methods in this work elaborate on how the signal and noise subspaces in the frequency measurements are ideal for creating the matched subspace detection (MSD) and constant false alarm rate matched subspace detection (CFAR) metrics developed by Scharf The CFAR detection metric has been shown to be the uniformly most powerful invariant detector.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duru, Kenneth; Kozdon, Jeremy E.; Kreiss, Gunilla
2015-12-01
In computations, it is now common to surround artificial boundaries of a computational domain with a perfectly matched layer (PML) of finite thickness in order to prevent artificially reflected waves from contaminating a numerical simulation. Unfortunately, the PML does not give us an indication about appropriate boundary conditions needed to close the edges of the PML, or how those boundary conditions should be enforced in a numerical setting. Terminating the PML with an inappropriate boundary condition or an unstable numerical boundary procedure can lead to exponential growth in the PML which will eventually destroy the accuracy of a numerical simulation everywhere. In this paper, we analyze the stability and the well-posedness of boundary conditions terminating the PML for the elastic wave equation in first order form. First, we consider a vertical modal PML truncating a two space dimensional computational domain in the horizontal direction. We freeze all coefficients and consider a left half-plane problem with linear boundary conditions terminating the PML. The normal mode analysis is used to study the stability and well-posedness of the resulting initial boundary value problem (IBVP). The result is that any linear well-posed boundary condition yielding an energy estimate for the elastic wave equation, without the PML, will also lead to a well-posed IBVP for the PML. Second, we extend the analysis to the PML corner region where both a horizontal and vertical PML are simultaneously active. The challenge lies in constructing accurate and stable numerical approximations for the PML and the boundary conditions. Third, we develop a high order accurate finite difference approximation of the PML subject to the boundary conditions. To enable accurate and stable numerical boundary treatments for the PML we construct continuous energy estimates in the Laplace space for a one space dimensional problem and two space dimensional PML corner problem. We use summation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ping, Ping; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Yixian
2014-02-01
In order to conquer the spurious reflections from the truncated edges and maintain the stability in the long-time simulation of elastic wave propagation, several perfectly matched layer (PML) methods have been proposed in the first-order (e.g., velocity-stress equations) and the second-order (e.g., energy equation with displacement unknown only) formulations. The multiaxial perfectly matched layer (M-PML) holds the excellent stability for the long-time simulation of wave propagation, even though it is not perfectly matched in the discretized M-PML equation system. This absorbing boundary approach can offer an alternative way to solve the problem of the late-time instability, especially for anisotropic media, which is also suffered by the convolutional perfectly matched layer (C-PML) that is supposed to be competent to handle most stable problems. The M-PML termination implementation in the first-order formulations is well proposed. The common drawback of the implementation of the first-order M-PML formulations is that it necessitates fundamental reconstruction of the existing codes of the second-order spectral element method (SEM) or finite element method (FEM). Therefore, we propose a nonconvolutional second-order M-PML absorbing boundary condition approach for the wave propagation simulation in elastic media that has not yet been developed before. Two-dimensional numerical simulation validations demonstrate that the proposed second-order M-PML has good performances: 1) superior efficiency and stability of absorbing the spurious elastic wavefields, both the surface waves and body waves, reflected on the boundaries; 2) superior stability in the long-time simulation even in the isotropic medium with a high Poisson's ratio; 3) superior efficiency and stability in the long-time simulation for anisotropic media. This method hence makes the SEM and FEM in the second-order wave equation formulation more efficient and stable for the long-time simulation.
Cheng, Candong; Lee, Joon-Ho; Lim, Kim Hwa; Massoud, Hisham Z.; Liu, Qing Huo
2007-01-01
A 3-D quantum transport solver based on the spectral element method (SEM) and perfectly matched layer (PML) is introduced to solve the 3-D Schrödinger equation with a tensor effective mass. In this solver, the influence of the environment is replaced with the artificial PML open boundary extended beyond the contact regions of the device. These contact regions are treated as waveguides with known incident waves from waveguide mode solutions. As the transmitted wave function is treated as a total wave, there is no need to decompose it into waveguide modes, thus significantly simplifying the problem in comparison with conventional open boundary conditions. The spectral element method leads to an exponentially improving accuracy with the increase in the polynomial order and sampling points. The PML region can be designed such that less than −100 dB outgoing waves are reflected by this artificial material. The computational efficiency of the SEM solver is demonstrated by comparing the numerical and analytical results from waveguide and plane-wave examples, and its utility is illustrated by multiple-terminal devices and semiconductor nanotube devices. PMID:18037971
Improving Semi-Global Matching: Cost Aggregation and Confidence Measure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
d'Angelo, Pablo
2016-06-01
Digital elevation models are one of the basic products that can be generated from remotely sensed imagery. The Semi Global Matching (SGM) algorithm is a robust and practical algorithm for dense image matching. The connection between SGM and Belief Propagation was recently developed, and based on that improvements such as correction of over-counting the data term, and a new confidence measure have been proposed. Later the MGM algorithm has been proposed, it aims at improving the regularization step of SGM, but has only been evaluated on the Middlebury stereo benchmark so far. This paper evaluates these proposed improvements on the ISPRS satellite stereo benchmark, using a Pleiades Triplet and a Cartosat-1 Stereo pair. The over-counting correction slightly improves matching density, at the expense of adding a few outliers. The MGM cost aggregation shows leads to a slight increase of accuracy.
Gun bore flaw image matching based on improved SIFT descriptor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Luan; Xiong, Wei; Zhai, You
2013-01-01
In order to increase the operation speed and matching ability of SIFT algorithm, the SIFT descriptor and matching strategy are improved. First, a method of constructing feature descriptor based on sector area is proposed. By computing the gradients histogram of location bins which are parted into 6 sector areas, a descriptor with 48 dimensions is constituted. It can reduce the dimension of feature vector and decrease the complexity of structuring descriptor. Second, it introduce a strategy that partitions the circular region into 6 identical sector areas starting from the dominate orientation. Consequently, the computational complexity is reduced due to cancellation of rotation operation for the area. The experimental results indicate that comparing with the OpenCV SIFT arithmetic, the average matching speed of the new method increase by about 55.86%. The matching veracity can be increased even under some variation of view point, illumination, rotation, scale and out of focus. The new method got satisfied results in gun bore flaw image matching. Keywords: Metrology, Flaw image matching, Gun bore, Feature descriptor
Kozin, Elliott D.; Sethi, Rosh; Lehmann, Ashton; Remenschneider, Aaron K.; Golub, Justin S.; Reyes, Samuel A.; Emerick, Kevin; Lee, Daniel J.; Gray, Stacey T.
2015-01-01
Introduction “The Match” has become the accepted selection process for graduate medical education. Otomatch.com has provided an online forum for Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (OHNS) Match-related questions for over a decade. Herein, we aim to 1) delineate the types of posts on Otomatch to better understand the perspective of medical students applying for residency and 2) provide recommendations to potentially improve the Match process. Methods Discussion forum posts on Otomatch between December 2001 and April 2014 were reviewed. The title of each thread and total number of views were recorded for quantitative analysis. Each thread was organized into one of six major categories and one of eighteen subcategories, based on chronology within the application cycle and topic. National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) data were utilized for comparison. Results We identified 1,921 threads corresponding to over 2 million page views. Over 40% of threads related to questions about specific programs, and 27% were discussions about interviews. Views, a surrogate measure for popularity, reflected different trends. The majority of individuals viewed posts on interviews (42%), program specific questions (20%) and how to rank programs (11%). Increase in viewership tracked with a rise in applicant numbers based on NRMP data. Conclusions Our study provides an in depth analysis of a popular discussion forum for medical students interested in the OHNS Match. The most viewed posts are about interview dates and questions regarding specific programs. We provide suggestions to address unmet needs for medical students and potentially improve the Match process. PMID:25550223
Singing Video Games May Help Improve Pitch-Matching Accuracy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paney, Andrew S.
2015-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of singing video games on the pitch-matching skills of undergraduate students. Popular games like "Rock Band" and "Karaoke Revolutions" rate players' singing based on the correctness of the frequency of their sung response. Players are motivated to improve their…
Kaltenbacher, Barbara; Kaltenbacher, Manfred; Sim, Imbo
2013-01-01
We consider the second order wave equation in an unbounded domain and propose an advanced perfectly matched layer (PML) technique for its efficient and reliable simulation. In doing so, we concentrate on the time domain case and use the finite-element (FE) method for the space discretization. Our un-split-PML formulation requires four auxiliary variables within the PML region in three space dimensions. For a reduced version (rPML), we present a long time stability proof based on an energy analysis. The numerical case studies and an application example demonstrate the good performance and long time stability of our formulation for treating open domain problems. PMID:23888085
Kaltenbacher, Barbara; Kaltenbacher, Manfred; Sim, Imbo
2013-02-15
We consider the second order wave equation in an unbounded domain and propose an advanced perfectly matched layer (PML) technique for its efficient and reliable simulation. In doing so, we concentrate on the time domain case and use the finite-element (FE) method for the space discretization. Our un-split-PML formulation requires four auxiliary variables within the PML region in three space dimensions. For a reduced version (rPML), we present a long time stability proof based on an energy analysis. The numerical case studies and an application example demonstrate the good performance and long time stability of our formulation for treating open domain problems. PMID:23888085
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaltenbacher, Barbara; Kaltenbacher, Manfred; Sim, Imbo
2013-02-01
We consider the second order wave equation in an unbounded domain and propose an advanced perfectly matched layer (PML) technique for its efficient and reliable simulation. In doing so, we concentrate on the time domain case and use the finite-element (FE) method for the space discretization. Our un-split-PML formulation requires four auxiliary variables within the PML region in three space dimensions. For a reduced version (rPML), we present a long time stability proof based on an energy analysis. The numerical case studies and an application example demonstrate the good performance and long time stability of our formulation for treating open domain problems.
Impedance matched joined drill pipe for improved acoustic transmission
Moss, William C.
2000-01-01
An impedance matched jointed drill pipe for improved acoustic transmission. A passive means and method that maximizes the amplitude and minimize the temporal dispersion of acoustic signals that are sent through a drill string, for use in a measurement while drilling telemetry system. The improvement in signal transmission is accomplished by replacing the standard joints in a drill string with joints constructed of a material that is impedance matched acoustically to the end of the drill pipe to which it is connected. Provides improvement in the measurement while drilling technique which can be utilized for well logging, directional drilling, and drilling dynamics, as well as gamma-ray spectroscopy while drilling post shot boreholes, such as utilized in drilling post shot boreholes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ueno, A.; Namekawa, Y.; Yamazaki, S.; Ohkoshi, K.; Koizumi, I.; Ikegami, K.; Takagi, A.; Oguri, H.
2013-02-01
In order to satisfy the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) 2nd stage requirements of an H- ion beam current of 60mA within normalized emittances of 1.5πmmṡmrad both horizontally and vertically, a flat top beam duty factor of 1.25% (500μs×25Hz) and a life-time of more than 50days, a cesiated RF-driven H- ion source using a internal-antenna developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) was developed. As similar as the SNS ion source, the 60kW pulsed 2MHz-RF and 200W CW 30MHz-RF systems are used in order to produce pulsed high-temperature 2MHz-RF plasma and CW low-temperature 30MHz-RF plasma. Each matching network for each system is composed of two vacuum variable condensers (VVCs). In order to supply pulsed 60kW-2MHz-RF power from the power supply (PS) on the ground level, a one-turn isolation transformer using FINEMET cores is installed between the PS and the J-PARC ion source. By comprehending the matching networks with the LTspice IV simulations and high- and low- power experiments and setting the parameters properly, the pulsed 2MHz-RF power up to 46 kW is successfully input to the hydrogen plasma without any misfire and with almost no reflected power.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baccouche, Ryan; Tahar, Mabrouk Ben; Moreau, Solène
2016-09-01
A Perfectly Matched Layer (PML) for aeroacoustic problems using Galbrun's equation in the presence of an axial and a swirling steady mean flow is investigated in a cylindrical coordinates system. This equation is based on an Eulerian-Lagrangian description and leads to a wave equation written only in terms of the Lagrangian perturbation of the displacement. Galbrun's equation is solved by a mixed pressure-displacement Finite Element Method (FEM). To avoid instabilities in the presence of mean flow, a geometric transformation is presented. The validity and efficiency of the proposed PML formulation are established through comparisons with analytical, semi-analytical model based on Pridmore-Brown equation (extended to an axial and a swirling mean flow) and with multiple-scale models. The interest of the formulation is shown through an example of aeroacoustic radiation.
Accuracy of pitch matching significantly improved by live voice model.
Granot, Roni Y; Israel-Kolatt, Rona; Gilboa, Avi; Kolatt, Tsafrir
2013-05-01
Singing is, undoubtedly, the most fundamental expression of our musical capacity, yet an estimated 10-15% of Western population sings "out-of-tune (OOT)." Previous research in children and adults suggests, albeit inconsistently, that imitating a human voice can improve pitch matching. In the present study, we focus on the potentially beneficial effects of the human voice and especially the live human voice. Eighteen participants varying in their singing abilities were required to imitate in singing a set of nine ascending and descending intervals presented to them in five different randomized blocked conditions: live piano, recorded piano, live voice using optimal voice production, recorded voice using optimal voice production, and recorded voice using artificial forced voice production. Pitch and interval matching in singing were much more accurate when participants repeated sung intervals as compared with intervals played to them on the piano. The advantage of the vocal over the piano stimuli was robust and emerged clearly regardless of whether piano tones were played live and in full view or were presented via recording. Live vocal stimuli elicited higher accuracy than recorded vocal stimuli, especially when the recorded vocal stimuli were produced in a forced vocal production. Remarkably, even those who would be considered OOT singers on the basis of their performance when repeating piano tones were able to pitch match live vocal sounds, with deviations well within the range of what is considered accurate singing (M=46.0, standard deviation=39.2 cents). In fact, those participants who were most OOT gained the most from the live voice model. Results are discussed in light of the dual auditory-motor encoding of pitch analogous to that found in speech. PMID:23528675
Reading + Math = A Perfect Match
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Callan, Richard
2004-01-01
In this article, the author discusses how he incorporates children's literature into the exploration and investigation of various math topics. After doing some activities, he has found that integrating different mathematical topics after discussing books can help children make the connection to mathematics in their daily lives.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lassnigg, Lorenz
2008-01-01
This article discusses the implications of a framework to improve matching supply and demand in VET by a policy to improve quality by using anticipation and foresight approaches. Analysis of the Austrian anticipation system identified some basic aspects such as policy. The analysis focused on two issues: the observation and measurement of…
Improved Real-Time Scan Matching Using Corner Features
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohamed, H. A.; Moussa, A. M.; Elhabiby, M. M.; El-Sheimy, N.; Sesay, Abu B.
2016-06-01
The automation of unmanned vehicle operation has gained a lot of research attention, in the last few years, because of its numerous applications. The vehicle localization is more challenging in indoor environments where absolute positioning measurements (e.g. GPS) are typically unavailable. Laser range finders are among the most widely used sensors that help the unmanned vehicles to localize themselves in indoor environments. Typically, automatic real-time matching of the successive scans is performed either explicitly or implicitly by any localization approach that utilizes laser range finders. Many accustomed approaches such as Iterative Closest Point (ICP), Iterative Matching Range Point (IMRP), Iterative Dual Correspondence (IDC), and Polar Scan Matching (PSM) handles the scan matching problem in an iterative fashion which significantly affects the time consumption. Furthermore, the solution convergence is not guaranteed especially in cases of sharp maneuvers or fast movement. This paper proposes an automated real-time scan matching algorithm where the matching process is initialized using the detected corners. This initialization step aims to increase the convergence probability and to limit the number of iterations needed to reach convergence. The corner detection is preceded by line extraction from the laser scans. To evaluate the probability of line availability in indoor environments, various data sets, offered by different research groups, have been tested and the mean numbers of extracted lines per scan for these data sets are ranging from 4.10 to 8.86 lines of more than 7 points. The set of all intersections between extracted lines are detected as corners regardless of the physical intersection of these line segments in the scan. To account for the uncertainties of the detected corners, the covariance of the corners is estimated using the extracted lines variances. The detected corners are used to estimate the transformation parameters between the
Improved Feature Matching for Mobile Devices with IMU.
Masiero, Andrea; Vettore, Antonio
2016-01-01
Thanks to the recent diffusion of low-cost high-resolution digital cameras and to the development of mostly automated procedures for image-based 3D reconstruction, the popularity of photogrammetry for environment surveys is constantly increasing in the last years. Automatic feature matching is an important step in order to successfully complete the photogrammetric 3D reconstruction: this step is the fundamental basis for the subsequent estimation of the geometry of the scene. This paper reconsiders the feature matching problem when dealing with smart mobile devices (e.g., when using the standard camera embedded in a smartphone as imaging sensor). More specifically, this paper aims at exploiting the information on camera movements provided by the inertial navigation system (INS) in order to make the feature matching step more robust and, possibly, computationally more efficient. First, a revised version of the affine scale-invariant feature transform (ASIFT) is considered: this version reduces the computational complexity of the original ASIFT, while still ensuring an increase of correct feature matches with respect to the SIFT. Furthermore, a new two-step procedure for the estimation of the essential matrix E (and the camera pose) is proposed in order to increase its estimation robustness and computational efficiency. PMID:27527186
Refractive index matching improves optical object detection in paper
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saarela, J. M. S.; Heikkinen, S. M.; Fabritius, T. E. J.; Haapala, A. T.; Myllylä, R. A.
2008-05-01
The demand for high-quality recycled pulp products has increased the need for an efficient deinking process. Assessing process efficiency via residual ink on test sheets has so far been limited to the sheet surface due to the poor transparency of paper. A refractive index matching method was studied to obtain a quantitative measure of particles within the volume of a paper sheet. In actual measurements a glass plate with etched lines from 8.5 µm to 281.1 µm wide was placed beneath the layers of cleared paper, and visible lines were counted with a microscope. Three different paper grades were tested with transparentizing agents. A diffusion theory-based regression model was used to find a correlation between transparency, paper grammage and paper thickness. These equations enable the determination of the size of an object detectable from a paper with a certain transparentizing agent or the parameters of a test sheet needed to detect objects of a known size. Anise oil was found to be the better of the two agents used, and they both had better transparentizing ability than air or water. The transparent paper grammage of the paper grades was determined for all the tested media. Paper's transparency was found to depend more on paper's thickness than grammage.
Using Local Matching to Improve Estimates of Program Impact: Evidence from Project STAR
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Nathan; Steiner, Peter; Cook, Tom
2011-01-01
In this study the authors test whether matching using intact local groups improves causal estimates over those produced using propensity score matching at the student level. Like the recent analysis of Wilde and Hollister (2007), they draw on data from Project STAR to estimate the effect of small class sizes on student achievement. They propose a…
Electrospun Vascular Grafts with Improved Compliance Matching to Native Vessels
Nezarati, Roya M.; Eifert, Michelle B.; Dempsey, David K.; Cosgriff-Hernandez, Elizabeth
2014-01-01
Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is one of the most commonly performed major surgeries in the United States. Autologous vessels such as the saphenous vein are the current gold standard for treatment; however, synthetic vascular prostheses made of expanded poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (ePTFE) or poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) are used when autologous vessels are unavailable. These synthetic grafts have a high failure rate in small diameter (<4 mm) applications due to rapid re-occlusion via intimal hyperplasia. Current strategies to improve clinical performance are focused on preventing intimal hyperplasia by fabricating grafts with compliance and burst pressure similar to native vessels. To this end, we have developed an electrospun vascular graft from segmented polyurethanes with tunable properties by altering material chemistry and graft microarchitecture. Relationships between polyurethane tensile properties and biomechanical properties were elucidated to select polymers with desirable properties. Graft thickness, fiber tortuosity, and fiber fusions were modulated to provide additional tools for controlling graft properties. Using a combination of these strategies, a vascular graft with compliance and burst pressure exceeding the saphenous vein autograft was fabricated (compliance = 6.0 ± 0.6 %/mmHg × 10−4, burst pressure = 2260 ± 160 mmHg). This graft is hypothesized to reduce intimal hyperplasia associated with low compliance in synthetic grafts and improve long term clinical success. Additionally, the fundamental relationships between electrospun mesh microarchitecture and mechanical properties identified in this work can be utilized in various biomedical applications. PMID:24846218
Missile placement analysis based on improved SURF feature matching algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Kaida; Zhao, Wenjie; Li, Dejun; Gong, Xiran; Sheng, Qian
2015-03-01
The precious battle damage assessment by use of video images to analysis missile placement is a new study area. The article proposed an improved speeded up robust features algorithm named restricted speeded up robust features, which combined the combat application of TV-command-guided missiles and the characteristics of video image. Its restrictions mainly reflected in two aspects, one is to restrict extraction area of feature point; the second is to restrict the number of feature points. The process of missile placement analysis based on video image was designed and a video splicing process and random sample consensus purification were achieved. The RSURF algorithm is proved that has good realtime performance on the basis of guarantee the accuracy.
An improved image matching algorithm based on SURF and Delaunay TIN
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Yuan-ming; Cheng, Peng-gen; Chen, Xiao-yong; Zheng, Shou-zhu
2015-12-01
Image matching is one of the key technologies in the image processing. In order to increase its efficiency and precision, a new method for image matching which based on the improved SURF and Delaunay-TIN is proposed in this paper. Based on the original SURF algorithm, three constraint conditions, color invariant model, Delaunay-TIN, triangle similarity function and photography invariant are added into the original SURF model. With the proposed algorithm, the image color information is effectively retained and the erroneous matching rate of features is largely reduced. The experimental results shows that this proposed method has the characteristics of higher matching speed, uniform distribution of feature points to be matched, and higher correct matching rate than the original algorithm does.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DiConsiglio, John
2012-01-01
Alumni relations and stewardship officers have the makings of a strong partnership. Alumni relations and stewardship can be a natural fit--a perfect match even--according to Mary Jo Chiara of St. Joseph's College (SJC) in New York. Both strive to cultivate long-term relationships with constituents and build increasing levels of engagement and…
Improvements of AIMS D2DB matching for product patterns
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishiguchi, Masaharu; Kanno, Koichi; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Ohara, Kana; Son, Donghwan; Tolani, Vikram; Satake, Masaki
2015-07-01
AIMSTM is mainly used in photomask industry for verifying the print impact of mask defects on wafer CD in DUV lithography process. AIMS verification is typically used in D2D configuration, wherein two AIMS images, reference and defect, are captured and compared. Criticality of defects is then analyzed off these images using a number of criteria. As photomasks with aggressive OPC, sub-resolution assist features (SRAFs), and single-die are being routinely manufactured in production environment, it is required to improve cycle time through the AIMS step by saving time in searching for and capturing an adequate reference AIMS image. One solution is to use AIMS D2DB methodology which compares AIMS defect image with a reference image simulated from the corresponding mask design data. In general, such simulation needs calibration with the native images captured on the AIMS tool. In our previous paper we evaluated a calibration procedure directly using the defect AIMS image and compared the analysis results with a D2D capture using AIA (Aerial Image Analyzer) software product from Luminescent Technologies (now part of KLA-Tencor Corporation). The results showed that calibration using defect AIMS image does not influence AIMS judgment as long as the defect size is less than 100nm in case of typical basic patterns. When applying this methodology to product patterns, it was found that there were differences between reference AIMS image and simulation image. These differences influenced AIMS verification. Then new method to compensate would be needed. Our approach to compensate the difference between AIMS image and simulated image is examination with some factors likely to cause the difference.
Stephens, Thomas J; Sigler, Monya L; Herndon, James H; Dispensa, Lisa; Le Moigne, Anne
2016-01-01
Objective To assess the efficacy of Imedeen Time Perfection for improving the appearance and condition of photoaged skin in healthy women. Methods This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial enrolled healthy women, 35–60 years of age, with Fitzpatrick I–III and Glogau II–III skin types and mild-to-moderate facial fine lines/wrinkles. The eligible subjects were randomized to receive two tablets daily of either Imedeen Time Perfection (Imedeen) or a matching placebo for 12 weeks. Efficacy assessments included investigator rating of 16 photoaging parameters (ie, global facial appearance and 15 individual facial parameters and the average of all parameters), instrumentation (ie, ultrasound dermal density, moisture level of the stratum corneum, transepidermal water loss, cutometry), and subjects’ self-assessment. Differences in the mean change from baseline to week 12 values on these outcomes were compared between Imedeen and placebo using analysis of variance or a paired t-test. Results Seventy-four subjects with primarily Fitzpatrick skin type III (78%–79%) and Glogau type III (53%–58%) completed the study (Imedeen: n=36; placebo: n=38). The mean difference in change from baseline to week 12 for global facial assessment significantly favored Imedeen over placebo (−0.52; P=0.0017). Additionally, the mean differences in the average of all facial photoaging parameters (−0.29), mottled hyperpigmentation (−0.25), tactile laxity (−0.24), dullness (−0.47), and tactile roughness (−0.62) significantly favored Imedeen over placebo (P≤0.05). Significantly greater increases in ultrasound dermal density (+11% vs +1%; P≤0.05) and stratum corneum moisturization (+30% vs +6%; P≤0.05) were also observed for Imedeen than for placebo. There were no significant differences on other instrumental outcomes. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that Imedeen Time Perfection can positively affect the appearance of photoaged skin
Similarity measures of full polarimetric SAR images fusion for improved SAR image matching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, H.
2015-06-01
China's first airborne SAR mapping system (CASMSAR) developed by Chinese Academy of Surveying and Mapping can acquire high-resolution and full polarimetric (HH, HV, VH and VV) Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. It has the ability to acquire X-band full polarimetric SAR data at a resolution of 0.5m. However, the existence of speckles which is inherent in SAR imagery affects visual interpretation and image processing badly, and challenges the assumption that conjugate points appear similar to each other in matching processing. In addition, researches show that speckles are multiplicative speckles, and most similarity measures of SAR image matching are sensitive to them. Thus, matching outcomes of SAR images acquired by most similarity measures are not reliable and with bad accuracy. Meanwhile, every polarimetric SAR image has different backscattering information of objects from each other and four polarimetric SAR data contain most basic and a large amount of redundancy information to improve matching. Therefore, we introduced logarithmically transformation and a stereo matching similarity measure into airborne full polarimetric SAR imagery. Firstly, in order to transform the multiplicative speckles into additivity ones and weaken speckles' influence on similarity measure, logarithmically transformation have to be taken to all images. Secondly, to prevent performance degradation of similarity measure caused by speckles, measure must be free or insensitive of additivity speckles. Thus, we introduced a stereo matching similarity measure, called Normalized Cross-Correlation (NCC), into full polarimetric SAR image matching. Thirdly, to take advantage of multi-polarimetric data and preserve the best similarity measure value, four measure values calculated between left and right single polarimetric SAR images are fused as final measure value for matching. The method was tested for matching under CASMSAR data. The results showed that the method delivered an effective
Arbel, A. ); Sokolov, M. )
1994-04-01
The load matching characteristics of a thermosyphonic solar water heater can be improved by utilizing a thermostatic flow control (TFC). Simulation of the performance of a typical thermosyphonic domestic solar heater, with and without a TFC, was used to evaluate the yearly requirement of auxiliary energy to meet four different loads. The amount of yearly auxiliary energy required to fully match the load demands is used as a measure of the matching improvement. Results indicate that, for load temperatures of 40[degrees], 60[degrees], and 70[degrees] C, the thermostatic flow controller improves the system's (multi- or single-pass) performance, while the common single-pass system without the thermostatic flow controller is the best choice for a 50[degrees]C load temperature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tankersley, R. A.; Bourexis, P.; Kaser, J. S.
2011-12-01
Within the research and academic communities there is a growing interest in improving the communication skills of scientists, especially their ability to communicate the substance and importance of their research to general audiences. To address this need, we developed an intensive, two-day workshop [Presentation Boot Camp (PBC)] that focuses on presenting scientific concepts and research findings more effectively to both scientific/technical audiences and the general public. Through a series of interactive sessions, participants receive training in planning and preparing presentations that communicate messages more clearly and effectively and that have a lasting impact on the audience. Topics include: knowing and identifying the needs of the audience, highlighting big ideas and take-home messages, designing effective visuals, decoding complex concepts with diagrams, and displaying data in meaningful ways. PBC attendees also receive training in the use and application of the Presentation Skills Protocol (PSP) and associated rubric for evaluating the effectiveness of scientific presentations. The PSP was originally developed as part of a NSF Graduate Teaching Fellows in K-12 Education Program (GK-12) to assess and track the impact of the GK-12 experience on the communication skills of Graduate Teaching Fellows. The PSP focuses on eleven presentation skill sets, including organization, accuracy, relevance, message, language, equity, delivery, technology, use of time, questions, and presence. The associated rubric operationally defines each of the skill sets at three categorical levels of competence: (1) proficient, (2) developing, and (3) needs attention. The PSP may be used to (1) provide scientists with regular and consistent feedback on the quality and effectiveness of their classroom and research presentations and (2) design professional development activities and training programs that target specific presentation skills. However, our evaluation results indicate
Cui, Lingli; Wu, Na; Wang, Wenjing; Kang, Chenhui
2014-01-01
This paper presents a new method for a composite dictionary matching pursuit algorithm, which is applied to vibration sensor signal feature extraction and fault diagnosis of a gearbox. Three advantages are highlighted in the new method. First, the composite dictionary in the algorithm has been changed from multi-atom matching to single-atom matching. Compared to non-composite dictionary single-atom matching, the original composite dictionary multi-atom matching pursuit (CD-MaMP) algorithm can achieve noise reduction in the reconstruction stage, but it cannot dramatically reduce the computational cost and improve the efficiency in the decomposition stage. Therefore, the optimized composite dictionary single-atom matching algorithm (CD-SaMP) is proposed. Second, the termination condition of iteration based on the attenuation coefficient is put forward to improve the sparsity and efficiency of the algorithm, which adjusts the parameters of the termination condition constantly in the process of decomposition to avoid noise. Third, composite dictionaries are enriched with the modulation dictionary, which is one of the important structural characteristics of gear fault signals. Meanwhile, the termination condition of iteration settings, sub-feature dictionary selections and operation efficiency between CD-MaMP and CD-SaMP are discussed, aiming at gear simulation vibration signals with noise. The simulation sensor-based vibration signal results show that the termination condition of iteration based on the attenuation coefficient enhances decomposition sparsity greatly and achieves a good effect of noise reduction. Furthermore, the modulation dictionary achieves a better matching effect compared to the Fourier dictionary, and CD-SaMP has a great advantage of sparsity and efficiency compared with the CD-MaMP. The sensor-based vibration signals measured from practical engineering gearbox analyses have further shown that the CD-SaMP decomposition and reconstruction algorithm
Cui, Lingli; Wu, Na; Wang, Wenjing; Kang, Chenhui
2014-01-01
This paper presents a new method for a composite dictionary matching pursuit algorithm, which is applied to vibration sensor signal feature extraction and fault diagnosis of a gearbox. Three advantages are highlighted in the new method. First, the composite dictionary in the algorithm has been changed from multi-atom matching to single-atom matching. Compared to non-composite dictionary single-atom matching, the original composite dictionary multi-atom matching pursuit (CD-MaMP) algorithm can achieve noise reduction in the reconstruction stage, but it cannot dramatically reduce the computational cost and improve the efficiency in the decomposition stage. Therefore, the optimized composite dictionary single-atom matching algorithm (CD-SaMP) is proposed. Second, the termination condition of iteration based on the attenuation coefficient is put forward to improve the sparsity and efficiency of the algorithm, which adjusts the parameters of the termination condition constantly in the process of decomposition to avoid noise. Third, composite dictionaries are enriched with the modulation dictionary, which is one of the important structural characteristics of gear fault signals. Meanwhile, the termination condition of iteration settings, sub-feature dictionary selections and operation efficiency between CD-MaMP and CD-SaMP are discussed, aiming at gear simulation vibration signals with noise. The simulation sensor-based vibration signal results show that the termination condition of iteration based on the attenuation coefficient enhances decomposition sparsity greatly and achieves a good effect of noise reduction. Furthermore, the modulation dictionary achieves a better matching effect compared to the Fourier dictionary, and CD-SaMP has a great advantage of sparsity and efficiency compared with the CD-MaMP. The sensor-based vibration signals measured from practical engineering gearbox analyses have further shown that the CD-SaMP decomposition and reconstruction algorithm
Improved shape-signature and matching methods for model-based robotic vision
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schwartz, J. T.; Wolfson, H. J.
1987-01-01
Researchers describe new techniques for curve matching and model-based object recognition, which are based on the notion of shape-signature. The signature which researchers use is an approximation of pointwise curvature. Described here is curve matching algorithm which generalizes a previous algorithm which was developed using this signature, allowing improvement and generalization of a previous model-based object recognition scheme. The results and the experiments described relate to 2-D images. However, natural extensions to the 3-D case exist and are being developed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noordmans, Herke Jan; van den Biesen, Pieter; de Roode, Rowland; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf
2008-02-01
An interactive image matching program has been developed to help ophthalmologists in perceiving subtle differences between sequential images obtained during fluorescein angiography. In a pilot experiment, it appeared that the image matching program could effectively correct camera alignment errors. By offering simple tools like image overlay, blinking and image subtraction, differences between angiograms can be greatly enhanced and interpreted. It appeared that newly formed, leaking blood vessels could be detected at an earlier stage of the disease process using these tools. Treatment can be initiated right away, thereby preventing the patient from having additional visual loss. The matching program seems to improve the quality of fundus diagnostics but needs to be validated in future studies.
E-beam column monitoring for improved CD SEM stability and tool matching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayes, Timothy S.; Henninger, Randall S.
2000-06-01
Tool matching is an important metric for in-line semiconductor metrology systems. The ability to obtain the same measurement results on two or more systems allows a semiconductor fabrication facility (fab) to deploy product in an efficient manner improving overall equipment efficiency (OEE). Many parameters on the critical dimension scanning electron microscopes (CDSEMs) can affect the long-term precision component to the tool-matching metric. One such class of parameters is related to the electron beam column stability. The alignment and condition of the gun and apertures, as well as astigmatism correction, have all been found to affect the overall measurements of the CDSEM. These effects are now becoming dominant factors in sub-3nm tool-matching criteria. This paper discusses the methodologies of column parameter monitoring and actions and controls for improving overall stability. Results have shown that column instabilities caused by contamination, gun fluctuations, component failures, detector efficiency, and external issues can be identified through parameter monitoring. The Applied Materials (AMAT) 7830 Series CDSEMs evaluated at IBM's Burlington, Vermont manufacturing facility have demonstrated 5 nm tool matching across 11 systems, which has resulted in non-dedicated product deployment and has significantly reduced cost of ownership.
Developmental improvement and age-related decline in unfamiliar face matching.
Megreya, Ahmed M; Bindemann, Markus
2015-01-01
Age-related changes have been documented widely in studies of face recognition and eyewitness identification. However, it is not clear whether these changes arise from general developmental differences in memory or occur specifically during the perceptual processing of faces. We report two experiments to track such perceptual changes using a 1-in- 10 (experiment 1) and 1-in-1 (experiment 2) matching task for unfamiliar faces. Both experiments showed improvements in face matching during childhood and adult-like accuracy levels by adolescence. In addition, face-matching performance declined in adults of the age of 65 years. These findings indicate that developmental improvements and aging-related differences in face processing arise from changes in the perceptual encoding of faces. A clear face inversion effect was also present in all age groups. This indicates that those age-related changes in face matching reflect a quantitative effect, whereby typical face processes are engaged but do not operate at the best-possible level. These data suggest that part of the problem of eyewitness identification in children and elderly persons might reflect impairments in the perceptual processing of unfamiliar faces. PMID:26489213
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Padma, S.; Sanjeevi, S.
2014-11-01
Mangrove ecosystem study is one of the main beneficiaries of the application of hyperspectral data and spectral matching techniques. Diversity and density of mangrove species leads to complexity of the ecosystem. Hence, species level mapping becomes difficult. Though hyperspectral images are appropriate for such a mapping, different mangrove species with closely matching spectra pose a challenge. This paper proposes a novel hyperspectral matching algorithm by integrating the stochastic Jeffries-Matusita measure (JM) and deterministic Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) to accurately map most species of the mangrove ecosystem. The JM-SAM algorithm signifies the combination of an quantitative angle measure (SAM) and an qualitative distance measure (JM). The spectral capabilities of both the measures are orthogonally projected using tangent and sine functions to result in the combined algorithm. The developed JM-SAM algorithm is implemented to discriminate the mangrove species and the landcover classes of Pichavaram and Muthupet mangrove forests of southern India using the Hyperion datasets. The developed algorithm is extended in a supervised framework for improved classification of the Hyperion image. The reference spectra of the mangrove species and other cover types are extracted from the Hyperion image. From the values of relative spectral discriminatory probability and relative discriminatory entropy value, it can be inferred that hybrid JM-SAM matching measure results in improved discriminability than the individual SAM and JM algorithms. This performance is reflected in the classification results where the JM-SAM (TAN) and JM-SAM (SIN) matching algorithms yielded an improved accuracy of (86.25%,85%) and (88.10%, 86.96) for both the study sites.
Improving the efficiency of the genetic code by varying the codon length--the perfect genetic code.
Doig, A J
1997-10-01
The function of DNA is to specify protein sequences. The four-base "alphabet" used in nucleic acids is translated to the 20 base alphabet of proteins (plus a stop signal) via the genetic code. The code is neither overlapping nor punctuated, but has mRNA sequences read in successive triplet codons until reaching a stop codon. The true genetic code uses three bases for every amino acid. The efficiency of the genetic code can be significantly increased if the requirement for a fixed codon length is dropped so that the more common amino acids have shorter codon lengths and rare amino acids have longer codon lengths. More efficient codes can be derived using the Shannon-Fano and Huffman coding algorithms. The compression achieved using a Huffman code cannot be improved upon. I have used these algorithms to derive efficient codes for representing protein sequences using both two and four bases. The length of DNA required to specify the complete set of protein sequences could be significantly shorter if transcription used a variable codon length. The restriction to a fixed codon length of three bases means that it takes 42% more DNA than the minimum necessary, and the genetic code is 70% efficient. One can think of many reasons why this maximally efficient code has not evolved: there is very little redundancy so almost any mutation causes an amino acid change. Many mutations will be potentially lethal frame-shift mutations, if the mutation leads to a change in codon length. It would be more difficult for the machinery of transcription to cope with a variable codon length. Nevertheless, in the strict and narrow sense of coding for protein sequences using the minimum length of DNA possible, the Huffman code derived here is perfect. PMID:9344740
Video object tracking using improved chamfer matching and condensation particle filter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Tao; Ding, Xiaoqing; Wang, Shengjin; Wang, Kongqiao
2008-02-01
Object tracking is an essential problem in the field of video and image processing. Although tracking algorithms working on gray video are convenient in actual applications, they are more difficult to be developed than those using color features, since less information is taken into account. Few researches have been dedicated to tracking object using edge information. In this paper, we proposed a novel video tracking algorithm based on edge information for gray videos. This method adopts the combination of a condensation particle filter and an improved chamfer matching. The improved chamfer matching is rotation invariant and capable of estimating the shift between an observed image patch and a template by an orientation distance transform. A modified discriminative likelihood measurement method that focuses on the difference is adopted. These values are normalized and used as the weights of particles which predict and track the object. Experiment results show that our modifications to chamfer matching improve its performance in video tracking problem. And the algorithm is stable, robust, and can effectively handle rotation distortion. Further work can be done on updating the template to adapt to significant viewpoint and scale changes of the appearance of the object during the tracking process.
Dependability Improvement for PPM Compressed Data by Using Compression Pattern Matching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitakami, Masato; Okura, Toshihiro
Data compression is popularly applied to computer systems and communication systems in order to reduce storage size and communication time, respectively. Since large data are used frequently, string matching for such data takes a long time. If the data are compressed, the time gets much longer because decompression is necessary. Long string matching time makes computer virus scan time longer and gives serious influence to the security of data. From this, CPM (Compression Pattern Matching) methods for several compression methods have been proposed. This paper proposes CPM method for PPM which achieves fast virus scan and improves dependability of the compressed data, where PPM is based on a Markov model, uses a context information, and achieves a better compression ratio than BW transform and Ziv-Lempel coding. The proposed method encodes the context information, which is generated in the compression process, and appends the encoded data at the beginning of the compressed data as a header. The proposed method uses only the header information. Computer simulation says that augmentation of the compression ratio is less than 5 percent if the order of the PPM is less than 5 and the source file size is more than 1M bytes, where order is the maximum length of the context used in PPM compression. String matching time is independent of the source file size and is very short, less than 0.3 micro seconds in the PC used for the simulation.
The design of an improved matched filter in DSSS-GMSK system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei-tong, Mao; Lin-hua', Zheng; Liang-jun, Xiang; Tan, Wang
2016-02-01
This paper introduces the principle of DSSS-GMSK system, analyses the superiority of GMSK modulation over MSK modulation. Accord that the method of de-spread before demodulation can effectively improve the capability of the system with spread spectrum gain, this paper researches an improved method with matched filter to de-spread and demodulate the DSSS signals. The local PN code is modulated with GMSK modulation before being correlated with received signal, then we can get the synchronous PN code, de-spread and demodulate the signal. MATLAB simulation shows that this method is more efficient than the method of demodulation before despread in low SNR environment.
An improved tropospheric ozone database retrieved from SCIAMACHY Limb-Nadir-Matching method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Jia; Rozanov, Alexei; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Ebojie, Felix; Rahpoe, Nabiz; Bötel, Stefan; Burrows, John
2015-04-01
Tropospheric ozone is one of the most important green-house gases and the main component of photochemical smog. It is either transported from the stratosphere or photochemically produced during pollution events in the troposphere that threaten the respiratory system. To investigate sources, transport mechanisms of tropospheric ozone in a global view, limb nadir matching (LNM) technique applied with SCIAMACHY instrument is used to retrieve tropospheric ozone. With the fact that 90% ozone is located in the stratosphere and only about 10% can be observed in the troposphere, the usage of satellite data requires highly qualified nadir and limb data. In this study we show an improvement of SCIAMACHY limb data as well as its influence on tropospheric ozone results. The limb nadir matching technique is also refined to increase the quality of the tropospheric ozone. The results are validated with ozone sonde measurements.
Improved Electrical Load Match In California By Combining Solar Thermal Power Plants with Wind Farms
Vick, B. D.; Clark, R. N.; Mehos, M.
2008-01-01
will be during mid-day. Adding six hours of solar thermal storage improved the utility load match significantly in the evening and reliability was also improved. Storage improves reliability because electrical production can remain at a high level even when there are lulls in the wind or clouds decrease the solar energy striking the parabolic trough mirrors. The solar energy from Mojave Desert and wind energy in the major wind farm areas are not a good match to utility load during the winter in California, but if the number of wind farms were increased east of San Diego, then the utility renewable energy match would be improved (this is because the wind energy is highest during the winter in this area). Currently in California, wind electrical generation only contributes 1.8% of total electricity and solar electrical generation only contributes 0.2%. Combining wind farms and solar thermal power plants with storage would allow a large percentage of the electrical load in California to be met by wind and solar energy due to a better match with utility load than by either renewable resource separately.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Fei; Hui, Mei; Han, Wei; Wang, Peng; Dong, Li-quan; Zhao, Yue-jin
2010-12-01
Image block matching is one of the motion estimation methods for video inter-frame coding and digital image stabilization. The methods used for matching and searching will greatly affect the accuracy and speed of block matching. The block matching method based on the oblique vectors is suggested in this paper where matching parameters contain both horizontal and vertical vectors in the image blocks at the same time. Improved matching information can be obtained after making correlative calculations in the oblique direction. A novel search method of matching block based on the idea of simulated annealing is presented in this paper to improve the searching speed, accuracy and robustness in the fast operation of the block-matching motion estimation. The simulated annealing algorithm can easily escape from the trap of local minima effectively. With the two methods the block matching can be used for motion estimation at the real-time image processing system and high estimation accuracy can be achieved. An image stabilization system based on DSP (Digital Signal Processing) system is developed to verify this algorithm. Results show that both the matching accuracy and the search speed are improved with the methods presented.
Neuroplasticity and MRI: A perfect match.
Hamaide, Julie; De Groof, Geert; Van der Linden, Annemie
2016-05-01
Numerous studies have illustrated the benefits of physical workout and cognitive exercise on brain function and structure and, more importantly, on decelerating cognitive decline in old age and promoting functional rehabilitation following injury. Despite these behavioral observations, the exact mechanisms underlying these neuroplastic phenomena remain obscure. This gap illustrates the need for carefully designed in-depth studies using valid models and translational tools which allow to uncover the observed events up to the molecular level. We promote the use of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) because it is a powerful translational imaging technique able to extract functional, structural, and biochemical information from the entire brain. Advanced processing techniques allow performing voxel-based analyses which are capable of detecting novel loci implicated in specific neuroplastic events beyond traditional regions-of-interest analyses. In addition, its non-invasive character sets it as currently the best global imaging tool for performing dynamic longitudinal studies on the same living subject, allowing thus exploring the effects of experience, training, treatment etc. in parallel to additional measures such as age, cognitive performance scores, hormone levels, and many others. The aim of this review is (i) to introduce how different animal models contributed to extend the knowledge on neuroplasticity in both health and disease, over different life stages and upon various experiences, and (ii) to illustrate how specific MRI techniques can be applied successfully to inform on the fundamental mechanisms underlying experience-dependent or activity-induced neuroplasticity including cognitive processes. PMID:26260430
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luppescu, Gregory C.; Dawson, Alexander J.; Michaels, Jennifer E.
2016-02-01
Although bulk waves have served as the industry standard in nondestructive evaluation for many years, guided waves (Lamb waves in plates) have become the focus of many current research efforts because they are able to interrogate larger areas of a structure in less time. Despite this advantage, guided waves also have characteristics that obfuscate data interpretation. The first property of guided waves that complicates analysis is their dispersive nature: their wave speed is a function of frequency. The second is that they are multimodal: they propagate as multiple symmetric and antisymmetric modes. Using pulse-compression techniques and a priori calculations of theoretical dispersion curves, the dispersive matched filter attempts to take advantage of these otherwise undesirable characteristics by maximizing the autocorrelation for only one mode, ideally increasing both the signal-to-noise ratio and time-resolution of ultrasonic guided wave measurements. In this research, the responses from broadband chirp excitations are recorded from a sparse transducer array after propagation through an aluminum plate containing no damage and simulated damage. Dispersive matched filtering is applied to the measurements and localization images are generated using the delay-and-sum method. Imaging results are compared to those obtained with narrowband tone burst excitations in terms of their ability to detect and localize the different scatterers. Results show that the dispersive matched filter notably improves the quality of the localization images.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamada, Keisuke; Matsuhisa, Hiroshi; Utsuno, Hideo
2014-01-01
This paper describes new methods that improve the efficiency of a piezoelectric element attached to a beam based on mechanical impedance matching. Piezoelectric elements are often used to suppress bending vibration. They are also used as sensors or energy-harvesting sources. In such cases, the piezoelectric element is usually bonded onto the host structure by an adhesive bond. The efficiency of the piezoelectric element depends on the bonding location. When the efficiency is insufficient despite a good location, the size or number of piezoelectric elements is increased. However, the efficiency of the piezoelectric element is usually insufficient even if these methods are applied. In order to enhance the efficiency of the piezoelectric elements without using active methods, this paper proposes a mechanical impedance matching method that uses spacers or tuning for the size of the piezoelectric element. Because the attached piezoelectric element and host structure in this region behave as springs in parallel to the bending deformation, the stored strain energy in the piezoelectric element is maximized under the condition that their spring constants match. The proposed methods were theoretically investigated with consideration for the effects of the bonding layer, spacers, and host structure. The optimum conditions for the proposed methods were theoretically formulated, and the effectiveness of the proposed methods and theoretical analysis was verified through simulations and experiments.
Accuracy Improvement by the Least Squares Image Matching Evaluated on the CARTOSAT-1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afsharnia, H.; Azizi, A.; Arefi, H.
2015-12-01
Generating accurate elevation data from satellite images is a prerequisite step for applications that involve disaster forecasting and management using GIS platforms. In this respect, the high resolution satellite optical sensors may be regarded as one of the prime and valuable sources for generating accurate and updated elevation information. However, one of the main drawbacks of conventional approaches for automatic elevation generation from these satellite optical data using image matching techniques is the lack of flexibility in the image matching functional models to take dynamically into account the geometric and radiometric dissimilarities between the homologue stereo image points. The classical least squares image matching (LSM) method, on the other hand, is quite flexible in incorporating the geometric and radiometric variations of image pairs into its functional model. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate and compare the potential of the LSM technique for generating disparity maps from high resolution satellite images to achieve sub pixel precision. To evaluate the rate of success of the LSM, the size of the y-disparities between the homologous points is taken as the precision criteria. The evaluation is performed on the Cartosat-1 stereo along track images over a highly mountainous terrain. The precision improvement is judged based on the standard deviation and the scatter pattern of the y-disparity data. The analysis of the results indicate that, the LSM has achieved the matching precision of about 0.18 pixels which is clearly superior to the manual pointing that yielded the precision of 0.37 pixels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robertson, Scott Patrick
To improve relatively poor outcomes for locally-advanced lung cancer patients, many current efforts are dedicated to minimizing uncertainties in radiotherapy. This enables the isotoxic delivery of escalated tumor doses, leading to better local tumor control. The current dissertation specifically addresses inter-fractional uncertainties resulting from patient setup variability. An automatic block-matching registration (BMR) algorithm is implemented and evaluated for the purpose of directly localizing advanced-stage lung tumors during image-guided radiation therapy. In this algorithm, small image sub-volumes, termed "blocks", are automatically identified on the tumor surface in an initial planning computed tomography (CT) image. Each block is independently and automatically registered to daily images acquired immediately prior to each treatment fraction. To improve the accuracy and robustness of BMR, this algorithm incorporates multi-resolution pyramid registration, regularization with a median filter, and a new multiple-candidate-registrations technique. The result of block-matching is a sparse displacement vector field that models local tissue deformations near the tumor surface. The distribution of displacement vectors is aggregated to obtain the final tumor registration, corresponding to the treatment couch shift for patient setup correction. Compared to existing rigid and deformable registration algorithms, the final BMR algorithm significantly improves the overlap between target volumes from the planning CT and registered daily images. Furthermore, BMR results in the smallest treatment margins for the given study population. However, despite these improvements, large residual target localization errors were noted, indicating that purely rigid couch shifts cannot correct for all sources of inter-fractional variability. Further reductions in treatment uncertainties may require the combination of high-quality target localization and adaptive radiotherapy.
Stamoulis, Catherine; Betensky, Rebecca A
2016-01-01
We aim to improve the performance of the previously proposed signal decomposition matched filtering (SDMF) method [26] for the detection of copy-number variations (CNV) in the human genome. Through simulations, we show that the modified SDMF is robust even at high noise levels and outperforms the original SDMF method, which indirectly depends on CNV frequency. Simulations are also used to develop a systematic approach for selecting relevant parameter thresholds in order to optimize sensitivity, specificity and computational efficiency. We apply the modified method to array CGH data from normal samples in the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) and compare detected CNVs to those estimated using circular binary segmentation (CBS) [19], a hidden Markov model (HMM)-based approach [11] and a subset of CNVs in the Database of Genomic Variants. We show that a substantial number of previously identified CNVs are detected by the optimized SDMF, which also outperforms the other two methods. PMID:27295643
An Improved Algorithm of Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) Method for Firearm Evidence Identifications
Tong, Mingsi; Song, John; Chu, Wei
2015-01-01
The Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) method was invented at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for firearm evidence identifications. The CMC method divides the measured image of a surface area, such as a breech face impression from a fired cartridge case, into small correlation cells and uses four identification parameters to identify correlated cell pairs originating from the same firearm. The CMC method was validated by identification tests using both 3D topography images and optical images captured from breech face impressions of 40 cartridge cases fired from a pistol with 10 consecutively manufactured slides. In this paper, we discuss the processing of the cell correlations and propose an improved algorithm of the CMC method which takes advantage of the cell correlations at a common initial phase angle and combines the forward and backward correlations to improve the identification capability. The improved algorithm is tested by 780 pairwise correlations using the same optical images and 3D topography images as the initial validation. PMID:26958441
Zhou, Ru; Zhong, Dexing; Han, Jiuqiang
2013-01-01
The performance of conventional minutiae-based fingerprint authentication algorithms degrades significantly when dealing with low quality fingerprints with lots of cuts or scratches. A similar degradation of the minutiae-based algorithms is observed when small overlapping areas appear because of the quite narrow width of the sensors. Based on the detection of minutiae, Scale Invariant Feature Transformation (SIFT) descriptors are employed to fulfill verification tasks in the above difficult scenarios. However, the original SIFT algorithm is not suitable for fingerprint because of: (1) the similar patterns of parallel ridges; and (2) high computational resource consumption. To enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the algorithm for fingerprint verification, we propose a SIFT-based Minutia Descriptor (SMD) to improve the SIFT algorithm through image processing, descriptor extraction and matcher. A two-step fast matcher, named improved All Descriptor-Pair Matching (iADM), is also proposed to implement the 1:N verifications in real-time. Fingerprint Identification using SMD and iADM (FISiA) achieved a significant improvement with respect to accuracy in representative databases compared with the conventional minutiae-based method. The speed of FISiA also can meet real-time requirements. PMID:23467056
Zhou, Ru; Zhong, Dexing; Han, Jiuqiang
2013-01-01
The performance of conventional minutiae-based fingerprint authentication algorithms degrades significantly when dealing with low quality fingerprints with lots of cuts or scratches. A similar degradation of the minutiae-based algorithms is observed when small overlapping areas appear because of the quite narrow width of the sensors. Based on the detection of minutiae, Scale Invariant Feature Transformation (SIFT) descriptors are employed to fulfill verification tasks in the above difficult scenarios. However, the original SIFT algorithm is not suitable for fingerprint because of: (1) the similar patterns of parallel ridges; and (2) high computational resource consumption. To enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of the algorithm for fingerprint verification, we propose a SIFT-based Minutia Descriptor (SMD) to improve the SIFT algorithm through image processing, descriptor extraction and matcher. A two-step fast matcher, named improved All Descriptor-Pair Matching (iADM), is also proposed to implement the 1:N verifications in real-time. Fingerprint Identification using SMD and iADM (FISiA) achieved a significant improvement with respect to accuracy in representative databases compared with the conventional minutiae-based method. The speed of FISiA also can meet real-time requirements. PMID:23467056
An Improved Algorithm of Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) Method for Firearm Evidence Identifications.
Tong, Mingsi; Song, John; Chu, Wei
2015-01-01
The Congruent Matching Cells (CMC) method was invented at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for firearm evidence identifications. The CMC method divides the measured image of a surface area, such as a breech face impression from a fired cartridge case, into small correlation cells and uses four identification parameters to identify correlated cell pairs originating from the same firearm. The CMC method was validated by identification tests using both 3D topography images and optical images captured from breech face impressions of 40 cartridge cases fired from a pistol with 10 consecutively manufactured slides. In this paper, we discuss the processing of the cell correlations and propose an improved algorithm of the CMC method which takes advantage of the cell correlations at a common initial phase angle and combines the forward and backward correlations to improve the identification capability. The improved algorithm is tested by 780 pairwise correlations using the same optical images and 3D topography images as the initial validation. PMID:26958441
An improvement in IMRT QA results and beam matching in linacs using statistical process control.
Gagneur, Justin D; Ezzell, Gary A
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study is to apply the principles of statistical process control (SPC) in the context of patient specific intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) QA to set clinic-specific action limits and evaluate the impact of changes to the multileaf collimator (MLC) calibrations on IMRT QA results. Ten months of IMRT QA data with 247 patient QAs collected on three beam-matched linacs were retrospectively analyzed with a focus on the gamma pass rate (GPR) and the average ratio between the measured and planned doses. Initial control charts and action limits were calculated. Based on this data, changes were made to the leaf gap parameter for the MLCs to improve the consistency between linacs. This leaf gap parameter is tested monthly using a MLC sweep test. A follow-up dataset with 424 unique QAs were used to evaluate the impact of the leaf gap parameter change. The initial data average GPR was 98.6% with an SPC action limit of 93.7%. The average ratio of doses was 1.003, with an upper action limit of 1.017 and a lower action limit of 0.989. The sweep test results for the linacs were -1.8%, 0%, and +1.2% from nominal. After the adjustment of the leaf gap parameter, all sweep test results were within 0.4% of nominal. Subsequently, the average GPR was 99.4% with an SPC action limit of 97.3%. The average ratio of doses was 0.997 with an upper action limit of 1.011 and a lower action limit of 0.981. Applying the principles of SPC to IMRT QA allowed small differences between closely matched linacs to be identified and reduced. Ongoing analysis will monitor the process and be used to refine the clinical action limits for IMRT QA. PMID:25207579
Catarino, S O; Minas, G; Miranda, J M
2016-07-01
This paper reports the use of acoustic waves for promoting and improving streaming in tridimensional polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cuvettes of 15mm width×14mm height×2.5mm thickness. The acoustic waves are generated by a 28μm thick poly(vinylidene fluoride) - PVDF - piezoelectric transducer in its β phase, actuated at its resonance frequency: 40MHz. The acoustic transmission properties of two materials - SU-8 and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) - were numerically compared. It was concluded that PDMS inhibits, while SU-8 allows, the transmission of the acoustic waves to the propagation medium. Therefore, by simulating the acoustic transmission properties of different materials, it is possible to preview the acoustic behavior in the fluidic system, which allows the optimization of the best layout design, saving costs and time. This work also presents a comparison between numerical and experimental results of acoustic streaming obtained with that β-PVDF transducer in the movement and in the formation of fluid recirculation in tridimensional closed domains. Differences between the numerical and experimental results are credited to the high sensitivity of acoustic streaming to the experimental conditions and to limitations of the numerical method. The reported study contributes for the improvement of simulation models that can be extremely useful for predicting the acoustic effects of new materials in fluidic devices, as well as for optimizing the transducers and matching layers positioning in a fluidic structure. PMID:27044029
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vixie Sandy, Mary
2013-01-01
This study investigated a problem facing policy makers, education leaders, and external providers of service that support or facilitate school-based change designed to improve teaching and learning: How to match school needs with providers' services in ways that maximize school improvement. A growing number of organizations provide service to…
Oran, Betül; Cao, Kai; Saliba, Rima M.; Rezvani, Katayoun; de Lima, Marcos; Ahmed, Sairah; Hosing, Chitra M.; Popat, Uday R.; Carmazzi, Yudith; Kebriaei, Partow; Nieto, Yago; Rondon, Gabriela; Willis, Dana; Shah, Nina; Parmar, Simrit; Olson, Amanda; Moore, Brandt; Marin, David; Mehta, Rohtesh; Fernández-Viña, Marcelo; Champlin, Richard E.; Shpall, Elizabeth J.
2015-01-01
Cord blood transplant requires less stringent human leukocyte antigen matching than unrelated donors. In 133 patients with hematologic malignancies who engrafted after double cord blood transplantation with a dominant unit, we studied the effect of high resolution testing at 4 loci (-A, -B, -C, -DRB1) for its impact on 2-year transplant-related mortality. Ten percent of the dominant cord blood units were matched at 7–8/8 alleles using HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1; 25% were matched at 6/8, 40% at 5/8, and 25% at 4/8 or less allele. High resolution typing at 4 loci showed that there was no 2-year transplant-related mortality in 7–8/8 matched patients. Patients with 5–6/8 matched dominant cord blood units had 2-year transplant-related mortality of 39% while patients with 4/8 or less matched units had 60%. Multivariate regression analyses confirmed the independent effect of high resolution typing on the outcome when adjusted for age, diagnosis, CD34+ cell dose infused, graft manipulation and cord to cord matching. The worst prognostic group included patients aged over 32 years with 4/8 or less matched cord blood units compared with patients who were either younger than 32 years old independent of allele-level matching, or aged over 32 years but with 5–6/8 matched cord blood units (Hazard Ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.3–3.7; P<0.001). Patients with 7–8/8 matched units remained the group with the best prognosis. Our data suggest that high resolution typing at 4 loci and selecting cord blood units matched at at least 5/8 alleles may reduce transplant-related mortality after double cord blood transplantation. PMID:26250579
Jeffries Matusita based mixed-measure for improved spectral matching in hyperspectral image analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Padma, S.; Sanjeevi, S.
2014-10-01
This paper proposes a novel hyperspectral matching technique by integrating the Jeffries-Matusita measure (JM) and the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm. The deterministic Spectral Angle Mapper and stochastic Jeffries-Matusita measure are orthogonally projected using the sine and tangent functions to increase their spectral ability. The developed JM-SAM algorithm is implemented in effectively discriminating the landcover classes and cover types in the hyperspectral images acquired by PROBA/CHRIS and EO-1 Hyperion sensors. The reference spectra for different land-cover classes were derived from each of these images. The performance of the proposed measure is compared with the performance of the individual SAM and JM approaches. From the values of the relative spectral discriminatory probability (RSDPB) and relative discriminatory entropy value (RSDE), it is inferred that the hybrid JM-SAM approach results in a high spectral discriminability than the SAM and JM measures. Besides, the use of the improved JM-SAM algorithm for supervised classification of the images results in 92.9% and 91.47% accuracy compared to 73.13%, 79.41%, and 85.69% of minimum-distance, SAM and JM measures. It is also inferred that the increased spectral discriminability of JM-SAM measure is contributed by the JM distance. Further, it is seen that the proposed JM-SAM measure is compatible with varying spectral resolutions of PROBA/CHRIS (62 bands) and Hyperion (242 bands).
Goeke, R.; Farnsworth, A.V.; Neumann, C.C.; Sweatt, W.C.; Warren, M.E.; Weed, J.W.
1996-06-01
This report discusses a novel fabrication process to produce nearly perfect optics. The process utilizes vacuum deposition techniques to optimally modify polished optical substrate surfaces. The surface figure, i.e. contour of a polished optical element, is improved by differentially filling in the low spots on the surface using flux from a physical vapor deposition source through an appropriate mask. The process is expected to enable the manufacture of diffraction-limited optical systems for the UV, extreme UV, and soft X-ray spectral regions, which would have great impact on photolithography and astronomy. This same technique may also reduce the fabrication cost of visible region optics with aspheric surfaces.
Bush, K; Holcombe, C; Kapp, D; Buyyounouski, M; Hancock, S; Xing, L; Atwood, T; King, M
2014-06-15
Purpose: Radiation-therapy dose-escalation beyond 80Gy may improve tumor control rates for patients with localized prostate cancer. Since toxicity remains a concern, treatment planners must achieve dose-escalation while still adhering to dose-constraints for surrounding structures. Patientmatching is a machine-learning technique that identifies prior patients that dosimetrically match DVH parameters of target volumes and critical structures prior to actual treatment planning. We evaluated the feasibility of patient-matching in (1)identifying candidates for safe dose-escalation; and (2)improving DVH parameters for critical structures in actual dose-escalated plans. Methods: We analyzed DVH parameters from 319 historical treatment plans to determine which plans could achieve dose-escalation (8640cGy) without exceeding Zelefsky dose-constraints (rectal and bladder V47Gy<53%, and V75.6Gy<30%, max-point dose to rectum of 8550cGy, max dose to PTV< 9504cGy). We then estimated the percentage of cases that could achieve safe dose-escalation using software that enables patient matching (QuickMatch, Siris Medical, Mountain View, CA). We then replanned a case that had violated DVH constraints with DVH parameters from patient matching, in order to determine whether this previously unacceptable plan could be made eligible with this automated technique. Results: Patient-matching improved the percentage of patients eligible for dose-escalation from 40% to 63% (p=4.7e-4, t-test). Using a commercial optimizer augmented with patient-matching, we demonstrated a case where patient-matching improved the toxicity-profile such that dose-escalation would have been possible; this plan was rapidly achieved using patientmatching software. In this patient, all lower-dose constraints were met with both the denovo and patient-matching plan. In the patient-matching plan, maximum dose to the rectum was 8385cGy, while the denovo plan failed to meet the maximum rectal constraint at 8571c
Improving cross-resolution face matching using ensemble-based co-transfer learning.
Bhatt, Himanshu S; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank; Ratha, Nalini K
2014-12-01
Face recognition algorithms are generally trained for matching high-resolution images and they perform well for similar resolution test data. However, the performance of such systems degrades when a low-resolution face image captured in unconstrained settings, such as videos from cameras in a surveillance scenario, are matched with high-resolution gallery images. The primary challenge, here, is to extract discriminating features from limited biometric content in low-resolution images and match it to information rich high-resolution face images. The problem of cross-resolution face matching is further alleviated when there is limited labeled positive data for training face recognition algorithms. In this paper, the problem of cross-resolution face matching is addressed where low-resolution images are matched with high-resolution gallery. A co-transfer learning framework is proposed, which is a cross-pollination of transfer learning and co-training paradigms and is applied for cross-resolution face matching. The transfer learning component transfers the knowledge that is learnt while matching high-resolution face images during training to match low-resolution probe images with high-resolution gallery during testing. On the other hand, co-training component facilitates this transfer of knowledge by assigning pseudolabels to unlabeled probe instances in the target domain. Amalgamation of these two paradigms in the proposed ensemble framework enhances the performance of cross-resolution face recognition. Experiments on multiple face databases show the efficacy of the proposed algorithm and compare with some existing algorithms and a commercial system. In addition, several high profile real-world cases have been used to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed approach in addressing the tough challenges. PMID:25314702
An improved earthquake catalogue in the Marmara Sea region, Turkey, using massive template matching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matrullo, Emanuela; Lengliné, Olivier; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Karabulut, Hayrullah; Bouchon, Michel
2016-04-01
After the 1999 Izmit earthquake, the Main Marmara Fault (MMF) represents a 150 km unruptured segment of the North Anatolian Fault located below the Marmara Sea. One of the principal issue for seismic hazard assessment in the region is to know if the MMF is totally or partially locked and where the nucleation of the major forthcoming event is going to take place. The area is actually one of the best-instrumented fault systems in Europe. Since year 2007, various seismic networks both broadband, short period and OBS stations were deployed in order to monitor continuously the seismicity along the MMF and the related fault systems. A recent analysis of the seismicity recorded during the 2007-2012 period has provided new insights on the recent evolution of this important regional seismic gap. This analysis was based on events detected with STA/LTA procedure and manually picked P and S wave arrivals times (Schmittbuhl et al., 2015). In order to extend the level of details and to fully take advantage of the dense seismic network we improved the seismic catalog using an automatic earthquake detection technique based on a template matching approach. This approach uses known earthquake seismic signals in order to detect newer events similar to the tested one from waveform cross-correlation. To set-up the methodology and verify the accuracy and the robustness of the results, we initially focused in the eastern part of the Marmara Sea (Cinarcik basin) and compared new detection with those manually identified. Through the massive analysis of cross-correlation based on the template scanning of the continuous recordings, we construct a refined catalog of earthquakes for the Marmara Sea in 2007-2014 period. Our improved earthquake catalog will provide an effective tool to improve the catalog completeness, to monitor and study the fine details of the time-space distribution of events, to characterize the repeating earthquake source processes and to understand the mechanical state of
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scott, Paul
2007-01-01
In "Just Perfect: Part 1," the author defined a perfect number N to be one for which the sum of the divisors d (1 less than or equal to d less than N) is N. He gave the first few perfect numbers, starting with those known by the early Greeks. In this article, the author provides an extended list of perfect numbers, with some comments about their…
Visual Bearing-Only Simultaneous Localization and Mapping with Improved Feature Matching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strasdat, Hauke; Stachniss, Cyrill; Bennewitz, Maren; Burgard, Wolfram
In this this paper, we present a solution to the simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) problem for a robot equipped with a single perspective camera. We track extracted features over multiple frames to estimate the depth information. To represent the joint posterior about the trajectory of the robot and a map of the environment, we apply a Rao-Blackwellized particle filter. We present a novel method to match features using a cost function that takes into account differences between the feature descriptor vectors as well as spatial information. To find an optimal matching between observed features, we apply a global optimization algorithm. Experimental results obtained with a real robot show that our approach is robust and tolerant to noise in the odometry information of the robot. Furthermore, we present experiments that demonstrate the superior performance of our feature matching technique compared to other approaches.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arsalidou, Marie; Pascual-Leone, Juan; Johnson, Janice
2010-01-01
The theory of constructive operators was used as a framework to design two versions of a paradigm (color matching task, CMT) in which items are parametrically ordered in difficulty, and differ only contextually. Items in CMT-Balloon are facilitating, whereas items in CMT-Clown contain misleading cues. Participants of ages 7-14 years and adults (N…
Improved electrical load match in California by combining solar thermal power plants with wind farms
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The ability of wind and solar electrical energy generation to match the current utility electrical load in California was analyzed. We compared the renewable electrical generation and the utility load in California using actual hourly wind farm data at two different locations and predicted hourly p...
Zhu, Minchen; Wang, Weizhi; Liu, Binghan; Huang, Jingshan
2013-01-01
Video panoramic image stitching is extremely time-consuming among other challenges. We present a new algorithm: (i) Improved, self-adaptive selection of Harris corners. The successful stitching relies heavily on the accuracy of corner selection. We fragment each image into numerous regions and select corners within each region according to the normalized variance of region grayscales. Such a selection is self-adaptive and guarantees that corners are distributed proportional to region texture information. The possible clustering of corners is also avoided. (ii) Multiple-constraint corner matching. The traditional Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) algorithm is inefficient, especially when handling a large number of images with similar features. We filter out many inappropriate corners according to their position information, and then generate candidate matching pairs based on grayscales of adjacent regions around corners. Finally we apply multiple constraints on every two pairs to remove incorrectly matched pairs. By a significantly reduced number of iterations needed in RANSAC, the stitching can be performed in a much more efficient manner. Experiments demonstrate that (i) our corner matching is four times faster than normalized cross-correlation function (NCC) rough match in RANSAC and (ii) generated panoramas feature a smooth transition in overlapping image areas and satisfy real-time human visual requirements. PMID:24324675
Matrix-Matching as an Improvement Strategy for the Detection of Pesticide Residues.
Giacinti, Géraldine; Raynaud, Christine; Capblancq, Sophie; Simon, Valérie
2016-05-01
More than 90% of the pesticides residues in apples are located in the peel. We developed a gas chromatography/ion trap tandem mass spectrometry method for investigating all detectable residues in the peel of 3 apple varieties. Sample preparation is based on the use of the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe method on the whole fruit, the flesh, and the peel. Pesticide residues were quantified with solvent-matched and matrix-matched standards, by spiking apple sample extracts. Matrix effects dependent on the type of extract (fruit, flesh, or peel) and the apple variety were detected. The best data processing methods involved normalizing matrix effect rates by matrix-matched internal/external calibration. Boscalid, captan, chlorpyrifos, fludioxonil, and pyraclostrobin were the most frequently detected pesticides. However, their concentrations in the whole fruit were below European maximum residue levels. Despite negative matrix effects, the residues in peel were detected at concentrations up to 10 times higher than those in whole fruits. Consequently, other pesticide residues present at concentrations below the limit of quantification in the whole fruit were detected in the peel. PMID:27095394
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ray, J. R.; Smalley, L. L.
1982-01-01
The description of the spin given here is classical in that it is intrinsic but not quantized. The approach in this matter is similar to, for example, the work of Bailey and Israel (1973, 1975, 1979), where the fluid particles, which have intrinsic spin, may be galaxies or clusters of galaxies. The elementary particles of these objects and the 'ferromagnetic alignment' of their quantum spins are not resorted to in order to describe a fluid with spin. Physically this means that the equation of motion for the spin tensor is a modified Fermi-Walker transport equation (Misner et al., 1973), arising as a direct result of the inclusion of spin as an intrinsic variable in the thermodynamic description of the internal energy. The variables in this description are classical variables throughout and are not microscopic fields. An improved perfect-fluid energy-momentum tensor that includes spin and torsion is presented. Use is made of a Lagrangian variational principle based on the tetrad formalism of Halbwach (1960) and the method od constraints of Ray (1972).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Landphair, Juliette
2007-01-01
What exactly is perfect? Students describe perfection as a combination of characteristics valued by their peer culture: intelligence, thin and fit physical appearance, social poise. As students chug through their daily lives--morning classes, organization meetings, club sports practice or the gym, dinner, another class, more meetings, library,…
Köster, Andreas; Spura, Thomas; Rutkai, Gábor; Kessler, Jan; Wiebeler, Hendrik; Vrabec, Jadran; Kühne, Thomas D
2016-07-15
The accuracy of water models derived from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations by means on an improved force-matching scheme is assessed for various thermodynamic, transport, and structural properties. It is found that although the resulting force-matched water models are typically less accurate than fully empirical force fields in predicting thermodynamic properties, they are nevertheless much more accurate than generally appreciated in reproducing the structure of liquid water and in fact superseding most of the commonly used empirical water models. This development demonstrates the feasibility to routinely parametrize computationally efficient yet predictive potential energy functions based on accurate ab initio molecular dynamics simulations for a large variety of different systems. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27232117
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Tianyang; Wüchner, Roland; Sicklinger, Stefan; Bletzinger, Kai-Uwe
2016-05-01
This paper investigates data mapping between non-matching meshes and geometries in fluid-structure interaction. Mapping algorithms for surface meshes including nearest element interpolation, the standard mortar method and the dual mortar method are studied and comparatively assessed. The inconsistency problem of mortar methods at curved edges of fluid-structure-interfaces is solved by a newly developed enforcing consistency approach, which is robust enough to handle even the case that fluid boundary facets are totally not in contact with structure boundary elements due to high fluid refinement. Besides, tests with representative geometries show that the mortar methods are suitable for conservative mapping but it is better to use the nearest element interpolation in a direct way, and moreover, the dual mortar method can give slight oscillations. This work also develops a co-rotating mapping algorithm for 1D beam elements. Its novelty lies in the ability of handling large displacements and rotations.
A dynamic system matching technique for improving the accuracy of MEMS gyroscopes
Stubberud, Peter A.; Stubberud, Stephen C.; Stubberud, Allen R.
2014-12-10
A classical MEMS gyro transforms angular rates into electrical values through Euler's equations of angular rotation. Production models of a MEMS gyroscope will have manufacturing errors in the coefficients of the differential equations. The output signal of a production gyroscope will be corrupted by noise, with a major component of the noise due to the manufacturing errors. As is the case of the components in an analog electronic circuit, one way of controlling the variability of a subsystem is to impose extremely tight control on the manufacturing process so that the coefficient values are within some specified bounds. This can be expensive and may even be impossible as is the case in certain applications of micro-electromechanical (MEMS) sensors. In a recent paper [2], the authors introduced a method for combining the measurements from several nominally equal MEMS gyroscopes using a technique based on a concept from electronic circuit design called dynamic element matching [1]. Because the method in this paper deals with systems rather than elements, it is called a dynamic system matching technique (DSMT). The DSMT generates a single output by randomly switching the outputs of several, nominally identical, MEMS gyros in and out of the switch output. This has the effect of 'spreading the spectrum' of the noise caused by the coefficient errors generated in the manufacture of the individual gyros. A filter can then be used to eliminate that part of the spread spectrum that is outside the pass band of the gyro. A heuristic analysis in that paper argues that the DSMT can be used to control the effects of the random coefficient variations. In a follow-on paper [4], a simulation of a DSMT indicated that the heuristics were consistent. In this paper, analytic expressions of the DSMT noise are developed which confirm that the earlier conclusions are valid. These expressions include the various DSMT design parameters and, therefore, can be used as design tools for DSMT
A dynamic system matching technique for improving the accuracy of MEMS gyroscopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stubberud, Peter A.; Stubberud, Stephen C.; Stubberud, Allen R.
2014-12-01
A classical MEMS gyro transforms angular rates into electrical values through Euler's equations of angular rotation. Production models of a MEMS gyroscope will have manufacturing errors in the coefficients of the differential equations. The output signal of a production gyroscope will be corrupted by noise, with a major component of the noise due to the manufacturing errors. As is the case of the components in an analog electronic circuit, one way of controlling the variability of a subsystem is to impose extremely tight control on the manufacturing process so that the coefficient values are within some specified bounds. This can be expensive and may even be impossible as is the case in certain applications of micro-electromechanical (MEMS) sensors. In a recent paper [2], the authors introduced a method for combining the measurements from several nominally equal MEMS gyroscopes using a technique based on a concept from electronic circuit design called dynamic element matching [1]. Because the method in this paper deals with systems rather than elements, it is called a dynamic system matching technique (DSMT). The DSMT generates a single output by randomly switching the outputs of several, nominally identical, MEMS gyros in and out of the switch output. This has the effect of 'spreading the spectrum' of the noise caused by the coefficient errors generated in the manufacture of the individual gyros. A filter can then be used to eliminate that part of the spread spectrum that is outside the pass band of the gyro. A heuristic analysis in that paper argues that the DSMT can be used to control the effects of the random coefficient variations. In a follow-on paper [4], a simulation of a DSMT indicated that the heuristics were consistent. In this paper, analytic expressions of the DSMT noise are developed which confirm that the earlier conclusions are valid. These expressions include the various DSMT design parameters and, therefore, can be used as design tools for DSMT
Huang, Xiaoqiang; Xue, Jing; Lin, Min; Zhu, Yushan
2016-01-01
Active site preorganization helps native enzymes electrostatically stabilize the transition state better than the ground state for their primary substrates and achieve significant rate enhancement. In this report, we hypothesize that a complex active site model for active site preorganization modeling should help to create preorganized active site design and afford higher starting activities towards target reactions. Our matching algorithm ProdaMatch was improved by invoking effective pruning strategies and the native active sites for ten scaffolds in a benchmark test set were reproduced. The root-mean squared deviations between the matched transition states and those in the crystal structures were < 1.0 Å for the ten scaffolds, and the repacking calculation results showed that 91% of the hydrogen bonds within the active sites are recovered, indicating that the active sites can be preorganized based on the predicted positions of transition states. The application of the complex active site model for de novo enzyme design was evaluated by scaffold selection using a classic catalytic triad motif for the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate. Eighty scaffolds were identified from a scaffold library with 1,491 proteins and four scaffolds were native esterase. Furthermore, enzyme design for complicated substrates was investigated for the hydrolysis of cephalexin using scaffold selection based on two different catalytic motifs. Only three scaffolds were identified from the scaffold library by virtue of the classic catalytic triad-based motif. In contrast, 40 scaffolds were identified using a more flexible, but still preorganized catalytic motif, where one scaffold corresponded to the α-amino acid ester hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis and synthesis of cephalexin. Thus, the complex active site modeling approach for de novo enzyme design with the aid of the improved ProdaMatch program is a promising approach for the creation of active sites with high catalytic
Huang, Xiaoqiang; Xue, Jing; Lin, Min; Zhu, Yushan
2016-01-01
Active site preorganization helps native enzymes electrostatically stabilize the transition state better than the ground state for their primary substrates and achieve significant rate enhancement. In this report, we hypothesize that a complex active site model for active site preorganization modeling should help to create preorganized active site design and afford higher starting activities towards target reactions. Our matching algorithm ProdaMatch was improved by invoking effective pruning strategies and the native active sites for ten scaffolds in a benchmark test set were reproduced. The root-mean squared deviations between the matched transition states and those in the crystal structures were < 1.0 Å for the ten scaffolds, and the repacking calculation results showed that 91% of the hydrogen bonds within the active sites are recovered, indicating that the active sites can be preorganized based on the predicted positions of transition states. The application of the complex active site model for de novo enzyme design was evaluated by scaffold selection using a classic catalytic triad motif for the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate. Eighty scaffolds were identified from a scaffold library with 1,491 proteins and four scaffolds were native esterase. Furthermore, enzyme design for complicated substrates was investigated for the hydrolysis of cephalexin using scaffold selection based on two different catalytic motifs. Only three scaffolds were identified from the scaffold library by virtue of the classic catalytic triad-based motif. In contrast, 40 scaffolds were identified using a more flexible, but still preorganized catalytic motif, where one scaffold corresponded to the α-amino acid ester hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis and synthesis of cephalexin. Thus, the complex active site modeling approach for de novo enzyme design with the aid of the improved ProdaMatch program is a promising approach for the creation of active sites with high catalytic
The tip of the iceberg: improving the quality of rank order lists for the match.
Baker, Keith
2013-09-01
Many factors limit the ability of resident selection committees to reliably determine which medical student applicants will be top performers in their internship and residency programs. Resident selection committees expend significant time and effort to read applications and then interview and score applicants, all with the goal of creating a rank order list (ROL) for the National Residency Matching Program. Although much of the information used in this process is outside the control of the selection committee, one factor they can control is how they use committee member scores to create the ROL. ROLs are typically generated using the average score assigned by committee members. With this approach, a single harsh faculty member can strongly influence the rank order of applicants if he or she scores only some of the applicants.The author of this commentary discusses the challenges inherent in the creation of ROLs and examines a new approach, described by Ross and Moore in this issue, that can eliminate the problem of biased scoring. ROLs created using this new ROSS-MOORE (Recruitment Outcomes Simulation System-Moore Optimized Ordinal Rank Estimator) approach will better represent the rank ordering of each faculty member of the selection committee. However, ROLs will remain poorly predictive of future performance in internship and residency programs until evaluative data supplied by medical schools are more accurate in predicting which students will become excellent physicians. PMID:23887012
On Improving Analytical Models of Cosmic Reionization for Matching Numerical Simulations
Kaurov, Alexander A.
2016-01-01
The methods for studying the epoch of cosmic reionization vary from full radiative transfer simulations to purely analytical models. While numerical approaches are computationally expensive and are not suitable for generating many mock catalogs, analytical methods are based on assumptions and approximations. We explore the interconnection between both methods. First, we ask how the analytical framework of excursion set formalism can be used for statistical analysis of numerical simulations and visual representation of the morphology of ionization fronts. Second, we explore the methods of training the analytical model on a given numerical simulation. We present a new code which emerged from this study. Its main application is to match the analytical model with a numerical simulation. Then, it allows one to generate mock reionization catalogs with volumes exceeding the original simulation quickly and computationally inexpensively, meanwhile reproducing large scale statistical properties. These mock catalogs are particularly useful for CMB polarization and 21cm experiments, where large volumes are required to simulate the observed signal.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kokic, Philip; Jin, Huidong; Crimp, Steven
2013-08-01
Statistical downscaling methods are commonly used to address the scale mismatch between coarse resolution Global Climate Model output and the regional or local scales required for climate change impact assessments. The effectiveness of a downscaling method can be measured against four broad criteria: consistency with the existing baseline data in terms of means, trends and distributional characteristics; consistency with the broader scale climate data used to generate the projections; the degree of transparency and repeatability; and the plausibility of results produced. Many existing downscaling methods fail to fulfil all of these criteria. In this paper we examine a block bootstrap simulation technique combined with a quantile prediction and matching method for simulating future daily climate data. By utilising this method the distributional properties of the projected data will be influenced by the distribution of the observed data, the trends in predictors derived from the Global Climate Models and the relationship of these predictors to the observed data. Using observed data from several climate stations in Vanuatu and Fiji and out-of-sample validation techniques, we show that the method is successful at projecting various climate characteristics including the variability and auto-correlation of daily temperature and rainfall, the correlations between these variables and between spatial locations. This paper also illustrates how this novel method can produce more effective point scale projections and a more credible alternative to other approaches in the Pacific region.
Charrondiere, U Ruth; Rittenschober, Doris; Nowak, Verena; Stadlmayr, Barbara; Wijesinha-Bettoni, Ramani; Haytowitz, David
2016-02-15
Food composition data play a key role in many sectors and the availability of quality data is critically important. Since 1984, the International Network of Food Data Systems (INFOODS) has been working towards improving food composition data quality and availability, including the development and updating of standards, guidelines and tools for food composition. FAO/INFOODS has recently published three comprehensive guidelines to improve and harmonise the compilation of data: (1) Guidelines for Food Matching, (2) Guidelines for Checking Food Composition Data prior to Publication of a User Table/Database, and (3) Guidelines for Converting Units, Denominators and Expressions. This article describes their content and development processes. Their adoption, along with additional ones planned for the future by FAO/INFOODS, should further improve the quality of published food composition data, which in turn can lead to more accurate nutrient intake estimates and more precise food labels, as well as better-targeted programs and policies. PMID:26433290
Optical object detection in paper improved by refractive index matching and mechanical treatment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saarela, J.; Heikkinen, S.; Fabritius, T.; Myllylä, R.
2008-06-01
Two different paper grades were tested with a clearing agent to measure how much mechanical smoothening can improve transparency inside paper. The paper grades were newsprint and supercalendered paper. The paper furnishes of both papers were alike, but the supercalendered paper was mechanically smoothened. Anise oil was used as the clearing agent, but similar measurements were also done with air and water. Black lines 8.5 μm to 281.1 μm wide were placed behind layers of cleared paper and transparency was measured with a microscope. When anise oil was the clearing agent, supercalendering improved transparent paper grammage from 139 g/m2 to 164 g/m2. With water the improvement was from 40 g/m2 to 51 g/m2. With air the improvement was not determinable. As a conclusion, it is recommended that paper is smoothened if it needs to be studied optically. Optical coherence tomography, for example, would benefit from this treatment.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Scott, Paul
2007-01-01
This article is about a very small subset of the positive integers. The positive integer N is said to be "perfect" if it is the sum of all its divisors, including 1, but less that N itself. For example, N = 6 is perfect, because the (relevant) divisors are 1, 2 and 3, and 6 = 1 + 2 + 3. On the other hand, N = 12 has divisors 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6, but…
Even Perfect Numbers: (Update)2.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bezuszka, Stanley J.; Kenney, Margaret J.
1997-01-01
Presents an assignment given to students to produce a report on perfect numbers and their properties. Summarizes the history of perfect numbers and their features. Recommends spreadsheet, theoretical, and programming activities on perfect numbers. (ASK)
2015-01-01
Core–shell nanowires (NW) have become very prominent systems for band engineered NW heterostructures that effectively suppress detrimental surface states and improve performance of related devices. This concept is particularly attractive for material systems with high intrinsic surface state densities, such as the low-bandgap In-containing group-III arsenides, however selection of inappropriate, lattice-mismatched shell materials have frequently caused undesired strain accumulation, defect formation, and modifications of the electronic band structure. Here, we demonstrate the realization of closely lattice-matched radial InGaAs–InAlAs core–shell NWs tunable over large compositional ranges [x(Ga)∼y(Al) = 0.2–0.65] via completely catalyst-free selective-area molecular beam epitaxy. On the basis of high-resolution X-ray reciprocal space maps the strain in the NW core is found to be insignificant (ε < 0.1%), which is further reflected by the absence of strain-induced spectral shifts in luminescence spectra and nearly unmodified band structure. Remarkably, the lattice-matched InAlAs shell strongly enhances the optical efficiency by up to 2 orders of magnitude, where the efficiency enhancement scales directly with increasing band offset as both Ga- and Al-contents increase. Ultimately, we fabricated vertical InGaAs−InAlAs NW/Si photovoltaic cells and show that the enhanced internal quantum efficiency is directly translated to an energy conversion efficiency that is ∼3–4 times larger as compared to an unpassivated cell. These results highlight the promising performance of lattice-matched III–V core–shell NW heterostructures with significant impact on future development of related nanophotonic and electronic devices. PMID:25922974
Improving pediatric cardiac surgical care in developing countries: matching resources to needs.
Dearani, Joseph A; Neirotti, Rodolfo; Kohnke, Emily J; Sinha, Kingshuk K; Cabalka, Allison K; Barnes, Roxann D; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Stellin, Giovanni; Tchervenkov, Christo I; Cushing, John C
2010-01-01
This article reviews a systematic approach to the design and support of pediatric cardiac surgery programs in the developing world with the guidance and strategies of Children's HeartLink, an experienced non-government organization for more than 40 years. An algorithm with criteria for the selection of a partner site is outlined. A comprehensive education strategy from the physician to the allied health care provider is the mainstay for successful program development. In a partner program, the road to successful advancement and change depends on many factors, such as government support, hospital administration support, medical staff leadership, and a committed and motivated faculty with requisite skills, incentives, and resources. In addition to these factors, it is essential that the development effort includes considerations of environment (eg, governmental support, regulatory environment, and social structure) and health system (elements related to affordability, access, and awareness of care) that impact success. Partner programs should be willing to initiate a clinical database with the intent to analyze and critique their results to optimize quality assurance and improve outcomes. PMID:20307859
Wang, Wenyi; Wu, Renbiao
2013-01-01
DOA (Direction of Arrival) estimation is a major problem in array signal processing applications. Recently, compressive sensing algorithms, including convex relaxation algorithms and greedy algorithms, have been recognized as a kind of novel DOA estimation algorithm. However, the success of these algorithms is limited by the RIP (Restricted Isometry Property) condition or the mutual coherence of measurement matrix. In the DOA estimation problem, the columns of measurement matrix are steering vectors corresponding to different DOAs. Thus, it violates the mutual coherence condition. The situation gets worse when there are two sources from two adjacent DOAs. In this paper, an algorithm based on OMP (Orthogonal Matching Pursuit), called ILS-OMP (Iterative Local Searching-Orthogonal Matching Pursuit), is proposed to improve DOA resolution by Iterative Local Searching. Firstly, the conventional OMP algorithm is used to obtain initial estimated DOAs. Then, in each iteration, a local searching process for every estimated DOA is utilized to find a new DOA in a given DOA set to further decrease the residual. Additionally, the estimated DOAs are updated by substituting the initial DOA with the new one. The simulation results demonstrate the advantages of the proposed algorithm. PMID:23974150
Wang, Wenyi; Wu, Renbiao
2013-01-01
DOA (Direction of Arrival) estimation is a major problem in array signal processing applications. Recently, compressive sensing algorithms, including convex relaxation algorithms and greedy algorithms, have been recognized as a kind of novel DOA estimation algorithm. However, the success of these algorithms is limited by the RIP (Restricted Isometry Property) condition or the mutual coherence of measurement matrix. In the DOA estimation problem, the columns of measurement matrix are steering vectors corresponding to different DOAs. Thus, it violates the mutual coherence condition. The situation gets worse when there are two sources from two adjacent DOAs. In this paper, an algorithm based on OMP (Orthogonal Matching Pursuit), called ILS-OMP (Iterative Local Searching-Orthogonal Matching Pursuit), is proposed to improve DOA resolution by Iterative Local Searching. Firstly, the conventional OMP algorithm is used to obtain initial estimated DOAs. Then, in each iteration, a local searching process for every estimated DOA is utilized to find a new DOA in a given DOA set to further decrease the residual. Additionally, the estimated DOAs are updated by substituting the initial DOA with the new one. The simulation results demonstrate the advantages of the proposed algorithm. PMID:23974150
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldman, Nir
In this work, we show that force matching can be used to determine accurate density functional tight binding (DFTB) models for reactive materials under extreme conditions. Determination of chemical reactivity in high-pressure experiments is an unsolved problem that can span timescales orders of magnitude longer that what can be achieved with standard quantum simulation approaches, such as Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory. DFTB holds promise as a semi-empirical quantum simulation method that yields a high degree of computational efficiency while potentially retaining the accuracy of these higher order methods. Here, we show that force matching can be used to determine accurate repulsive energies for DFTB for chemical reactivity in condensed phases. Our new models yield improved predictions for physical properties of molten liquid carbon, as well as small molecule production in phenolic polymer combustion. Our approach is general and can be implemented as a way to extend quantum simulations to several orders of magnitude longer timescales than previously possible, allowing for direct comparison with experiments.
Unidirectional perfect absorber.
Jin, L; Wang, P; Song, Z
2016-01-01
This study proposes a unidirectional perfect absorber (UPA), which we realized with a two-arm Aharonov-Bohm interferometer, that consists of a dissipative resonator side-coupled to a uniform resonator array. The UPA has reflection-less full absorption on one direction, and reflectionless full transmission on the other, with an appropriate magnetic flux and coupling, detuning, and loss of the side-coupled resonator. The magnetic flux controls the transmission, the left transmission is larger for magnetic flux less than one-half flux quantum; and the right transmission is larger for magnetic flux between one-half and one flux quantum. Besides, a perfect absorber (PA) can be realized based on the UPA, in which light waves from both sides, with arbitrary superposition of the ampli- tude and phase, are perfectly absorbed. The UPA is expected to be useful in the design of novel optical devices. PMID:27615125
Gilles, L; Ellerbroek, B L
2008-05-15
We recently introduced matched filtering in the context of astronomical Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensing with elongated sodium laser beacons [Appl. Opt. 45, 6568 (2006)]. Detailed wave optics Monte Carlo simulations implementing this technique for the Thirty Meter Telescope dual conjugate adaptive optics system have, however, revealed frequent bursts of degraded closed loop residual wavefront error [Proc. SPIE 6272, 627236 (2006)]. The origin of this problem is shown to be related to laser guide star jitter on the sky that kicks the filter out of its linear dynamic range, which leads to bursts of nonlinearities that are reconstructed into higher-order wavefront aberrations, particularly coma and trifoil for radially elongated subaperture spots. An elegant reformulation of the algorithm is proposed to extend its dynamic range using a set of linear constraints while preserving its improved noise rejection and Monte Carlo performance results are reported that confirm the benefits of the method. PMID:18483545
2013-01-01
Background If you want to know which of two or more healthcare interventions is most effective, the randomised controlled trial is the design of choice. Randomisation, however, does not itself promote the applicability of the results to situations other than the one in which the trial was done. A tool published in 2009, PRECIS (PRagmatic Explanatory Continuum Indicator Summaries) aimed to help trialists design trials that produced results matched to the aim of the trial, be that supporting clinical decision-making, or increasing knowledge of how an intervention works. Though generally positive, groups evaluating the tool have also found weaknesses, mainly that its inter-rater reliability is not clear, that it needs a scoring system and that some new domains might be needed. The aim of the study is to: Produce an improved and validated version of the PRECIS tool. Use this tool to compare the internal validity of, and effect estimates from, a set of explanatory and pragmatic trials matched by intervention. Methods The study has four phases. Phase 1 involves brainstorming and a two-round Delphi survey of authors who cited PRECIS. In Phase 2, the Delphi results will then be discussed and alternative versions of PRECIS-2 developed and user-tested by experienced trialists. Phase 3 will evaluate the validity and reliability of the most promising PRECIS-2 candidate using a sample of 15 to 20 trials rated by 15 international trialists. We will assess inter-rater reliability, and raters’ subjective global ratings of pragmatism compared to PRECIS-2 to assess convergent and face validity. Phase 4, to determine if pragmatic trials sacrifice internal validity in order to achieve applicability, will compare the internal validity and effect estimates of matched explanatory and pragmatic trials of the same intervention, condition and participants. Effect sizes for the trials will then be compared in a meta-regression. The Cochrane Risk of Bias scores will be compared with the
Epstein, Michael P; Duncan, Richard; Broadaway, K Alaine; He, Min; Allen, Andrew S; Satten, Glen A
2012-04-01
Proper control of confounding due to population stratification is crucial for valid analysis of case-control association studies. Fine matching of cases and controls based on genetic ancestry is an increasingly popular strategy to correct for such confounding, both in genome-wide association studies (GWASs) as well as studies that employ next-generation sequencing, where matching can be used when selecting a subset of participants from a GWAS for rare-variant analysis. Existing matching methods match on measures of genetic ancestry that combine multiple components of ancestry into a scalar quantity. However, we show that including nonconfounding ancestry components in a matching criterion can lead to inaccurate matches, and hence to an improper control of confounding. To resolve this issue, we propose a novel method that assigns cases and controls to matched strata based on the stratification score (Epstein et al. [2007] Am J Hum Genet 80:921-930), which is the probability of disease given genomic variables. Matching on the stratification score leads to more accurate matches because case participants are matched to control participants who have a similar risk of disease given ancestry information. We illustrate our matching method using the African-American arm of the GAIN GWAS of schizophrenia. In this study, we observe that confounding due to stratification can be resolved by our matching approach but not by other existing matching procedures. We also use simulated data to show our novel matching approach can provide a more appropriate correction for population stratification than existing matching approaches. PMID:22714934
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berry, John N., III
2010-01-01
The perfect politician, the ideal political ally to a library, is often but not always an elected official. He or she is always an effective champion of "reasonable financial support," i.e., "the amount...which a thoroughly competent librarian can spend wisely." That is what J.T. Wyer, director of the New York State Library, said in his "What the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bacon, David
2010-01-01
The United States today faces an economic crisis worse than any since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Nowhere is it sharper than in the nation's schools. Last year, California saw a perfect storm of protest in virtually every part of its education system. K-12 teachers built coalitions with parents and students to fight for their jobs and their…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Russo, Ruth
1998-01-01
A chemistry teacher describes the elements of the ideal chemistry textbook. The perfect text is focused and helps students draw a coherent whole out of the myriad fragments of information and interpretation. The text would show chemistry as the central science necessary for understanding other sciences and would also root chemistry firmly in the…
Larkin, Ivan A; Stockman, Mark I
2005-02-01
We have quantitatively established a fundamental limitation on the ultimate spatial resolution of the perfect lens (thin metal slab) in the near field. This limitation stems from the spatial dispersion of the dielectric response of the Fermi liquid of electrons with Coulomb interaction in the metal. We discuss possible applications in nanoimaging, nanophotolithography, and nanospectroscopy. PMID:15794622
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hinshaw, Craig
2005-01-01
For thousands of years, the three perfections--painting, poetry, and calligraphy--have been considered the mark of an enlightened person throughout Asian cultures. Fifth-grade students learned about these three hallmarks by studying three works from the Detroit Institute of Art's Asian collection: a nineteenth-century Japanese hand scroll, a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Murray, Jeannette
2010-01-01
In a perfect world, all children should live at home with their family, play with the kids in their neighborhood, walk or ride the school bus to a community-based school--after affectionately kissing or hugging their parents goodbye. They should receive adequate classroom services and return home at 3 p.m. or thereabouts. They may even…
Zhou, Jianying; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Zhang, Xu; Moore, Ronald J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Lee, Jung Hwa; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Qian, Weijun
2010-09-02
Spectral counting has become a popular semi-quantitative method for LC-MS/MS based proteome quantification; however, this methodology is often not reliable when proteins are identified by a small number of spectra. Here we present a simple strategy to improve spectral counting based quantification for low abundance proteins by recovering low quality or low scoring spectra for confidently identified peptides. In this approach, stringent data filtering criteria were initially applied to achieve confident peptide identifications with low false discovery rate (e.g., <1%) after LC-MS/MS analysis and database search by SEQUEST. Then, all low scoring MS/MS spectra that match to this set of confidently identified peptides were recovered, leading to more than 20% increase of total identified spectra. The validity of these recovered spectra was assessed by the parent ion mass measurement error distribution, retention time distribution, and by comparing the individual low score and high score spectra that correspond to the same peptides. The results support that the recovered low scoring spectra have similar confidence levels in peptide identifications as the spectra passing the initial stringent filter. The application of this strategy of recovering low scoring spectra significantly improved the spectral count quantification statistics for low abundance proteins, as illustrated in the identification of mouse brain region specific proteins.
Perfect Quantum Cosmological Bounce.
Gielen, Steffen; Turok, Neil
2016-07-01
We study quantum cosmology with conformal matter comprising a perfect radiation fluid and a number of conformally coupled scalar fields. Focusing initially on the collective coordinates (minisuperspace) associated with homogeneous, isotropic backgrounds, we are able to perform the quantum gravity path integral exactly. The evolution describes a "perfect bounce", in which the Universe passes smoothly through the singularity. We extend the analysis to spatially flat, anisotropic universes, treated exactly, and to generic inhomogeneous, anisotropic perturbations treated at linear and nonlinear order. This picture provides a natural, unitary description of quantum mechanical evolution across a cosmological bounce. We provide evidence for a semiclassical description in which all fields pass "around" the cosmological singularity along complex classical paths. PMID:27447496
Perfect Quantum Cosmological Bounce
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gielen, Steffen; Turok, Neil
2016-07-01
We study quantum cosmology with conformal matter comprising a perfect radiation fluid and a number of conformally coupled scalar fields. Focusing initially on the collective coordinates (minisuperspace) associated with homogeneous, isotropic backgrounds, we are able to perform the quantum gravity path integral exactly. The evolution describes a "perfect bounce", in which the Universe passes smoothly through the singularity. We extend the analysis to spatially flat, anisotropic universes, treated exactly, and to generic inhomogeneous, anisotropic perturbations treated at linear and nonlinear order. This picture provides a natural, unitary description of quantum mechanical evolution across a cosmological bounce. We provide evidence for a semiclassical description in which all fields pass "around" the cosmological singularity along complex classical paths.
BNL
2009-09-01
Evidence to date suggests that gold-gold collisions the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven are indeed creating a new state of hot, dense matter, but one quite different and even more remarkable than had been predicted. Instead of behaving like a gas of free quarks and gluons, as was expected, the matter created in RHIC's heavy ion collisions appears to be more like a "perfect" liquid.
Guild, Georgia E.; Stangoulis, James C. R.
2016-01-01
Within the HarvestPlus program there are many collaborators currently using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy to measure Fe and Zn in their target crops. In India, five HarvestPlus wheat collaborators have laboratories that conduct this analysis and their throughput has increased significantly. The benefits of using XRF are its ease of use, minimal sample preparation and high throughput analysis. The lack of commercially available calibration standards has led to a need for alternative calibration arrangements for many of the instruments. Consequently, the majority of instruments have either been installed with an electronic transfer of an original grain calibration set developed by a preferred lab, or a locally supplied calibration. Unfortunately, neither of these methods has been entirely successful. The electronic transfer is unable to account for small variations between the instruments, whereas the use of a locally provided calibration set is heavily reliant on the accuracy of the reference analysis method, which is particularly difficult to achieve when analyzing low levels of micronutrient. Consequently, we have developed a calibration method that uses non-matrix matched glass disks. Here we present the validation of this method and show this calibration approach can improve the reproducibility and accuracy of whole grain wheat analysis on 5 different XRF instruments across the HarvestPlus breeding program. PMID:27375644
Guild, Georgia E; Stangoulis, James C R
2016-01-01
Within the HarvestPlus program there are many collaborators currently using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy to measure Fe and Zn in their target crops. In India, five HarvestPlus wheat collaborators have laboratories that conduct this analysis and their throughput has increased significantly. The benefits of using XRF are its ease of use, minimal sample preparation and high throughput analysis. The lack of commercially available calibration standards has led to a need for alternative calibration arrangements for many of the instruments. Consequently, the majority of instruments have either been installed with an electronic transfer of an original grain calibration set developed by a preferred lab, or a locally supplied calibration. Unfortunately, neither of these methods has been entirely successful. The electronic transfer is unable to account for small variations between the instruments, whereas the use of a locally provided calibration set is heavily reliant on the accuracy of the reference analysis method, which is particularly difficult to achieve when analyzing low levels of micronutrient. Consequently, we have developed a calibration method that uses non-matrix matched glass disks. Here we present the validation of this method and show this calibration approach can improve the reproducibility and accuracy of whole grain wheat analysis on 5 different XRF instruments across the HarvestPlus breeding program. PMID:27375644
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lazorick, Suzanne; Fang, Xiangming; Hardison, George T.; Crawford, Yancey
2015-01-01
Background: Motivating Adolescents with Technology to CHOOSE Health™ (MATCH) is an educational and behavioral intervention in seventh grade. Methods: Teachers in 2 schools delivered the MATCH curriculum, with 1 control school. Using a quasi-experimental design, outcome measures included lessons completed, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score (zBMI),…
Elhence, Priti; Chaudhary, Rajendra K.; Nityanand, Soniya
2014-01-01
Background Cross-match-compatible platelets are used for the management of thrombocytopenic patients who are refractory to transfusions of randomly selected platelets. Data supporting the effectiveness of platelets that are compatible according to cross-matching with a modified antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA or MACE) are limited. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of cross-match-compatible platelets in an unselected group of refractory patients. Materials and methods One hundred ABO compatible single donor platelet transfusions given to 31 refractory patients were studied. Patients were defined to be refractory if their 24-hour corrected count increment (CCI) was <5×109/L following two consecutive platelet transfusions. Platelets were cross-matched by MACE and the CCI was determined to monitor the effectiveness of platelet transfusions. Results The clinical sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the MACE-cross-matched platelets for post-transfusion CCI were 88%, 54.6%, 39.3% and 93.2%, respectively. The difference between adequate and inadequate post-transfusion 24-hour CCI for MACE cross-matched-compatible vs incompatible single donor platelet transfusions was statistically significant (p=0.000). The 24-hour CCI (mean±SD) was significantly higher for cross-match-compatible platelets (9,250±026.6) than for incompatible ones (6,757.94±2,656.5) (p<0.0001). Most of the incompatible cross-matches (73.2%) were due to anti-HLA antibodies, alone (55.3% of cases) or together with anti-platelet glycoprotein antibodies (17.9%). Discussion The clinical sensitivity and negative predictive value of platelet cross-matching by MACE were high in this study and such tests may, therefore, be used to select compatible platelets for refractory patients. A high negative predictive value demonstrates the greater chance of an adequate response with cross-matched-compatible platelets. PMID
Ultra-Perfect Sorting Scenarios
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ouangraoua, Aïda; Bergeron, Anne; Swenson, Krister M.
Perfection has been used as a criteria to select rearrangement scenarios since 2004. However, there is a fundamental bias towards extant species in the original definition: ancestral species are not bound to perfection. Here we develop a new theory of perfection that takes an egalitarian view of species, and apply it to the complex evolution of mammal chromosome X.
Literacy Design Collaborative and Struggling Readers: A Perfect Match
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2014
2014-01-01
In Florida, middle grades students take the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test 2.0 (FCAT 2.0) in reading and writing. In partnership with the Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), Avalon Middle School implemented the Literacy Design Collaborative (LDC) framework beginning in the 2012-2013 school year to develop literacy skills across…
A perfect match: Nuclear energy and the National Energy Strategy
Not Available
1990-11-01
In the course of developing the National Energy Strategy, the Department of Energy held 15 public hearings, heard from more than 375 witnesses and received more than 1000 written comments. In April 1990, the Department published an Interim Report on the National Energy Strategy, which compiles those public comments. The National Energy Strategy must be based on actual experience and factual analysis of our energy, economic and environmental situation. This report by the Nuclear Power Oversight committee, which represents electric utilities and other organizations involved in supplying electricity from nuclear energy to the American people, provides such an analysis. The conclusions here are based on hard facts and actual worldwide experience. This analysis of all the available data supports -- indeed, dictates -- expanded reliance on nuclear energy in this nation's energy supply to achieve the President's goals. 33 figs.
Nuclear Forces and High-Performance Computing: The Perfect Match
Luu, T; Walker-Loud, A
2009-06-12
High-performance computing is now enabling the calculation of certain nuclear interaction parameters directly from Quantum Chromodynamics, the quantum field theory that governs the behavior of quarks and gluons and is ultimately responsible for the nuclear strong force. We briefly describe the state of the field and describe how progress in this field will impact the greater nuclear physics community. We give estimates of computational requirements needed to obtain certain milestones and describe the scientific and computational challenges of this field.
Soil Respiration and Student Inquiry: A Perfect Match
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hoyt, Catherine Marie; Wallenstein, Matthew David
2011-01-01
This activity explores the cycling of carbon between the atmosphere (primarily as CO[subscript 2]) and biomass in plants, animals, and microscopic organisms. Students design soil respiration experiments using a protocol that resembles current practice in soil ecology. Three methods for measuring soil respiration are presented. Student-derived…
Literature Circles: A Perfect Match for Online Instruction
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whittingham, Jeff
2013-01-01
This article describes the author's search for an appropriate and satisfying online teaching method. After experimenting with several methods (chat room, discussion board, student led discussion), the author reached back to his face-to-face classroom success with literature circles. This article reports the results of research conducted by the…
Coherent perfect absorption in nonlinear optics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Yuanlin; Wan, Wenjie; Chen, Xianfeng
2013-02-01
Recently, a concept of time reversed lasing or coherent perfect absorber (CPA) has been proposed by A. D. Stone and co-workers, and was shortly experimentally demonstrated by them. The CPA system is illuminated coherently and monochromatically by the time reverse of the output of a lasing mode and the incident radiation is perfectly absorbed. Shortly afterwards, Stefano Longhi extended the idea to realize a CPA for colored incident light, and have theoretically shown that the time reversal of optical parametric oscillation (OPO) in a nonlinear medium could also realize a colored CPA for incident signal and idler fields which can be seemed as a kind of nonlinear CPA. Here we present the realization of such time-reversed processes in nonlinear optics regime, including time-reversed second harmonic generation (SHG) for coherent absorption at harmonic frequency of the pump and time-reversed optical parametric amplification (OPA) for coherent attenuation of colored travelling optical fields. Time reversed SHG is carried out at both phase matching and mismatching conditions, which shows parametric near perfect absorption at the harmonic frequency of the pump. The time reversal of OPA is demonstrated experimentally in a nonlinear medium to form a coherent absorber for perpendicularly polarized signal and idler travelling waves, realizing in the condition of OPA by a type II phase matching scheme. The absorption of signal/idler pair occurs at some specific phase difference. This is the first experimental demonstration of coherent absorption processes in nonlinear optics regime.
Lampit, Amit; Ebster, Claus; Valenzuela, Michael
2014-01-01
Cognitive skills are important predictors of job performance, but the extent to which computerized cognitive training (CCT) can improve job performance in healthy adults is unclear. We report, for the first time, that a CCT program aimed at attention, memory, reasoning and visuo-spatial abilities can enhance productivity in healthy younger adults on bookkeeping tasks with high relevance to real-world job performance. 44 business students (77.3% female, mean age 21.4 ± 2.6 years) were assigned to either (a) 20 h of CCT, or (b) 20 h of computerized arithmetic training (active control) by a matched sampling procedure. Both interventions were conducted over a period of 6 weeks, 3–4 1-h sessions per week. Transfer of skills to performance on a 60-min paper-based bookkeeping task was measured at three time points—baseline, after 10 h and after 20 h of training. Repeated measures ANOVA found a significant Group X Time effect on productivity (F = 7.033, df = 1.745; 73.273, p = 0.003) with a significant interaction at both the 10-h (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.38, p = 0.014) and 20-h time points (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.40, p = 0.003). No significant effects were found on accuracy or on Conners' Continuous Performance Test, a measure of sustained attention. The results are discussed in reference to previous findings on the relationship between brain plasticity and job performance. Generalization of results requires further study. PMID:25120510
Lampit, Amit; Ebster, Claus; Valenzuela, Michael
2014-01-01
Cognitive skills are important predictors of job performance, but the extent to which computerized cognitive training (CCT) can improve job performance in healthy adults is unclear. We report, for the first time, that a CCT program aimed at attention, memory, reasoning and visuo-spatial abilities can enhance productivity in healthy younger adults on bookkeeping tasks with high relevance to real-world job performance. 44 business students (77.3% female, mean age 21.4 ± 2.6 years) were assigned to either (a) 20 h of CCT, or (b) 20 h of computerized arithmetic training (active control) by a matched sampling procedure. Both interventions were conducted over a period of 6 weeks, 3-4 1-h sessions per week. Transfer of skills to performance on a 60-min paper-based bookkeeping task was measured at three time points-baseline, after 10 h and after 20 h of training. Repeated measures ANOVA found a significant Group X Time effect on productivity (F = 7.033, df = 1.745; 73.273, p = 0.003) with a significant interaction at both the 10-h (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.38, p = 0.014) and 20-h time points (Relative Cohen's effect size = 0.40, p = 0.003). No significant effects were found on accuracy or on Conners' Continuous Performance Test, a measure of sustained attention. The results are discussed in reference to previous findings on the relationship between brain plasticity and job performance. Generalization of results requires further study. PMID:25120510
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Charoen-In, Urit; Ramasamy, P.; Manyum, P.
2013-01-01
A single crystal of dichlorobis(L-proline)zinc(II) (LPZ) was successfully grown by the Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method and conventional slow evaporation solution technique (SEST). The lattice parameters of the grown LPZ crystal were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The morphology of the conventional method grown LPZ crystal was identified. HRXRD analysis indicates that the crystalline perfections of the grown crystals are excellent without having any low angle internal structural grain boundaries. Etch pit density of the conventional and SR method grown LPZ crystals were calculated. Piezoelectric d33 coefficient of the SR method grown crystal were higher than the conventional method grown LPZ crystal. The dielectric constant and loss measurements were made as a function of temperature in the range between 40 °C and 140 °C. A low value of dielectric loss was observed in the SR method grown crystal. The obtained transparency for the crystals grown by the SR and conventional methods are 71% and 60%, respectively in the entire visible region. Microhardness measurements revealed the mechanical strength of the grown crystal. Second harmonic generation (SHG) measurement indicates that the SHG efficiency of the grown LPZ crystal was equal to that of KDP crystals.
2015-01-01
Background Continued advances in next generation short-read sequencing technologies are increasing throughput and read lengths, while driving down error rates. Taking advantage of the high coverage sampling used in many applications, several error correction algorithms have been developed to improve data quality further. However, correcting errors in high coverage sequence data requires significant computing resources. Methods We propose a different approach to handle erroneous sequence data. Presently, error rates of high-throughput platforms such as the Illumina HiSeq are within 1%. Moreover, the errors are not uniformly distributed in all reads, and a large percentage of reads are indeed error-free. Ability to predict such perfect reads can significantly impact the run-time complexity of applications. We present a simple and fast k-spectrum analysis based method to identify error-free reads. The filtration process to identify and weed out erroneous reads can be customized at several levels of stringency depending upon the downstream application need. Results Our experiments show that if around 80% of the reads in a dataset are perfect, then our method retains almost 99.9% of them with more than 90% precision rate. Though filtering out reads identified as erroneous by our method reduces the average coverage by about 7%, we found the remaining reads provide as uniform a coverage as the original dataset. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on an example downstream application: we show that an error correction algorithm, Reptile, which rely on collectively analyzing the reads in a dataset to identify and correct erroneous bases, instead use reads predicted to be perfect by our method to correct the other reads, the overall accuracy improves further by up to 10%. Conclusions Thanks to the continuous technological improvements, the coverage and accuracy of reads from dominant sequencing platforms have now reached an extent where we can envision just
Smith, Graham D.; Pickles, Tom; Crook, Juanita; Martin, Andre-Guy; Vigneault, Eric; Cury, Fabio L.; Morris, Jim; Catton, Charles; Lukka, Himu; Warner, Andrew; Yang, Ying; Rodrigues, George
2015-03-01
Purpose: To compare, in a retrospective study, biochemical failure-free survival (bFFS) and overall survival (OS) in low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients who received brachytherapy (BT) (either low-dose-rate brachytherapy [LDR-BT] or high-dose-rate brachytherapy with external beam radiation therapy [HDR-BT+EBRT]) versus external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) alone. Methods and Materials: Patient data were obtained from the ProCaRS database, which contains 7974 prostate cancer patients treated with primary radiation therapy at four Canadian cancer institutions from 1994 to 2010. Propensity score matching was used to obtain the following 3 matched cohorts with balanced baseline prognostic factors: (1) low-risk LDR-BT versus EBRT; (2) intermediate-risk LDR-BT versus EBRT; and (3) intermediate-risk HDR-BT+EBRT versus EBRT. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to compare differences in bFFS (primary endpoint) and OS in the 3 matched groups. Results: Propensity score matching created acceptable balance in the baseline prognostic factors in all matches. Final matches included 2 1:1 matches in the intermediate-risk cohorts, LDR-BT versus EBRT (total n=254) and HDR-BT+EBRT versus EBRT (total n=388), and one 4:1 match in the low-risk cohort (LDR-BT:EBRT, total n=400). Median follow-up ranged from 2.7 to 7.3 years for the 3 matched cohorts. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that all BT treatment options were associated with statistically significant improvements in bFFS when compared with EBRT in all cohorts (intermediate-risk EBRT vs LDR-BT hazard ratio [HR] 4.58, P=.001; intermediate-risk EBRT vs HDR-BT+EBRT HR 2.08, P=.007; low-risk EBRT vs LDR-BT HR 2.90, P=.004). No significant difference in OS was found in all comparisons (intermediate-risk EBRT vs LDR-BT HR 1.27, P=.687; intermediate-risk EBRT vs HDR-BT+EBRT HR 1.55, P=.470; low-risk LDR-BT vs EBRT HR 1.41, P=.500). Conclusions: Propensity score matched analysis showed that BT options led
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2000-01-01
Billows of smoke and steam spread across Launch Pad 39A as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off on mission STS-92 to the International Space Station. The perfect on-time liftoff occurred at 7:17 p.m. EDT, sending a crew of seven on the 100th launch in the history of the Shuttle program. Discovery carries a payload that includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1, first of 10 trusses that will form the backbone of the Space Station, and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter that will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. Discovery's landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT.
Bril, V
2016-01-01
Multiple phase III clinical trials have failed to show disease-modifying benefits for diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSP) and this may be due to the design of the clinical trials. The perfect clinical trial in DSP would enroll sufficiently large numbers of patients having early or minimal disease, as demonstrated by nerve conduction studies (NCS). These patients would be treated with an intervention given at an effective and well-tolerated dose for a sufficient duration of time to show change in the end points selected. For objective or surrogate measures such as NCS and for some small fiber measures, the duration needed to show positive change may be as brief as 6-12 months, but subsequently, trials lasting 5-8 years will be required to demonstrate clinical benefits. PMID:27133143
Moulton, Calum
2014-10-01
Perfect pitch, or absolute pitch (AP), is defined as the ability to identify or produce the pitch of a sound without need for a reference pitch, and is generally regarded as a valuable asset to the musician. However, there has been no recent review of the literature examining its aetiology and its utility taking into account emerging scientific advances in AP research, notably in functional imaging. This review analyses the key empirical research on AP, focusing on genetic and neuroimaging studies. The review concludes that: AP probably has a genetic predisposition, although this is based on limited evidence; early musical training is almost certainly essential for AP acquisition; and, although there is evidence that it may be relevant to speech processing, AP can interfere with relative pitch, an ability on which humans rely to communicate effectively. The review calls into question the value of AP to musicians and non-musicians alike. PMID:25301913
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chi, Olivia L.; Dow, Aaron W.
2014-01-01
This study focuses on how matching, a method of preprocessing data prior to estimation and analysis, can be used to reduce imbalance between treatment and control group in regression discontinuity design. To examine the effects of academic probation on student outcomes, researchers replicate and expand upon research conducted by Lindo, Sanders,…
Four-wave interference and perfect blaze.
Güther, R
2012-10-01
The recently calculated high diffraction efficiencies for TE- and TM-polarized light (perfect blaze) for echelette gratings are explained by four-wave interference, which is formed as a double periodical pattern in the cross section of the grating plane. The blazed grating profile should match this interference pattern for a single reference light wavelength. The recently published data are the special case of a general design. The prognoses of the model are connected with large grating constants in comparison with the light wavelength, where short grating constants need comparison with numerical methods. PMID:23027283
Foley, C L; Mould, T; Kennedy, J E; Barton, D P J
2003-01-01
The objective of this study was to design and implement a maximum surgical blood order schedule (MSBOS) within a specialist gynecological oncology department in a tertiary referral center and evaluate its impact on the cross-match to transfusion ratio (CTR). A retrospective case note audit was undertaken to identify common operations performed within the unit and their transfusion requirements. The efficiency of blood usage was assessed using the CTR, and an MSBOS was devised and implemented. A prospective audit of preoperative blood cross-matching and subsequent blood usage was then performed for consecutive elective operations in the unit, to assess the effect of the MSBOS. The retrospective study of 222 cases demonstrated a CTR of 2.25 equivalent to 44% usage of cross-matched blood. Ninety two percent of operations performed within the unit could be incorporated into an MSBOS. The prospective study of 207 cases demonstrated a significantly reduced CTR of 1.71 or 59% blood usage (chi2 = 12.4, P < 0.001). This equates to a saving of 102 units of blood over the 15 months prospective audit. Protocol adherence was 77%. No patient was adversely affected by the adoption of the MSBOS. We conclude that an MSBOS can be safely introduced into a gynecological oncology department resulting in significant financial savings. PMID:14675329
Perfect anti-reflection from first principles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Q-Han Park
2013-01-01
Reducing unwanted reflections through impedance matching, called anti-reflection, has long been an important challenge in optics and electrical engineering. Beyond trial and error optimization, however, a systematic way to realize anti-reflection is still absent. Here, we report the discovery of an analytic solution to this long standing problem. For electromagnetic waves, we find the graded permittivity and permeability that completely remove any given impedance mismatch. We demonstrate that perfect broadband anti-reflection is possible when a dispersive, graded refractive index medium is used for the impedance-matching layer. We also present a design rule for the ultra-thin anti-reflection coating which we confirm experimentally by showing the anti-reflection behavior of an exemplary λ/25-thick coating made of metamaterials. This work opens a new path to anti-reflection applications in optoelectronic device, transmission line and stealth technologies.
TEACHING THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSES.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
WALKER, RALPH H.
THE SIMPLE PRESENT PERFECT AND PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS ARE FOR THE NON-NATIVE SPEAKER OF ENGLISH TWO OF THE MOST TROUBLESOME TENSES IN THE ENGLISH VERB SYSTEM. THEY ARE SOMETIMES CONFUSED WITH A PRESENT TENSE AND SOMETIMES WITH A PAST. ONE OFTEN HEARS A NON-NATIVE SPEAKER OF ENGLISH USE A SIMPLE PRESENT WHERE HE SHOULD USE A SIMPLE PRESENT…
Chen, Di-Ming; Tian, Jia-Yue; Liu, Chun-Sen; Du, Miao
2016-06-28
Incorporating the in situ formed size-matching molecular building blocks (MBBs) into the open channels will remarkably improve the robustness and gas sorption performance of an evacuated metal-organic framework. As a result, such MBBs can transfer the open metal sites from the framework walls to the channel centers and separate the large channels into multiple smaller voids, leading to a molecular sieving effect and high-performance gas-separation of the modified material. PMID:27301546
The Perfective Past Tense in Greek Adolescents with Down Syndrome
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stathopoulou, Nikolitsa; Clahsen, Harald
2010-01-01
This study investigates the ability of a group of eight Greek-speaking adolescents with Down Syndrome (DS) (aged 12.1-18.7) to handle the perfective past tense using an acceptability judgement task. The performance of the DS participants was compared with that of 16 typically-developing children whose chronological age was matched with the mental…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hursky, Paul
2001-07-01
This dissertation describes matched field source localization methods in a shallow water ocean waveguide which overcome lack of knowledge of the waveguide properties, whose measurement would otherwise be essential for conventional matched field methods to succeed. Such measurements are typically obtained only at great cost by dedicated measurement platforms, separate and distinct from the sensors used to localize sources. We demonstrate MFP using modes derived from data, the sound speed profile, but no a priori bottom information. We show how mode shapes can be estimated directly from vertical line array data, without a priori knowledge of the environment and without using numerical wavefield models. However, it is difficult to make much headway with modes derived from data, without wave numbers, since only a few modes at a few frequencies may be captured, and only at depths sampled by the array. Using a measured sound speed profile, we derive self-consistent, complete sets of modes, wave numbers and bottom parameters from incomplete modes derived from data. Bottom parameters enable us to calculate modes at all frequencies, not just those at which we derived modes from data. This process is applied to SWellEx-96 experiment data. Modes, wave numbers and bottom parameters are derived from source tow data along one track and MFP based on this information is performed on source tow data along another track.
Theiler, James P
2009-01-01
Following an analogous distinction in statistical hypothesis testing, we investigate variants of machine learning where the training set comes in matched pairs. We demonstrate that even conventional classifiers can exhibit improved performance when the input data has a matched-pair structure. Online algorithms, in particular, converge quicker when the data is presented in pairs. In some scenarios (such as the weak signal detection problem), matched pairs can be generated from independent samples, with the effect not only doubling the nominal size of the training set, but of providing the structure that leads to better learning. A family of 'dipole' algorithms is introduced that explicitly takes advantage of matched-pair structure in the input data and leads to further performance gains. Finally, we illustrate the application of matched-pair learning to chemical plume detection in hyperspectral imagery.
The P.F.C. sigma RP-F TKA designed for improved performance: a matched-pair study.
Gupta, Sanjay K; Ranawat, Amar S; Shah, Vineet; Zikria, Bashir A; Zikria, Joseph F; Ranawat, Chitranjan S
2006-09-01
The press fit condylar P.F.C. Sigma RP-F (rotating-platform, high flexion) knee is designed to provide a range of motion (ROM) of 155 degrees without compromising wear, polyethylene contact stresses, patellofemoral tracking, or stability. The first 50 TKA surgeries using the Sigma RP-F knee performed at the author's institution were matched to 50 rotating-platform knees for age, sex, body mass index, preoperative diagnosis, duration of follow-up, and preoperative ROM to determine the effect of design on postoperative ROM. The mean increase in active ROM in the Sigma RP-F group was 17 degrees, compared with 6 degrees in the rotating-platform group (P =.0011). The mean increase in active ROM in patients who had less than 120 degrees of preoperative motion was 27 degrees in the Sigma RP-F group, compared with 16 degrees in the rotating-platform group (P = .006). With the new P.F.C. Sigma RP-F design, greater ROM can be achieved independent of preoperative ROM. PMID:17002149
Roberto, Megan E.; Brumley, Michele R.
2014-01-01
The amount of postnatal experience for perinatal rats was manipulated by delivering pups one day early (postconception day 21; PC21) by cesarean delivery and comparing their motor behavior to age-matched controls on PC22 (the typical day of birth). On PC22, pups were tested on multiple measures of motor coordination: leg extension response (LER), facial wiping, contact righting, and fore- and hindlimb stepping. The LER and facial wiping provided measures of synchronous hind- and forelimb coordination, respectively, and were sensory-evoked. Contact righting also was sensory-evoked and provided a measure of axial coordination. Stepping provided a measure of alternated forelimb and hindlimb coordination and was induced with the serotonin receptor agonist quipazine. Pups that were delivered prematurely and spent an additional day in the postnatal environment showed more bilateral limb coordination during expression of the LER and facial wiping, as well as a more mature righting strategy, compared to controls. These findings suggest that experience around the time of birth shapes motor coordination and the expression of species-typical behavior in the developing rat. PMID:24680729
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2008-05-01
ESO celebrates 10 years since First Light of the VLT Today marks the 10th anniversary since First Light with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), the most advanced optical telescope in the world. Since then, the VLT has evolved into a unique suite of four 8.2-m Unit Telescopes (UTs) equipped with no fewer than 13 state-of-the-art instruments, and four 1.8-m moveable Auxiliary Telescopes (ATs). The telescopes can work individually, and they can also be linked together in groups of two or three to form a giant 'interferometer' (VLTI), allowing astronomers to see details corresponding to those from a much larger telescope. Green Flash at Paranal ESO PR Photo 16a/08 The VLT 10th anniversary poster "The Very Large Telescope array is a flagship facility for astronomy, a perfect science machine of which Europe can be very proud," says Tim de Zeeuw, ESO's Director General. "We have built the most advanced ground-based optical observatory in the world, thanks to the combination of a long-term adequately-funded instrument and technology development plan with an approach where most of the instruments were built in collaboration with institutions in the member states, with in-kind contributions in labour compensated by guaranteed observing time." Sitting atop the 2600m high Paranal Mountain in the Chilean Atacama Desert, the VLT's design, suite of instruments, and operating principles set the standard for ground-based astronomy. It provides the European scientific community with a telescope array with collecting power significantly greater than any other facilities available at present, offering imaging and spectroscopy capabilities at visible and infrared wavelengths. Blue Flash at Paranal ESO PR Photo 16b/08 A Universe of Discoveries The first scientifically useful images, marking the official 'First Light' of the VLT, were obtained on the night of 25 to 26 May 1998, with a test camera attached to "Antu", Unit Telescope number 1. They were officially presented to the press on
Majhi, S.K.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Ward, B.F.L.; Yost, S.A.
2014-11-15
We present a phenomenological study of the current status of the application of our approach of exact amplitude-based resummation in quantum field theory to precision QCD calculations, by realistic MC event generator methods, as needed for precision LHC physics. We discuss recent results as they relate to the interplay of the attendant IR-improved DGLAP-CS theory of one of us and the precision of exact NLO matrix-element matched parton shower MC’s in the Herwig6.5 environment as determined by comparison to recent LHC experimental observations on single heavy gauge boson production and decay. The level of agreement between the new theory and the data continues to be a reason for optimism. In the spirit of completeness, we discuss as well other approaches to the same theoretical predictions that we make here from the standpoint of physical precision with an eye toward the (sub-)1% QCD⊗EW total theoretical precision regime for LHC physics. - Highlights: • Using LHC data, we show that IR-improved DGLAP-CS kernels with exact NLO Shower/ME matching improves MC precision. • We discuss other possible approaches in comparison with ours. • We propose experimental tests to discriminate between competing approaches.
Shi, X; Lin, J; Diwanji, T; Mooney, K; D'Souza, W; Mistry, N
2014-06-01
Purpose: Recently, template matching has been shown to be able to track tumor motion on cine-MRI images. However, artifacts such as deformation, rotation, and/or out-of-plane movement could seriously degrade the performance of this technique. In this work, we demonstrate the utility of multiple templates derived from different phases of tumor motion in reducing the negative effects of artifacts and improving the accuracy of template matching methods. Methods: Data from 2 patients with large tumors and significant tumor deformation were analyzed from a group of 12 patients from an earlier study. Cine-MRI (200 frames) imaging was performed while the patients were instructed to breathe normally. Ground truth tumor position was established on each frame manually by a radiation oncologist. Tumor positions were also automatically determined using template matching with either single or multiple (5) templates. The tracking errors, defined as the absolute differences in tumor positions determined by the manual and automated methods, when using either single or multiple templates were compared in both the AP and SI directions, respectively. Results: Using multiple templates reduced the tracking error of template matching. In the SI direction where the tumor movement and deformation were significant, the mean tracking error decreased from 1.94 mm to 0.91 mm (Patient 1) and from 6.61 mm to 2.06 mm (Patient 2). In the AP direction where the tumor movement was small, the reduction of the mean tracking error was significant in Patient 1 (from 3.36 mm to 1.04 mm), but not in Patient 2 ( from 3.86 mm to 3.80 mm). Conclusion: This study shows the effectiveness of using multiple templates in improving the performance of template matching when artifacts like large tumor deformation or out-of-plane motion exists. Accurate tumor tracking capabilities can be integrated with MRI guided radiation therapy systems. This work was supported in part by grants from NIH/NCI CA 124766 and Varian
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jun-Hyub; Shin, Myung-Soo; Kang, Dong-Joong; Lim, Sung-Jo; Ha, Jong-Eun
In this study, a system for non-contact in-situ measurement of strain during tensile test of thin films by using CCD camera with marking surface of specimen by black pen was implemented as a sensing device. To improve accuracy of measurement when CCD camera is used, this paper proposed a new method for measuring strain during tensile test of specimen with micrometer size. The size of pixel of CCD camera determines resolution of measurement, but the size of pixel can not satisfy the resolution required in tensile test of thin film because the extension of the specimen is very small during the tensile test. To increase resolution of measurement, the suggested method performs an accurate subpixel matching by applying 2nd order polynomial interpolation method to the conventional template matching. The algorithm was developed to calculate location of subpixel providing the best matching value by performing single dimensional polynomial interpolation from the results of pixel-based matching at a local region of image. The measurement resolution was less than 0.01 times of original pixel size. To verify the reliability of the system, the tensile test for the BeNi thin film was performed, which is widely used as a material in micro-probe tip. Tensile tests were performed and strains were measured using the proposed method and also the capacitance type displacement sensor for comparison. It is demonstrated that the new strain measurement system can effectively describe a behavior of materials after yield during the tensile test of the specimen at microscale with easy setup and better accuracy.
Hogan, A. M.
2008-01-01
Extensive literature supports the correlation between surgical volume and improved clinical outcome in the management of various cancers. It is this evidence that has catalysed the creation of centres of excellence. However, on closer inspection, many of these studies are poor quality, low weight and use vastly heterogenous end points in assessment of both volume and outcome. We critically appraise the English language literature published over the last ten years pertaining to the volume outcome relationship in the context of cancer care. Future balanced unbiased studies may enable equipoise in planning international cancer management strategies. PMID:18228105
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sadler, Jackie
Ways of improving the quality of precourse information, advice, and guidance available to students entering further education and sixth form colleges in the United Kingdom were explored. Data were collected from the following sources: (1) the 3-year Raising Quality and Achievement Programme; (2) seminars on sharing good practice in delivering…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clifford, Raphael; Harrow, Aram W.; Popa, Alexandru; Sach, Benjamin
Given a pattern p over an alphabet Σ p and a text t over an alphabet Σ t , we consider the problem of determining a mapping f from Σ p to {Σ}t+ such that t = f(p 1)f(p 2)...f(p m ). This class of problems, which was first introduced by Amir and Nor in 2004, is defined by different constraints on the mapping f. We give NP-Completeness results for a wide range of conditions. These include when f is either many-to-one or one-to-one, when Σ t is binary and when the range of f is limited to strings of constant length. We then introduce a related problem we term pattern matching with string classes which we show to be solvable efficiently. Finally, we discuss an optimisation variant of generalised matching and give a polynomial-time min (1,sqrt{k/OPT})-approximation algorithm for fixed k.
Imamura, Teruhiko; Kinugawa, Koichiro; Sakata, Yasushi; Miyagawa, Shigeru; Sawa, Yoshiki; Yamazaki, Kenji; Ono, Minoru
2016-03-01
We recently reported a multi-center, single-arm, phase II study that evaluated the efficacy and safety of autologous skeletal myoblast sheet (TCD-51073) transplantation. The advantage of this procedure over a control group has not yet been analyzed. Seven patients with advanced heart failure due to ischemic etiology (TCD-51073 group, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III; left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <35 %) refractory to optimal medical and coronary revascularization therapy, received TCD-51073 at 3 study centers between 2012 and 2013 with a 2-year follow-up period. As previously reported, 112 patients received cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) with follow-up at the University of Tokyo Hospital between 2007 and 2014. Of them, 21 patients were selected for the control group by propensity score matching. No significant difference in baseline variables between the groups was observed. LVEF and NYHA class improved significantly in the TCD-51073 group during the 6-month study period (p < 0.05). During the 2-year follow-up, 7 patients (33 %) in the CRT group and no patient in the TCD-51073 group died due to cardiac disease or received VAD implantation (p = 0.128 by the log-rank test). In conclusion, transplantation of TCD-51073 is clinically advantageous in facilitating LV reverse remodeling, improving HF symptoms, and preventing cardiac death in patients with ischemic etiology when compared to background-matched patients receiving CRT. PMID:26267666
Group-Velocity-Matched Three Wave Mixing in Birefringent Crystals
SMITH,ARLEE V.
2000-12-12
We show that the combination of pulse-front slant, k-vector tilt, and crystal birefringence often permits exact matching of both phase and group velocities in three wave mixing in birefringent crystals. This makes possible more efficient mixing of short light pulses, and it permits efficient mixing of chirped or broad bandwidth light. We analyze this process and present examples. Differences in the group velocities of the three interacting waves in a nonlinear crystal often limits the effective interaction length. For example, in mixing very short pulses, temporal walk off can stretch the pulses in time unless the crystal is very short. Efficient mixing with such short crystals requires high irradiances, but the irradiances are limited by higher order nonlinear effects such as intensity-dependent refractive index and two-photon absorption. Improved matching of the group velocities can alleviate this problem, allowing longer crystal and lower irradiances. Similarly, for high energy pulses, practical limits on crystal apertures mandate temporally stretching the pulses to reduce irradiances. For the resulting chirped pulses, temporal walk off restricts the chirp range unless the group velocities are well matched. In addition to perfectly matching the group velocities of all three waves, it is sometimes useful to match two velocities, such as the signal and idler in parametric amplification, permitting broadband parametric amplification, or to arrange the velocities of two inputs to bracket the generated sum frequency pulse, giving pulse compression under suitable circumstances.
Perfect conformal invisible device with feasible refractive indexes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Lin; Chen, Huanyang; Tyc, Tomáš; Xie, Yangbo; Cummer, Steven A.
2016-01-01
Optical conformal mapping has been used to construct several isotropic devices with novel functionalities. In particular, a conformal cloak could confer omnidirectional invisibility. However, the maximum values of the refractive indexes needed for current designs are too large to implement, even in microwave experiments. Furthermore, most devices designed so far have had imperfect impedance matching and therefore incomplete invisibility functionalities. Here we describe a perfect conformal invisible device with full impedance matching everywhere. The maximum value of refractive index required by our device is just about five, which is feasible for microwave and terahertz experiments using current metamaterial techniques. To construct the device, we use a logarithmic conformal mapping and a Mikaelian lens. Our results should enable a conformal invisible device with almost perfect invisibility to be made soon.
Gill, M D; Bramble, M G; Hull, M A; Mills, S J; Morris, E; Bradburn, D M; Bury, Y; Parker, C E; Lee, T J W; Rees, C J
2014-01-01
Background: Colorectal cancers (CRCs) detected through the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) have been shown to have a more favourable outcome compared to non-screen-detected cancers. The aim was to identify whether this was solely due to the earlier stage shift of these cancers, or whether other factors were involved. Methods: A combination of a regional CRC registry (Northern Colorectal Cancer Audit Group) and the BCSP database were used to identify screen-detected and interval cancers (diagnosed after a negative faecal occult blood test, before the next screening round), diagnosed between April 2007 and March 2010, within the North East of England. For each Dukes' stage, patient demographics, tumour characteristics, and survival rates were compared between these two groups. Results: Overall, 322 screen-detected cancers were compared against 192 interval cancers. Screen-detected Dukes' C and D CRCs had a superior survival rate compared with interval cancers (P=0.014 and P=0.04, respectively). Cox proportional hazards regression showed that Dukes' stage, tumour location, and diagnostic group (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.29–0.69, P<0.001 for screen-detected CRCs) were all found to have a significant impact on the survival of patients. Conclusions: The improved survival of screen-detected over interval cancers for stages C and D suggest that there may be a biological difference in the cancers in each group. Although lead-time bias may have a role, this may be related to a tumour's propensity to bleed and therefore may reflect detection through current screening tests. PMID:25247322
Perfect absorbers for electromagnetic wave, based on metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoo, Young Joon; Kim, Young Ju; Lee, YoungPak
2015-10-01
Metamaterials (MMs), which are not existing in nature, but artificially-engineered materials for controlling electromagnetic wave. MMs have attracted more and more research attentions, since they have shown greatly novel properties such as left-handed behavior, negative refractive index, classical analog of electromagnetically-induced transparency, and extraordinary transmission. Among MMs, MM perfect absorbers (MMPAs), which are useful to enhance the efficiency in capturing solar energy and applied to various application areas, have been rapidly developed. In general, the structure of MMPAs is very simple, which consist of three layers: patterned conductor layer, which is used for minimizing the reflection by impedance matching, dielectric layer and continuous conductor layer for blocking the transmission. In addition, the unit-cell size of general MM absorbers is only 1/3-1/5 of the working wavelength of incident electromagnetic wave. Nevertheless, the properties of general MMPAs are in problems of the absorption only at specific frequency, the narrow absorption band, the polarization sensitivity and so on. In this review paper, the introduction of recent researches in the field of MMPAs operating in different frequency ranges is presented. Moreover, the researches on the improved electromagnetic properties are discussed, which comprise multi-band, broadband, tunable, polarization-insensitive, and wide-incident-angle MMPAs. The perspectives and the future works for the further investigations and the various real applications of MMPAs are also presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majhi, S. K.; Mukhopadhyay, A.; Ward, B. F. L.; Yost, S. A.
2014-11-01
We present a phenomenological study of the current status of the application of our approach of exact amplitude-based resummation in quantum field theory to precision QCD calculations, by realistic MC event generator methods, as needed for precision LHC physics. We discuss recent results as they relate to the interplay of the attendant IR-improved DGLAP-CS theory of one of us and the precision of exact NLO matrix-element matched parton shower MC's in the Herwig6.5 environment as determined by comparison to recent LHC experimental observations on single heavy gauge boson production and decay. The level of agreement between the new theory and the data continues to be a reason for optimism. In the spirit of completeness, we discuss as well other approaches to the same theoretical predictions that we make here from the standpoint of physical precision with an eye toward the (sub-)1% QCD ⊗ EW total theoretical precision regime for LHC physics.
Bizot, Jean-Charles; Herpin, Alexandre; Pothion, Stéphanie; Pirot, Sylvain; Trovero, Fabrice; Ollat, Hélène
2005-07-01
The effect of a sulbutiamine chronic treatment on memory was studied in rats with a spatial delayed-non-match-to-sample (DNMTS) task in a radial maze and a two trial object recognition task. After completion of training in the DNMTS task, animals were subjected for 9 weeks to daily injections of either saline or sulbutiamine (12.5 or 25 mg/kg). Sulbutiamine did not modify memory in the DNMTS task but improved it in the object recognition task. Dizocilpine, impaired both acquisition and retention of the DNMTS task in the saline-treated group, but not in the two sulbutiamine-treated groups, suggesting that sulbutiamine may counteract the amnesia induced by a blockade of the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptors. Taken together, these results are in favor of a beneficial effect of sulbutiamine on working and episodic memory. PMID:15951087
A perfect launch on a perfect Florida day!
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2000-01-01
A perfect launch on a perfect Florida day! Framed by two immense billows of steam, Space Shuttle Endeavour breaks its Earthly tethers to soar into a clear blue sky. Liftoff of mission STS-99 occurred at 12:43:40 p.m. EST. Known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), STS-99 will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface. The result of the SRTM could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. The mission is expected to last 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Tuesday, Feb. 22, at 4:36 p.m. EST. This is the 97th Shuttle flight and 14th for Shuttle Endeavour.
A perfect launch on a perfect Florida day!
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2000-01-01
A perfect launch on a perfect Florida day! Space Shuttle Endeavour, with its crew of five, scatters billows of steam and smoke as it lifts off at 12:43:40 p.m. EST on mission STS-99. Employees and visitors watch intently from across the turn basin. Known as the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), STS-99 will chart a new course to produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's surface. The result of the SRTM could be close to 1 trillion measurements of the Earth's topography. The mission is expected to last 11days, with Endeavour landing at KSC Tuesday, Feb. 22, at 4:36 p.m. EST. This is the 97th Shuttle flight and 14th for Shuttle Endeavour.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Asher, Sandy
1995-01-01
Presents a script for a 1-act play about a 17-year-old girl whose mother neglects her and her alcoholic absentee father. Relates how the protagonist, Tara, becomes pregnant by a classmate who she barely knows, and plans to leave home to raise her child alone after graduating high school. (PA)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, Tae Su; Jeong, Hyun; Seo, Tae Hoon; Lee, Yong Seok; Park, Ah Hyun; Kim, Hun; Jea Lee, Kang; Suh, Eun-Kyung
2010-11-01
Using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition, a strain-free GaN layer has been successfully grown by employing a 40-nm-thick nearly lattice-matched (NLM) Al1-xInxN as an interlayer. The Al1-xInxN interlayers having an InN molar fraction of x˜0.11 and 0.13 led to crack-networking at the GaN surface due to excessive tensile strain by lattice-mismatching. In the case of the GaN layer with a NLM Al1-xInxN interlayer (x˜0.18), however, strain-free GaN structure with improved structural and optical properties was demonstrated from the results of atomic force microscopy, Raman scattering and photoluminescence. By using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the origin on strain-free state and improved properties of the GaN layer with the NLM AlInN interlayer was investigated. Based on TEM observations, we suggest that the faulted zone-like growth mechanism on roughed AlInN surface and partial compensation of tensile thermal stress are major factors on the improved strain-free GaN film.
Effective perfect fluids in cosmology
Ballesteros, Guillermo; Bellazzini, Brando E-mail: brando.bellazzini@pd.infn.it
2013-04-01
We describe the cosmological dynamics of perfect fluids within the framework of effective field theories. The effective action is a derivative expansion whose terms are selected by the symmetry requirements on the relevant long-distance degrees of freedom, which are identified with comoving coordinates. The perfect fluid is defined by requiring invariance of the action under internal volume-preserving diffeomorphisms and general covariance. At lowest order in derivatives, the dynamics is encoded in a single function of the entropy density that characterizes the properties of the fluid, such as the equation of state and the speed of sound. This framework allows a neat simultaneous description of fluid and metric perturbations. Longitudinal fluid perturbations are closely related to the adiabatic modes, while the transverse modes mix with vector metric perturbations as a consequence of vorticity conservation. This formalism features a large flexibility which can be of practical use for higher order perturbation theory and cosmological parameter estimation.
Visible light broadband perfect absorbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, X. L.; Meng, Q. X.; Yuan, C. X.; Zhou, Z. X.; Wang, X. O.
2016-03-01
The visible light broadband perfect absorbers based on the silver (Ag) nano elliptical disks and holes array are studied using finite difference time domain simulations. The semiconducting indium silicon dioxide thin film is introduced as the space layer in this sandwiched structure. Utilizing the asymmetrical geometry of the structures, polarization sensitivity for transverse electric wave (TE)/transverse magnetic wave (TM) and left circular polarization wave (LCP)/right circular polarization wave (RCP) of the broadband absorption are gained. The absorbers with Ag nano disks and holes array show several peaks absorbance of 100% by numerical simulation. These simple and flexible perfect absorbers are particularly desirable for various potential applications including the solar energy absorber.
Lewis, Kendra M.; DuBois, David L.; Acock, Alan; Vuchinich, Samuel; Silverthorn, Naida; Snyder, Frank J.; Day, Joseph; Ji, Peter; Flay, Brian R.
2013-01-01
BACKGROUND School-based social-emotional and character development (SECD) programs can influence not only SECD, but also academic-related outcomes. This study evaluated the impact of one SECD program, Positive Action (PA), on educational outcomes among low-income, urban youth. METHODS The longitudinal study used a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled design. Student-reported disaffection with learning and academic grades, and teacher ratings of academic ability and motivation were assessed for a cohort followed from grades 3 to 8. Aggregate school records were used to assess standardized test performance (for entire school, cohort, and demographic subgroups) and absenteeism (entire school). Multilevel growth-curve analyses tested program effects. RESULTS PA significantly improved growth in academic motivation and mitigated disaffection with learning. There was a positive impact of PA on absenteeism and marginally significant impact on math performance of all students. There were favorable program effects on reading for African American boys and cohort students transitioning between grades 7 and 8, and on math for girls and low-income students. CONCLUSIONS A school-based SECD program was found to influence academic outcomes among students living in low-income, urban communities. Future research should examine mechanisms by which changes in SECD influence changes in academic outcomes. PMID:24138347
Lee, Hyoseong; Rhee, Huinam; Oh, Jae Hong; Park, Jin Ho
2016-01-01
This paper deals with an improved methodology to measure three-dimensional dynamic displacements of a structure by digital close-range photogrammetry. A series of stereo images of a vibrating structure installed with targets are taken at specified intervals by using two daily-use cameras. A new methodology is proposed to accurately trace the spatial displacement of each target in three-dimensional space. This method combines the correlation and the least-square image matching so that the sub-pixel targeting can be obtained to increase the measurement accuracy. Collinearity and space resection theory are used to determine the interior and exterior orientation parameters. To verify the proposed method, experiments have been performed to measure displacements of a cantilevered beam excited by an electrodynamic shaker, which is vibrating in a complex configuration with mixed bending and torsional motions simultaneously with multiple frequencies. The results by the present method showed good agreement with the measurement by two laser displacement sensors. The proposed methodology only requires inexpensive daily-use cameras, and can remotely detect the dynamic displacement of a structure vibrating in a complex three-dimensional defection shape up to sub-pixel accuracy. It has abundant potential applications to various fields, e.g., remote vibration monitoring of an inaccessible or dangerous facility. PMID:26978366
Albinsson, John; Brorsson, Sofia; Ahlgren, Asa Rydén; Cinthio, Magnus
2014-10-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate tracking performance when an extra reference block is added to a basic block-matching method, where the two reference blocks originate from two consecutive ultrasound frames. The use of an extra reference block was evaluated for two putative benefits: (i) an increase in tracking performance while maintaining the size of the reference blocks, evaluated using in silico and phantom cine loops; (ii) a reduction in the size of the reference blocks while maintaining the tracking performance, evaluated using in vivo cine loops of the common carotid artery where the longitudinal movement of the wall was estimated. The results indicated that tracking accuracy improved (mean = 48%, p < 0.005 [in silico]; mean = 43%, p < 0.01 [phantom]), and there was a reduction in size of the reference blocks while maintaining tracking performance (mean = 19%, p < 0.01 [in vivo]). This novel method will facilitate further exploration of the longitudinal movement of the arterial wall. PMID:25130445
Lee, Hyoseong; Rhee, Huinam; Oh, Jae Hong; Park, Jin Ho
2016-01-01
This paper deals with an improved methodology to measure three-dimensional dynamic displacements of a structure by digital close-range photogrammetry. A series of stereo images of a vibrating structure installed with targets are taken at specified intervals by using two daily-use cameras. A new methodology is proposed to accurately trace the spatial displacement of each target in three-dimensional space. This method combines the correlation and the least-square image matching so that the sub-pixel targeting can be obtained to increase the measurement accuracy. Collinearity and space resection theory are used to determine the interior and exterior orientation parameters. To verify the proposed method, experiments have been performed to measure displacements of a cantilevered beam excited by an electrodynamic shaker, which is vibrating in a complex configuration with mixed bending and torsional motions simultaneously with multiple frequencies. The results by the present method showed good agreement with the measurement by two laser displacement sensors. The proposed methodology only requires inexpensive daily-use cameras, and can remotely detect the dynamic displacement of a structure vibrating in a complex three-dimensional defection shape up to sub-pixel accuracy. It has abundant potential applications to various fields, e.g., remote vibration monitoring of an inaccessible or dangerous facility. PMID:26978366
Generating perfect fluid spheres in general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt; Weinfurtner, Silke
2005-06-01
Ever since Karl Schwarzschild’s 1916 discovery of the spacetime geometry describing the interior of a particular idealized general relativistic star—a static spherically symmetric blob of fluid with position-independent density—the general relativity community has continued to devote considerable time and energy to understanding the general-relativistic static perfect fluid sphere. Over the last 90 years a tangle of specific perfect fluid spheres has been discovered, with most of these specific examples seemingly independent from each other. To bring some order to this collection, in this article we develop several new transformation theorems that map perfect fluid spheres into perfect fluid spheres. These transformation theorems sometimes lead to unexpected connections between previously known perfect fluid spheres, sometimes lead to new previously unknown perfect fluid spheres, and in general can be used to develop a systematic way of classifying the set of all perfect fluid spheres.
Will a perfect global model agree with perfect observations?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schutgens, N.; Gryspeerdt, E.; Tsyro, S.; Weigum, N.; Partridge, D.; Goto, D.; Schulz, M.; Stier, P.
2015-12-01
Global aerosol models and observations differ strongly in their spatio-temporal sampling. Model results are typical of large gridboxes (200 by 200 km), while observations are made over much smaller areas (e.g. 10 by 10 km for MODIS, even smaller for ground sites). Model results are always available in contrast to observations that are intermittent due to orbital constraints, retrieval limitations and instrument failure/maintenance. These twin issues of temporal sampling and spatial aggregation are relevant for any observation, be it remotely sensed, or in-situ. We ask this question: will a perfect model agree with perfect observations? The short answer is: unlikely. Using two different modelling frame-works (year-long global model runs collocated with actual observations and month-long high resolution regional models runs) we show that significant errors can be introduced in a model to observation comparison due to different spatio-temporal sampling. These sampling errors are typically larger than observational errors and are of comparable size as true model errors. While the temporal sampling issue can be dealt with by properly resampling model data to observation times, the spatial aggregation issue introduces noise into the comparison. We propose and evaluate several strategies for mitigating this noise. The most succesfull strategy is further temporal averaging of the data. However, this seems to have a less benefical effect on surface in-situ observations than on remotely sensed column-integrated measurements. For instance, monthly averaged black carbon mass concentrations measured at ground sites still allow significant (~ 30%) noise into the comparison. Furthermore, flight campaign data, by its nature, are not open to long-term (monthly, yearly) averaging and allow sampling errors of 50% or more in black carbon mass concentrations. Other observables (AOT, extinction profiles, number densities, PM2.5, CCN) will also be discussed.
Breidbach, Andreas; Ulberth, Franz
2015-04-01
Aflatoxins, mycotoxins of fungi of the Aspergillus sp., pose a risk to consumer health and are, therefore, regulated by more than 100 countries. To facilitate method development and validation as well as assessment of measurement capabilities, availability of certified reference materials and proficiency testing schemes is important. For these purposes, highly accurate determinations of the aflatoxin content in the materials used are necessary. We describe here the use of two-dimensional heart-cut LC-LC in combination with exact-matching double isotope dilution mass spectrometry to determine the content of aflatoxin B1 in three materials used in a proficiency testing scheme. The serious reduction in ionization suppression afforded by the two-dimensional heart-cut LC-LC had a positive effect on the precision of the measured isotope ratios of the exact-matching double isotope dilution mass spectrometry. This is evidenced by the expanded measurement uncertainty (k=2) of 0.017 μg/kg or 8.9 % relative to a mass fraction of aflatoxin B1 in a cereal-based baby food of 0.197 μg/kg. This value is in perfect agreement with the consensus value of this material from a proficiency test (PT) scheme for National Reference Laboratories executed by the European Reference Laboratory for Mycotoxins. The effort necessary to perform the described methodology precludes its frequent use but for specific applications we see it as a valuable tool. PMID:25015044
Towards creating the perfect electronic prescription.
Dhavle, Ajit A; Rupp, Michael T
2015-04-01
Significant strides have been made in electronic (e)-prescribing standards and software applications that have further fueled the adoption and use of e-prescribing. However, for e-prescribing to realize its full potential for improving the safety, effectiveness, and efficiency of prescription drug delivery, important work remains to be carried out. This perspective describes the ultimate goal of all e-prescribing stakeholders including prescribers and dispensing pharmacists: a clear, complete, and unambiguous e-prescription order that can be seamlessly received, processed, and fulfilled at the dispensing pharmacy without the need for additional clarification from the prescriber. We discuss the challenges to creating the perfect e-prescription by focusing on selected data segments and data fields that are available in the new e-prescription transaction as defined in the NCPDP SCRIPT Standard and suggest steps that could be taken to move the industry closer to achieving this vision. PMID:25038197
Theory and practice of ultra-perfection.
Ouangraoua, Aïda; Bergeron, Anne; Swenson, Krister M
2011-09-01
Perfection has been used as a criteria to classify rearrangement scenarios since 2004. However, there is a fundamental bias towards extant species in the original definition: ancestral species are not bound to perfection. Here we develop a new theory of perfection that takes an egalitarian view of species, and we examine the fitness of this theory on several datasets. Supplementary Material is available at www.liebertonline.com/cmb. PMID:21899427
The Perfect Principal: A Teacher's Fantasy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Webb, Diana
1985-01-01
Briefly describes the perfect principal's leadership, consciousness of human relations, charisma, visibility, high standards, positive attitude, openness, organization, consistency, and involvement in professional activities. (PGD)
Odd perfect numbers have a prime factor exceeding 10^8
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goto, Takeshi; Ohno, Yasuo
2008-09-01
Jenkins in 2003 showed that every odd perfect number is divisible by a prime exceeding 10^7 . Using the properties of cyclotomic polynomials, we improve this result to show that every perfect number is divisible by a prime exceeding 10^8 .
Perfect Actions and Operators for Lattice QCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiese, Uwe-Jens
1996-05-01
Wilson's renormalization group implies that lattice actions located on a renormalized trajectory emanating from a fixed point represent perfect discretizations of continuum physics. With a perfect action the spectrum of a lattice theory is identical with the one of the continuum theory even at finite lattice spacing. Similarly, perfect operators yield cut-off independent matrix elements. Hence, continuum QCD can in principle be reconstructed from a lattice with finite spacing. In practice it is difficult to construct perfect actions and perfect operators explicitly. Here perturbation theory is used to derive perfect actions for quarks and gluons by performing a block renormalization group transformation directly from the continuum. The renormalized trajectory for free massive quarks is identified and a parameter in the renormalization group transformation is tuned such that for 1-d configurations the perfect action reduces to the nearest neighbor Wilson fermion action. Then the 4-d perfect action turns out to be extremely local as well, which is vital for numerical simulations. The fixed point action for free gluons is also obtained by blocking from the continuum. For 2-d configurations it reduces to the standard plaquette action, and for 4-d configurations it is still very local. With interactions between quarks and gluons switched on the perfect quark-gluon and 3-gluon vertex functions are computed analytically. In particular, a perfect clover term can be extracted from the quark-gluon vertex. The perturbatively perfect action is directly applicable to heavy quark physics. The construction of a perfect QCD action for light quarks should include nonperturbative effects, which is possible using numerical methods. Classically perfect quark and gluon fields are constructed as well. They allow to interpolate the continuum fields from the lattice data. In this way one can obtain information about space-time regions between lattice points. The classically perfect fields
Semiperfect and Integer-Perfect Numbers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Costello, Patrick
1991-01-01
The number theory concepts of perfect, deficient, and abundant numbers are subdivided and then utilized to discuss propositions concerning semiperfect, weird, and integer-perfect numbers. Conjectures about relationships among these latter numbers are suggested as avenues for further investigation. (JJK)
Hybrid Schema Matching for Deep Web
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Kerui; Zuo, Wanli; He, Fengling; Chen, Yongheng
Schema matching is the process of identifying semantic mappings, or correspondences, between two or more schemas. Schema matching is a first step and critical part of data integration. For schema matching of deep web, most researches only interested in query interface, while rarely pay attention to abundant schema information contained in query result pages. This paper proposed a mixed schema matching technique, which combines attributes that appeared in query structures and query results of different data sources, and mines the matched schemas inside. Experimental results prove the effectiveness of this method for improving the accuracy of schema matching.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bavarian, Niloofar; Lewis, Kendra M.; DuBois, David L.; Acock, Alan; Vuchinich, Samuel; Silverthorn, Naida; Snyder, Frank J.; Day, Joseph; Ji, Peter; Flay, Brian R.
2013-01-01
Background: School-based social-emotional and character development (SECD) programs can influence not only SECD but also academic-related outcomes. This study evaluated the impact of one SECD program, Positive Action (PA), on educational outcomes among low-income, urban youth. Methods: The longitudinal study used a matched-pair, cluster-randomized…
Computation of Thermally Perfect Compressible Flow Properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Witte, David W.; Tatum, Kenneth E.; Williams, S. Blake
1996-01-01
A set of compressible flow relations for a thermally perfect, calorically imperfect gas are derived for a value of c(sub p) (specific heat at constant pressure) expressed as a polynomial function of temperature and developed into a computer program, referred to as the Thermally Perfect Gas (TPG) code. The code is available free from the NASA Langley Software Server at URL http://www.larc.nasa.gov/LSS. The code produces tables of compressible flow properties similar to those found in NACA Report 1135. Unlike the NACA Report 1135 tables which are valid only in the calorically perfect temperature regime the TPG code results are also valid in the thermally perfect, calorically imperfect temperature regime, giving the TPG code a considerably larger range of temperature application. Accuracy of the TPG code in the calorically perfect and in the thermally perfect, calorically imperfect temperature regimes are verified by comparisons with the methods of NACA Report 1135. The advantages of the TPG code compared to the thermally perfect, calorically imperfect method of NACA Report 1135 are its applicability to any type of gas (monatomic, diatomic, triatomic, or polyatomic) or any specified mixture of gases, ease-of-use, and tabulated results.
Crystal structure of a perfect carbyne
Belenkov, E. A. Mavrinsky, V. V.
2008-01-15
The crystal structure of a perfect carbyne is calculated by the molecular mechanics methods. It is established that the carbyne crystals should consist of polycumulene chains arranged in hexagonal bundles. The unit cell of the perfect carbyne crystal is trigonal and contains one carbon atom. The unit cell parameters are as follows: a = b = c = 0.3580 nm, {alpha} = {beta} = {gamma} = 118.5{sup o}, and space group P3m1. The perfect carbyne single crystals have a stable structure at room temperature if the length of their constituent chains is larger than 500 nm.
Complexity matching in neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Usefie Mafahim, Javad; Lambert, David; Zare, Marzieh; Grigolini, Paolo
2015-01-01
In the wide literature on the brain and neural network dynamics the notion of criticality is being adopted by an increasing number of researchers, with no general agreement on its theoretical definition, but with consensus that criticality makes the brain very sensitive to external stimuli. We adopt the complexity matching principle that the maximal efficiency of communication between two complex networks is realized when both of them are at criticality. We use this principle to establish the value of the neuronal interaction strength at which criticality occurs, yielding a perfect agreement with the adoption of temporal complexity as criticality indicator. The emergence of a scale-free distribution of avalanche size is proved to occur in a supercritical regime. We use an integrate-and-fire model where the randomness of each neuron is only due to the random choice of a new initial condition after firing. The new model shares with that proposed by Izikevich the property of generating excessive periodicity, and with it the annihilation of temporal complexity at supercritical values of the interaction strength. We find that the concentration of inhibitory links can be used as a control parameter and that for a sufficiently large concentration of inhibitory links criticality is recovered again. Finally, we show that the response of a neural network at criticality to a harmonic stimulus is very weak, in accordance with the complexity matching principle.
Skyline based terrain matching
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Page, Lance A.
1990-01-01
Skyline-based terrain matching, a new method for locating the vantage point of stereo camera or laser range-finding measurements on a global map previously prepared by satellite or aerial mapping is described. The orientation of the vantage is assumed known, but its translational parameters are determined by the algorithm. Skylines, or occluding contours, can be extracted from the sensory measurements taken by an autonomous vehicle. They can also be modeled from the global map, given a vantage estimate from which to start. The two sets of skylines, represented in cylindrical coordinates about either the true or the estimated vantage, are employed as 'features' or reference objects common to both sources of information. The terrain matching problem is formulated in terms of finding a translation between the respective representations of the skylines, by approximating the two sets of skylines as identical features (curves) on the actual terrain. The search for this translation is based on selecting the longest of the minimum-distance vectors between corresponding curves from the two sets of skylines. In successive iterations of the algorithm, the approximation that the two sets of curves are identical becomes more accurate, and the vantage estimate continues to improve. The algorithm was implemented and evaluated on a simulated terrain. Illustrations and examples are included.
Study on matching map for the absorber filled by metallic magnetic particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Tao; Xu, Fei; Tang, Liyun; Qiao, Liang; Li, Fashen
2014-11-01
A map displaying the matching characteristics and absorption performance for the metallic carbonyl iron composite in microwave frequency band is developed based on the origin of absorption peaks. In this map, the dependence of matching frequency fm on absorber thickness, input impendence, and absorption peak value is achieved simultaneously from the complex permeability and permittivity spectra without any approximation. From this map, the perfect matching frequency fpm and perfect matching thickness tpm at input impendence Z = 1 can be directly searched. Moreover, the required absorber thickness and the reflection loss value at any expected frequency where the absorption peak locates can be directly observed.
Developments in Coherent Perfect Polarization Rotation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crescimanno, Michael; Andrews, James; Zhou, Chaunhong; Baker, Michael
2015-05-01
Coherent Perfect Polarization Rotation (CPR) is a useful technique akin to Coherent Perfect Absorption (CPA, also known as the anti-laser) but that results in very high efficiency optical mode conversion. We describe the analysis of recent experimental data from our CPR testbed, the use of CPR in miniaturizing optical isolators and CPR phenomena in non-linear optics. Work supported by the N.S.F. under Grant No. ECCS-1360725.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ferrara, Steve; Perie, Marianne; Johnson, Eugene
2008-01-01
Psychometricians continue to introduce new approaches to setting cut scores for educational assessments in an attempt to improve on current methods. In this paper we describe the Item-Descriptor (ID) Matching method, a method based on IRT item mapping. In ID Matching, test content area experts match items (i.e., their judgments about the knowledge…
Matching a Distribution by Matching Quantiles Estimation
Sgouropoulos, Nikolaos; Yao, Qiwei; Yastremiz, Claudia
2015-01-01
Motivated by the problem of selecting representative portfolios for backtesting counterparty credit risks, we propose a matching quantiles estimation (MQE) method for matching a target distribution by that of a linear combination of a set of random variables. An iterative procedure based on the ordinary least-squares estimation (OLS) is proposed to compute MQE. MQE can be easily modified by adding a LASSO penalty term if a sparse representation is desired, or by restricting the matching within certain range of quantiles to match a part of the target distribution. The convergence of the algorithm and the asymptotic properties of the estimation, both with or without LASSO, are established. A measure and an associated statistical test are proposed to assess the goodness-of-match. The finite sample properties are illustrated by simulation. An application in selecting a counterparty representative portfolio with a real dataset is reported. The proposed MQE also finds applications in portfolio tracking, which demonstrates the usefulness of combining MQE with LASSO. PMID:26692592
Overlapped optics induced perfect coherent effects.
Li, Jian Jie; Zang, Xiao Fei; Mao, Jun Fa; Tang, Min; Zhu, Yi Ming; Zhuang, Song Lin
2013-01-01
For traditional coherent effects, two separated identical point sources can be interfered with each other only when the optical path difference is integer number of wavelengths, leading to alternate dark and bright fringes for different optical path difference. For hundreds of years, such a perfect coherent condition seems insurmountable. However, in this paper, based on transformation optics, two separated in-phase identical point sources can induce perfect interference with each other without satisfying the traditional coherent condition. This shifting illusion media is realized by inductor-capacitor transmission line network. Theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and experimental results are performed to confirm such a kind of perfect coherent effect and it is found that the total radiation power of multiple elements system can be greatly enhanced. Our investigation may be applicable to National Ignition Facility (NIF), Inertial Confined Fusion (ICF) of China, LED lighting technology, terahertz communication, and so on. PMID:24356577
Morphology and structural perfection of shaped sapphire
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobrovinskaya, E. R.; Litvinov, L. A.; Pishchik, V. V.
1980-09-01
This paper is concerned with an investigation of the characteristic features in the structural perfection of sapphire crystals grown by the Stepanov method. It was shown that the formation of the mosaic grains was considerably dependent on the growth rate. When growing tubular shaped crystals the defect density is relatively insensitive to the growth rate. The structural perfection of shaped sapphire depends on the ratio of the emitting outer surface area to the volume of the crystal. Growth of sapphire shapes occurs by addition of separate atoms and also by the joining of the complexes first formed in the melt before the crystallization front. Upon incoherent crystal twinning, formation of dislocations and boundaries with small angle misorientations takes place. The observed features in the morphology and the structural perfection of shaped sapphire obtained by the Stepanov technique are caused by the considerable differences in crystallization conditions characteristic of this method. These differences result in a change in the growth mechanism.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komolibus, Katarzyna; Scofield, Adam C.; Gradkowski, Kamil; Ochalski, Tomasz J.; Kim, Hyunseok; Huffaker, Diana L.; Huyet, Guillaume
2016-02-01
Optical properties of GaAs/InGaAs/GaAs nanopillars (NPs) grown on GaAs(111)B were investigated. Employment of a mask-etching technique allowed for an accurate control over the geometry of NP arrays in terms of both their diameter and separation. This work describes both the steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence of these structures as a function of the ensemble geometry, composition of the insert, and various shell compounds. The effects of the NP geometry on a parasitic radiative recombination channel, originating from an overgrown lateral sidewall layer, are discussed. Optical characterization reveals a profound influence of the core-shell lattice mismatch on the carrier lifetime and emission quenching at room temperature. When the lattice-matching conditions are satisfied, an efficient emission from the NP arrays at room temperature and below the band-gap of silicon is observed, clearly highlighting their potential application as emitters in optical interconnects integrated with silicon platforms.
Block Matching for Object Tracking
Gyaourova, A; Kamath, C; Cheung, S
2003-10-13
Models which describe road traffic patterns can be helpful in detection and/or prevention of uncommon and dangerous situations. Such models can be built by the use of motion detection algorithms applied to video data. Block matching is a standard technique for encoding motion in video compression algorithms. We explored the capabilities of the block matching algorithm when applied for object tracking. The goal of our experiments is two-fold: (1) to explore the abilities of the block matching algorithm on low resolution and low frame rate video and (2) to improve the motion detection performance by the use of different search techniques during the process of block matching. Our experiments showed that the block matching algorithm yields good object tracking results and can be used with high success on low resolution and low frame rate video data. We observed that different searching methods have small effect on the final results. In addition, we proposed a technique based on frame history, which successfully overcame false motion caused by small camera movements.
Generation of perfect vectorial vortex beams.
Li, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Sheng; Ma, Chaojie; Han, Lei; Cheng, Huachao; Zhao, Jianlin
2016-05-15
We propose the concept of perfect vectorial vortex beams (VVBs), which not merely have intensity profile independent of the polarization order and the topological charge of spiral phase, but also have stable intensity profile and state of polarization (SoP) upon propagation. Utilizing a Sagnac interferometer, we approximately generate perfect VVBs with locally linear and elliptical polarizations, and demonstrate that such beams can keep their intensity profile and SoP at a certain propagation distance. These proposed VVBs can be expanded to encode information and quantum cryptography, as well as to enrich the conversion of spin and orbital angular momenta. PMID:27176963
Selective coherent perfect absorption in metamaterials
Nie, Guangyu; Shi, Quanchao; Zhu, Zheng; Shi, Jinhui
2014-11-17
We show multi-band coherent perfect absorption (CPA) in simple bilayered asymmetrically split ring metamaterials. The selectivity of absorption can be accomplished by separately excited electric and magnetic modes in a standing wave formed by two coherent counterpropagating beams. In particular, each CPA can be completely switched on/off by the phase of a second coherent wave. We propose a practical scheme for realizing multi-band coherent perfect absorption of 100% that is allowed to work from microwave to optical frequency.
Near-perfect diffraction grating rhomb
Wantuck, Paul J.
1990-01-01
A near-perfect grating rhomb enables an output beam to be diffracted to an angle offset from the input beam. The correcting grating is tipped relative to the dispersing grating to provide the offset angle. The correcting grating is further provided with a groove spacing which differs from the dispersing grating groove space by an amount effective to substantially remove angular dispersion in the output beam. A near-perfect grating rhomb has the capability for selective placement in a FEL to suppress sideband instabilities arising from the FEL.
Electromagnetic Detection of a Perfect Invisibility Cloak
Zhang Baile; Wu, Bae-Ian
2009-12-11
A perfect invisibility cloak is commonly believed to be undetectable from electromagnetic (EM) detection because it is equivalent to a curved but empty EM space created from coordinate transformation. Based on the intrinsic asymmetry of coordinate transformation applied to motions of photons and charges, we propose a method to detect this curved EM space by shooting a fast-moving charged particle through it. A broadband radiation generated in this process makes a cloak visible. Our method is the only known EM mechanism so far to detect an ideal perfect cloak (curved EM space) within its working band.
Coherent perfect absorber based on metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nie, Guangyu; Shi, Quanchao; Zhu, Zheng; Shi, Jinhui
2014-11-01
We demonstrate selective coherent perfect absorption based on interaction between bilayered asymmetrically split rings (ASRs) metamaterials and a standing wave formed by two coherent counter propagating beams. The selective coherent perfect absorbers with high absorption have been achieved depending on the phase difference between two coherent beams. The selective coherent control absorbers can be well designed by changing the thickness of the dielectric layer and the asymmetry of the ASRs. The coherently controlled metamaterials provide an opportunity to realize selective multiband absorption and ultrafast information processing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murakami, Shuichi; Takahashi, Ryuji; Tretiakov, O. A.; Abanov, Ar; Sinova, Jairo
2011-12-01
Topological insulators have gapless edge/surface states with novel transport properties. Among these, there are two classes of perfectly conducting channels which are free from backscattering: the edge states of two-dimensional topological insulators and the one-dimensional states localized on dislocations of certain three-dimensional topological insulators. We show how these novel states affect thermoelectric properties of the systems and discuss possibilities to improve the thermoelectric figure of merit using these materials with perfectly conducting channels.
Grötzinger, Stefan W.; Alam, Intikhab; Ba Alawi, Wail; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Stingl, Ulrich; Eppinger, Jörg
2014-01-01
Reliable functional annotation of genomic data is the key-step in the discovery of novel enzymes. Intrinsic sequencing data quality problems of single amplified genomes (SAGs) and poor homology of novel extremophile's genomes pose significant challenges for the attribution of functions to the coding sequences identified. The anoxic deep-sea brine pools of the Red Sea are a promising source of novel enzymes with unique evolutionary adaptation. Sequencing data from Red Sea brine pool cultures and SAGs are annotated and stored in the Integrated Data Warehouse of Microbial Genomes (INDIGO) data warehouse. Low sequence homology of annotated genes (no similarity for 35% of these genes) may translate into false positives when searching for specific functions. The Profile and Pattern Matching (PPM) strategy described here was developed to eliminate false positive annotations of enzyme function before progressing to labor-intensive hyper-saline gene expression and characterization. It utilizes InterPro-derived Gene Ontology (GO)-terms (which represent enzyme function profiles) and annotated relevant PROSITE IDs (which are linked to an amino acid consensus pattern). The PPM algorithm was tested on 15 protein families, which were selected based on scientific and commercial potential. An initial list of 2577 enzyme commission (E.C.) numbers was translated into 171 GO-terms and 49 consensus patterns. A subset of INDIGO-sequences consisting of 58 SAGs from six different taxons of bacteria and archaea were selected from six different brine pool environments. Those SAGs code for 74,516 genes, which were independently scanned for the GO-terms (profile filter) and PROSITE IDs (pattern filter). Following stringent reliability filtering, the non-redundant hits (106 profile hits and 147 pattern hits) are classified as reliable, if at least two relevant descriptors (GO-terms and/or consensus patterns) are present. Scripts for annotation, as well as for the PPM algorithm, are available
Mechanical Energy Changes in Perfectly Inelastic Collisions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mungan, Carl E.
2013-01-01
Suppose a block of mass "m"[subscript 1] traveling at speed "v"[subscript 1] makes a one-dimensional perfectly inelastic collision with another block of mass "m"[subscript 2]. What else does one need to know to calculate the fraction of the mechanical energy that is dissipated in the collision? (Contains 1 figure.)
Maple Explorations, Perfect Numbers, and Mersenne Primes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ghusayni, B.
2005-01-01
Some examples from different areas of mathematics are explored to give a working knowledge of the computer algebra system Maple. Perfect numbers and Mersenne primes, which have fascinated people for a very long time and continue to do so, are studied using Maple and some questions are posed that still await answers.
Children Prefer Certain Individuals over Perfect Duplicates
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hood, Bruce M.; Bloom, Paul.
2008-01-01
Adults value certain unique individuals--such as artwork, sentimental possessions, and memorabilia--more than perfect duplicates. Here we explore the origins of this bias in young children, by using a conjurer's illusion where we appear to produce identical copies of real-world objects. In Study 1, young children were less likely to accept an…
Le Perfectionnement en Phonetique (Perfecting Phonetics)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Laroche-Bouvy, Danielle
1975-01-01
This article describes the programs of the Institut d'Etudes Linguistiques et Phonetiques, located in Paris. The program focuses on perfecting the students' phonetic production of French. Both curriculum and teaching methods are described, as well as a course in phonetics for future teachers of French. (Text is in French.) (CLK)
A Reappraisal of the Nobody's Perfect Program
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kennett, Deborah J.; Chislett, Gail; Olver, Ashley L. S.
2012-01-01
Nobody's Perfect Program (NP), involving 46 participants, was conducted from the spring of 2007 to the fall of 2009 in Peterborough, Canada. Prior to the program, parents completed demographic information, along with self-report measures assessing learned resourcefulness, the types of interactions with their children, parent resourcefulness,…
The Present Perfect in World Englishes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yao, Xinyue; Collins, Peter
2012-01-01
This paper reports on a comprehensive corpus-based study of regional and stylistic variation in the distribution of the English present perfect. The data represents ten English varieties of both the Inner Circle and Outer Circle, covering four major text types: conversation, news reportage, academic and fictional writing. The results are discussed…
Ding, Xiong; Nie, Kai; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Yong; Guan, Li; Zhang, Dan
2014-01-01
Rapid detection of human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) is important in the early phase of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). In this study, we developed and evaluated a novel reverse transcription–isothermal multiple-self-matching-initiated amplification (RT-IMSA) assay for the rapid detection of EV71 and CVA16 by use of reverse transcriptase, together with a strand displacement DNA polymerase. Real-time RT-IMSA assays using a turbidimeter and visual RT-IMSA assays to detect EV71 and CVA16 were established and completed in 1 h, and the reported corresponding real-time reverse transcription–loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assays targeting the same regions of the VP1 gene were adopted as parallel tests. Through testing VP1 RNAs transcribed in vitro, the real-time RT-IMSA assays exhibited better linearity of quantification, with R2 values of 0.952 (for EV71) and 0.967 (for CVA16), than the real-time RT-LAMP assays, which had R2 values of 0.803 (for EV71) and 0.904 (for CVA16). Additionally, the detection limits of the real-time RT-IMSA assays (approximately 937 for EV71 and 67 for CVA16 copies/reaction) were higher than those of real-time RT-LAMP assays (approximately 3,266 for EV71 and 430 for CVA16 copies/reaction), and similar results were observed in the visual RT-IMSA assays. The new approaches also possess high specificities for the corresponding targets, with no cross-reactivity observed. In clinical assessment, compared to commercial reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) kits, the diagnostic sensitivities of the real-time RT-IMSA assays (96.4% for EV71 and 94.6% for CVA16) were higher than those of the real-time RT-LAMP assays (91.1% for EV71 and 90.8% for CVA16). The visual RT-IMSA assays also exhibited the same results. In conclusion, this proof-of-concept study suggests that the novel RT-IMSA assay is superior to the RT-LAMP assay in terms of detection limit and has the potential to rapidly detect EV71
School Social Work Consultation Models and Response to Intervention: A Perfect Match
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sabatino, Christine Anlauf
2009-01-01
The 2004 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act introduced the concept of Response to Intervention (RTI). In part, this is an educational prevention approach to maximize student academic achievement and minimize behaviors that interfere with school success. It consists of assessment and intervention practices on multiple…
Inter-Sentential Anaphora and Coherence Relations in Discourse: A Perfect Match
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cornish, Francis
2009-01-01
Hobbs [Hobbs, J.R., 1979. "Coherence and coreference." "Cognitive Science" 3, 67-90] claims that the interpretation of inter-sentential anaphors "falls out" as a "by-product" of using a particular coherence relation to integrate two discourse units. The article argues that this is only partly true. Taking the reader's perspective, I suggest that…
Text-Based Synchronous E-Learning and Dyslexia: Not Necessarily the Perfect Match!
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Woodfine, B. P.; Nunes, M. Baptista; Wright, D. J.
2008-01-01
The introduction, in the United Kingdom, of the Special Education Needs and Disabilities Act (SENDA) published and approved in 2001, has removed the exemptions given to educational institutions by the Disabilities Discrimination Act (DDA) of 1995. This applies to learning web sites and materials that must now undergo "reasonable adjustments", in…
Dr Marvin Adams
2002-03-01
OAK 270 - The DOE Matching Grant Program provided $50,000.00 to the Dept of N.E. at TAMU, matching a gift of $50,000.00 from TXU Electric. The $100,000.00 total was spent on scholarships, departmental labs, and computing network.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Zhongjie T.
1992-05-01
The generic imaging matching system (GIMS) provides an optimal systematic solution to any problem of color image processing in printing and publishing that can be classified as or modeled to the generic image matching problem defined. Typical GIMS systems/processes include color matching from different output devices, color conversion, color correction, device calibration, colorimetric scanner, colorimetric printer, colorimetric color reproduction, and image interpolation from scattered data. GIMS makes color matching easy for the user and maximizes operational flexibility allowing the user to obtain the degree of match wanted while providing the capability to achieve the best balance with respect to the human perception of color, color fidelity, and preservation of image information and color contrast. Instead of controlling coefficients in a transformation formula, GIMS controls the mapping directly in a standard device-independent color space, so that color can be matched, conceptually, to the highest possible accuracy. An optimization algorithm called modified vector shading was developed to minimize the matching error and to perform a 'near-neighborhood' gamut compression. An automatic error correction algorithm with a multidirection searching procedure using correlated re-initialization was developed to avoid local minimum failures. Once the mapping for color matching is generated, it can be utilized by a multidimensional linear interpolator with a small look-up-table (LUT) implemented by either software, a hardware interpolator or a digital-signal-processor.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haberzettl, T.; Kasper, T.; St-Onge, G.; Behling, H.; Daut, G.; Doberschütz, S.; Kirleis, W.; Mäusbacher, R.; Nowaczyk, N.
2010-12-01
were chosen for age-depth modeling and a linear interpolation was applied. Subsequently, inclination, declination and intensity were compared to the CALS3k.3 model also showing an excellent match from ~1350 cal BP to the present. Although, the age-depth models of both lakes are conservative, comparisons of paleomagnetic data with geomagnetic spherical harmonic models support this approach. This leads to the conclusion that the presented chronologies are suited for further paleoenvironmental investigations. This is important as both areas lack well-dated records. On the other hand, our data also support the validity of the CALS-models for the past ~4000 and ~1350 cal BP on the Tibetan Plateau and Indonesia, where paleomagnetic data are very scarce.
ACE Inhibition and Endothelial Function: Main Findings of PERFECT, a Sub-Study of the EUROPA Trial
Remme, W. J.; Lüscher, T. F.; Fox, K. M.; Bertrand, M.; Ferrari, R.; Simoons, M. L.; Grobbee, D. E.
2007-01-01
Background ACE inhibition results in secondary prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD) through different mechanisms including improvement of endothelial dysfunction. The Perindopril-Function of the Endothelium in Coronary artery disease Trial (PERFECT) evaluated whether long-term administration of perindopril improves endothelial dysfunction. Methods PERFECT is a 3-year double blind randomised placebo controlled trial to determine the effect of perindopril 8 mg once daily on brachial artery endothelial function in patients with stable CAD without clinical heart failure. Endothelial function in response to ischaemia was assessed using ultrasound. Primary endpoint was difference in flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) assessed at 36 months. Results In 20 centers, 333 patients randomly received perindopril or matching placebo. Ischemia-induced FMD was 2.7% (SD 2.6). In the perindopril group FMD went from 2.6% at baseline to 3.3% at 36 months and in the placebo group from 2.8 to 3.0%. Change in FMD after 36 month treatment was 0.55% (95% confidence interval −0.36, 1.47; p = 0.23) higher in perindopril than in placebo group. The rate of change in FMD per 6 months was 0.14% (SE 0.05, p = 0.02) in perindopril and 0.02% (SE 0.05, p = 0.74) in placebo group (0.12% difference in rate of change p = 0.07). Conclusion Perindopril resulted in a modest, albeit not statistically significant, improvement in FMD. PMID:17657599
Visualizing underwater acoustic matched-field processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosenblum, Lawrence; Kamgar-Parsi, Behzad; Karahalios, Margarida; Heitmeyer, Richard
1991-06-01
Matched-field processing is a new technique for processing ocean acoustic data measured by an array of hydrophones. It produces estimates of the location of sources of acoustic energy. This method differs from source localization techniques in other disciplines in that it uses the complex underwater acoustic environment to improve the accuracy of the source localization. An unexplored problem in matched-field processing has been to separate multiple sources within a matched-field ambiguity function. Underwater acoustic processing is one of many disciplines where a synthesis of computer graphics and image processing is producing new insight. The benefits of different volume visualization algorithms for matched-field display are discussed. The authors show how this led to a template matching scheme for identifying a source within the matched-field ambiguity function that can help move toward an automated source localization process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janthong, Bancha; Hongsingthong, Aswin; Moriya, Yuki; Sichanugrist, Porponth; Wronski, Christophe R.; Konagai, Makoto
2012-10-01
We prepared and applied a-SiOx thin films to hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon solar cells (µc-Si:H) as a front antireflection layer (FAL) in order to reduce optical reflection loss. By inserting the optimized SiOx FAL with a refractive index of ˜1.75 into the glass/ZnO interface a relative increase in short-circuit current density (Jsc) by 5% could be obtained which corresponded to an improved spectral response in the 550-950 nm wavelength regions. In addition, this optimized FAL did not deteriorate the properties of the ZnO layer because no significant changes in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF) were observed. As a result, the cell with an efficiency of as high as 8.28% (Voc=0.495 V, Jsc=25.09 mA/cm2, FF=0.667) could be obtained.